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STAFF DEVELOPMENT SERIES
Dr. M.P.Chhaya

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Dear Reader, This CD – Staff Development Series – contains the following five books: 1. Book 1 - Effective Strategies 2. Book 2 - Curriculum Development and Classroom Management 3. Book 3 – Measurement and Evaluation 4. Book 4 – Fundamentals of Guidance and Counselling 5. Book 5 – Innovative School For the comforts of the reader, light classical instrumental music is introduced while you are reading (of course, it is optional). By clicking on the “Music” folder and then clicking twice on the music file, you can start the music and adjust the volume as you desire. This CD can be read on Microsoft Word 98 / 2000 on Normal view and for getting / retrieving the figures, it may be read on Print view. There are many advantages of these electronic books such as: • Your hands remain free while reading and can take notes • You can copy the pages / passages as per your requirements • Material from this book can be displayed on a large screen using a projector • Very handy and useful for staff-development and in-service programmes • You can mix and match the topics from any of these books • You can view these books according to your personal preferences (e.g. font, text size, colour, full screen mode, etc.) • The use of a Compact Disc allows for easy portability, accessibility and storage in comparison to five printed books

REQUEST You are morally obliged not to copy this CD for any other institution but for the use of your own staff development.

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Book 1

EFFECTIVE TEACHER
EFFECTIVE CLASSROOM
(Effective Strategies of Teaching)

Dr. M.P.CHHAYA

iv This book is dedicated to Teachers who act as real “Gurus” .

as it is. It can help in getting knowledge. The major thrusts of the book. lectures. the teacher must change. are practical and realistic. Many individuals and professionals. real. rambling discussions. It is predicated on the belief that teaching is an art involving certain learned skills and that.v Preface This book is introduced for use by students learning to be teachers. presented in a simple style. and talent. which should be in the repertoire of a teacher. A number of important skills have been treated. which instructional design he should follow. avoiding complicated phrases. creative imagination. work-shops. It is for certain that for schools to change. he concentrates on his own instructional behaviours. He thinks about himself as a person. Schools of Chinmaya Mission and Navodaya Vidyalayas. he organises his time. an individual can motivate others to learn. The effective teaching practices have been described in a friendly manner. Therefore. how he will relate to the children. This book will serve well as the base for a continuing progress of professional improvement. and similar significant aspects of teaching. on the interactions of individuals – is unique. This book does not deal with every possible instructional skill and sub-skill. I also wish to acknowledge those teachers of Rajkumar College Rajkot. The practical “how to” approach is always used. have been described in this book. with the knowledge of these skills. have shared their insights about the teaching process with me. M. and relevant to today’s student. and the strategies he should use to facilitate learning. over the years. but for it to be of any value it must be practised in the classroom until maximum utilisation of different strategies in different situations becomes second nature. Because each learning experience – based. The work of these professionals has made possible integration and synthesis of effective teaching practices. thoughts and efforts very differently from the conventional teacher. then. When a teacher is concerned with the improvement of his own institution.Chhaya . or pseudo scholarly language. workable methods are provided for actual classroom situations. suggesting the range of competencies to be sought by the reader. The idea is to get the point across quickly in a friendly and readable style. whose studies of classroom life have contributed to the effective teaching. This book describes what real teachers can do in real classrooms and which teaching practices are and are not effective in those classrooms. and in-service and on the job training programmes. Instead of spending great blocks of time organising lesson plans. this book talks straight. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan New Delhi. beginning teachers.P. The language of classrooms is informal and there is no reason why a book about teachers in classrooms should not use the same language. The research-based effective teaching practices. who. teaching techniques must be modified to fit each situation. are the identification and illustration of the techniques and procedures that a teacher can use to increase his/her effectiveness and to help make the learning experience dynamic. meaningful. No single book could possibly accomplish such a task. and more experienced teachers all of whom may wish to improve their techniques through professional institutes.

................................................6 DESIGNING EFFECTIVE INSTRUCTION......................................................1 What is method?................................................................................1 INTRODUCTION.................................................19 Community resources........................................................................................................10 Behavioural modification..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................14 Independent study.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................6 Consider the content of your teaching.................18 ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................27 CHAPTER 5...............................................................................24 Problem solving..........................................................................................................................................................................12 Contracting.................................................................................................10 STRATEGIES FOR INDIVIDUALISATION...........................................................................4 Some important teacher effectiveness indicators:..........................................................................................................16 Programmed learning (Instruction)..................................................................................................................................................5 ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................6 Consider the context of your teaching................................................................................2 What factors determine one’s methods in teaching?.....................................26 ......................................................................15 Learning packets......................................7 Consider the learners to be taught....10 CHAPTER 3.................................................................................17 Student tutorial.............................................................................................................10 Individualised Learning...........................19 Case study....................21 Field study (trip).............................1 CHAPTER 1...............................................................................................................................................................19 STRATEGIES FOR SMALL GROUPS.......................................................................................................................................23 Project...............27 ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................19 CHAPTER 4...................................VI .....22 Interest centres (Subject learning centres)..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................7 Elements of instructional design...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................4 Some Helping Behaviours Related To Effective Teaching.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi Table of Contents Preface ………………………………………………………………………………………………………iii TABLE OF CONTENTS ......................8 ........................................................................................................................................3 Five Key Behaviours Contributing To Effective Teaching...............................................................................................................................................................................................25 Student research....................................................................................................................7 Consider yourself............................................................................................................6 CHAPTER 2....................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................................................49 CHAPTER 7...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................53 Inquiry................77 Effective teaching.................................................................................................................................65 Chalkboards............................................................50 Co-operative learning..................................................................................................................................................................................................................62 Television..........67 Computers..........................................................................................68 CHAPTER 8...........................46 Laboratory............66 Bulletin boards.......................70 The gifted and/or talented learners.......................................................................................................................................56 Homework/Assignment...............................................77 EFFECTIVE TEACHING IN A CLASSROOM...........................................................................................................50 Creative thinking......................................................................................................................................................................................29 Discussion.................................................................................................................................................................................................87 ..47 Socratic...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................77 Defects in teaching................................................................43 Interview......37 Simulation gaming..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................81 ROLE OF THE TEACHER..............................58 Brainstorming...........................................................................................................................................................................54 Modelling......................................................................................................................................................................72 The bilingual learner....................41 CHAPTER 6 .....................61 Slide projector................................81 REFERENCES........................................................................................................................................................64 Films and videotapes...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................60 Audio-visual aids.......59 Summary.............27 Demonstration.........................................................................................79 The type of questions relate to effective teaching:.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................50 SUB-STRATEGIES FOR GENERAL USE......................................................................vii STRATEGIES FOR LARGER GROUPS..............................................................................................................70 STRATEGIES FOR SPECIAL LEARNERS...................32 Questioning.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................43 Discovery ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................30 Lecture.......................................................................................................................39 Team teaching.............................................27 Observation...................................................................................................................................................55 Decision-making .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................34 Role-playing.........................................................................................................................................63 Records and audiotapes.........................................................74 CHAPTER 9......................................80 CHAPTER 10.........................................................................................................................................................................................................70 The slow learner..........................................................................................................................................................................78 Active participation of students: ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................43 STRATEGIES FOR SPECIAL USE.........................61 Overhead projector.................................................................................................

which is inconsistent with the student’s desire for peer acceptance and approval. time. Therefore. but a vast majority competently utilise only a few and many times only one. interests. The mastery of instructional strategies is only one dimension of the skills. Diverse objectives call for diverse approaches to meet those objectives. Environmental factors (money. etc. 3.1 Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Can you imagine a technician repairing a machine with only one tool? Obviously not. he needs and must utilise different tools in different situations. wants. 4. supplies. and individual optimum learning conditions. The converse is also true. learning theory. 1. it is a near mandate that teachers be competent to the utilisation of a number of teaching strategies. The greater the teacher’s knowledge of the subject. Some subject matter is best served by use of a particular strategy or combination of strategies. 2. the more freedom he has to apply a variety of instructional approaches. Similarly. and human development to act as a guide in the proper application of each strategy. A lack of methodological fluidity usually indicates a lack of knowledge of students’ needs. facilities. The teacher should also have a basic understanding of philosophies of education. There are at least four valid reasons for a teacher being proficiently prepared in a wide assortment of strategies. students’ boredom can easily create learning and/or discipline problems. Even the most careful planning cannot produce beneficial results . When a teacher relies upon a single approach (such as a drill or lecture) as a learning strategy.) often dictate which strategies will be most effective. Different pupils learn best in different ways at different times. teachers need to vary their teaching strategies in different classroom situations. As with the single-tool technician. is likely to meet with strong resistance. this severely limits the teachers’ overall effectiveness. The teacher must answer such questions as: What is a student? What are his needs. and interests? Any teaching strategy. no amount of strategies can make up for lack of knowledge in subject matter. attitudes. and knowledge needed by the competent teacher. For examples.

What is method? Method refers to the formal structure of the sequence of acts commonly denoted by instruction. catalytic agents causing a reaction but not becoming a part of the result. drill is enhanced by charts of content or activities to be performed. and rapidity with which a teacher can apply strategies to a particular learning situation are some of the differences between the teacher as a technician and the teacher as a professional. tape recordings. The knowledge. Method is a systematic way of doing things under the guidance of certain previously established principles. and films. Putting the potatoes on a table with a colourful table setting (sub-strategy) improves the chances for consumption even more. The term covers both the strategy and tactics of teaching and involves the choice of what is to be taught. induction is a slow process and requires many materials some of it may be most expensive. but are. For example: Interest centres/subject centres could include appropriate film strips. devices and the like at times. A pressure cooker (strategy) prepares the potatoes more properly for consumption and increases the chances of them being eaten. Moreover. A more graphic analogy is as follows: You can offer individuals raw potatoes (knowledge) for eating (learning) but many would not eat. procedures. For example. namely.2 unless the student personally feels the need for learning. There are many decided merits of the inductive method of teaching. The specific methods by which these two schemes are carried out are also called techniques. After practice with a given strategy has provided confidence in its utilisation in the classroom. rather. 1) Children who gain knowledge in this way have been able to retain it for longer periods of time. accuracy. we can better benefit the student and ourselves. the inductive method and the deductive method. and the children who learn. It is a rare student who will create a disturbance (internally. and the order in which it is to be taught. 3) The conclusions made for the most part are formed first in the mind of the pupil with the teacher becoming a checkpoint for inaccuracies and wrong perceptions. It moves from objects or several keynote examples to the development of ideas. Consequently there is a hesitancy to employ more appropriate methods. 2) It increases the perspective powers of the pupil since he is encouraged to be more self-reliant upon his thinking. and lectures are more meaningful if main points or key ideas are displayed by means of overhead projections or use of the chalkboard. but one is a rung on the ladder to becoming the other. The inductive method: The inductive method is the real method of discovery. Too often as teachers we tend to use that strategy which gives us a feeling of security. the teachers who teach. This requires consideration of the associated problem of providing adequately for individual differences. In reality there seem to be only two generalised methods of teaching. By understanding how different strategies can best be utilised. The manner in which method in teaching is followed varies with the subjects presented. some of the abstract ideas in arithmetic cannot be effectively presented through inductive procedures. The main disadvantages of the inductive method stem from the fact that not all subjects can be taught inductively. There are . Strategies and sub-strategies are not content in themselves. if not externally) when class expectations are too high or too low for his capabilities. If sub-strategies are properly used they can often enhance and extend the effectiveness of the strategy employed. a number of strategies should be combined and blended into new creative patterns by the teacher. Both stages are necessary. among which the following are of the most importance. strategies.

construct. 5. 3. If the child is not compressed into confirming ways. 9. Probably the child learns more during his first six years than during all of the next twelve years. the more he will follow his native tendencies to be free. work and play particularly at the primary levels. Method and content should encourage such curiosity. A good teacher uses the method that helps the child to collect additional materials and ideas. 4. The method of teaching at the primary levels should allow the child to enlarge upon certain natural instincts. The age and disposition of pupils must be considered by the teacher in the selection of a method to teach a given content. Teachers sometimes try to teach a pupil without knowing what the child knows. When this method is used. The more freedom a method allows the pupil. are unique personalities. the deductive method should simultaneously increase in importance. therefore. schoolwork should often be not far removed from play techniques. there is more rivalry than at others. However. 7. the longer may be his school life. In society at large children are expected to grow up too quickly. 6. The teacher should use methods that incorporate play into the education process. all pupils at the elementary levels should do some constructive work as a part of their daily schedule. Such teachings would be guesswork. to profit from what others have concluded. pupils are asked to accept the reasoning of someone else. 2. By putting himself in the pupil’s place. Teachers like the learners they serve. principle or generalisation first and from them the descent is made to the specific factors or ideas making up such generalisations. As the teacher studies the child’s thinking. Children are curious persons. At the elementary school level. he will not know the specific method that should be employed for their instruction. the inductive method should be used to introduce many new subjects and to give aid in the exposition of difficult ones. The deductive method: Generally one is teaching deductively when he gives the rules. It makes sense for them to take advantage of their own special interests. The elder the child. They should also be collection of ideas. With increasing age children become more highly skilled in deductive reasoning. At certain age levels. he sees the problem as the child sees it. What factors determine one’s methods in teaching? 1.3 limitations but it is absolutely necessary that if clearness of thought is to be encouraged and real knowledge preserved. 8. The best method of teaching comes about when the teacher combines the two in such ways that one method reinforces the other to assist the perceptions of the pupils in the learning situation. Children are collections of materials. skills. 11. The methods should be such that the child is discouraged from jumping too rapidly from one thought to another. Until a teacher meets and studies his group. Since children like to construct. and competencies as they . Often children quit school because their dislikes are not known. The method selected for the purposes of instruction should not inhibit the child’s natural instincts to imitate. a more appropriate method of teaching him might be found. The teacher should seek to guide rivalry into its many constructive channels. the more likely he will be able to maintain a longer attention span and to retain the line of thought. he will know several methods from which he might select the more appropriate for purposes of application. The child’s likes and dislikes should be known by the classroom teacher. 10. 12.

primarily as measured by achievement on classroom and standardised tests. Logically. This model provides a useful framework for teachers as they plan for classroom instruction. Teacher responsibility is well served by this model. The first five we will call key behaviours. Five Key Behaviours Contributing To Effective Teaching Approximately 10 teacher behaviours show promising relationships to desirable student performance. The second five we will call helping behaviours that can be used in combinations to implement the key behaviours. Another five have had some support and appear logically related to effective teaching. Individual strengths of teachers can be utilised most effectively when a logical framework is employed to organise the instructional skills selected for a specific programme. Teaching can be thought of as a series of events requiring decisions made by the teachers. are: • Lesson clarity • Instructional variety • Task orientation • Engagement in the learning process • Student success Some Helping Behaviours Related To Effective Teaching To fill out our picture of an effective teacher. these five headings comprise all of the basic instructional skills. This responsibility comes not in teachers’ rigid adherence to a set of “ideal role behaviours” but rather in adapting instructional practices. Individualised styles are encouraged because evaluation of instruction is based on learner’s achievement of the performance objectives. Collectively. but on what learners derive from instruction. According to this model. more than five general keys to effective teaching are needed. because they are considered essential for effective teaching. a model of instruction is proposed here that relates actions of teachers to achievement of learners. As a framework to guide teacher’ instructional practices. teachers are free to choose procedures from their own repertoires that they believe will result in high levels of learner achievement. You also need behaviours to help you implement the five . These skills are: • Skill one: specifying performance objective • Skill two: diagnosing learners • Skill three: selecting instructional strategies • Skill four: interacting with learners • Skill five: evaluating the effectiveness of instruction Each of these five instructional skills can be thought of as an element in a comprehensive model of instruction. Five of these behaviours have been consistently supported by research studies over the past two decades. major emphases are placed not specifically on what teachers do.4 plan for instruction. as necessary. to help learners achieve performance objectives that have been selected. The five key behaviours. these decisions can be organised into separate categories. This model of instruction rests on a clear formulation of the teaching process. referred. systematic instructional programme for learners. This model encourages the development of individual teaching styles. These decision categories have been grouped under five general headings. Such a framework can suggest how instructional skills might best be organised to promote a logical. Given this criterion.

structuring and probing. extend. • Uses naturally occurring classroom dialogue to get students elaborate. although promising. • Provides learners with mental strategies for organising and learning the content being taught. • Uses a variety instructional materials and verbal and visual aids to foster use of student ideas and engagement in the learning process. • Elicits responses from students each time a question is asked before moving to the next student or question. Nor has it linked these behaviours to student achievement as strongly as the key five. Let’s consider some additional behaviours that can be thought of as catalytic or helping behaviours for performing the five key behaviours. • Maximises instructional time to increase content coverage and to give students the greatest opportunity to learn. Structuring 3. Probing 5. • Provides direction and control of student learning through questioning. This is why it is suspected that helping behaviours need to be employed in the context of other behaviours to be effective. are not as strong and consistent as those that identified the five key behaviours. • Encourages students to reason out and elaborate upon the correct answer. making them catalysts rather than agents unto themselves. and decision making. Questioning 4. Using student ideas and contributions 2. problem solving. • Gradually shifts some of the responsibility for learning to the students – encouraging independent thinking. Teacher affect Some important teacher effectiveness indicators: The effective teacher • Takes personal responsibility for students’ learning and has positive expectations for every learner. • Present material in small steps with opportunities for practice. Research findings for helping behaviours. These catalytic behaviours include: 1. • Matches the difficult of the lesson with the ability level of the students and varies the difficulty when necessary to attain moderate-to-higher success rates. • Gives students the opportunity to practice newly learned concepts and to receive timely feedback on their performance. • Encourages students in verbal questions and answers. There is general agreement on the importance of these helping behaviours. .5 key behaviours in your classroom. but the research has not been so accommodating as to identify explicitly how these behaviours should be used. and comment on the content being learned.

Developing a blueprint for teaching provides a focus for instruction and promotes systematic and efficient planning. Consider the context of your teaching To help you decide on a format for your design. and movement that affect your teaching and teaching of those near by. and recess. we note specific elements of our planning. to use a particular format. Consider noise levels. When you plan for instruction. and the learners who will be taught. you must consider the context of your teaching. 20. lunch break. the content you intend to teach. 12. Designing is the process of putting our mental plans into a blue print. or to follow a particular schedule. You must also consider yourself. Note other schedules such as library period. . Planning is a mental process--the visualising that takes place before teaching. potential behaviour problems. Remember. ask yourself questions about the context in which you will be teaching: • Is the setting formal or informal (rows of desks or clusters of tables and chairs)? • Is it the beginning. middle.6 Chapter 2 Designing Effective Instruction Planning and designing instruction are opposite sides of the same coin. 30 or bigger? • What kind of management routines is established? Your context concerns must include elements within and outside your classroom. which may follow or precede your instruction. During the planning process. we may try to match the needs of the learner with specific content for our particular context. that there are often administrative pressures imposed on your design process. You must modify your design as you gain teaching experience. When we design instruction. You may be required to submit teaching plans to administrators. too. or end of the school year? The school day? The class period? • Is this a group of 8.

In addition to curriculum guides. • What kind of learning activities have they experienced? What kind of life experiences? Travel experience? Activities outside of school? • Do these learners work well in-groups? Do they know how to work ingroups? • What strategies/activities are developmentally appropriate for these learners (e. ask yourself questions about the content you will teach. Consider yourself In a research study. and teacher manuals. which could affect many of the teaching strategies and learning activities you might plan. Consider the learners to be taught These questions will guide your discussion about a format for your instructional design. • Is there a textbook? • Is the curriculum unstructured and open-ended (e. curriculum for creative writing)? • Is there a big idea or concept to be understood (e. Ask yourself questions about your learners. You need to ask yourself. . young children require need manipulative for understanding math concepts)? • Can these learners work independently? • Have the learners shown interest in the topics? What is their motivation level? • Is the content relevant to their lives? • What are the needs of the learners? Teachers describe the ability level of their students as the most important consideration when designing instruction. If you are a person who plans with a major item and who processes details in your head.g. so that you consider yourself before designing instruction. teachers’ individual interests and areas of expertise become important sources of content.g. to help you decide on a format for your design. you will probably design your teaching with a similar focus. Stop and consider how you plan for the other things you do.7 Consider the content of your teaching Again.g.g. textbooks. and that they felt mentally and physically better prepared for teaching. You will need to be sensitive to the social interactions of your learners and the pattern of the class participation. “How can my planning help my readiness for teaching?” Or may you need a detailed instructional design to build confidence. you will probably use a similar format to design your teaching. map reading)? • Are there attitudes to be experienced (appreciation of masterpieces of art)? • Are there school district objectives to be met? Content is a major focus for most teachers when designing instruction. relationship between societal discontent and politics)? • Are there skills to be practised (e. teachers reported that planning relieved anxiety and uncertainty for them. If you are a person who plans in great detail for a trip. and is most comfortable with details written down.

or with student-directed strategies of co-operative grouping. think about the basic parts or elements of design that you will need for your teaching. feedback and assessment. whether they are written in a detailed format or in mental form. a goal may be: Students become successful in math computation or will become literary critics. and attitudes transfer to the thinking and action of the learner. a goal may be: Students will become problem solvers.8 Once you have considered the context and content of your teaching. concepts. Notice the broad. Objectives Educational objectives specify the learning outcomes in measurable or observable terms. this transfer may occur through a variety of media. or more involved audio-visual stimuli such as films and transparencies. equipment. Feedback All of us need feedback that recognises our work. a goal may be: All students will develop a love of learning. Depending on the strategy in use. including anything used by you or your learner in the teaching and the learning process. videos. objectives. and resources. They are goals. The question of how to transfer learning may be answered with teacher-directed strategies of lecture. On a district level. and demonstration. and yourself. To be specific. our progress and so on. textbooks. A description of each will assist your understanding of the design models. ideas. Students may provide feedback to each other through peer critiques. materials. paper and textbooks. Materials can be simply pencils and pens. Objectives for the goal of literary critics could be: Students identify the main characters. other students. Materials This is a broad category of tools. questioning. skills. the learners to be taught. You may provide feedback to students through individual comments on their papers or through verbal responses to their discussions. They are the “how” of your instructional design. To develop objectives. You must also specify the minimum level of performance necessary for each student that would indicate that the objective and part of the goal are being reached. and the need for the long-range development. Elements of instructional design There are some universal elements you will find in most lesson designs. Including materials in your design for teaching contributes to your preparedness. On a class level. including the teacher. teaching and learning strategies. . checking each other’s work. or computers. general quality of the outcomes. our efforts. plot and setting of five literary selections. create a setting. you must analyse your goals into behaviours that indicate that students are reaching the goal. and divert attention. Goals Educational goals provide overall direction for teaching and learning in broad terms. On a universal level. Teaching and learning strategies Teaching and learning strategies provide the vehicle or means by which facts. discovery and role-play. or students describe the literary strategies used by authors to build suspense. and reading to each other. an objective for the goal of math computation might be: Students will add 10 sets of 3-digit numbers and get 80 percent of them correct.

to incorporate your beliefs. You might begin with a model. or through journal writing. Short-term assessment includes questions. or critiquing work with a set of criteria. materials. projects. Finally. as well as at the end of the lesson. and as you gain experience personalise it. Assessment This is the means of determining whether students have met the objectives. teaching and learning strategies. and observations of student work.9 Students may also provide feedback to themselves by checking an answer sheet. Assessment provides information that will be useful for your next lesson design. quizzes. and assessment are threads that run through the most widely used design models. You can assess as an ongoing process all through the lesson. You may also use assessment at the beginning of the lesson to see what students already know. Long-term assessment includes exams. before you teach. it is encouraging to personalise whatever design format you use to meet your needs and priorities. Goals. . feedback. objectives. Other models of instruction elaborate from the universal framework. and research papers. and to be efficient.

The processes used in individualised learning are not new. Thus. It involves an assessment of student needs and interests. interest centres. As with these concepts. Students involved in individualised programme are encouraged to exceed minimal standards. as the concept of individualised learning is too universal to be applicable as a specific strategy. and a constant monitoring and guidance of student progress. truth. learning becomes an exciting adventure and not a necessary obligation to complete the same daily activities that are performed to the typical classroom. almost philosophical approach to the teachinglearning process. A teacher using this approach would employ a number of strategies. Consequently. case study and student tutorial strategies. a tailoring of subject matter and teaching strategies to those needs and interests.10 Chapter 3 STRATEGIES FOR INDIVIDUALISATION Individualised Learning Individualised learning is a broad. Although time consuming at the outset. The good teacher has been aware of and utilised them on a regular basis. student research. individualised learning is understandable only through its displayed components – individualised learning resources such as learning packets. projects. interview. and brotherly love. In this amorphous state it is as difficult to understand as the concepts of patriotism. Socratic. It is truly a challenge to the intellectually inclined . the strategy has not been exploited in its fullest potential. contracting. The universality is one of the reasons why the approach is not as wide spread as everyone agrees it should be. independent study. The differences being that they have been directed at the entire class. the rewards tend to far exceed the energy expended. programmed instruction. They are further prompted to expand on lessons assigned to areas of their personal and intellectual interests.

When coupled with other strategies such as interest centres. a programme in individualised learning is a challenge to the student and boon to the busy teacher. • Students must be trained to handle individualised learning strategies—a time consuming activity. • Students are not in false competition with peers. and independent laboratory experiences.11 student without penalising those students who need to maintain a slower pace accomplishes the minimal requirements. • Record keeping can be lengthy and involved. • Students learn to take more responsibility for their own instructional activities. • Pre-assessment of student academic status takes time and special skill. individualised learning takes more teacher-monitoring time. Disadvantages • Time and effort must be expended in developing materials and matching strategies to a given student. • Students have the opportunity to see their personal progress as it occurs and tend to extend their knowledge rather than stopping at minimal accomplishment. • Retention of learning is improved over non-individualised instruction. • The teacher has more opportunity to pinpoint and assist individual student problems. They are only in competition with themselves. • Students are not penalised for being out of school for illness or family matters. . • In the beginning. Advantages • Each student moves at his own pace through a level of subject matter utilising a teaching/learning strategy that is selected to promote optimal progress. student research. Upon return each student returns to the point where he was temporarily halted.

Behaviour modification may also be known as behaviour therapy or behaviour management. Introduce the changes slowly. individualised instruction. affective and psychomotor learning. • It is based upon tested principles of learning rather than theory. It has been researched mostly with atypical children. This strategy must be understood and accepted by peers and parents. . The objectives for each child must be realistic. Advantages • The effects of behaviour modification have been scientifically demonstrated in classroom situations. or who move to the direction of the prescribed behaviours. Continue to practice this strategy in numerous settings. The teacher must understand both the limitations and potential of the strategy. The behaviour must be observable. • Since behaviour modification is concerned with observable. A learning environment must be created that will cause the child to engage in the desired behaviours. well done”. are rewarded. reinforcement should be tapered off and provided less frequently but occasional reward is necessary to maintain the behaviour. behavioural objectives. or an increase in student privileges. hopefully increasing the likelihood that the behaviour will continue. • Care must be taken not to reward undesirable behaviours. case study and programmed learning can stimulate the students toward the desired behaviour changes. which may be academic. school and the mental health professional. The reward may be of a verbal nature. social or emotional in nature. • The academic behaviours specified can be individualised very easily. • Since the emphasis is upon success. • A change in the student may not be based on desired learning but upon the rewards attached. Behaviour modification will not accomplish psychologically or academically impossible tasks. Indiscriminate use may bring about undesirable characteristics and/or neutralise the benefits later when the technique would have a role in changing the pupil’s behaviour. Teach the child to manage his own behaviour. It is a tool to be used selectively by the teacher. A programme in behavioural modification should not be used as a panacea for all ills. “Good job. The teacher should demonstrate those behaviours that are desired and not to assume that the child knows what to do. Students who exhibit such behaviours. such as the teacher saying. It has also been used with a large degree of success in role-playing and simulation activities. • This approach leads to co-operation between the teacher. Disadvantages • Not all behaviours to be learned can be measured. measurable and controllable. Essentially certain behaviours are established as desirable for students. After the child learns a new behaviour. • It is applicable to cognitive. a positive atmosphere prevails. The use of this strategy in conjunction with observation skills. material rewards.12 Behavioural modification Behavioural modification is the term assigned to the application of the laboratoryderived principles of learning to behaviour problem. • Behaviour modification tends to limitation where long term retention is desirable. measurable behaviour. both the student and teacher are aware of the amount of progress being made.

.13 • Some techniques within the behaviour modification strategy are extremely timed consuming.

The level of acceptable achievement must be based on more than the general expectation of the class. Advantages • The emphasis is on learning and success rather than testing and failure. It is a chance for the student to experience success and failure. assist students in finding the needed resources and regular record keeping of attendance. • The contract requires both in-school and out-of-school resources.14 Contracting Contracting is a device in which a student and teacher write together exactly what is to be accomplished. and for what grade. • ‘Quantity’ may tend to replace ‘Quality’ as criteria. Quite the contrary. which may be difficult to locate. Contracting is not a strategy that once assigned. Two copies are prepared so that the teacher and pupil can keep each one for reference and records. • Not all students are mature enough to fulfil the contract responsibilities and selfmotivation required for this strategy. and both teacher and student sign the written agreement (contract). • Students have a self-controlled opportunity for independence in their learning activities. exercise decision making abilities. • Students have choices. Consideration must include the maturity of the students’ previous experiences in contracting. • The learning objectives are clear to everyone. and learn to organise and manage time. • Communication is optimised as student and teacher must meet in regular individual conferences. in what period of time. it requires the teacher to constantly monitor progress through individual conferences. The contract itself is a written set of varied learning situations. The objectives are clearly specified. The important part of the strategy is in giving the opportunity to students to learn while doing a project that the students have selected with teacher approval. progress and testing. the teacher is free from all daily planning and teaching. . Some are common to the entire class while others are individualised to meet the needs of the individual student. the work objectives outlined. yet have the opportunity to try again without the feeling of complete failure. Disadvantages • It is more work for the teacher than the straight “lecture method”. The contract can be an elaborate document or a simple written statement of agreement between the student and the teacher. The contracting strategy is a stepping-stone into the individualised learning processes. • More record monitoring is necessary to insure the students are keeping up with their schedules and are not having difficulties. • Cheating and duty shirking are reduced. the ability to carryout tasks on an individual bases and yet be challenging to both the teacher and the student.

Independent study requires the teacher to allow the student to become the teacher. Constant assessment of progress by conferring with the learner and by viewing his work is extremely important. The aim is to provide a unique learning experience for the student. • The lack of research skills on the part of student and the teacher may hinder completion of the project strategy. Advantages • Individual students can work in an area of need. • A shortage of related materials or other resources necessary to carry out the study may restrict independent work. The topic to be explored can be assigned by the teacher or selected by the student with approval from the teacher. Disadvantages • There is usually a lack of flexible schedules necessary to permit students and teachers to do true independent study. but of a different angle requiring different functions. which are not appropriate to class instruction. Permitting the students to share the results of their study with the rest of the class can add a dimension to the activity. and a clarifier rather than a seeing-eye dog. Allow sufficient time to complete the project. If anything. but do not allow the project to continue on endlessly. • Students are more motivated when they are studying something they have selected and in which they have a special interest. • Independent study fosters self-learning skills and attitudes. Do not permit too many students to work on the same type of project. Clearly specified objectives should be stated at the outset of the project. • Students gain insights into ‘how’ to learn. It is a job of equal importance. Determine the availability of resources before beginning this strategy. • Large amounts of time may be needed by the teacher to help each student to individualise a programme. an encourager rather than a demander. for example.15 Independent study Independent study is an arrangement whereby the school explores in depth an area of interest not normally studied by the entire class. • The teacher must maintain a constant check of student progress where independent study programmes are in operation. The teacher is an explainer of direction rather than a lecturer. The teacher becomes a ‘guide on the side’ as opposed to a ‘sage on the stage’. • Evaluation is more difficult. Do not permit students to embark on studies. . It is not a time for rest and relaxation. brighter students can extend their learning while slower students can focus on an area of deficiency. • Individual students assume more responsibility for learning and the presenting of their projects or reports assist the slower students to gain new insights into the study topic. the teacher must be more vigilant and more available for help than ever.

. • Using the pre-test and post-test. • Any discipline can be the subject of learning packet. Take the time to work through the unit prior to classroom use to be sure it is complete and accurate. Plan well in advance to see that all necessary materials and resources are available. Because the unit is designed for individual use. The learning packet is designed to help students achieve at their own best learning rate.16 Learning packets Learning packets are sets of self-contained learning materials assembled for the purpose of teaching a single concept or idea. major and sub-concepts. • The learning packet is well planned from start to finish. Do not allow it to become isolated from learning goals. Establish a definite time period for the completion of the unit of learning. pre-test. • Learning takes place in a sequential order. They are generally structured for individual use and are most effectively used in schools with flexible curricula. • Teachers are placed in the role of facilitators of learning rather than directors of learning. Components of the learning packets may include teacher directions. The teacher is a resource person available to offer assistance as the student pursues the learning content of the instructional package. Advantages • Students are able to pursue special interest areas yet work within the confines of the total curriculum. Relate the learning packet to the curriculum. assorted strategies and content. student instructions. the teacher is able to immediately evaluate the amount of learning that has taken place. Disadvantages • Unit packets are time consuming to develop. The unit packet consists of a series of sequential learning activities leading to the achievement of desired outcomes by the learners. post-test. research activities. behavioural objectives. Follow the directions for teachers within the learning packets. although they are not limited to these settings. Each may be of increasing difficulty requiring the learner to device new skills. techniques and greater knowledge. • Materials in learning packets can be developed for all levels of learning. Encouragement and positive reinforcement are important to the success of this strategy. • Students may tend get bored with lengthy learning units. • Learning packets may be exchanged both within the school and with other schools. • The learning packet requires an abundance of resource materials in order to complete the total project. independent resources and study materials. • Students may not have the maturity to work independently. a series of units may be developed on a single topic area. student self-assessment.

It is especially useful in science and mathematics and materials can be found or constructed for all learner levels whether slow. Materials can be bought. The other basic method of programming is called non-linear. the student may be referred to remedial exercises. the student responds to a presented step. In such an approach. Programmed instruction is usually most effective when used ‘some of the time’ rather than ‘all of the time’. Advantages • Programmed learning saves the teacher a considerable amount of time. • The student. branching. fixed sequence. If correct. If incorrect. • The success and reinforcement provides motivation to the learner. • The student progresses at his own rate and level of achievement. but properly used on a once in a while basis it can be fun and provides variety. is aware of the degree of progress being made. One method of programming I variously termed linear. • Programmed instruction is very applicable to affective or psychomotor learning. • The learner is actively responding at all times to the programme. or gifted. through immediate feedback. The next frame the student faces depends upon his response.17 Programmed learning (Instruction) Auto-instruction and automated teaching are synonyms for programmed instruction. the units of content are designed in small sequential steps. They can be reused (if separate answer sheets are dittoed) year after year and rarely need updating as they usually cover basic concepts. • The cost of the materials can be prohibitive. A course with programmed instruction as the sole method of learning can be boring and tedious. or intrinsic. which must be completed in the pre-arranged order. straight line or extrinsic. • Writing programmes is a very difficult process which causes teachers generally rely on commercial programmes. • It is effective for remedial teaching. Begin utilising programme for a unit of content. In this approach. • The time saved can be applied to individuals or groups as either remedial or higher intellectual learning. Machine teaching is one type of programmed instruction. drill and practice. • Students can study on their own and that too effectively. the student goes on to a new exercise. teacher-made. Disadvantage • Good programmes are hard to identify. then evaluate the experience to decide upon further use. average. borrowed or copied. or frame. student-made. . as well as enrichment.

tutees often resent being taught by their peers. drill. • The only feedback the teacher receives is through the tutor and may be distorted. • The tutor is not a teacher and is very limited in instructional skills. demonstration. The tutee is rewarded by being selected for additional assistance on the basis of need. . • Since the tutor is nearer the age. • The tutor can develop responsible behaviour as well as gain leadership experience. the use of tutors may lead to memorisation transmission only. skill and achievement level of the tutee than is the teacher. They may have only a minor role when used by the tutors but nevertheless are valid points to consider. However.18 Student tutorial The student tutorial approach utilises pupils as monitors (tutors) who first learn from a teacher and then teach small groups or individual fellow students (tutees). Other sub-strategies can play an important part in the student tutorial programme. Traditionally the approach has been concerned only with the learning of the tutees. The use of students tutoring other students has proven to be a valuable tool for teachers in a countless number of situations. behaviour problems are apt to arise. • The use of student tutors removes the teacher from the actual instruction of most of the students. and a proven desire to additional help. • The student tutorial provides a challenging learning experience for the faster students in class. It enables the teacher to provide additional instruction to those pupils having difficulty while continuing to maintain an ongoing programme with other students in the classroom. the approach also offers a unique learning experience for the student tutors and should be considered as a vital portion of the approach. acceptable behaviour. the tutor can better understand the tutee’s problems. • Advanced students can many times be paired up with remedial students and aid in eliminating troublesome ‘learning gaps’. • Since the tutor usually lacks the teacher’s depth of knowledge. • Since the teacher is not present in all the tutorial sessions. • The student tutorial approach provides an economic use of time. Advantages • The tutor learns more since teaching is an excellent learning situation. It may be considered a form of behavioural modification due to the selection process used to designate tutors and tutees. • The student tutorial system spreads the talents and knowledge of the teacher. The mere fact that a peer is aiding the slow student may make the difference to the success or failure of the tutee in gaining knowledge and assurance that he can do acceptable schoolwork. The good student is rewarded by being assigned or appointed as a tutor. which will enable him to be a part of the total classroom activities. Discussion. questioning and problem solving are a few of the strategies that enter into the student tutorial method. • The use of tutors assures all students of individual attention. Disadvantages • Since tutors and tutees are classmates.

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Chapter 4 STRATEGIES FOR SMALL GROUPS

Case study
The case study strategy (or case method) is a teaching approach, which requires the student to participate actively in problem situations, which may be hypothetical or real. He receives a case, a report containing pertinent data, analyses the data, evaluates the nature of the problem, decides upon applicable principles, and finally recommends a solution or a course of action. The case study method is another approach to individualising the learning situation. Through the use of hypothetical or real situations, the student has the opportunity to use problem-solving approaches that are meaningful and understandable. It requires the student to collect the data, analyse it and make suggestions or recommendations for decision-making. The project may be simple in the beginning and lead to the more complex as the student gains experiences to these learning processes. Using the case study strategy can, if properly directed, assist in the solving of school or community problems. The community sees the student working on topics that are of wide interest in the community and thus have greater respect for the educational programmes at the local school. It further provides an opportunity to narrow the generous gap. It is not a strategy to be used indiscriminately. It requires careful planning, specific objectives, clearly specified guidelines and a precise means of evaluation. The teacher can and must expect to be available for individual assistance and ensure that materials, equipment and resources are readily available to the students. Cases should be explicitly and unambiguously written. They should fit the level of the students in terms of maturity and problem solving skills. Students should be presented with similar cases prior to permitting the students to select their own cases. A check must be made to insure that materials and resources dealing with the case are available. Periodically check on students to insure they are progressing in a desirable

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direction. Attempt to include other strategies such as role-playing, simulation, interview and questioning within the structure of the case study. Advantages • The case study approach can provide for individual differences among students. • Because the student is involved in a problem situation, interest and motivation are generally high. • Active student involvement insures better retention of content. • The case study approach develops responsibility on the part of the learner. • Students are invited to develop problem-solving skills in order to arrive at a conclusion to the case. • Students deal with content on a high cognitive level. • Materials and resources other than the textbook are used in considering the case. Disadvantages • The case study approach can be time consuming. • Good case studies are difficult fir the teacher to develop in a manageable procedure for the normal size class. • Resources and materials needed to successfully pursue the case study are often not available. • The teacher must be well prepared for the topic of the study. • Cases developed by the students are often controversial and difficult for the teacher to manage.

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Community resources
Basically, community resources include any activity outside the school, which has educational use. The teacher can use people, places and things found in the community to facilitate learning. The resource, although located outside the school building, may be brought to the school or the class may go to the site to carry out a planned activity. Often an elder citizen of the community can enhance the study of history or biology, art, folk dancing and literature. Normally a community resource is considered to be to be something away from the school to visit, but in many instances it means bringing a person or exhibit to the school. It is a tool that can provide new learning experiences to the class and assist the teacher in making lessons more meaningful with lasting effects. Community resources, like all other teaching strategies, require advance consideration, study and preparation before it can become a meaningful tool. Begin early to note places of interest that will enhance the lesson. Make notes regarding the cost, time to tour or complete the activity. Note down the names of key individuals for contacts and scheduling. Be knowledgeable of the procedures and requirements within the school for making use of community resources. Have the objectives for using the resource firmly in mind to make the lesson meaningful. Advantages • The use of community resources can bring the school and community closer together. • It facilitates more practical learning and better retention of learning. • Interaction between the school and community enables the student to develop a broader understanding of the community. • The use of the community resources adds excitement to the subject, thus increasing motivation for learning. • Community resources are applicable to all types of learning: cognitive, affective and psychomotor. • Students can develop social skills. • Students can assist in the selection of community resources as a decision making experience. • These activities are inexpensive and within the budget of most schools. Disadvantages • Specific community resources, which are available, are sometime difficult to locate and schedule. • Teachers have to obtain prior administrative and parental approval. • People used as community resources often do not know how to transfer their knowledge and information to students. • Field trips are often over looked due to factors such as student safety, control, expense and teacher liability. • Since the teacher is dependent on agents of the community, last minute cancellations often occur leaving the teacher stranded.

or model making will ensure that retention of the objectives is accomplished. The field study is a trip arranged by the school and undertaken for educational purposes. thereby. and do your investigations at this site. art galleries. and is a most valuable activity to consider for your programme. social. which can serve as a basis for other learning activities. Disadvantages • Discipline can easily become a problem. first hand experiences. widens their attitudinal. it is difficult to make arrangements in order to prevent conflicts with other classes. • What is learned should have great impact due to the multi-sensory nature of the experience. Careful planning and pre-visitation to the site by the teacher is essential if the experience is to be useful and valuable to students. Follow up activities including discussion. field studies are generally made to points of instructional interest such as factories. Make sure the field trip is of educational value in that it relates directly to what is being taught in the classroom. properly carried out. Plan the trip by visiting the site and talking with the people. • A common experience is provided for students. and. A sub-strategy of the community resources strategy. Students should receive some definite ‘coaching’ in observation skills and an outline of objectives and purposes prior to the field trip. Field study. the immediate community. or government institutions. One of the longstanding major criticisms of education has been its sponsorship of cloistered. Prepare the by relating the trip to what is being studied and what they might observe. is a major source of enrichment for learners. At the site provide for adequate supervision. in which students go to places where the materials of instruction may be observed and studied directly to their functional settings. • When a teacher has students for only one period a day. libraries. writing short essays. museums. This extra-class session is known as a field trip. public utilities. . Upon return to the classroom. drawing pictures. Field study is a means of overcoming this criticism in part. review and summarise what was learned at the field trip. • Transportation arrangements are often difficulty or costly. • Field studies extend classroom learning through reality. • Field studies can add greatly to school-community relationships. • Students become more aware of their environment. You and the class must move outside the confines of that room to the school grounds. Advantages • Field studies provide the student with interesting. It provides opportunity for students to see the ‘real world’ in action. Develop a means of evaluation for pupils as well as the place visited in order to assist in planning future trips. and academic horizons. or some other reachable place. unrealistic learning of irrelevant facts.22 Field study (trip) Your regular classroom may not be the best area available to you for a particular activity on study. • Administrative procedures to organise field trips are often so complicated that they discourage taking them.

especially if they have not had prior independent work. which are personally interesting. it is amazing how many experts are eager to donate their time and energy to work with students. . student tutorial. • The teacher needs a good command of all subject matter. etc. a language centre. museums. independent study. hospitals and individuals. The type and quantity of materials depends on the objectives for each centre. • Students are more responsible for their own learning activities. an art centre. a social science centre. Many other strategies and sub-strategies can operate effectively within the interest centred classroom – projects. government institutions. Resource people are a valuable asset to an interest centred classroom. and students is required. Another possibility for evaluation is to require each student to exhibit some level of individual proficiency on small quizzes or written exercises prepared over the material. fieldtrips. • Record keeping of student achievement is difficult. etc. Interest centre teaching can be a good blessing. Just as with materials. • Students have the opportunity to bring their own materials with which to work. The teacher must secure an abundance of materials and some equipment pertinent to each centre well in advance of the beginning of the year. • Students may be lacking in self-motivation. one might have a science centre. Advantages • Interest centres provide for individualised learning within constraints of subject matter requirements. On request. It individualising learning. research. In an elementary and middle school classroom. a math centre. factories. Care should be taken that accurate and detailed records are kept. materials. art galleries. • A great deal of preparation of environment. zoos. otherwise evaluation becomes impossible. Each student should have a folder kept in a central file where he logs his activities and achievements. Disadvantages • The need for varied materials to each centre may be a constraint. • The teacher is free to move about from centre to centre assisting students. Each centre has abundant materials and equipment pertaining to that particular subject. • Interest centres allow students to devote more time to the subjects. Do not fail to utilise some students’ parents and acquaintances as valuable resources. • Resource people in each interest area can be brought in easily to work with a small group of students. learning packets. It also makes progress reporting easier and meaningful. makes students more responsible for their own time.23 Interest centres (Subject learning centres) Establishing an interest centred classroom involves actual separation of the physical space into stations of various academic areas. With proper introduction and monitoring the teacher will find interest centre teaching may be the panacea for which she has been searching. encourages communication and eliminates many motivational problems. Administration and parents should be kept aware and consulted during the planning and programme operation. you may acquire from business houses.

Students should be helped in finding projects. • Students often get sidetracked or go off on a tangent. Sometimes projects are creative. • The student develops greater understanding of ‘how’ to learn. it becomes research. or it can evolve from class discussions. play production. Provide an opportunity to utilise community resources. large model construction. • Often the materials and resources needed to do an effective project are not available. This method requires teaching by units rather than by pages. . jury trial. The project approach may be referred to as self-directed study. but not so much as to rob students of meaningful learning experiences. often make many errors. Some projects sometimes take the form of a large-scale city map. The decision as to the nature of the project can be assigned by the teacher. are a duplicate of something already done. as well as learn together about specific subject matter. who furnishes help only when necessary. Provide enough supervision to ensure maximum progress. Be sure the subject is specifically defined and understood by the students involved. Projects give students the opportunity to work independently and to gain in-depth knowledge of a specific area. Projects are usually done by individuals and many times take the form of a model or presentation as the final product. Disadvantages • Projects are very time consuming. Advantages • The project approach covers all levels of the cognitive and affective domains. • Helpful teacher feedback usually is not possible until it is too late. etc. and. • Pupils can be involved in planning the project that increases interest and motivation. Well-known examples of projects are seen at science fairs. The advantages of the group projects are that students must agree on division of labour. Great care must be taken to the selection of the project. • Emphasis is placed upon doing by the student. many times. which have meaning for them but which are also meaningful in terms of the goals of the subject. If the project involves in-depth work.24 Project The project method is a teaching in which students individually or in-groups accept an assignment to gather and integrate data relative to some problem and are then free to fulfil the requirements independently of the teacher. learn to lead or follow. and give and take criticism among themselves. • The project method develops student responsibility and initiative. due to academic immaturity. • Students.

• Interest in learning and motivation are increased with the use of problem solving. These steps are: (1) defining the problem. • Students learn how to think independently in reaching conclusions. (4) reaching conclusions. and synthesising. Assist pupils in defining and delimiting the problem to be studied. • Problem solving is time consuming. taking care not to overdo it.25 Problem solving The name problem solving is assigned to learning approaches built upon the scientific method of inquiry. (3) collecting. and (5) testing these conclusions. The data could either support or deny the hypothesis. • Problem solving provides the opportunity for students to learn from failure without severe hardships. The problems presented must fit the maturation and skill levels of the student. Advantages • Because the student has been actively involved. • Problem solving develops responsibility in the learner. Next a conclusion would be reached regarding what happens to the dictatorship when the dictator dies. organising and interpreting data. Expose the student to a number of similar problems. • Problem solving provides the student with a model to apply to problem that may be faced in the future. For example. organise and interpret data. they would select. An added benefit in utilising this strategy is that students become adept at digging up information and cross checking its validity with other resources. the dictatorship ends. a social studies class might become concerned about what will happen to the dictatorship when a dictator dies? The class members discuss various alternatives and then finally state their hypothesis: When a dictator dies. comprehension and retention should be of longer duration. They would study dictators throughout history and what happened to the dictatorship upon the death of the dictator. • Problem solving involves cognitive and affective learning. . Next. Disadvantages • Materials and resources needed for problem solving often are not available to the students. The degree to which the hypothesis is supported or denied by the evidence determines the conclusion. generalising. Provide direction and guidance when necessary. evaluate. This alone justifies it as one of the most valuable of all strategies. Problem solving moves the mind to some of its highest cognitive functions: analysing. • Evaluation of learning is difficult. Check for sufficient resources and materials to be available for student use. • Students are often too immature to really recognise problem of social significance. evaluating. (2) formulating tentative hypotheses. These approaches are built upon John Dewey’s five steps of general problem solving.

The classroom focus of student research can be either upon the knowledge gained. Certain students thrive on the independence. student not only learns content but also develops various research skills. Disadvantages • Research can be very time consuming. The rewards of properly supervised and earnest carrying out of student research can be great: thought organisation. Advantages • Student research lets the student understand how a researcher in a particular field works. and report the findings. . Spend time preparing students by helping them develop research skills before embarking upon a research project. (2) gathering and compiling data. boring. students may often have difficulty judging the importance of data acquired through research. and so informed the students. reach conclusions. facilities and equipment for research are available. may lose interest if the research leads up blind alleys (topic too difficult. and a sense of responsibility. Build in checks or student progress reports to ensure the direction of the research. But it is not for everyone. draws his own conclusions on the basis of data. upon the research skills and processes involved. the desired outcomes of which are achieved by setting up situations in such a form that the student gathers and organises information. or both. A student doing research needs input. and (3) posing tentative solutions. and feeling of accomplishment. although initially motivated. • Students. • Research can provide motivation as the student actively seeks answers. Make certain the topics to be researched are well defined and understood by the student. students must make judgements. etc. • Research may require more materials and equipment than are available. Be sure the necessary materials. Base the type of research upon the students’ level of research sophistication. and a total bore for others. This might be library time or first-hand gathering of information from local and state agencies. Provide students with opportunities to share their findings with peers.26 Student research The research approach in teaching is defined as ‘an instructional procedure. investment. and compares his results with those obtained by other investigators’. • Due to immaturity or limited subject matter comprehension. or the lengthy). Decide beforehand whether the purpose of the research is the knowledge learned or the research process or both. the logicality and definity of this type of individual study. increased motivation. and the flexibility to make contacts necessary for such input. activism. The student may conduct this research in a laboratory situation or a nonlaboratory situation or a combination of both. The non-laboratory research is usually some type of library resource. Research is highly interesting to some students. in-depth knowledge of a specific area. • By conducting research. • In using research. A teacher must spend adequate preparatory time with the student in the foundations of research: (1) defining the problem. • Research by students prepares the students to direct their own learning in the future when faced with a new problem.

Accurate perception is invaluable to the proficient teacher. and learning problems while in the midst of a dynamic classroom situation. It is purely on the teacher’s shoulders to be mature and professional enough to take a step and enjoy the feeling of ‘doing better’. attitudes. . It might be the fundamental strategy underlying effective utilisation of all other strategies. we shall define observation as ‘astute perception by the teacher of the multiply–faceted student behaviour.27 Chapter 5 STRATEGIES FOR LARGER GROUPS Observation Observation is probably more of a teacher skill than a strategy. Observation. An ‘observer’ is usually thought of as an unobtrusive person sitting in the corner passively watching students.’ In other words. The teacher is supposed to reinforce students towards progress. Observation is perception. How else is a teacher to judge when and how to plug indifferent strategies if he is not gaining accurate input on student needs and desires? Most of us are fairly poor observers. It is a rare teacher who has the luxurious opportunity to observe his own students performed. It is of utmost importance to be ‘omnisciently observant’. if practised can be one of the most rewarding steps ever taken. which motivates the teacher to improve. that it becomes almost imperative to treat it as a ‘pure form’ strategy. as it is the major and only immediate way to learn of student reactions to the general environment and particular learning segments. It is especially difficult for those teachers who are in the habit of seeing ‘the group’ rather than individual that composes the group. its importance is so crucial to effective utilisation of other strategies and it is so intricately intertwined with all of them. To be constantly cognisant of what is transpiring through out the class is not an easy task. However. Usually not principals or pay checks. the teacher should be aware of ‘what is happening ‘. Therefore.

testing or diagnostics lesson the effect of problem-attention due to the time-delay. • Observation provides immediate information and feedback. Never neglect your built-in ‘environmental thermostat’. socio-emotional. Many potential learning problems can be eliminated by prompt action ultimately saving a great deal of energy and discomfort on the part of both teacher and student.28 The teacher should plan on the necessary self-training in observation skills. Until we have the ability to enter other peoples’ minds to see actually why they do the things they do. you must constantly attune art of your observation powers to the classroom atmosphere. where as. • Keen observations eliminate many discipline problems before they occur. • As the teacher becomes increasingly aware of the effects of various strategies in different situations (and alters teaching approaches on the basis of that information) he becomes a constantly self-improving professional always seeking a better way. etc. vision. Practice at looking for particular traits or behaviours eventually sharpen the teacher’s observation powers beyond belief. Despite looking for particular behaviours. and behavioural aspects). lecturing. speech. etc.).) and a person ‘observing’ (alert to physiological. • There is a tendency to ‘play favourites’. etc. Advantages • Through observation much can be learned concerning student physiological problems (hearing. • The inclination is to be solely on the alert for particular and thus fail to sense the total classroom atmosphere. we must restrict our descriptions to observable behaviour. passing out papers. there by falling to notice accentuate positive traits being exhibited. utilising AV material. A daily skill goal should be established and carried out in all contacts with students. . Disadvantages • It is difficult to become a sharp observer. Observations should be as objective as possible. The teacher’s eye becomes so discerning that a mountain of information can be compiled with a few glances around the classroom.) and needs (diet supplements. • Observation yields a great deal of information about the learner’s socio-emotional development. hygiene care. • There is a tendency to watch for only negative occurrences. clothing. co-ordination. learning. and observe only children who are pleasing to watch. bodily defects. It requires determined practise of separating oneself into two people—a person ‘teaching’ (demonstrating.

• Demonstration is especially beneficial in the areas of skills. A good demonstration inspires. mathematics. At the conclusion of the demonstration. Naturally. principles and concepts for which words are inadequate. When it is time to put on the demonstration make sure all materials are at hand. • Demonstration is difficult to use with affective and higher level cognitive learning. • Demonstration can be used to illustrate ideas. It is commonly used in conjunction with a short explanatory lecture. poor one defeats. Practice or rehearse the demonstration in its entirety with an eye on time limitations. then. • Demonstrations can be financially economical since only the demonstrator needs materials. which in tern is good for public relations. have a student or two to replicate the demonstration.29 Demonstration Demonstration is the process wherein one person does something in the presence of others in order to show them how to do it or to illustrate a principle. Demonstration utilises both auditory and visual means of communication. One of the greatest benefits of demonstration is showing how something is accomplished properly or expertly. • A demonstration can be ineffective if the demonstrator only ‘shows and tells’ without feedback. the demonstration should be properly prepared to ensure that this goal is achieved. music. Demonstration is especially useful in the arts. . conduct a brief review of the steps involved or a short summary of what has happened. • Demonstration can lead to imitation without understanding. • If the audio portion of the demonstration does not fit the visual portion it can confuse the student. • Demonstration is an excellent technique for utilising community resource persons. Disadvantages • Demonstration requires much planning and preparation by the demonstrator. science. Advantages • Demonstration adds to learning by giving students the opportunity to see and hear what is actually happening. Spend the necessary time to plan and develop the needed materials for the demonstration. If feasible. • Good demonstrations hold the learner’s attention. and athletics. Make sure seating arrangements are such that the audience can see and hear. • Good demonstrations set performance standards. Utilise questions during the demonstration to provide feedback.

This is the preparation for students to become proficient speakers/listeners and worthwhile contributing citizens – a goal found in every school philosophy. thought organisation. It is a means for increasing student involvement. Discussion is a most important strategy on a number of levels. panels. asks questions. Debate is generally used in the classroom as a small-group technique with a small number of students teamed on either side of an issue. During discussion the active listener is also a truly participant. It involves a sharing of ideas between students. It is an organised talk and not purposeless conversation. It is not casual but skilfully structured. Discussion to develop and share ideas is a dynamic. and the materials and resources available to the students. courtesy. each side is given a specific amount of time to present its side of the issue. Upon the conclusion of the presentation. which should stimulate whole-class discussion. Discussion may be implemented in a variety of ways. . Reports of the results of the various buzz groups are then presented to the entire class. the teacher can enter into a whole-class discussion on the issue. teachers should properly use the approach in terms of its inherent characteristics. The whole class discussion is the type generally referred to when teachers employ the discussion method. leadership/fellowship. The forum is a specific discussion type in which a small number of students present information to the large group. and makes tentative summaries to help students achieve understanding of the topic. The teacher simply leads an informal discussion involving the class as a whole. In order to insure that the discussion reaches a level higher than a ‘sharing of ignorance’. the teacher must plan sufficient learning activities prior to the discussion. The teacher. The types of discussion available to the teacher include whole-class discussions. and conversation. debates. as the director of the discussion. and present their findings that lead into a whole-class discussion. students are placed in small groups for a specific amount of time to discuss a given issue or topic. Each of the types presented can be utilised in either a modified form or in combination with each other. The topics of discussion should be properly stated. Secondly. The students comprising the panel then organise themselves. the teacher can divide the class into groups of three to six students. buzz-sessions. It does involve the coverage of academics. the words used to phrase the issue should be terms familiar to the students. Whatever the case. Each type has its own characteristics. rather than an osmotic process from teacher to student. Primarily. The student must be prepared. In utilising panels. Finally the topic itself should be one which has some degree of personal relevance for the students. The teacher must be prepared and must be familiar with the content to be considered the characteristics of group activity. the presenters then solicit questions on the topic from the audience. Upon conclusion of the debate. and forums. universal activity. In buzz sessions. the topic should be stated as an issue to polarise viewpoints.30 Discussion Discussion is an activity in which people talk together in order to share information about a topic or problem or to seek a possible solution. Discussion does demand erstwhile supervision and guidance by the teacher. clarifies Students’ comments. discuss their data. research the topic. It is schooling in social interaction.

a given student finds his own values and beliefs challenged. psychological. or processes undergone. The teacher serves as a moderator of the discussion while in progress. The moderator clarifies the concepts. emotional. Look for follow up activities. Student discussion should not be evaluated for grading purposes. • In discussion. • It develops ‘discussion’ skills. • There is a problem of evaluating the student. lag. position taken on the issue. or become a rambling. • Discussion often break down. some students may never participate while a few may tend to dominate.31 In introducing the subject matter to be discussed. and meaningless. In fact. states conclusions. Such a finding can lead to a significant attitudinal change on the part of the student. writing the topic on the board or in handout material is well worth the effort. Advantages • Discussion techniques get at attitude development. By engaging in meaningful discussion with fellow students. makes tentative summaries. This is the only way to encourage students to freely and honestly contribute to the discussion. and skill development of the student. The discussion has been in vain if the students are unaware of the conclusions reached. which will enhance the student learning. well defined terms to the students. the question or issue should be presented in very specific. Disadvantages • Discussion activities are usually more time consuming than more direct approaches. • It is possible that a topic will be such that the students get carried away. . • Teachers often become frustrated because discussion may fail to lead to a conclusion. and keeps the discussion on track. • Discussion has a positive effect upon the mental activity of the student. Successful discussions will lead naturally into follow up activities. • Careful observation of the behaviour of students in-group activities provide the teacher with much information related to the social. • It aids the student in the development of a positive self-concept.

• Lecture permits a large audience to receive quick and useful information. handouts. daydreaming and sometimes create discipline problems. Disadvantages • Lengthy or overly frequent lectures can easily lead to boredom. Know the audience. Both are attention getters and one has added benefit of requiring mental answer-search on the part of the students as well as feedback mechanism to enable the lecturer to measure audience absorption. It is the oldest form of teaching. and one of the most ineffective because it is overused. Know the overall goals and specific objectives while planning the lecture. thus eliminating the feedback leading to miscommunication. sweet.32 Lecture The lecture is the traditional method of teaching wherein lecturer transmits information in an autocratic fashion to passive student listeners. Try to stir students’ imagination by painting with vivid word pictures. Two kinds of questions may be used: (1) the kinds you ask – poise – and answer yourself (rhetorical) and (2) the kind you expect student to answer. students have no opportunity to ask questions or offer comments during the lecture. What are their specifics needs and interests? Goals should mesh with these needs and interests to eliminate the boredom and to help the students grow. • Individuals in the group are not permitted to ask questions. lectures are ineffective because they place a learner in a very passive posture. Avoid pure lecture by utilising questions during the lecture. Lectures should be short. Always allow ample opportunity for questions to come from the students. etc. Their actions (attentions) will reveal the effectiveness of the lecture. • The lecture has difficulty in assessing impact on the audience and whether needs and interests are being met. This lack of activity is extremely conducive to boredom. The degree to which this happens is determined to some extent by the attitude of the lecturer while making the presentation. Watch the audience. Advantages • The lecture is most useful in introducing a new topic of study or presenting certain back ground material that students need for preparation of further study. The chalkboard serves as a useful tool for outlining or emphasising important points. Generally speaking. The lecture should be well organised so that the logic is as perceivable as possible. . • Lecture provides students with an organised perspective of the content to be considered. Revise lecture approach on the basis of the feedback. This includes planning of methodology. The lecture is most effective in clarifying or demonstrating a procedure or skill. demonstration materials. In the pure form. models and other visuals. Lecture assumes that the lecturer knows all and the student is ignorant. abused and misused. Vary the lecture by utilising interest arousing aids such as pictures. utilisation of equipment. and this automatically turns off some listeners. and to the point when they are necessary. • Lecture provides practice for the students in learning to develop note-taking skills. Avoid monotonous type of lecturing by varying voice stress and intensity.

.33 • • • Detailed and factual information is difficult to ‘communicate’ or ‘relate’ in such a setting. Affective (attitudes) learning seldom occurs due to a lecture. Students seldom achieve higher level cognitive learning since they do not actively work with the information being considered.

state the question. use ‘why’ and ‘how’ questions. not just factual recall. then call on a student to answer. Decide upon the purposes of the questions to be used. 4. Whatever may the purpose of the questions to be asked by the teacher. Structure in advance. 8. 3. Avoid asking any negative comments after an incorrect answer. the teacher should: 1. all the questions you ask should reflect your awareness of the basics of question construction. A question should not suggest its own answer. 2. ‘what’. Questions should be concise. 8. Inspiration is given by the teacher for the student to move beyond memorising thought function to higher levels of thinking. ` An effective question-asked is as beautiful to watch (listen to) as a fencer. 7. . 4.34 Questioning Questioning. 6. The pause provides time to think – respect that period of silence. Students should not be required to participate in a guessing game to find out what your answer is. sometimes referred to as the question – and – answer method. For higher thought levels. This leads all students to listen to the question. 2. It takes a certain measure ego-elimination on the part of the teacher to relinquish the desire to furnish all the answers and allow the students to use their own cognitive abilities. 7. the more difficult types of questions to be used. 5. Good questioning techniques aid and stimulate the listener to reason. Push student’s responses to ‘why’ and ‘how’ questions to higher levels of thought by asking for more explanation. ‘when’. Use ’who’. Questions should not be worded so as to call for a yes or no answer. 5. 3. as it is the surest way to insure low response on future questioning. The vocabulary you use should be clear to the students. is defined as a method both of instruction and of oral testing based on the use of questions to be answered by the pupils. Questions should not suggest a ‘right’ answer. When using questions with individuals. In planning. 1. Be reasonably lavish in the use of ‘good’ or other words of praise to students who give correct answers. 6. The contrast between your experience background and that of your students must be considered. If questions are to be used for either review or pre-assessment purposes. It is desirable to take the time to write out such questions on note cards or the margin of the text. evaluate and even create. Some questions should be used that require thought and an extended answer. What types of questions are to be asked? Although you might not be able to pre-plan all your questions. Summarise complicated or ambiguous answers to questions. be sure to randomly sample class responses. pause. His questions demand thinking. He knows when and what to ask. and ‘where’ questions to check information possessed by students. the responsibility of the teacher is to first plan properly and then to execute effectively.

2. It is found that different levels of questions are effective. 7. Certain lessons require more recall. and then select the person to answer it. 10. The following table shows the lower to higher levels of students’ thinking skills. 6. Where. interests. Try to involve as many of your students in a lesson as possible. Ask the question first. Constantly listen to your own questions with the same critical listening ability you wish to instil in your students. If you ask a question requiring some thought then provide the time for students to formulate and phrase an adequate response. Classification of questions There are six levels of questions.35 9. How can questions be presented effectively? 1. school activities. When. 5. Avoid repeating answers or questions. Bring non-volunteers (non-participants) into the lesson by learning about their hobbies. Students should always be expected to evaluate the responses made in class. 4. 8. how many 15 paise stamps can she buy? What does this paragraph tell us about the author’s life? How are plants and animals alike/different? What is a good title for this LOWERLEVEL THINKING Comprehension Describe Summarise Solve Show Application Analysis Infer Compare HIGHER- Synthesis Create . depending upon the learner and the content of the lesson. whereas other lessons require more thought. 11. There should be no predictable system for calling on students. QUESTION TYPE Knowledge STUDENT BEHAVIOUR Recall Recite EXAMPLE QUESTIONS What (Who. 9. Why) are the southern states? Define photosynthesis What is the main idea? How is the major character portrayed? What is the latitude of New Delhi? Sarla has one rupee. A student who gives good answer should be complimented. Questions must be adjusted to suit the needs of the students. 10. If several partial answers are given. 12. athletic interests. Every question should carry the lesson forward. 3. a student might be asked to summarise those responses. Do not discourage volunteering. Maintain a balance between calling on volunteers and non-volunteers. Design questions that differ in their order of difficulty.

d) Motivate students. • Questions can serve as a means of feedback for the teacher in understanding an individual student and/or the whole class. teachers need to plan a sequence for the types of questions they ask. neglecting higher levels of learning. Within each lesson. comprehension. Advantages • Correctly asked questions serves the following purposes: a) Stimulate analytical thought. Disadvantages • Questioning is a slower process in dealing with information than the lecture. This sequence illuminates questions that are used to initiate. Questions do not always fit easily into these designated levels. application. synthesis or evaluation. e) Clarify and expand concepts. and close interaction. • Several incorrectly answered questions often prompt teachers to feel more time should be spent lecturing than questioning. c) Determine progress toward specific goals. b) Diagnose student difficulties. • It is difficult to design certain types of questions to measure analysis.36 LEVEL THINKING Evaluation Predict Judge Choose painting? How can we help the poor? Do you believe in capital punishment? Which soft drink is best? The classification of questions to a higher level is useful for promoting various kinds of thinking. analysis. • Questions are sometimes used as a control device and students are more apt to pay attention to what is going on in class. g) Give specific direction to thinking. h) Relate cause to effect. . extend. synthesis. • Questions may be organised to serve the purpose of measuring learning on the levels of information. i) Encourage student self-evaluation. f) Encourage new appreciation and attitudes. j) Encourage the application of concepts. and evaluation rather than to measure factual learning. • Students feel encouraged memorising.

Because of the active participation demanded of learners in role-playing. Disadvantages • Students sometimes emphasise performance over the intended lesson. A roleplay has a unique value in that it is the only strategy that gets the student into another ‘identity’. or circumstances by selected members of learning group. Conduct debriefing session. This eliminates straying or turning a learning situation into a comedy. • How students fit into their role gives an indication of their knowledge of the situation. The class members who are to observe should take notes and be instructed to what to look for. Role-playing promotes tolerance and acceptance of diverse viewpoints likely to differ from their own.37 Role-playing Role-playing is an instructional technique involving a portrayal (acting out) of a situation. Certain portions of the activity may be improved with re-enactment. Develop the scenario. • Students are being prepared for actual situations to be faced. Conduct activity phase. • Role-playing is time consuming. Learn role descriptions. 5. Advantages • In role-playing the student expressing feelings and attitudes. Role-playing provides learners with opportunities to become acquainted with the perceptions of people other than themselves. This is especially useful in helping students understand the circumstances of different ethnic and cultural backgrounds. An atmosphere of freedom and security must exist in the classroom. • This method provides the student with the opportunity to ‘feel’ the situation rather than merely intellectualise about it. Assign roles and assure internalisation. Design the situations and roles in sufficient detail in advance. It is highly recommended that the roleplayers thoroughly understand their role and its limits and the situation of the scene prior to enactment. or principal – teacher – angry parent. . Upon completion of the activity evaluation of the students’ performance should take place. • A system of communication based on action rather than words is used. The role-playing strategy develops according to the following sequence of events: 1. Define roles in terms of the situation. can be experienced. • The student is activated. condition. This process involves both cognitive and attitudinal learning. the strategy frequently is highly motivating for learners. think and act. The situation to which the person responds may be either structured or unstructured. thus allowing him an opportunity to perceive how others might feel. Another valid use of role-playing is in a problem-solving situation where different roles are placed in conflict with each other. This is utilised well in teacher education preparation classes where scenes such as problem child – parent – teacher. 3. • Affective learning can be taught and/or effectively evaluated. 2. 4. The actors should be given a short time to get their thoughts together. • Role-playing can develop social skills.

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• • • •

Some students are unable to identify with the characters or situation. Those students with talent often monopolise the situation. Students often ‘carried away’ in their roles. Playing roles demands some imagination on the part of the group.

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Simulation gaming
Simulation is an elaborate type of role-playing, gaming, and socio-drama in which students stimulate models of real-life situations. It invites participants to develop decision-making competencies while striving for established objectives, usually using competition between two teams. Simulation games are produced by commercial enterprises, but these can be designed by the classroom teacher. Generally, the teacher devises rules and objectives to the game and provides roles for various students. The greatest thing going for the stimulation gaming strategy is its intrinsic motivation. All kids love games, competition, and ‘winning’. Whether you feel this aspect is the major emphasis of stimulation or not, the children do. Failure to capitalise on this enthusiastically will undermine all the preparation and time you invested to get across the lesson. The most frequent problem is getting started, and secondly, rule interpretation as the game progresses. The teacher is crucial to both of these. She must act as explainer of the game’s objective and methods prior to play and as a referee during the game. A great deal of the success of the experience rests upon how well this is done. If commercially made simulation game is used then you need to be completely familiar with the game and prepare your class by a) allowing sufficient time for the play; and b) carefully explaining the rules of the game. All simulation games include directions for play, summarising the activity, and relating it to ‘realty’. These should be strictly adhered to. If you desire to construct your own simulation situation, the following suggestions should be considered: 1. In order to produce transferable results, the model must possess fidelity in its representation of reality. 2. Purpose and major focus must be clearly understood. 3. Rules for simulation games must be established. 4. The sophistication of the game usually increases its instructional potential. 5. Game design must result from rigorous experimentation. 6. Simulation of all types should be evaluated in terms of the established objectives. 7. Learners in games must be free to carry out their own decisions, even when making mistakes; and the feedback of the consequences should be rapid and clear. 8. Opportunity and space must be provided for free, uninhibited movement and for flexibility of grouping. 9. An open climate should be maintained, free from leader domination. 10. The scope of the simulation should be limited to selected critical aspects of actions or processes. 11. Creativity on the part of leaders and students is required. 12. Accurate information and facts are essential. 13. Reasonable assurance for intelligent use can be increased by setting significant goals and by previous testing. 14. Simulation should provide for teaching both the cognitive and the affective areas. 15. In the main, decisions must be sufficiently satisfying and rewarding to provide adequate motivation. 16. Provision must be made for developing generalisation.

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17. The situation should be repeatable in its original form so that follow-up can be provided. Advantages • Simulation is appealing, motivates intense effort, and increasing learning. • Success or failure is rapidly and readily recognisable. • Vividness, meaning, and potential for greater retention are added. • Simulation has demonstrated its power to generate deep emotional involvement. • Learning to act by acting, learning to make decision by making decisions, and learning to solve problem by solving problems are developed. • Simulation is particularly effective with under-motivated children. • Simulation allows for manipulation by simplifying the complexity of what the game represents. • Simulation can be used for the acquisition of information, improvement of new processes, and identification of alternatives is decision making. • Games lengthen the attention span and develop persistent application to work. • Pupils learn to cope with unpredictable circumstances. • Games illustrate vividly the relationship between decision making and its consequences. • The need for constant communication between players teaches social integration. • Games are effective in teaching values and attitudes. • The cost and time necessary for involvement in the real world are reduced. Disadvantages • At best, simulation is very artificial and over simplified. • Games place too much emphasis on competition. • Models are too rigid and narrow in their applicability. • Simulation takes too long to get to the heart of a lesson. • Teachers employing simulation may be looked upon as allowing too much freedom and disorder. • Games cannot be readily adapted to the peculiar needs of an individual or a particular class. • Simulation cannot be a substitute for real, direct experience. • Students who have minor role lose interest. • A complex model confuses; if it is simple, it bores.

an interdepartmental or inter disciplinary pattern.41 Team teaching Team teaching is an arrangement in which two or more teachers co-operatively plan. • Team teaching may be used for all or a part of the students’ day. thus providing an enrichment experience. • Large group presentations make possible more efficient use of time and resources. teach. co-operate and communicate openly and honestly. teaching and evaluation by the team members stimulate the professional growth of the teachers involved. talents and interests of each teacher. • The use of large groups. and to provide information beneficial for the entire class. • Students will be exposed to several teachers with different background and approaches. the various strategies discussed earlier are applicable to the team teaching arrangement. or on a grade-level basis. small groups. . it is vitally important to student progress for teachers to conference daily on learner problems and achievements and to plan assistance for or promotion of these areas. Teaching team may include student teachers and/or paraprofessional personnel. • Teachers have more time for planning. Besides scheduling and material arrangement the most important facet of team teaching is the personalities of the teachers involved. Disadvantages • Team teaching calls for special physical facilities to provide for large group-small group arrangements. State the objectives of the experiment and design the evaluation procedure in advance of its use. preparation and follow up. Most team teaching arrangements include instruction to large groups. the peculiarities of the arrangement itself offer certain dimensions or parameters to be considered. to summarise or conclude a unit. Provide time and resources for the team members to prepare thoroughly. and evaluate a group of students. Individual study may help students pursue areas of individual need and interest and develop the skills associated with individual inquiry. All the finest materials. plans and facilities will not make team teaching work if the teachers cannot work together. It is paramount to the success of this strategy that the teachers involved like each other. Advantages • Team teaching capitalises upon the special competencies. Large group activity is most appropriate to introduce a new topic or unit. However. • The use of small group and individualised study provides for individual student needs. In the planning session define the roles to be played by each team member. small groups and individual study. Small groups may be best to discuss large group presentations and topic of student interest. In the area of communication. and individual study conducted by various team members provides more interesting and less monotonous routines in the area of traditional strategies. which many buildings do not have. Team members selected should be those who possess needed personal qualities for co-operation as well as instructional competence. As such. • Joint planning. • Students may be grouped on an educational basis rather than on administrative basis. Teams may be organised on a departmental basis.

Team teaching is attractive and seems simple. The scheduling of the large groups. Specialisation on the part of the teachers may be carried to the point that the student loses sight of the whole subject or teaching/learning goals.42 • • • • • The cost per student of team teaching is often higher than more traditional approaches. small groups. Team-teaching may in actually be meetings the needs of the teachers rather than those of the students. but its actual application is more complex for administrators as well as teachers. . and individual study is often extremely complicated and difficult to communicate without misunderstanding.

The problem situations as a dilemma deliberately created by the teacher. As with any instructional approach. The teacher provides the materials and the students provide the discovering. This is more of a process approach as opposed to the usual emphases in education on production. the teacher’s role is to provide a situation that allows students to see a contradiction between what they already know and newly discovered knowledge. draw conclusions. Provide for laboratory experiences. In implementing discovery. Use topics from the subject. Introduce new topics with innovative teaching strategy. In other words. 5. The following guidelines may be used: 1. and make generalisations. 4. In discovery students are involved in learning how to learn. 7. the teacher creates a situation in which the student is faced with a problem. Make frequent use of visual aids. 2. the student uses raw data and behaves in the manner required by the nature of the discipline and the problem. manage and supervise the lesson.43 Chapter 6 STRATEGIES FOR SPECIAL USE Discovery Discovery is a teaching strategy. Provide opportunity for guessing. the degree to which discovery learning is successful is determined by the ability of the teacher to plan and execute effectively. which has been previously discovered. analyse. Thus. Discovery is really a rediscovery. In practice. that is. which enables students to find the answers themselves. directed discovery is utilised more than pure discovery as the teacher generally creates the conditions under which the ‘discovery’ is to occur. The intent is that the student will discover for himself. Discovery is frequently used in science and mathematics. Introduce applications of the subject. 6. the student studies history the same way that a historian does or the way in which a biologist studies biology. 3. which force students to think. . Make use of contemporary materials. In solving the problem.

Set the stage for student discovery. Discovery should be used only when you have enough subject matter mastery to handle unexpected ‘discoveries’. • The student often gets bogged down or loses direction before the problem is solved. Refrain from interfering with students’ work. retention will be increased. 12. Disadvantages • Permitting students to discover their own knowledge is very time consuming. • The pupil is provided with numerous opportunities to draw inferences from data by logical thinking. Teach with enthusiasm. Be open to problem as they arise and be willing to learn along with the students. • Discovery helps the student learn how to learn. • Students develop the skills and attitudes essential for self-directed learning. 11. Setting up the problem and the conditions for the discovery requires detailed and thorough planning. Have more trusts in students. 10. • Some students just seem unable to make intended discovery. The depth of information to be handled and the time needed for the discovery must be gauged in terms of the student’s skill level and maturation. Be certain that proper materials and raw data are available. either inductive or deductive. • The student develops interest in what is being studied. Use motivation. thus equipping the student to handle new problematic situations. • The rewards inherent in discovering something provide the student with intrinsic motivation. • Most of the present textbooks and materials available to the teacher are written for exposition rather than discovery. .44 8. Advantages • Since the student actively discovered the information and knowledge. • Discovery operates at the higher levels of the cognitive domain. 9.

drill is a teaching technique intended to bring about automatic accuracy and speed of performance in any subject. • Overuse of drill can lead students to believe in memorisation as an end. However. Make sure students are practising with correct information or processes. Use drill only when automatic speed and accuracy. repetitious practice is essential to build competence and technique mastery. Football drills in throwing an effective block are designed to teach the player to do it automatically. The teacher should remember that this is the only purpose of drill. It means the percentage of class time spent on drill exercises should be minimal. Use games and contests to add interest to drill. It has nothing to do with elevating mental functioning or making better citizens. Over-practice produces boredom and fatigue. The aim of drill is the fixation of correct information or skill through repetition. ‘what’s 9x9?’ Your response should be ‘81’ instantly without thinking about it. • Students can build their own association of information through drill. since both are built on repetition – doing it over and over – drill and practice are used synonymously. • Information acquired through drill will not be retained long without use. Some use the term drill only for the mental ideas and practice for motor activity. The function of drill is solely to create automatic response to specific stimuli. If you were effectively drilled in multiplication and some one came up behind you and said quickly. or performance learning is the objective. . • In skill development. Make sure students see the purpose of the drill or practice. Overused drill is a sure-fire method of dulling cognitive abilities and prompting discipline problems. Disadvantage • Drill can become boring and monotonous. • Drill can reduce learning to a purely mechanical act.45 Drill Although there are many sub-types. It is a practice closely paralleled by programming a computer. Provide the opportunity for students to apply that which is mastered through drill. • It can be a means of creating motivation in student tutorial situation. Advantages • Drill is especially applicable to psychomotor and low level cognitive learning.

Record the data. 3. (2) knowing the information desired from the interview. • It helps bring the pupil face-to-face with community realities. 4. It is closely related to the survey in that both seek to develop data – one by oral questioning and the other through written response.46 Interview The interview is basically a data-gathering technique using pre-planned questions to determine the feelings and attitudes of an individual. • Interviewing helps develop rapport between the school and the community. • Interviews tend to elicit personal opinions and may not be factual. • The class may not be of sufficient maturity to face the obligations required in performing interviews. • The data is often difficult to interpret and report. information can be collected quickly regarding an issue or a problem. • This is an excellent method for collecting data from individuals and groups. Interview is a good strategy. question or problem. Evaluate and report the findings. Elicit a response to the issue. 5. . which draws out information from the subject. An important facet of interviewing is the attitude of the person conducting the interview. which often disrupts school or administrative routines. and (3) knowing what questions need to be asked to accumulate that information. • Interviewing requires a co-ordinated effort of all involved. question or problem. or seeking opinions from high public officials and other select individuals. Disadvantages • The teacher must spend a substantial amount of time helping students develop questioning techniques. creates a vacuum. Outline the general plan. State the issue. a specific group. the school. Establish rapport with the respondent. Crucial to the success of the interview strategy is presentation in: (1) knowing the background of the interviewee. • Through the use of this strategy. Advantage • Interviews encourage students to plan and think in a systematic fashion. • Students tend to take sides as an issue rather than remain neutral. The interviewer. It teaches students to gather information in a logical and respectful fashion from a most valuable temporary resource – another human being. It may be used in random sampling of a few people to establish a trend. Close the interview. 6. 2. An interview is performed in a systematic fashion within a few simple guidelines: 1. • It is especially useful in collection of information related to community attitudes regarding their personal opinion. • It can be used as an individual or total class project. in effect. A successful interviewer rivets his attention to the person being interviewed as if the rest of the world has disappeared. or the community on an issue of high interest. The interview is especially helpful in practising a one-on-one situation such as a guidance counsellor-student interview or a student-citizen interview on a pre-established question or problem.

The use of this strategy requires close planning and co-ordination between the teacher and the learner. Disadvantages • The approved projects must fit the abilities of the student. • The maturity of the students may be insufficient to pursue long range goals established. it reinforces the discovery and inquiry approaches to learning. • Some students may develop a poor estimate of self-esteem if they experience slow progress or failure. If laboratory experiences are not always limited to cookbook experiments they can give students the opportunity to do learning as opposed to reading about other persons’ learning. • The teacher is free to offer individual assistance and instruction to those students needing special attention. • Costs may exceed the benefits. Some structure is definitely necessary if predictable results are desired. testing the hypothesis. The approval of the projects must be within the capability of the student. • The activity may be carried out by individual students or in small groups. Retention and interest increase with greater frequency and even creative thought is exercised. Care must be taken to see that appropriate materials and supplies are available. • This method is difficult to apply to all curricula. Relate the results to previously studied material.47 Laboratory Laboratory is a supervised learning activity carried out by the student studying a particular subject involving practical application of theory through observation. • The laboratory strategy may cause the teacher to supervise individuals at the exclusion of the group. • It is difficult to develop projects so that all students have equally challenging activities and experiences. • It is an excellent motivational strategy. • Learning may become mechanical and passive. Establish time limit for completion of laboratory work. Advantages • Students can capitalise on their own interests. experimentation and research. to generalise and to apply generalisation in new situations. • Laboratory is basically a problem-solving technique of short duration. • As a learning activity. recording and reporting the findings. Success is determined mostly by teacher preparation and direction appropriate to the learner’s ability. it can become wasted time and effort on the part of all concerned. It requires facilities with flexibility. . It is important to remember that laboratory learning teaches process as well as production. • Individual student may lack the motivation to work alone. • Laboratory simulates actual scientific experiments including the formation of hypothesis. • Unless well organised. • This strategy helps students to learn.

48 .

. Start with simple logic and gradually build to the complex. and give credit accordingly. In a typical classroom situation. Disadvantages • It is extremely difficult to formulate the kind of question used in the Socratic approach. It would be necessary for a student to make a statement. the teacher’s questioning will be viewed as picky and critical by the students. it is threatening to the traditional role. • This method gets the student to think about what is said so he can really examine an issue in depth. The teacher would then enter into a dialogue with the student. However. The strategy derives its name from the approach used by Socrates as he assumed the role of intellectual midwife. which could be further pursued. preferably on attitudinal statements of students. following the argument until the student had thoroughly questioned the answer and gained some insight into the logic used or the attitudes and beliefs held. do continue to develop skill in using the approach. When evaluating learning. the other students in the class may lose interest. the teacher would use the Socratic approach when the situation arises. • While the teacher is in dialogue with one student. Assure students that you are attempting only to get them to re-think their ideas and that you are not criticising them. • Due to the spontaneous nature of the Socratic approach.49 Socratic The Socratic Method is a process of discussion led by the teacher to induce the learner to question the validity of his reasoning or to reach a sound conclusion. that negating the purpose of the strategy. Advantages • The Socratic approach can be used in dealing with higher level cognitive and effective learning. • Students are challenged in utilising this technique properly. Be ready to shift gears if the attempt to use the Socratic approach bogs down. Begin by using the Socratic approach on a limited basis. • The degree of involvement on the part of the teacher can motivate the student. • Students often feel threatened when a teacher challenges their ideas. The Socratic approach was built upon the assumption that the knowledge was within the student and proper questioning and commentary could cause this knowledge to surface. Socrates. attitudes and their logic or inconsistency. The key to Socratic approach is that the teacher’s comments and questions must unable the students to discover meaning for themselves. If this atmosphere is not present. as teacher. attempted to follow the student’s argument wherever it led. values. which can only be done by attempting to use it. It is a difficult strategy to master and requires a friendly ‘let’s-look-at-this’ relationship. The Socratic strategy enables the teacher to aid the student in examining his own beliefs. • It is difficult to evaluate a student’s learning. give students the opportunity to show the logic of their viewpoints.

we lay emphasis on giving the child ready made knowledge. .50 Chapter 7 SUB-STRATEGIES FOR GENERAL USE Creative thinking Creative thinking abilities can be developed to varying degrees among different individuals through a systematically organised programme of instruction. at least to some extent. systematically and neatly organised as lessons. The entire syllabus is prescribed and the child as well as the teacher is required to follow it rigidly. units and text books. Social interaction has been considered as an important condition for the development of creativity. In the whole system. as some children prefer to learn by discovering rather than by authority. he may be able to make use of this ability and have the satisfaction of having realised his creative talents. • Bring more stimuli into the learning experiences. The practical suggestions are as follows: • Develop curiosity and wide interest in intellectual matters at an early age. • Include a variety of learning tasks in the day to day activities. there is hardly any opportunity for the child to develop thinking skill. in one field or another. but it is also true that each child during the period of his growth and development can be trained to think in a creative manner so that. For the development of creative thinking abilities non-authorised ways of learning have to be encouraged. Developing creativity among children: The environmental conditions that are related to creativity are those which encourage and facilitate openness in thought and action and provide for discovery of new ideas. It is true that we cannot turn each child into a highly creative person. It may be noticed that all the stages of education from primary through secondary right unto the college stage. The whole system is under rigid control of administration and there is no freedom at any stage.

which stimulates exploration and creative thinking. Provide time for the full development of an idea. Teacher may ask more of divergent thinking questions to encourage creativity. An essential element in this method is to have a group focus on a particular problem and then invite the members to give as many ideas as they can think up for possible solutions of that problem. • All children to challenge the assumptions underline the ideas presented by the teacher. Evaluation is made after all ideas have been presented. Allow the child to rethink or explore the correctness of his answer. • Develop sensitiveness to children to the environment. • Take care that a child is not ridiculed by his classmates for his answers to questions posed by you. Break the usual set and make it possible for the new ideas to be developed. Let them list out as many problems as possible. On the other hand. and inquisitiveness of children that are some of the essential components of creative thinking. . taking self-initiated actions. They are found to be popular among creative children. There is a rather freewheeling of ideas and no criticism is allowed. Avoid giving examples when seeking creative efforts. as some students are slow starters. Methods for teaching creativity: One of the methods used is Brain storming. • Appreciate openly whenever a child expresses creative behaviour like unusual questions. • Creative learning involves skills of inquiry. Provide opportunities for imaginative activities. tests the guesses.51 • • • • • • • Ask questions that elicit unique or original responses. The convergent thinking abilities are those which are mainly responsible for dealing with the given information in a logical manner to arrive at a single right answer for any problem. Let not the aid hamper or curb imagination. • Encourage children to pursue their hobbies. makes guesses. • Provide as many stimuli and opportunities as possible for expression of ideas that should be continuous and in the areas of interest of children. Develop progressive warm up for creative activities from simple to complex. These provide scope for many possible answers. the divergent thinking abilities enable the individual to go off in many different directions. Here the learner raises questions. • Use teaching aids judiciously. • Do not always insist on correct answers. These questions stimulate freethinking and also more participation of many children. Let there be learning. Each will turn out as an activity for further exploration. There are two types of thinking – convergent and divergent. research and problem solving. etc. generating new information from given data and arrived at varied and unusual solutions to problems. curiosity. corrects errors and arrives at conclusions. Let not the children feel the necessity for always giving correct answers. Research findings suggest the following guidelines for teachers to follow: • Pose open-ended divergent questions in the classroom wherever possible. giving unusual ideas. It is not always necessary to reward only the expected answers. Accept and value unique responses when initiated by children.

Avoid telling everything. . You may explore your creativity through the following activities (these are only suggestive): Try new ways of teaching the same unit. Try different ways of evaluating students. Give various types of challenging assignments to your students. Do not encourage rote learning or memorisation of facts by children.52 • • • • • • • Discourage self-criticism. Suggest and involve yourself in various improvement programmes. Allow children to think and express freely and find facts for themselves wherever possible.

It is important to make sure each group has the references and resources necessary to complete the assignment. It provides teachers and students with a strategy to learn information in a collaborative and interesting way. . Co-operative learning should be used regularly. • Teach students how to function in a group. learning content from each other. learn information. verbalising and discussing problems and solutions. Seek a balance between gender. When deciding to use co-operative learning. or solve problems. on-task behaviour. Co-operative learning promotes higher achievement compared to individual learning. Summarise and evaluate students’ progress. • Decide if co-operative learning groups are appropriate. but not necessarily every day. Sometimes co-operative learning groups can deal with activities that take place over a day or week. groups work together to perform tasks.53 Co-operative learning Students in co-operative learning. A common arrangement is to use five students in a group. think about students. and group dynamics. Be certain this strategy is best suited for the content and information to be learned. The size and make up of the learning group will vary according to the activity. prior to beginning the group activity. Gather the materials and collect the resources necessary. a low achiever. ethnicity. and economic background. Usually a group consists of a high achiever. • Assign students with varying abilities in-groups. Make sure you provide shortterm summarisation to check each group’s progress and understanding. The following information suggests ways to establish and implement co-operative learning in your classroom. This strategy involves more than simply assigning students to a group. and three middle achievers. Take time to model group behaviour and expectations by having one group in front of the class demonstrate how to maximise learning. Also indicate a level of evaluation and be sure students understand the criteria to be used in evaluating the group’s performance. working with social and academic outcomes. • Provide necessary materials.

Initially. questions and problems to stimulate student thinking and interests. Students should formulate their own questions for investigation. teachers should guide students through inquiry process rather than allowing pure discovery. generalise. and analyse the information needed for their inquiry. • Define the inquiry task. Help individual students gather. • Assist students in gathering information. Explain to students that inquiry is a way they can independently seek information to identify solutions to their problems.54 Inquiry Inquiry relies on activities and resources to encourage finding solutions to questions investigated by students. organise. The teacher provides structure. Use thought provoking questions to encourage students to hypothesise. Pose initial questions to organise students’ interests and investigation into a topic or a question. and inquire. . The inquiry process involves time to form. infer. analyse. Initiate inquiry with a question to help students focus on the topic. The question helps students seek solutions and formulate plans for seeking answers to the question. Set time limits. • Probe students’ thinking. Plan and communicate the approximate amount of time needed to complete an inquiry. Allow time for students to share their findings with others. Students must have sufficient materials to select. and conclude results. reflect. and evaluate. • Begin with a question.

Point out the important steps and elements necessary to complete an assignment. you also show them. • Use posters. Let class observe while you and selected students show what is expected and what is needed to complete instructional tasks. chalkboard. as in a lecture. Model group projects and individual tasks with some of your students. Your students can help you. • Show expectations by doing them. . transparencies.55 Modelling Students learn a great deal through observing and modelling others. Label and describe each aspect of an assignment and what components make an exceptional example. illustrations and real objects. In modelling. These objects will help to make the information visual and tactile to appeal to a variety of senses and learning modalities. Modelling is a showing technique where you present or demonstrate information. • Provide several examples and tell how to arrive at the solutions. since many times peers can be very effective in helping other students to learn. you do not just tell students information. too.

. is a real life skill and students must be taught the techniques involved in the decision making process. • Define the decision making process. When analysing and thinking about the alternatives. • Identify possible alternatives. teachers should allow students to be involved in making decisions. Students in the learning process need to have the opportunity to make good choices from several alternatives. there is no need of a decision. like problem solving.56 Decision-making Decision-making. identify alternatives. • Identify problems for each alternative. Whenever possible. In order for students to make a decision. and make a decision based on reasons. Help students think of possible alternatives involved in decisions. Without alternatives. think about the consequences. Approaches should incorporate strategies for students to make decisions related to their learning. students need to think about the possible outcome of each particular alternative. Students must be taught how to make a decision before we expect them to become proficient in this particular skill. they must identify the choices.

After alternatives and thoughtful analysis of outcomes has been discussed. These decisions are based on the likelihood of the outcomes of the choice that meets their needs and desires. Implement a plan of action. Allow students the opportunity to organise ways to develop an action plan that will support their decision.57 • Make the decision. students should make decisions. .

work and study habits. reading about a country to be studied and making a list of questions or unfamiliar terms. and providing a purpose. To determine what kind of homework. Practice that gets students ready for new subject matter. When students are asked. Practice that promotes transfer of what was learned to a new situation or application to other situations. spelling words or arithmetic tables. and selfreliance. • Give clear instructions. 2. 3. Preparation activities. These are important for student homework assignments. for example. Gauge the reading level and the difficulty level of the material used. The following categories support appropriate homework assignments: 1. To determine how much homework. • Assign homework/class work that is related to the information being taught. . Integration activities. Rehearsal activities. for example.58 Homework/Assignment Homework means work that you do at home. Provide examples and work several problems together. Homework is intended to extend teaching and learning outside the classroom. Relate homework/class work to the interest and maturity level of the students. Practice that reviews many skills and concepts and requires students to put them together. Research has demonstrated a positive relationship between homework and achievement. Tell students and write on the chalkboard exactly what they used to do. using measuring skills used in class to measure items at home. they feel that homework helps them get good marks/grades. Practice through repetition. Change and alter the content to match student’s level. Students should have the knowledge and skills to do the assignment and should understand clearly how to do it. Use this strategy in moderation as one way to provide practice and indicate the level of understanding. making a poster about nutrition showing the concepts and skills learned during a two week unit. for example. Allow for differences and special needs of students by assigning more time when needed. Modify the amount of information to meet needs. • Check difficult level. 2. Establish a procedure for students to ask questions while they are completing class work. Remember your direction giving. you have to make two important decisions: 1. Be sure that materials selected create an opportunity for success. for example. checking for understanding. 4. To use this strategy effectively. Both educators and parents attribute to homework the development of personal responsibilities. Review activities.

No verbal or facial reactions to any suggestion are permitted. The specific nature of the product of a given brainstorming session is not nearly as important as the process learners go through in generating that product. attempts to unleash learners’ untapped reservoirs of thinking talents by encouraging them to pour forth as many ideas as possible that relate to a defined situations. The strategy promotes creative thinking by calling forth innovative responses at no psychological cost to the participant. . divergent thinking. 2. each learner has to call out his suggestion. originally developed as an aid to creative problem solving among management teams in corporations. Once the session begins. Brainstorming evolved because of a realisation that people many times fail to tap their creative resources to make public a truly creative response to a problem situation. Learners are asked to focus only on the problem situation.59 Brainstorming The strategy of brainstorming. no matter how ‘wild’. An important emphasis in brainstorming is the encouragement of quantity rather than quality of participants’ responses. Every suggestion. This is accomplished by establishing a rigidly enforced ground rule of no public comment or reaction to any idea put forward. like ‘a storm of the brain. 3. 5. The activity must be fast paced. The brainstorming strategy moves forward after the teacher has made each of the following points: 1. Brainstorming attempts to break through inhibitions by encouraging public comment of all ideas.’ 4. unlike many other instructional strategies. provides learners with a ‘pay off’ for the sorts of creative. will be written down by the teacher for the group to see. Brainstorming.

Use the summary as a springboard for the next work. require careful planning to insure effective integration of the different aspects of that teaching-learning interaction. medial or final. research or discussion. they tie up the package in order to maximise the impact of each learning experience. which leaves the student in possession of a clear. The creative dynamic summary can make cosmos out of chaos. The part of your planning for the summary segment of a lesson should be devoted to the preparation of a working chalkboard outline – a valuable summary instrument. well-phrased statement of exactly what was learned during that time segment. . The purpose of any particular summary depends upon the learning activity that it is intended to complete. Effective summaries help develop an awareness of the essential unity and purpose of what was done. All summaries. A summary is in order at any point in the lesson where a phase of a learning interaction comes to a logical end.60 Summary Each lesson or a discrete part of a lesson should end with an activity. It may also help to set the stage for further investigations. Another function of the summary is to help students synthesise these ideas and formulate some statements or generalisation about them. Summaries will generally include a recapitulation of the aim of the lesson in terms of the extent to which it has been achieved.

61 Audio-visual aids All learning is multi-sensory in nature and each of your senses – hearing. or used commercially prepared materials. • Use a piece of white cardboard to cover all the points or items except the one you are discussing. too much information is distracting. Most of these substitutes involve sight and hearing more than the other senses. • Check the seating of students for clear vision of the image. You may also write on the transparency while teaching but it takes time and skill. Using it effectively Some guidelines are: • Keep your image simple and readable. a large rupee is drawn to fill the transparency and flashed on the screen. sight. Overhead projector The overhead projector projects a written or graphic image on a screen or wall. • You can share a small number of materials or materials too small to be seen by many students. Each adds another dimension and makes a unique contribution to the learning process. Its uses are not limited to any specific area and it is easily transportable. smell and taste – plays a role in formulating your reactions to any stimulus. There are many different types of materials. You can use it to display a study outline for your classroom or to list student ideas. • You can provide memory practice by projecting a list of words for a short time and then students write all the words they can remember. • Use a good quality pen for making sheets. by projecting it to the whole class. touch. . • Turn the projector off when not in use. thus the term. the noise and light are distracting. Then you must turn to one or more of a variety of materials. • You can create suspense or a surprise. Unusual uses Teachers can make use of this stimulus for numerous activities: • Children take turns making shadow figures on the screen and the rest of the class guesses the figure. It uses a sheet or a roll of transparent film. There are times. You can prepare a sheet ahead of time by using a copy machine or writing with a transparency pen. when such direct experiences are not feasible. and techniques designed to act as worthwhile but vicarious experiences for your students. to begin a unit of profit in an economics class. audio-visual aids. An advantage of using the overhead projector is that it allows you to face the students while teaching and still you can display your writing. equipment. black for most writing and colour for interest only. For example. which permit a more effective use of a multisensory approach to learning than just words can provide. Audio-visual aids are devices.

Show a small number of slides (3 to 6) in order and out of order. or purchased from commercial producers. recording. parents. Another advantage of using this stimulus comes with taking the slides. demonstrating and organising. “What is happening here?” or “What may happen next?” • Prompt creative writing. and fairly simple to use. You and your students will gain insights and appreciation while you photograph your subjects. Show a beautiful or provocative or inspiring picture as a stimulus for writing or drawing. your students. places. Slide projector This machine projects pictures with intense images and you can keep the room lights on. Show a slide and ask. • Accompany the images with description and questions. discussion. Simple projectors are lightweight. posing questions. • Review a class project or trip. • Check the vision of students seated in different locations around the classroom. You can have students handle the projection task and free yourself to lead a discussion to accompany the visual. . useful for previewing. An additional advantage comes with your use of pictures of real people. Using in unusual way • Develop sequence skills. questioning. Slides can be taken by you. accessible. and with other stimuli. images are more effective when they are right side up. Show slides of students to review information and perceptions. Using it effectively • Check the placement ahead of time. • Develop student ability to product.62 The overhead projector with transparencies offers stimuli to use with lecturing. and happenings.

• Eliminate distractions. listening. • Assign a television programme as homework. • Watch the programme with students (rather than work at your desk on some task). decision-making. • Use only parts of a programme (the beginning or ending of a story) and have students write or develop the missing section. Using effectively • Discuss with students before and after viewing a television programme (information. and so on). • Check volume and image for students in different locations. We can best use our energy to make it work for our teaching. . The second is that your classroom use of television can model some good viewing habits for students. • Have students plan and produce their own television programme. Using in unusual way • Use regular network ads to teach advertising. • Co-ordinate other learning activities with the programme. Using television to vary your instruction requires that you have a schedule and become familiar with various networks. and so on. Many programmes are simply more lectures so look for a demonstration or a drama. impressions. The first is that television is available in most schools and with a wide selection of quality educational programming. bias. hidden messages.63 Television There are two compelling reasons for consideration of the use of this stimulus.

plays or science demonstrations. Using in unusual way • Co-ordinate musical or sound backgrounds with book reports. • Have student groups record problem-solving or decision-making sessions. correspondence with you or other students. Both record players and tape recorders are inexpensive and simple to operate. but there are excellent tapes and records for every curriculum area. and play back for analysis. • Keep electrical cords flush with floor or wall so that you and your students do not trip. • Have the intended starting point positioned on the tape or record ahead of time. . historical narratives. or progress reports. • Have students record their own tapes as journals. • Provide background music for a particular learning centre. self-evaluation.64 Records and audiotapes Many of us limit our thinking for those stimuli to music. Using effectively • Check volume for different location of the room.

and you can make that happen with questions. . you can not sit at your desk and catch up on your work. and discussions. record class history. • Use them interactively. It means that your students must do more than listen and watch. Your involvement with questions and suggestions will be needed. Using effectively • Check volume and image for students in different location. Notice that with these unusual uses. • Stop the film or tape midway and have students dramatise or role-play the ending. or advertise a class programme. Technology has simplified the use of equipment and has advanced the quality of programmes. predict what is happening. • Eliminate distractions. • Have students make films or tapes to teach other students. and compare it with the film or tape ending. • Have students watch different tapes or films on the same topic and compare information. They must respond to the tape or film. advance organisers. present research. Using in unusual way • Use the film or tape without sound and ask students to supply the dialogue.65 Films and videotapes Both of these have appeal for students and can support learner motivation. or act as an observer on the scene. describe a group project.

attach pictures and diagrams to the chalkboard with written descriptions.66 Chalkboards Chalkboards are everywhere and they come in all sizes. a riddle. assignments and due dates. your teaching will be varied and will capture student attention. dark or white enough. labels. or vertically. We have also seen teachers use a block of chalkboard space for a Thought for the day. or questions. news. and several colours. etc. A daily or class schedule on the chalkboard is useful to you and your students. directions. • With tape or other devices. shapes. in a circle. You can move around as you teach. • Protect the writing surface with proper cleaning and the appropriate writing materials. and clear enough to be seen in location around the classroom. Using effectively • Keep your words large enough. When you combine chalkboards with other stimuli. or to border information. and announcements are all appropriate for chalkboard display. or use them as you teach. . Using in unusual way • Use coloured chalk occasionally to highlight or underline main ideas. • Avoid filling the board with so much writing that students get confused. Chalkboards offer generous amounts of space on which to write and are often located in several sides of the classroom. • On an infrequent basis. Reminders. and they say what you want them to say. write your message backwards. a coded message. • Reserve space for student messages. You can prepare them ahead of time. They do not need a bulb or an electrical outlet.

and following the third guideline will help you keep your bulletin boards up to date. • You construct a bulletin board related to future curriculum of unknown objects. connected to the theme of study. teacher. Like chalkboards. Using in unusual way • Students construct a bulletin board display of what they learned from a unit or course.67 Bulletin boards Bulletin boards come in different sizes and shapes. We experience aesthetically arranged displays that are just the part of the wall. bulletin boards can change from being a responsibility for you to an exciting way to vary the stimuli. times of year. never referred to in teaching. You hear teachers complain if they do not have one. and you hear teachers complain if they do. never discussed by students. and people for student guesses or predictions. places. With student involvement. and not connected to curriculum. rather than just how it looks. Using effectively • Concern yourself with what your bulletin board says and does. volunteer. • Keep the display up to date that is. The second guideline won’t be a worry if your bulletin board is connected to your curriculum. The intent of these stimuli is to contribute to teaching. • Involve students in planning and producing displays. parent. • Each student is assigned a portion of a bulletin board to display what happening in his or her life. • You and your students construct a bulletin board to communicate appreciation or honour to a student. and so on. bulletin boards offer ease of use and accessibility. . We want to emphasise the first guide line with a reminder that we are talking about varying the stimuli in teaching. or administrator.

The range of computer use in all fields. The computer can be used to expand the types of instruction students receive. and they can be used to improve a teacher’s current mode of instruction. and give immediate feedback. depending upon the type of CAI programme used. Today’s teachers must be prepared to use computers in the classroom. simulation. most simulations involve the learner in problem solving. making what is really combination programmes – tutorial-drill-and-practice or tutorialsimulation combinations. practices. Teachers and schools have another important need for computers. including education. problem solving. you can expect computers to provide: • Opportunity for practice. • Simulated experiences for application of knowledge and skill. assessments. Drill and practice is an effective approach for learning at this level of knowledge. and challenges. Drill and Practice At the lowest level. Expectations from computers as stimuli As stimuli. Teachers can use computers to manage instruction. and creating. While simulations can be used simply to provide examples to reinforce memorisation. Tutorial One of the first applications of computers to education was a tutorial programme that used simulations. The involvement itself has a motivating effect. • Individual assessment of student knowledge. The computer can give questions. In all secondary and middle-level subjects in all class levels there seems to be some information that is basic to the mastery of each discipline. score the answers.68 Computers The popularity of microcomputers in education has had an irreversible impact on schools. Students have the opportunity to live out roles and find solutions to often-complex problems. The student is actively involved in the learning process. . • Opportunity for collaboration on problems. or they can use computers as tutors. A less recognised advantage is the computer’s ability to free the teacher to give more personal attention to students. and progress. For example. Computer assisted instruction (CAI) Computer assisted instruction (CAI) links the student directly to the material to be learned via the computer. the computer behaves much like the early teacher. Simulation This is also true for simulation programmes. a need relates to the computer’s increasing potential. Tutorial programmes can involve drill and practice or simulation. There are various levels of involvement. Computers have become less expensive and more versatile. the computer can be used for drill and practice. who lectured and then had students recite the material in the same form. • Record keeping of student work. is limited only by the creative limitation of the mind. skill or attitude.

• Plan for social interaction in computer use with pair assignments and tutor teams. • Preview and critique software your self.69 Guidelines for using computers as stimuli: • Assure each student equitable access to equipment. . • Connect computer use to whole class or small group instruction. and encourage student evaluation.

or 2) a class specially designed for slow learners. simulations). Slow learners are usually taught in one of two possible instructional arrangements: 1) a class composed mostly of average students. workbooks. If this variation is not part of your lesson. their difficulty in comprehending abstract ideas. their sometimes unsystematic and careless work habits. The student commonly called a slow learner is one who cannot learn at an average rate from the instructional resources. and most disconcerting. These students need special instructional pacing. and/or modified materials. classroom climate (co-operative. workbooks. slow learners in the regular classroom are neither rare nor unique. all administered under conditions sufficiently flexible for learning to occur. and instructional materials (films. transmits through alternate modalities (pictures versus . these students may well create their own variety in ways that disrupt your teaching. Their most obvious characteristic is a limited attention span compared to more able students. competitive). corrective instruction. in which case up to 20% may be slow learners. and mathematics). and learning materials that are designed for the majority of students in the classroom. Compensatory teaching Compensatory teaching is an instructional approach that alters the presentation of content to circumvent a student’s fundamental weakness or deficiency. you will immediately feel the challenge of meeting their learning needs. indirect). frequent feedback. Other immediately noticeable characteristics of slow learners are their deficiencies in basic skills (reading.70 Chapter 8 STRATEGIES FOR SPECIAL LEARNERS The slow learner Contrary to common belief. Compensatory teaching recognises content. writing. texts. Whether you meet slow learners in a regular class or special class. To keep these students actively engaged in the learning process requires more than the usual variation in presentation methods (direct. co-operative games.

Incorporate individualised learning materials. Also. Slow learners respond favourably to frequent reinforcement of small segments of learning. paired with immediate corrective instruction. This helps address the short attention spans of slow learners. Remedial teaching This is an alternate approach for the regular classroom teacher in instructing the slow learner. an emphasis on frequent diagnostic assessment of the student progress. programmed texts and interactive computer instruction often are effective in remediation of basic skills of slow learners. simulations. This increases opportunities to accommodate the different learning styles that may exist among slow learners and provides some of the remediation that may be necessary. including reading usually is below grade level among slow learners. Conventional instructional techniques such as drill and practice might be employed. these students should be made to feel that some of the instruction has been designed with their specific interests or experiences in mind. For example deficiencies in basic math skills are reduced or eliminated by re-teaching the content that was not learned earlier. illustrations). Remedial teaching is the use of activities. by using more flexible instructional presentations (films. Therefore. and unusual trips or experiences can provide the structure for the lesson plans. or simple inventories in which students indicate their hobbies. Oral or written autobiographies at the beginning of the year. videotapes. or by shifting to alternate instructional formats (self-paced texts. Incorporating films. special projects. variety in instructional technique offers them the opportunity to see the same content presented in different ways. techniques and practices to eliminate weaknesses or deficiencies that the slow learner is known to have. One common characteristic among slow learners is that they often learn better by seeing and hearing than by reading. needs. The instructional environment does not change. In addition to keeping their attention. Instructional strategies for slow learners While no single technique or set of techniques is sufficient teaching the slow learner.71 words). Develop lessons around students’ interests. This may involve modifying an instructional technique by including a visual representation of content. experienceoriented workbooks). and supplements it with additional learning resources and activities (learning centres and simulations. and audio into lessons helps accommodate the instruction to the strategies learning modalities among . and experiences. Switching from lecture to discussion and then to seatwork provides the variety that slow learners need to stay engaged in the learning process. or extra-credit assignments in the year. because performance in basic skill areas. group discussions and co-operative learning). Frequently vary your instructional technique. In addition. pictures. as in the compensatory approach. This should be no surprise. the suggestions that follow are a starting point for developing instructional strategies that specifically address the learning needs of the slow learner. jobs. often is particularly effective. Incorporate audio and visual materials.

both as a learner and as a tutor. there will be little contact emotionally and intellectually with the content you are presenting. using textbooks and exercises intended for a lower grade could ease the burden of creating materials that are unavailable at your grade level. Example: test questions or a list of topics from which questions may be chosen help focus student effort. especially when tutors are assigned so that everyone being tutored also has responsibility for being a tutor. gifted and talented. These skills are acquired through observation by higher ability students. and listening. The learner needing help is not singled out and has a stake in making the idea work. but they must be specifically taught to slow learners. outlining. Unless your slow learners are actively engaged in the learning process through interesting concrete visual stimuli. When textbook materials are too difficult. Innovative learning skills. content. Also. is imaginative and creative. The gifted and/or talented learners A student who reads rapidly. The slow learner usually is unable to weigh the relative importance of competing instructional stimuli unless explicitly told or shown what is important and what is not. or are too different from topics that capture your students’ interests. directed and fully developed. and writing errors. Encourage oral expression instead of written reports. Emphasising concrete and visual forms of content also helps compensate for the general difficulty slow learners have in grasping abstract ideas and concepts. For slow learners. Peer tutoring can be an effective ally to your teaching objectives. Provide peer tutors for students needing remediation. has an exceptional memory. syntax. comprehends quickly. ha s along attention spans. Sometimes only some changes in worksheets and exercises are needed to adapt the vocabulary or difficulty level to the ability of your slow learners. Awareness is growing that gifted and talented students are an important natural resource that must be encouraged. many writing assignments go un-attempted or are begun only half-heartedly because these learners recognise that their written product will not meet even minimal writing standards. exceptional. Develop your own worksheets and exercises. You can increase learning skills by teaching notetaking. Teaching the . This has the advantage of avoiding spelling. This contact can be attained most easily when you vary your instructional material often and organise it into bits small enough to ensure moderate-to-high rates of success. Study aids are advances organisers that alert students to the most important problems. Textbooks and workbooks. develop your own. when written for the average student often exceed the functioning level of the slow learner and sometimes become more of a hindrance than an aid. or issues. A carefully organised taped response to an assignment might be considered. because his or her pride is on the line.72 slow learners. activated. and is comfortable with abstract ideas is described as bright. When testing provide study aids. They also eliminate irrelevant details that slow learners often laboriously study in the belief that they are important.

in practice. A cut off percentile of 90 means that a learner is eligible for gifted instruction if his or her score on the appropriate sub-scale of a standardised achievement test is higher than the score of 90% of all those who took the test. mostly gifted with some talent. Sometimes IQ is not considered at all in determining giftedness. reading comprehension. usually in the areas for which gifted instruction is being considered. Because creative behaviours generally are considered in selecting gifted students. Some observable signs of creativity in a learner include:  Applying abstract principles of the solution of the problems  Being curious and inquisitive  Giving uncommon or unusual responses  Showing imagination  Posing original solutions to problems  Discriminating between major and minor events  Seeing relationships among dissimilar objects. It is not uncommon to accept scores below 130 as eligible for gifted instruction. Among other behaviours frequently used to determine giftedness is the learner’s achievement. gifted but not talented. In addition to intelligence and achievement. Achievement is measured by yearly-standardised test. An IQ score of about 130 or higher generally makes one eligible for gifted instruction. can mean talented but not gifted. vocabulary. mostly talented with some giftedness. Creativity. admission to gifted programmes and classes usually far less restrictive. nor are all talented learners are gifted. which cover areas such as math. social sciences. Inclusion of this behavioural dimension has broadened the definition of this type of learner to include both the gifted and the talented. Achievement. However. The following are some of the most important behavioural ingredients from which a definition of gifted is likely to be composed: • Intelligence. because giftedness almost always is defined in conjunction with at least several other behaviours. and science. or both gifted and talented.73 gifted remains an important objective of virtually of every school and. indices of creativity often are considered in selecting gifted learners. therefore. this type of learner more appropriately might be called gifted and/or talented. Task persistence Behaviours teachers look for in determining task persistence include:  Ability to devise organised approaches to learning  Ability to concentrate on detail  Self-imposed high standards  Persistence in achieving personal goals  Willing to evaluate own performance. you should be aware of the learning needs of this special learner. in which case the learner must exhibit unusual ability on one or more other areas. which is widely used. and capable of doing so • • • . The significance of this addition is that not all gifted learners are talented. The phrase gifted and talented. Foremost among the characteristics of giftedness is general intelligence.

The primary goal of bilingual education is not to teach English as a second language. hypothesise. group discussion. Brain storming sessions. compare. adopt. Because gifted students tend to take greater responsibility for their own learning than do average students. This means teaching skills and words in English as well as in another language. the gifted both are capable of and enjoy the freedom to independently explore issues and ideas that concern them. self-directed learning methods often predominate among teachers of the gifted. and skills. This will force them to place newly acquired knowledge and understandings in a practical perspective and to increase the problem solving challenge. Occasionally plan instruction involving group activities.g. which may be any regional language. draw out knowledge and understanding. Asking your students to explain the reason behind their answers. references. Use tests and questions that make the student go beyond knowing and remembering facts. and to judge the outcome of their own inquiry are useful means of separating ‘slick’ responses from meaningful answers. The following suggestions are starting points for managing and teaching the gifted and talented learner. materials. to put together the known facts into something new. Choose learning activities to allow freedom and include interests. analyse. Let your gifted students become actual investigators in solving world-dilemmas in your content area. In testing. Ask them pointed questions that do not have really available answers. justify. knowledge. but to teach concepts. criticise. Pose challenging problems. Asking your gifted students to explain. prove. teams and debates are among the ways you can start interactions among students. Perhaps more than any other learners. this can create a ‘snowballing’ of ideas that can turn initially rough ideas about a problem into polished and elegant solutions. and dispute are means of indicating that more than a verbally fluent response is required. Give them this opportunity by posing a challenging problem and organising data (e. you will be making them participants in the design of their own learning. judge. Instructional strategies for gifted and talented learners There are several methods for teaching the gifted that must be taught among regular students. peer interviews. Include real-life problems that require problem solving. particularly in academic tasks. When carefully organised. Focus the problem so the learner must make key decisions about what is important for a solution. This encourages independent thinking. Gifted students are among those most capable of picking up ideas from others and creating from them new and unusual variations. infer. panels. and documents) that they must screen for relevance. The bilingual learner Bilingual education refers to a mix of introduction in two languages.74   Sense of responsibilities High level of energy. contrast. while at the same time giving the student extra motivation often required to pursue a topic in much greater depth than would be expected of an average student. through the regional language the . By letting them pursue and investigate some topics of their own choosing and construct their own meanings and interpretations.

the direct presentation of instructional material. and tactile modalities. emphasise other communication. and are most accustomed to. Learners are taught reading or writing in their regional language. and rationale. Pictures can not take place of auditory cues. In the transition approach. Such learners have come to be called balanced bilinguals to emphasise that their proficiency is limited neither in English nor in regional language. For example. the goal of enrichment is movement from regional language to English competence in the shortest time possible. Four approaches to bilingual education Transition approach. The restoration approach attempts to restore the regional language and culture of the bilingual student to its purest and most original form. but they can place these cues in context. and illustrations to supplement teaching objectives wherever possible. The teacher using the transition approach first discerns the level of English proficiency of the learner and then expects the learner to function in English at or slightly above this level. However in addition to this goal. In other words. the “look and say” approach to reading is more effective than the phonetic approach during the initial stages of reading instruction. repetition of material (particularly drill and practice) generally is superior to more conceptual presentations that emphasise perspective. regional culture and heritage also are emphasised. and write in English. Enrichment approach. The maintenance approach. justification. but expressions that are half English and half-regional language are to be discouraged. Restoration approach. endorses the idea that learners also should become proficient in their regional language. Especially for those lacking almost any proficiency in English. graphs. Use direct instruction. Be alert to cultural differences. Maintenance approach. There is no substitute for . The transition approach uses learners’ regional language and culture only to the extent necessary for them to learn English.75 learners knows the best and then to reinforce this information through the second language (English). read. Other forms of communication include the visual. The classroom teacher should discourage mixing regional language and English phrases when they occur in the context of expressing the same idea or thought. Most bilingual learners learn best from. Instructional strategies for bilingual learners If you do not speak regional language. Your awareness of cultural differences can be extremely important to successful communication. Like the transmission approach. The goal is to help learners truly bilingual – to become fluent in both languages. Use pictures. and it is no less important with bilingual learner. kinaesthetic. expressions that are expressed alternatively and fully in both English and regional language may be encouraged. in which the learner is less proficient. making them easier to recognise in relation an illustration or picture. You have seen the importance of the visual mode in teaching the slow learner. in addition to encouraging English language proficiency. the regular classroom teacher should encourage and sometimes expect these learners to respond.

have someone who is fluent evaluate the difficulty level of the material. you may find a regional language version of comparable content. The merits that group work. even if you have little understanding of their language. Carefully evaluate reading level and format of materials. Material with illustrations and pictures is better than concentrated prose. While selecting or adapting materials. Notice whether the objects pictured will be familiar to the learners or whether they are specific to the Anglo audience for whom the materials may have been written. listening. The information is invaluable in selecting special materials and determining the best level and manner to begin the instruction. This in turn suggests the value of co-operative classroom climate.76 understanding the culture of students you are teaching.  Dominant language in the expressive mode (i. It is not unusual to initially select verbal material several grades below the level you are teaching. From school records. reading). .  Past achievement levels in the area relevant to your instruction. If you are not fluent in that language. find out for each learner:  Dominant language in the receptive mode (i. potentially avoiding weeks and even months of failing to communicate – not knowing it. evaluate the materials again and adjust the reading level accordingly. Knowing your learners ability and achievement levels makes your initial instructional contact far more effective.  Proficiency level in the dominant language. and working as a team potentially are useful instructional strategies for these students. but the reading level and format may not benefit your learners. talking.e. writing). They appreciate the co-operation of group achievement more than the competitive aspects of individual achievement.e. After a suitable trial. sharing of assignments. Know your learners’ language ability and achievement levels.

To have instructional variety in the classroom. the success of students at schooling and to some extent their success in life.  Gives directions slowly and distinctly. to a great extent. engagement in learning.  Provides learners with advance organisers. .77 Chapter 9 EFFECTIVE TEACHING IN A CLASSROOM Effective teaching Teaching is an effective task a teacher does in the classroom. and student success. task orientation. To be clear in the classroom. 2. illustrations.  Uses examples. 1. How efficiently one teaches. The effective teacher employs five key behaviours: lesson clarity.  Checks for task-relevant prior learning and re-teaches if necessary. and demonstrations to explain and clarify text and workbook content. Teaching constitutes activities deliberately planned and performed.  Provides a review or summary at the end of each lesson. determines. instructional variety. the effective teacher:  Informs learners of the objective.  Knows the ability level of learners and teaches to those levels. the effective teacher:  Uses attention-gaining devices.

in the classroom. To be task-oriented in the classroom.  Selects the most appropriate instructional model for the objectives being taught. 4. Varies types of questions and probes. Uses student ideas.  Provides opportunities for feedback in a non-evaluative atmosphere. 5.78      Shows enthusiasm. To engage students in the learning process. During classroom interaction teachers tend to promote mostly wrote learning requiring memory level thinking.  Establishes cycles of review.  Corrects partial-correct. is devoted to teacher’s talk and students get very little opportunity to express themselves.  Uses meaningful praise. feedback and testing. Teaching is said to be effective ONLY if the intended objectives are achieved. Teachers spend more time in giving information and less on clarifying ideas and still less time on giving explanations.  Handles administrative and clerical interruptions efficiently.  Changes instructional stimuli gradually.  Stops or prevents misbehaviour with a minimum of class disruption. the effective teacher:  Develops unit and lesson plans that reflect the curriculum. involves achievement of learning objectives by students and involves transaction between teacher and student.  Varies the instructional pace or tempo to create momentum. To establish moderate-to-high rates of success in the classroom. . Teaching constitutes activities deliberately planned and performed. the effective teacher:  Elicits the desired behaviour. the effective teacher:  Establishes unit and lesson content that reflects prior learning. Defects in teaching • • • • • • Most of the time.  Divides instructional stimuli into bite-sized pieces that are at the learners’ current level of functioning. and incorrect-answers. A very low percentage of teacher’s time in the classroom is used for making encouraging remarks.  Monitors seatwork and checks for practice. Mixes rewards and reinforces. 3. Most of the teachers are not systematic in planning and carrying out instruction. Less than 10% of time of teacher’s talk is devoted to teacher’s questioning. Varies mode of presentation.  Uses group and individual activities as motivational aids when necessary. correct-but-hesitant.

• Avoid dominance by some students and encourage non-participating students to talk. • To be democratic as well as assertive. • Warm supportive. • You may ask each student to write their answers and share and compare it with neighbours. etc. • Allow for mutual reactions to each other’s answers. • To be receptive to new ideas and practices. • To develop your own instructional material. • To maintain good interpersonal relationship. • To understand student’s misconceptions of what you intend to teach. • To develop liking for your students. books. • To create an open organisational climate. Active participation of students: Active participation of students stimulates the teaching--learning process. • To cultivate intellectual capabilities. • Use of varying stimuli in the class stimulates student’s motivation. • Reduce your talk in the class to allow for greater student participation. • To involve in academic and professional discussions and programmes. emotional climate promotes better student’s achievement. • Identify strength of different students and make use of them for designating different tasks in-group work. • To help them to resolve their problems. • To develop healthy attitudes towards profession. • To make use of library. active participation of students. peer tutoring and co-operative teaching. • To be realistic in your ambitions and aspirations. • To improve your study habits related to profession. • To experiment and explore new methods of teaching. • To avoid acting out your emotions. • To adjust your teaching to suit the classroom factors. • Encourage each student to express freely without fear of being criticised by others.79 How to make teaching more effective: • To use suitable teaching methods like conducting small group activities. • Allow adequate time for student to think and answer. The following teaching behaviours are likely to enhance student participation: • Try to seek students’ responses and opinions from all the students. • To be dominated by sense of duty. • To observe students in different context. etc. brain storming. • To improve educational and professional qualifications. • To practice what you preach to develop good values in students. • To make use of proper instructional materials like audio-visual aids. .

80 The type of questions relate to effective teaching: • • • • • • • • • • Both simple and more complex questions can be formulated at each level depending on quantity and complexity of the information to be processed. All other level questions are considered as of higher order. which are simple to the low ability students. Use of more of Why and How questions so that students respond by reasoning or thinking and not out of memory. Give chances to all students to answer. Rephrase the question if it is not understood Encourage students to take some time to think and construct the answer. Memory level questions are termed as factual or lower order questions. Plan higher cognitive questions. Ensure all students attend to your question. Ask both fact questions as well as higher cognitive questions to serve your objectives to best advantage. Tell the students whether he is right or wrong and encourage to motivate them to give correct answer .

who understands how a pupil feels. healthy environment for learning. competency testing. as one who can maintain rapport with his students. Some of the time for teaching is dedicated toward instructing children in ways to better help each other. curriculum reforms. the teacher is able to see his pupils as co-workers on some problems. The following questions are given to help the classroom teacher develop better judgement and emotional calmness in analysing his own personal emotional adjustment: . then there is more likely to be found the ideal. and who knows when it is time to be sympathetic with a pupil. Today’s classroom is a far cry from that of only ten years ago. Microcomputers. “think and do”. and this rate of change is unlikely to subside soon. Therefore. Adults gain emotional control by reconditioning. The ideal helping relationship is one in which the pupil finds it difficult to determine whether he was directed or guided into a learning situation. Basically teaching is a relationship. he simply finds himself busily engaging in a situation and enjoying its offerings. The effective teacher is the one who sometimes sees himself in his students. “give and take”. and heterogeneous classrooms are but few of the factors changing the face of our schools and creating special challenges for our teachers. Some of the important roles are:  The modern teacher is a helping teacher.81 Chapter 10 ROLE OF THE TEACHER There are many changes occurring daily in our classroom and in the practice of teaching. Ideally. --balanced off with an equitable amount of “work and play”. a teacher is just like an actor who has to play many roles. The classroom teacher is well on the way to emotional maturity when he can make a reasonably sound inventory of what he is doing to safe guard his emotional health and what he should do plus what he can learn to do. and by constant thinking of their emotional responses.  The teacher’s emotional maturity. The teacher is either helping pupils or the pupils are helping him to do a worthwhile activity. training. In the classroom where there is much “share and tell”.

82  Do you feel resentful when a child catches you in a mistake?  When the class is difficult to manage. they usually will show interest in it. The role of the teacher is obvious. • . All educators must recognise that education is an internal process. The teacher should be a selector of methods. and the like if ideas are to become mobile and challenging to the learner. which seem most conducive to the sought learning. do you lose your temper and display it by shouting or showing things around?  Do you seek to find fault with children rather than to look for their good qualities?  Do you have periods of spirits and allow your teaching to suffer because of that?  Do you have strong feelings of inadequacy when a teacher across the class makes improvement with children in areas in which you would like to succeed?  Are you easily upset when the regular classroom scheduled has been changed because of unforeseen. If the children are shown the “sense” of subject matter. necessary school activities?  Are you quite irritated when someone challenges your teaching techniques?  When children misquote or contradict you. that of studying the uniqueness of the class and making judgements as to how class members may best learn. which you have selected to fit the sense of humour of that particular class level?  Do you feel the urge to strike out at children by talking loudly when correcting the child who has not followed directions?  When someone is making fun of you. Though this can result in effective teaching procedures it seems more likely that such practice will propagate boring and repetitive classroom work. do you lose your temper and search out opportunity to make them look ridiculous?  Can you feel at ease when a visitor comes to the room to observe your work?  Are you able to control your actions and expressions when children become excited and can not sit still?  Can you hold your own with those members of your faculty who tend to “razz” you by inferring that you are always trying to be in the limelight when actually you are seeking to improve the status of the school? To effectively guide children. or emotionalisation. the teacher must first recognise and satisfy certain of her own needs in socially and psychologically acceptable ways most of the time. The teacher who consistently follows such a practice surrenders. in planning for every lesson or unit of work due thought should be given to selecting procedures. To ensure interest and to literally captivate his pupils. An interested pupil cares little about the time or effort that is needed to learn if the desire is there. in a sense. do you “fly off the handle?”  Do you laugh unusually hard before the class when a ridiculous error in conversation is made by a child. the teacher should present the subject matter through such means as dramatisation. • The teacher should be an actor. Far too often teachers teach as they have been taught. sensationalisation. an important professional prerogative. but it is beyond his powers of realisation?  Can you laugh at jokes.

the teacher of middle classes children might study the effectiveness of two approaches using two classes. a consideration of the children in the class. The teacher as an evaluator of his own method. The teacher as a producer of method. innovate. are not defensible. In science. Teachers in the present day are encouraged and supported in conducting classroom research. which have no beneficial effect other than the fact that they are “fun” procedures or simply “different”. and the evaluative results of previous teaching should enter into such study. just as in other vocations and professions. Creativity in teaching. for example. It is doubtful if most teachers carefully weigh the effect of method in examining the quality and extent of what children learned. in short they make method. The teacher who consistently uses and believes in the assign-study-recite-test procedure may be moved toward a variety of approaches if he carefully compares the results of this procedure with another combination such as lecture-demonstration-discussion-application procedure. These procedures can easily be related to a combination of the categorical labels. If method is not evaluated. The major questions.83 • The teacher should be a researcher. are:  On the bases of my evaluative instruments and means of measurement. Teachers. It would seem wise not only for a teacher to examine the degree to which children have learned but to also evaluate by asking certain questions of an introspective nature. If two classes are not available two major topics could be taught using different approaches but using only one class. which can hardly be classified into the classic categories discussed earlier. An obvious professional task of the teacher. How well children have learned contains an implicit assessment of the teacher’s choice of method. have children met the lesson goals satisfactorily?  Do the children exhibit real insight as a result of the lesson in addition to the usual residual facts?  Did the teaching approach used arouse the response from the total range of the class rather than one ability level?  Were children brought to the point where they asked intelligent questions about the teaching topic?  Can most children in my class explain or demonstrate the major concepts of the lesson?  Just how important were this lesson and its goals to the child’s current needs and to his future needs? • • . Innovative or unique procedures are justified if they contribute in a better way in the learning goals. As a minimum. Teachers use a myriad of procedures. which deal with the choice of method. The study of the most effective procedures is one of the most fruitful areas for such research. and create. is most promising as a means of improvement. through their own ingenuity are encouraged to continue to devise new and better means of teaching for the important learning goals. the selection of method is one that should be undertaken on the basis of a continuing study of the classroom situation. One fact is apparent that teachers improvise. The effectiveness of method is evaluated when the learning progress of children is evaluated. Unique procedures. inefficiency in the use of time and imbalance in the value given to the various learning may result. which the teacher should ask herself.

Thinking and cognitive task: The teacher lays the foundation for skill development. By using the “open ended’ types of discussion and question-asking procedures. or. The teacher’s primary role during the conduct of classroom dialogue is to create a free and open discussion that stimulates and sustain of thought on the part of all class members. Thus the teacher is tuned to where children are at a given moment in the learning act and he can predict where they should be in a few minutes if he keeps at the same goal and rate of instructing. drawings.84  Was the time spent on this work commensurate with the value of the sought learning?  Were the concepts of the lesson presented only in a verbal abstract setting?  Did any devices. he is in a good position to compare the progress of his youngsters to the rate at which information should be unfolded. If the techniques are planned under surveillance. a pupil and his peers.. quite likely some children will be enabled to use them to examine their own ideas and to test them against available data at a future date. aids. and application of principles. The teacher and his non-verbal acts: Teachers must become more concerned with their non-verbal behaviours during the classroom episodes. He must become fully acquainted with the three dimensions of the teachinglearning process. the learner is freer to try out all ideas to determine their power and value. which are concept formation. What one says and what he actually does may be two entirely . it is conceivable that the act might need to be altered relative to the rapidity of presentation. Planning for classroom dialogue: The classroom discussion period is made up of short. All verbalisation has some effect (good or bad) upon the learning act. Upon establishing where children are in learning as compared to the teaching act. used contribute to learning? Which one did and which one did not?  Did the children have ample opportunity to apply major concepts they learned?  If I taught this same lesson tomorrow for the first time how would I alter my procedures?  Were there parts of the lesson or uses of aids that were an obvious waste of time?  Is it possible to accomplish this same teaching with less time and effort?  Did I vary the procedure in this or other lessons significantly from the procedure I typically use? Teacher as a cognitive functionary. It also affects the child’s processes of thinking. If a teacher can form a mental image of the dimensions of the teaching process being utilised during an on-going lesson. but to look at the techniques being applied by the teacher and/or pupils. A wiser approach would be to plan a few “mental stops” along the path of the lesson not only to find out where children are having successes or failures. It provides a system into which data and information can be organised. etc. interpretation of data. These episodes occur between teacher and pupils. which will be called upon time and time again. difficulty of concepts or the setting into which it has now fallen. simple verbal episodes.

which be mastered. It is he who will provide the initial stages of instruction in which the child will learn to use the coding and indexing systems. the textbooks as well as the wisdom and knowledge in myself—which will help him learn in ways that will provide relevant answers to the things that concern him? It means that they acquire the role of facilitator more than teacher does. computers. Media will become more important than ever in the curriculum of the future. Skilled designers and . the functions of the teacher in future will be: • A human relations expert—a facilitator of learning. and the like will increase curriculum change immensely. he will guide children in their interactions. thereby enabling that child to direct much of his own study through computerised tools. Role of the teacher in future The right for every child to learn is the goal set for the 21 st century. Obviously the teacher will be a director of learning—but in the setting of complete individualisation of a pupil’s personalised instructional programme. the experiences. which are now in their infancy. With present diagnostic procedures it sometime takes months to find out the pupil’s problems and to plan accordingly. not of himself but of his pupils. -knowingly or unknowingly. The teacher will be a new type of diagnostician. must nurture those talents. the learning facilities. What now takes months to accomplish will be completed in a matter of minutes. The teacher of the future will more likely query. “Now that I know what he is eager to learn. likewise.85 different things. The machine being programmed to sort out common errors and to indicate the steps necessary to remedy one’s work. The learning environment. It will be a common thing to find children locating their own problems of academic origin by feeding information into computers to determine the progress made on a problem up to a given point. The teacher should strive for greater congruency between what he personifies overtly and what he believes internally. To meet this goal schools must offer a range of learning options commensurate with the unknown range of pupil talents. Planetariums. what one wishes to “get across” during the learning episodes is often hindered by non-verbal expressions made by the teacher. where can I best help him go to find the resources—the people. • A master of a vast of complex of learning tools. To put it another way. The implementation of a personalised programme of instruction will spring from selected findings derived from diagnostic information. “What do you want from school? What do you want to learn? What are you curious about? What problems in society concern you? How do you want to change yourself? How will you know when you have made your life better?” If a teacher can obtain answers to the questions he can then safely ask himself. fully equipped videotape machines. This will not be the case in future. Therefore. again using tools of measurement. • A diagnostician. complete photographic studios. On the basis of vast knowledge of child growth and development plus his professional expertise in using group processes and other psychological means as yet undeveloped.

too. will rid the world of racial and regional discrimination. --films. demonstrations. The future teacher will be a master at developing programmes that build an enduring peace. and he will guide the child to that sequence of programmes. the teacher will serve as the link between programmes and pupils. and.86 technicians can develop and co-ordinate the learning programmes. television. . lectures. which best meets his assessed needs. • A master at developing programmes. Of significance. etc.. The community will become the living classroom. He will be actively involved in reducing poverty-stricken areas. but it will be teachers who decide what the programmes should be.

Henry. Creativity and Intelligence. Marsh Weil. Getzels. Curriculum. William. Boocock. Joyce and Weils. Hyman. Questioning and Creative Thinking. Small-group Discussion in Orientation and Teaching.87 REFERENCES Berliner and Gage. How Teachers Taught. Richard. Simulation and Curriculum. Abraham. Cole. Dunn. Simulation Games in Learning. Secondary School Teaching Methods. Philip Jackson. Role-playing Methods in the Classroom. Glenn. Discovery Teaching from Socrates to Modernity. Teaching Methods. Bibens. Ways of Teaching. Joyce. Henson. Samual. Maslow. Chaudhari. Mildred. Practical Approaches to Individalising Instruction. The Guidance of Learning Activities. Benjamin. Hoffman. Randall. Harcleroad. Jones. Gordon. Bronell. Technology. Thought Processes in Lectures and Discussion. BrownJames. Burton. Clark. Hunger and Russel. How to Direct a Simulation. Plutchic. Theory into Practice. Fox and Robert. Livingstone. Joyce. Cuban. Learning Centres. Models of Teaching. Johnson. Learning and Instruction. Developing questioning Techniques. Teaching Machines and Programmed Learning. Sarane. Computers. Brembeck. Kaplan. Facts and Feelings in the Classroom. Effective Teachers for Boys and Girls. Increasing your Teaching Effectiveness. Media and Methods. Stall. Teaching Machines and Programmed Learning. William. Peterson. and Starr. Learning how to learn. Bruce. McCloskey. Rita and Kenneth Dunn. Collis. Robert. Simulation Games. Gagne. Teaching Strategies and Classroom . Glaser. Schild. The Discovery of Teaching.. Lindgren. Lari. Carin and Sund. Mark. Chester. The Psychology of Teaching Methods. Jacob. Robert. AV Instruction. Audiovisual Methods in Teaching. Leonard. The Conduct of Inquiry. Models of Teaching. Simulation and games. Glaser. Heyman. Lewis. Fennema.Theory into Practice Bloom. Gregg and Tipple.. and Wholeclass Instruction. Fisk. Dale.

Richard. Components in Teaching Strategy. John and Rex Walford. Skinner.88 Realities. Strasser. The Guide to Simulation Games for Education and Training. Torrence. Whittrock. Educational Technology. Role-Playing. Suchman. Methods that Teach. David. Whooley. The Effect of Questioning on Retention. Improving College and University Teaching. Patrick. Cooperative Learning. Computer Based Instruction. Norris M. Taylor. Shulmanand Keislar. The Uses of the Lecture. Merrill. What kinds? Schmuck. What TeachingMethods When? Zuckerman. Simulation gaming. Miller and Vinocur. Teaching Machine. Handbook of Research on Teaching. Slavin. Chesler. Titus. Blanche and Nelson. Fannie. M David and Robert Tennyson. Sanders. Richard. Robert. The Problem Solving Approach. Ross and Killey. Classroom Questions. Weinberger. Stolovitch. Williams. . Weimer. Problem Solving to Improve Classroom Learning. Ben B. How to Ask Classroom Questions. Suppes. Questioning. Learning by Discovery: A Critical Approach. Simulation in the Classroom. Ornstein. Renaud. Perspectives in Individualised Learning. Rebrova and Svetlova. Teaching Concepts. Shaftel. Encouraging Creativity in the classroom. Horn. Developing Inquiry. McDonald. Ronald. Taylor. Developing your own Simulation for Teaching.

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