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STAFF DEVELOPMENT SERIES
Dr. M.P.Chhaya

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Dear Reader, This CD – Staff Development Series – contains the following five books: 1. Book 1 - Effective Strategies 2. Book 2 - Curriculum Development and Classroom Management 3. Book 3 – Measurement and Evaluation 4. Book 4 – Fundamentals of Guidance and Counselling 5. Book 5 – Innovative School For the comforts of the reader, light classical instrumental music is introduced while you are reading (of course, it is optional). By clicking on the “Music” folder and then clicking twice on the music file, you can start the music and adjust the volume as you desire. This CD can be read on Microsoft Word 98 / 2000 on Normal view and for getting / retrieving the figures, it may be read on Print view. There are many advantages of these electronic books such as: • Your hands remain free while reading and can take notes • You can copy the pages / passages as per your requirements • Material from this book can be displayed on a large screen using a projector • Very handy and useful for staff-development and in-service programmes • You can mix and match the topics from any of these books • You can view these books according to your personal preferences (e.g. font, text size, colour, full screen mode, etc.) • The use of a Compact Disc allows for easy portability, accessibility and storage in comparison to five printed books

REQUEST You are morally obliged not to copy this CD for any other institution but for the use of your own staff development.

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Book 1

EFFECTIVE TEACHER
EFFECTIVE CLASSROOM
(Effective Strategies of Teaching)

Dr. M.P.CHHAYA

iv This book is dedicated to Teachers who act as real “Gurus” .

beginning teachers. It is predicated on the belief that teaching is an art involving certain learned skills and that. avoiding complicated phrases. and in-service and on the job training programmes. M.Chhaya . are the identification and illustration of the techniques and procedures that a teacher can use to increase his/her effectiveness and to help make the learning experience dynamic. creative imagination. The major thrusts of the book. this book talks straight. It is for certain that for schools to change. with the knowledge of these skills. as it is. which should be in the repertoire of a teacher. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan New Delhi. over the years. but for it to be of any value it must be practised in the classroom until maximum utilisation of different strategies in different situations becomes second nature. real. Many individuals and professionals. Because each learning experience – based. he concentrates on his own instructional behaviours. When a teacher is concerned with the improvement of his own institution. the teacher must change. meaningful. and similar significant aspects of teaching. rambling discussions. This book describes what real teachers can do in real classrooms and which teaching practices are and are not effective in those classrooms. and more experienced teachers all of whom may wish to improve their techniques through professional institutes. how he will relate to the children. he organises his time.v Preface This book is introduced for use by students learning to be teachers. lectures. workable methods are provided for actual classroom situations. I also wish to acknowledge those teachers of Rajkumar College Rajkot. A number of important skills have been treated. who. whose studies of classroom life have contributed to the effective teaching. This book does not deal with every possible instructional skill and sub-skill. He thinks about himself as a person. on the interactions of individuals – is unique. and relevant to today’s student. have shared their insights about the teaching process with me. and talent. Schools of Chinmaya Mission and Navodaya Vidyalayas. which instructional design he should follow. work-shops. are practical and realistic. The research-based effective teaching practices. have been described in this book. thoughts and efforts very differently from the conventional teacher. The work of these professionals has made possible integration and synthesis of effective teaching practices. presented in a simple style. an individual can motivate others to learn.P. suggesting the range of competencies to be sought by the reader. The practical “how to” approach is always used. or pseudo scholarly language. It can help in getting knowledge. and the strategies he should use to facilitate learning. teaching techniques must be modified to fit each situation. This book will serve well as the base for a continuing progress of professional improvement. then. Therefore. Instead of spending great blocks of time organising lesson plans. The idea is to get the point across quickly in a friendly and readable style. The language of classrooms is informal and there is no reason why a book about teachers in classrooms should not use the same language. No single book could possibly accomplish such a task. The effective teaching practices have been described in a friendly manner.

............................25 Student research.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................10 Behavioural modification.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................15 Learning packets...........................................................24 Problem solving.........................................................................................2 What factors determine one’s methods in teaching?......................................................4 Some important teacher effectiveness indicators:..................................................26 .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................19 Case study....................................................................................................7 Consider yourself.........................................................................................................10 STRATEGIES FOR INDIVIDUALISATION..................................................................................................................................1 What is method?.........................................................................................................................................5 .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 CHAPTER 1...................17 Student tutorial...........................................................................................6 Consider the context of your teaching..............................................................................................19 CHAPTER 4....................................................23 Project.........10 Individualised Learning....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................14 Independent study..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................27 CHAPTER 5..................................................................4 Some Helping Behaviours Related To Effective Teaching...................................................................................................................................................................21 Field study (trip).............................27 ....8 ...19 Community resources.....................................................3 Five Key Behaviours Contributing To Effective Teaching..........................................................................................18 ............................................................................6 CHAPTER 2......................................................................6 DESIGNING EFFECTIVE INSTRUCTION.................................................................................................................................1 INTRODUCTION...............................................VI .........................22 Interest centres (Subject learning centres)....................................................................................................7 Elements of instructional design....................................................................................................................................................10 CHAPTER 3.........................................16 Programmed learning (Instruction)..........................................................................7 Consider the learners to be taught.................................................................................6 Consider the content of your teaching..................................................................................................................................................vi Table of Contents Preface ………………………………………………………………………………………………………iii TABLE OF CONTENTS ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................19 STRATEGIES FOR SMALL GROUPS....................................................................................................12 Contracting....................................................................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................................................................37 Simulation gaming....................65 Chalkboards............................32 Questioning..................................................50 Creative thinking..........................................................................................................55 Decision-making ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................66 Bulletin boards....................................................................................................................................................................72 The bilingual learner........................................................................................................................29 Discussion......................................................................................................................56 Homework/Assignment....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................62 Television.........................................63 Records and audiotapes................................................................................27 Observation.................................................................................................................77 EFFECTIVE TEACHING IN A CLASSROOM..........................................................................................................................54 Modelling..................................................................................27 Demonstration.....................................70 The slow learner.........79 The type of questions relate to effective teaching:........61 Overhead projector...............................................................................................................................................................................47 Socratic.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................78 Active participation of students: .........................................................................................70 The gifted and/or talented learners.......................................................................64 Films and videotapes......................................70 STRATEGIES FOR SPECIAL LEARNERS..................................74 CHAPTER 9.................................................................................................................80 CHAPTER 10...........................................................................................................81 ROLE OF THE TEACHER...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................60 Audio-visual aids......................................................................................................43 Interview........................................87 .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vii STRATEGIES FOR LARGER GROUPS.......................................................................................50 SUB-STRATEGIES FOR GENERAL USE................................................................................53 Inquiry.......................................................................................................................................................................41 CHAPTER 6 ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................58 Brainstorming...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................59 Summary............................................................................................................................................................49 CHAPTER 7........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................61 Slide projector.........................................................77 Effective teaching..30 Lecture..............................................................................................................................................................................81 REFERENCES...77 Defects in teaching.......................34 Role-playing.....................................................43 STRATEGIES FOR SPECIAL USE.................................................................68 CHAPTER 8.............................................................................................................39 Team teaching.............................................................................................................................................................................50 Co-operative learning.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................67 Computers.....................................................................................................43 Discovery .....................................................46 Laboratory...........................

this severely limits the teachers’ overall effectiveness. supplies. and human development to act as a guide in the proper application of each strategy. wants. Environmental factors (money. facilities. but a vast majority competently utilise only a few and many times only one. and interests? Any teaching strategy. Some subject matter is best served by use of a particular strategy or combination of strategies. Diverse objectives call for diverse approaches to meet those objectives. no amount of strategies can make up for lack of knowledge in subject matter. teachers need to vary their teaching strategies in different classroom situations. interests. is likely to meet with strong resistance. Different pupils learn best in different ways at different times. 2. Similarly. A lack of methodological fluidity usually indicates a lack of knowledge of students’ needs. 4. learning theory. For examples. students’ boredom can easily create learning and/or discipline problems. time. and individual optimum learning conditions. The teacher should also have a basic understanding of philosophies of education. it is a near mandate that teachers be competent to the utilisation of a number of teaching strategies. the more freedom he has to apply a variety of instructional approaches. he needs and must utilise different tools in different situations. etc. The mastery of instructional strategies is only one dimension of the skills. and knowledge needed by the competent teacher. As with the single-tool technician. 1. The greater the teacher’s knowledge of the subject. attitudes. Therefore. The converse is also true. When a teacher relies upon a single approach (such as a drill or lecture) as a learning strategy.1 Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Can you imagine a technician repairing a machine with only one tool? Obviously not.) often dictate which strategies will be most effective. which is inconsistent with the student’s desire for peer acceptance and approval. The teacher must answer such questions as: What is a student? What are his needs. Even the most careful planning cannot produce beneficial results . 3. There are at least four valid reasons for a teacher being proficiently prepared in a wide assortment of strategies.

a number of strategies should be combined and blended into new creative patterns by the teacher. 2) It increases the perspective powers of the pupil since he is encouraged to be more self-reliant upon his thinking. but are. devices and the like at times. Moreover. The knowledge. There are many decided merits of the inductive method of teaching. some of the abstract ideas in arithmetic cannot be effectively presented through inductive procedures. 3) The conclusions made for the most part are formed first in the mind of the pupil with the teacher becoming a checkpoint for inaccuracies and wrong perceptions. If sub-strategies are properly used they can often enhance and extend the effectiveness of the strategy employed. This requires consideration of the associated problem of providing adequately for individual differences. The manner in which method in teaching is followed varies with the subjects presented. tape recordings. namely. There are . Putting the potatoes on a table with a colourful table setting (sub-strategy) improves the chances for consumption even more. For example. but one is a rung on the ladder to becoming the other. rather. It moves from objects or several keynote examples to the development of ideas. For example: Interest centres/subject centres could include appropriate film strips. the inductive method and the deductive method. The inductive method: The inductive method is the real method of discovery. and films. The specific methods by which these two schemes are carried out are also called techniques. A more graphic analogy is as follows: You can offer individuals raw potatoes (knowledge) for eating (learning) but many would not eat. A pressure cooker (strategy) prepares the potatoes more properly for consumption and increases the chances of them being eaten. procedures. and the children who learn. Method is a systematic way of doing things under the guidance of certain previously established principles.2 unless the student personally feels the need for learning. The term covers both the strategy and tactics of teaching and involves the choice of what is to be taught. catalytic agents causing a reaction but not becoming a part of the result. Both stages are necessary. Consequently there is a hesitancy to employ more appropriate methods. By understanding how different strategies can best be utilised. and rapidity with which a teacher can apply strategies to a particular learning situation are some of the differences between the teacher as a technician and the teacher as a professional. It is a rare student who will create a disturbance (internally. drill is enhanced by charts of content or activities to be performed. induction is a slow process and requires many materials some of it may be most expensive. we can better benefit the student and ourselves. if not externally) when class expectations are too high or too low for his capabilities. Strategies and sub-strategies are not content in themselves. 1) Children who gain knowledge in this way have been able to retain it for longer periods of time. strategies. accuracy. What is method? Method refers to the formal structure of the sequence of acts commonly denoted by instruction. and the order in which it is to be taught. among which the following are of the most importance. The main disadvantages of the inductive method stem from the fact that not all subjects can be taught inductively. In reality there seem to be only two generalised methods of teaching. After practice with a given strategy has provided confidence in its utilisation in the classroom. and lectures are more meaningful if main points or key ideas are displayed by means of overhead projections or use of the chalkboard. Too often as teachers we tend to use that strategy which gives us a feeling of security. the teachers who teach.

3 limitations but it is absolutely necessary that if clearness of thought is to be encouraged and real knowledge preserved. Often children quit school because their dislikes are not known. What factors determine one’s methods in teaching? 1. the more he will follow his native tendencies to be free. the inductive method should be used to introduce many new subjects and to give aid in the exposition of difficult ones. The more freedom a method allows the pupil. Until a teacher meets and studies his group. pupils are asked to accept the reasoning of someone else. 10. 8. skills. A good teacher uses the method that helps the child to collect additional materials and ideas. However. When this method is used. With increasing age children become more highly skilled in deductive reasoning. Teachers like the learners they serve. The elder the child. Children are collections of materials. Teachers sometimes try to teach a pupil without knowing what the child knows. he will know several methods from which he might select the more appropriate for purposes of application. Such teachings would be guesswork. 9. 2. 7. The method selected for the purposes of instruction should not inhibit the child’s natural instincts to imitate. a more appropriate method of teaching him might be found. 11. schoolwork should often be not far removed from play techniques. 5. Since children like to construct. At the elementary school level. The age and disposition of pupils must be considered by the teacher in the selection of a method to teach a given content. The deductive method: Generally one is teaching deductively when he gives the rules. work and play particularly at the primary levels. all pupils at the elementary levels should do some constructive work as a part of their daily schedule. the longer may be his school life. The methods should be such that the child is discouraged from jumping too rapidly from one thought to another. the more likely he will be able to maintain a longer attention span and to retain the line of thought. 3. In society at large children are expected to grow up too quickly. The method of teaching at the primary levels should allow the child to enlarge upon certain natural instincts. The teacher should seek to guide rivalry into its many constructive channels. Method and content should encourage such curiosity. 4. principle or generalisation first and from them the descent is made to the specific factors or ideas making up such generalisations. The teacher should use methods that incorporate play into the education process. construct. The best method of teaching comes about when the teacher combines the two in such ways that one method reinforces the other to assist the perceptions of the pupils in the learning situation. If the child is not compressed into confirming ways. there is more rivalry than at others. 12. he sees the problem as the child sees it. are unique personalities. By putting himself in the pupil’s place. Children are curious persons. 6. and competencies as they . Probably the child learns more during his first six years than during all of the next twelve years. therefore. to profit from what others have concluded. As the teacher studies the child’s thinking. At certain age levels. They should also be collection of ideas. the deductive method should simultaneously increase in importance. he will not know the specific method that should be employed for their instruction. It makes sense for them to take advantage of their own special interests. The child’s likes and dislikes should be known by the classroom teacher.

This model encourages the development of individual teaching styles. As a framework to guide teacher’ instructional practices. According to this model. because they are considered essential for effective teaching. teachers are free to choose procedures from their own repertoires that they believe will result in high levels of learner achievement. You also need behaviours to help you implement the five . these five headings comprise all of the basic instructional skills. major emphases are placed not specifically on what teachers do. these decisions can be organised into separate categories. Five Key Behaviours Contributing To Effective Teaching Approximately 10 teacher behaviours show promising relationships to desirable student performance. referred. The second five we will call helping behaviours that can be used in combinations to implement the key behaviours. a model of instruction is proposed here that relates actions of teachers to achievement of learners. The five key behaviours. Another five have had some support and appear logically related to effective teaching. The first five we will call key behaviours. This model of instruction rests on a clear formulation of the teaching process. Five of these behaviours have been consistently supported by research studies over the past two decades. Individualised styles are encouraged because evaluation of instruction is based on learner’s achievement of the performance objectives. Individual strengths of teachers can be utilised most effectively when a logical framework is employed to organise the instructional skills selected for a specific programme. Teaching can be thought of as a series of events requiring decisions made by the teachers. Collectively. but on what learners derive from instruction. Such a framework can suggest how instructional skills might best be organised to promote a logical. more than five general keys to effective teaching are needed. as necessary. primarily as measured by achievement on classroom and standardised tests. Given this criterion. are: • Lesson clarity • Instructional variety • Task orientation • Engagement in the learning process • Student success Some Helping Behaviours Related To Effective Teaching To fill out our picture of an effective teacher. Logically.4 plan for instruction. to help learners achieve performance objectives that have been selected. These skills are: • Skill one: specifying performance objective • Skill two: diagnosing learners • Skill three: selecting instructional strategies • Skill four: interacting with learners • Skill five: evaluating the effectiveness of instruction Each of these five instructional skills can be thought of as an element in a comprehensive model of instruction. This responsibility comes not in teachers’ rigid adherence to a set of “ideal role behaviours” but rather in adapting instructional practices. systematic instructional programme for learners. These decision categories have been grouped under five general headings. This model provides a useful framework for teachers as they plan for classroom instruction. Teacher responsibility is well served by this model.

making them catalysts rather than agents unto themselves. Probing 5. • Elicits responses from students each time a question is asked before moving to the next student or question. These catalytic behaviours include: 1. are not as strong and consistent as those that identified the five key behaviours. problem solving. and comment on the content being learned. • Encourages students to reason out and elaborate upon the correct answer. • Provides direction and control of student learning through questioning. • Gradually shifts some of the responsibility for learning to the students – encouraging independent thinking. • Uses a variety instructional materials and verbal and visual aids to foster use of student ideas and engagement in the learning process. This is why it is suspected that helping behaviours need to be employed in the context of other behaviours to be effective. • Present material in small steps with opportunities for practice. There is general agreement on the importance of these helping behaviours. and decision making. • Provides learners with mental strategies for organising and learning the content being taught. . Let’s consider some additional behaviours that can be thought of as catalytic or helping behaviours for performing the five key behaviours. Using student ideas and contributions 2. Research findings for helping behaviours. extend. Structuring 3. • Uses naturally occurring classroom dialogue to get students elaborate. • Encourages students in verbal questions and answers. Teacher affect Some important teacher effectiveness indicators: The effective teacher • Takes personal responsibility for students’ learning and has positive expectations for every learner. • Gives students the opportunity to practice newly learned concepts and to receive timely feedback on their performance. Nor has it linked these behaviours to student achievement as strongly as the key five. but the research has not been so accommodating as to identify explicitly how these behaviours should be used. structuring and probing. • Matches the difficult of the lesson with the ability level of the students and varies the difficulty when necessary to attain moderate-to-higher success rates. Questioning 4. • Maximises instructional time to increase content coverage and to give students the greatest opportunity to learn. although promising.5 key behaviours in your classroom.

During the planning process. which may follow or precede your instruction. Developing a blueprint for teaching provides a focus for instruction and promotes systematic and efficient planning. lunch break. Remember. Note other schedules such as library period. Consider the context of your teaching To help you decide on a format for your design. middle. . and recess. the content you intend to teach. we may try to match the needs of the learner with specific content for our particular context. You must modify your design as you gain teaching experience. to use a particular format. You may be required to submit teaching plans to administrators. Consider noise levels. and movement that affect your teaching and teaching of those near by. ask yourself questions about the context in which you will be teaching: • Is the setting formal or informal (rows of desks or clusters of tables and chairs)? • Is it the beginning. potential behaviour problems. 30 or bigger? • What kind of management routines is established? Your context concerns must include elements within and outside your classroom. or to follow a particular schedule. When we design instruction. 12. When you plan for instruction.6 Chapter 2 Designing Effective Instruction Planning and designing instruction are opposite sides of the same coin. Planning is a mental process--the visualising that takes place before teaching. 20. or end of the school year? The school day? The class period? • Is this a group of 8. that there are often administrative pressures imposed on your design process. You must also consider yourself. and the learners who will be taught. you must consider the context of your teaching. too. we note specific elements of our planning. Designing is the process of putting our mental plans into a blue print.

Consider yourself In a research study.g. you will probably use a similar format to design your teaching. which could affect many of the teaching strategies and learning activities you might plan. You will need to be sensitive to the social interactions of your learners and the pattern of the class participation. ask yourself questions about the content you will teach. In addition to curriculum guides. map reading)? • Are there attitudes to be experienced (appreciation of masterpieces of art)? • Are there school district objectives to be met? Content is a major focus for most teachers when designing instruction. young children require need manipulative for understanding math concepts)? • Can these learners work independently? • Have the learners shown interest in the topics? What is their motivation level? • Is the content relevant to their lives? • What are the needs of the learners? Teachers describe the ability level of their students as the most important consideration when designing instruction.g. If you are a person who plans in great detail for a trip. teachers’ individual interests and areas of expertise become important sources of content. • Is there a textbook? • Is the curriculum unstructured and open-ended (e. “How can my planning help my readiness for teaching?” Or may you need a detailed instructional design to build confidence. Ask yourself questions about your learners. Consider the learners to be taught These questions will guide your discussion about a format for your instructional design. Stop and consider how you plan for the other things you do.7 Consider the content of your teaching Again. and that they felt mentally and physically better prepared for teaching. If you are a person who plans with a major item and who processes details in your head.g. teachers reported that planning relieved anxiety and uncertainty for them. to help you decide on a format for your design. you will probably design your teaching with a similar focus. relationship between societal discontent and politics)? • Are there skills to be practised (e. . so that you consider yourself before designing instruction. and teacher manuals. textbooks.g. • What kind of learning activities have they experienced? What kind of life experiences? Travel experience? Activities outside of school? • Do these learners work well in-groups? Do they know how to work ingroups? • What strategies/activities are developmentally appropriate for these learners (e. curriculum for creative writing)? • Is there a big idea or concept to be understood (e. and is most comfortable with details written down. You need to ask yourself.

or more involved audio-visual stimuli such as films and transparencies. including anything used by you or your learner in the teaching and the learning process. general quality of the outcomes. including the teacher. and demonstration. To develop objectives. or with student-directed strategies of co-operative grouping. ideas. Goals Educational goals provide overall direction for teaching and learning in broad terms. and reading to each other. On a universal level. think about the basic parts or elements of design that you will need for your teaching. Students may provide feedback to each other through peer critiques. Materials can be simply pencils and pens. You may provide feedback to students through individual comments on their papers or through verbal responses to their discussions. whether they are written in a detailed format or in mental form. The question of how to transfer learning may be answered with teacher-directed strategies of lecture. and attitudes transfer to the thinking and action of the learner. A description of each will assist your understanding of the design models. textbooks. teaching and learning strategies. To be specific. other students. and yourself. Depending on the strategy in use. discovery and role-play. checking each other’s work. and resources. Teaching and learning strategies Teaching and learning strategies provide the vehicle or means by which facts. Including materials in your design for teaching contributes to your preparedness. create a setting. Feedback All of us need feedback that recognises our work. You must also specify the minimum level of performance necessary for each student that would indicate that the objective and part of the goal are being reached. skills. paper and textbooks. equipment. Objectives for the goal of literary critics could be: Students identify the main characters. materials. plot and setting of five literary selections. our progress and so on. you must analyse your goals into behaviours that indicate that students are reaching the goal. objectives. or computers. Elements of instructional design There are some universal elements you will find in most lesson designs. Objectives Educational objectives specify the learning outcomes in measurable or observable terms. They are the “how” of your instructional design. On a district level. Notice the broad. a goal may be: Students will become problem solvers. a goal may be: Students become successful in math computation or will become literary critics. and the need for the long-range development. or students describe the literary strategies used by authors to build suspense. They are goals.8 Once you have considered the context and content of your teaching. an objective for the goal of math computation might be: Students will add 10 sets of 3-digit numbers and get 80 percent of them correct. On a class level. this transfer may occur through a variety of media. concepts. and divert attention. . questioning. feedback and assessment. videos. Materials This is a broad category of tools. our efforts. the learners to be taught. a goal may be: All students will develop a love of learning.

projects. to incorporate your beliefs. objectives. and assessment are threads that run through the most widely used design models. Assessment This is the means of determining whether students have met the objectives. .9 Students may also provide feedback to themselves by checking an answer sheet. Goals. and research papers. or critiquing work with a set of criteria. quizzes. You can assess as an ongoing process all through the lesson. as well as at the end of the lesson. materials. before you teach. and to be efficient. Short-term assessment includes questions. Long-term assessment includes exams. and as you gain experience personalise it. teaching and learning strategies. or through journal writing. Other models of instruction elaborate from the universal framework. You might begin with a model. it is encouraging to personalise whatever design format you use to meet your needs and priorities. Assessment provides information that will be useful for your next lesson design. Finally. feedback. You may also use assessment at the beginning of the lesson to see what students already know. and observations of student work.

The universality is one of the reasons why the approach is not as wide spread as everyone agrees it should be. the strategy has not been exploited in its fullest potential. interview. Socratic. a tailoring of subject matter and teaching strategies to those needs and interests. interest centres. student research. projects. contracting. independent study. and brotherly love. learning becomes an exciting adventure and not a necessary obligation to complete the same daily activities that are performed to the typical classroom. and a constant monitoring and guidance of student progress. The differences being that they have been directed at the entire class. Consequently. As with these concepts. They are further prompted to expand on lessons assigned to areas of their personal and intellectual interests. Thus. In this amorphous state it is as difficult to understand as the concepts of patriotism. the rewards tend to far exceed the energy expended. The processes used in individualised learning are not new. Although time consuming at the outset. programmed instruction. as the concept of individualised learning is too universal to be applicable as a specific strategy.10 Chapter 3 STRATEGIES FOR INDIVIDUALISATION Individualised Learning Individualised learning is a broad. truth. The good teacher has been aware of and utilised them on a regular basis. individualised learning is understandable only through its displayed components – individualised learning resources such as learning packets. It is truly a challenge to the intellectually inclined . Students involved in individualised programme are encouraged to exceed minimal standards. It involves an assessment of student needs and interests. A teacher using this approach would employ a number of strategies. almost philosophical approach to the teachinglearning process. case study and student tutorial strategies.

Disadvantages • Time and effort must be expended in developing materials and matching strategies to a given student. • Students have the opportunity to see their personal progress as it occurs and tend to extend their knowledge rather than stopping at minimal accomplishment. • Retention of learning is improved over non-individualised instruction. individualised learning takes more teacher-monitoring time. • Students learn to take more responsibility for their own instructional activities. • Students must be trained to handle individualised learning strategies—a time consuming activity. Upon return each student returns to the point where he was temporarily halted. • The teacher has more opportunity to pinpoint and assist individual student problems. . Advantages • Each student moves at his own pace through a level of subject matter utilising a teaching/learning strategy that is selected to promote optimal progress.11 student without penalising those students who need to maintain a slower pace accomplishes the minimal requirements. They are only in competition with themselves. a programme in individualised learning is a challenge to the student and boon to the busy teacher. • Pre-assessment of student academic status takes time and special skill. student research. • In the beginning. • Record keeping can be lengthy and involved. and independent laboratory experiences. When coupled with other strategies such as interest centres. • Students are not penalised for being out of school for illness or family matters. • Students are not in false competition with peers.

The teacher should demonstrate those behaviours that are desired and not to assume that the child knows what to do. It is a tool to be used selectively by the teacher. • Care must be taken not to reward undesirable behaviours. Teach the child to manage his own behaviour. a positive atmosphere prevails. reinforcement should be tapered off and provided less frequently but occasional reward is necessary to maintain the behaviour. The objectives for each child must be realistic. “Good job. measurable behaviour. A programme in behavioural modification should not be used as a panacea for all ills. After the child learns a new behaviour. Behaviour modification will not accomplish psychologically or academically impossible tasks. The teacher must understand both the limitations and potential of the strategy. • The academic behaviours specified can be individualised very easily. Essentially certain behaviours are established as desirable for students. It has been researched mostly with atypical children. which may be academic. • Behaviour modification tends to limitation where long term retention is desirable. school and the mental health professional. behavioural objectives. A learning environment must be created that will cause the child to engage in the desired behaviours. Disadvantages • Not all behaviours to be learned can be measured. The use of this strategy in conjunction with observation skills. measurable and controllable.12 Behavioural modification Behavioural modification is the term assigned to the application of the laboratoryderived principles of learning to behaviour problem. material rewards. It has also been used with a large degree of success in role-playing and simulation activities. such as the teacher saying. affective and psychomotor learning. Indiscriminate use may bring about undesirable characteristics and/or neutralise the benefits later when the technique would have a role in changing the pupil’s behaviour. • It is applicable to cognitive. well done”. Behaviour modification may also be known as behaviour therapy or behaviour management. The reward may be of a verbal nature. individualised instruction. Students who exhibit such behaviours. • It is based upon tested principles of learning rather than theory. both the student and teacher are aware of the amount of progress being made. • A change in the student may not be based on desired learning but upon the rewards attached. or an increase in student privileges. Introduce the changes slowly. are rewarded. hopefully increasing the likelihood that the behaviour will continue. social or emotional in nature. or who move to the direction of the prescribed behaviours. Continue to practice this strategy in numerous settings. This strategy must be understood and accepted by peers and parents. • Since behaviour modification is concerned with observable. case study and programmed learning can stimulate the students toward the desired behaviour changes. • This approach leads to co-operation between the teacher. • Since the emphasis is upon success. . Advantages • The effects of behaviour modification have been scientifically demonstrated in classroom situations. The behaviour must be observable.

.13 • Some techniques within the behaviour modification strategy are extremely timed consuming.

The important part of the strategy is in giving the opportunity to students to learn while doing a project that the students have selected with teacher approval. • More record monitoring is necessary to insure the students are keeping up with their schedules and are not having difficulties. progress and testing. and learn to organise and manage time. • Students have choices. Two copies are prepared so that the teacher and pupil can keep each one for reference and records. Quite the contrary. and both teacher and student sign the written agreement (contract). Disadvantages • It is more work for the teacher than the straight “lecture method”. in what period of time.14 Contracting Contracting is a device in which a student and teacher write together exactly what is to be accomplished. • The contract requires both in-school and out-of-school resources. which may be difficult to locate. • Communication is optimised as student and teacher must meet in regular individual conferences. assist students in finding the needed resources and regular record keeping of attendance. Advantages • The emphasis is on learning and success rather than testing and failure. Some are common to the entire class while others are individualised to meet the needs of the individual student. The contracting strategy is a stepping-stone into the individualised learning processes. The level of acceptable achievement must be based on more than the general expectation of the class. • ‘Quantity’ may tend to replace ‘Quality’ as criteria. • Students have a self-controlled opportunity for independence in their learning activities. exercise decision making abilities. . Contracting is not a strategy that once assigned. It is a chance for the student to experience success and failure. and for what grade. Consideration must include the maturity of the students’ previous experiences in contracting. • Not all students are mature enough to fulfil the contract responsibilities and selfmotivation required for this strategy. the teacher is free from all daily planning and teaching. the work objectives outlined. The objectives are clearly specified. it requires the teacher to constantly monitor progress through individual conferences. yet have the opportunity to try again without the feeling of complete failure. • Cheating and duty shirking are reduced. • The learning objectives are clear to everyone. the ability to carryout tasks on an individual bases and yet be challenging to both the teacher and the student. The contract can be an elaborate document or a simple written statement of agreement between the student and the teacher. The contract itself is a written set of varied learning situations.

. but of a different angle requiring different functions. but do not allow the project to continue on endlessly. • Independent study fosters self-learning skills and attitudes. brighter students can extend their learning while slower students can focus on an area of deficiency. the teacher must be more vigilant and more available for help than ever. Advantages • Individual students can work in an area of need. • Evaluation is more difficult. Allow sufficient time to complete the project. • Students gain insights into ‘how’ to learn. for example. If anything. The aim is to provide a unique learning experience for the student. • A shortage of related materials or other resources necessary to carry out the study may restrict independent work. It is not a time for rest and relaxation. an encourager rather than a demander. The teacher becomes a ‘guide on the side’ as opposed to a ‘sage on the stage’. Clearly specified objectives should be stated at the outset of the project. Disadvantages • There is usually a lack of flexible schedules necessary to permit students and teachers to do true independent study. Determine the availability of resources before beginning this strategy.15 Independent study Independent study is an arrangement whereby the school explores in depth an area of interest not normally studied by the entire class. Independent study requires the teacher to allow the student to become the teacher. Do not permit too many students to work on the same type of project. • Students are more motivated when they are studying something they have selected and in which they have a special interest. Do not permit students to embark on studies. Constant assessment of progress by conferring with the learner and by viewing his work is extremely important. • The lack of research skills on the part of student and the teacher may hinder completion of the project strategy. and a clarifier rather than a seeing-eye dog. The topic to be explored can be assigned by the teacher or selected by the student with approval from the teacher. Permitting the students to share the results of their study with the rest of the class can add a dimension to the activity. • Individual students assume more responsibility for learning and the presenting of their projects or reports assist the slower students to gain new insights into the study topic. • The teacher must maintain a constant check of student progress where independent study programmes are in operation. The teacher is an explainer of direction rather than a lecturer. It is a job of equal importance. • Large amounts of time may be needed by the teacher to help each student to individualise a programme. which are not appropriate to class instruction.

Follow the directions for teachers within the learning packets. independent resources and study materials. a series of units may be developed on a single topic area. • The learning packet requires an abundance of resource materials in order to complete the total project. • Teachers are placed in the role of facilitators of learning rather than directors of learning. • Students may tend get bored with lengthy learning units. post-test. student self-assessment. • The learning packet is well planned from start to finish. Because the unit is designed for individual use. Establish a definite time period for the completion of the unit of learning. Each may be of increasing difficulty requiring the learner to device new skills. Advantages • Students are able to pursue special interest areas yet work within the confines of the total curriculum. • Materials in learning packets can be developed for all levels of learning. major and sub-concepts. The learning packet is designed to help students achieve at their own best learning rate. techniques and greater knowledge. the teacher is able to immediately evaluate the amount of learning that has taken place. Do not allow it to become isolated from learning goals. Relate the learning packet to the curriculum. Take the time to work through the unit prior to classroom use to be sure it is complete and accurate. pre-test. The unit packet consists of a series of sequential learning activities leading to the achievement of desired outcomes by the learners. • Students may not have the maturity to work independently. Encouragement and positive reinforcement are important to the success of this strategy. They are generally structured for individual use and are most effectively used in schools with flexible curricula. The teacher is a resource person available to offer assistance as the student pursues the learning content of the instructional package. . student instructions. Disadvantages • Unit packets are time consuming to develop. assorted strategies and content.16 Learning packets Learning packets are sets of self-contained learning materials assembled for the purpose of teaching a single concept or idea. research activities. • Learning takes place in a sequential order. Plan well in advance to see that all necessary materials and resources are available. • Using the pre-test and post-test. • Learning packets may be exchanged both within the school and with other schools. behavioural objectives. although they are not limited to these settings. • Any discipline can be the subject of learning packet. Components of the learning packets may include teacher directions.

is aware of the degree of progress being made. which must be completed in the pre-arranged order. Programmed instruction is usually most effective when used ‘some of the time’ rather than ‘all of the time’. Machine teaching is one type of programmed instruction. straight line or extrinsic. • Students can study on their own and that too effectively. • The student progresses at his own rate and level of achievement. through immediate feedback. branching. Disadvantage • Good programmes are hard to identify. • It is effective for remedial teaching.17 Programmed learning (Instruction) Auto-instruction and automated teaching are synonyms for programmed instruction. . but properly used on a once in a while basis it can be fun and provides variety. the student responds to a presented step. A course with programmed instruction as the sole method of learning can be boring and tedious. It is especially useful in science and mathematics and materials can be found or constructed for all learner levels whether slow. the student goes on to a new exercise. • Writing programmes is a very difficult process which causes teachers generally rely on commercial programmes. or intrinsic. teacher-made. Advantages • Programmed learning saves the teacher a considerable amount of time. then evaluate the experience to decide upon further use. fixed sequence. In such an approach. drill and practice. • Programmed instruction is very applicable to affective or psychomotor learning. student-made. the student may be referred to remedial exercises. • The time saved can be applied to individuals or groups as either remedial or higher intellectual learning. In this approach. The next frame the student faces depends upon his response. borrowed or copied. • The cost of the materials can be prohibitive. average. One method of programming I variously termed linear. If incorrect. They can be reused (if separate answer sheets are dittoed) year after year and rarely need updating as they usually cover basic concepts. or gifted. the units of content are designed in small sequential steps. Materials can be bought. • The student. as well as enrichment. Begin utilising programme for a unit of content. • The learner is actively responding at all times to the programme. The other basic method of programming is called non-linear. or frame. If correct. • The success and reinforcement provides motivation to the learner.

which will enable him to be a part of the total classroom activities. The good student is rewarded by being assigned or appointed as a tutor. • Since the tutor is nearer the age. acceptable behaviour. the approach also offers a unique learning experience for the student tutors and should be considered as a vital portion of the approach. The tutee is rewarded by being selected for additional assistance on the basis of need. Advantages • The tutor learns more since teaching is an excellent learning situation. Discussion. and a proven desire to additional help. It enables the teacher to provide additional instruction to those pupils having difficulty while continuing to maintain an ongoing programme with other students in the classroom. It may be considered a form of behavioural modification due to the selection process used to designate tutors and tutees. questioning and problem solving are a few of the strategies that enter into the student tutorial method. . • Since the tutor usually lacks the teacher’s depth of knowledge. • The use of student tutors removes the teacher from the actual instruction of most of the students. The use of students tutoring other students has proven to be a valuable tool for teachers in a countless number of situations. the use of tutors may lead to memorisation transmission only. • The student tutorial approach provides an economic use of time. • Since the teacher is not present in all the tutorial sessions. behaviour problems are apt to arise. drill. • The use of tutors assures all students of individual attention. They may have only a minor role when used by the tutors but nevertheless are valid points to consider. • The tutor is not a teacher and is very limited in instructional skills. • The only feedback the teacher receives is through the tutor and may be distorted. Other sub-strategies can play an important part in the student tutorial programme. the tutor can better understand the tutee’s problems. demonstration. However. • The student tutorial system spreads the talents and knowledge of the teacher. • The tutor can develop responsible behaviour as well as gain leadership experience.18 Student tutorial The student tutorial approach utilises pupils as monitors (tutors) who first learn from a teacher and then teach small groups or individual fellow students (tutees). tutees often resent being taught by their peers. Disadvantages • Since tutors and tutees are classmates. • Advanced students can many times be paired up with remedial students and aid in eliminating troublesome ‘learning gaps’. Traditionally the approach has been concerned only with the learning of the tutees. skill and achievement level of the tutee than is the teacher. The mere fact that a peer is aiding the slow student may make the difference to the success or failure of the tutee in gaining knowledge and assurance that he can do acceptable schoolwork. • The student tutorial provides a challenging learning experience for the faster students in class.

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Chapter 4 STRATEGIES FOR SMALL GROUPS

Case study
The case study strategy (or case method) is a teaching approach, which requires the student to participate actively in problem situations, which may be hypothetical or real. He receives a case, a report containing pertinent data, analyses the data, evaluates the nature of the problem, decides upon applicable principles, and finally recommends a solution or a course of action. The case study method is another approach to individualising the learning situation. Through the use of hypothetical or real situations, the student has the opportunity to use problem-solving approaches that are meaningful and understandable. It requires the student to collect the data, analyse it and make suggestions or recommendations for decision-making. The project may be simple in the beginning and lead to the more complex as the student gains experiences to these learning processes. Using the case study strategy can, if properly directed, assist in the solving of school or community problems. The community sees the student working on topics that are of wide interest in the community and thus have greater respect for the educational programmes at the local school. It further provides an opportunity to narrow the generous gap. It is not a strategy to be used indiscriminately. It requires careful planning, specific objectives, clearly specified guidelines and a precise means of evaluation. The teacher can and must expect to be available for individual assistance and ensure that materials, equipment and resources are readily available to the students. Cases should be explicitly and unambiguously written. They should fit the level of the students in terms of maturity and problem solving skills. Students should be presented with similar cases prior to permitting the students to select their own cases. A check must be made to insure that materials and resources dealing with the case are available. Periodically check on students to insure they are progressing in a desirable

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direction. Attempt to include other strategies such as role-playing, simulation, interview and questioning within the structure of the case study. Advantages • The case study approach can provide for individual differences among students. • Because the student is involved in a problem situation, interest and motivation are generally high. • Active student involvement insures better retention of content. • The case study approach develops responsibility on the part of the learner. • Students are invited to develop problem-solving skills in order to arrive at a conclusion to the case. • Students deal with content on a high cognitive level. • Materials and resources other than the textbook are used in considering the case. Disadvantages • The case study approach can be time consuming. • Good case studies are difficult fir the teacher to develop in a manageable procedure for the normal size class. • Resources and materials needed to successfully pursue the case study are often not available. • The teacher must be well prepared for the topic of the study. • Cases developed by the students are often controversial and difficult for the teacher to manage.

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Community resources
Basically, community resources include any activity outside the school, which has educational use. The teacher can use people, places and things found in the community to facilitate learning. The resource, although located outside the school building, may be brought to the school or the class may go to the site to carry out a planned activity. Often an elder citizen of the community can enhance the study of history or biology, art, folk dancing and literature. Normally a community resource is considered to be to be something away from the school to visit, but in many instances it means bringing a person or exhibit to the school. It is a tool that can provide new learning experiences to the class and assist the teacher in making lessons more meaningful with lasting effects. Community resources, like all other teaching strategies, require advance consideration, study and preparation before it can become a meaningful tool. Begin early to note places of interest that will enhance the lesson. Make notes regarding the cost, time to tour or complete the activity. Note down the names of key individuals for contacts and scheduling. Be knowledgeable of the procedures and requirements within the school for making use of community resources. Have the objectives for using the resource firmly in mind to make the lesson meaningful. Advantages • The use of community resources can bring the school and community closer together. • It facilitates more practical learning and better retention of learning. • Interaction between the school and community enables the student to develop a broader understanding of the community. • The use of the community resources adds excitement to the subject, thus increasing motivation for learning. • Community resources are applicable to all types of learning: cognitive, affective and psychomotor. • Students can develop social skills. • Students can assist in the selection of community resources as a decision making experience. • These activities are inexpensive and within the budget of most schools. Disadvantages • Specific community resources, which are available, are sometime difficult to locate and schedule. • Teachers have to obtain prior administrative and parental approval. • People used as community resources often do not know how to transfer their knowledge and information to students. • Field trips are often over looked due to factors such as student safety, control, expense and teacher liability. • Since the teacher is dependent on agents of the community, last minute cancellations often occur leaving the teacher stranded.

You and the class must move outside the confines of that room to the school grounds. • What is learned should have great impact due to the multi-sensory nature of the experience. Develop a means of evaluation for pupils as well as the place visited in order to assist in planning future trips. social. Field study is a means of overcoming this criticism in part. in which students go to places where the materials of instruction may be observed and studied directly to their functional settings. first hand experiences. Prepare the by relating the trip to what is being studied and what they might observe. Disadvantages • Discipline can easily become a problem. review and summarise what was learned at the field trip. is a major source of enrichment for learners. and. unrealistic learning of irrelevant facts. and academic horizons. Field study.22 Field study (trip) Your regular classroom may not be the best area available to you for a particular activity on study. and do your investigations at this site. Advantages • Field studies provide the student with interesting. museums. It provides opportunity for students to see the ‘real world’ in action. or government institutions. or model making will ensure that retention of the objectives is accomplished. public utilities. At the site provide for adequate supervision. Students should receive some definite ‘coaching’ in observation skills and an outline of objectives and purposes prior to the field trip. A sub-strategy of the community resources strategy. libraries. • Field studies extend classroom learning through reality. • Administrative procedures to organise field trips are often so complicated that they discourage taking them. Follow up activities including discussion. • Students become more aware of their environment. . the immediate community. which can serve as a basis for other learning activities. One of the longstanding major criticisms of education has been its sponsorship of cloistered. field studies are generally made to points of instructional interest such as factories. • Transportation arrangements are often difficulty or costly. Plan the trip by visiting the site and talking with the people. art galleries. widens their attitudinal. writing short essays. or some other reachable place. This extra-class session is known as a field trip. properly carried out. • Field studies can add greatly to school-community relationships. Upon return to the classroom. The field study is a trip arranged by the school and undertaken for educational purposes. it is difficult to make arrangements in order to prevent conflicts with other classes. thereby. • A common experience is provided for students. Make sure the field trip is of educational value in that it relates directly to what is being taught in the classroom. • When a teacher has students for only one period a day. and is a most valuable activity to consider for your programme. drawing pictures. Careful planning and pre-visitation to the site by the teacher is essential if the experience is to be useful and valuable to students.

factories. • Students have the opportunity to bring their own materials with which to work. museums. makes students more responsible for their own time. research. fieldtrips. Do not fail to utilise some students’ parents and acquaintances as valuable resources. Each centre has abundant materials and equipment pertaining to that particular subject. an art centre. Disadvantages • The need for varied materials to each centre may be a constraint. • A great deal of preparation of environment. • Interest centres allow students to devote more time to the subjects.23 Interest centres (Subject learning centres) Establishing an interest centred classroom involves actual separation of the physical space into stations of various academic areas. • Record keeping of student achievement is difficult. and students is required. Advantages • Interest centres provide for individualised learning within constraints of subject matter requirements. The teacher must secure an abundance of materials and some equipment pertinent to each centre well in advance of the beginning of the year. Just as with materials. a social science centre. materials. independent study. • The teacher needs a good command of all subject matter. With proper introduction and monitoring the teacher will find interest centre teaching may be the panacea for which she has been searching. which are personally interesting. zoos. Another possibility for evaluation is to require each student to exhibit some level of individual proficiency on small quizzes or written exercises prepared over the material. • The teacher is free to move about from centre to centre assisting students. Interest centre teaching can be a good blessing. Many other strategies and sub-strategies can operate effectively within the interest centred classroom – projects. Each student should have a folder kept in a central file where he logs his activities and achievements. learning packets. a math centre. The type and quantity of materials depends on the objectives for each centre. Care should be taken that accurate and detailed records are kept. Resource people are a valuable asset to an interest centred classroom. otherwise evaluation becomes impossible. It individualising learning. On request. one might have a science centre. art galleries. • Students are more responsible for their own learning activities. • Resource people in each interest area can be brought in easily to work with a small group of students. student tutorial. encourages communication and eliminates many motivational problems. etc. • Students may be lacking in self-motivation. etc. especially if they have not had prior independent work. In an elementary and middle school classroom. It also makes progress reporting easier and meaningful. government institutions. . hospitals and individuals. it is amazing how many experts are eager to donate their time and energy to work with students. Administration and parents should be kept aware and consulted during the planning and programme operation. you may acquire from business houses. a language centre.

• The project method develops student responsibility and initiative. The decision as to the nature of the project can be assigned by the teacher. The advantages of the group projects are that students must agree on division of labour. If the project involves in-depth work. Disadvantages • Projects are very time consuming. who furnishes help only when necessary. as well as learn together about specific subject matter. • Helpful teacher feedback usually is not possible until it is too late. The project approach may be referred to as self-directed study. and give and take criticism among themselves. • Students often get sidetracked or go off on a tangent. large model construction. • The student develops greater understanding of ‘how’ to learn. Provide an opportunity to utilise community resources. • Often the materials and resources needed to do an effective project are not available. are a duplicate of something already done. play production. This method requires teaching by units rather than by pages. but not so much as to rob students of meaningful learning experiences. learn to lead or follow. etc. many times. Students should be helped in finding projects.24 Project The project method is a teaching in which students individually or in-groups accept an assignment to gather and integrate data relative to some problem and are then free to fulfil the requirements independently of the teacher. Be sure the subject is specifically defined and understood by the students involved. Great care must be taken to the selection of the project. or it can evolve from class discussions. often make many errors. Provide enough supervision to ensure maximum progress. Advantages • The project approach covers all levels of the cognitive and affective domains. • Pupils can be involved in planning the project that increases interest and motivation. jury trial. • Emphasis is placed upon doing by the student. • Students. Projects are usually done by individuals and many times take the form of a model or presentation as the final product. Some projects sometimes take the form of a large-scale city map. Projects give students the opportunity to work independently and to gain in-depth knowledge of a specific area. Sometimes projects are creative. due to academic immaturity. Well-known examples of projects are seen at science fairs. which have meaning for them but which are also meaningful in terms of the goals of the subject. . it becomes research. and.

comprehension and retention should be of longer duration. Next. a social studies class might become concerned about what will happen to the dictatorship when a dictator dies? The class members discuss various alternatives and then finally state their hypothesis: When a dictator dies. Advantages • Because the student has been actively involved. These steps are: (1) defining the problem. evaluate. • Problem solving develops responsibility in the learner. • Evaluation of learning is difficult.25 Problem solving The name problem solving is assigned to learning approaches built upon the scientific method of inquiry. The degree to which the hypothesis is supported or denied by the evidence determines the conclusion. • Interest in learning and motivation are increased with the use of problem solving. The problems presented must fit the maturation and skill levels of the student. This alone justifies it as one of the most valuable of all strategies. Check for sufficient resources and materials to be available for student use. and (5) testing these conclusions. they would select. An added benefit in utilising this strategy is that students become adept at digging up information and cross checking its validity with other resources. organise and interpret data. The data could either support or deny the hypothesis. Expose the student to a number of similar problems. Disadvantages • Materials and resources needed for problem solving often are not available to the students. Provide direction and guidance when necessary. generalising. (4) reaching conclusions. the dictatorship ends. taking care not to overdo it. organising and interpreting data. For example. (2) formulating tentative hypotheses. and synthesising. • Problem solving provides the student with a model to apply to problem that may be faced in the future. Assist pupils in defining and delimiting the problem to be studied. • Problem solving is time consuming. Next a conclusion would be reached regarding what happens to the dictatorship when the dictator dies. evaluating. • Problem solving involves cognitive and affective learning. • Students learn how to think independently in reaching conclusions. They would study dictators throughout history and what happened to the dictatorship upon the death of the dictator. Problem solving moves the mind to some of its highest cognitive functions: analysing. • Problem solving provides the opportunity for students to learn from failure without severe hardships. . These approaches are built upon John Dewey’s five steps of general problem solving. • Students are often too immature to really recognise problem of social significance. (3) collecting.

or both. the desired outcomes of which are achieved by setting up situations in such a form that the student gathers and organises information. although initially motivated. and the flexibility to make contacts necessary for such input. reach conclusions. etc. the logicality and definity of this type of individual study. and report the findings. boring. students must make judgements. upon the research skills and processes involved. students may often have difficulty judging the importance of data acquired through research. Decide beforehand whether the purpose of the research is the knowledge learned or the research process or both. Build in checks or student progress reports to ensure the direction of the research. Research is highly interesting to some students. Advantages • Student research lets the student understand how a researcher in a particular field works. draws his own conclusions on the basis of data. Spend time preparing students by helping them develop research skills before embarking upon a research project. Provide students with opportunities to share their findings with peers. This might be library time or first-hand gathering of information from local and state agencies. Disadvantages • Research can be very time consuming. But it is not for everyone. The student may conduct this research in a laboratory situation or a nonlaboratory situation or a combination of both. • Students. increased motivation. . (2) gathering and compiling data. The non-laboratory research is usually some type of library resource. The rewards of properly supervised and earnest carrying out of student research can be great: thought organisation. • Research may require more materials and equipment than are available. and so informed the students. The classroom focus of student research can be either upon the knowledge gained. Certain students thrive on the independence. and (3) posing tentative solutions. • Research can provide motivation as the student actively seeks answers. Make certain the topics to be researched are well defined and understood by the student. and compares his results with those obtained by other investigators’. • In using research. and feeling of accomplishment. A student doing research needs input. activism. in-depth knowledge of a specific area. A teacher must spend adequate preparatory time with the student in the foundations of research: (1) defining the problem. • By conducting research. • Research by students prepares the students to direct their own learning in the future when faced with a new problem. facilities and equipment for research are available. Be sure the necessary materials. and a sense of responsibility.26 Student research The research approach in teaching is defined as ‘an instructional procedure. may lose interest if the research leads up blind alleys (topic too difficult. student not only learns content but also develops various research skills. Base the type of research upon the students’ level of research sophistication. or the lengthy). • Due to immaturity or limited subject matter comprehension. investment. and a total bore for others.

It is especially difficult for those teachers who are in the habit of seeing ‘the group’ rather than individual that composes the group.’ In other words. Accurate perception is invaluable to the proficient teacher. we shall define observation as ‘astute perception by the teacher of the multiply–faceted student behaviour. Observation is perception. An ‘observer’ is usually thought of as an unobtrusive person sitting in the corner passively watching students. . How else is a teacher to judge when and how to plug indifferent strategies if he is not gaining accurate input on student needs and desires? Most of us are fairly poor observers. the teacher should be aware of ‘what is happening ‘. Usually not principals or pay checks. and learning problems while in the midst of a dynamic classroom situation. attitudes. To be constantly cognisant of what is transpiring through out the class is not an easy task.27 Chapter 5 STRATEGIES FOR LARGER GROUPS Observation Observation is probably more of a teacher skill than a strategy. its importance is so crucial to effective utilisation of other strategies and it is so intricately intertwined with all of them. as it is the major and only immediate way to learn of student reactions to the general environment and particular learning segments. The teacher is supposed to reinforce students towards progress. However. if practised can be one of the most rewarding steps ever taken. Observation. It might be the fundamental strategy underlying effective utilisation of all other strategies. that it becomes almost imperative to treat it as a ‘pure form’ strategy. It is of utmost importance to be ‘omnisciently observant’. which motivates the teacher to improve. It is purely on the teacher’s shoulders to be mature and professional enough to take a step and enjoy the feeling of ‘doing better’. It is a rare teacher who has the luxurious opportunity to observe his own students performed. Therefore.

). testing or diagnostics lesson the effect of problem-attention due to the time-delay. hygiene care. utilising AV material. etc. passing out papers. you must constantly attune art of your observation powers to the classroom atmosphere. • There is a tendency to ‘play favourites’. lecturing.) and a person ‘observing’ (alert to physiological.) and needs (diet supplements. The teacher’s eye becomes so discerning that a mountain of information can be compiled with a few glances around the classroom. • There is a tendency to watch for only negative occurrences. socio-emotional. Never neglect your built-in ‘environmental thermostat’. co-ordination. Advantages • Through observation much can be learned concerning student physiological problems (hearing. • As the teacher becomes increasingly aware of the effects of various strategies in different situations (and alters teaching approaches on the basis of that information) he becomes a constantly self-improving professional always seeking a better way. etc. It requires determined practise of separating oneself into two people—a person ‘teaching’ (demonstrating. learning. Many potential learning problems can be eliminated by prompt action ultimately saving a great deal of energy and discomfort on the part of both teacher and student. speech. and observe only children who are pleasing to watch. etc. Despite looking for particular behaviours. • Observation yields a great deal of information about the learner’s socio-emotional development. • The inclination is to be solely on the alert for particular and thus fail to sense the total classroom atmosphere. there by falling to notice accentuate positive traits being exhibited. Practice at looking for particular traits or behaviours eventually sharpen the teacher’s observation powers beyond belief. A daily skill goal should be established and carried out in all contacts with students. where as. Until we have the ability to enter other peoples’ minds to see actually why they do the things they do. we must restrict our descriptions to observable behaviour.28 The teacher should plan on the necessary self-training in observation skills. Observations should be as objective as possible. Disadvantages • It is difficult to become a sharp observer. vision. • Keen observations eliminate many discipline problems before they occur. • Observation provides immediate information and feedback. . bodily defects. and behavioural aspects). clothing.

. • If the audio portion of the demonstration does not fit the visual portion it can confuse the student. If feasible. Advantages • Demonstration adds to learning by giving students the opportunity to see and hear what is actually happening. science. • Demonstration is especially beneficial in the areas of skills. When it is time to put on the demonstration make sure all materials are at hand. poor one defeats. Naturally. • Demonstration is an excellent technique for utilising community resource persons. principles and concepts for which words are inadequate. and athletics. At the conclusion of the demonstration. which in tern is good for public relations. Practice or rehearse the demonstration in its entirety with an eye on time limitations. conduct a brief review of the steps involved or a short summary of what has happened. • Demonstration is difficult to use with affective and higher level cognitive learning. It is commonly used in conjunction with a short explanatory lecture. mathematics. music. Demonstration is especially useful in the arts. Make sure seating arrangements are such that the audience can see and hear. Demonstration utilises both auditory and visual means of communication. A good demonstration inspires. Spend the necessary time to plan and develop the needed materials for the demonstration. • Demonstration can be used to illustrate ideas. have a student or two to replicate the demonstration. • A demonstration can be ineffective if the demonstrator only ‘shows and tells’ without feedback.29 Demonstration Demonstration is the process wherein one person does something in the presence of others in order to show them how to do it or to illustrate a principle. • Good demonstrations hold the learner’s attention. • Good demonstrations set performance standards. Utilise questions during the demonstration to provide feedback. • Demonstrations can be financially economical since only the demonstrator needs materials. One of the greatest benefits of demonstration is showing how something is accomplished properly or expertly. then. the demonstration should be properly prepared to ensure that this goal is achieved. Disadvantages • Demonstration requires much planning and preparation by the demonstrator. • Demonstration can lead to imitation without understanding.

and present their findings that lead into a whole-class discussion. In order to insure that the discussion reaches a level higher than a ‘sharing of ignorance’. It is a means for increasing student involvement. This is the preparation for students to become proficient speakers/listeners and worthwhile contributing citizens – a goal found in every school philosophy. rather than an osmotic process from teacher to student. clarifies Students’ comments. research the topic. The forum is a specific discussion type in which a small number of students present information to the large group. In buzz sessions. In utilising panels. discuss their data. Discussion does demand erstwhile supervision and guidance by the teacher. the teacher must plan sufficient learning activities prior to the discussion. debates. Debate is generally used in the classroom as a small-group technique with a small number of students teamed on either side of an issue. Reports of the results of the various buzz groups are then presented to the entire class. It does involve the coverage of academics. which should stimulate whole-class discussion. Primarily. Discussion to develop and share ideas is a dynamic. Finally the topic itself should be one which has some degree of personal relevance for the students. Whatever the case. The whole class discussion is the type generally referred to when teachers employ the discussion method. During discussion the active listener is also a truly participant. It is schooling in social interaction. the teacher can enter into a whole-class discussion on the issue. and makes tentative summaries to help students achieve understanding of the topic. the presenters then solicit questions on the topic from the audience. The student must be prepared. universal activity. Each of the types presented can be utilised in either a modified form or in combination with each other. The students comprising the panel then organise themselves. Upon the conclusion of the presentation. courtesy. It involves a sharing of ideas between students. The teacher simply leads an informal discussion involving the class as a whole. leadership/fellowship.30 Discussion Discussion is an activity in which people talk together in order to share information about a topic or problem or to seek a possible solution. panels. Discussion is a most important strategy on a number of levels. Upon conclusion of the debate. asks questions. the topic should be stated as an issue to polarise viewpoints. buzz-sessions. as the director of the discussion. The teacher must be prepared and must be familiar with the content to be considered the characteristics of group activity. and conversation. students are placed in small groups for a specific amount of time to discuss a given issue or topic. the teacher can divide the class into groups of three to six students. each side is given a specific amount of time to present its side of the issue. The topics of discussion should be properly stated. and the materials and resources available to the students. the words used to phrase the issue should be terms familiar to the students. . and forums. Discussion may be implemented in a variety of ways. Secondly. It is not casual but skilfully structured. It is an organised talk and not purposeless conversation. Each type has its own characteristics. The types of discussion available to the teacher include whole-class discussions. thought organisation. teachers should properly use the approach in terms of its inherent characteristics. The teacher.

The moderator clarifies the concepts. which will enhance the student learning. psychological.31 In introducing the subject matter to be discussed. well defined terms to the students. Disadvantages • Discussion activities are usually more time consuming than more direct approaches. • It is possible that a topic will be such that the students get carried away. and skill development of the student. • Careful observation of the behaviour of students in-group activities provide the teacher with much information related to the social. Student discussion should not be evaluated for grading purposes. The teacher serves as a moderator of the discussion while in progress. and meaningless. • Discussion often break down. • There is a problem of evaluating the student. • Discussion has a positive effect upon the mental activity of the student. Look for follow up activities. or processes undergone. The discussion has been in vain if the students are unaware of the conclusions reached. or become a rambling. Such a finding can lead to a significant attitudinal change on the part of the student. a given student finds his own values and beliefs challenged. lag. writing the topic on the board or in handout material is well worth the effort. • Teachers often become frustrated because discussion may fail to lead to a conclusion. position taken on the issue. Successful discussions will lead naturally into follow up activities. emotional. the question or issue should be presented in very specific. some students may never participate while a few may tend to dominate. Advantages • Discussion techniques get at attitude development. makes tentative summaries. This is the only way to encourage students to freely and honestly contribute to the discussion. In fact. • It aids the student in the development of a positive self-concept. By engaging in meaningful discussion with fellow students. states conclusions. • In discussion. . and keeps the discussion on track. • It develops ‘discussion’ skills.

thus eliminating the feedback leading to miscommunication. Revise lecture approach on the basis of the feedback. Avoid pure lecture by utilising questions during the lecture. Try to stir students’ imagination by painting with vivid word pictures. What are their specifics needs and interests? Goals should mesh with these needs and interests to eliminate the boredom and to help the students grow. Always allow ample opportunity for questions to come from the students. Know the overall goals and specific objectives while planning the lecture. and one of the most ineffective because it is overused. lectures are ineffective because they place a learner in a very passive posture. demonstration materials.32 Lecture The lecture is the traditional method of teaching wherein lecturer transmits information in an autocratic fashion to passive student listeners. The degree to which this happens is determined to some extent by the attitude of the lecturer while making the presentation. Disadvantages • Lengthy or overly frequent lectures can easily lead to boredom. sweet. utilisation of equipment. In the pure form. Watch the audience. It is the oldest form of teaching. abused and misused. models and other visuals. Know the audience. The lecture should be well organised so that the logic is as perceivable as possible. Lectures should be short. The chalkboard serves as a useful tool for outlining or emphasising important points. • Lecture provides practice for the students in learning to develop note-taking skills. and to the point when they are necessary. handouts. students have no opportunity to ask questions or offer comments during the lecture. Both are attention getters and one has added benefit of requiring mental answer-search on the part of the students as well as feedback mechanism to enable the lecturer to measure audience absorption. The lecture is most effective in clarifying or demonstrating a procedure or skill. Vary the lecture by utilising interest arousing aids such as pictures. • Lecture provides students with an organised perspective of the content to be considered. This includes planning of methodology. Advantages • The lecture is most useful in introducing a new topic of study or presenting certain back ground material that students need for preparation of further study. Generally speaking. Avoid monotonous type of lecturing by varying voice stress and intensity. • The lecture has difficulty in assessing impact on the audience and whether needs and interests are being met. daydreaming and sometimes create discipline problems. Two kinds of questions may be used: (1) the kinds you ask – poise – and answer yourself (rhetorical) and (2) the kind you expect student to answer. Lecture assumes that the lecturer knows all and the student is ignorant. . Their actions (attentions) will reveal the effectiveness of the lecture. This lack of activity is extremely conducive to boredom. etc. and this automatically turns off some listeners. • Individuals in the group are not permitted to ask questions. • Lecture permits a large audience to receive quick and useful information.

.33 • • • Detailed and factual information is difficult to ‘communicate’ or ‘relate’ in such a setting. Students seldom achieve higher level cognitive learning since they do not actively work with the information being considered. Affective (attitudes) learning seldom occurs due to a lecture.

3. The pause provides time to think – respect that period of silence. The vocabulary you use should be clear to the students. 6. the more difficult types of questions to be used. 5. ‘when’. Questions should not suggest a ‘right’ answer. It is desirable to take the time to write out such questions on note cards or the margin of the text. 4. sometimes referred to as the question – and – answer method. Structure in advance. Questions should be concise. In planning. all the questions you ask should reflect your awareness of the basics of question construction. For higher thought levels. 7. the responsibility of the teacher is to first plan properly and then to execute effectively. Push student’s responses to ‘why’ and ‘how’ questions to higher levels of thought by asking for more explanation. 8. then call on a student to answer. Summarise complicated or ambiguous answers to questions. as it is the surest way to insure low response on future questioning. When using questions with individuals. His questions demand thinking. Students should not be required to participate in a guessing game to find out what your answer is. . Questions should not be worded so as to call for a yes or no answer. be sure to randomly sample class responses. 4. the teacher should: 1. is defined as a method both of instruction and of oral testing based on the use of questions to be answered by the pupils. 2. Use ’who’.34 Questioning Questioning. 3. ‘what’. ` An effective question-asked is as beautiful to watch (listen to) as a fencer. Inspiration is given by the teacher for the student to move beyond memorising thought function to higher levels of thinking. state the question. 7. 5. He knows when and what to ask. use ‘why’ and ‘how’ questions. not just factual recall. 1. Good questioning techniques aid and stimulate the listener to reason. pause. Avoid asking any negative comments after an incorrect answer. Whatever may the purpose of the questions to be asked by the teacher. If questions are to be used for either review or pre-assessment purposes. Decide upon the purposes of the questions to be used. Be reasonably lavish in the use of ‘good’ or other words of praise to students who give correct answers. evaluate and even create. This leads all students to listen to the question. and ‘where’ questions to check information possessed by students. The contrast between your experience background and that of your students must be considered. 2. 8. 6. A question should not suggest its own answer. It takes a certain measure ego-elimination on the part of the teacher to relinquish the desire to furnish all the answers and allow the students to use their own cognitive abilities. Some questions should be used that require thought and an extended answer. What types of questions are to be asked? Although you might not be able to pre-plan all your questions.

3. whereas other lessons require more thought. 5. Maintain a balance between calling on volunteers and non-volunteers. If several partial answers are given. depending upon the learner and the content of the lesson. 10. Do not discourage volunteering. 6. Why) are the southern states? Define photosynthesis What is the main idea? How is the major character portrayed? What is the latitude of New Delhi? Sarla has one rupee. Ask the question first. athletic interests. When. how many 15 paise stamps can she buy? What does this paragraph tell us about the author’s life? How are plants and animals alike/different? What is a good title for this LOWERLEVEL THINKING Comprehension Describe Summarise Solve Show Application Analysis Infer Compare HIGHER- Synthesis Create . 7. Where. 4. If you ask a question requiring some thought then provide the time for students to formulate and phrase an adequate response. Certain lessons require more recall. 2. a student might be asked to summarise those responses. Avoid repeating answers or questions. school activities. 9. It is found that different levels of questions are effective. Classification of questions There are six levels of questions. Students should always be expected to evaluate the responses made in class. Every question should carry the lesson forward.35 9. Bring non-volunteers (non-participants) into the lesson by learning about their hobbies. The following table shows the lower to higher levels of students’ thinking skills. interests. Constantly listen to your own questions with the same critical listening ability you wish to instil in your students. QUESTION TYPE Knowledge STUDENT BEHAVIOUR Recall Recite EXAMPLE QUESTIONS What (Who. 11. Questions must be adjusted to suit the needs of the students. Try to involve as many of your students in a lesson as possible. There should be no predictable system for calling on students. 12. 8. Design questions that differ in their order of difficulty. and then select the person to answer it. A student who gives good answer should be complimented. 10. How can questions be presented effectively? 1.

f) Encourage new appreciation and attitudes. extend. This sequence illuminates questions that are used to initiate. and close interaction. • Questions are sometimes used as a control device and students are more apt to pay attention to what is going on in class. • Students feel encouraged memorising. Within each lesson. neglecting higher levels of learning. h) Relate cause to effect. b) Diagnose student difficulties. i) Encourage student self-evaluation. . e) Clarify and expand concepts. g) Give specific direction to thinking. • Questions can serve as a means of feedback for the teacher in understanding an individual student and/or the whole class. comprehension. synthesis. Questions do not always fit easily into these designated levels. • Several incorrectly answered questions often prompt teachers to feel more time should be spent lecturing than questioning. teachers need to plan a sequence for the types of questions they ask. d) Motivate students. Advantages • Correctly asked questions serves the following purposes: a) Stimulate analytical thought. and evaluation rather than to measure factual learning. application.36 LEVEL THINKING Evaluation Predict Judge Choose painting? How can we help the poor? Do you believe in capital punishment? Which soft drink is best? The classification of questions to a higher level is useful for promoting various kinds of thinking. c) Determine progress toward specific goals. • Questions may be organised to serve the purpose of measuring learning on the levels of information. synthesis or evaluation. analysis. • It is difficult to design certain types of questions to measure analysis. Disadvantages • Questioning is a slower process in dealing with information than the lecture. j) Encourage the application of concepts.

Role-playing promotes tolerance and acceptance of diverse viewpoints likely to differ from their own. An atmosphere of freedom and security must exist in the classroom. Because of the active participation demanded of learners in role-playing. Define roles in terms of the situation. . or circumstances by selected members of learning group. This is especially useful in helping students understand the circumstances of different ethnic and cultural backgrounds. or principal – teacher – angry parent. This process involves both cognitive and attitudinal learning. 4.37 Role-playing Role-playing is an instructional technique involving a portrayal (acting out) of a situation. Assign roles and assure internalisation. This eliminates straying or turning a learning situation into a comedy. 5. Conduct debriefing session. • Affective learning can be taught and/or effectively evaluated. The situation to which the person responds may be either structured or unstructured. Design the situations and roles in sufficient detail in advance. • Role-playing can develop social skills. thus allowing him an opportunity to perceive how others might feel. Learn role descriptions. A roleplay has a unique value in that it is the only strategy that gets the student into another ‘identity’. • This method provides the student with the opportunity to ‘feel’ the situation rather than merely intellectualise about it. • The student is activated. It is highly recommended that the roleplayers thoroughly understand their role and its limits and the situation of the scene prior to enactment. This is utilised well in teacher education preparation classes where scenes such as problem child – parent – teacher. The class members who are to observe should take notes and be instructed to what to look for. condition. Upon completion of the activity evaluation of the students’ performance should take place. Disadvantages • Students sometimes emphasise performance over the intended lesson. Develop the scenario. the strategy frequently is highly motivating for learners. can be experienced. think and act. • Role-playing is time consuming. 3. Conduct activity phase. The actors should be given a short time to get their thoughts together. Certain portions of the activity may be improved with re-enactment. • Students are being prepared for actual situations to be faced. 2. • A system of communication based on action rather than words is used. Role-playing provides learners with opportunities to become acquainted with the perceptions of people other than themselves. Advantages • In role-playing the student expressing feelings and attitudes. • How students fit into their role gives an indication of their knowledge of the situation. The role-playing strategy develops according to the following sequence of events: 1. Another valid use of role-playing is in a problem-solving situation where different roles are placed in conflict with each other.

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• • • •

Some students are unable to identify with the characters or situation. Those students with talent often monopolise the situation. Students often ‘carried away’ in their roles. Playing roles demands some imagination on the part of the group.

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Simulation gaming
Simulation is an elaborate type of role-playing, gaming, and socio-drama in which students stimulate models of real-life situations. It invites participants to develop decision-making competencies while striving for established objectives, usually using competition between two teams. Simulation games are produced by commercial enterprises, but these can be designed by the classroom teacher. Generally, the teacher devises rules and objectives to the game and provides roles for various students. The greatest thing going for the stimulation gaming strategy is its intrinsic motivation. All kids love games, competition, and ‘winning’. Whether you feel this aspect is the major emphasis of stimulation or not, the children do. Failure to capitalise on this enthusiastically will undermine all the preparation and time you invested to get across the lesson. The most frequent problem is getting started, and secondly, rule interpretation as the game progresses. The teacher is crucial to both of these. She must act as explainer of the game’s objective and methods prior to play and as a referee during the game. A great deal of the success of the experience rests upon how well this is done. If commercially made simulation game is used then you need to be completely familiar with the game and prepare your class by a) allowing sufficient time for the play; and b) carefully explaining the rules of the game. All simulation games include directions for play, summarising the activity, and relating it to ‘realty’. These should be strictly adhered to. If you desire to construct your own simulation situation, the following suggestions should be considered: 1. In order to produce transferable results, the model must possess fidelity in its representation of reality. 2. Purpose and major focus must be clearly understood. 3. Rules for simulation games must be established. 4. The sophistication of the game usually increases its instructional potential. 5. Game design must result from rigorous experimentation. 6. Simulation of all types should be evaluated in terms of the established objectives. 7. Learners in games must be free to carry out their own decisions, even when making mistakes; and the feedback of the consequences should be rapid and clear. 8. Opportunity and space must be provided for free, uninhibited movement and for flexibility of grouping. 9. An open climate should be maintained, free from leader domination. 10. The scope of the simulation should be limited to selected critical aspects of actions or processes. 11. Creativity on the part of leaders and students is required. 12. Accurate information and facts are essential. 13. Reasonable assurance for intelligent use can be increased by setting significant goals and by previous testing. 14. Simulation should provide for teaching both the cognitive and the affective areas. 15. In the main, decisions must be sufficiently satisfying and rewarding to provide adequate motivation. 16. Provision must be made for developing generalisation.

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17. The situation should be repeatable in its original form so that follow-up can be provided. Advantages • Simulation is appealing, motivates intense effort, and increasing learning. • Success or failure is rapidly and readily recognisable. • Vividness, meaning, and potential for greater retention are added. • Simulation has demonstrated its power to generate deep emotional involvement. • Learning to act by acting, learning to make decision by making decisions, and learning to solve problem by solving problems are developed. • Simulation is particularly effective with under-motivated children. • Simulation allows for manipulation by simplifying the complexity of what the game represents. • Simulation can be used for the acquisition of information, improvement of new processes, and identification of alternatives is decision making. • Games lengthen the attention span and develop persistent application to work. • Pupils learn to cope with unpredictable circumstances. • Games illustrate vividly the relationship between decision making and its consequences. • The need for constant communication between players teaches social integration. • Games are effective in teaching values and attitudes. • The cost and time necessary for involvement in the real world are reduced. Disadvantages • At best, simulation is very artificial and over simplified. • Games place too much emphasis on competition. • Models are too rigid and narrow in their applicability. • Simulation takes too long to get to the heart of a lesson. • Teachers employing simulation may be looked upon as allowing too much freedom and disorder. • Games cannot be readily adapted to the peculiar needs of an individual or a particular class. • Simulation cannot be a substitute for real, direct experience. • Students who have minor role lose interest. • A complex model confuses; if it is simple, it bores.

it is vitally important to student progress for teachers to conference daily on learner problems and achievements and to plan assistance for or promotion of these areas. As such. • Large group presentations make possible more efficient use of time and resources. and to provide information beneficial for the entire class. co-operate and communicate openly and honestly. Disadvantages • Team teaching calls for special physical facilities to provide for large group-small group arrangements. Individual study may help students pursue areas of individual need and interest and develop the skills associated with individual inquiry. State the objectives of the experiment and design the evaluation procedure in advance of its use. • The use of small group and individualised study provides for individual student needs. Team members selected should be those who possess needed personal qualities for co-operation as well as instructional competence. . All the finest materials. teaching and evaluation by the team members stimulate the professional growth of the teachers involved. and evaluate a group of students. Advantages • Team teaching capitalises upon the special competencies. Besides scheduling and material arrangement the most important facet of team teaching is the personalities of the teachers involved. or on a grade-level basis. • Joint planning. It is paramount to the success of this strategy that the teachers involved like each other. In the planning session define the roles to be played by each team member. the peculiarities of the arrangement itself offer certain dimensions or parameters to be considered. small groups. plans and facilities will not make team teaching work if the teachers cannot work together. an interdepartmental or inter disciplinary pattern. which many buildings do not have. teach. Teams may be organised on a departmental basis. thus providing an enrichment experience. However. Small groups may be best to discuss large group presentations and topic of student interest. the various strategies discussed earlier are applicable to the team teaching arrangement. • Teachers have more time for planning. Provide time and resources for the team members to prepare thoroughly. • Students will be exposed to several teachers with different background and approaches. small groups and individual study. Teaching team may include student teachers and/or paraprofessional personnel. talents and interests of each teacher. preparation and follow up. • Students may be grouped on an educational basis rather than on administrative basis. • The use of large groups. to summarise or conclude a unit. and individual study conducted by various team members provides more interesting and less monotonous routines in the area of traditional strategies. Large group activity is most appropriate to introduce a new topic or unit. • Team teaching may be used for all or a part of the students’ day.41 Team teaching Team teaching is an arrangement in which two or more teachers co-operatively plan. In the area of communication. Most team teaching arrangements include instruction to large groups.

. but its actual application is more complex for administrators as well as teachers.42 • • • • • The cost per student of team teaching is often higher than more traditional approaches. and individual study is often extremely complicated and difficult to communicate without misunderstanding. Team teaching is attractive and seems simple. The scheduling of the large groups. Specialisation on the part of the teachers may be carried to the point that the student loses sight of the whole subject or teaching/learning goals. small groups. Team-teaching may in actually be meetings the needs of the teachers rather than those of the students.

3. In solving the problem. As with any instructional approach. 2. . which enables students to find the answers themselves. Make frequent use of visual aids. This is more of a process approach as opposed to the usual emphases in education on production. which has been previously discovered. that is. analyse. In practice. Make use of contemporary materials. The following guidelines may be used: 1. Introduce applications of the subject. Use topics from the subject. In other words. 6. manage and supervise the lesson. which force students to think. The intent is that the student will discover for himself. Discovery is frequently used in science and mathematics. Provide for laboratory experiences. Provide opportunity for guessing. The problem situations as a dilemma deliberately created by the teacher.43 Chapter 6 STRATEGIES FOR SPECIAL USE Discovery Discovery is a teaching strategy. the student studies history the same way that a historian does or the way in which a biologist studies biology. and make generalisations. Discovery is really a rediscovery. The teacher provides the materials and the students provide the discovering. the teacher’s role is to provide a situation that allows students to see a contradiction between what they already know and newly discovered knowledge. In implementing discovery. the degree to which discovery learning is successful is determined by the ability of the teacher to plan and execute effectively. In discovery students are involved in learning how to learn. draw conclusions. 5. directed discovery is utilised more than pure discovery as the teacher generally creates the conditions under which the ‘discovery’ is to occur. 7. the teacher creates a situation in which the student is faced with a problem. Thus. 4. Introduce new topics with innovative teaching strategy. the student uses raw data and behaves in the manner required by the nature of the discipline and the problem.

retention will be increased. Have more trusts in students. • The rewards inherent in discovering something provide the student with intrinsic motivation. • Most of the present textbooks and materials available to the teacher are written for exposition rather than discovery. • The pupil is provided with numerous opportunities to draw inferences from data by logical thinking. Teach with enthusiasm. 10. either inductive or deductive. • Discovery operates at the higher levels of the cognitive domain. . 9. The depth of information to be handled and the time needed for the discovery must be gauged in terms of the student’s skill level and maturation. Disadvantages • Permitting students to discover their own knowledge is very time consuming. 12. Setting up the problem and the conditions for the discovery requires detailed and thorough planning. Use motivation. • Some students just seem unable to make intended discovery. Discovery should be used only when you have enough subject matter mastery to handle unexpected ‘discoveries’. • The student often gets bogged down or loses direction before the problem is solved. Be open to problem as they arise and be willing to learn along with the students. Refrain from interfering with students’ work. Set the stage for student discovery.44 8. Advantages • Since the student actively discovered the information and knowledge. • Students develop the skills and attitudes essential for self-directed learning. • Discovery helps the student learn how to learn. Be certain that proper materials and raw data are available. • The student develops interest in what is being studied. 11. thus equipping the student to handle new problematic situations.

Make sure students are practising with correct information or processes. ‘what’s 9x9?’ Your response should be ‘81’ instantly without thinking about it. Overused drill is a sure-fire method of dulling cognitive abilities and prompting discipline problems. since both are built on repetition – doing it over and over – drill and practice are used synonymously. It is a practice closely paralleled by programming a computer. It means the percentage of class time spent on drill exercises should be minimal. • In skill development. It has nothing to do with elevating mental functioning or making better citizens. Use games and contests to add interest to drill. The aim of drill is the fixation of correct information or skill through repetition. Make sure students see the purpose of the drill or practice. repetitious practice is essential to build competence and technique mastery. Provide the opportunity for students to apply that which is mastered through drill. Over-practice produces boredom and fatigue.45 Drill Although there are many sub-types. The teacher should remember that this is the only purpose of drill. or performance learning is the objective. The function of drill is solely to create automatic response to specific stimuli. Some use the term drill only for the mental ideas and practice for motor activity. drill is a teaching technique intended to bring about automatic accuracy and speed of performance in any subject. • Students can build their own association of information through drill. If you were effectively drilled in multiplication and some one came up behind you and said quickly. . • Information acquired through drill will not be retained long without use. • Overuse of drill can lead students to believe in memorisation as an end. Advantages • Drill is especially applicable to psychomotor and low level cognitive learning. Football drills in throwing an effective block are designed to teach the player to do it automatically. • It can be a means of creating motivation in student tutorial situation. Disadvantage • Drill can become boring and monotonous. • Drill can reduce learning to a purely mechanical act. However. Use drill only when automatic speed and accuracy.

The interview is especially helpful in practising a one-on-one situation such as a guidance counsellor-student interview or a student-citizen interview on a pre-established question or problem. • Interviewing helps develop rapport between the school and the community. • It can be used as an individual or total class project. • Interviewing requires a co-ordinated effort of all involved. Record the data. (2) knowing the information desired from the interview. Evaluate and report the findings. • It is especially useful in collection of information related to community attitudes regarding their personal opinion. • Through the use of this strategy. Disadvantages • The teacher must spend a substantial amount of time helping students develop questioning techniques. State the issue. • The class may not be of sufficient maturity to face the obligations required in performing interviews. It is closely related to the survey in that both seek to develop data – one by oral questioning and the other through written response. 2. Interview is a good strategy. 5. information can be collected quickly regarding an issue or a problem. . a specific group. which often disrupts school or administrative routines. creates a vacuum. Elicit a response to the issue. An interview is performed in a systematic fashion within a few simple guidelines: 1. A successful interviewer rivets his attention to the person being interviewed as if the rest of the world has disappeared.46 Interview The interview is basically a data-gathering technique using pre-planned questions to determine the feelings and attitudes of an individual. It teaches students to gather information in a logical and respectful fashion from a most valuable temporary resource – another human being. which draws out information from the subject. or seeking opinions from high public officials and other select individuals. It may be used in random sampling of a few people to establish a trend. and (3) knowing what questions need to be asked to accumulate that information. in effect. or the community on an issue of high interest. the school. Outline the general plan. • It helps bring the pupil face-to-face with community realities. • This is an excellent method for collecting data from individuals and groups. 3. • Interviews tend to elicit personal opinions and may not be factual. • Students tend to take sides as an issue rather than remain neutral. Close the interview. An important facet of interviewing is the attitude of the person conducting the interview. Crucial to the success of the interview strategy is presentation in: (1) knowing the background of the interviewee. Establish rapport with the respondent. The interviewer. 6. 4. • The data is often difficult to interpret and report. Advantage • Interviews encourage students to plan and think in a systematic fashion. question or problem. question or problem.

• Unless well organised. it can become wasted time and effort on the part of all concerned. • The activity may be carried out by individual students or in small groups. • This method is difficult to apply to all curricula. • Some students may develop a poor estimate of self-esteem if they experience slow progress or failure. Retention and interest increase with greater frequency and even creative thought is exercised.47 Laboratory Laboratory is a supervised learning activity carried out by the student studying a particular subject involving practical application of theory through observation. It requires facilities with flexibility. It is important to remember that laboratory learning teaches process as well as production. it reinforces the discovery and inquiry approaches to learning. • This strategy helps students to learn. • Costs may exceed the benefits. • It is an excellent motivational strategy. testing the hypothesis. • Laboratory is basically a problem-solving technique of short duration. • The teacher is free to offer individual assistance and instruction to those students needing special attention. Some structure is definitely necessary if predictable results are desired. Advantages • Students can capitalise on their own interests. • The maturity of the students may be insufficient to pursue long range goals established. • The laboratory strategy may cause the teacher to supervise individuals at the exclusion of the group. Success is determined mostly by teacher preparation and direction appropriate to the learner’s ability. Disadvantages • The approved projects must fit the abilities of the student. to generalise and to apply generalisation in new situations. • Laboratory simulates actual scientific experiments including the formation of hypothesis. If laboratory experiences are not always limited to cookbook experiments they can give students the opportunity to do learning as opposed to reading about other persons’ learning. . • As a learning activity. The use of this strategy requires close planning and co-ordination between the teacher and the learner. recording and reporting the findings. experimentation and research. • Learning may become mechanical and passive. Establish time limit for completion of laboratory work. • Individual student may lack the motivation to work alone. The approval of the projects must be within the capability of the student. • It is difficult to develop projects so that all students have equally challenging activities and experiences. Relate the results to previously studied material. Care must be taken to see that appropriate materials and supplies are available.

48 .

When evaluating learning. The strategy derives its name from the approach used by Socrates as he assumed the role of intellectual midwife. The teacher would then enter into a dialogue with the student. Be ready to shift gears if the attempt to use the Socratic approach bogs down. However. Begin by using the Socratic approach on a limited basis. In a typical classroom situation. . as teacher. which can only be done by attempting to use it. Socrates. the teacher’s questioning will be viewed as picky and critical by the students. • Students are challenged in utilising this technique properly.49 Socratic The Socratic Method is a process of discussion led by the teacher to induce the learner to question the validity of his reasoning or to reach a sound conclusion. it is threatening to the traditional role. the teacher would use the Socratic approach when the situation arises. Assure students that you are attempting only to get them to re-think their ideas and that you are not criticising them. attempted to follow the student’s argument wherever it led. • It is difficult to evaluate a student’s learning. preferably on attitudinal statements of students. values. It is a difficult strategy to master and requires a friendly ‘let’s-look-at-this’ relationship. attitudes and their logic or inconsistency. Advantages • The Socratic approach can be used in dealing with higher level cognitive and effective learning. and give credit accordingly. • Due to the spontaneous nature of the Socratic approach. • This method gets the student to think about what is said so he can really examine an issue in depth. Start with simple logic and gradually build to the complex. give students the opportunity to show the logic of their viewpoints. The Socratic strategy enables the teacher to aid the student in examining his own beliefs. which could be further pursued. It would be necessary for a student to make a statement. • While the teacher is in dialogue with one student. that negating the purpose of the strategy. • The degree of involvement on the part of the teacher can motivate the student. • Students often feel threatened when a teacher challenges their ideas. the other students in the class may lose interest. The key to Socratic approach is that the teacher’s comments and questions must unable the students to discover meaning for themselves. do continue to develop skill in using the approach. Disadvantages • It is extremely difficult to formulate the kind of question used in the Socratic approach. The Socratic approach was built upon the assumption that the knowledge was within the student and proper questioning and commentary could cause this knowledge to surface. If this atmosphere is not present. following the argument until the student had thoroughly questioned the answer and gained some insight into the logic used or the attitudes and beliefs held.

units and text books. Social interaction has been considered as an important condition for the development of creativity. The whole system is under rigid control of administration and there is no freedom at any stage. • Bring more stimuli into the learning experiences. The entire syllabus is prescribed and the child as well as the teacher is required to follow it rigidly. at least to some extent. there is hardly any opportunity for the child to develop thinking skill. The practical suggestions are as follows: • Develop curiosity and wide interest in intellectual matters at an early age. In the whole system. Developing creativity among children: The environmental conditions that are related to creativity are those which encourage and facilitate openness in thought and action and provide for discovery of new ideas. systematically and neatly organised as lessons. as some children prefer to learn by discovering rather than by authority.50 Chapter 7 SUB-STRATEGIES FOR GENERAL USE Creative thinking Creative thinking abilities can be developed to varying degrees among different individuals through a systematically organised programme of instruction. he may be able to make use of this ability and have the satisfaction of having realised his creative talents. in one field or another. For the development of creative thinking abilities non-authorised ways of learning have to be encouraged. It is true that we cannot turn each child into a highly creative person. but it is also true that each child during the period of his growth and development can be trained to think in a creative manner so that. we lay emphasis on giving the child ready made knowledge. • Include a variety of learning tasks in the day to day activities. It may be noticed that all the stages of education from primary through secondary right unto the college stage. .

generating new information from given data and arrived at varied and unusual solutions to problems. It is not always necessary to reward only the expected answers. taking self-initiated actions. These questions stimulate freethinking and also more participation of many children. Provide time for the full development of an idea. the divergent thinking abilities enable the individual to go off in many different directions. An essential element in this method is to have a group focus on a particular problem and then invite the members to give as many ideas as they can think up for possible solutions of that problem.51 • • • • • • • Ask questions that elicit unique or original responses. Let not the aid hamper or curb imagination. These provide scope for many possible answers. . giving unusual ideas. and inquisitiveness of children that are some of the essential components of creative thinking. as some students are slow starters. • Develop sensitiveness to children to the environment. Here the learner raises questions. research and problem solving. Develop progressive warm up for creative activities from simple to complex. Methods for teaching creativity: One of the methods used is Brain storming. Provide opportunities for imaginative activities. • Do not always insist on correct answers. corrects errors and arrives at conclusions. Allow the child to rethink or explore the correctness of his answer. Each will turn out as an activity for further exploration. • All children to challenge the assumptions underline the ideas presented by the teacher. • Appreciate openly whenever a child expresses creative behaviour like unusual questions. curiosity. etc. • Take care that a child is not ridiculed by his classmates for his answers to questions posed by you. • Creative learning involves skills of inquiry. There is a rather freewheeling of ideas and no criticism is allowed. Evaluation is made after all ideas have been presented. Let them list out as many problems as possible. Teacher may ask more of divergent thinking questions to encourage creativity. Break the usual set and make it possible for the new ideas to be developed. • Encourage children to pursue their hobbies. Let not the children feel the necessity for always giving correct answers. On the other hand. which stimulates exploration and creative thinking. • Provide as many stimuli and opportunities as possible for expression of ideas that should be continuous and in the areas of interest of children. Let there be learning. tests the guesses. There are two types of thinking – convergent and divergent. The convergent thinking abilities are those which are mainly responsible for dealing with the given information in a logical manner to arrive at a single right answer for any problem. They are found to be popular among creative children. • Use teaching aids judiciously. Accept and value unique responses when initiated by children. Avoid giving examples when seeking creative efforts. Research findings suggest the following guidelines for teachers to follow: • Pose open-ended divergent questions in the classroom wherever possible. makes guesses.

Allow children to think and express freely and find facts for themselves wherever possible. Avoid telling everything.52 • • • • • • • Discourage self-criticism. Do not encourage rote learning or memorisation of facts by children. . Try different ways of evaluating students. You may explore your creativity through the following activities (these are only suggestive): Try new ways of teaching the same unit. Suggest and involve yourself in various improvement programmes. Give various types of challenging assignments to your students.

• Assign students with varying abilities in-groups. When deciding to use co-operative learning. • Decide if co-operative learning groups are appropriate. Co-operative learning should be used regularly. and group dynamics. Summarise and evaluate students’ progress. and three middle achievers. a low achiever. Seek a balance between gender. or solve problems. It is important to make sure each group has the references and resources necessary to complete the assignment. learn information. It provides teachers and students with a strategy to learn information in a collaborative and interesting way. groups work together to perform tasks. Gather the materials and collect the resources necessary. The size and make up of the learning group will vary according to the activity. verbalising and discussing problems and solutions. Usually a group consists of a high achiever. think about students. ethnicity. Be certain this strategy is best suited for the content and information to be learned. on-task behaviour. working with social and academic outcomes. Make sure you provide shortterm summarisation to check each group’s progress and understanding. Sometimes co-operative learning groups can deal with activities that take place over a day or week. . The following information suggests ways to establish and implement co-operative learning in your classroom. Co-operative learning promotes higher achievement compared to individual learning.53 Co-operative learning Students in co-operative learning. A common arrangement is to use five students in a group. learning content from each other. Take time to model group behaviour and expectations by having one group in front of the class demonstrate how to maximise learning. • Teach students how to function in a group. but not necessarily every day. and economic background. Also indicate a level of evaluation and be sure students understand the criteria to be used in evaluating the group’s performance. prior to beginning the group activity. • Provide necessary materials. This strategy involves more than simply assigning students to a group.

Explain to students that inquiry is a way they can independently seek information to identify solutions to their problems. The question helps students seek solutions and formulate plans for seeking answers to the question. The inquiry process involves time to form. Use thought provoking questions to encourage students to hypothesise.54 Inquiry Inquiry relies on activities and resources to encourage finding solutions to questions investigated by students. infer. and analyse the information needed for their inquiry. Pose initial questions to organise students’ interests and investigation into a topic or a question. generalise. questions and problems to stimulate student thinking and interests. Students must have sufficient materials to select. Set time limits. teachers should guide students through inquiry process rather than allowing pure discovery. • Define the inquiry task. organise. . and evaluate. The teacher provides structure. Initially. and inquire. and conclude results. • Assist students in gathering information. Initiate inquiry with a question to help students focus on the topic. Allow time for students to share their findings with others. • Begin with a question. Help individual students gather. analyse. Plan and communicate the approximate amount of time needed to complete an inquiry. • Probe students’ thinking. reflect. Students should formulate their own questions for investigation.

These objects will help to make the information visual and tactile to appeal to a variety of senses and learning modalities. Point out the important steps and elements necessary to complete an assignment. Let class observe while you and selected students show what is expected and what is needed to complete instructional tasks. since many times peers can be very effective in helping other students to learn. illustrations and real objects. chalkboard.55 Modelling Students learn a great deal through observing and modelling others. you do not just tell students information. as in a lecture. transparencies. • Show expectations by doing them. In modelling. too. Label and describe each aspect of an assignment and what components make an exceptional example. . Model group projects and individual tasks with some of your students. Your students can help you. Modelling is a showing technique where you present or demonstrate information. • Use posters. • Provide several examples and tell how to arrive at the solutions. you also show them.

Whenever possible. students need to think about the possible outcome of each particular alternative. identify alternatives. Help students think of possible alternatives involved in decisions. and make a decision based on reasons. is a real life skill and students must be taught the techniques involved in the decision making process. they must identify the choices.56 Decision-making Decision-making. Students must be taught how to make a decision before we expect them to become proficient in this particular skill. • Identify problems for each alternative. • Define the decision making process. think about the consequences. When analysing and thinking about the alternatives. like problem solving. teachers should allow students to be involved in making decisions. In order for students to make a decision. Students in the learning process need to have the opportunity to make good choices from several alternatives. there is no need of a decision. Without alternatives. . • Identify possible alternatives. Approaches should incorporate strategies for students to make decisions related to their learning.

After alternatives and thoughtful analysis of outcomes has been discussed. . These decisions are based on the likelihood of the outcomes of the choice that meets their needs and desires. students should make decisions. Implement a plan of action.57 • Make the decision. Allow students the opportunity to organise ways to develop an action plan that will support their decision.

Change and alter the content to match student’s level. checking for understanding. Practice that promotes transfer of what was learned to a new situation or application to other situations. for example. • Assign homework/class work that is related to the information being taught.58 Homework/Assignment Homework means work that you do at home. Be sure that materials selected create an opportunity for success. . using measuring skills used in class to measure items at home. 4. 2. Review activities. Use this strategy in moderation as one way to provide practice and indicate the level of understanding. To determine what kind of homework. Students should have the knowledge and skills to do the assignment and should understand clearly how to do it. Integration activities. Provide examples and work several problems together. The following categories support appropriate homework assignments: 1. Relate homework/class work to the interest and maturity level of the students. for example. work and study habits. Gauge the reading level and the difficulty level of the material used. Practice that gets students ready for new subject matter. Practice through repetition. making a poster about nutrition showing the concepts and skills learned during a two week unit. Remember your direction giving. and providing a purpose. and selfreliance. they feel that homework helps them get good marks/grades. Homework is intended to extend teaching and learning outside the classroom. Rehearsal activities. Modify the amount of information to meet needs. Allow for differences and special needs of students by assigning more time when needed. Practice that reviews many skills and concepts and requires students to put them together. reading about a country to be studied and making a list of questions or unfamiliar terms. for example. Both educators and parents attribute to homework the development of personal responsibilities. for example. When students are asked. • Check difficult level. To determine how much homework. • Give clear instructions. These are important for student homework assignments. Preparation activities. spelling words or arithmetic tables. 2. Research has demonstrated a positive relationship between homework and achievement. To use this strategy effectively. 3. you have to make two important decisions: 1. Establish a procedure for students to ask questions while they are completing class work. Tell students and write on the chalkboard exactly what they used to do.

unlike many other instructional strategies. divergent thinking. 2.’ 4. originally developed as an aid to creative problem solving among management teams in corporations. No verbal or facial reactions to any suggestion are permitted. Once the session begins. The specific nature of the product of a given brainstorming session is not nearly as important as the process learners go through in generating that product.59 Brainstorming The strategy of brainstorming. Brainstorming attempts to break through inhibitions by encouraging public comment of all ideas. provides learners with a ‘pay off’ for the sorts of creative. This is accomplished by establishing a rigidly enforced ground rule of no public comment or reaction to any idea put forward. An important emphasis in brainstorming is the encouragement of quantity rather than quality of participants’ responses. like ‘a storm of the brain. attempts to unleash learners’ untapped reservoirs of thinking talents by encouraging them to pour forth as many ideas as possible that relate to a defined situations. Every suggestion. The strategy promotes creative thinking by calling forth innovative responses at no psychological cost to the participant. each learner has to call out his suggestion. Brainstorming evolved because of a realisation that people many times fail to tap their creative resources to make public a truly creative response to a problem situation. will be written down by the teacher for the group to see. no matter how ‘wild’. Brainstorming. Learners are asked to focus only on the problem situation. 5. . The brainstorming strategy moves forward after the teacher has made each of the following points: 1. The activity must be fast paced. 3.

medial or final. require careful planning to insure effective integration of the different aspects of that teaching-learning interaction. Effective summaries help develop an awareness of the essential unity and purpose of what was done. Use the summary as a springboard for the next work. It may also help to set the stage for further investigations. A summary is in order at any point in the lesson where a phase of a learning interaction comes to a logical end. they tie up the package in order to maximise the impact of each learning experience. Another function of the summary is to help students synthesise these ideas and formulate some statements or generalisation about them. The part of your planning for the summary segment of a lesson should be devoted to the preparation of a working chalkboard outline – a valuable summary instrument. Summaries will generally include a recapitulation of the aim of the lesson in terms of the extent to which it has been achieved. The purpose of any particular summary depends upon the learning activity that it is intended to complete. well-phrased statement of exactly what was learned during that time segment. All summaries. research or discussion. The creative dynamic summary can make cosmos out of chaos. . which leaves the student in possession of a clear.60 Summary Each lesson or a discrete part of a lesson should end with an activity.

Each adds another dimension and makes a unique contribution to the learning process. a large rupee is drawn to fill the transparency and flashed on the screen. It uses a sheet or a roll of transparent film. Audio-visual aids are devices. You can use it to display a study outline for your classroom or to list student ideas. • You can create suspense or a surprise. There are many different types of materials. the noise and light are distracting. to begin a unit of profit in an economics class. • Turn the projector off when not in use. You can prepare a sheet ahead of time by using a copy machine or writing with a transparency pen. • Use a piece of white cardboard to cover all the points or items except the one you are discussing. Unusual uses Teachers can make use of this stimulus for numerous activities: • Children take turns making shadow figures on the screen and the rest of the class guesses the figure. Overhead projector The overhead projector projects a written or graphic image on a screen or wall. For example. by projecting it to the whole class. Using it effectively Some guidelines are: • Keep your image simple and readable. • You can provide memory practice by projecting a list of words for a short time and then students write all the words they can remember. • You can share a small number of materials or materials too small to be seen by many students. . touch. You may also write on the transparency while teaching but it takes time and skill. which permit a more effective use of a multisensory approach to learning than just words can provide. audio-visual aids. thus the term. black for most writing and colour for interest only. • Use a good quality pen for making sheets. smell and taste – plays a role in formulating your reactions to any stimulus. • Check the seating of students for clear vision of the image. when such direct experiences are not feasible. or used commercially prepared materials. and techniques designed to act as worthwhile but vicarious experiences for your students. Then you must turn to one or more of a variety of materials. Its uses are not limited to any specific area and it is easily transportable. An advantage of using the overhead projector is that it allows you to face the students while teaching and still you can display your writing. equipment. sight. too much information is distracting.61 Audio-visual aids All learning is multi-sensory in nature and each of your senses – hearing. Most of these substitutes involve sight and hearing more than the other senses. There are times.

62 The overhead projector with transparencies offers stimuli to use with lecturing. “What is happening here?” or “What may happen next?” • Prompt creative writing. posing questions. Slide projector This machine projects pictures with intense images and you can keep the room lights on. discussion. An additional advantage comes with your use of pictures of real people. • Accompany the images with description and questions. Using in unusual way • Develop sequence skills. questioning. Slides can be taken by you. and fairly simple to use. • Review a class project or trip. useful for previewing. Simple projectors are lightweight. Show slides of students to review information and perceptions. Using it effectively • Check the placement ahead of time. accessible. • Develop student ability to product. parents. Show a small number of slides (3 to 6) in order and out of order. and happenings. Show a slide and ask. your students. • Check the vision of students seated in different locations around the classroom. recording. places. Show a beautiful or provocative or inspiring picture as a stimulus for writing or drawing. Another advantage of using this stimulus comes with taking the slides. or purchased from commercial producers. and with other stimuli. images are more effective when they are right side up. demonstrating and organising. You can have students handle the projection task and free yourself to lead a discussion to accompany the visual. . You and your students will gain insights and appreciation while you photograph your subjects.

• Co-ordinate other learning activities with the programme. impressions. decision-making. Many programmes are simply more lectures so look for a demonstration or a drama. • Eliminate distractions. • Use only parts of a programme (the beginning or ending of a story) and have students write or develop the missing section. • Assign a television programme as homework. The second is that your classroom use of television can model some good viewing habits for students. • Have students plan and produce their own television programme. Using effectively • Discuss with students before and after viewing a television programme (information.63 Television There are two compelling reasons for consideration of the use of this stimulus. • Check volume and image for students in different locations. The first is that television is available in most schools and with a wide selection of quality educational programming. Using in unusual way • Use regular network ads to teach advertising. hidden messages. and so on). • Watch the programme with students (rather than work at your desk on some task). and so on. . Using television to vary your instruction requires that you have a schedule and become familiar with various networks. We can best use our energy to make it work for our teaching. listening. bias.

• Have students record their own tapes as journals. • Keep electrical cords flush with floor or wall so that you and your students do not trip. • Have student groups record problem-solving or decision-making sessions. self-evaluation. and play back for analysis. • Have the intended starting point positioned on the tape or record ahead of time. historical narratives. but there are excellent tapes and records for every curriculum area. • Provide background music for a particular learning centre. or progress reports. .64 Records and audiotapes Many of us limit our thinking for those stimuli to music. correspondence with you or other students. Using effectively • Check volume for different location of the room. Both record players and tape recorders are inexpensive and simple to operate. Using in unusual way • Co-ordinate musical or sound backgrounds with book reports. plays or science demonstrations.

Technology has simplified the use of equipment and has advanced the quality of programmes. • Eliminate distractions. . or act as an observer on the scene. you can not sit at your desk and catch up on your work. • Stop the film or tape midway and have students dramatise or role-play the ending. Using in unusual way • Use the film or tape without sound and ask students to supply the dialogue. or advertise a class programme. • Use them interactively. and you can make that happen with questions. present research. • Have students make films or tapes to teach other students. and discussions. They must respond to the tape or film. Using effectively • Check volume and image for students in different location. predict what is happening. advance organisers. It means that your students must do more than listen and watch. describe a group project. and compare it with the film or tape ending.65 Films and videotapes Both of these have appeal for students and can support learner motivation. • Have students watch different tapes or films on the same topic and compare information. record class history. Your involvement with questions and suggestions will be needed. Notice that with these unusual uses.

You can move around as you teach. labels. in a circle. and they say what you want them to say. and several colours. dark or white enough. and announcements are all appropriate for chalkboard display. You can prepare them ahead of time. write your message backwards. Using in unusual way • Use coloured chalk occasionally to highlight or underline main ideas. or vertically. or to border information. . Chalkboards offer generous amounts of space on which to write and are often located in several sides of the classroom. A daily or class schedule on the chalkboard is useful to you and your students. etc. or questions. directions. We have also seen teachers use a block of chalkboard space for a Thought for the day. Reminders. • Protect the writing surface with proper cleaning and the appropriate writing materials. your teaching will be varied and will capture student attention. When you combine chalkboards with other stimuli. assignments and due dates. a riddle. news. • On an infrequent basis. and clear enough to be seen in location around the classroom. • Avoid filling the board with so much writing that students get confused. Using effectively • Keep your words large enough.66 Chalkboards Chalkboards are everywhere and they come in all sizes. a coded message. • With tape or other devices. attach pictures and diagrams to the chalkboard with written descriptions. • Reserve space for student messages. They do not need a bulb or an electrical outlet. shapes. or use them as you teach.

places. • You construct a bulletin board related to future curriculum of unknown objects. You hear teachers complain if they do not have one. never discussed by students. never referred to in teaching. • Involve students in planning and producing displays. volunteer. and you hear teachers complain if they do. Like chalkboards. rather than just how it looks. times of year. and people for student guesses or predictions. bulletin boards can change from being a responsibility for you to an exciting way to vary the stimuli. and so on. • Keep the display up to date that is. connected to the theme of study. or administrator. • Each student is assigned a portion of a bulletin board to display what happening in his or her life.67 Bulletin boards Bulletin boards come in different sizes and shapes. The intent of these stimuli is to contribute to teaching. Using effectively • Concern yourself with what your bulletin board says and does. We experience aesthetically arranged displays that are just the part of the wall. teacher. . parent. We want to emphasise the first guide line with a reminder that we are talking about varying the stimuli in teaching. The second guideline won’t be a worry if your bulletin board is connected to your curriculum. Using in unusual way • Students construct a bulletin board display of what they learned from a unit or course. and not connected to curriculum. With student involvement. bulletin boards offer ease of use and accessibility. • You and your students construct a bulletin board to communicate appreciation or honour to a student. and following the third guideline will help you keep your bulletin boards up to date.

and they can be used to improve a teacher’s current mode of instruction. Drill and practice is an effective approach for learning at this level of knowledge. who lectured and then had students recite the material in the same form. In all secondary and middle-level subjects in all class levels there seems to be some information that is basic to the mastery of each discipline. Tutorial One of the first applications of computers to education was a tutorial programme that used simulations. Computer assisted instruction (CAI) Computer assisted instruction (CAI) links the student directly to the material to be learned via the computer. Tutorial programmes can involve drill and practice or simulation. . or they can use computers as tutors. skill or attitude. making what is really combination programmes – tutorial-drill-and-practice or tutorialsimulation combinations. score the answers. you can expect computers to provide: • Opportunity for practice. The computer can be used to expand the types of instruction students receive. including education. While simulations can be used simply to provide examples to reinforce memorisation. is limited only by the creative limitation of the mind. A less recognised advantage is the computer’s ability to free the teacher to give more personal attention to students. Expectations from computers as stimuli As stimuli. The involvement itself has a motivating effect. practices. • Simulated experiences for application of knowledge and skill. The student is actively involved in the learning process.68 Computers The popularity of microcomputers in education has had an irreversible impact on schools. The range of computer use in all fields. the computer can be used for drill and practice. For example. problem solving. and progress. simulation. Computers have become less expensive and more versatile. a need relates to the computer’s increasing potential. Today’s teachers must be prepared to use computers in the classroom. The computer can give questions. the computer behaves much like the early teacher. Drill and Practice At the lowest level. most simulations involve the learner in problem solving. • Opportunity for collaboration on problems. Teachers can use computers to manage instruction. • Individual assessment of student knowledge. and challenges. assessments. Simulation This is also true for simulation programmes. Teachers and schools have another important need for computers. There are various levels of involvement. depending upon the type of CAI programme used. and creating. Students have the opportunity to live out roles and find solutions to often-complex problems. • Record keeping of student work. and give immediate feedback.

69 Guidelines for using computers as stimuli: • Assure each student equitable access to equipment. • Connect computer use to whole class or small group instruction. . • Preview and critique software your self. and encourage student evaluation. • Plan for social interaction in computer use with pair assignments and tutor teams.

and instructional materials (films. These students need special instructional pacing. in which case up to 20% may be slow learners. Compensatory teaching Compensatory teaching is an instructional approach that alters the presentation of content to circumvent a student’s fundamental weakness or deficiency. simulations). frequent feedback. corrective instruction. you will immediately feel the challenge of meeting their learning needs. Slow learners are usually taught in one of two possible instructional arrangements: 1) a class composed mostly of average students. texts. these students may well create their own variety in ways that disrupt your teaching. their difficulty in comprehending abstract ideas. The student commonly called a slow learner is one who cannot learn at an average rate from the instructional resources. and mathematics). To keep these students actively engaged in the learning process requires more than the usual variation in presentation methods (direct. If this variation is not part of your lesson. classroom climate (co-operative. Other immediately noticeable characteristics of slow learners are their deficiencies in basic skills (reading. transmits through alternate modalities (pictures versus . workbooks. slow learners in the regular classroom are neither rare nor unique. all administered under conditions sufficiently flexible for learning to occur.70 Chapter 8 STRATEGIES FOR SPECIAL LEARNERS The slow learner Contrary to common belief. their sometimes unsystematic and careless work habits. writing. workbooks. or 2) a class specially designed for slow learners. indirect). and most disconcerting. and/or modified materials. Whether you meet slow learners in a regular class or special class. co-operative games. and learning materials that are designed for the majority of students in the classroom. competitive). Compensatory teaching recognises content. Their most obvious characteristic is a limited attention span compared to more able students.

the suggestions that follow are a starting point for developing instructional strategies that specifically address the learning needs of the slow learner. The instructional environment does not change. simulations. Switching from lecture to discussion and then to seatwork provides the variety that slow learners need to stay engaged in the learning process.71 words). because performance in basic skill areas. or by shifting to alternate instructional formats (self-paced texts. Therefore. or simple inventories in which students indicate their hobbies. experienceoriented workbooks). Incorporate audio and visual materials. techniques and practices to eliminate weaknesses or deficiencies that the slow learner is known to have. programmed texts and interactive computer instruction often are effective in remediation of basic skills of slow learners. and supplements it with additional learning resources and activities (learning centres and simulations. as in the compensatory approach. Incorporate individualised learning materials. group discussions and co-operative learning). these students should be made to feel that some of the instruction has been designed with their specific interests or experiences in mind. Slow learners respond favourably to frequent reinforcement of small segments of learning. This may involve modifying an instructional technique by including a visual representation of content. Instructional strategies for slow learners While no single technique or set of techniques is sufficient teaching the slow learner. or extra-credit assignments in the year. Also. Conventional instructional techniques such as drill and practice might be employed. Oral or written autobiographies at the beginning of the year. and unusual trips or experiences can provide the structure for the lesson plans. For example deficiencies in basic math skills are reduced or eliminated by re-teaching the content that was not learned earlier. including reading usually is below grade level among slow learners. by using more flexible instructional presentations (films. videotapes. This increases opportunities to accommodate the different learning styles that may exist among slow learners and provides some of the remediation that may be necessary. In addition. pictures. often is particularly effective. This should be no surprise. Incorporating films. In addition to keeping their attention. and audio into lessons helps accommodate the instruction to the strategies learning modalities among . Remedial teaching is the use of activities. and experiences. paired with immediate corrective instruction. special projects. needs. This helps address the short attention spans of slow learners. an emphasis on frequent diagnostic assessment of the student progress. Remedial teaching This is an alternate approach for the regular classroom teacher in instructing the slow learner. jobs. Frequently vary your instructional technique. variety in instructional technique offers them the opportunity to see the same content presented in different ways. One common characteristic among slow learners is that they often learn better by seeing and hearing than by reading. Develop lessons around students’ interests. illustrations).

The learner needing help is not singled out and has a stake in making the idea work. using textbooks and exercises intended for a lower grade could ease the burden of creating materials that are unavailable at your grade level. has an exceptional memory. You can increase learning skills by teaching notetaking. especially when tutors are assigned so that everyone being tutored also has responsibility for being a tutor. A carefully organised taped response to an assignment might be considered. syntax. Study aids are advances organisers that alert students to the most important problems.72 slow learners. They also eliminate irrelevant details that slow learners often laboriously study in the belief that they are important. outlining. Innovative learning skills. Textbooks and workbooks. When textbook materials are too difficult. ha s along attention spans. both as a learner and as a tutor. and writing errors. For slow learners. there will be little contact emotionally and intellectually with the content you are presenting. many writing assignments go un-attempted or are begun only half-heartedly because these learners recognise that their written product will not meet even minimal writing standards. gifted and talented. Encourage oral expression instead of written reports. Example: test questions or a list of topics from which questions may be chosen help focus student effort. Provide peer tutors for students needing remediation. These skills are acquired through observation by higher ability students. Emphasising concrete and visual forms of content also helps compensate for the general difficulty slow learners have in grasping abstract ideas and concepts. directed and fully developed. The gifted and/or talented learners A student who reads rapidly. exceptional. Teaching the . is imaginative and creative. This contact can be attained most easily when you vary your instructional material often and organise it into bits small enough to ensure moderate-to-high rates of success. Also. content. Sometimes only some changes in worksheets and exercises are needed to adapt the vocabulary or difficulty level to the ability of your slow learners. and listening. develop your own. Unless your slow learners are actively engaged in the learning process through interesting concrete visual stimuli. or issues. Awareness is growing that gifted and talented students are an important natural resource that must be encouraged. This has the advantage of avoiding spelling. comprehends quickly. Peer tutoring can be an effective ally to your teaching objectives. and is comfortable with abstract ideas is described as bright. but they must be specifically taught to slow learners. Develop your own worksheets and exercises. or are too different from topics that capture your students’ interests. When testing provide study aids. when written for the average student often exceed the functioning level of the slow learner and sometimes become more of a hindrance than an aid. activated. because his or her pride is on the line. The slow learner usually is unable to weigh the relative importance of competing instructional stimuli unless explicitly told or shown what is important and what is not.

or both gifted and talented. usually in the areas for which gifted instruction is being considered. mostly talented with some giftedness.73 gifted remains an important objective of virtually of every school and. in practice. Some observable signs of creativity in a learner include:  Applying abstract principles of the solution of the problems  Being curious and inquisitive  Giving uncommon or unusual responses  Showing imagination  Posing original solutions to problems  Discriminating between major and minor events  Seeing relationships among dissimilar objects. vocabulary. Achievement. social sciences. Among other behaviours frequently used to determine giftedness is the learner’s achievement. Inclusion of this behavioural dimension has broadened the definition of this type of learner to include both the gifted and the talented. because giftedness almost always is defined in conjunction with at least several other behaviours. It is not uncommon to accept scores below 130 as eligible for gifted instruction. which cover areas such as math. gifted but not talented. and science. A cut off percentile of 90 means that a learner is eligible for gifted instruction if his or her score on the appropriate sub-scale of a standardised achievement test is higher than the score of 90% of all those who took the test. The following are some of the most important behavioural ingredients from which a definition of gifted is likely to be composed: • Intelligence. which is widely used. and capable of doing so • • • . In addition to intelligence and achievement. mostly gifted with some talent. indices of creativity often are considered in selecting gifted learners. The phrase gifted and talented. However. Because creative behaviours generally are considered in selecting gifted students. admission to gifted programmes and classes usually far less restrictive. you should be aware of the learning needs of this special learner. Foremost among the characteristics of giftedness is general intelligence. Creativity. nor are all talented learners are gifted. Achievement is measured by yearly-standardised test. The significance of this addition is that not all gifted learners are talented. An IQ score of about 130 or higher generally makes one eligible for gifted instruction. in which case the learner must exhibit unusual ability on one or more other areas. can mean talented but not gifted. Sometimes IQ is not considered at all in determining giftedness. therefore. reading comprehension. Task persistence Behaviours teachers look for in determining task persistence include:  Ability to devise organised approaches to learning  Ability to concentrate on detail  Self-imposed high standards  Persistence in achieving personal goals  Willing to evaluate own performance. this type of learner more appropriately might be called gifted and/or talented.

you will be making them participants in the design of their own learning. Give them this opportunity by posing a challenging problem and organising data (e. The bilingual learner Bilingual education refers to a mix of introduction in two languages. which may be any regional language. judge. Focus the problem so the learner must make key decisions about what is important for a solution. draw out knowledge and understanding. Pose challenging problems. Instructional strategies for gifted and talented learners There are several methods for teaching the gifted that must be taught among regular students. and dispute are means of indicating that more than a verbally fluent response is required. Asking your students to explain the reason behind their answers. teams and debates are among the ways you can start interactions among students. When carefully organised. Use tests and questions that make the student go beyond knowing and remembering facts. contrast. hypothesise.74   Sense of responsibilities High level of energy. prove. compare. This means teaching skills and words in English as well as in another language. self-directed learning methods often predominate among teachers of the gifted. The primary goal of bilingual education is not to teach English as a second language. and to judge the outcome of their own inquiry are useful means of separating ‘slick’ responses from meaningful answers. Asking your gifted students to explain. The following suggestions are starting points for managing and teaching the gifted and talented learner. criticise. Perhaps more than any other learners. but to teach concepts. and skills. peer interviews. through the regional language the . Gifted students are among those most capable of picking up ideas from others and creating from them new and unusual variations. Because gifted students tend to take greater responsibility for their own learning than do average students. materials. knowledge. the gifted both are capable of and enjoy the freedom to independently explore issues and ideas that concern them. group discussion. Occasionally plan instruction involving group activities. panels. justify. By letting them pursue and investigate some topics of their own choosing and construct their own meanings and interpretations. Ask them pointed questions that do not have really available answers. references.g. Choose learning activities to allow freedom and include interests. Include real-life problems that require problem solving. and documents) that they must screen for relevance. In testing. adopt. This will force them to place newly acquired knowledge and understandings in a practical perspective and to increase the problem solving challenge. to put together the known facts into something new. while at the same time giving the student extra motivation often required to pursue a topic in much greater depth than would be expected of an average student. this can create a ‘snowballing’ of ideas that can turn initially rough ideas about a problem into polished and elegant solutions. Let your gifted students become actual investigators in solving world-dilemmas in your content area. analyse. This encourages independent thinking. particularly in academic tasks. Brain storming sessions. infer.

and are most accustomed to. The restoration approach attempts to restore the regional language and culture of the bilingual student to its purest and most original form. Restoration approach. Enrichment approach.75 learners knows the best and then to reinforce this information through the second language (English). kinaesthetic. repetition of material (particularly drill and practice) generally is superior to more conceptual presentations that emphasise perspective. read. Four approaches to bilingual education Transition approach. the goal of enrichment is movement from regional language to English competence in the shortest time possible. Learners are taught reading or writing in their regional language. Instructional strategies for bilingual learners If you do not speak regional language. The transition approach uses learners’ regional language and culture only to the extent necessary for them to learn English. You have seen the importance of the visual mode in teaching the slow learner. However in addition to this goal. The classroom teacher should discourage mixing regional language and English phrases when they occur in the context of expressing the same idea or thought. making them easier to recognise in relation an illustration or picture. the direct presentation of instructional material. endorses the idea that learners also should become proficient in their regional language. Use pictures. but they can place these cues in context. Your awareness of cultural differences can be extremely important to successful communication. Other forms of communication include the visual. justification. but expressions that are half English and half-regional language are to be discouraged. in which the learner is less proficient. Like the transmission approach. Maintenance approach. and write in English. the regular classroom teacher should encourage and sometimes expect these learners to respond. The goal is to help learners truly bilingual – to become fluent in both languages. and it is no less important with bilingual learner. and rationale. the “look and say” approach to reading is more effective than the phonetic approach during the initial stages of reading instruction. expressions that are expressed alternatively and fully in both English and regional language may be encouraged. Be alert to cultural differences. and tactile modalities. Use direct instruction. in addition to encouraging English language proficiency. Pictures can not take place of auditory cues. Especially for those lacking almost any proficiency in English. Such learners have come to be called balanced bilinguals to emphasise that their proficiency is limited neither in English nor in regional language. There is no substitute for . In other words. The maintenance approach. and illustrations to supplement teaching objectives wherever possible. graphs. In the transition approach. For example. regional culture and heritage also are emphasised. Most bilingual learners learn best from. The teacher using the transition approach first discerns the level of English proficiency of the learner and then expects the learner to function in English at or slightly above this level. emphasise other communication.

After a suitable trial. It is not unusual to initially select verbal material several grades below the level you are teaching.76 understanding the culture of students you are teaching.  Proficiency level in the dominant language. potentially avoiding weeks and even months of failing to communicate – not knowing it. This in turn suggests the value of co-operative classroom climate. and working as a team potentially are useful instructional strategies for these students. From school records. reading). Know your learners’ language ability and achievement levels.  Dominant language in the expressive mode (i. writing). They appreciate the co-operation of group achievement more than the competitive aspects of individual achievement.  Past achievement levels in the area relevant to your instruction. talking. you may find a regional language version of comparable content. The information is invaluable in selecting special materials and determining the best level and manner to begin the instruction. but the reading level and format may not benefit your learners. Notice whether the objects pictured will be familiar to the learners or whether they are specific to the Anglo audience for whom the materials may have been written. Carefully evaluate reading level and format of materials.e. find out for each learner:  Dominant language in the receptive mode (i. While selecting or adapting materials. The merits that group work. even if you have little understanding of their language. evaluate the materials again and adjust the reading level accordingly. . sharing of assignments. If you are not fluent in that language. have someone who is fluent evaluate the difficulty level of the material. listening. Material with illustrations and pictures is better than concentrated prose.e. Knowing your learners ability and achievement levels makes your initial instructional contact far more effective.

1. determines. Teaching constitutes activities deliberately planned and performed.  Provides a review or summary at the end of each lesson. to a great extent. The effective teacher employs five key behaviours: lesson clarity. the effective teacher:  Uses attention-gaining devices.77 Chapter 9 EFFECTIVE TEACHING IN A CLASSROOM Effective teaching Teaching is an effective task a teacher does in the classroom.  Gives directions slowly and distinctly.  Provides learners with advance organisers. How efficiently one teaches. and student success. and demonstrations to explain and clarify text and workbook content. instructional variety. To have instructional variety in the classroom. . the effective teacher:  Informs learners of the objective. To be clear in the classroom.  Knows the ability level of learners and teaches to those levels. illustrations.  Checks for task-relevant prior learning and re-teaches if necessary. the success of students at schooling and to some extent their success in life. 2. task orientation.  Uses examples. engagement in learning.

feedback and testing.  Corrects partial-correct.  Divides instructional stimuli into bite-sized pieces that are at the learners’ current level of functioning.  Selects the most appropriate instructional model for the objectives being taught. 5. To be task-oriented in the classroom. A very low percentage of teacher’s time in the classroom is used for making encouraging remarks.  Provides opportunities for feedback in a non-evaluative atmosphere. 4. Teaching constitutes activities deliberately planned and performed. Varies types of questions and probes. Less than 10% of time of teacher’s talk is devoted to teacher’s questioning. Mixes rewards and reinforces. is devoted to teacher’s talk and students get very little opportunity to express themselves.78      Shows enthusiasm. To establish moderate-to-high rates of success in the classroom. and incorrect-answers. involves achievement of learning objectives by students and involves transaction between teacher and student.  Handles administrative and clerical interruptions efficiently. Defects in teaching • • • • • • Most of the time.  Changes instructional stimuli gradually. the effective teacher:  Develops unit and lesson plans that reflect the curriculum. To engage students in the learning process.  Uses group and individual activities as motivational aids when necessary. Teaching is said to be effective ONLY if the intended objectives are achieved. Uses student ideas. correct-but-hesitant. Most of the teachers are not systematic in planning and carrying out instruction.  Uses meaningful praise. 3.  Establishes cycles of review. the effective teacher:  Establishes unit and lesson content that reflects prior learning. Teachers spend more time in giving information and less on clarifying ideas and still less time on giving explanations.  Monitors seatwork and checks for practice. in the classroom. the effective teacher:  Elicits the desired behaviour.  Stops or prevents misbehaviour with a minimum of class disruption. Varies mode of presentation.  Varies the instructional pace or tempo to create momentum. During classroom interaction teachers tend to promote mostly wrote learning requiring memory level thinking. .

• To maintain good interpersonal relationship. • To make use of library. • Identify strength of different students and make use of them for designating different tasks in-group work. • Allow adequate time for student to think and answer. • Warm supportive. • To help them to resolve their problems. • To understand student’s misconceptions of what you intend to teach. etc. brain storming. • To be dominated by sense of duty. • To make use of proper instructional materials like audio-visual aids. active participation of students. • To be receptive to new ideas and practices. • To be realistic in your ambitions and aspirations. • To cultivate intellectual capabilities. • You may ask each student to write their answers and share and compare it with neighbours. etc. • To observe students in different context. • To adjust your teaching to suit the classroom factors. Active participation of students: Active participation of students stimulates the teaching--learning process. • To improve educational and professional qualifications. . • To practice what you preach to develop good values in students. • To develop liking for your students. peer tutoring and co-operative teaching. emotional climate promotes better student’s achievement. • To create an open organisational climate. • To improve your study habits related to profession. • Use of varying stimuli in the class stimulates student’s motivation. • To experiment and explore new methods of teaching. • Encourage each student to express freely without fear of being criticised by others. • To be democratic as well as assertive. • To involve in academic and professional discussions and programmes. • To avoid acting out your emotions. • Reduce your talk in the class to allow for greater student participation. books. • Allow for mutual reactions to each other’s answers. • Avoid dominance by some students and encourage non-participating students to talk. The following teaching behaviours are likely to enhance student participation: • Try to seek students’ responses and opinions from all the students.79 How to make teaching more effective: • To use suitable teaching methods like conducting small group activities. • To develop healthy attitudes towards profession. • To develop your own instructional material.

Give chances to all students to answer. Memory level questions are termed as factual or lower order questions.80 The type of questions relate to effective teaching: • • • • • • • • • • Both simple and more complex questions can be formulated at each level depending on quantity and complexity of the information to be processed. All other level questions are considered as of higher order. Rephrase the question if it is not understood Encourage students to take some time to think and construct the answer. Tell the students whether he is right or wrong and encourage to motivate them to give correct answer . Ask both fact questions as well as higher cognitive questions to serve your objectives to best advantage. Plan higher cognitive questions. which are simple to the low ability students. Use of more of Why and How questions so that students respond by reasoning or thinking and not out of memory. Ensure all students attend to your question.

The ideal helping relationship is one in which the pupil finds it difficult to determine whether he was directed or guided into a learning situation.  The teacher’s emotional maturity. and heterogeneous classrooms are but few of the factors changing the face of our schools and creating special challenges for our teachers. The classroom teacher is well on the way to emotional maturity when he can make a reasonably sound inventory of what he is doing to safe guard his emotional health and what he should do plus what he can learn to do. The effective teacher is the one who sometimes sees himself in his students. --balanced off with an equitable amount of “work and play”. Adults gain emotional control by reconditioning. Basically teaching is a relationship. Therefore. and who knows when it is time to be sympathetic with a pupil. he simply finds himself busily engaging in a situation and enjoying its offerings. Some of the time for teaching is dedicated toward instructing children in ways to better help each other. then there is more likely to be found the ideal. In the classroom where there is much “share and tell”. training. competency testing. Microcomputers. “give and take”. and by constant thinking of their emotional responses. Some of the important roles are:  The modern teacher is a helping teacher. Today’s classroom is a far cry from that of only ten years ago. the teacher is able to see his pupils as co-workers on some problems. a teacher is just like an actor who has to play many roles. “think and do”. The following questions are given to help the classroom teacher develop better judgement and emotional calmness in analysing his own personal emotional adjustment: . The teacher is either helping pupils or the pupils are helping him to do a worthwhile activity. Ideally. and this rate of change is unlikely to subside soon.81 Chapter 10 ROLE OF THE TEACHER There are many changes occurring daily in our classroom and in the practice of teaching. who understands how a pupil feels. curriculum reforms. as one who can maintain rapport with his students. healthy environment for learning.

do you lose your temper and display it by shouting or showing things around?  Do you seek to find fault with children rather than to look for their good qualities?  Do you have periods of spirits and allow your teaching to suffer because of that?  Do you have strong feelings of inadequacy when a teacher across the class makes improvement with children in areas in which you would like to succeed?  Are you easily upset when the regular classroom scheduled has been changed because of unforeseen. the teacher must first recognise and satisfy certain of her own needs in socially and psychologically acceptable ways most of the time. • . The teacher should be a selector of methods. necessary school activities?  Are you quite irritated when someone challenges your teaching techniques?  When children misquote or contradict you. and the like if ideas are to become mobile and challenging to the learner. do you lose your temper and search out opportunity to make them look ridiculous?  Can you feel at ease when a visitor comes to the room to observe your work?  Are you able to control your actions and expressions when children become excited and can not sit still?  Can you hold your own with those members of your faculty who tend to “razz” you by inferring that you are always trying to be in the limelight when actually you are seeking to improve the status of the school? To effectively guide children. Far too often teachers teach as they have been taught. To ensure interest and to literally captivate his pupils.82  Do you feel resentful when a child catches you in a mistake?  When the class is difficult to manage. Though this can result in effective teaching procedures it seems more likely that such practice will propagate boring and repetitive classroom work. If the children are shown the “sense” of subject matter. An interested pupil cares little about the time or effort that is needed to learn if the desire is there. • The teacher should be an actor. in planning for every lesson or unit of work due thought should be given to selecting procedures. which seem most conducive to the sought learning. do you “fly off the handle?”  Do you laugh unusually hard before the class when a ridiculous error in conversation is made by a child. but it is beyond his powers of realisation?  Can you laugh at jokes. they usually will show interest in it. which you have selected to fit the sense of humour of that particular class level?  Do you feel the urge to strike out at children by talking loudly when correcting the child who has not followed directions?  When someone is making fun of you. The teacher who consistently follows such a practice surrenders. in a sense. The role of the teacher is obvious. All educators must recognise that education is an internal process. an important professional prerogative. that of studying the uniqueness of the class and making judgements as to how class members may best learn. or emotionalisation. the teacher should present the subject matter through such means as dramatisation. sensationalisation.

It would seem wise not only for a teacher to examine the degree to which children have learned but to also evaluate by asking certain questions of an introspective nature. inefficiency in the use of time and imbalance in the value given to the various learning may result. in short they make method. It is doubtful if most teachers carefully weigh the effect of method in examining the quality and extent of what children learned. Creativity in teaching. The study of the most effective procedures is one of the most fruitful areas for such research. The teacher as an evaluator of his own method. are:  On the bases of my evaluative instruments and means of measurement. innovate. Teachers use a myriad of procedures. and create. The major questions. Teachers. the teacher of middle classes children might study the effectiveness of two approaches using two classes. If two classes are not available two major topics could be taught using different approaches but using only one class. which have no beneficial effect other than the fact that they are “fun” procedures or simply “different”. which can hardly be classified into the classic categories discussed earlier. are not defensible. which the teacher should ask herself. is most promising as a means of improvement. The teacher as a producer of method. which deal with the choice of method. Unique procedures. the selection of method is one that should be undertaken on the basis of a continuing study of the classroom situation. One fact is apparent that teachers improvise. If method is not evaluated. for example.83 • The teacher should be a researcher. Teachers in the present day are encouraged and supported in conducting classroom research. How well children have learned contains an implicit assessment of the teacher’s choice of method. These procedures can easily be related to a combination of the categorical labels. The effectiveness of method is evaluated when the learning progress of children is evaluated. and the evaluative results of previous teaching should enter into such study. through their own ingenuity are encouraged to continue to devise new and better means of teaching for the important learning goals. As a minimum. Innovative or unique procedures are justified if they contribute in a better way in the learning goals. The teacher who consistently uses and believes in the assign-study-recite-test procedure may be moved toward a variety of approaches if he carefully compares the results of this procedure with another combination such as lecture-demonstration-discussion-application procedure. An obvious professional task of the teacher. just as in other vocations and professions. In science. have children met the lesson goals satisfactorily?  Do the children exhibit real insight as a result of the lesson in addition to the usual residual facts?  Did the teaching approach used arouse the response from the total range of the class rather than one ability level?  Were children brought to the point where they asked intelligent questions about the teaching topic?  Can most children in my class explain or demonstrate the major concepts of the lesson?  Just how important were this lesson and its goals to the child’s current needs and to his future needs? • • . a consideration of the children in the class.

84  Was the time spent on this work commensurate with the value of the sought learning?  Were the concepts of the lesson presented only in a verbal abstract setting?  Did any devices. By using the “open ended’ types of discussion and question-asking procedures. It provides a system into which data and information can be organised. simple verbal episodes. difficulty of concepts or the setting into which it has now fallen. the learner is freer to try out all ideas to determine their power and value. aids. or.. If the techniques are planned under surveillance. Planning for classroom dialogue: The classroom discussion period is made up of short. he is in a good position to compare the progress of his youngsters to the rate at which information should be unfolded. It also affects the child’s processes of thinking. These episodes occur between teacher and pupils. drawings. Thus the teacher is tuned to where children are at a given moment in the learning act and he can predict where they should be in a few minutes if he keeps at the same goal and rate of instructing. The teacher and his non-verbal acts: Teachers must become more concerned with their non-verbal behaviours during the classroom episodes. If a teacher can form a mental image of the dimensions of the teaching process being utilised during an on-going lesson. All verbalisation has some effect (good or bad) upon the learning act. What one says and what he actually does may be two entirely . it is conceivable that the act might need to be altered relative to the rapidity of presentation. interpretation of data. A wiser approach would be to plan a few “mental stops” along the path of the lesson not only to find out where children are having successes or failures. quite likely some children will be enabled to use them to examine their own ideas and to test them against available data at a future date. used contribute to learning? Which one did and which one did not?  Did the children have ample opportunity to apply major concepts they learned?  If I taught this same lesson tomorrow for the first time how would I alter my procedures?  Were there parts of the lesson or uses of aids that were an obvious waste of time?  Is it possible to accomplish this same teaching with less time and effort?  Did I vary the procedure in this or other lessons significantly from the procedure I typically use? Teacher as a cognitive functionary. The teacher’s primary role during the conduct of classroom dialogue is to create a free and open discussion that stimulates and sustain of thought on the part of all class members. etc. Thinking and cognitive task: The teacher lays the foundation for skill development. but to look at the techniques being applied by the teacher and/or pupils. which are concept formation. a pupil and his peers. He must become fully acquainted with the three dimensions of the teachinglearning process. which will be called upon time and time again. and application of principles. Upon establishing where children are in learning as compared to the teaching act.

85 different things. The teacher should strive for greater congruency between what he personifies overtly and what he believes internally. fully equipped videotape machines. It is he who will provide the initial stages of instruction in which the child will learn to use the coding and indexing systems. which are now in their infancy. It will be a common thing to find children locating their own problems of academic origin by feeding information into computers to determine the progress made on a problem up to a given point. -knowingly or unknowingly. “Now that I know what he is eager to learn. the learning facilities. thereby enabling that child to direct much of his own study through computerised tools. the functions of the teacher in future will be: • A human relations expert—a facilitator of learning. likewise. Role of the teacher in future The right for every child to learn is the goal set for the 21 st century. computers. The teacher will be a new type of diagnostician. The implementation of a personalised programme of instruction will spring from selected findings derived from diagnostic information. what one wishes to “get across” during the learning episodes is often hindered by non-verbal expressions made by the teacher. not of himself but of his pupils. Planetariums. On the basis of vast knowledge of child growth and development plus his professional expertise in using group processes and other psychological means as yet undeveloped. “What do you want from school? What do you want to learn? What are you curious about? What problems in society concern you? How do you want to change yourself? How will you know when you have made your life better?” If a teacher can obtain answers to the questions he can then safely ask himself. which be mastered. Therefore. the textbooks as well as the wisdom and knowledge in myself—which will help him learn in ways that will provide relevant answers to the things that concern him? It means that they acquire the role of facilitator more than teacher does. he will guide children in their interactions. the experiences. • A master of a vast of complex of learning tools. To put it another way. must nurture those talents. and the like will increase curriculum change immensely. With present diagnostic procedures it sometime takes months to find out the pupil’s problems and to plan accordingly. Obviously the teacher will be a director of learning—but in the setting of complete individualisation of a pupil’s personalised instructional programme. Skilled designers and . To meet this goal schools must offer a range of learning options commensurate with the unknown range of pupil talents. What now takes months to accomplish will be completed in a matter of minutes. This will not be the case in future. • A diagnostician. Media will become more important than ever in the curriculum of the future. The teacher of the future will more likely query. where can I best help him go to find the resources—the people. complete photographic studios. again using tools of measurement. The machine being programmed to sort out common errors and to indicate the steps necessary to remedy one’s work. The learning environment.

demonstrations. etc. • A master at developing programmes. but it will be teachers who decide what the programmes should be. the teacher will serve as the link between programmes and pupils. will rid the world of racial and regional discrimination. --films. He will be actively involved in reducing poverty-stricken areas. .86 technicians can develop and co-ordinate the learning programmes. and. which best meets his assessed needs. television. and he will guide the child to that sequence of programmes. too. lectures. The future teacher will be a master at developing programmes that build an enduring peace. Of significance. The community will become the living classroom..

McCloskey. Robert. How Teachers Taught. Learning Centres. and Wholeclass Instruction. Johnson. Cole. Boocock. Glenn. Carin and Sund. Jones. Teaching Methods. Gregg and Tipple. and Starr. Increasing your Teaching Effectiveness. Simulation Games. AV Instruction. Dunn. Joyce. Samual. Chester. Clark. Maslow. Questioning and Creative Thinking. Lewis. Practical Approaches to Individalising Instruction. Richard. Chaudhari. Learning how to learn.Theory into Practice Bloom. The Discovery of Teaching. Abraham. Randall. Simulation and Curriculum. Facts and Feelings in the Classroom. Joyce and Weils. Media and Methods. Technology. Models of Teaching. Collis. Glaser. Bibens. Henry. Models of Teaching. The Conduct of Inquiry. Mildred. BrownJames. Role-playing Methods in the Classroom. Thought Processes in Lectures and Discussion. Cuban. Schild. Secondary School Teaching Methods.87 REFERENCES Berliner and Gage. Dale. Developing questioning Techniques. Peterson. Gagne. Mark. Ways of Teaching. The Psychology of Teaching Methods. William. Audiovisual Methods in Teaching. Simulation Games in Learning. Simulation and games. Plutchic. Theory into Practice. The Guidance of Learning Activities. Gordon. Heyman. Bronell. Burton. Benjamin. Getzels. Teaching Machines and Programmed Learning. Lindgren.. Curriculum. How to Direct a Simulation. Livingstone. Leonard. Marsh Weil. Hyman. Fisk.. Rita and Kenneth Dunn. Brembeck. Lari. Robert. William. Joyce. Fennema. Stall. Bruce. Hunger and Russel. Computers. Effective Teachers for Boys and Girls. Fox and Robert. Sarane. Harcleroad. Henson. Discovery Teaching from Socrates to Modernity. Creativity and Intelligence. Learning and Instruction. Kaplan. Jacob. Glaser. Teaching Strategies and Classroom . Philip Jackson. Hoffman. Teaching Machines and Programmed Learning. Small-group Discussion in Orientation and Teaching.

David. Improving College and University Teaching. Williams. Skinner. Weimer. Shulmanand Keislar. Cooperative Learning. Taylor. Rebrova and Svetlova. M David and Robert Tennyson. Patrick. Ronald. The Effect of Questioning on Retention. McDonald. Suchman. The Problem Solving Approach. Torrence. Sanders. Whooley. Robert. Computer Based Instruction. Learning by Discovery: A Critical Approach. Developing Inquiry. Handbook of Research on Teaching. Encouraging Creativity in the classroom. Educational Technology. Teaching Concepts. Whittrock. Titus. Methods that Teach. Fannie. Simulation gaming. Stolovitch. Classroom Questions. Taylor. Questioning. Teaching Machine. Ornstein. Merrill. What TeachingMethods When? Zuckerman. Simulation in the Classroom. Horn. Norris M. What kinds? Schmuck. Renaud. Components in Teaching Strategy. Suppes. Developing your own Simulation for Teaching. How to Ask Classroom Questions. Richard. Richard. Ross and Killey. Ben B. Strasser.88 Realities. Problem Solving to Improve Classroom Learning. Chesler. . Miller and Vinocur. Role-Playing. Slavin. Weinberger. The Guide to Simulation Games for Education and Training. Perspectives in Individualised Learning. Blanche and Nelson. Shaftel. John and Rex Walford. The Uses of the Lecture.

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