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STAFF DEVELOPMENT SERIES
Dr. M.P.Chhaya

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Dear Reader, This CD – Staff Development Series – contains the following five books: 1. Book 1 - Effective Strategies 2. Book 2 - Curriculum Development and Classroom Management 3. Book 3 – Measurement and Evaluation 4. Book 4 – Fundamentals of Guidance and Counselling 5. Book 5 – Innovative School For the comforts of the reader, light classical instrumental music is introduced while you are reading (of course, it is optional). By clicking on the “Music” folder and then clicking twice on the music file, you can start the music and adjust the volume as you desire. This CD can be read on Microsoft Word 98 / 2000 on Normal view and for getting / retrieving the figures, it may be read on Print view. There are many advantages of these electronic books such as: • Your hands remain free while reading and can take notes • You can copy the pages / passages as per your requirements • Material from this book can be displayed on a large screen using a projector • Very handy and useful for staff-development and in-service programmes • You can mix and match the topics from any of these books • You can view these books according to your personal preferences (e.g. font, text size, colour, full screen mode, etc.) • The use of a Compact Disc allows for easy portability, accessibility and storage in comparison to five printed books

REQUEST You are morally obliged not to copy this CD for any other institution but for the use of your own staff development.

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Book 1

EFFECTIVE TEACHER
EFFECTIVE CLASSROOM
(Effective Strategies of Teaching)

Dr. M.P.CHHAYA

iv This book is dedicated to Teachers who act as real “Gurus” .

which instructional design he should follow.Chhaya . whose studies of classroom life have contributed to the effective teaching. M. It is for certain that for schools to change. creative imagination. It can help in getting knowledge. rambling discussions. and more experienced teachers all of whom may wish to improve their techniques through professional institutes. The effective teaching practices have been described in a friendly manner. as it is. real. but for it to be of any value it must be practised in the classroom until maximum utilisation of different strategies in different situations becomes second nature. he concentrates on his own instructional behaviours. are the identification and illustration of the techniques and procedures that a teacher can use to increase his/her effectiveness and to help make the learning experience dynamic. This book will serve well as the base for a continuing progress of professional improvement. Many individuals and professionals. The practical “how to” approach is always used. The work of these professionals has made possible integration and synthesis of effective teaching practices. Instead of spending great blocks of time organising lesson plans. over the years. The idea is to get the point across quickly in a friendly and readable style. suggesting the range of competencies to be sought by the reader. teaching techniques must be modified to fit each situation. lectures. and relevant to today’s student. are practical and realistic. presented in a simple style. have been described in this book. workable methods are provided for actual classroom situations. then.P. which should be in the repertoire of a teacher. an individual can motivate others to learn. A number of important skills have been treated. The language of classrooms is informal and there is no reason why a book about teachers in classrooms should not use the same language. work-shops. It is predicated on the belief that teaching is an art involving certain learned skills and that. thoughts and efforts very differently from the conventional teacher. he organises his time. and the strategies he should use to facilitate learning. the teacher must change. avoiding complicated phrases. He thinks about himself as a person. I also wish to acknowledge those teachers of Rajkumar College Rajkot. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan New Delhi.v Preface This book is introduced for use by students learning to be teachers. meaningful. The major thrusts of the book. When a teacher is concerned with the improvement of his own institution. Therefore. with the knowledge of these skills. Because each learning experience – based. this book talks straight. who. The research-based effective teaching practices. how he will relate to the children. No single book could possibly accomplish such a task. have shared their insights about the teaching process with me. on the interactions of individuals – is unique. beginning teachers. or pseudo scholarly language. Schools of Chinmaya Mission and Navodaya Vidyalayas. and talent. and in-service and on the job training programmes. This book describes what real teachers can do in real classrooms and which teaching practices are and are not effective in those classrooms. and similar significant aspects of teaching. This book does not deal with every possible instructional skill and sub-skill.

.......7 Elements of instructional design..........................................................................................................................................................................21 Field study (trip)..........................................7 Consider yourself..............10 Individualised Learning................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................12 Contracting...........................17 Student tutorial.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................6 CHAPTER 2............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................5 ...1 What is method?........................................................................................................7 Consider the learners to be taught....................................................................................................................................4 Some important teacher effectiveness indicators:...............................................................22 Interest centres (Subject learning centres).........................27 ..........................................................................................................................................................19 CHAPTER 4.15 Learning packets............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................6 DESIGNING EFFECTIVE INSTRUCTION.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................27 CHAPTER 5........................................................................................................................................................................................................10 Behavioural modification...............19 Case study...........................................................................................................................................................1 CHAPTER 1.......25 Student research................................................................2 What factors determine one’s methods in teaching?.....1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................................................6 Consider the content of your teaching..................................26 ......................................................................................................................................................................................................8 ...................................................10 CHAPTER 3........................................................................................................................................................16 Programmed learning (Instruction)................................24 Problem solving...............6 Consider the context of your teaching..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................23 Project........................................vi Table of Contents Preface ………………………………………………………………………………………………………iii TABLE OF CONTENTS .................................................................14 Independent study.........................3 Five Key Behaviours Contributing To Effective Teaching.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................VI ..........................................................19 Community resources...................................18 ..................................................................................................................................................................................................10 STRATEGIES FOR INDIVIDUALISATION.......................................................................................................................4 Some Helping Behaviours Related To Effective Teaching................................................................................................................................................................................................................19 STRATEGIES FOR SMALL GROUPS..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

......34 Role-playing....................................................................................................................43 Discovery ....60 Audio-visual aids...........................................................................................59 Summary........................................................................................................................................................................87 ...........................................................................................65 Chalkboards...............................................................................vii STRATEGIES FOR LARGER GROUPS....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................50 Co-operative learning...........................................................58 Brainstorming...............................................53 Inquiry................................................................77 EFFECTIVE TEACHING IN A CLASSROOM.27 Demonstration................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................64 Films and videotapes..........................................................................................................32 Questioning...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................74 CHAPTER 9.........................................................................................................................................................................50 SUB-STRATEGIES FOR GENERAL USE...................................................66 Bulletin boards......................................................................................................................................................................39 Team teaching.....................................70 STRATEGIES FOR SPECIAL LEARNERS......67 Computers............................................................................................................70 The gifted and/or talented learners.........................................................................................................................................................................47 Socratic............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................61 Slide projector..............................................................81 ROLE OF THE TEACHER..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................37 Simulation gaming................................................................63 Records and audiotapes...............................................................................56 Homework/Assignment......................................................................................................................................................................................................41 CHAPTER 6 ......................................................................................................................................................................46 Laboratory.................................78 Active participation of students: ....29 Discussion....................................................................................................................................................54 Modelling.................................77 Defects in teaching.............................................................................................................................................................................................................72 The bilingual learner.....................................................................................................................................................................................................77 Effective teaching........50 Creative thinking.............................62 Television.....................................................................................................................................68 CHAPTER 8.............80 CHAPTER 10.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................61 Overhead projector...................70 The slow learner.......................................27 Observation..................................................................................................................................................................................30 Lecture...49 CHAPTER 7......................................................................................79 The type of questions relate to effective teaching:.............................................................................................................................................................43 STRATEGIES FOR SPECIAL USE.........................................43 Interview.....................................................................................................55 Decision-making ....81 REFERENCES.....

teachers need to vary their teaching strategies in different classroom situations. A lack of methodological fluidity usually indicates a lack of knowledge of students’ needs. 1. The converse is also true. There are at least four valid reasons for a teacher being proficiently prepared in a wide assortment of strategies. As with the single-tool technician. which is inconsistent with the student’s desire for peer acceptance and approval. Different pupils learn best in different ways at different times. this severely limits the teachers’ overall effectiveness. students’ boredom can easily create learning and/or discipline problems. 3. Some subject matter is best served by use of a particular strategy or combination of strategies. and individual optimum learning conditions. When a teacher relies upon a single approach (such as a drill or lecture) as a learning strategy. Diverse objectives call for diverse approaches to meet those objectives. interests. Environmental factors (money. etc. learning theory. is likely to meet with strong resistance. For examples. and human development to act as a guide in the proper application of each strategy. but a vast majority competently utilise only a few and many times only one. attitudes. he needs and must utilise different tools in different situations. and interests? Any teaching strategy. The mastery of instructional strategies is only one dimension of the skills. The teacher should also have a basic understanding of philosophies of education. The teacher must answer such questions as: What is a student? What are his needs. wants. the more freedom he has to apply a variety of instructional approaches. no amount of strategies can make up for lack of knowledge in subject matter. 2. Therefore. facilities. and knowledge needed by the competent teacher. it is a near mandate that teachers be competent to the utilisation of a number of teaching strategies. 4. supplies.1 Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Can you imagine a technician repairing a machine with only one tool? Obviously not. Similarly. time. Even the most careful planning cannot produce beneficial results . The greater the teacher’s knowledge of the subject.) often dictate which strategies will be most effective.

devices and the like at times. It is a rare student who will create a disturbance (internally. but one is a rung on the ladder to becoming the other. Consequently there is a hesitancy to employ more appropriate methods. drill is enhanced by charts of content or activities to be performed. and lectures are more meaningful if main points or key ideas are displayed by means of overhead projections or use of the chalkboard. a number of strategies should be combined and blended into new creative patterns by the teacher. Moreover. If sub-strategies are properly used they can often enhance and extend the effectiveness of the strategy employed. accuracy. strategies. tape recordings. and the order in which it is to be taught. and films. The knowledge. Method is a systematic way of doing things under the guidance of certain previously established principles. if not externally) when class expectations are too high or too low for his capabilities. After practice with a given strategy has provided confidence in its utilisation in the classroom. namely. but are. among which the following are of the most importance. The term covers both the strategy and tactics of teaching and involves the choice of what is to be taught. It moves from objects or several keynote examples to the development of ideas. we can better benefit the student and ourselves. 2) It increases the perspective powers of the pupil since he is encouraged to be more self-reliant upon his thinking. The specific methods by which these two schemes are carried out are also called techniques. What is method? Method refers to the formal structure of the sequence of acts commonly denoted by instruction. There are . Putting the potatoes on a table with a colourful table setting (sub-strategy) improves the chances for consumption even more. induction is a slow process and requires many materials some of it may be most expensive. procedures. Too often as teachers we tend to use that strategy which gives us a feeling of security. The manner in which method in teaching is followed varies with the subjects presented. A pressure cooker (strategy) prepares the potatoes more properly for consumption and increases the chances of them being eaten. the teachers who teach. By understanding how different strategies can best be utilised. and rapidity with which a teacher can apply strategies to a particular learning situation are some of the differences between the teacher as a technician and the teacher as a professional. A more graphic analogy is as follows: You can offer individuals raw potatoes (knowledge) for eating (learning) but many would not eat. This requires consideration of the associated problem of providing adequately for individual differences. In reality there seem to be only two generalised methods of teaching. 3) The conclusions made for the most part are formed first in the mind of the pupil with the teacher becoming a checkpoint for inaccuracies and wrong perceptions. The main disadvantages of the inductive method stem from the fact that not all subjects can be taught inductively. Both stages are necessary. For example: Interest centres/subject centres could include appropriate film strips. catalytic agents causing a reaction but not becoming a part of the result. For example. and the children who learn. The inductive method: The inductive method is the real method of discovery.2 unless the student personally feels the need for learning. 1) Children who gain knowledge in this way have been able to retain it for longer periods of time. some of the abstract ideas in arithmetic cannot be effectively presented through inductive procedures. rather. the inductive method and the deductive method. There are many decided merits of the inductive method of teaching. Strategies and sub-strategies are not content in themselves.

The best method of teaching comes about when the teacher combines the two in such ways that one method reinforces the other to assist the perceptions of the pupils in the learning situation. At the elementary school level. 4. At certain age levels. schoolwork should often be not far removed from play techniques. The deductive method: Generally one is teaching deductively when he gives the rules. pupils are asked to accept the reasoning of someone else. the more he will follow his native tendencies to be free. Teachers sometimes try to teach a pupil without knowing what the child knows. Since children like to construct. 11. are unique personalities. The elder the child. The methods should be such that the child is discouraged from jumping too rapidly from one thought to another. They should also be collection of ideas. Such teachings would be guesswork. work and play particularly at the primary levels. Children are curious persons. The teacher should seek to guide rivalry into its many constructive channels. 3. the deductive method should simultaneously increase in importance. The method selected for the purposes of instruction should not inhibit the child’s natural instincts to imitate. 2. he will know several methods from which he might select the more appropriate for purposes of application. there is more rivalry than at others. 9. he sees the problem as the child sees it. construct. to profit from what others have concluded. the longer may be his school life. skills. Probably the child learns more during his first six years than during all of the next twelve years. As the teacher studies the child’s thinking. 12. therefore. By putting himself in the pupil’s place. principle or generalisation first and from them the descent is made to the specific factors or ideas making up such generalisations. Until a teacher meets and studies his group. 10. a more appropriate method of teaching him might be found. The more freedom a method allows the pupil. When this method is used. all pupils at the elementary levels should do some constructive work as a part of their daily schedule. In society at large children are expected to grow up too quickly. 5. 8. 6. It makes sense for them to take advantage of their own special interests. Teachers like the learners they serve.3 limitations but it is absolutely necessary that if clearness of thought is to be encouraged and real knowledge preserved. the more likely he will be able to maintain a longer attention span and to retain the line of thought. The child’s likes and dislikes should be known by the classroom teacher. With increasing age children become more highly skilled in deductive reasoning. What factors determine one’s methods in teaching? 1. 7. If the child is not compressed into confirming ways. The teacher should use methods that incorporate play into the education process. the inductive method should be used to introduce many new subjects and to give aid in the exposition of difficult ones. However. The method of teaching at the primary levels should allow the child to enlarge upon certain natural instincts. and competencies as they . he will not know the specific method that should be employed for their instruction. Method and content should encourage such curiosity. A good teacher uses the method that helps the child to collect additional materials and ideas. Often children quit school because their dislikes are not known. The age and disposition of pupils must be considered by the teacher in the selection of a method to teach a given content. Children are collections of materials.

these decisions can be organised into separate categories. Teaching can be thought of as a series of events requiring decisions made by the teachers. These skills are: • Skill one: specifying performance objective • Skill two: diagnosing learners • Skill three: selecting instructional strategies • Skill four: interacting with learners • Skill five: evaluating the effectiveness of instruction Each of these five instructional skills can be thought of as an element in a comprehensive model of instruction. This responsibility comes not in teachers’ rigid adherence to a set of “ideal role behaviours” but rather in adapting instructional practices. Teacher responsibility is well served by this model. You also need behaviours to help you implement the five . but on what learners derive from instruction. As a framework to guide teacher’ instructional practices. are: • Lesson clarity • Instructional variety • Task orientation • Engagement in the learning process • Student success Some Helping Behaviours Related To Effective Teaching To fill out our picture of an effective teacher. these five headings comprise all of the basic instructional skills. because they are considered essential for effective teaching. This model of instruction rests on a clear formulation of the teaching process. Individualised styles are encouraged because evaluation of instruction is based on learner’s achievement of the performance objectives. This model encourages the development of individual teaching styles.4 plan for instruction. The five key behaviours. as necessary. Given this criterion. Five Key Behaviours Contributing To Effective Teaching Approximately 10 teacher behaviours show promising relationships to desirable student performance. Such a framework can suggest how instructional skills might best be organised to promote a logical. referred. more than five general keys to effective teaching are needed. Another five have had some support and appear logically related to effective teaching. primarily as measured by achievement on classroom and standardised tests. Individual strengths of teachers can be utilised most effectively when a logical framework is employed to organise the instructional skills selected for a specific programme. Collectively. teachers are free to choose procedures from their own repertoires that they believe will result in high levels of learner achievement. Logically. This model provides a useful framework for teachers as they plan for classroom instruction. systematic instructional programme for learners. The second five we will call helping behaviours that can be used in combinations to implement the key behaviours. to help learners achieve performance objectives that have been selected. These decision categories have been grouped under five general headings. The first five we will call key behaviours. major emphases are placed not specifically on what teachers do. Five of these behaviours have been consistently supported by research studies over the past two decades. According to this model. a model of instruction is proposed here that relates actions of teachers to achievement of learners.

Teacher affect Some important teacher effectiveness indicators: The effective teacher • Takes personal responsibility for students’ learning and has positive expectations for every learner. problem solving. • Gives students the opportunity to practice newly learned concepts and to receive timely feedback on their performance. • Present material in small steps with opportunities for practice. and comment on the content being learned. are not as strong and consistent as those that identified the five key behaviours. Let’s consider some additional behaviours that can be thought of as catalytic or helping behaviours for performing the five key behaviours. . • Encourages students to reason out and elaborate upon the correct answer. but the research has not been so accommodating as to identify explicitly how these behaviours should be used. structuring and probing. • Gradually shifts some of the responsibility for learning to the students – encouraging independent thinking. although promising. Probing 5. • Elicits responses from students each time a question is asked before moving to the next student or question.5 key behaviours in your classroom. • Encourages students in verbal questions and answers. extend. • Provides direction and control of student learning through questioning. • Matches the difficult of the lesson with the ability level of the students and varies the difficulty when necessary to attain moderate-to-higher success rates. This is why it is suspected that helping behaviours need to be employed in the context of other behaviours to be effective. Questioning 4. Structuring 3. Research findings for helping behaviours. and decision making. • Maximises instructional time to increase content coverage and to give students the greatest opportunity to learn. Using student ideas and contributions 2. • Uses naturally occurring classroom dialogue to get students elaborate. making them catalysts rather than agents unto themselves. There is general agreement on the importance of these helping behaviours. • Uses a variety instructional materials and verbal and visual aids to foster use of student ideas and engagement in the learning process. These catalytic behaviours include: 1. Nor has it linked these behaviours to student achievement as strongly as the key five. • Provides learners with mental strategies for organising and learning the content being taught.

20. 12. we may try to match the needs of the learner with specific content for our particular context. that there are often administrative pressures imposed on your design process. You must also consider yourself. When you plan for instruction. or end of the school year? The school day? The class period? • Is this a group of 8. . which may follow or precede your instruction. Planning is a mental process--the visualising that takes place before teaching. Note other schedules such as library period. to use a particular format. the content you intend to teach. and movement that affect your teaching and teaching of those near by. and the learners who will be taught.6 Chapter 2 Designing Effective Instruction Planning and designing instruction are opposite sides of the same coin. Remember. Consider noise levels. you must consider the context of your teaching. ask yourself questions about the context in which you will be teaching: • Is the setting formal or informal (rows of desks or clusters of tables and chairs)? • Is it the beginning. lunch break. Developing a blueprint for teaching provides a focus for instruction and promotes systematic and efficient planning. or to follow a particular schedule. and recess. middle. 30 or bigger? • What kind of management routines is established? Your context concerns must include elements within and outside your classroom. Consider the context of your teaching To help you decide on a format for your design. When we design instruction. You must modify your design as you gain teaching experience. You may be required to submit teaching plans to administrators. potential behaviour problems. too. we note specific elements of our planning. Designing is the process of putting our mental plans into a blue print. During the planning process.

• Is there a textbook? • Is the curriculum unstructured and open-ended (e. If you are a person who plans in great detail for a trip. and teacher manuals. to help you decide on a format for your design.7 Consider the content of your teaching Again. and is most comfortable with details written down. In addition to curriculum guides. If you are a person who plans with a major item and who processes details in your head. “How can my planning help my readiness for teaching?” Or may you need a detailed instructional design to build confidence. which could affect many of the teaching strategies and learning activities you might plan. so that you consider yourself before designing instruction. You will need to be sensitive to the social interactions of your learners and the pattern of the class participation. teachers reported that planning relieved anxiety and uncertainty for them. relationship between societal discontent and politics)? • Are there skills to be practised (e. Consider yourself In a research study. you will probably use a similar format to design your teaching. young children require need manipulative for understanding math concepts)? • Can these learners work independently? • Have the learners shown interest in the topics? What is their motivation level? • Is the content relevant to their lives? • What are the needs of the learners? Teachers describe the ability level of their students as the most important consideration when designing instruction.g. ask yourself questions about the content you will teach. and that they felt mentally and physically better prepared for teaching. curriculum for creative writing)? • Is there a big idea or concept to be understood (e. map reading)? • Are there attitudes to be experienced (appreciation of masterpieces of art)? • Are there school district objectives to be met? Content is a major focus for most teachers when designing instruction. You need to ask yourself. teachers’ individual interests and areas of expertise become important sources of content. • What kind of learning activities have they experienced? What kind of life experiences? Travel experience? Activities outside of school? • Do these learners work well in-groups? Do they know how to work ingroups? • What strategies/activities are developmentally appropriate for these learners (e.g. . textbooks.g. Consider the learners to be taught These questions will guide your discussion about a format for your instructional design. Ask yourself questions about your learners.g. Stop and consider how you plan for the other things you do. you will probably design your teaching with a similar focus.

Objectives Educational objectives specify the learning outcomes in measurable or observable terms. a goal may be: All students will develop a love of learning. the learners to be taught. They are goals. an objective for the goal of math computation might be: Students will add 10 sets of 3-digit numbers and get 80 percent of them correct. or computers. our efforts. objectives. our progress and so on. paper and textbooks. equipment. and demonstration. and divert attention. To be specific. . other students. or with student-directed strategies of co-operative grouping. ideas. Materials can be simply pencils and pens. videos. materials. this transfer may occur through a variety of media. think about the basic parts or elements of design that you will need for your teaching. discovery and role-play. and resources. You may provide feedback to students through individual comments on their papers or through verbal responses to their discussions. textbooks. They are the “how” of your instructional design. A description of each will assist your understanding of the design models. Notice the broad. including anything used by you or your learner in the teaching and the learning process. or more involved audio-visual stimuli such as films and transparencies. skills. Feedback All of us need feedback that recognises our work. Including materials in your design for teaching contributes to your preparedness. and the need for the long-range development. or students describe the literary strategies used by authors to build suspense. questioning. The question of how to transfer learning may be answered with teacher-directed strategies of lecture. Teaching and learning strategies Teaching and learning strategies provide the vehicle or means by which facts. general quality of the outcomes. you must analyse your goals into behaviours that indicate that students are reaching the goal. create a setting. You must also specify the minimum level of performance necessary for each student that would indicate that the objective and part of the goal are being reached. and reading to each other. concepts. Materials This is a broad category of tools. Goals Educational goals provide overall direction for teaching and learning in broad terms. checking each other’s work. a goal may be: Students become successful in math computation or will become literary critics. including the teacher. On a universal level. On a district level. Objectives for the goal of literary critics could be: Students identify the main characters. teaching and learning strategies. On a class level. Students may provide feedback to each other through peer critiques. a goal may be: Students will become problem solvers. and attitudes transfer to the thinking and action of the learner.8 Once you have considered the context and content of your teaching. plot and setting of five literary selections. feedback and assessment. Depending on the strategy in use. whether they are written in a detailed format or in mental form. and yourself. To develop objectives. Elements of instructional design There are some universal elements you will find in most lesson designs.

and observations of student work. and as you gain experience personalise it. objectives. projects. materials. it is encouraging to personalise whatever design format you use to meet your needs and priorities. or critiquing work with a set of criteria. You can assess as an ongoing process all through the lesson. You may also use assessment at the beginning of the lesson to see what students already know. Assessment This is the means of determining whether students have met the objectives. Other models of instruction elaborate from the universal framework.9 Students may also provide feedback to themselves by checking an answer sheet. Long-term assessment includes exams. or through journal writing. . and research papers. quizzes. as well as at the end of the lesson. feedback. Finally. and assessment are threads that run through the most widely used design models. Assessment provides information that will be useful for your next lesson design. You might begin with a model. Goals. Short-term assessment includes questions. and to be efficient. teaching and learning strategies. before you teach. to incorporate your beliefs.

almost philosophical approach to the teachinglearning process. and a constant monitoring and guidance of student progress. truth. a tailoring of subject matter and teaching strategies to those needs and interests. independent study. interest centres. learning becomes an exciting adventure and not a necessary obligation to complete the same daily activities that are performed to the typical classroom. programmed instruction. the strategy has not been exploited in its fullest potential. case study and student tutorial strategies. contracting.10 Chapter 3 STRATEGIES FOR INDIVIDUALISATION Individualised Learning Individualised learning is a broad. The processes used in individualised learning are not new. A teacher using this approach would employ a number of strategies. It is truly a challenge to the intellectually inclined . projects. The differences being that they have been directed at the entire class. student research. Consequently. The universality is one of the reasons why the approach is not as wide spread as everyone agrees it should be. Thus. It involves an assessment of student needs and interests. The good teacher has been aware of and utilised them on a regular basis. In this amorphous state it is as difficult to understand as the concepts of patriotism. and brotherly love. the rewards tend to far exceed the energy expended. They are further prompted to expand on lessons assigned to areas of their personal and intellectual interests. As with these concepts. Students involved in individualised programme are encouraged to exceed minimal standards. individualised learning is understandable only through its displayed components – individualised learning resources such as learning packets. Although time consuming at the outset. interview. as the concept of individualised learning is too universal to be applicable as a specific strategy. Socratic.

• Students have the opportunity to see their personal progress as it occurs and tend to extend their knowledge rather than stopping at minimal accomplishment. • The teacher has more opportunity to pinpoint and assist individual student problems. • In the beginning. • Students must be trained to handle individualised learning strategies—a time consuming activity. • Record keeping can be lengthy and involved. • Students are not penalised for being out of school for illness or family matters. and independent laboratory experiences. Upon return each student returns to the point where he was temporarily halted. • Retention of learning is improved over non-individualised instruction. • Students learn to take more responsibility for their own instructional activities. individualised learning takes more teacher-monitoring time. a programme in individualised learning is a challenge to the student and boon to the busy teacher.11 student without penalising those students who need to maintain a slower pace accomplishes the minimal requirements. student research. Disadvantages • Time and effort must be expended in developing materials and matching strategies to a given student. When coupled with other strategies such as interest centres. . They are only in competition with themselves. Advantages • Each student moves at his own pace through a level of subject matter utilising a teaching/learning strategy that is selected to promote optimal progress. • Pre-assessment of student academic status takes time and special skill. • Students are not in false competition with peers.

It has been researched mostly with atypical children. case study and programmed learning can stimulate the students toward the desired behaviour changes. a positive atmosphere prevails. • Since behaviour modification is concerned with observable. The use of this strategy in conjunction with observation skills. • Since the emphasis is upon success. A learning environment must be created that will cause the child to engage in the desired behaviours. Students who exhibit such behaviours. Indiscriminate use may bring about undesirable characteristics and/or neutralise the benefits later when the technique would have a role in changing the pupil’s behaviour. are rewarded. measurable behaviour. It has also been used with a large degree of success in role-playing and simulation activities. well done”. Introduce the changes slowly. Disadvantages • Not all behaviours to be learned can be measured. Behaviour modification may also be known as behaviour therapy or behaviour management. “Good job. • A change in the student may not be based on desired learning but upon the rewards attached. affective and psychomotor learning. • Behaviour modification tends to limitation where long term retention is desirable. or an increase in student privileges. This strategy must be understood and accepted by peers and parents. . The objectives for each child must be realistic. hopefully increasing the likelihood that the behaviour will continue. both the student and teacher are aware of the amount of progress being made. A programme in behavioural modification should not be used as a panacea for all ills. • The academic behaviours specified can be individualised very easily. • Care must be taken not to reward undesirable behaviours. such as the teacher saying. social or emotional in nature. Behaviour modification will not accomplish psychologically or academically impossible tasks. • This approach leads to co-operation between the teacher. material rewards. It is a tool to be used selectively by the teacher. individualised instruction. The teacher must understand both the limitations and potential of the strategy. measurable and controllable. The reward may be of a verbal nature. Teach the child to manage his own behaviour. Advantages • The effects of behaviour modification have been scientifically demonstrated in classroom situations. school and the mental health professional. or who move to the direction of the prescribed behaviours. The behaviour must be observable. The teacher should demonstrate those behaviours that are desired and not to assume that the child knows what to do.12 Behavioural modification Behavioural modification is the term assigned to the application of the laboratoryderived principles of learning to behaviour problem. Essentially certain behaviours are established as desirable for students. After the child learns a new behaviour. reinforcement should be tapered off and provided less frequently but occasional reward is necessary to maintain the behaviour. which may be academic. Continue to practice this strategy in numerous settings. behavioural objectives. • It is based upon tested principles of learning rather than theory. • It is applicable to cognitive.

.13 • Some techniques within the behaviour modification strategy are extremely timed consuming.

• The learning objectives are clear to everyone. • ‘Quantity’ may tend to replace ‘Quality’ as criteria. Quite the contrary. Consideration must include the maturity of the students’ previous experiences in contracting. The contract itself is a written set of varied learning situations. Contracting is not a strategy that once assigned. • The contract requires both in-school and out-of-school resources. in what period of time. assist students in finding the needed resources and regular record keeping of attendance. • Cheating and duty shirking are reduced. The important part of the strategy is in giving the opportunity to students to learn while doing a project that the students have selected with teacher approval. yet have the opportunity to try again without the feeling of complete failure. and learn to organise and manage time. • Not all students are mature enough to fulfil the contract responsibilities and selfmotivation required for this strategy. • More record monitoring is necessary to insure the students are keeping up with their schedules and are not having difficulties. the work objectives outlined. progress and testing. exercise decision making abilities. Advantages • The emphasis is on learning and success rather than testing and failure. • Communication is optimised as student and teacher must meet in regular individual conferences. Two copies are prepared so that the teacher and pupil can keep each one for reference and records. the teacher is free from all daily planning and teaching. it requires the teacher to constantly monitor progress through individual conferences. The objectives are clearly specified. and for what grade. the ability to carryout tasks on an individual bases and yet be challenging to both the teacher and the student. Some are common to the entire class while others are individualised to meet the needs of the individual student.14 Contracting Contracting is a device in which a student and teacher write together exactly what is to be accomplished. • Students have a self-controlled opportunity for independence in their learning activities. The level of acceptable achievement must be based on more than the general expectation of the class. Disadvantages • It is more work for the teacher than the straight “lecture method”. • Students have choices. The contracting strategy is a stepping-stone into the individualised learning processes. . which may be difficult to locate. and both teacher and student sign the written agreement (contract). It is a chance for the student to experience success and failure. The contract can be an elaborate document or a simple written statement of agreement between the student and the teacher.

It is not a time for rest and relaxation. • The teacher must maintain a constant check of student progress where independent study programmes are in operation. • The lack of research skills on the part of student and the teacher may hinder completion of the project strategy.15 Independent study Independent study is an arrangement whereby the school explores in depth an area of interest not normally studied by the entire class. Permitting the students to share the results of their study with the rest of the class can add a dimension to the activity. Disadvantages • There is usually a lack of flexible schedules necessary to permit students and teachers to do true independent study. • Students gain insights into ‘how’ to learn. Constant assessment of progress by conferring with the learner and by viewing his work is extremely important. . • A shortage of related materials or other resources necessary to carry out the study may restrict independent work. but do not allow the project to continue on endlessly. the teacher must be more vigilant and more available for help than ever. and a clarifier rather than a seeing-eye dog. • Individual students assume more responsibility for learning and the presenting of their projects or reports assist the slower students to gain new insights into the study topic. • Evaluation is more difficult. for example. • Large amounts of time may be needed by the teacher to help each student to individualise a programme. brighter students can extend their learning while slower students can focus on an area of deficiency. • Independent study fosters self-learning skills and attitudes. Determine the availability of resources before beginning this strategy. Clearly specified objectives should be stated at the outset of the project. The aim is to provide a unique learning experience for the student. If anything. Allow sufficient time to complete the project. Do not permit students to embark on studies. Do not permit too many students to work on the same type of project. The teacher is an explainer of direction rather than a lecturer. The topic to be explored can be assigned by the teacher or selected by the student with approval from the teacher. Independent study requires the teacher to allow the student to become the teacher. but of a different angle requiring different functions. Advantages • Individual students can work in an area of need. It is a job of equal importance. an encourager rather than a demander. • Students are more motivated when they are studying something they have selected and in which they have a special interest. which are not appropriate to class instruction. The teacher becomes a ‘guide on the side’ as opposed to a ‘sage on the stage’.

the teacher is able to immediately evaluate the amount of learning that has taken place. although they are not limited to these settings. Relate the learning packet to the curriculum. techniques and greater knowledge. • Students may not have the maturity to work independently. The learning packet is designed to help students achieve at their own best learning rate. independent resources and study materials. • The learning packet requires an abundance of resource materials in order to complete the total project. The unit packet consists of a series of sequential learning activities leading to the achievement of desired outcomes by the learners. • Teachers are placed in the role of facilitators of learning rather than directors of learning. student instructions. Each may be of increasing difficulty requiring the learner to device new skills. student self-assessment. major and sub-concepts. Advantages • Students are able to pursue special interest areas yet work within the confines of the total curriculum. Take the time to work through the unit prior to classroom use to be sure it is complete and accurate. The teacher is a resource person available to offer assistance as the student pursues the learning content of the instructional package. Because the unit is designed for individual use. Components of the learning packets may include teacher directions. • The learning packet is well planned from start to finish. • Learning takes place in a sequential order. • Using the pre-test and post-test. Do not allow it to become isolated from learning goals. Establish a definite time period for the completion of the unit of learning. a series of units may be developed on a single topic area. They are generally structured for individual use and are most effectively used in schools with flexible curricula. post-test. pre-test. Plan well in advance to see that all necessary materials and resources are available. assorted strategies and content. research activities. • Materials in learning packets can be developed for all levels of learning. • Any discipline can be the subject of learning packet. Follow the directions for teachers within the learning packets. Disadvantages • Unit packets are time consuming to develop. Encouragement and positive reinforcement are important to the success of this strategy. . • Students may tend get bored with lengthy learning units. • Learning packets may be exchanged both within the school and with other schools.16 Learning packets Learning packets are sets of self-contained learning materials assembled for the purpose of teaching a single concept or idea. behavioural objectives.

Programmed instruction is usually most effective when used ‘some of the time’ rather than ‘all of the time’. • The learner is actively responding at all times to the programme. borrowed or copied. Disadvantage • Good programmes are hard to identify. • The student. Advantages • Programmed learning saves the teacher a considerable amount of time. • The cost of the materials can be prohibitive. It is especially useful in science and mathematics and materials can be found or constructed for all learner levels whether slow. teacher-made. branching. In such an approach. • Students can study on their own and that too effectively. A course with programmed instruction as the sole method of learning can be boring and tedious. They can be reused (if separate answer sheets are dittoed) year after year and rarely need updating as they usually cover basic concepts. the student responds to a presented step. or frame. then evaluate the experience to decide upon further use. average. the units of content are designed in small sequential steps. the student goes on to a new exercise. but properly used on a once in a while basis it can be fun and provides variety. drill and practice. fixed sequence. Begin utilising programme for a unit of content. as well as enrichment. In this approach. • It is effective for remedial teaching. which must be completed in the pre-arranged order. • Writing programmes is a very difficult process which causes teachers generally rely on commercial programmes. One method of programming I variously termed linear. If incorrect. • The success and reinforcement provides motivation to the learner. or gifted. • Programmed instruction is very applicable to affective or psychomotor learning. • The student progresses at his own rate and level of achievement. • The time saved can be applied to individuals or groups as either remedial or higher intellectual learning. The next frame the student faces depends upon his response. or intrinsic. Materials can be bought. The other basic method of programming is called non-linear. . student-made. Machine teaching is one type of programmed instruction.17 Programmed learning (Instruction) Auto-instruction and automated teaching are synonyms for programmed instruction. straight line or extrinsic. If correct. through immediate feedback. is aware of the degree of progress being made. the student may be referred to remedial exercises.

The good student is rewarded by being assigned or appointed as a tutor. demonstration. However. • Since the teacher is not present in all the tutorial sessions. questioning and problem solving are a few of the strategies that enter into the student tutorial method. • The use of student tutors removes the teacher from the actual instruction of most of the students. • Since the tutor usually lacks the teacher’s depth of knowledge. which will enable him to be a part of the total classroom activities. behaviour problems are apt to arise. Disadvantages • Since tutors and tutees are classmates. The tutee is rewarded by being selected for additional assistance on the basis of need. Discussion. The mere fact that a peer is aiding the slow student may make the difference to the success or failure of the tutee in gaining knowledge and assurance that he can do acceptable schoolwork. the tutor can better understand the tutee’s problems. tutees often resent being taught by their peers. • The tutor can develop responsible behaviour as well as gain leadership experience. .18 Student tutorial The student tutorial approach utilises pupils as monitors (tutors) who first learn from a teacher and then teach small groups or individual fellow students (tutees). the approach also offers a unique learning experience for the student tutors and should be considered as a vital portion of the approach. • The only feedback the teacher receives is through the tutor and may be distorted. and a proven desire to additional help. • The use of tutors assures all students of individual attention. • Advanced students can many times be paired up with remedial students and aid in eliminating troublesome ‘learning gaps’. • The student tutorial approach provides an economic use of time. • Since the tutor is nearer the age. They may have only a minor role when used by the tutors but nevertheless are valid points to consider. acceptable behaviour. drill. • The tutor is not a teacher and is very limited in instructional skills. • The student tutorial system spreads the talents and knowledge of the teacher. Advantages • The tutor learns more since teaching is an excellent learning situation. skill and achievement level of the tutee than is the teacher. The use of students tutoring other students has proven to be a valuable tool for teachers in a countless number of situations. • The student tutorial provides a challenging learning experience for the faster students in class. It enables the teacher to provide additional instruction to those pupils having difficulty while continuing to maintain an ongoing programme with other students in the classroom. Traditionally the approach has been concerned only with the learning of the tutees. It may be considered a form of behavioural modification due to the selection process used to designate tutors and tutees. Other sub-strategies can play an important part in the student tutorial programme. the use of tutors may lead to memorisation transmission only.

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Chapter 4 STRATEGIES FOR SMALL GROUPS

Case study
The case study strategy (or case method) is a teaching approach, which requires the student to participate actively in problem situations, which may be hypothetical or real. He receives a case, a report containing pertinent data, analyses the data, evaluates the nature of the problem, decides upon applicable principles, and finally recommends a solution or a course of action. The case study method is another approach to individualising the learning situation. Through the use of hypothetical or real situations, the student has the opportunity to use problem-solving approaches that are meaningful and understandable. It requires the student to collect the data, analyse it and make suggestions or recommendations for decision-making. The project may be simple in the beginning and lead to the more complex as the student gains experiences to these learning processes. Using the case study strategy can, if properly directed, assist in the solving of school or community problems. The community sees the student working on topics that are of wide interest in the community and thus have greater respect for the educational programmes at the local school. It further provides an opportunity to narrow the generous gap. It is not a strategy to be used indiscriminately. It requires careful planning, specific objectives, clearly specified guidelines and a precise means of evaluation. The teacher can and must expect to be available for individual assistance and ensure that materials, equipment and resources are readily available to the students. Cases should be explicitly and unambiguously written. They should fit the level of the students in terms of maturity and problem solving skills. Students should be presented with similar cases prior to permitting the students to select their own cases. A check must be made to insure that materials and resources dealing with the case are available. Periodically check on students to insure they are progressing in a desirable

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direction. Attempt to include other strategies such as role-playing, simulation, interview and questioning within the structure of the case study. Advantages • The case study approach can provide for individual differences among students. • Because the student is involved in a problem situation, interest and motivation are generally high. • Active student involvement insures better retention of content. • The case study approach develops responsibility on the part of the learner. • Students are invited to develop problem-solving skills in order to arrive at a conclusion to the case. • Students deal with content on a high cognitive level. • Materials and resources other than the textbook are used in considering the case. Disadvantages • The case study approach can be time consuming. • Good case studies are difficult fir the teacher to develop in a manageable procedure for the normal size class. • Resources and materials needed to successfully pursue the case study are often not available. • The teacher must be well prepared for the topic of the study. • Cases developed by the students are often controversial and difficult for the teacher to manage.

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Community resources
Basically, community resources include any activity outside the school, which has educational use. The teacher can use people, places and things found in the community to facilitate learning. The resource, although located outside the school building, may be brought to the school or the class may go to the site to carry out a planned activity. Often an elder citizen of the community can enhance the study of history or biology, art, folk dancing and literature. Normally a community resource is considered to be to be something away from the school to visit, but in many instances it means bringing a person or exhibit to the school. It is a tool that can provide new learning experiences to the class and assist the teacher in making lessons more meaningful with lasting effects. Community resources, like all other teaching strategies, require advance consideration, study and preparation before it can become a meaningful tool. Begin early to note places of interest that will enhance the lesson. Make notes regarding the cost, time to tour or complete the activity. Note down the names of key individuals for contacts and scheduling. Be knowledgeable of the procedures and requirements within the school for making use of community resources. Have the objectives for using the resource firmly in mind to make the lesson meaningful. Advantages • The use of community resources can bring the school and community closer together. • It facilitates more practical learning and better retention of learning. • Interaction between the school and community enables the student to develop a broader understanding of the community. • The use of the community resources adds excitement to the subject, thus increasing motivation for learning. • Community resources are applicable to all types of learning: cognitive, affective and psychomotor. • Students can develop social skills. • Students can assist in the selection of community resources as a decision making experience. • These activities are inexpensive and within the budget of most schools. Disadvantages • Specific community resources, which are available, are sometime difficult to locate and schedule. • Teachers have to obtain prior administrative and parental approval. • People used as community resources often do not know how to transfer their knowledge and information to students. • Field trips are often over looked due to factors such as student safety, control, expense and teacher liability. • Since the teacher is dependent on agents of the community, last minute cancellations often occur leaving the teacher stranded.

libraries. unrealistic learning of irrelevant facts. and. Disadvantages • Discipline can easily become a problem. or government institutions. the immediate community. • Students become more aware of their environment. it is difficult to make arrangements in order to prevent conflicts with other classes. is a major source of enrichment for learners. Field study. thereby. Follow up activities including discussion. Advantages • Field studies provide the student with interesting. . Plan the trip by visiting the site and talking with the people. At the site provide for adequate supervision. • When a teacher has students for only one period a day. You and the class must move outside the confines of that room to the school grounds. It provides opportunity for students to see the ‘real world’ in action. and do your investigations at this site. • Administrative procedures to organise field trips are often so complicated that they discourage taking them. art galleries. first hand experiences. A sub-strategy of the community resources strategy. social. drawing pictures. public utilities. Make sure the field trip is of educational value in that it relates directly to what is being taught in the classroom. and is a most valuable activity to consider for your programme. and academic horizons. The field study is a trip arranged by the school and undertaken for educational purposes. This extra-class session is known as a field trip. field studies are generally made to points of instructional interest such as factories. • A common experience is provided for students.22 Field study (trip) Your regular classroom may not be the best area available to you for a particular activity on study. or some other reachable place. • Transportation arrangements are often difficulty or costly. Develop a means of evaluation for pupils as well as the place visited in order to assist in planning future trips. in which students go to places where the materials of instruction may be observed and studied directly to their functional settings. • Field studies extend classroom learning through reality. Field study is a means of overcoming this criticism in part. Careful planning and pre-visitation to the site by the teacher is essential if the experience is to be useful and valuable to students. • What is learned should have great impact due to the multi-sensory nature of the experience. Prepare the by relating the trip to what is being studied and what they might observe. One of the longstanding major criticisms of education has been its sponsorship of cloistered. Upon return to the classroom. • Field studies can add greatly to school-community relationships. writing short essays. which can serve as a basis for other learning activities. museums. widens their attitudinal. properly carried out. or model making will ensure that retention of the objectives is accomplished. Students should receive some definite ‘coaching’ in observation skills and an outline of objectives and purposes prior to the field trip. review and summarise what was learned at the field trip.

which are personally interesting. Interest centre teaching can be a good blessing. learning packets. With proper introduction and monitoring the teacher will find interest centre teaching may be the panacea for which she has been searching. Care should be taken that accurate and detailed records are kept. encourages communication and eliminates many motivational problems. materials. etc. Resource people are a valuable asset to an interest centred classroom. an art centre. It also makes progress reporting easier and meaningful. Many other strategies and sub-strategies can operate effectively within the interest centred classroom – projects. a math centre. • Resource people in each interest area can be brought in easily to work with a small group of students. Advantages • Interest centres provide for individualised learning within constraints of subject matter requirements. Each centre has abundant materials and equipment pertaining to that particular subject. museums. The type and quantity of materials depends on the objectives for each centre. government institutions. Another possibility for evaluation is to require each student to exhibit some level of individual proficiency on small quizzes or written exercises prepared over the material. On request. a language centre. • Record keeping of student achievement is difficult. zoos. • Interest centres allow students to devote more time to the subjects. especially if they have not had prior independent work. student tutorial. factories. Each student should have a folder kept in a central file where he logs his activities and achievements. Administration and parents should be kept aware and consulted during the planning and programme operation. research. In an elementary and middle school classroom. and students is required. Just as with materials. makes students more responsible for their own time. etc.23 Interest centres (Subject learning centres) Establishing an interest centred classroom involves actual separation of the physical space into stations of various academic areas. art galleries. Disadvantages • The need for varied materials to each centre may be a constraint. • The teacher is free to move about from centre to centre assisting students. fieldtrips. hospitals and individuals. • Students have the opportunity to bring their own materials with which to work. . • A great deal of preparation of environment. • The teacher needs a good command of all subject matter. independent study. • Students may be lacking in self-motivation. otherwise evaluation becomes impossible. one might have a science centre. a social science centre. Do not fail to utilise some students’ parents and acquaintances as valuable resources. It individualising learning. it is amazing how many experts are eager to donate their time and energy to work with students. The teacher must secure an abundance of materials and some equipment pertinent to each centre well in advance of the beginning of the year. • Students are more responsible for their own learning activities. you may acquire from business houses.

• The student develops greater understanding of ‘how’ to learn. due to academic immaturity. • Students. jury trial. but not so much as to rob students of meaningful learning experiences. who furnishes help only when necessary. or it can evolve from class discussions. etc. it becomes research. • Often the materials and resources needed to do an effective project are not available. are a duplicate of something already done. many times. Disadvantages • Projects are very time consuming. Provide an opportunity to utilise community resources. play production. Be sure the subject is specifically defined and understood by the students involved. Advantages • The project approach covers all levels of the cognitive and affective domains. • The project method develops student responsibility and initiative. which have meaning for them but which are also meaningful in terms of the goals of the subject. The decision as to the nature of the project can be assigned by the teacher. The project approach may be referred to as self-directed study. as well as learn together about specific subject matter. • Pupils can be involved in planning the project that increases interest and motivation. If the project involves in-depth work. • Emphasis is placed upon doing by the student. Sometimes projects are creative. Well-known examples of projects are seen at science fairs. • Helpful teacher feedback usually is not possible until it is too late. often make many errors. Provide enough supervision to ensure maximum progress. Some projects sometimes take the form of a large-scale city map. Students should be helped in finding projects. . Great care must be taken to the selection of the project. and. This method requires teaching by units rather than by pages. large model construction. Projects are usually done by individuals and many times take the form of a model or presentation as the final product. and give and take criticism among themselves. The advantages of the group projects are that students must agree on division of labour. Projects give students the opportunity to work independently and to gain in-depth knowledge of a specific area. learn to lead or follow.24 Project The project method is a teaching in which students individually or in-groups accept an assignment to gather and integrate data relative to some problem and are then free to fulfil the requirements independently of the teacher. • Students often get sidetracked or go off on a tangent.

Expose the student to a number of similar problems. For example. organising and interpreting data. comprehension and retention should be of longer duration. • Problem solving develops responsibility in the learner. the dictatorship ends. Problem solving moves the mind to some of its highest cognitive functions: analysing. a social studies class might become concerned about what will happen to the dictatorship when a dictator dies? The class members discuss various alternatives and then finally state their hypothesis: When a dictator dies. (3) collecting. evaluating. Next. Provide direction and guidance when necessary. they would select. • Interest in learning and motivation are increased with the use of problem solving. The problems presented must fit the maturation and skill levels of the student. • Problem solving involves cognitive and affective learning. An added benefit in utilising this strategy is that students become adept at digging up information and cross checking its validity with other resources. These approaches are built upon John Dewey’s five steps of general problem solving. (4) reaching conclusions.25 Problem solving The name problem solving is assigned to learning approaches built upon the scientific method of inquiry. • Problem solving provides the student with a model to apply to problem that may be faced in the future. The degree to which the hypothesis is supported or denied by the evidence determines the conclusion. organise and interpret data. They would study dictators throughout history and what happened to the dictatorship upon the death of the dictator. • Problem solving provides the opportunity for students to learn from failure without severe hardships. and (5) testing these conclusions. Next a conclusion would be reached regarding what happens to the dictatorship when the dictator dies. The data could either support or deny the hypothesis. Assist pupils in defining and delimiting the problem to be studied. Disadvantages • Materials and resources needed for problem solving often are not available to the students. and synthesising. (2) formulating tentative hypotheses. • Evaluation of learning is difficult. . Check for sufficient resources and materials to be available for student use. • Students learn how to think independently in reaching conclusions. Advantages • Because the student has been actively involved. taking care not to overdo it. generalising. evaluate. • Problem solving is time consuming. • Students are often too immature to really recognise problem of social significance. These steps are: (1) defining the problem. This alone justifies it as one of the most valuable of all strategies.

reach conclusions. • Due to immaturity or limited subject matter comprehension. Base the type of research upon the students’ level of research sophistication. student not only learns content but also develops various research skills. and compares his results with those obtained by other investigators’. . • Students. and so informed the students. (2) gathering and compiling data. • By conducting research. The rewards of properly supervised and earnest carrying out of student research can be great: thought organisation. although initially motivated. Spend time preparing students by helping them develop research skills before embarking upon a research project. This might be library time or first-hand gathering of information from local and state agencies. • Research may require more materials and equipment than are available. Research is highly interesting to some students. Advantages • Student research lets the student understand how a researcher in a particular field works. etc. and feeling of accomplishment. Disadvantages • Research can be very time consuming. • In using research. Certain students thrive on the independence. facilities and equipment for research are available.26 Student research The research approach in teaching is defined as ‘an instructional procedure. But it is not for everyone. students may often have difficulty judging the importance of data acquired through research. Be sure the necessary materials. or the lengthy). and report the findings. Build in checks or student progress reports to ensure the direction of the research. The non-laboratory research is usually some type of library resource. and a sense of responsibility. the desired outcomes of which are achieved by setting up situations in such a form that the student gathers and organises information. upon the research skills and processes involved. and (3) posing tentative solutions. in-depth knowledge of a specific area. Provide students with opportunities to share their findings with peers. increased motivation. may lose interest if the research leads up blind alleys (topic too difficult. the logicality and definity of this type of individual study. Make certain the topics to be researched are well defined and understood by the student. or both. • Research by students prepares the students to direct their own learning in the future when faced with a new problem. investment. boring. A student doing research needs input. The classroom focus of student research can be either upon the knowledge gained. activism. A teacher must spend adequate preparatory time with the student in the foundations of research: (1) defining the problem. and the flexibility to make contacts necessary for such input. Decide beforehand whether the purpose of the research is the knowledge learned or the research process or both. The student may conduct this research in a laboratory situation or a nonlaboratory situation or a combination of both. • Research can provide motivation as the student actively seeks answers. and a total bore for others. draws his own conclusions on the basis of data. students must make judgements.

It is especially difficult for those teachers who are in the habit of seeing ‘the group’ rather than individual that composes the group. However. Observation. Therefore. . that it becomes almost imperative to treat it as a ‘pure form’ strategy. It might be the fundamental strategy underlying effective utilisation of all other strategies. and learning problems while in the midst of a dynamic classroom situation.’ In other words. It is of utmost importance to be ‘omnisciently observant’. The teacher is supposed to reinforce students towards progress. its importance is so crucial to effective utilisation of other strategies and it is so intricately intertwined with all of them. attitudes. It is purely on the teacher’s shoulders to be mature and professional enough to take a step and enjoy the feeling of ‘doing better’. How else is a teacher to judge when and how to plug indifferent strategies if he is not gaining accurate input on student needs and desires? Most of us are fairly poor observers. An ‘observer’ is usually thought of as an unobtrusive person sitting in the corner passively watching students. Observation is perception. It is a rare teacher who has the luxurious opportunity to observe his own students performed. Usually not principals or pay checks. we shall define observation as ‘astute perception by the teacher of the multiply–faceted student behaviour. Accurate perception is invaluable to the proficient teacher. To be constantly cognisant of what is transpiring through out the class is not an easy task.27 Chapter 5 STRATEGIES FOR LARGER GROUPS Observation Observation is probably more of a teacher skill than a strategy. which motivates the teacher to improve. the teacher should be aware of ‘what is happening ‘. as it is the major and only immediate way to learn of student reactions to the general environment and particular learning segments. if practised can be one of the most rewarding steps ever taken.

. • Keen observations eliminate many discipline problems before they occur. • There is a tendency to ‘play favourites’. A daily skill goal should be established and carried out in all contacts with students. Until we have the ability to enter other peoples’ minds to see actually why they do the things they do. Advantages • Through observation much can be learned concerning student physiological problems (hearing. hygiene care. etc. • As the teacher becomes increasingly aware of the effects of various strategies in different situations (and alters teaching approaches on the basis of that information) he becomes a constantly self-improving professional always seeking a better way. speech. Never neglect your built-in ‘environmental thermostat’. • Observation provides immediate information and feedback. Observations should be as objective as possible. Many potential learning problems can be eliminated by prompt action ultimately saving a great deal of energy and discomfort on the part of both teacher and student. passing out papers. etc. vision. The teacher’s eye becomes so discerning that a mountain of information can be compiled with a few glances around the classroom. Disadvantages • It is difficult to become a sharp observer. learning. where as. co-ordination. and observe only children who are pleasing to watch.28 The teacher should plan on the necessary self-training in observation skills. It requires determined practise of separating oneself into two people—a person ‘teaching’ (demonstrating. Practice at looking for particular traits or behaviours eventually sharpen the teacher’s observation powers beyond belief. clothing. we must restrict our descriptions to observable behaviour. testing or diagnostics lesson the effect of problem-attention due to the time-delay. there by falling to notice accentuate positive traits being exhibited.).) and a person ‘observing’ (alert to physiological. Despite looking for particular behaviours. • Observation yields a great deal of information about the learner’s socio-emotional development. utilising AV material.) and needs (diet supplements. etc. • The inclination is to be solely on the alert for particular and thus fail to sense the total classroom atmosphere. you must constantly attune art of your observation powers to the classroom atmosphere. socio-emotional. and behavioural aspects). bodily defects. lecturing. • There is a tendency to watch for only negative occurrences.

A good demonstration inspires. • Good demonstrations hold the learner’s attention. Utilise questions during the demonstration to provide feedback. Spend the necessary time to plan and develop the needed materials for the demonstration. • Demonstrations can be financially economical since only the demonstrator needs materials. Advantages • Demonstration adds to learning by giving students the opportunity to see and hear what is actually happening. Make sure seating arrangements are such that the audience can see and hear. It is commonly used in conjunction with a short explanatory lecture. then. Disadvantages • Demonstration requires much planning and preparation by the demonstrator. • Demonstration is difficult to use with affective and higher level cognitive learning. • Demonstration can be used to illustrate ideas. poor one defeats. If feasible. conduct a brief review of the steps involved or a short summary of what has happened. • Demonstration is an excellent technique for utilising community resource persons. have a student or two to replicate the demonstration. the demonstration should be properly prepared to ensure that this goal is achieved. • Good demonstrations set performance standards. . mathematics. Practice or rehearse the demonstration in its entirety with an eye on time limitations. Naturally. One of the greatest benefits of demonstration is showing how something is accomplished properly or expertly. When it is time to put on the demonstration make sure all materials are at hand. principles and concepts for which words are inadequate. • Demonstration can lead to imitation without understanding. • If the audio portion of the demonstration does not fit the visual portion it can confuse the student.29 Demonstration Demonstration is the process wherein one person does something in the presence of others in order to show them how to do it or to illustrate a principle. • A demonstration can be ineffective if the demonstrator only ‘shows and tells’ without feedback. • Demonstration is especially beneficial in the areas of skills. At the conclusion of the demonstration. and athletics. which in tern is good for public relations. science. Demonstration utilises both auditory and visual means of communication. music. Demonstration is especially useful in the arts.

and present their findings that lead into a whole-class discussion. debates. This is the preparation for students to become proficient speakers/listeners and worthwhile contributing citizens – a goal found in every school philosophy. It does involve the coverage of academics. Reports of the results of the various buzz groups are then presented to the entire class.30 Discussion Discussion is an activity in which people talk together in order to share information about a topic or problem or to seek a possible solution. courtesy. Discussion may be implemented in a variety of ways. In utilising panels. It is an organised talk and not purposeless conversation. The student must be prepared. universal activity. Finally the topic itself should be one which has some degree of personal relevance for the students. rather than an osmotic process from teacher to student. In buzz sessions. The teacher. Upon conclusion of the debate. Discussion to develop and share ideas is a dynamic. It involves a sharing of ideas between students. the teacher must plan sufficient learning activities prior to the discussion. clarifies Students’ comments. The topics of discussion should be properly stated. The teacher simply leads an informal discussion involving the class as a whole. Secondly. Debate is generally used in the classroom as a small-group technique with a small number of students teamed on either side of an issue. Upon the conclusion of the presentation. the topic should be stated as an issue to polarise viewpoints. and forums. . Discussion does demand erstwhile supervision and guidance by the teacher. leadership/fellowship. It is not casual but skilfully structured. thought organisation. Whatever the case. It is a means for increasing student involvement. asks questions. the presenters then solicit questions on the topic from the audience. Each of the types presented can be utilised in either a modified form or in combination with each other. the teacher can enter into a whole-class discussion on the issue. In order to insure that the discussion reaches a level higher than a ‘sharing of ignorance’. each side is given a specific amount of time to present its side of the issue. The students comprising the panel then organise themselves. as the director of the discussion. and makes tentative summaries to help students achieve understanding of the topic. teachers should properly use the approach in terms of its inherent characteristics. students are placed in small groups for a specific amount of time to discuss a given issue or topic. and the materials and resources available to the students. research the topic. The whole class discussion is the type generally referred to when teachers employ the discussion method. which should stimulate whole-class discussion. During discussion the active listener is also a truly participant. The forum is a specific discussion type in which a small number of students present information to the large group. the teacher can divide the class into groups of three to six students. Discussion is a most important strategy on a number of levels. the words used to phrase the issue should be terms familiar to the students. Primarily. It is schooling in social interaction. The types of discussion available to the teacher include whole-class discussions. discuss their data. Each type has its own characteristics. The teacher must be prepared and must be familiar with the content to be considered the characteristics of group activity. and conversation. panels. buzz-sessions.

a given student finds his own values and beliefs challenged. Look for follow up activities. • Careful observation of the behaviour of students in-group activities provide the teacher with much information related to the social. The moderator clarifies the concepts. some students may never participate while a few may tend to dominate. makes tentative summaries. psychological. The teacher serves as a moderator of the discussion while in progress. Successful discussions will lead naturally into follow up activities. . emotional. and keeps the discussion on track. Student discussion should not be evaluated for grading purposes. • Discussion has a positive effect upon the mental activity of the student. By engaging in meaningful discussion with fellow students. or become a rambling. lag. states conclusions. the question or issue should be presented in very specific. Such a finding can lead to a significant attitudinal change on the part of the student. The discussion has been in vain if the students are unaware of the conclusions reached. This is the only way to encourage students to freely and honestly contribute to the discussion. Advantages • Discussion techniques get at attitude development.31 In introducing the subject matter to be discussed. • It develops ‘discussion’ skills. position taken on the issue. and skill development of the student. • There is a problem of evaluating the student. • Teachers often become frustrated because discussion may fail to lead to a conclusion. • Discussion often break down. writing the topic on the board or in handout material is well worth the effort. which will enhance the student learning. and meaningless. or processes undergone. Disadvantages • Discussion activities are usually more time consuming than more direct approaches. • It is possible that a topic will be such that the students get carried away. well defined terms to the students. • It aids the student in the development of a positive self-concept. In fact. • In discussion.

This lack of activity is extremely conducive to boredom. Revise lecture approach on the basis of the feedback. The chalkboard serves as a useful tool for outlining or emphasising important points. This includes planning of methodology. The degree to which this happens is determined to some extent by the attitude of the lecturer while making the presentation. and this automatically turns off some listeners. models and other visuals. • Lecture provides students with an organised perspective of the content to be considered. and to the point when they are necessary. • Lecture provides practice for the students in learning to develop note-taking skills. Generally speaking. • Individuals in the group are not permitted to ask questions. thus eliminating the feedback leading to miscommunication. Their actions (attentions) will reveal the effectiveness of the lecture. In the pure form. Always allow ample opportunity for questions to come from the students. and one of the most ineffective because it is overused. The lecture is most effective in clarifying or demonstrating a procedure or skill. Watch the audience. Disadvantages • Lengthy or overly frequent lectures can easily lead to boredom. The lecture should be well organised so that the logic is as perceivable as possible. Try to stir students’ imagination by painting with vivid word pictures. utilisation of equipment. Vary the lecture by utilising interest arousing aids such as pictures. daydreaming and sometimes create discipline problems. What are their specifics needs and interests? Goals should mesh with these needs and interests to eliminate the boredom and to help the students grow. Avoid monotonous type of lecturing by varying voice stress and intensity. Avoid pure lecture by utilising questions during the lecture. Two kinds of questions may be used: (1) the kinds you ask – poise – and answer yourself (rhetorical) and (2) the kind you expect student to answer. handouts. lectures are ineffective because they place a learner in a very passive posture. abused and misused. . Lectures should be short. Know the audience. Both are attention getters and one has added benefit of requiring mental answer-search on the part of the students as well as feedback mechanism to enable the lecturer to measure audience absorption. demonstration materials. Lecture assumes that the lecturer knows all and the student is ignorant. It is the oldest form of teaching. Advantages • The lecture is most useful in introducing a new topic of study or presenting certain back ground material that students need for preparation of further study. etc. • Lecture permits a large audience to receive quick and useful information. sweet. students have no opportunity to ask questions or offer comments during the lecture.32 Lecture The lecture is the traditional method of teaching wherein lecturer transmits information in an autocratic fashion to passive student listeners. Know the overall goals and specific objectives while planning the lecture. • The lecture has difficulty in assessing impact on the audience and whether needs and interests are being met.

Students seldom achieve higher level cognitive learning since they do not actively work with the information being considered. . Affective (attitudes) learning seldom occurs due to a lecture.33 • • • Detailed and factual information is difficult to ‘communicate’ or ‘relate’ in such a setting.

not just factual recall. as it is the surest way to insure low response on future questioning. 8. Whatever may the purpose of the questions to be asked by the teacher. Some questions should be used that require thought and an extended answer. Be reasonably lavish in the use of ‘good’ or other words of praise to students who give correct answers. What types of questions are to be asked? Although you might not be able to pre-plan all your questions. This leads all students to listen to the question. pause. 2. ‘when’. 5. ` An effective question-asked is as beautiful to watch (listen to) as a fencer. Avoid asking any negative comments after an incorrect answer. Good questioning techniques aid and stimulate the listener to reason. In planning. The contrast between your experience background and that of your students must be considered. It takes a certain measure ego-elimination on the part of the teacher to relinquish the desire to furnish all the answers and allow the students to use their own cognitive abilities. and ‘where’ questions to check information possessed by students. His questions demand thinking. Questions should not be worded so as to call for a yes or no answer. 8. the teacher should: 1. the responsibility of the teacher is to first plan properly and then to execute effectively. be sure to randomly sample class responses. He knows when and what to ask. . Structure in advance. 6. 1. is defined as a method both of instruction and of oral testing based on the use of questions to be answered by the pupils. If questions are to be used for either review or pre-assessment purposes. A question should not suggest its own answer. then call on a student to answer. For higher thought levels. Use ’who’. all the questions you ask should reflect your awareness of the basics of question construction. state the question. sometimes referred to as the question – and – answer method. 7. the more difficult types of questions to be used. Summarise complicated or ambiguous answers to questions. evaluate and even create. 4. Students should not be required to participate in a guessing game to find out what your answer is. Decide upon the purposes of the questions to be used. ‘what’. 4.34 Questioning Questioning. When using questions with individuals. 2. Push student’s responses to ‘why’ and ‘how’ questions to higher levels of thought by asking for more explanation. 7. It is desirable to take the time to write out such questions on note cards or the margin of the text. 3. Questions should be concise. Questions should not suggest a ‘right’ answer. Inspiration is given by the teacher for the student to move beyond memorising thought function to higher levels of thinking. 3. The vocabulary you use should be clear to the students. use ‘why’ and ‘how’ questions. 6. 5. The pause provides time to think – respect that period of silence.

When. Avoid repeating answers or questions. depending upon the learner and the content of the lesson. If several partial answers are given. interests. Try to involve as many of your students in a lesson as possible. 7. How can questions be presented effectively? 1. 10.35 9. Do not discourage volunteering. 6. 12. 3. 11. athletic interests. how many 15 paise stamps can she buy? What does this paragraph tell us about the author’s life? How are plants and animals alike/different? What is a good title for this LOWERLEVEL THINKING Comprehension Describe Summarise Solve Show Application Analysis Infer Compare HIGHER- Synthesis Create . 5. 2. Questions must be adjusted to suit the needs of the students. A student who gives good answer should be complimented. Students should always be expected to evaluate the responses made in class. Constantly listen to your own questions with the same critical listening ability you wish to instil in your students. 8. 10. Bring non-volunteers (non-participants) into the lesson by learning about their hobbies. If you ask a question requiring some thought then provide the time for students to formulate and phrase an adequate response. QUESTION TYPE Knowledge STUDENT BEHAVIOUR Recall Recite EXAMPLE QUESTIONS What (Who. Every question should carry the lesson forward. Where. whereas other lessons require more thought. It is found that different levels of questions are effective. Maintain a balance between calling on volunteers and non-volunteers. school activities. Design questions that differ in their order of difficulty. Classification of questions There are six levels of questions. and then select the person to answer it. 4. Why) are the southern states? Define photosynthesis What is the main idea? How is the major character portrayed? What is the latitude of New Delhi? Sarla has one rupee. 9. The following table shows the lower to higher levels of students’ thinking skills. Certain lessons require more recall. Ask the question first. a student might be asked to summarise those responses. There should be no predictable system for calling on students.

• Questions are sometimes used as a control device and students are more apt to pay attention to what is going on in class. . c) Determine progress toward specific goals. and close interaction. Questions do not always fit easily into these designated levels. • It is difficult to design certain types of questions to measure analysis. i) Encourage student self-evaluation. • Questions may be organised to serve the purpose of measuring learning on the levels of information. • Questions can serve as a means of feedback for the teacher in understanding an individual student and/or the whole class. extend.36 LEVEL THINKING Evaluation Predict Judge Choose painting? How can we help the poor? Do you believe in capital punishment? Which soft drink is best? The classification of questions to a higher level is useful for promoting various kinds of thinking. application. Within each lesson. • Students feel encouraged memorising. analysis. and evaluation rather than to measure factual learning. synthesis or evaluation. j) Encourage the application of concepts. comprehension. f) Encourage new appreciation and attitudes. d) Motivate students. b) Diagnose student difficulties. h) Relate cause to effect. teachers need to plan a sequence for the types of questions they ask. synthesis. Disadvantages • Questioning is a slower process in dealing with information than the lecture. Advantages • Correctly asked questions serves the following purposes: a) Stimulate analytical thought. neglecting higher levels of learning. g) Give specific direction to thinking. e) Clarify and expand concepts. • Several incorrectly answered questions often prompt teachers to feel more time should be spent lecturing than questioning. This sequence illuminates questions that are used to initiate.

• Role-playing is time consuming. It is highly recommended that the roleplayers thoroughly understand their role and its limits and the situation of the scene prior to enactment. • How students fit into their role gives an indication of their knowledge of the situation. Define roles in terms of the situation. This is especially useful in helping students understand the circumstances of different ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Learn role descriptions. 4. A roleplay has a unique value in that it is the only strategy that gets the student into another ‘identity’. Advantages • In role-playing the student expressing feelings and attitudes. condition. 2. Because of the active participation demanded of learners in role-playing. • A system of communication based on action rather than words is used. This is utilised well in teacher education preparation classes where scenes such as problem child – parent – teacher. Another valid use of role-playing is in a problem-solving situation where different roles are placed in conflict with each other. Assign roles and assure internalisation.37 Role-playing Role-playing is an instructional technique involving a portrayal (acting out) of a situation. This process involves both cognitive and attitudinal learning. thus allowing him an opportunity to perceive how others might feel. • The student is activated. Role-playing provides learners with opportunities to become acquainted with the perceptions of people other than themselves. Disadvantages • Students sometimes emphasise performance over the intended lesson. think and act. the strategy frequently is highly motivating for learners. This eliminates straying or turning a learning situation into a comedy. An atmosphere of freedom and security must exist in the classroom. The situation to which the person responds may be either structured or unstructured. Certain portions of the activity may be improved with re-enactment. can be experienced. Conduct debriefing session. 5. • This method provides the student with the opportunity to ‘feel’ the situation rather than merely intellectualise about it. The role-playing strategy develops according to the following sequence of events: 1. Develop the scenario. or circumstances by selected members of learning group. or principal – teacher – angry parent. The class members who are to observe should take notes and be instructed to what to look for. Role-playing promotes tolerance and acceptance of diverse viewpoints likely to differ from their own. Upon completion of the activity evaluation of the students’ performance should take place. Design the situations and roles in sufficient detail in advance. • Role-playing can develop social skills. Conduct activity phase. . 3. • Students are being prepared for actual situations to be faced. • Affective learning can be taught and/or effectively evaluated. The actors should be given a short time to get their thoughts together.

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• • • •

Some students are unable to identify with the characters or situation. Those students with talent often monopolise the situation. Students often ‘carried away’ in their roles. Playing roles demands some imagination on the part of the group.

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Simulation gaming
Simulation is an elaborate type of role-playing, gaming, and socio-drama in which students stimulate models of real-life situations. It invites participants to develop decision-making competencies while striving for established objectives, usually using competition between two teams. Simulation games are produced by commercial enterprises, but these can be designed by the classroom teacher. Generally, the teacher devises rules and objectives to the game and provides roles for various students. The greatest thing going for the stimulation gaming strategy is its intrinsic motivation. All kids love games, competition, and ‘winning’. Whether you feel this aspect is the major emphasis of stimulation or not, the children do. Failure to capitalise on this enthusiastically will undermine all the preparation and time you invested to get across the lesson. The most frequent problem is getting started, and secondly, rule interpretation as the game progresses. The teacher is crucial to both of these. She must act as explainer of the game’s objective and methods prior to play and as a referee during the game. A great deal of the success of the experience rests upon how well this is done. If commercially made simulation game is used then you need to be completely familiar with the game and prepare your class by a) allowing sufficient time for the play; and b) carefully explaining the rules of the game. All simulation games include directions for play, summarising the activity, and relating it to ‘realty’. These should be strictly adhered to. If you desire to construct your own simulation situation, the following suggestions should be considered: 1. In order to produce transferable results, the model must possess fidelity in its representation of reality. 2. Purpose and major focus must be clearly understood. 3. Rules for simulation games must be established. 4. The sophistication of the game usually increases its instructional potential. 5. Game design must result from rigorous experimentation. 6. Simulation of all types should be evaluated in terms of the established objectives. 7. Learners in games must be free to carry out their own decisions, even when making mistakes; and the feedback of the consequences should be rapid and clear. 8. Opportunity and space must be provided for free, uninhibited movement and for flexibility of grouping. 9. An open climate should be maintained, free from leader domination. 10. The scope of the simulation should be limited to selected critical aspects of actions or processes. 11. Creativity on the part of leaders and students is required. 12. Accurate information and facts are essential. 13. Reasonable assurance for intelligent use can be increased by setting significant goals and by previous testing. 14. Simulation should provide for teaching both the cognitive and the affective areas. 15. In the main, decisions must be sufficiently satisfying and rewarding to provide adequate motivation. 16. Provision must be made for developing generalisation.

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17. The situation should be repeatable in its original form so that follow-up can be provided. Advantages • Simulation is appealing, motivates intense effort, and increasing learning. • Success or failure is rapidly and readily recognisable. • Vividness, meaning, and potential for greater retention are added. • Simulation has demonstrated its power to generate deep emotional involvement. • Learning to act by acting, learning to make decision by making decisions, and learning to solve problem by solving problems are developed. • Simulation is particularly effective with under-motivated children. • Simulation allows for manipulation by simplifying the complexity of what the game represents. • Simulation can be used for the acquisition of information, improvement of new processes, and identification of alternatives is decision making. • Games lengthen the attention span and develop persistent application to work. • Pupils learn to cope with unpredictable circumstances. • Games illustrate vividly the relationship between decision making and its consequences. • The need for constant communication between players teaches social integration. • Games are effective in teaching values and attitudes. • The cost and time necessary for involvement in the real world are reduced. Disadvantages • At best, simulation is very artificial and over simplified. • Games place too much emphasis on competition. • Models are too rigid and narrow in their applicability. • Simulation takes too long to get to the heart of a lesson. • Teachers employing simulation may be looked upon as allowing too much freedom and disorder. • Games cannot be readily adapted to the peculiar needs of an individual or a particular class. • Simulation cannot be a substitute for real, direct experience. • Students who have minor role lose interest. • A complex model confuses; if it is simple, it bores.

it is vitally important to student progress for teachers to conference daily on learner problems and achievements and to plan assistance for or promotion of these areas. plans and facilities will not make team teaching work if the teachers cannot work together. • Joint planning. teach. • The use of large groups. . Disadvantages • Team teaching calls for special physical facilities to provide for large group-small group arrangements. talents and interests of each teacher. thus providing an enrichment experience. Team members selected should be those who possess needed personal qualities for co-operation as well as instructional competence. • Teachers have more time for planning. small groups and individual study. preparation and follow up. • Students will be exposed to several teachers with different background and approaches. Large group activity is most appropriate to introduce a new topic or unit. • Large group presentations make possible more efficient use of time and resources. and evaluate a group of students. to summarise or conclude a unit. State the objectives of the experiment and design the evaluation procedure in advance of its use. co-operate and communicate openly and honestly. As such. the peculiarities of the arrangement itself offer certain dimensions or parameters to be considered. All the finest materials. an interdepartmental or inter disciplinary pattern. or on a grade-level basis. teaching and evaluation by the team members stimulate the professional growth of the teachers involved. However. Small groups may be best to discuss large group presentations and topic of student interest. Teams may be organised on a departmental basis. It is paramount to the success of this strategy that the teachers involved like each other. Teaching team may include student teachers and/or paraprofessional personnel. Advantages • Team teaching capitalises upon the special competencies.41 Team teaching Team teaching is an arrangement in which two or more teachers co-operatively plan. • Team teaching may be used for all or a part of the students’ day. • Students may be grouped on an educational basis rather than on administrative basis. and to provide information beneficial for the entire class. • The use of small group and individualised study provides for individual student needs. the various strategies discussed earlier are applicable to the team teaching arrangement. Individual study may help students pursue areas of individual need and interest and develop the skills associated with individual inquiry. small groups. which many buildings do not have. and individual study conducted by various team members provides more interesting and less monotonous routines in the area of traditional strategies. Provide time and resources for the team members to prepare thoroughly. Besides scheduling and material arrangement the most important facet of team teaching is the personalities of the teachers involved. In the planning session define the roles to be played by each team member. Most team teaching arrangements include instruction to large groups. In the area of communication.

but its actual application is more complex for administrators as well as teachers. Team-teaching may in actually be meetings the needs of the teachers rather than those of the students. The scheduling of the large groups. small groups. Specialisation on the part of the teachers may be carried to the point that the student loses sight of the whole subject or teaching/learning goals. Team teaching is attractive and seems simple. .42 • • • • • The cost per student of team teaching is often higher than more traditional approaches. and individual study is often extremely complicated and difficult to communicate without misunderstanding.

7. Discovery is frequently used in science and mathematics. which force students to think. 5. Provide for laboratory experiences. In solving the problem. the student studies history the same way that a historian does or the way in which a biologist studies biology. In practice. the student uses raw data and behaves in the manner required by the nature of the discipline and the problem. The problem situations as a dilemma deliberately created by the teacher. analyse. Make use of contemporary materials. the teacher creates a situation in which the student is faced with a problem. 4. In discovery students are involved in learning how to learn. draw conclusions. and make generalisations. 3. Thus. which has been previously discovered. which enables students to find the answers themselves. In implementing discovery.43 Chapter 6 STRATEGIES FOR SPECIAL USE Discovery Discovery is a teaching strategy. the degree to which discovery learning is successful is determined by the ability of the teacher to plan and execute effectively. This is more of a process approach as opposed to the usual emphases in education on production. As with any instructional approach. The intent is that the student will discover for himself. 6. manage and supervise the lesson. Introduce applications of the subject. Use topics from the subject. The teacher provides the materials and the students provide the discovering. . 2. that is. directed discovery is utilised more than pure discovery as the teacher generally creates the conditions under which the ‘discovery’ is to occur. Discovery is really a rediscovery. Provide opportunity for guessing. Make frequent use of visual aids. The following guidelines may be used: 1. In other words. Introduce new topics with innovative teaching strategy. the teacher’s role is to provide a situation that allows students to see a contradiction between what they already know and newly discovered knowledge.

11. • Discovery operates at the higher levels of the cognitive domain. • The student develops interest in what is being studied. Have more trusts in students. 9. Advantages • Since the student actively discovered the information and knowledge. • The pupil is provided with numerous opportunities to draw inferences from data by logical thinking. 12. Teach with enthusiasm. Set the stage for student discovery. Discovery should be used only when you have enough subject matter mastery to handle unexpected ‘discoveries’.44 8. retention will be increased. Use motivation. . • The rewards inherent in discovering something provide the student with intrinsic motivation. • Some students just seem unable to make intended discovery. Be open to problem as they arise and be willing to learn along with the students. • Students develop the skills and attitudes essential for self-directed learning. Be certain that proper materials and raw data are available. • Most of the present textbooks and materials available to the teacher are written for exposition rather than discovery. Disadvantages • Permitting students to discover their own knowledge is very time consuming. Refrain from interfering with students’ work. • Discovery helps the student learn how to learn. thus equipping the student to handle new problematic situations. Setting up the problem and the conditions for the discovery requires detailed and thorough planning. 10. The depth of information to be handled and the time needed for the discovery must be gauged in terms of the student’s skill level and maturation. either inductive or deductive. • The student often gets bogged down or loses direction before the problem is solved.

repetitious practice is essential to build competence and technique mastery. • Students can build their own association of information through drill. Overused drill is a sure-fire method of dulling cognitive abilities and prompting discipline problems. since both are built on repetition – doing it over and over – drill and practice are used synonymously. Over-practice produces boredom and fatigue. It is a practice closely paralleled by programming a computer. . The aim of drill is the fixation of correct information or skill through repetition. • It can be a means of creating motivation in student tutorial situation. drill is a teaching technique intended to bring about automatic accuracy and speed of performance in any subject. • In skill development. Use drill only when automatic speed and accuracy. ‘what’s 9x9?’ Your response should be ‘81’ instantly without thinking about it. • Overuse of drill can lead students to believe in memorisation as an end. It has nothing to do with elevating mental functioning or making better citizens. Make sure students are practising with correct information or processes. The function of drill is solely to create automatic response to specific stimuli. It means the percentage of class time spent on drill exercises should be minimal.45 Drill Although there are many sub-types. • Drill can reduce learning to a purely mechanical act. Some use the term drill only for the mental ideas and practice for motor activity. • Information acquired through drill will not be retained long without use. Make sure students see the purpose of the drill or practice. Disadvantage • Drill can become boring and monotonous. The teacher should remember that this is the only purpose of drill. Advantages • Drill is especially applicable to psychomotor and low level cognitive learning. or performance learning is the objective. Provide the opportunity for students to apply that which is mastered through drill. Use games and contests to add interest to drill. Football drills in throwing an effective block are designed to teach the player to do it automatically. If you were effectively drilled in multiplication and some one came up behind you and said quickly. However.

Outline the general plan. A successful interviewer rivets his attention to the person being interviewed as if the rest of the world has disappeared. question or problem. Evaluate and report the findings. It is closely related to the survey in that both seek to develop data – one by oral questioning and the other through written response. • It can be used as an individual or total class project. a specific group. question or problem. It teaches students to gather information in a logical and respectful fashion from a most valuable temporary resource – another human being. 4. • Interviewing helps develop rapport between the school and the community. 5. the school. Close the interview. • This is an excellent method for collecting data from individuals and groups. information can be collected quickly regarding an issue or a problem. or the community on an issue of high interest. The interview is especially helpful in practising a one-on-one situation such as a guidance counsellor-student interview or a student-citizen interview on a pre-established question or problem. . and (3) knowing what questions need to be asked to accumulate that information. Record the data. 2. An important facet of interviewing is the attitude of the person conducting the interview. in effect. • Interviews tend to elicit personal opinions and may not be factual. Establish rapport with the respondent. or seeking opinions from high public officials and other select individuals. creates a vacuum. • Through the use of this strategy. Disadvantages • The teacher must spend a substantial amount of time helping students develop questioning techniques. 3.46 Interview The interview is basically a data-gathering technique using pre-planned questions to determine the feelings and attitudes of an individual. It may be used in random sampling of a few people to establish a trend. 6. Elicit a response to the issue. • The class may not be of sufficient maturity to face the obligations required in performing interviews. • It helps bring the pupil face-to-face with community realities. which draws out information from the subject. • Students tend to take sides as an issue rather than remain neutral. Interview is a good strategy. which often disrupts school or administrative routines. The interviewer. Crucial to the success of the interview strategy is presentation in: (1) knowing the background of the interviewee. An interview is performed in a systematic fashion within a few simple guidelines: 1. State the issue. (2) knowing the information desired from the interview. • It is especially useful in collection of information related to community attitudes regarding their personal opinion. • The data is often difficult to interpret and report. Advantage • Interviews encourage students to plan and think in a systematic fashion. • Interviewing requires a co-ordinated effort of all involved.

• Laboratory simulates actual scientific experiments including the formation of hypothesis. . Care must be taken to see that appropriate materials and supplies are available. The approval of the projects must be within the capability of the student. Some structure is definitely necessary if predictable results are desired. • It is difficult to develop projects so that all students have equally challenging activities and experiences. The use of this strategy requires close planning and co-ordination between the teacher and the learner. • Learning may become mechanical and passive. experimentation and research. • Costs may exceed the benefits. testing the hypothesis.47 Laboratory Laboratory is a supervised learning activity carried out by the student studying a particular subject involving practical application of theory through observation. Retention and interest increase with greater frequency and even creative thought is exercised. Relate the results to previously studied material. recording and reporting the findings. • Laboratory is basically a problem-solving technique of short duration. • Individual student may lack the motivation to work alone. • This strategy helps students to learn. Establish time limit for completion of laboratory work. • The maturity of the students may be insufficient to pursue long range goals established. • The activity may be carried out by individual students or in small groups. • Some students may develop a poor estimate of self-esteem if they experience slow progress or failure. Success is determined mostly by teacher preparation and direction appropriate to the learner’s ability. • Unless well organised. • The laboratory strategy may cause the teacher to supervise individuals at the exclusion of the group. Advantages • Students can capitalise on their own interests. it reinforces the discovery and inquiry approaches to learning. If laboratory experiences are not always limited to cookbook experiments they can give students the opportunity to do learning as opposed to reading about other persons’ learning. • The teacher is free to offer individual assistance and instruction to those students needing special attention. it can become wasted time and effort on the part of all concerned. • It is an excellent motivational strategy. Disadvantages • The approved projects must fit the abilities of the student. • As a learning activity. It is important to remember that laboratory learning teaches process as well as production. It requires facilities with flexibility. to generalise and to apply generalisation in new situations. • This method is difficult to apply to all curricula.

48 .

attitudes and their logic or inconsistency. Assure students that you are attempting only to get them to re-think their ideas and that you are not criticising them. The teacher would then enter into a dialogue with the student. • Students often feel threatened when a teacher challenges their ideas. following the argument until the student had thoroughly questioned the answer and gained some insight into the logic used or the attitudes and beliefs held. It is a difficult strategy to master and requires a friendly ‘let’s-look-at-this’ relationship. The Socratic approach was built upon the assumption that the knowledge was within the student and proper questioning and commentary could cause this knowledge to surface.49 Socratic The Socratic Method is a process of discussion led by the teacher to induce the learner to question the validity of his reasoning or to reach a sound conclusion. the teacher would use the Socratic approach when the situation arises. The key to Socratic approach is that the teacher’s comments and questions must unable the students to discover meaning for themselves. • It is difficult to evaluate a student’s learning. it is threatening to the traditional role. Socrates. . Be ready to shift gears if the attempt to use the Socratic approach bogs down. the teacher’s questioning will be viewed as picky and critical by the students. Advantages • The Socratic approach can be used in dealing with higher level cognitive and effective learning. attempted to follow the student’s argument wherever it led. that negating the purpose of the strategy. which could be further pursued. If this atmosphere is not present. do continue to develop skill in using the approach. Begin by using the Socratic approach on a limited basis. However. When evaluating learning. It would be necessary for a student to make a statement. which can only be done by attempting to use it. • While the teacher is in dialogue with one student. values. as teacher. and give credit accordingly. give students the opportunity to show the logic of their viewpoints. The strategy derives its name from the approach used by Socrates as he assumed the role of intellectual midwife. • The degree of involvement on the part of the teacher can motivate the student. • This method gets the student to think about what is said so he can really examine an issue in depth. • Students are challenged in utilising this technique properly. In a typical classroom situation. the other students in the class may lose interest. Start with simple logic and gradually build to the complex. The Socratic strategy enables the teacher to aid the student in examining his own beliefs. preferably on attitudinal statements of students. Disadvantages • It is extremely difficult to formulate the kind of question used in the Socratic approach. • Due to the spontaneous nature of the Socratic approach.

It may be noticed that all the stages of education from primary through secondary right unto the college stage. The entire syllabus is prescribed and the child as well as the teacher is required to follow it rigidly. units and text books. The whole system is under rigid control of administration and there is no freedom at any stage. systematically and neatly organised as lessons. Social interaction has been considered as an important condition for the development of creativity. we lay emphasis on giving the child ready made knowledge. he may be able to make use of this ability and have the satisfaction of having realised his creative talents. In the whole system. in one field or another. as some children prefer to learn by discovering rather than by authority. but it is also true that each child during the period of his growth and development can be trained to think in a creative manner so that. there is hardly any opportunity for the child to develop thinking skill.50 Chapter 7 SUB-STRATEGIES FOR GENERAL USE Creative thinking Creative thinking abilities can be developed to varying degrees among different individuals through a systematically organised programme of instruction. For the development of creative thinking abilities non-authorised ways of learning have to be encouraged. at least to some extent. . • Bring more stimuli into the learning experiences. Developing creativity among children: The environmental conditions that are related to creativity are those which encourage and facilitate openness in thought and action and provide for discovery of new ideas. • Include a variety of learning tasks in the day to day activities. The practical suggestions are as follows: • Develop curiosity and wide interest in intellectual matters at an early age. It is true that we cannot turn each child into a highly creative person.

• Creative learning involves skills of inquiry. The convergent thinking abilities are those which are mainly responsible for dealing with the given information in a logical manner to arrive at a single right answer for any problem. Avoid giving examples when seeking creative efforts. These provide scope for many possible answers. curiosity. • All children to challenge the assumptions underline the ideas presented by the teacher. These questions stimulate freethinking and also more participation of many children. Each will turn out as an activity for further exploration. Teacher may ask more of divergent thinking questions to encourage creativity. the divergent thinking abilities enable the individual to go off in many different directions. It is not always necessary to reward only the expected answers. Evaluation is made after all ideas have been presented. makes guesses. corrects errors and arrives at conclusions. which stimulates exploration and creative thinking. • Encourage children to pursue their hobbies. There are two types of thinking – convergent and divergent. . • Develop sensitiveness to children to the environment. as some students are slow starters. etc. Let not the children feel the necessity for always giving correct answers. An essential element in this method is to have a group focus on a particular problem and then invite the members to give as many ideas as they can think up for possible solutions of that problem. Research findings suggest the following guidelines for teachers to follow: • Pose open-ended divergent questions in the classroom wherever possible.51 • • • • • • • Ask questions that elicit unique or original responses. On the other hand. Allow the child to rethink or explore the correctness of his answer. Develop progressive warm up for creative activities from simple to complex. Let there be learning. Accept and value unique responses when initiated by children. Break the usual set and make it possible for the new ideas to be developed. and inquisitiveness of children that are some of the essential components of creative thinking. Provide time for the full development of an idea. • Take care that a child is not ridiculed by his classmates for his answers to questions posed by you. research and problem solving. tests the guesses. They are found to be popular among creative children. Here the learner raises questions. Provide opportunities for imaginative activities. • Provide as many stimuli and opportunities as possible for expression of ideas that should be continuous and in the areas of interest of children. • Appreciate openly whenever a child expresses creative behaviour like unusual questions. • Use teaching aids judiciously. Let them list out as many problems as possible. • Do not always insist on correct answers. There is a rather freewheeling of ideas and no criticism is allowed. Let not the aid hamper or curb imagination. generating new information from given data and arrived at varied and unusual solutions to problems. taking self-initiated actions. giving unusual ideas. Methods for teaching creativity: One of the methods used is Brain storming.

You may explore your creativity through the following activities (these are only suggestive): Try new ways of teaching the same unit. Suggest and involve yourself in various improvement programmes. Allow children to think and express freely and find facts for themselves wherever possible. Avoid telling everything.52 • • • • • • • Discourage self-criticism. . Try different ways of evaluating students. Give various types of challenging assignments to your students. Do not encourage rote learning or memorisation of facts by children.

Make sure you provide shortterm summarisation to check each group’s progress and understanding. prior to beginning the group activity. verbalising and discussing problems and solutions. • Teach students how to function in a group. working with social and academic outcomes. think about students. . Sometimes co-operative learning groups can deal with activities that take place over a day or week. • Decide if co-operative learning groups are appropriate. The following information suggests ways to establish and implement co-operative learning in your classroom. Co-operative learning promotes higher achievement compared to individual learning. Be certain this strategy is best suited for the content and information to be learned. Gather the materials and collect the resources necessary. Summarise and evaluate students’ progress. Also indicate a level of evaluation and be sure students understand the criteria to be used in evaluating the group’s performance. but not necessarily every day. Seek a balance between gender. and group dynamics. A common arrangement is to use five students in a group.53 Co-operative learning Students in co-operative learning. The size and make up of the learning group will vary according to the activity. ethnicity. Co-operative learning should be used regularly. or solve problems. Usually a group consists of a high achiever. and economic background. Take time to model group behaviour and expectations by having one group in front of the class demonstrate how to maximise learning. learn information. • Assign students with varying abilities in-groups. groups work together to perform tasks. and three middle achievers. It is important to make sure each group has the references and resources necessary to complete the assignment. learning content from each other. It provides teachers and students with a strategy to learn information in a collaborative and interesting way. This strategy involves more than simply assigning students to a group. • Provide necessary materials. When deciding to use co-operative learning. on-task behaviour. a low achiever.

Students must have sufficient materials to select. Help individual students gather. teachers should guide students through inquiry process rather than allowing pure discovery. Set time limits. Use thought provoking questions to encourage students to hypothesise. Explain to students that inquiry is a way they can independently seek information to identify solutions to their problems. • Begin with a question. The inquiry process involves time to form. and conclude results. Plan and communicate the approximate amount of time needed to complete an inquiry. Pose initial questions to organise students’ interests and investigation into a topic or a question. and analyse the information needed for their inquiry. and inquire. and evaluate. generalise. Allow time for students to share their findings with others. Initiate inquiry with a question to help students focus on the topic. • Define the inquiry task. Students should formulate their own questions for investigation. reflect. infer. • Assist students in gathering information. analyse. questions and problems to stimulate student thinking and interests. Initially. The teacher provides structure. organise. The question helps students seek solutions and formulate plans for seeking answers to the question. .54 Inquiry Inquiry relies on activities and resources to encourage finding solutions to questions investigated by students. • Probe students’ thinking.

too. transparencies. .55 Modelling Students learn a great deal through observing and modelling others. Label and describe each aspect of an assignment and what components make an exceptional example. since many times peers can be very effective in helping other students to learn. you do not just tell students information. • Use posters. Point out the important steps and elements necessary to complete an assignment. Let class observe while you and selected students show what is expected and what is needed to complete instructional tasks. Your students can help you. Modelling is a showing technique where you present or demonstrate information. Model group projects and individual tasks with some of your students. These objects will help to make the information visual and tactile to appeal to a variety of senses and learning modalities. • Provide several examples and tell how to arrive at the solutions. you also show them. as in a lecture. In modelling. illustrations and real objects. • Show expectations by doing them. chalkboard.

and make a decision based on reasons. Without alternatives. • Define the decision making process. teachers should allow students to be involved in making decisions. Whenever possible. think about the consequences. identify alternatives. they must identify the choices. In order for students to make a decision. • Identify possible alternatives. Students in the learning process need to have the opportunity to make good choices from several alternatives. is a real life skill and students must be taught the techniques involved in the decision making process.56 Decision-making Decision-making. students need to think about the possible outcome of each particular alternative. . • Identify problems for each alternative. there is no need of a decision. When analysing and thinking about the alternatives. Approaches should incorporate strategies for students to make decisions related to their learning. Help students think of possible alternatives involved in decisions. like problem solving. Students must be taught how to make a decision before we expect them to become proficient in this particular skill.

57 • Make the decision. Implement a plan of action. . students should make decisions. After alternatives and thoughtful analysis of outcomes has been discussed. These decisions are based on the likelihood of the outcomes of the choice that meets their needs and desires. Allow students the opportunity to organise ways to develop an action plan that will support their decision.

2. • Assign homework/class work that is related to the information being taught. reading about a country to be studied and making a list of questions or unfamiliar terms. Practice that gets students ready for new subject matter. When students are asked. These are important for student homework assignments. you have to make two important decisions: 1.58 Homework/Assignment Homework means work that you do at home. for example. making a poster about nutrition showing the concepts and skills learned during a two week unit. Homework is intended to extend teaching and learning outside the classroom. Review activities. spelling words or arithmetic tables. they feel that homework helps them get good marks/grades. Relate homework/class work to the interest and maturity level of the students. Be sure that materials selected create an opportunity for success. . Gauge the reading level and the difficulty level of the material used. 2. To determine what kind of homework. The following categories support appropriate homework assignments: 1. and selfreliance. checking for understanding. • Give clear instructions. Establish a procedure for students to ask questions while they are completing class work. Tell students and write on the chalkboard exactly what they used to do. Modify the amount of information to meet needs. Allow for differences and special needs of students by assigning more time when needed. Preparation activities. Remember your direction giving. Change and alter the content to match student’s level. Students should have the knowledge and skills to do the assignment and should understand clearly how to do it. Practice through repetition. Rehearsal activities. Practice that promotes transfer of what was learned to a new situation or application to other situations. Provide examples and work several problems together. Practice that reviews many skills and concepts and requires students to put them together. Both educators and parents attribute to homework the development of personal responsibilities. • Check difficult level. for example. Integration activities. Use this strategy in moderation as one way to provide practice and indicate the level of understanding. for example. work and study habits. Research has demonstrated a positive relationship between homework and achievement. 4. for example. using measuring skills used in class to measure items at home. To determine how much homework. 3. and providing a purpose. To use this strategy effectively.

No verbal or facial reactions to any suggestion are permitted. Learners are asked to focus only on the problem situation. Once the session begins. . no matter how ‘wild’. The strategy promotes creative thinking by calling forth innovative responses at no psychological cost to the participant. like ‘a storm of the brain. unlike many other instructional strategies. provides learners with a ‘pay off’ for the sorts of creative. 3. This is accomplished by establishing a rigidly enforced ground rule of no public comment or reaction to any idea put forward. An important emphasis in brainstorming is the encouragement of quantity rather than quality of participants’ responses. 5. Brainstorming attempts to break through inhibitions by encouraging public comment of all ideas. divergent thinking. Brainstorming. each learner has to call out his suggestion. will be written down by the teacher for the group to see. The activity must be fast paced. attempts to unleash learners’ untapped reservoirs of thinking talents by encouraging them to pour forth as many ideas as possible that relate to a defined situations. 2.59 Brainstorming The strategy of brainstorming. Brainstorming evolved because of a realisation that people many times fail to tap their creative resources to make public a truly creative response to a problem situation. The specific nature of the product of a given brainstorming session is not nearly as important as the process learners go through in generating that product. Every suggestion. originally developed as an aid to creative problem solving among management teams in corporations.’ 4. The brainstorming strategy moves forward after the teacher has made each of the following points: 1.

require careful planning to insure effective integration of the different aspects of that teaching-learning interaction. The part of your planning for the summary segment of a lesson should be devoted to the preparation of a working chalkboard outline – a valuable summary instrument. The creative dynamic summary can make cosmos out of chaos. they tie up the package in order to maximise the impact of each learning experience. Summaries will generally include a recapitulation of the aim of the lesson in terms of the extent to which it has been achieved.60 Summary Each lesson or a discrete part of a lesson should end with an activity. which leaves the student in possession of a clear. well-phrased statement of exactly what was learned during that time segment. It may also help to set the stage for further investigations. . The purpose of any particular summary depends upon the learning activity that it is intended to complete. All summaries. Another function of the summary is to help students synthesise these ideas and formulate some statements or generalisation about them. Use the summary as a springboard for the next work. Effective summaries help develop an awareness of the essential unity and purpose of what was done. A summary is in order at any point in the lesson where a phase of a learning interaction comes to a logical end. medial or final. research or discussion.

black for most writing and colour for interest only. thus the term. Using it effectively Some guidelines are: • Keep your image simple and readable. • Use a piece of white cardboard to cover all the points or items except the one you are discussing. • You can provide memory practice by projecting a list of words for a short time and then students write all the words they can remember. You can use it to display a study outline for your classroom or to list student ideas. Then you must turn to one or more of a variety of materials. too much information is distracting. or used commercially prepared materials. audio-visual aids.61 Audio-visual aids All learning is multi-sensory in nature and each of your senses – hearing. Most of these substitutes involve sight and hearing more than the other senses. and techniques designed to act as worthwhile but vicarious experiences for your students. • You can share a small number of materials or materials too small to be seen by many students. • You can create suspense or a surprise. Each adds another dimension and makes a unique contribution to the learning process. by projecting it to the whole class. • Check the seating of students for clear vision of the image. a large rupee is drawn to fill the transparency and flashed on the screen. An advantage of using the overhead projector is that it allows you to face the students while teaching and still you can display your writing. You may also write on the transparency while teaching but it takes time and skill. which permit a more effective use of a multisensory approach to learning than just words can provide. Its uses are not limited to any specific area and it is easily transportable. It uses a sheet or a roll of transparent film. . • Turn the projector off when not in use. the noise and light are distracting. equipment. smell and taste – plays a role in formulating your reactions to any stimulus. There are times. Audio-visual aids are devices. There are many different types of materials. Unusual uses Teachers can make use of this stimulus for numerous activities: • Children take turns making shadow figures on the screen and the rest of the class guesses the figure. to begin a unit of profit in an economics class. sight. For example. when such direct experiences are not feasible. • Use a good quality pen for making sheets. touch. Overhead projector The overhead projector projects a written or graphic image on a screen or wall. You can prepare a sheet ahead of time by using a copy machine or writing with a transparency pen.

images are more effective when they are right side up. your students. Another advantage of using this stimulus comes with taking the slides.62 The overhead projector with transparencies offers stimuli to use with lecturing. You and your students will gain insights and appreciation while you photograph your subjects. demonstrating and organising. • Accompany the images with description and questions. Show a small number of slides (3 to 6) in order and out of order. or purchased from commercial producers. Show a beautiful or provocative or inspiring picture as a stimulus for writing or drawing. recording. discussion. Show a slide and ask. and with other stimuli. You can have students handle the projection task and free yourself to lead a discussion to accompany the visual. Slide projector This machine projects pictures with intense images and you can keep the room lights on. places. questioning. • Develop student ability to product. • Review a class project or trip. and fairly simple to use. parents. accessible. An additional advantage comes with your use of pictures of real people. Show slides of students to review information and perceptions. “What is happening here?” or “What may happen next?” • Prompt creative writing. Simple projectors are lightweight. . Using it effectively • Check the placement ahead of time. and happenings. useful for previewing. posing questions. Slides can be taken by you. Using in unusual way • Develop sequence skills. • Check the vision of students seated in different locations around the classroom.

hidden messages. • Use only parts of a programme (the beginning or ending of a story) and have students write or develop the missing section. impressions. • Co-ordinate other learning activities with the programme. and so on. Many programmes are simply more lectures so look for a demonstration or a drama. Using effectively • Discuss with students before and after viewing a television programme (information. Using television to vary your instruction requires that you have a schedule and become familiar with various networks. • Have students plan and produce their own television programme. We can best use our energy to make it work for our teaching. • Check volume and image for students in different locations. • Assign a television programme as homework. and so on).63 Television There are two compelling reasons for consideration of the use of this stimulus. listening. • Eliminate distractions. The first is that television is available in most schools and with a wide selection of quality educational programming. . bias. The second is that your classroom use of television can model some good viewing habits for students. • Watch the programme with students (rather than work at your desk on some task). decision-making. Using in unusual way • Use regular network ads to teach advertising.

Both record players and tape recorders are inexpensive and simple to operate.64 Records and audiotapes Many of us limit our thinking for those stimuli to music. but there are excellent tapes and records for every curriculum area. correspondence with you or other students. • Have the intended starting point positioned on the tape or record ahead of time. and play back for analysis. Using in unusual way • Co-ordinate musical or sound backgrounds with book reports. • Provide background music for a particular learning centre. or progress reports. Using effectively • Check volume for different location of the room. • Have students record their own tapes as journals. • Have student groups record problem-solving or decision-making sessions. historical narratives. self-evaluation. plays or science demonstrations. • Keep electrical cords flush with floor or wall so that you and your students do not trip. .

It means that your students must do more than listen and watch. Your involvement with questions and suggestions will be needed. predict what is happening. Technology has simplified the use of equipment and has advanced the quality of programmes. Using in unusual way • Use the film or tape without sound and ask students to supply the dialogue. or act as an observer on the scene. you can not sit at your desk and catch up on your work. and discussions. They must respond to the tape or film. • Have students make films or tapes to teach other students. Notice that with these unusual uses. • Eliminate distractions. and compare it with the film or tape ending. • Stop the film or tape midway and have students dramatise or role-play the ending. • Use them interactively. record class history. . describe a group project. advance organisers. and you can make that happen with questions. • Have students watch different tapes or films on the same topic and compare information.65 Films and videotapes Both of these have appeal for students and can support learner motivation. present research. Using effectively • Check volume and image for students in different location. or advertise a class programme.

• On an infrequent basis. labels. or questions. • Reserve space for student messages. or vertically. • With tape or other devices. and several colours. and they say what you want them to say. a riddle. Using effectively • Keep your words large enough. news. or use them as you teach. attach pictures and diagrams to the chalkboard with written descriptions. You can prepare them ahead of time. They do not need a bulb or an electrical outlet. Using in unusual way • Use coloured chalk occasionally to highlight or underline main ideas. and announcements are all appropriate for chalkboard display. dark or white enough. We have also seen teachers use a block of chalkboard space for a Thought for the day. You can move around as you teach. • Avoid filling the board with so much writing that students get confused. Reminders. Chalkboards offer generous amounts of space on which to write and are often located in several sides of the classroom. assignments and due dates. directions. When you combine chalkboards with other stimuli. or to border information. in a circle. a coded message. A daily or class schedule on the chalkboard is useful to you and your students. shapes. your teaching will be varied and will capture student attention. write your message backwards. etc. and clear enough to be seen in location around the classroom.66 Chalkboards Chalkboards are everywhere and they come in all sizes. . • Protect the writing surface with proper cleaning and the appropriate writing materials.

places. With student involvement. . rather than just how it looks. and not connected to curriculum. teacher. • Each student is assigned a portion of a bulletin board to display what happening in his or her life. and so on. We experience aesthetically arranged displays that are just the part of the wall. and following the third guideline will help you keep your bulletin boards up to date. never discussed by students. parent. and you hear teachers complain if they do.67 Bulletin boards Bulletin boards come in different sizes and shapes. You hear teachers complain if they do not have one. The intent of these stimuli is to contribute to teaching. We want to emphasise the first guide line with a reminder that we are talking about varying the stimuli in teaching. times of year. bulletin boards can change from being a responsibility for you to an exciting way to vary the stimuli. Like chalkboards. and people for student guesses or predictions. bulletin boards offer ease of use and accessibility. never referred to in teaching. Using in unusual way • Students construct a bulletin board display of what they learned from a unit or course. • Involve students in planning and producing displays. Using effectively • Concern yourself with what your bulletin board says and does. • You construct a bulletin board related to future curriculum of unknown objects. • You and your students construct a bulletin board to communicate appreciation or honour to a student. connected to the theme of study. • Keep the display up to date that is. volunteer. The second guideline won’t be a worry if your bulletin board is connected to your curriculum. or administrator.

A less recognised advantage is the computer’s ability to free the teacher to give more personal attention to students. and give immediate feedback. Teachers and schools have another important need for computers. most simulations involve the learner in problem solving.68 Computers The popularity of microcomputers in education has had an irreversible impact on schools. and creating. . skill or attitude. In all secondary and middle-level subjects in all class levels there seems to be some information that is basic to the mastery of each discipline. making what is really combination programmes – tutorial-drill-and-practice or tutorialsimulation combinations. • Simulated experiences for application of knowledge and skill. Simulation This is also true for simulation programmes. practices. and they can be used to improve a teacher’s current mode of instruction. For example. The range of computer use in all fields. Computer assisted instruction (CAI) Computer assisted instruction (CAI) links the student directly to the material to be learned via the computer. Tutorial programmes can involve drill and practice or simulation. is limited only by the creative limitation of the mind. problem solving. Drill and practice is an effective approach for learning at this level of knowledge. There are various levels of involvement. Computers have become less expensive and more versatile. The computer can give questions. score the answers. The involvement itself has a motivating effect. The student is actively involved in the learning process. including education. or they can use computers as tutors. Tutorial One of the first applications of computers to education was a tutorial programme that used simulations. assessments. depending upon the type of CAI programme used. Teachers can use computers to manage instruction. Students have the opportunity to live out roles and find solutions to often-complex problems. • Opportunity for collaboration on problems. Drill and Practice At the lowest level. and progress. the computer behaves much like the early teacher. simulation. a need relates to the computer’s increasing potential. Expectations from computers as stimuli As stimuli. you can expect computers to provide: • Opportunity for practice. The computer can be used to expand the types of instruction students receive. • Individual assessment of student knowledge. and challenges. who lectured and then had students recite the material in the same form. Today’s teachers must be prepared to use computers in the classroom. • Record keeping of student work. While simulations can be used simply to provide examples to reinforce memorisation. the computer can be used for drill and practice.

• Connect computer use to whole class or small group instruction. and encourage student evaluation.69 Guidelines for using computers as stimuli: • Assure each student equitable access to equipment. • Plan for social interaction in computer use with pair assignments and tutor teams. • Preview and critique software your self. .

70 Chapter 8 STRATEGIES FOR SPECIAL LEARNERS The slow learner Contrary to common belief. If this variation is not part of your lesson. co-operative games. workbooks. their difficulty in comprehending abstract ideas. frequent feedback. simulations). workbooks. The student commonly called a slow learner is one who cannot learn at an average rate from the instructional resources. Whether you meet slow learners in a regular class or special class. competitive). Compensatory teaching recognises content. their sometimes unsystematic and careless work habits. or 2) a class specially designed for slow learners. To keep these students actively engaged in the learning process requires more than the usual variation in presentation methods (direct. indirect). classroom climate (co-operative. Their most obvious characteristic is a limited attention span compared to more able students. texts. corrective instruction. Other immediately noticeable characteristics of slow learners are their deficiencies in basic skills (reading. Compensatory teaching Compensatory teaching is an instructional approach that alters the presentation of content to circumvent a student’s fundamental weakness or deficiency. these students may well create their own variety in ways that disrupt your teaching. and mathematics). slow learners in the regular classroom are neither rare nor unique. transmits through alternate modalities (pictures versus . Slow learners are usually taught in one of two possible instructional arrangements: 1) a class composed mostly of average students. writing. you will immediately feel the challenge of meeting their learning needs. and/or modified materials. all administered under conditions sufficiently flexible for learning to occur. and instructional materials (films. These students need special instructional pacing. and most disconcerting. in which case up to 20% may be slow learners. and learning materials that are designed for the majority of students in the classroom.

jobs. This may involve modifying an instructional technique by including a visual representation of content. One common characteristic among slow learners is that they often learn better by seeing and hearing than by reading. Frequently vary your instructional technique. Conventional instructional techniques such as drill and practice might be employed. illustrations). group discussions and co-operative learning). Incorporate audio and visual materials. these students should be made to feel that some of the instruction has been designed with their specific interests or experiences in mind. The instructional environment does not change. variety in instructional technique offers them the opportunity to see the same content presented in different ways. Oral or written autobiographies at the beginning of the year. as in the compensatory approach.71 words). Slow learners respond favourably to frequent reinforcement of small segments of learning. and unusual trips or experiences can provide the structure for the lesson plans. videotapes. programmed texts and interactive computer instruction often are effective in remediation of basic skills of slow learners. often is particularly effective. because performance in basic skill areas. Therefore. or by shifting to alternate instructional formats (self-paced texts. Instructional strategies for slow learners While no single technique or set of techniques is sufficient teaching the slow learner. or simple inventories in which students indicate their hobbies. simulations. experienceoriented workbooks). the suggestions that follow are a starting point for developing instructional strategies that specifically address the learning needs of the slow learner. For example deficiencies in basic math skills are reduced or eliminated by re-teaching the content that was not learned earlier. pictures. Develop lessons around students’ interests. This increases opportunities to accommodate the different learning styles that may exist among slow learners and provides some of the remediation that may be necessary. techniques and practices to eliminate weaknesses or deficiencies that the slow learner is known to have. and audio into lessons helps accommodate the instruction to the strategies learning modalities among . paired with immediate corrective instruction. Switching from lecture to discussion and then to seatwork provides the variety that slow learners need to stay engaged in the learning process. In addition to keeping their attention. special projects. and supplements it with additional learning resources and activities (learning centres and simulations. Incorporating films. and experiences. Remedial teaching This is an alternate approach for the regular classroom teacher in instructing the slow learner. by using more flexible instructional presentations (films. Remedial teaching is the use of activities. Incorporate individualised learning materials. needs. Also. This helps address the short attention spans of slow learners. including reading usually is below grade level among slow learners. In addition. This should be no surprise. or extra-credit assignments in the year. an emphasis on frequent diagnostic assessment of the student progress.

Sometimes only some changes in worksheets and exercises are needed to adapt the vocabulary or difficulty level to the ability of your slow learners. The gifted and/or talented learners A student who reads rapidly. Unless your slow learners are actively engaged in the learning process through interesting concrete visual stimuli. because his or her pride is on the line. comprehends quickly. is imaginative and creative. directed and fully developed. both as a learner and as a tutor. when written for the average student often exceed the functioning level of the slow learner and sometimes become more of a hindrance than an aid. many writing assignments go un-attempted or are begun only half-heartedly because these learners recognise that their written product will not meet even minimal writing standards. has an exceptional memory. They also eliminate irrelevant details that slow learners often laboriously study in the belief that they are important. content. or issues. The slow learner usually is unable to weigh the relative importance of competing instructional stimuli unless explicitly told or shown what is important and what is not. Peer tutoring can be an effective ally to your teaching objectives. Example: test questions or a list of topics from which questions may be chosen help focus student effort. or are too different from topics that capture your students’ interests. gifted and talented. ha s along attention spans. Awareness is growing that gifted and talented students are an important natural resource that must be encouraged. outlining. This has the advantage of avoiding spelling. develop your own. Encourage oral expression instead of written reports. and is comfortable with abstract ideas is described as bright. For slow learners. and listening. activated. This contact can be attained most easily when you vary your instructional material often and organise it into bits small enough to ensure moderate-to-high rates of success. When testing provide study aids. especially when tutors are assigned so that everyone being tutored also has responsibility for being a tutor. You can increase learning skills by teaching notetaking. Innovative learning skills. but they must be specifically taught to slow learners. Emphasising concrete and visual forms of content also helps compensate for the general difficulty slow learners have in grasping abstract ideas and concepts. Also. exceptional. Develop your own worksheets and exercises. Provide peer tutors for students needing remediation. A carefully organised taped response to an assignment might be considered. When textbook materials are too difficult. These skills are acquired through observation by higher ability students. Study aids are advances organisers that alert students to the most important problems. and writing errors. Textbooks and workbooks. Teaching the . using textbooks and exercises intended for a lower grade could ease the burden of creating materials that are unavailable at your grade level. syntax. there will be little contact emotionally and intellectually with the content you are presenting.72 slow learners. The learner needing help is not singled out and has a stake in making the idea work.

reading comprehension. and science. The significance of this addition is that not all gifted learners are talented. gifted but not talented. you should be aware of the learning needs of this special learner. Task persistence Behaviours teachers look for in determining task persistence include:  Ability to devise organised approaches to learning  Ability to concentrate on detail  Self-imposed high standards  Persistence in achieving personal goals  Willing to evaluate own performance. can mean talented but not gifted. Some observable signs of creativity in a learner include:  Applying abstract principles of the solution of the problems  Being curious and inquisitive  Giving uncommon or unusual responses  Showing imagination  Posing original solutions to problems  Discriminating between major and minor events  Seeing relationships among dissimilar objects. In addition to intelligence and achievement. Sometimes IQ is not considered at all in determining giftedness. because giftedness almost always is defined in conjunction with at least several other behaviours. An IQ score of about 130 or higher generally makes one eligible for gifted instruction. Foremost among the characteristics of giftedness is general intelligence. or both gifted and talented. Among other behaviours frequently used to determine giftedness is the learner’s achievement. Creativity. and capable of doing so • • • . which cover areas such as math. However. usually in the areas for which gifted instruction is being considered. which is widely used. It is not uncommon to accept scores below 130 as eligible for gifted instruction. Achievement is measured by yearly-standardised test. Because creative behaviours generally are considered in selecting gifted students. nor are all talented learners are gifted.73 gifted remains an important objective of virtually of every school and. in which case the learner must exhibit unusual ability on one or more other areas. vocabulary. in practice. The phrase gifted and talented. Inclusion of this behavioural dimension has broadened the definition of this type of learner to include both the gifted and the talented. therefore. mostly gifted with some talent. A cut off percentile of 90 means that a learner is eligible for gifted instruction if his or her score on the appropriate sub-scale of a standardised achievement test is higher than the score of 90% of all those who took the test. The following are some of the most important behavioural ingredients from which a definition of gifted is likely to be composed: • Intelligence. admission to gifted programmes and classes usually far less restrictive. mostly talented with some giftedness. this type of learner more appropriately might be called gifted and/or talented. Achievement. indices of creativity often are considered in selecting gifted learners. social sciences.

materials. teams and debates are among the ways you can start interactions among students. Gifted students are among those most capable of picking up ideas from others and creating from them new and unusual variations. Perhaps more than any other learners. you will be making them participants in the design of their own learning. which may be any regional language. the gifted both are capable of and enjoy the freedom to independently explore issues and ideas that concern them. Instructional strategies for gifted and talented learners There are several methods for teaching the gifted that must be taught among regular students. references. When carefully organised. knowledge. this can create a ‘snowballing’ of ideas that can turn initially rough ideas about a problem into polished and elegant solutions. prove. and skills. Include real-life problems that require problem solving. Brain storming sessions. hypothesise. The bilingual learner Bilingual education refers to a mix of introduction in two languages. criticise. This means teaching skills and words in English as well as in another language. through the regional language the .g. to put together the known facts into something new. infer. Asking your gifted students to explain. In testing. peer interviews. Ask them pointed questions that do not have really available answers.74   Sense of responsibilities High level of energy. but to teach concepts. Choose learning activities to allow freedom and include interests. Give them this opportunity by posing a challenging problem and organising data (e. while at the same time giving the student extra motivation often required to pursue a topic in much greater depth than would be expected of an average student. The following suggestions are starting points for managing and teaching the gifted and talented learner. and to judge the outcome of their own inquiry are useful means of separating ‘slick’ responses from meaningful answers. judge. and documents) that they must screen for relevance. This will force them to place newly acquired knowledge and understandings in a practical perspective and to increase the problem solving challenge. particularly in academic tasks. analyse. Occasionally plan instruction involving group activities. The primary goal of bilingual education is not to teach English as a second language. panels. and dispute are means of indicating that more than a verbally fluent response is required. Pose challenging problems. draw out knowledge and understanding. compare. By letting them pursue and investigate some topics of their own choosing and construct their own meanings and interpretations. group discussion. justify. contrast. self-directed learning methods often predominate among teachers of the gifted. This encourages independent thinking. Because gifted students tend to take greater responsibility for their own learning than do average students. Let your gifted students become actual investigators in solving world-dilemmas in your content area. adopt. Focus the problem so the learner must make key decisions about what is important for a solution. Use tests and questions that make the student go beyond knowing and remembering facts. Asking your students to explain the reason behind their answers.

the regular classroom teacher should encourage and sometimes expect these learners to respond. For example. but they can place these cues in context. The restoration approach attempts to restore the regional language and culture of the bilingual student to its purest and most original form. Other forms of communication include the visual. and illustrations to supplement teaching objectives wherever possible. emphasise other communication. You have seen the importance of the visual mode in teaching the slow learner. the direct presentation of instructional material. Four approaches to bilingual education Transition approach. The classroom teacher should discourage mixing regional language and English phrases when they occur in the context of expressing the same idea or thought. Especially for those lacking almost any proficiency in English. The maintenance approach. and are most accustomed to. but expressions that are half English and half-regional language are to be discouraged. Instructional strategies for bilingual learners If you do not speak regional language. and write in English. in addition to encouraging English language proficiency. Enrichment approach. repetition of material (particularly drill and practice) generally is superior to more conceptual presentations that emphasise perspective. in which the learner is less proficient. Such learners have come to be called balanced bilinguals to emphasise that their proficiency is limited neither in English nor in regional language. Maintenance approach. and tactile modalities. However in addition to this goal. read. Pictures can not take place of auditory cues. The goal is to help learners truly bilingual – to become fluent in both languages. Like the transmission approach. the goal of enrichment is movement from regional language to English competence in the shortest time possible. Use direct instruction. Be alert to cultural differences. Your awareness of cultural differences can be extremely important to successful communication.75 learners knows the best and then to reinforce this information through the second language (English). graphs. Use pictures. kinaesthetic. the “look and say” approach to reading is more effective than the phonetic approach during the initial stages of reading instruction. making them easier to recognise in relation an illustration or picture. Restoration approach. and it is no less important with bilingual learner. The teacher using the transition approach first discerns the level of English proficiency of the learner and then expects the learner to function in English at or slightly above this level. The transition approach uses learners’ regional language and culture only to the extent necessary for them to learn English. In other words. justification. regional culture and heritage also are emphasised. and rationale. Learners are taught reading or writing in their regional language. endorses the idea that learners also should become proficient in their regional language. Most bilingual learners learn best from. In the transition approach. expressions that are expressed alternatively and fully in both English and regional language may be encouraged. There is no substitute for .

 Proficiency level in the dominant language. you may find a regional language version of comparable content. Carefully evaluate reading level and format of materials.  Past achievement levels in the area relevant to your instruction.  Dominant language in the expressive mode (i. potentially avoiding weeks and even months of failing to communicate – not knowing it. even if you have little understanding of their language. It is not unusual to initially select verbal material several grades below the level you are teaching.76 understanding the culture of students you are teaching. Notice whether the objects pictured will be familiar to the learners or whether they are specific to the Anglo audience for whom the materials may have been written. writing). and working as a team potentially are useful instructional strategies for these students.e. After a suitable trial. Know your learners’ language ability and achievement levels. While selecting or adapting materials. From school records. listening. This in turn suggests the value of co-operative classroom climate. sharing of assignments. If you are not fluent in that language. The merits that group work. The information is invaluable in selecting special materials and determining the best level and manner to begin the instruction. have someone who is fluent evaluate the difficulty level of the material. but the reading level and format may not benefit your learners. Material with illustrations and pictures is better than concentrated prose. talking. reading). find out for each learner:  Dominant language in the receptive mode (i. evaluate the materials again and adjust the reading level accordingly. They appreciate the co-operation of group achievement more than the competitive aspects of individual achievement. .e. Knowing your learners ability and achievement levels makes your initial instructional contact far more effective.

illustrations. to a great extent. To be clear in the classroom.  Knows the ability level of learners and teaches to those levels. and student success.77 Chapter 9 EFFECTIVE TEACHING IN A CLASSROOM Effective teaching Teaching is an effective task a teacher does in the classroom. To have instructional variety in the classroom. How efficiently one teaches. engagement in learning. the effective teacher:  Uses attention-gaining devices. 2.  Provides a review or summary at the end of each lesson.  Gives directions slowly and distinctly. The effective teacher employs five key behaviours: lesson clarity. and demonstrations to explain and clarify text and workbook content. task orientation.  Provides learners with advance organisers. 1.  Uses examples. Teaching constitutes activities deliberately planned and performed. the success of students at schooling and to some extent their success in life. the effective teacher:  Informs learners of the objective. determines.  Checks for task-relevant prior learning and re-teaches if necessary. instructional variety. .

Uses student ideas. Mixes rewards and reinforces.  Stops or prevents misbehaviour with a minimum of class disruption. Most of the teachers are not systematic in planning and carrying out instruction.  Corrects partial-correct. involves achievement of learning objectives by students and involves transaction between teacher and student. 5. 3.  Provides opportunities for feedback in a non-evaluative atmosphere. Defects in teaching • • • • • • Most of the time. Varies mode of presentation. To establish moderate-to-high rates of success in the classroom.  Changes instructional stimuli gradually. A very low percentage of teacher’s time in the classroom is used for making encouraging remarks.  Varies the instructional pace or tempo to create momentum. and incorrect-answers. 4. To be task-oriented in the classroom.78      Shows enthusiasm. Teachers spend more time in giving information and less on clarifying ideas and still less time on giving explanations. Varies types of questions and probes. During classroom interaction teachers tend to promote mostly wrote learning requiring memory level thinking. Teaching constitutes activities deliberately planned and performed. To engage students in the learning process.  Establishes cycles of review. Less than 10% of time of teacher’s talk is devoted to teacher’s questioning. feedback and testing. the effective teacher:  Develops unit and lesson plans that reflect the curriculum.  Selects the most appropriate instructional model for the objectives being taught. the effective teacher:  Elicits the desired behaviour. correct-but-hesitant.  Uses group and individual activities as motivational aids when necessary. in the classroom. .  Monitors seatwork and checks for practice. the effective teacher:  Establishes unit and lesson content that reflects prior learning.  Uses meaningful praise. Teaching is said to be effective ONLY if the intended objectives are achieved.  Handles administrative and clerical interruptions efficiently.  Divides instructional stimuli into bite-sized pieces that are at the learners’ current level of functioning. is devoted to teacher’s talk and students get very little opportunity to express themselves.

• To maintain good interpersonal relationship. • To be receptive to new ideas and practices. emotional climate promotes better student’s achievement. • To involve in academic and professional discussions and programmes. • Encourage each student to express freely without fear of being criticised by others. • Avoid dominance by some students and encourage non-participating students to talk. peer tutoring and co-operative teaching. • To improve educational and professional qualifications. • To be realistic in your ambitions and aspirations. • To understand student’s misconceptions of what you intend to teach. • To create an open organisational climate. • Warm supportive. • To adjust your teaching to suit the classroom factors. etc. • To develop healthy attitudes towards profession. Active participation of students: Active participation of students stimulates the teaching--learning process. • To cultivate intellectual capabilities. • You may ask each student to write their answers and share and compare it with neighbours. • Allow adequate time for student to think and answer. • To practice what you preach to develop good values in students. • To help them to resolve their problems. • Reduce your talk in the class to allow for greater student participation. • To be democratic as well as assertive. • To develop liking for your students. • To develop your own instructional material. • Identify strength of different students and make use of them for designating different tasks in-group work. • Allow for mutual reactions to each other’s answers. etc. • To improve your study habits related to profession. . active participation of students. • To avoid acting out your emotions. • To make use of library.79 How to make teaching more effective: • To use suitable teaching methods like conducting small group activities. brain storming. The following teaching behaviours are likely to enhance student participation: • Try to seek students’ responses and opinions from all the students. • To be dominated by sense of duty. books. • To make use of proper instructional materials like audio-visual aids. • To observe students in different context. • Use of varying stimuli in the class stimulates student’s motivation. • To experiment and explore new methods of teaching.

Ensure all students attend to your question. Give chances to all students to answer. Use of more of Why and How questions so that students respond by reasoning or thinking and not out of memory. Ask both fact questions as well as higher cognitive questions to serve your objectives to best advantage. Tell the students whether he is right or wrong and encourage to motivate them to give correct answer . All other level questions are considered as of higher order. Plan higher cognitive questions. Rephrase the question if it is not understood Encourage students to take some time to think and construct the answer.80 The type of questions relate to effective teaching: • • • • • • • • • • Both simple and more complex questions can be formulated at each level depending on quantity and complexity of the information to be processed. Memory level questions are termed as factual or lower order questions. which are simple to the low ability students.

Therefore. In the classroom where there is much “share and tell”. The teacher is either helping pupils or the pupils are helping him to do a worthwhile activity. “think and do”. The effective teacher is the one who sometimes sees himself in his students. Ideally. and by constant thinking of their emotional responses. healthy environment for learning. and who knows when it is time to be sympathetic with a pupil. as one who can maintain rapport with his students. Adults gain emotional control by reconditioning. the teacher is able to see his pupils as co-workers on some problems. The ideal helping relationship is one in which the pupil finds it difficult to determine whether he was directed or guided into a learning situation. Some of the important roles are:  The modern teacher is a helping teacher. training.  The teacher’s emotional maturity. curriculum reforms. Today’s classroom is a far cry from that of only ten years ago. he simply finds himself busily engaging in a situation and enjoying its offerings. The classroom teacher is well on the way to emotional maturity when he can make a reasonably sound inventory of what he is doing to safe guard his emotional health and what he should do plus what he can learn to do. The following questions are given to help the classroom teacher develop better judgement and emotional calmness in analysing his own personal emotional adjustment: . Basically teaching is a relationship. --balanced off with an equitable amount of “work and play”. who understands how a pupil feels. “give and take”. and heterogeneous classrooms are but few of the factors changing the face of our schools and creating special challenges for our teachers. and this rate of change is unlikely to subside soon. Some of the time for teaching is dedicated toward instructing children in ways to better help each other. Microcomputers. then there is more likely to be found the ideal. a teacher is just like an actor who has to play many roles. competency testing.81 Chapter 10 ROLE OF THE TEACHER There are many changes occurring daily in our classroom and in the practice of teaching.

82  Do you feel resentful when a child catches you in a mistake?  When the class is difficult to manage. and the like if ideas are to become mobile and challenging to the learner. Far too often teachers teach as they have been taught. All educators must recognise that education is an internal process. The teacher should be a selector of methods. An interested pupil cares little about the time or effort that is needed to learn if the desire is there. in a sense. that of studying the uniqueness of the class and making judgements as to how class members may best learn. To ensure interest and to literally captivate his pupils. • The teacher should be an actor. do you lose your temper and search out opportunity to make them look ridiculous?  Can you feel at ease when a visitor comes to the room to observe your work?  Are you able to control your actions and expressions when children become excited and can not sit still?  Can you hold your own with those members of your faculty who tend to “razz” you by inferring that you are always trying to be in the limelight when actually you are seeking to improve the status of the school? To effectively guide children. do you “fly off the handle?”  Do you laugh unusually hard before the class when a ridiculous error in conversation is made by a child. but it is beyond his powers of realisation?  Can you laugh at jokes. an important professional prerogative. sensationalisation. or emotionalisation. The role of the teacher is obvious. the teacher must first recognise and satisfy certain of her own needs in socially and psychologically acceptable ways most of the time. • . which you have selected to fit the sense of humour of that particular class level?  Do you feel the urge to strike out at children by talking loudly when correcting the child who has not followed directions?  When someone is making fun of you. necessary school activities?  Are you quite irritated when someone challenges your teaching techniques?  When children misquote or contradict you. The teacher who consistently follows such a practice surrenders. If the children are shown the “sense” of subject matter. they usually will show interest in it. the teacher should present the subject matter through such means as dramatisation. in planning for every lesson or unit of work due thought should be given to selecting procedures. do you lose your temper and display it by shouting or showing things around?  Do you seek to find fault with children rather than to look for their good qualities?  Do you have periods of spirits and allow your teaching to suffer because of that?  Do you have strong feelings of inadequacy when a teacher across the class makes improvement with children in areas in which you would like to succeed?  Are you easily upset when the regular classroom scheduled has been changed because of unforeseen. which seem most conducive to the sought learning. Though this can result in effective teaching procedures it seems more likely that such practice will propagate boring and repetitive classroom work.

are:  On the bases of my evaluative instruments and means of measurement. Unique procedures. The teacher as a producer of method. Innovative or unique procedures are justified if they contribute in a better way in the learning goals. which can hardly be classified into the classic categories discussed earlier.83 • The teacher should be a researcher. Teachers. Teachers in the present day are encouraged and supported in conducting classroom research. through their own ingenuity are encouraged to continue to devise new and better means of teaching for the important learning goals. These procedures can easily be related to a combination of the categorical labels. are not defensible. which have no beneficial effect other than the fact that they are “fun” procedures or simply “different”. is most promising as a means of improvement. and create. the teacher of middle classes children might study the effectiveness of two approaches using two classes. How well children have learned contains an implicit assessment of the teacher’s choice of method. which the teacher should ask herself. and the evaluative results of previous teaching should enter into such study. inefficiency in the use of time and imbalance in the value given to the various learning may result. In science. The teacher as an evaluator of his own method. The teacher who consistently uses and believes in the assign-study-recite-test procedure may be moved toward a variety of approaches if he carefully compares the results of this procedure with another combination such as lecture-demonstration-discussion-application procedure. An obvious professional task of the teacher. The major questions. Creativity in teaching. in short they make method. the selection of method is one that should be undertaken on the basis of a continuing study of the classroom situation. The study of the most effective procedures is one of the most fruitful areas for such research. have children met the lesson goals satisfactorily?  Do the children exhibit real insight as a result of the lesson in addition to the usual residual facts?  Did the teaching approach used arouse the response from the total range of the class rather than one ability level?  Were children brought to the point where they asked intelligent questions about the teaching topic?  Can most children in my class explain or demonstrate the major concepts of the lesson?  Just how important were this lesson and its goals to the child’s current needs and to his future needs? • • . for example. The effectiveness of method is evaluated when the learning progress of children is evaluated. Teachers use a myriad of procedures. a consideration of the children in the class. It is doubtful if most teachers carefully weigh the effect of method in examining the quality and extent of what children learned. It would seem wise not only for a teacher to examine the degree to which children have learned but to also evaluate by asking certain questions of an introspective nature. innovate. just as in other vocations and professions. If two classes are not available two major topics could be taught using different approaches but using only one class. If method is not evaluated. As a minimum. One fact is apparent that teachers improvise. which deal with the choice of method.

it is conceivable that the act might need to be altered relative to the rapidity of presentation. A wiser approach would be to plan a few “mental stops” along the path of the lesson not only to find out where children are having successes or failures. aids. etc. All verbalisation has some effect (good or bad) upon the learning act. but to look at the techniques being applied by the teacher and/or pupils. the learner is freer to try out all ideas to determine their power and value. a pupil and his peers. It also affects the child’s processes of thinking. which are concept formation. Thinking and cognitive task: The teacher lays the foundation for skill development. Planning for classroom dialogue: The classroom discussion period is made up of short. By using the “open ended’ types of discussion and question-asking procedures. The teacher’s primary role during the conduct of classroom dialogue is to create a free and open discussion that stimulates and sustain of thought on the part of all class members.. drawings. quite likely some children will be enabled to use them to examine their own ideas and to test them against available data at a future date. What one says and what he actually does may be two entirely . These episodes occur between teacher and pupils. he is in a good position to compare the progress of his youngsters to the rate at which information should be unfolded. The teacher and his non-verbal acts: Teachers must become more concerned with their non-verbal behaviours during the classroom episodes.84  Was the time spent on this work commensurate with the value of the sought learning?  Were the concepts of the lesson presented only in a verbal abstract setting?  Did any devices. simple verbal episodes. If the techniques are planned under surveillance. He must become fully acquainted with the three dimensions of the teachinglearning process. interpretation of data. It provides a system into which data and information can be organised. difficulty of concepts or the setting into which it has now fallen. Upon establishing where children are in learning as compared to the teaching act. or. Thus the teacher is tuned to where children are at a given moment in the learning act and he can predict where they should be in a few minutes if he keeps at the same goal and rate of instructing. which will be called upon time and time again. used contribute to learning? Which one did and which one did not?  Did the children have ample opportunity to apply major concepts they learned?  If I taught this same lesson tomorrow for the first time how would I alter my procedures?  Were there parts of the lesson or uses of aids that were an obvious waste of time?  Is it possible to accomplish this same teaching with less time and effort?  Did I vary the procedure in this or other lessons significantly from the procedure I typically use? Teacher as a cognitive functionary. and application of principles. If a teacher can form a mental image of the dimensions of the teaching process being utilised during an on-going lesson.

The teacher will be a new type of diagnostician. The machine being programmed to sort out common errors and to indicate the steps necessary to remedy one’s work. “Now that I know what he is eager to learn. which be mastered. and the like will increase curriculum change immensely. It is he who will provide the initial stages of instruction in which the child will learn to use the coding and indexing systems. Skilled designers and . where can I best help him go to find the resources—the people. Role of the teacher in future The right for every child to learn is the goal set for the 21 st century. must nurture those talents. Obviously the teacher will be a director of learning—but in the setting of complete individualisation of a pupil’s personalised instructional programme. The learning environment. It will be a common thing to find children locating their own problems of academic origin by feeding information into computers to determine the progress made on a problem up to a given point. -knowingly or unknowingly. thereby enabling that child to direct much of his own study through computerised tools. This will not be the case in future. “What do you want from school? What do you want to learn? What are you curious about? What problems in society concern you? How do you want to change yourself? How will you know when you have made your life better?” If a teacher can obtain answers to the questions he can then safely ask himself. the textbooks as well as the wisdom and knowledge in myself—which will help him learn in ways that will provide relevant answers to the things that concern him? It means that they acquire the role of facilitator more than teacher does. • A diagnostician. Planetariums. computers. • A master of a vast of complex of learning tools. the experiences. likewise.85 different things. fully equipped videotape machines. With present diagnostic procedures it sometime takes months to find out the pupil’s problems and to plan accordingly. On the basis of vast knowledge of child growth and development plus his professional expertise in using group processes and other psychological means as yet undeveloped. again using tools of measurement. the functions of the teacher in future will be: • A human relations expert—a facilitator of learning. not of himself but of his pupils. The implementation of a personalised programme of instruction will spring from selected findings derived from diagnostic information. the learning facilities. Media will become more important than ever in the curriculum of the future. What now takes months to accomplish will be completed in a matter of minutes. what one wishes to “get across” during the learning episodes is often hindered by non-verbal expressions made by the teacher. To meet this goal schools must offer a range of learning options commensurate with the unknown range of pupil talents. To put it another way. which are now in their infancy. The teacher should strive for greater congruency between what he personifies overtly and what he believes internally. The teacher of the future will more likely query. Therefore. he will guide children in their interactions. complete photographic studios.

Of significance.86 technicians can develop and co-ordinate the learning programmes. The future teacher will be a master at developing programmes that build an enduring peace. The community will become the living classroom. but it will be teachers who decide what the programmes should be. television. the teacher will serve as the link between programmes and pupils. lectures. will rid the world of racial and regional discrimination. demonstrations. • A master at developing programmes. He will be actively involved in reducing poverty-stricken areas. and he will guide the child to that sequence of programmes. which best meets his assessed needs. . etc. --films. and. too..

Hoffman. Lari. Stall. Chester. Collis. Simulation Games. Burton. Abraham. Simulation Games in Learning. Jones. Dunn. Randall. Joyce and Weils. Models of Teaching. Teaching Machines and Programmed Learning. Robert. Joyce. Hyman. Media and Methods. Peterson. Creativity and Intelligence. Ways of Teaching.. Henry. BrownJames. Philip Jackson. Bronell. Glenn. The Discovery of Teaching. Curriculum. How Teachers Taught. Sarane. How to Direct a Simulation. Developing questioning Techniques. Johnson. Computers. Joyce. and Wholeclass Instruction. Fisk.Theory into Practice Bloom.. Gregg and Tipple. Marsh Weil. Lindgren. Thought Processes in Lectures and Discussion. Glaser. Gagne. Learning Centres. Teaching Machines and Programmed Learning. Bruce. Robert. The Psychology of Teaching Methods. William. AV Instruction. Harcleroad. Practical Approaches to Individalising Instruction. Livingstone. Gordon. The Guidance of Learning Activities. Glaser. Models of Teaching. Cuban. Clark. Henson. Kaplan. Small-group Discussion in Orientation and Teaching. Theory into Practice. Discovery Teaching from Socrates to Modernity. Role-playing Methods in the Classroom. Schild. Cole. Questioning and Creative Thinking. Increasing your Teaching Effectiveness. Samual. Mildred. Fennema. Technology. Chaudhari. Rita and Kenneth Dunn. Bibens. William. Heyman. Fox and Robert. Maslow. Getzels. Audiovisual Methods in Teaching. Leonard. Dale. Teaching Methods. Jacob. Mark. Brembeck. Hunger and Russel. Simulation and games. Learning and Instruction. Teaching Strategies and Classroom . Simulation and Curriculum. Learning how to learn. and Starr. Lewis. The Conduct of Inquiry. Boocock.87 REFERENCES Berliner and Gage. Plutchic. Effective Teachers for Boys and Girls. Carin and Sund. Facts and Feelings in the Classroom. Richard. Benjamin. Secondary School Teaching Methods. McCloskey.

Handbook of Research on Teaching. Blanche and Nelson. Ornstein. Chesler. Developing your own Simulation for Teaching. What kinds? Schmuck. Cooperative Learning. Simulation gaming. Ronald. The Effect of Questioning on Retention. Weinberger. Sanders. Fannie. Computer Based Instruction. The Problem Solving Approach. Norris M. Ross and Killey. Taylor. Questioning. Miller and Vinocur. The Uses of the Lecture. Shulmanand Keislar. Developing Inquiry. Shaftel. Rebrova and Svetlova. Ben B. Renaud. Educational Technology. Simulation in the Classroom. Merrill.88 Realities. Role-Playing. Teaching Machine. Weimer. Robert. Taylor. The Guide to Simulation Games for Education and Training. Richard. Encouraging Creativity in the classroom. Whittrock. Patrick. Learning by Discovery: A Critical Approach. John and Rex Walford. Improving College and University Teaching. Titus. How to Ask Classroom Questions. Williams. Problem Solving to Improve Classroom Learning. Richard. M David and Robert Tennyson. Horn. Whooley. Teaching Concepts. Perspectives in Individualised Learning. Components in Teaching Strategy. What TeachingMethods When? Zuckerman. . David. Torrence. Slavin. Skinner. Methods that Teach. McDonald. Classroom Questions. Suchman. Suppes. Strasser. Stolovitch.

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