Letter No. Y-34564,Reg.

533/2007-2008 ANYIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777

INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(20

11)5,39-44

Advance Access publication 31 Oct.20 10

THE RIHAND DAM : A HISTORICAL STUDY

DR. SANTOSHKUMAR SAINI*

After the independence of our country, the Rihand Dam is the first multipurpose project constructed by U.P. Government in Sonebhadra (earlier in Mirzapur) district. It was constructed for the purposes like irrigation, flood control, fishery and wild life conservation etc. along with electricity generation. Under this project, by erecting a three hundred feet high concrete gravity dam on the Rihand River, in the narrow valley of the Rihand(Renu) river, the Rihand Lake(Which was named Govind Vallabh Pant Sagar in the name of the first chief Minister of UP, Pt. Govind Vallabh Pant)! and Rihand Hydel Power station having capacity of300 MW Electricity production have been made on the Varanasi-Shaktinagar High way, approximately 100 miles to the south from Varanasi near Village named Pipari , SubdivisionDuddhi among Granite Rocks. At this giant and revolutionary project of Sonebhadra, Rs. 51.52 Crore were invested. 2 The initial description of this project is found in 1919 A.D. in the book "The preliminary Report On the Water Resources of India" of Mr. J.T. Barlow, Chief Engineer of Public Welfare Department in United States. 3 This is the book which throws light on the aspects of electricity production by declaring Renu (Rihand) river a continuous flowing connecting river of Sone. In reality, a comprehensive study was started on it by Mr. A.P. Watal , Superintending Engineer" Development " in 1943 A.D .. He prepared an initial project report to construct a three hundred feet high dam over here on the basis of data obtained by doing comprehensive survey of this site". In this project report, he suggested the very important presence of Corundum Mines at the place named Pipara of Rewan State and to keep the height of dam limited upto 300 feet to save them to drown into the proposed dam. Dr. J.L. Shaivez, a world famous American expert in constructing high dams, had been given the responsibility to prepare a project report by doing comprehensive survey of this place as an adviser. He submitted his report in 1948 ~\ by doing Geographical, Geological and other necessary surveys of Proposed dam site in 1944, 1946 and 1947. Some parts of his report were submitted on 7th April 1948 are as follows 6: " This site is appropriate and ideal for the dam construction in view of the Geographical and Geological conditions. This will be the best project of United Province and the first project oflndia like this. The

*Ex-Rcscarch

Scholar. VB.S. University

Jaunpur

(U.P.) India. (Editorial

Board Member)

39
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getting extra revenue through fishery in Rihand river and wild life conservation. on the basis of collected data. Gonda. Basti.' But electricity at the cheap rate to run these tube wells and industrial unites. Only the tube-wells.porcline. Narayan Murti and after him Mis 40 .P. Through this project the aim was to provide the irrigation facility to approximately 16 lac acres in U. Gazipur. Nautiyal in 1948 in the reference of geology.R.000 K W(240MW) of established capacity to Kanpur Thermal Power Station. small scale and Heavy Scale Industries were being felt. Besides providing the irrigation facility to the fifteen above mentioned districts of the eastern U. to provide proper opportunities of employment to improve the life style of resident people. survey. geological and other related surveys done till then by UP Government in 1947. aluminum. The electricity generated form it was to be used mainly in fifteen districts of the eastern and the south-eastern UP (Faizabad.SAINI height of Granite rocks. fertilizers. To develop an adequate progressive model for farming and industrialization in the east and the south-east in UP by developing it in multipurpose project. Sharda and Ganga Grid V. could be the most successful and good means of irrigation.. Small handicraft industry and small scale industries were being closed due to continuous increase in the production cost.P. 7. the east and south-east part of2. per year. and the normal life of common people was getting worst. Damodar Grid. 6. important investigation accomplish other related works of site Rs. Betwa Hydel Power Station. Aazamgarh. which comes through Rihand Dam. Allahabad. At the time of freedom. Bihar and Mahanadi Grid Orissa. a consent was given to construct the Hydel Power Project of 240MW by erecting a 300 feet high dam on the narrow valley of the Rihand river made of Granite rocks near village named Pipari.40. In these conditions. Bihar was proposed to be provided water facility through Sone. and the SouthEastern U. and 5 lac acres in Bihar every year. Gorakhpur. B. Vindya Pradesh was supposed to provide electricity along with same project. were the other targeted aim. In 1950 Mr. BaIia.P. Bahraich and Mirzapur) to run the tube-wells for irrigation of un irrigated agricultural land.P. 47 km from the junction of the Rihand and the Sone Rivers and in 100 mile to the south from Varanasi. S.P.Duddhi in the south. 10 4. chemical. The aim was to provide benefit to the other states of country by connecting this project of 2. chemical .pump canal project. and other materialistic industries in U. Jaunpur. 16. Besides electricity production and agriculture effective flood control. for the observation. Subdivision . Work Plan In the process of construction of Rihand Dam and Hydro Electricity plant. paper. Sultanpur. was needed. the need of improving means of irrigation to make farming an adequate progress and to establish new cottage. Devariya. sugarcanes and for other cash crops. rigidness and form of flow of water of Rihand between narrow valley. fishery in Rihand River.000 tons of surplus production offood. The desired growth was targeted for 3. 9 3. 8 Aimed objectives of Project Rihand Hydel Electricity project has following aimed objectives: 1. by geographical.. 2. in the present geographical condition.5 crore's dense population of Uttar Pradesh (United Province) was totally undeveloped and was backward in economic view. It was planned to supply electricity from the same project for irrigation and domestic works of the eastern zone of Banda district and Mirzapur district as well as for the industries of cement. As a result of increase per year in the irrigated field through this project. are the ideal conditions for the dam construction". Banaras.25 crore were released in April 1948 by state government. 5. There was not a single facility of irrigation and farming was fully dependent upon uncertain monsoon rainfall.P.25. Keeping this need in mind. Pratapgarh.." For the first time Geological survey report was prepared by Mr.

Peterson from Colorado Agricultural Research institute.P cement situated near Robertsganj. having broad studies. The work of preparing a master plan was completed in January 1954. was given to Mis Hindustan Construction Company in 1955 by global competition of tenders. After comprehensive study on this project done by the experts and engineers and after a long discussion between U. 20 The foundation of first step of development of this district along with consent of construction of this multipurpose project on Rihand River near Pipari by Planning Commission was laid. J. "Due to Construction of this project every citizen of here will get job and every home will be enlightened". engineers and different companies of country and foreign were taken.L Shavage also had prepared the report about geology of Dam. 17 The priority was given to this project in the first fifth year plan and for the purpose of completing the construction soon once again." To make the design of Dam and power plant by this company. Shavage. the work on this project was started rapidly. all the big and important works related to civil construction had been completed 41 . 22 Construction of this project started by Mis Hindustan Construction Company on 12 March 1955. was given to Dr. Arrangement of required cement was done from Churk Cement Factory ofU. 18 In1954. this is the most important and useful project ofIndia. Some parts of his report submitted on 5th April 1952 are as follows: "For the importance of this project and for the economical development of eastern and south eastern U. Jawahar Lal Nehru. By making different-different cells related to each works. 21 The dam was inaugurated in July 1954 by the first Prime Minister oflndia Pt. in my opinion. of U. and development of India in simple meaning it is important that. Rush.P Govt. foreign currency and every kind of required help for construction. 24 By starting the work of concrete placing in dam on 5 April 1957 (on this day placing of first sack of concrete was done) 25. a decision was taken to construct a 300 feet high concrete gravity dam. design and direction for other related works." The work of examining the report regarding the design.P. Specialist Dr. T. Shill 15 and for spillway system. 19 In the state budget of 1954-55 adequate economical arrangement for required machinery. Nehru said. he gave his recommendation to the report in 1952 . and central Govt. operation and complete drawing. it's responsibility was given to the officers of related cells.S. after the visit of a committee of United States of America who made a promise to give necessary technical cooperation. the services were given by American expert Mr. services of famous experts. In his inauguration speech. the activities regarding survey and comprehensive data were restarted. drawing and direction presented by Mis International Engineering Company. a new revolution will come in the field of agriculture and industrialization". After independence of country the responsibility of construction of Rihand Dam who got the first honor in dams created from concrete. Mr.23 In the construction of this dam. 12 After broad studies from 1945 to 1951. instruments and for construction works for this project were done and a control board was constituted for this project under kind control the Chief Minister. First sack of cement made by Churk Cement Factory was used in Riband Dam. 1949 and 1952 and after doing a deep studies. Chairman of control board was given all the special rights related to project and responsibility to complete the project within time.THE RIHAND DAM: A HISTORICAL STUDY International engineering Company and Dr. construction.A and specialists and with the help of our engineers. power plant. a broad report was prepared in 1949 regarding Dam. Dr. the construction of this project should be done immediately. Shavage did again comprehensive survey of Dam site in 1948.U'Sa." By this famous company. the report was prepared by International Engineering Company on hydrology of Dam. in the progressing years of its construction.

In this way after continuous.6 feet and height from Generator Level is 67. 31 The total influenced area of Rihand Dam is 5148 square miles (445 square miles of UP and 4703 square miles ofMP). 13 numbers of tenter gates of size. it is being used to produce electricity as much as possible.82 feet is 4 lac 71 thousand cusec. 34On increasing water level above this dangerous situations can arise. Water outlet capacity of spillway at water level of 880 feet is 2 lac 82 thousand cusec . First Second Third Fourth Fifth Sixth Production capacity 50Mw 50Mw 50Mw 50Mw 50Mw 50Mw Production starting date 30 March. means. minimum production was 13529 million unit and in 1976-77 was maximum 1240. height is 300 feet(91. Human Resources and Other Facilities 42 .664 million units. 27 the six units of power station were established All by Mis English Electric Company. not fatigued labor from 1955 to starting of 1962. at 886 feet is 3 lac 83 thousand cusec and at water level of 890.44 m). width of the top is 24 feet and Width of the foundation is 275 feet.82 feet." Maximum water level of Rihand lake can be kept upto height of 886 feet. These tenter gates are opened according to need to release excess water. The Length of Power Station is 420 feet. it is run.total Rs. 36 The Hydro Power station of300 MW has been constructed on downstream phase of the dam . Experiments regarding electricity production from first unit of hyde I power station had been completed in the starting of 1962 and commercial electricity production from first unit had been started from l February 1962. now it is run as peaking power house.1962 30March. by establishing all the five units. Quantity of live storage water used in production of electricity in it (between 775 feet to 880 feet elevation). its water grasping capacity is 180 square miles (in UP 134 square mile and in MP 46 Square mile) and water containing capacity is 86 lac acres feet. In emergency. on the date 1 February. 1962 Rihand Dam was constructed completely.212 m). It was used to produce electricity and in fiscal year 1961-62.SAINI till 1961 and water level of the Rihand lake had reached up to height of 855 feet. 40' x 31.26 Till March 1962. production capacity of250mw electricity production was attained.5' are fixed in it. 43. 51. it can be kept upto 890.78 crore. The dates of starting of electricity production from all the units are as follows 30: Unit No. on which total cost was charged Rs.1962 22 February. In November 1966 the total electricity production capacity of Hydel Power Station was made to 300Mw by establishing sixth unit of50MW. Width is 86.5 feet.5 feet. At present due to the continuous decrement in electricity production & simultaneously increment in the demand. 37 Having established many power projects to fulfill energy requirements. 31Deepest foundation level of base from Road way is 594 feet and height of dam top from minimum point of base is 894. At the water level of 880 feet. 624 feet long spillway (water flow system) has been made. when electricity demands increase too much to be possible to fulfill by power plants productions and other resources." To release excess water from the dam. is 73 lac 20 thousand acres feet and of dead storage water( upto 775 feet high water level) is 12 lac 80 thousand acres feet.52 crore were invested on its construction.1962 22 November 1966 The length of Rihand Dam is 3065 feet(934. 1962 21 March. 1962 22 February. 28 Total 6 crore cubic feet concrete and 3 lakh 50 thousand ton cement were consumed in construction of dam and along with power station 29.

Here. 11Assistant Engineers. engineers.Anpara (1000 Mw). industrial development etc. By giving a complete form to this work-plan . 43 . workers and all the staffs are very skillful and duteous. By creating well developed structure for industrialization along with development of sources of electricity production at grand level. flood control. 27 Junior Engineers and other staffs are working in the Rihand Hydel power project. 3 Executive engineers. by which any dispute is resolved very easily with the help of meetings. Renu Sagar power project (750 Mw). power stations have been constructed very close to it. Renukoot" and Carbon Production Company" Hi-tech Carbon Renukoot" are dependent on this dam. Singrauli Super thermal power project (2000 Mw). Undoubtedly. the contribution of"Rihand Dam" in the development ofSonebhadra district and country is very important and worthy to be penned down in golden ink. Contribution Rihand Dam has not only attained its aimed objectives of electricity production. undeveloped and tribal irrepressible plateau areas. the name of the Rihand Hydel Power Project is taken with pride. untouchablity etc. the chief aluminum production company of country "Hindalco Industries Ltd. Obra Thermal "C" Power project (1000 Mw) are on progress and work plan to constructs new power project and to expand the capacity of the old power projects are in progress. Besides them. In the field of electricity production. was prepared. it has provided Sonebhadra district and nearest areas its own glorious identity as "Urjanchal" on the world map. but also formed a main industrial area having all basic facilities and infrastructures. a unit of CISF is deported. PF. Salary. all the project workers are full with feelling of unity by rising themselves above the Caste. Besides this. Politics. but has given more important contribution in overall development of country. Engineers and required staff of irrigation department and for the security and safety. and ready to help one another in every possible way. this project has been proved a milestone. some other important industrial institutions as . diligence and honesty. The construction of the Rihand dam has not only brought great change in very backward areas around it. And there will be no exaggeration in saying that had Rihand Dam not been there. allowance and other facilities are provided to all according to their department/government rules. construction of Lanco Thermal Power project. for the maintenance of the Rihand Dam. farming and development ofirrigation facilities. They perform their duty with faith. At the time of construction . such thermal power project would not have established in District Sonebhadra. Working Culture Here. chemical production company "Kanauriya Chemicals. Anpara Thermal power project (1630 Mw). dependent on its water. Only because of these duteous project workers that now. and thus has brought Sonebhadra district on the second place in the field of revenue collection in UP. Rihand Super thermal power project (3600 Mw) etc.the target was to produce only 240MW electricity from it but afterwards not only its capacity was raised up to 300Mw but also a plan to produce 15 to 20 thousand Mw more electricity by using its water. administrators. fishery. There is better understanding between Administrator and Trade Unions. Renukoot".Obra Thermal and Hydel Power projects(1650 MW).THE RIHAND DAM: A HISTORICAL STUDY Total 302 people including one Superintending Engineer. Religion. Besides these Power stations. Rihand Super thermal power project (2000 Mw).

are also used in this work. Salient features of Rihand Power Station ..I (Revised 1956) / Part-II (Revised 1964) .p. Pipri .p. P.9 8 IBID. IBID.B..1 IO·IBID.5 17. UP).U.S. Rihand Dam and Power House.Vol.p.KESHRI. RVIND A MISHRA.S.28 32·IBID.p.).D. Yeh Sonebhadra Hai.2 7IBID. Mirzapur. UP).p.pJ 2/1.28th April 1952.. U. Yeh Sonebhadra Hai. . Obra.27 27·IBID.20 21·IBID...28 36·IBID.E.Churk.-l part -6. MZP (Irrigation Deptt.P. Rihand Dam and Power House.Pipri.lrrigation Department(U. 1994. Rihand Dam Civil Div. p. p.p.Pipri.Project estimate for installation of 50 MW sixth unit of Rihand Power Station 1962 & 1964.Publications.p.E.Wage incentive scheme in UP cement corporation Ltd.P. Rihand Dam and Power House.D.P. Rihand Dam and Power House.p. District Gazetteer of Mirzapur 1988 . Rihand Dam and Power House.SAINI NOTES & REFERENCES I A. Rihand River Project Report 1952.p.l 35. UP).E.S.).p.B. Rihand Dam Civil Div.21 22. p.p.Pipri.). Rihand Project estimate Part. Rihand Dam Civil Div.3 29. L. MZP (Irrigation Deptt.9 15.p. Report on the Master Plan For the Engineering and Construction of the Rihand Project.p. Report on renovation of Rihand Power Station.KESHRI. Obra Tap Avam Jalvidut Pariyojnaye: EkSankshipt Parichyay.E. p.p.20 20·IBID. UP).p. Rihand River Project Report 1952.U.9 6·IBID..Pipri. MZP (Irrigation Deptt.12 14·IBID.8 3/.Pipri.28 3..p. report on Hydraulic Model Test for Rihand Dam.19 5.U.p.p.U .26 26·IBID. MZP (Irrigation Deptt.28 34.. 1994. p.28 30.Rihand Dam Civil Div.lrrigation Department(U.p.28th April I952. MZP (Irrigation Deptt. MZP (Irrigation Deptt.26 24. UP). Salient features of Rihand Power Station .4 Besides above Rihand River Project Pipri Dam & Power Station 1947.B.p. Rihand Dam and Power House. p.p. L.2 18.Pipri.S. p.P. p. Rihand Dam Civil Div.Pipri. IBID.9 9·IBID.pJ 12·IBID.19 4.B.160 25. Robertsganj.22 2. Rihand Dam Civil Div.11 n IBID. Rihand Dam Civil Div.p. Rihand Dam and Power House.22 A 23.p.P.28 33·IBID.l 16·IBID.P. UP).Pipri.8 II·IBID.Publications.20 19·IBID. Machinery requirement and its basis of Pipri Dam Project.R.Pipri.P..28 37. p. Robertsganj.Pipri.p. MZP (Irrigation Deptt.p..' .R. Salient features of Rihand Power Station . . 44 ..

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