Qatar Univ. Sci. J.

(1995),15 (2) : 431·436

National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries. Alexandria Branch. Alexandria. Egypt.

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. ~.r.J1 -.:.o~1 '-:-'~ ~l> Organic richness. Resistivity. Sonic Western Desert. ABSTRACT Both sonic. resistivity and temperature information are used in an integrated manner in order to identify the organic richness of the shally intervals allover the Albian .. Aptian rock sequence in Negelah well located at the north western coastal zone of Egypt. The sonic / resistivity cross plot are first used for calculation of the discriminant value (D). The A logR method is used in order to determine the TOe with the help of the temperature information. The results obtained from both methods gave confirmed results. The step comprising the conversion of the A logR values to TOe is not carried out because their values lie in the negative range.

INTRODUCTION In the last three decades the different well log tools are extensively used for determination of organic

richness in rock formations. Each tool has its specific response to the presence and abundance of organic matter. Both shale and carbonate rocks can contain organic matter. If organic matter exists in a subsurface


This relation is given by the following equation. Sonic logs are sensitive to water / organic matter. j shale .. Schmoker and Hester [1] applied the density tool in an area where four component (rock matrix. t { . The results of their analysis provided two equations that can be used in most cases.. ( { _( ~~ ... al [6] gave a method called the ~ 10gR which is a sort of separation between resistivity record represented on a logarithmic scale and any of the sonic..~~ I \ .Location map of the study well. (1) . THE DISCRIMINANT SCORE TECHNIQUE [8] In this technique a special statistical method based on the scheme described by [13] is used. It is known that source rocks are generally laminated and thus are electrically anisotropic which inturn increases the resistivity values.. A relation between the total gamma ray intensity and organic richness has been proposed by Schmoker and Hester [1]. although correction for the inorganic content must be made. Source and non-source rocks are classified as class (1) and (2). Herron [4] and Herron et al.. [6] the advantages of this tool include the sensitivity to low amounts of organic carbon and that no calibration with core data is required. This technique is based on using both sonic / resistivity and density / resistivity cross plots to derive equations for source and non-source rock identification.. Passey et.j organic matter They also concluded that sonic logs can be used to determine source rocks qualitatively where a relatiive decrease in sonic transit time and an increase in resistivity indicate an organic rich layer in shale rocks. [2] and Fertle and Kotcs [3] have used the gamma ray spectral logging tools for identifying and qualifying the organic richness. Meyer and Nederlof [8] gave a direct relation between the volume percentage of organic matter and the density of both shale and source rocks.DISCRIMINANT SCORE / t.. density and neutron log scale represented by normal scale.186 Log ~ t + 0... :4. METHODS The techniques described by [8] and [6] are used to estimate the organic reichness in a well located at the coastal Mediterranean zone of the western desert of Egypt (NW of Qattara depression) Fig. [5] have studied the uses of pulsed Neutron spectral logs for organic richness identification Accirding to Passey et al.. mineral composition and to clay / carbonate. fluid and pyrite) prevail. Resistivity tool is being considered as an effective tool in source rock identification. Dallenbach et al. The first equation is derived from the sonic / resistivity cross plot and takes the form: D = . So. 11] modified the methods described by [9] to give more accurate presentation. then resistivity increases dramatically.. Negelah Well Fig.. organic matter... special sorts of calibration should be considered during application of this tool for such a purpose. When the source rock is enough mature. R75° : is the corrected temperature at (75°F or 24°C). Schmoker [7] is one of the pioneers that used the density logs for estimating organic matter content. They concluded that the using of density tool is more correct when compared to the gamma ray logs. [9] developed a method using the sonic-gamma ray logs to provide a parameter that relates linearly to organic richness. Solid organic matter is less dense than the country rocks so density logs are effective for such purposes. supernaw et al.906 + 3. organic matter and fluids) prevails. we R layer. a three component system (matrix. Autric and Dumesncl [10. (1).j source rock Vol%= j shale . fluid and organic matter). Abdel Fattah [12] derived an equation based on the density log analysis using a three component system. . respectively.. The R75° value can be obtained using Arp' s equation 432 . weSTERN i ": E> .. u. They show that the gamma ray method significantly underestimate the organic matter content. In their study they proposed a three component system (matrix..6..487 LogR 75 where: D : is the discriminant score ~ t : is the interval transit time in microsecond per foot as obtained from sonic log. .

at the shally = log (R I Rhas') + 0.!1logR and the TOe.7. They used sonic. density and neutron logs from one hand and the resistivity log from the other. SONIC I RESISTIVITY: !1logRson' Where: R : is the obtained resistivity value interval from resistivity log.source" rock. THE !1 LogR TECHNIQUE: This technique is proposed by [6]. !1thas. In both cases the calculated value of (D) is a function to the source / non .02 (!1 t . if it is zero the case is undecided and if it is negative source rock is identified.278 . It is based on the calculation of the effective heating timc(tcff') as can be deduced from the T max. If (D) equals positive value then we have source rock. Pbas. The most important step in this technique is to locate the baselined interval that should be used for calculation allover the well. This separation is designated as !1 10gR. Figure (2) shows the relation between LOM . The method given by [15] one of these techniques. 433 . : is the interval transit time at the overlie interval. In application one of the three logs is scaled such that its relative scaling is two divisions on the normal scale per two resistivity cycles. METAMORPHISM: LEVEL OF ORGANIC many techniques are used for the LOM determination.5 ( P .parallesim of the two curves.SAYEDA ABU SIIAGAR given by [14] which takes the form: R75 = R t (T + 7) I 82 where: Rt : is the recorded well resistivity at the different depths and can be obtained from either Bottom Hole Temperature (BHT) and geothermal gradient from continuous temperature record.324 Log P + 0. [15]. A baseline condition exists when the two curves overlie each other at significant depth range.EL . is the density value at the overlie interval. : - = 2. The !1 10gR separation is linearly related to the TOC% and is a function of maturity level repressted by the Level of organic Metamorphism (LOM). organic rich intervals can be identified by separation and non .and the geothermal gradient. bas: is the neutron porosity at the overlie interval.387 Log R75• 2. o : is the obtained neutron porosity value at the study o interval. With the baseline established. DENSITY I RESISTIVITY: !1logRDcn' = log (R I Rbas') Where: p : is the bulk densiity as obtained from the density log.P bas ). density / resistivity and neutron / resistivity to define the !1 LogR zones. density / resistivity and Neutron / resistivity. The other terms are defined before. As this baseline is established calculation of the !1logR can be proceeded to all shally interval using special equations for both sonic / resistivity. The other terms are described before. A matching technique ia applied between sonic / resistivity. T : is the recorded temperature at the desired depth. : is the resistivity value at the overlie interval !1 t : is the obtained interval transit time of the shally interval. This equation takes the form: D where: p : is the density obtained from the density log. The second equation which depends on density / resistivity cross plot takes reversed trend when compared with the sonic / resistivity cross plot.!1 t bas .source rocks. NEUTRON I RESISTIVITY: !1logRncU' = log (R/Rbas') + 4 ( 0 -0 bas where: ).> Rbas. The two curves are overlie and baselined in a fine grained "non .

9 8 4 9.5 .8 ve ve ve ve .8 31.9 .8 9.8 4.3 4.2 7.3 .ve . : Thickness in meter.5 R75 9.8 2.3 13.8 10.6 71.8 .9 .ve 0 .2 . 3 1 4 1 3 2 1 2 8 4 3 5 2 2 10 2 2 5 3 1 4 3 3 3 2 3 4 2 9 7 Alamein 23 2 23 4 3 t 90 81 93 85 80 80 90 90 85 80 88 90 95 77 90 90 90 86 86 70 86 70 90 80 100 70 92 90 100 90 95 65 65 85 90 80 92 80 85 Rt 4 9 3 3 2 9 4 5 5 10 5 4 2 8 2 3 2 3 3 ve ve ve ve ve ve ve ve ve D ve ve ve ve Kharita Formation . thick.2 31.2 .ve ve ve ve ve .ve .9 11 11 logR .7 . 434 .ve .ve .3 .6 31.5 9.4 85 85 71 72 72 71.4 31. teff: effective heating 0.4 .ve .ve .ve .ve .ve A1amEl.4 32.2 9.2 30.4 9.8 10 10 10.8 9.2 . B. respectively.8 .7 10.6 .ve .6 28.6 32.9 .7 5.2 25.7 32.8 9.8 .4 9.3 10.4 31 32.2 9.8 9.8 30.9 .Buib 8 5 30 4 N.6 25.6 .6 teff 31.6 5. we R Table (1) Summary of the results obtained from Negelah well Formation .5 30.5 72 69 68 LOM 9.3 .DISCRIMINANT SCORE I !J.8 9.8 9.5 9.7 .2 32.4 32.8 10. Rt and R75 are the read and corrected temperature at 75 .8 .4 28.8 30.9 5.2 10.5 2.2 .ve ve ve ve ve .4 71.3 .2 31.3 7.2 25.4 3.15 8.3 .1 .8 .4 .ve . LOM : Level of organic Metamorphism.6 9.5 9.8 .2 .6 9.5 9.5 1 3 3 2 8 8 2 2 3 3 2 1.5 .ve .4 .6 31.5 3.2 28.3 10 12.4 31.5 12.2 5 2 1 1 1.2 12.1 . ~ logR : Sonic / resistivity separation and D : Discriminant function.2 7.1 8.06 .6 9.

REFERENCES [1] Schmoker. so the application of the techniques may give negative results and the main task is to correlate or discriminate the results obtained from both techniques used. and H. LOM AND TOC RELATION: The total organic carbon (TOC) is determined using an equation relating the three parameters 10gR . [6]) APPLICATIONS AND DISCUSSION The cross plot method described by [8] and the Ll 10gR technique described by [6] are used in this paper..situ evaluation of the source rock potential of earth formation : United States Patent.LOM and TOC relation (after Passey ct al. Thirty Nine shale intervals with a sum of of 198 m thickness are considered in this study. 1978. Hester. 4: 071 -744. Organic carbon in Bakken Formation. 435 .Ll 10gR . respectively. that means from the first view that no source rocks arc available and in this case it is not necessary to calculate the LOM values. rcsisuvuy and temperature records arc suitable for applying one of the techniques described by [6].SA YEDA ABU S/lAGAR LlLOGR. Both techniques confirmed each other and can be used in an integrated manner in case absence of adequate information from core samples. [2] Supernaw..297 . All shally intervals distributed in a depth covering the ages from Albian to Aptian are considered. Other methods such as vctrinite reflectance may be used for the same purpose. Concerning the sonic / resistivity cross plot the calculated (D) are found to be negative for all the study intervals.0.ray spectral evaluation techniques to identured shale reservoir and source rock characteristics. Information collected from a well located at the north western coastal zone of Egypt are used for achieving this purpose. Method for in . C. The baselined values of both resistivity and interval transit time are taken to be 6 ohm. D.. R. Journal of Petroleum Technology. According to [8] these interval proved qualitatively as non-source rock intervals. M.LOM beside the TOC. Analysis of information collected from some weIls show some occurrences of source rocks at different depths allover the geologic time beginning from the Paleozic [16]. AAPG Bull.EL . Although some other wells are available this well is the only one used for its suitable recording form to apply the Ll 10gR technique. The hydrocarbon are accumulated mainly in faulted structures in most of these oil fiields. [3] Fertle. Link.. H. 31 : 2053 . It is observed that the (D) method and the (Ll 10gR) methods confiirms each other and can help in case of absence of other information in identifying the source rock intervals. and T. The second one is the calculation of the Ll 10gR values. it takes the form: TOC = LllogR x 10 (2.m and 89 us/It. Arnold and A. v. If the Ll 10gR values are negative. Gamma . 1983. Beside the proper scale by which this well is represented its loaction has special importance because of its location with respect to some important oil fields in the western Desert. (2) . United State Portion of Williston Basin. I. It should be mentioned that not all shally intervals can be considered as source rock.67 : 2165 . 1980. W. The method given by [6J give more identified quantitive description of the source rocks based on the TOC%. To achieve that level of organic metamorphism (LOM) is determined using the Tmax and TefT• given by [15]. The results are represented by table (1). Correlation and integration between them proved all the study intervals to be barren from organic carbon and can not considered as source rock.2174.T.2688 LOM) a log R Fig. Negclah well which has sonic. Although most of the LOM values lie in the beginning of maturation zone no source roock is identified where all Ll 10gR values arc negative. In this work two steps arc foIlowed : The first is to calculate the (D) values to disriminate between source and non-source rocks. CONCLUSION Application of both cross-plot and LllogR techniques at all shale intervals at Negelah well show good correlation between both of them.2062. H. Kotcs. J.

WG R [4] Herron. paper 40. Espitalie and F. 1989. W. Log Interpretation Principle. Derivation of a total organic carbon log for source rock evaluation : Transaction of 27 th SPWLA Annual logging Symposium.. Heacock. and p. Delta Journal of Science. Stroud. [11] Autric. Gutjahr and R. Th.Geology of Sirt Basin .1537. Determination of organic content of Appalacian Devonian shale from formation density log. [12] Abdel Fattah. Kulla. 26 : 36 ..DISCRIMINANT SCORE / t:. 72 : 1007. [15] Hood. B.). L. 1975. 1983. 195P. 1988. 74: 1777 . [13] Kendal. S. [5] Herron. R. Temperature Effect on Hydrocarbon Effect on Hydrocarbon Generation at Some Paleozoic Formations NW .1124.Basin Northwestern Desert.. 1985. AAPG Bull. [10] Autric. [6] Passey. [14] Schlumberger. Dumesnil. A.Lybia. S. B. Egypt. paper HH. radioactivity and sonic transit time logs to evaluate the organic content of low permeabilti rocks. Creaney. A cource in multivariate analysis: London. Source rock evaluation using geochemical information from wircline logs and core (abs. A. Source rock Evaluation of the Pre . Nederlof. 1990.. D.1794.129. Moretti and J. A practical model for organic richness from porosity and resistivity logs. Dumesnil. J. C. Letendre and M. 1993. M. 1979.l984. The log Analyst. Societe pour 1. Identification of source rocks wireling logs by Density/Resistivity and Sonic transit time / Resistivity cross plots. L. and M. Q. J. L.Egypt. A.. Dufour..Tripolo . Schlumberger Eduucational Services. AAPG Bull. 63 : 1504 . 9th international formation evaluation : Transaction. Lebreton. avancement de 1'Interpretation des Diagraphies.Aptian section at Matruh Sub . and P.45. G. Les diagraphie de resistivite radioactivite temps de transit (Ts) evaIuent Ie contenu en matiers organiques des 436 . 1984. 1986. Organic metamorphism and the generation of petroleum: AAPG Bull. Source rock logging : Transaction of the 8th European SPWLA Symposium. Resistivity. J. Th. I. 59 : 986 . AAPG Bull. [8] Meyer. Macmillan. 17 : 117 . [7] Schmoker. F. 1994. roches a faible permeabilite. 68: 121 .. 1961. [9] Dallenbach. A paper presented at the 1st Symposium .. M. AAPG Bull. J. L.996.Desert . H. S.. [16] Abdel Fattah.

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