ºÔ^s

:
"" "ƒÁ√' ®[≈ kVÏ›Á>l[
ÿ√VÚ^ ®[™?''

w

w

√]_:

º>k[ kV™∫ÔÁ·•D, ØtÁB•D √Á¶›>º√Vm
#>ÏÔ^ ∂∫˛ÚÕ>™Ï: ""∂©ÿ√Vøm sΩBuÔVÈ›m
‚ƒ›]´∫Ô^ ∞Ô\VF©√VΩ, º>k A›]´Ï ®_ÈVÚD
ÿÔD¨ˆ›>VÏÔ^'' (ºBVA 38:7). ÷Õ> ∂ı¶D xøkmD
√Á¶¬Ô©√|D x[™º´, ÷Ú¬˛≈k´VÔ ÷Ú¬˛º≈[
®[√kÏ (BV›. 3:14) >\m ¤™∫Ô”¬ÿÔ[Æ ŒÚ
]‚¶›Á> Ák›]ÚÕ>VÏ. ∂kÚÁ¶B ∂·s¶uÔˆB
AˆÕmÿÔV^”>o™VKD, ∂[∏™VKD, ∂kÏ ÷ºB∑s[
÷´›>›][ JÈ\VÔ ®¬ºÈLBV ®[Æ ∂Áw¬Ô©√‚¶
ŒÚ \¬Ôπ[ Ì‚¶›Á>, ÿ√VmkVÔ ƒÁ√ ®[Æ ∂Áw¬Ô©
√|kÁ>¬ Ô‚¶› ]‚¶t‚¶VÏ (®º√. 1:7ä9; 3:21; 1 º√m.
1:18ä21).
∂Õ> ƒÁ√l_, sBÕm ºÂV¬zD º>k #>ÏÔπ[
]´·V™ Ì‚¶›]uz x[√VÔ, º>k–Á¶B ∂ÂÕ>
QV™\V™m ÿkπ©√¶ ºkıΩB>VlÚÕ>m (®º√. 3:10,
11). ÷ºB∑ >\m ®¬ºÈLBVkV˛B ƒÁ√ÁB¬ Ô‚|k>VÔ
kV¬z›>›>D ∂π©√>uz ¿ı¶ ÔVÈ x[™>VÔºk,
#>ÏÔ^ gflƒˆB\V™ Œ[Æ º>V[≈© º√VkÁ>
∂§Õ]ÚÕm, ∂Á> cuÆ© √VÏ¬Ô gÁƒBVF ÷ÚÕ>™Ï
(˛º´¬ÔD: parakupto1; 1 º√m. 1:12).
#>ÏÔ”¬ºÔV ∂_Èm \M>ÏÔ”¬ºÔV ÷Õ> ÿ>FTÔ
ºÂV¬Ô\V™m xøÁ\BVÔ ÿkπ©√|›>©√‚ΩÚ¬Ô
s_ÁÈ. ∂m ŒÚ ÷´ÔEB\VÔºk ÷ÚÕ>m (®º√. 3:3, 4).
®Õ>¬ ÔıbD ∂Á>¬ ÔVs_ÁÈ, ®Õ>fl ÿƒs•D
∂Á>¬ ºÔ‚Ôs_ÁÈ, ®Õ> ÷Ú>BxD ƒÁ√l_ c´¬
ÌΩB Â[Á\ÔÁ·¬ Ôu√Á™ ÿƒF>mD ÷_ÁÈ (∞ƒV. 64:4;
1 ÿÔVˆ. 2:9, 10).
5

yϬÔ>ˆEÔ^ >V∫Ô^ ®ø]™ÁkÔ^ ÷[™ÿ>[Æ
∂§•D√Ω ª¬Ô\VF›º>Ω™VÏÔ^ (\›. 13:17; 1 º√m.
1:10). WÁ≈kVÔ, º>k[ ÿ>ˆÕm ÿÔVı¶ gı|, \V>D,
ÂV^ \uÆD ºÂ´›]_ ÷Õ> WÁ≈kV™m kÕ>m. WÁ≈kVÔ,
º>k–Á¶B ∂ÂÕ> QV™\V™m g^√kÏÔ^ \uÆD
c[™>∫ÔπK^· mÁ´›>™∫Ô”¬z ƒÁ√l[ JÈ\VÔ
∂§ÕmÿÔV^”D√ΩBVÔ› >´©√‚¶m (ÔÈV. 4:4;
®º√. 3:10, 11; ÿkπ. 9:15).

cÈÔD xøkmD
∂Áw¬Ô©√‚¶ \¬Ô^

√›]ˆÁÔfl ÿƒF]BV·ÏÔ^ \uÆD ÷>´ ¤™∫Ô”¬z
""˛§¸ms[ ƒÁ√'' ®[≈ ÿƒV_ ÿ>V¶´V™m ÷[ÿ™VÚ
ÂV\Ô´¬ Ì‚¶D ®[√>VÔºk ÿ>ˆ˛≈m. º\KD, EÈ
ƒÁ√ ∂∫Ô›]™ÏÔ^ ̶ ""˛§¸ms[ ƒÁ√ ªaBÏÔ^,''
""˛§¸ms[ ƒÁ√l[ ƒÁ√Ô^'' º\KD, ""ÂV[ ŒÚ
˛§¸ms[ ƒÁ√BV['' º√V[≈ ÂV\Ô´¬ Ì‚¶∫Ôπ[
ÿ\Va ÂÁ¶ÔÁ·© √B[√|›m˛[≈™Ï.
g_s[ ºÈVˆ ®[≈ ˛§¸>k ªaB¬ÔV´Ï
ÿ¤Ï\Ml_ c^· ∏´V∫¬‡√Ï‚ ®[≈ ÷¶›Á> ∂Á¶Õ>
mD ∂∫z^· ÿ>VÁÈ º√E© A›>Ô›]_ ˛§¸ms[ ƒÁ√
®[≈ ÿ√BÁ´› º>Ω™VÏ. ÷m ÿ¤Ï\[ ÿ\Val_ Kirche
Christi ®[§Ú¬Ô ºkı|D; g™V_ ∂>uz© √]_ ∂∫z
""˛§¸ms[ ƒx>VBD'' ®[≈ ÿ√VÚ^√|D Gemeinde Christi
®[≈ kVÏ›Á>ÁB›>V[ Ôı¶VÏ.
ÿ¤Ï\[ kVÏ›Á>BV™ Gemeinde ®[√m ŒÚkÁ´,
÷ºB∑s[ kVÏ›Á>BV˛B ""®¬ºÈLBV''Ák WÁ™¬Ô
Ák¬˛≈m. ®¬ºÈLBV ®[≈ ÷Õ> kVÏ›Á>ºB ""ƒÁ√''
®[Æ ÿ\Vaÿ√BϬԩ√‚|^·m, g™V_ ÷m ""ÿkπºB
∂Áw¬Ô©√‚¶kÏÔ^'' ®[≈ ÿ√VÚÁ·› >Ú˛≈m.
÷ÀkVÏ›Á>BV™m º>k–Á¶B ∂Áw©Á√¬ ºÔ‚|
kÚD, ∂kÚÁ¶B ∏ˆ›ÿ>|¬Ô©√‚¶ ƒx>VB›]uz
gÊÏkV>D ∂Ú”D√ΩBV™ º>k™V˛B >Ô©√–Á¶B
∂[∏[ ]‚¶›Á>¬ z§¬˛≈m (\›. 16:18).
÷ºB∑ √B[√|›]B ÷ÀkVÏ›Á>l_ \>Z]BV™
ÿ√VÚÿ·m°D ÷_ÁÈ. ˛º´¬Ô A´V›]_, ∂Ï©º√•¸
6

®[√k[ >™¬ÿÔ[Æ ÔV‚| tÚÔ∫Ôπ[ Ì‚¶
ÿ\V[Á≈ ∞u√|›]¬ ÿÔVı¶V[ ®[Æ Ì≈©√|˛≈m.
÷m ®¬ºÈLBV ®[Æ ∂Áw¬Ô©√‚¶m. ∂Õ> tÚÔ∫Ô^
]º´LB[ \ÁÈl_ ∂k[ ÿƒV[™Á>¬ ºÔ‚¶™.
®º√∑s[ zΩ\¬Ô^ ÌΩ kÕ> WBVB ƒ∫Ô›]uzD Ÿ¬ÔV
÷Õ> kVÏ›Á>ÁB© √B[√|›m˛[≈VÏ (∂©. 19:39).
º\KD Ÿ¬ÔV ÷º> kVÏ›Á>ÁB, √°K¬z ®]Ï©A›
ÿ>ˆs›m ƒ›>t‚¶, ∂¶∫ÔV> ŒÚ Ì‚¶›Á> s·¬˛¬
Ì≈°D √B[√|›]™VÏ (∂©. 19:32, 41). º\KD, ®˛©]
oÚÕm, kV¬z›>›>D √ı©√‚¶ º>ƒ›m¬zfl ÿƒ_k
>uz ∂Áw¬Ô©√‚¶ ÷¸´ºk_ º>ƒ›Á> skˆ©√>uzD
Ÿ¬ÔV ÷Õ> kVÏ›Á>ÁB© √B[√|›]™VÏ (∂©. 7:38).
÷kuƶ[ ̶, ÷ºB∑Ák© º√VȺk Ÿ¬ÔV°D
÷ÀkVÏ›Á>ÁB© √B[√|›]™VÏ: ""®[M¶›]_
kVÚ∫Ô^'' ®[≈ ÷ºB∑s[ ∂Áw©Á√¬ ºÔ‚| ∂>uz¬
ˇµ©√Ω•D Ì‚¶›>VÁ´¬ z§¬Ô ÷Õ> kVÏ›Á>
√B[√|›>©√‚¶m (\›. 11:28; 16:18; ∂©. 5:11; ∂©. 2:47).
∂ºÂÔ g∫˛È ºk>VÔ\∫Ôπ_ ®¬ºÈLBV ®[≈
kVÏ›Á>, ""ÿ√Vm g´V>Á™¬z¬ ÌΩ kÚD √¬]•^·
√ˆ∑›>ÏÔ^'' ®[Æ ÿ√VÚ^√|D “church” ®[Æ >k≈V™
ÿ\VaBV¬ÔD ÿƒFB©√‚|^·m, ÷m ÿk©¸‚¶Ï
∂Ô´V]l[√Ω ÿƒFB©√‚¶>VzD. ÷Às·¬Ô›][√Ω,
“church” ®[≈ kVÏ›Á>¬zD, ÷ºB∑s[ ""®¬ºÈLBV''
®[≈ kVÏ›Á>¬zD ®Às>› ÿ>V¶ÏAD ÷_ÁÈ.
º\KD, ˛º´¬Ô A]B ∞u√V‚ΩoÚÕm x>[x>_
g∫˛È›]_ ÿ\Vaÿ√BϬԩ√‚¶ (s_oBD Ω[¶V_
1525_ >BVˆ›>) A]B ∞u√V‚Ω_, ®¬ºÈLBV ®[≈
˛º´¬Ô kVÏ›Á> “church” ®[Æ >´©√¶V\_ “congregation”
®[Æ >´©√‚|^·m, ˛∫ º¤D¸ ºk>VÔ\ ÿ\Va
ÿ√BÏ©√V·ÏÔ^ nD√›m ÂV[z º√ÚD >∫Ô”¬z
x[√VÔ ÷Õ> Ω[¶Vo[ ÿ\Vaÿ√BÏ©Á√ Ák›m
÷ÚÕ>™Ï, ∂m tÔ°D ƒˆBV™º> ®[Æ ∂§Õ]ÚÕ>™Ï.
÷Ú©∏–D, ÷∫˛ÈVÕm ƒÁ√l[ >ÁÈk´VÔ ÷ÚÕ> ˛∫
º¤D¸äI, ∂kÏÔ^ Ω[¶VÁÈ© ∏[√uÆkÁ>› >Á¶
ÿƒF>VÏ. ∂kÏ ""®¬ºÈLBV'' kVÏ›Á> “congregation” ®[Æ
ÿ\Vaÿ√BϬԩ√¶¬Ì¶Vÿ>[ÆD, “church” ®[º≈
ÿ\Vaÿ√BϬԩ√¶ ºkı|D ®[ÆD Ô‚¶Á·l‚¶VÏ.2
7

÷>[ sÁ·kVÔ, g∫˛ÈD º√∑ºkVˆ[ cÈÔ›]_
gsl™V_ ∞k©√‚| ®ø]BkÏÔ^ √B[√|›>V> ŒÚ
kVÏ›Á>ÁB© √B[√|›] √V´\V¬Ô ºkıΩB>VluÆ.
∂ÿȬvV[¶Ï ºÔD©ÿ√_ >\m ÿ\Vaÿ√BÏ©∏_ 3
Ω[¶VÁÈ ƒˆBVÔ© ∏[√u§™VÏ, g™VKD ˛∫ º¤D¸
ÿ\Vaÿ√BÏ©∏_ √B[√|›>©√‚¶ “church” ®[≈
kVÏ›Á> ÷[–D g]¬ÔD ÿƒK›m˛[≈m.
“Church” ®[≈ kVÏ›Á> tÔfl E≈Õ> ÿ\Vaÿ√BÏ©√VÔ
÷_ÈV> º√VmD, ¤™∫Ô^ ∂Á> Ô‚Ω¶∫Ô”¬z©
√B[√|›>V> kÁ´lKD ∂m ºk>›]uz x´V™>_È.
ÔÏ›>´V_ ∂Áw¬Ô©√‚¶ ¤™∫Ôº· Ô‚Ω¶\VkVÏÔ^,
\u≈√Ω Ô‚¶©√‚¶ Ô‚Ω¶∫Ô^ ƒÁ√ÿB[≈VÔVm.
ÔÏ›>´V_ ∂Áw¬Ô©√‚¶kÏÔ^ ˝k–^· ÔuÔ·VkVÏ
Ô^, ∂kÏÔÁ·¬ ÿÔVı| ƒÁ√ ®[≈ Ô‚Ω¶D ®øDA
˛≈m (1 º√m. 2:5); ˛§¸>kÏÔ^ º>k–Á¶B \VπÁÔ
BVF ÷Ú¬˛[≈™Ï (1 ÿÔVˆ. 3:9). √VsÔ^, ""÷Úπ[
∂Õ>ÔV´›]M[Æ ∂kÚÁ¶B gflƒˆB\V™ ŒπlM¶›
]uz k´kÁw¬Ô©√|˛[≈™Ï'' (1 º√m. 2:9g).

∏´VÕ]B ƒÁ√

cÈÔ·VsB Œº´ ƒZ´\V˛B ƒÁ√¬z^ xøz>_ JÈD
∏´ºkE›>mD, ∂Áw¬Ô©√‚¶ \¬Ô·V˛B ˛§¸>kÏÔ^
ä ÿkπºB ∂Áw¬Ô©√‚¶kÏÔ^ \V›]´\_È, g™V_
®¬ºÈLBVs_ Œ[≈VÔ ∂Áw¬Ô©√|˛[≈™Ï. ÷m
∏´VÕ]B ƒÁ√ÁB¬ z§©√>uzD √B[√|D kVÏ›Á>
BVzD (1 ÿÔVˆ. 11:18; 14:23). ∏´VÕ]B ƒÁ√ÁB¬ z§¬Ô©
√ˆ∑›> gsBV™kÏ ®¬ºÈLBV ®[≈ kVÏ›Á> >s´,
∏[kÚD kVÏ›Á>ÁB•D √B[√|›m˛≈VÏ: sunagoge
®[≈ ÷ÀkVÏ›Á>, ""Œ[≈VÔ ka ¶›m>_, ƒÁ√,
Ì‚¶D'' ®[≈ ÿ√VÚ^ >Ú˛≈m (BV¬. 2:2).
ÔÏ›>ˆ¶›]_ ∂[A ÌÚ˛≈ BVkÚD ∏´VÕ]B ƒÁ√
ÌΩ kÚ>ÁÈ >k≈ s¶V\oÚ©√VÏÔ^ (˛º´¬ÔD:
episunagoge ; ®∏. 10:25). ƒÁ√ Ì|>ÁÈ s‚|s¶¬
̶Vÿ>[≈ ÷Õ> ÿ>FTÔ¬ Ô‚¶Á·¬Ô©√V_, ∂kÏÔ^
Œ[≈VlÚÕm, ƒÔÈ›Á>•D ÿ√VmkVÔ ∂–√s›>™Ï.
ƒV>V´\VÔ ¤™∫Ô^ ‚A≈°¶[ ÷Ú¬˛[≈™Ï.
""EºÂ˛>Ú^·k[ EºÂÔD √V´V‚¶ ºkı|D; ƒºÔV>´
8

MKD ∂]Ô ÿƒVÕ>\VFfl EºÂ˛©√k–xı|'' (¿].
18:24). ∏ˆÕmº√V˛≈kÏ ∂ƒV>V´©√‚¶k´VkVÏ:
""∏ˆÕm º√V˛≈k[ >[ ÷flÁƒl[√Ω ÿƒFB©
√VϬ˛≈V[, ®_ÈV QV™›]KD >ÁÈl‚|¬ ÿÔV^”˛
≈V['' (¿]. 18:1).
∏´VÕ]B ƒÁ√ÁB© ÿ√VÆ›>\‚Ω_, ˛§¸>kÏÔ^,
""...ŒÚkÚ¬ÿÔVÚkÏ A›] ÿƒV_Ȭ Ô¶ºkVD; ÂV·V™m
ƒ*∏›m kÚ˛≈Á> ®Àk·kVF© √VϬ˛SÏÔº·V
∂Àk·kVF© A›]ÿƒV_Ⱥkı|D'' (®∏. 10:25 KJV). ®Õ>
ÂV^? WBVB›yÏ©∏[ ÂV·V? ""∂Õ> ÂVÁ·•D ÂVaÁÔÁB
•D ŒÚk–D ∂§BV['' (\›. 24:36∂) ®[√>V_ ÷m ∂Õ>
∂Ï›>›Á>› >´ xΩBVm. ∂Õ> ÂV^ ]Ú¶[ º√VÈ kÚD
(1 ÿ>ƒ. 5:4).
®Õ> ÂV^? ˛.∏. 70_ ®ÚƒºÈD ∂a¬Ô©√‚¶ ÂV·V?
\¬Ô^ ∂Õ> ÂV^ ÿÂÚ∫˛ kÕ>Á>¬ÔV xΩÕ>m, g™V_
∂Õ> ÂV·[Æ ˛§¸>kÏÔ^ ÌΩlÚ¬Ô¬ ̶V]ÚÕ>m:
""Rº>BVs_ ÷Ú¬˛≈kÏÔ^ \ÁÈÔ”¬z {Ω© º√VÔ¬
Ô¶kÏÔ^'' (\›. 24:16).
®Õ> ÂV^? ÔÏ›>ÚÁ¶B ÂV·V? kV´›][ x>_ ÂV·V?
∂Õ> ÂV^ ÿÂÚ∫zkÁ> ˛§¸>kÏÔ^ ÔV xΩÕ>m,
÷[ÆD ÔV xΩ•D. ]∫Ô^ x>_ ƒM kÁ´ ∂Á>
∂kÏÔ^ ÔV xΩ•D. tÔ ∂kƒ´\V™ ∏´BV›]KD
̶ mº´VkVs_ ƒÁ√ ÌΩkÚ>K¬ÔVÔ°D ∂©√D
∏‚z>K¬ÔVÔ°D √°_ (]∫Ô^ x>_ QVlÆ kÁ´) ""∞ø
ÂV‚Ô^ >∫˛lÚÕ>VÏ'' (∂©. 20:6, 7; \uÆD k. 16). mº´V
kVs_ >∫˛lÚÕ> ∂º> ÔV´›]uÔVÔ ∂kÏ A›º>
ºBVolKD ∞ø ÂV‚Ô^ >∫˛lÚÕ>VÏ (∂©. 28:13, 14).
˛.∏. 101_, ÷¬º™¥B¸ ®[√kÏ, ˛§¸>kÏÔ^
""÷Mº\KD {F°ÂVÁ· gƒˆ¬˛≈]_ÁÈ, g™V_
ÔÏ›>ÚÁ¶B ÂVÁ· gƒˆ©√]ºÈºB ˝s¬˛≈VÏÔ^
∞ÿ™M_, ∂]_>V[ ÂDxÁ¶B kVµºk ∂k´V_ ªu≈VÔ
ÿkπ©√|˛≈m'' ®[Æ ®ø]•^·VÏ. ˛.∏. 150_ ¤¸‚Ω[
\VÏ‚ΩBÏ ®[√kÏ, ""ŒÀÿkVÚ QVl≈[ÆD º>k
g´V>Á™l[ x¬˛B √z]BVÔ, ÔÏ›>ÚÁ¶B √Õ]ÁB
gƒˆ›>_ ÷[–D ÂÁ¶ÿ√Æ˛≈m'' ®[Æ ®ø]•^·VÏ.
÷´ı¶VD ±u≈VıΩ[ √]ºk¶V™ ∂©º√V¸>ÈÏÔπ[
∂§°Á´ ®[≈ ±o_, ""ŒÀÿkVÚ ÔÏ›>ÚÁ¶B ÂVπKD
9

(˛§¸>kÏÔ^) ∂©√D ∏‚Ô°D, Â[§ ÿƒK›>°D
ÌΩ™VÏÔ^'' ®[Æ Ì≈©√|˛≈m.

cÈÔ·VsB ƒÁ√

cÈÔ·VsB ƒÁ√, ŒÚ ÿ√ÚsÚÕm¬ Ì‚¶D,
Ø´´V¬Ô©√‚¶ ¿]\V[Ôπ[ gsÔ^ BVkÚD Ì|>_
®[√º> >Ô©√–Á¶B ]‚¶›][ cflƒ√‚ƒ, WÁ≈kV™
ºÂV¬Ô\VzD. ∂kÏÔ^, ®ıˬÁÔ¬Ô¶∫ÔV> #>Ï
Ôº·V| n¬˛B\V˛, cÏ°©ØÏk\V™ ŒÚ swVs_
∂Á™kÚD ºƒÏÕ]Ú©√VÏÔ^, ∂m, paneguris (®∏. 12:23)
®[Æ ∂Áw¬Ô©√|˛≈m. gsl[ ∞°>o™VÈV™
÷ÀkVÏ›Á> ŒÚ Ì‚| kVÏ›Á>BVzD. Pan ®[≈V_
""∂Á™kÚD'' ®[ÆD aguris ®[≈V_ ""Ì|>_'' ®[ÆD
ÿ√VÚ^ >ÚD.
÷¸´ºkȈ[ ŒÚ sºƒ≠\V™ swV ÂVπ_, ÔÏ›>Ï
""¿∫Ô^ Œ[≈VÔ ÷ÚÕm ƒÕº>V≠©√|∫Ô^'' ®[Æ
Ô‚¶Á·l‚|^·VÏ (c√V. 16:15). ÷©√Ω©√‚¶
swVÁk ˛º´¬Ô© √ÁwB ∞u√V| paneguris ®[≈Áw¬˛≈m
(®ºƒ. 46:11; {E. 2:11; 9:5). ˛º´¬ÔÏÔ^ \›]l_
paneguris ®[√m ŒoD∏¬ sÁ·BV‚Ω[ ÿÔVı¶V‚¶
\VlÚÕ>m. ˛§¸>kÏÔ^ \›]l_ paneguris ®[√m
®_ÈV¬ ÔVÈ∫ÔπKD ÷´‚E¬Ô©√‚¶kÏÔπ[ xΩku≈
swVkVÔ°D, √´ºÈVÔD \uÆD غÈVÔ›]_ c^· º>k–
Á¶B xø¬z|D√\V˛B #>ÏÔ^ \uÆD \M>ÏÔπ[
swVkVÔ°D c^·m (®º√. 3:15).
ŒÚ kÁÔl_, ˛§¸>kÏÔ^ ∞uÔ™ºk ÷©√Ω©√‚¶
ŒÚ panegurisän ∂–√s¬˛[≈™Ï, ∞ÿ™M_ ®∏ÿ´B
gEˆBÏ ®∏. 12:22_ WÔµÔVÈ xuÆsÁ™fl ÿƒV_ÁÈ©
√B[√|›]•^·VÏ. ∂kÏÔ^ ÷©ÿ√Vøº> º>kº™V|D,
º>kM[ √¬ÔD c^· ˝k–^º·VÏ, \ˆ›º>VÏ
BVkÚ¶–D ä ÷¶›>·s_ ∏ˆÕ]ÚÕ>VKD ä gs¬zˆB
kÁÔl_ n¬˛B\V•^·™Ï.
gl–D xøÁ\BV™ ÿ√VÚπ_ √VÏ›>V_,
˛§¸>kÏÔ^, g∏´ÔVD, ~ƒV¬z, BV¬ºÔVA g˛ºBVÚ¶[
W›]B ÷´VÎB›]_ ∂\ÏÕm ä ÿ√ˆB ÿk^Á· E∫ÔVƒ™›
Á>•D, º>k–Á¶B xÔ›Á>•D √VϬzD kÁ´l_ ä
10

cÈÔ·VsB ƒÁ√ ®[√m ®]ÏÔVÈ›]_ ∞u√|k>VÔºk
÷Ú¬zD (\›. 8:11; ÿkπ. 20:11; 22:4).

xΩ°Á´

""ƒÁ√'' ®[√m º>k™V_ ∂Áw¬Ô©√‚¶kÏÔπ[
zøkVzD. ∂>Vkm, ÷Õ>¬ zøs_ c^·kÏÔ^ º>k–
Á¶B ∂Áw©Á√ ∞uÆ, √Vk›Á> s‚|s‚|, ∂kÚ¬z¬
ˇµ©√Ω˛≈ kVµ¬ÁÔ kVµ√kÏÔ^ gkVÏÔ^. ∂kÏÔ^,
∂kÁ´ g´V]¬Ô >k≈V\_ Ì|˛[≈™Ï, ÔVÈ∫Ôπ[
xΩs_ ∂kÏÔ^ √´ºÈVÔ›]_, º>k–Á¶B ˇµ©√Ω>
K^· \¬Ô^ BVkº´V|D ÷ÁÕm ÿÔV^kVÏÔ^.

z§©AÔ^

1
ºBVkV[ 20:11KD ÷º> kVÏ›Á> √B[√|›>©√‚|^·m; ""\ˆBV^
zMÕm Ô_ÈÁ≈¬z^º· √VÏ›m.'' 2∂ÿȬvVı¶Ï ºÔD©ÿ√_, ""˛∫
º¤DL[ ∂§°Æ›>_Ô^,'' ˛§¸>k √V©]¸m, ÿ>Vz] 2 (√‡√_ºÈV, Va.:
÷Á> ®ø]BkÏ, 1827; \Æ√]©A, ÂVis_: ÔV¸©√_ ∂‚ÿkVºÔ‚ ºÔV.,
1955), 78. 3÷ºB∑ ˛§¸ms[ ∂©º√V¸>ÈÏÔ^ \uÆD ∑sº≠ÔÏÔπ[
√ˆ∑›> ®ø›m¬Ô^, A]B ∞u√V‚Ω[ ÿ√VmkV™ ÿ\VaÂÁ¶ (˝k–^·
kVÏ›Á>Ô^), ¤VÏÎ ºÔD©ÿ√_, º¤D¸ \V¬Á™‚ \uÆD ∏o© ¶V‚ˆ‚Î
g˛ºBV´V_ ÿ\Vaÿ√BϬԩ√‚|, x[–Á´, √_ºkÆ ÊÏ√|›>_Ô^,
\uÆD ∂ÿȬvV[¶Ï ºÔD©ÿ√_ÈV_ ®ø>©√‚¶ ∏≈ºƒÏ¬ÁÔ g˛BÁk
c^·™ (n.p., 1826; \Æ√]©A, ÂVis_: ÔV¸√_ ∂‚ÿkVºÔ‚ ºÔV., 1954).

11

ƒÁ√l[ ªaBD
A]B ∞u√V‚| ƒÁ√l[ ªaB\V™m, ÔÏ›>
ÚÁ¶B ∏´>V™ Ô‚¶Á·l_ >´©√‚|^·m. ÷Á>
∂kÏ º\Ô∫Ô^ JÈD, ∂©º√V¸>ÈÏÔ^ ÔıÔ”¬z
x[√VÔ √´ºÈVÔ›m¬z ®øÕ>Úπfl ÿƒ_k>uzfl
ƒuÆ x[™>VÔ¬ ÿÔV|›>VÏ. ∏´>V™ Ô‚¶Á· cÈÔ
xøk>uz\V™ ŒÚ ]‚¶\VzD, ∂Á> ÷ºB∑
∏[kÚD ∂uA>\V™ kVÏ›Á>Ôπ_ z§©
∏‚|^·VÏ:
gÁÔBV_, ¿∫Ô^ A≈©√‚|© º√VF, ƒÔÈ
¤V]ÔÁ·•D Ê≠´V¬˛, ∏>V z\V´[ √ˆ∑›>
gsl[ ÂV\›]ºÈ ∂kÏÔ”¬z QV™¸ÂV™∫
ÿÔV|›m, ÂV[ c∫Ô”¬z¬ Ô‚¶Á·l‚¶
BVÁk•D ∂kÏÔ^ ÁÔ¬ÿÔV^”D√Ω ∂kÏÔ”¬z
c√º>ƒD√ıb∫Ô^. ÷º>V, cÈÔ›][ xΩ°
√ˆBÕ>D ƒÔÈ ÂV‚ÔπKD ÂV[ c∫Ô”¶º™Ì¶
÷Ú¬˛º≈[ ®[≈VÏ (\›º>• 28:19ä20).

ƒÁ√l[ √ËÁB ÷Õ>¬ Ô‚¶Á· ∑Ú¬Ô\VF¬
ÌÆ˛[≈m: ®_ÈV ÂV‚¶kÚ¬zD º√V]›m, QV™¸
ÂV™D ÿÔV|›>_. ÷Às>\VF Œo›> ÷¬Ô‚¶Á·
l™V_, g] ˛§¸>kÏÔ^ xø cuƒVÔ\VÔ ∑sºƒ≠©
√ËBVu§™VÏÔ^. ∂kÏÔ^ ®_ÈV ÷¶∫Ô”¬zD
ÿƒ[Æ kƒ™›Á>© ∏´ƒ∫˛›>™Ï. A]B ∞u√V‚|
ƒÁ√BVˆ[ ∑sºƒ≠ ∂§s©A \uÆD ªaB›]_
Ák´V¬˛BD g˛BÁk √‚E¬˛≈ ∂¬˛Mº√V_
÷ÚÕ>m. ∂kÏÔ^ ˛§¸m \ˆ›m ∂>[ JÈD ®_ÈV
ÂV‚¶kÚ¬zD √Vk\[M©Á√© ÿ√uÆ› >Õ>VÏ
®[≈ ÿƒF]ÁB \u≈kÏÔ”¬zfl ÿƒV_KD√ΩBVÔ
\‚|º\ kVµÕ>VÏÔ^.
÷ºB∑s[ º>k›mkD \uÆD EÈ ∏´ƒ∫Ô∫Ô^ ®[≈
±ooÚÕm >øk©√‚¶m
ÿ¤¸L gÏ. ÿÔ_ÈD¸

12

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