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WHAT TO DO AND WHAT KOT TO DO /X COOKING. LINCOLN. A. . THE. D. 1884. MRS.M K N LINCOLN'S BOSTON COOK BOOK.BOSTON COOKIKG SCHOOU BOSTON: ROBLKTS BROTHERS.
t-tmco .Br Mat O. A.
PAST AND PRESENT. BOSTON COOKING SCHOOL. THE PUPILS.5Tf)ig Book is MRS. S A M U E L T. . H O O P E R.
obscure and subtle."— CONS . but to know t which before us lies in daily life.. 16 Pnn e W ' ' °m< MILTO: 5 true knowledge.to know Qt lar^p of things remote m use.
has been seriously felt by all who are engaged in teaching cookery. the amount of ignorauee shown by many women is surprising. which shall serve equally well for the cook in the kitchen. Yet the need of a hook of moderate cost. learning bv observation or by actual experience much that it is impossible to receive from books. given briefly for tlie experienced housekeeper. or that any true woman can see anything degrading in any Ia1>or necessary for tiie highest physical condition of her . It is undertaken at the urgent request of the pupils of the Boston Cooking School. there is a special reason for the publication of this work.PREFACE. tile pupil in tlie school-room. That a person of ordinary intelligence presiding over her household can be satisfied with only a vague conception of the common domestic methods. but which shall also embody enough of physiology. To one who from childhood has been trained in all details of housework. Moreover. containing in a reasonably small eompass all this and much more. and the teacher in the normal class. to make every principle intelligible to a child and interesting to the mature mind. who have desired that the receipts and lessons given during the last four years in that institution should be arranged in a permanent form. and with sufficient clearness for the beginner. — is a difficult task. and of the chemistry and philosophy of food. To compile a book which shall be not only a collection of receipt?.
vi Preface. and many have been received from friends who are practical housekeepers. Others have been taken from standard authorities ori cooking. A large portion have accumulated during a long period of housekeeping. for those who can afford them physically as well as pecuniarily. a great variety of receipts is desirable They must be clear. family. Where changes and improvements have been made. In a school of pupils from every class and station in life. the richest and most elaborately prepared. acknowledgment has been made for the receipts received. Some cook-books presuppose the presence of an assistant . the cheapest as well as the most nutritious. for the laboring class. and reiterated for the inexperienced and the careless. but concise. As far as possible. no credit has been given. They must be explained. These receipts are not a mere compilation. popular opinion now decides that no young lady's education is complete without a course of training in one or more branches of domestic work. and all have been frequently and thoroughly tested by pupils under the eye of the author. And those who are not so fortunate as to have the best of all training—that of actual work under a wise and competent mother —• gladly resort to the cooking-Schools for instruction. Happily. illustrated. but as three fourths of the women in this country . for those who are already well grounded in first principles. In compiling these receipts for use in a school and in the family. or where there were many authorities for the same formula. would be incredible if the truth of it were not daily manifest. They must include the most healthful foods for those who have been made ill by improper food . several things were demanded. They must have a word of caution for those who stem always to have the knack of doing the wrong thing.
because they have seemed of paramount importance. They cannot give the names of kitchen . It is proverbial tbat young housekeepers are often greatly perplexed in attempting to provide little enough for only two. will be found to have received here an extensive treatment. By the time ihev have occasion to use auch knowledge in their own homes. in the experience of teaching. but help no woman to appty the principles of science upon which the health and welfare of her household largely depend. these receipts are arranged so as to require tho attention of bat one person. whore they help mice to material for their nests. Nine tenths of the women who go through a scientific course in seminaries never put any of tho knowledge gained into practical use. or the difference between lamb and vual. Tiie materials to be used are given in the order in which they are to be put together. the Chemistry and Physiology have been relegated to the attic. or because. that many women do not know what the simplest things in our daily food arc .vii do their own work. or in italics where economy of space seemed desirable.caution or suggestion has been given at the reqtiest of some pupil who failed to find in other books just what she needed . and yet it is true. Many subjects which in other books are omitted or given briefly. cannot toll when water boile. is given in this book. All the chemical and physiological knowledge that is uecessarv for a clear understanding of the laws of health. lard and drippings. The statement will appear incredible to most people. where the eye may catch them readily. BO far as they are involved in the science of cookery. unless forewarned. They are arranged in columns. it has been shown that. Even. pupils inevitably make certain mistakes. For their benefit many of our receipts are prepared ou a scale of smaller measurements.
The experience of such ignorance also euggvsttii the mib-title of the " Boston Cook Book. But. aboat a stove. to regulate your stove. ."—just how to bold your bowl and spoon." — " What to do and what no* to do in Cooking. more Ibaa all.viii Preface. This will explain what might otherwise seem an unnecessary minuteness of detail. and a clear answer to any questions that are likely 10 UJM In the experience of either housekeeper or cook. utensils. or bow to pare a potato. it is attempted to give & reason for even' step takes. do not koow anything. to wa#ti your dishes. and just how not to fait into the error* into wbich so many have stumbled l**fore you. to use your hands.
the knowledge thus gained has proved invaluable.A PREFACE NOT FOR THE PUBLIC. MASS. And.. S.year's experience iu teaching lias made me prize more and more this early training. First. In ail my work I have been greatly aided by her suggestions and generous sympathy. MAltY J. Ever}. aided me in making my first loaf of bread. I am deeply indebted to Miss I I . LINCOLN. lastly. twenty years ago. and the many among my pupils who. have contributed much that has proved helpful. A WORD of grateful acknowledgment is due the many friends who have aided in this work. WoLnsTos. Also. Especially would I remember the one who. DEVEREUX for the illustrations of this book. 1884. to my mother I owe much for her excellent judgment in training me as a child to a love for all household work. I would not forget my obligations to a large circle of personal friends. Although it was often hard to t f help mother " when other children were at play. . out of their varied experience.
1 36 62 68 75 80 97 102 108 Ill 119 SoUF WITHOUT STOCK 116 159 175 187 197 .310 214 232 239 245 251 265 282 MEAT AND FISH SAUCES EGGS MEAT BEEF MUTTON AND LAMB VEAL PORK POULTRY ANT> GAME ENTREES AND MEAT RECHAUFFE SUNDRIF. ROLLS. MUFFINS. GEMS.• 'n. TOAST. FRITTERS. ETC SODA BISCUIT.') CONTENTS. ETC STALE BREAD. INTRODUCTION BUEAD AND BREAD MAKING RECEIPTS FOR YEAST AND BREAB RAISED BISCUIT. DOUGHNUTS.5 . ETC OATMEAL AND OTHER GIIAINS BEVERAGES SOUP AKD STOCK FISH SHELL F I S H . ETC WAFFLES AND GRIDDLE-CAKES TRIED MUFFINS. .
VEGETABLES R I C E AND MACARONI SALADS PASTRY AKD P I E S PUDDING SAUCES HOT PUDDINGS . CUSTARDS, JELLIES, AND CREAMS ICE-CEEAM AND SHERBET . CAKE PRUIT COOKING FOR INVALIDS . MISCELLANEOUS HINTS THE D I N I M - R O O M THE CARE OF KITCHEN UTENSILS A N OUTLINE O F STUDY FOR TEACIIEKS SUGGESTIONS TO TEACHERS A COURSE OF STUDY FOR NORMAL PUPILS MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS FOK EXAMINATION TOPICS AND ILLUSTRATIONS FOR LECTURES ON COOKERY , . . . . . . 443 449 . . . • • . . • . . . 289 $QQ 309 316 -J28 332 341
361 369 391 407 435
485 486 490 495 503 . 508
COURSE OF INSTRUCTION AT THE BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL . EXPLANATION OF TEEMS USED O COOKERY L I S T OF UTENSILS NEEDED IN A COOKING-SCHOOL . .
GENERAL INDEX ALPHABETICAL INDEX
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
F I G . 1. " 2. " S. " 4. " 5. " 6. " 1. » 8. " 9. " 10. " 11. " 12. " 13. " 14. " 15. " 16. •' 17. " 18. " 19. '< 20. " 21. " 22. "23. " 24. "25. " 26. " 27. <• 28. " 29.
Grain of W h e a t Grain o f W h e a t with Bran removed . . . . Grain o f W h e a t magnified . . . . . . . Yeast Plant Cruller C r u l l e r after F o l d i n g Baked Fish Small Fish served whole Scalloped Lobster Omelet Orange Omelet Eggs and Minced Meat Stuffed Eggs Eggs a la Crcme Diagram of Ox Hind Quarter of Beef Aitch Bone Round Back of Rump First Cut of Sirtom Sirloin Roast Tip of Sirloin First Cut of Rib Chuck Rib Fillet of Beef Mutton Puck Paper Ruffle Chop Chop in Paper
37 38 38 46 105 105 164 166 183 201 202 205 206 208 212 212 214 215 216 216 217 218 219 219 222 235 236 237 237
Fro. " " " " " •• " " •• " " " " " " " " " " " 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 3(3. 37. 38. 30. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50.
241 243 244 264 265 266 267 272 279 296 314 315 321 322 335 348 351 357 358 360 386
Calf s Heart Sweetbreads and Bacon Sweetbreads on Macaroni Pigeons and Spinach on Toast Boned Turkey, browned Boned Chicken, larded and baked Chicken in Jelly Meat Porcupine Croquettes Staffed Potatoes Chicken Salad Lobster Salad Bow-Knots Cheese Straws Apple Snowballs Orange Charlotte Orange Baskets Mould of Bavarian Cream Kojal Diplomatic Pudding Strawberry Charlotte Cookies
1 . and fruits which have been dried in the sun or smoked. crusts of bread. ilesh. coffee. Beat seems to create new flavors. fish. softens the fibrous substances in tough meats. COOKERY COOKERY is the art of preparing food for the nourishment of the human body. All civilized nations cook their food. It develops new flavors in tea. heat. and to change the odor. have undergone a certain process of natural cooking. It swells and bursts the starch cell's in flour. and digestibility of nearly all articles of food. it must be based upon scientific principles of hygiene and what the French call the minor moralities of the household. Milk and eggs. dry. scorch. roasted meat. baked beans.When given its proper importance in the consideration of health and comfort. and are often eaten without any further preparation. to improve its taste and digestibility. etc. The degree of civilization is often measured by the cuisineCooking (from the Latin coqua. would be useless as food unless they came from the warm living animal. which are types of perfect food. and meat.THE BOSTON" COOK BOOK. hard vegetables and fruits. taste. and potatoes. rice. bake. Fish. Fruit3 and some vegetables which are eaten in a natural state have really been cooked or ripened by the heat of the sun. or ripen) is usually done by the direct application of heat. hardens the albumen in eggs. to boil.
and baking in the hot ashes. need a large portion of water in cooking. it softens and dissolves the gelatinous portions of meat. Afterwards. in connection with heat is necessary in many forms of cookery. these were originally a covered dish set over or near the fire. the water. wine. and custards. having sometimes a double cover filled with coals. Then. our butter. upon our food while cooking develops certain flavors not otherwise to be obtained. fruits. or broiling over the coals. — are all more palatable when cold. or some other liquid. Then came roasting before an open fire. and starch before they can be masticated and digested. show the benefit of this free combined action of heat and air. peas. stoves which kept the tire and heat in a limited space were introduced. portable ovens were invented. coal. Water. Some one gives this distinction between man and other animals : " M a n is an animal that builds a fire and uses it . In some vegetables and fruits water draws out certain undesirable flavors. Air. to economize heat. or gas. Meat roasted or broiled has a much finer flavor than when boiled. oil. like honey. and many articles cooked' in the open air. and improvements have been made in them so extensively that we now have them with conveniences for doing every form of cooking with wood. or the free action of oxygen. As the art of making eooking-ntensils developed. beans. roasted apples. and makes palatable and nourishing many substances which would be rendered unwholesome b}' a dry heat. Cold is also an important matter to be regarded in the preparation of food. Drying in the sun was one of the earliest modes of cookery. dried fruits which have parted with nearly all their moisture in the ripening or drying process necessary for their preservation. baked.The Boston Cook Book. Toasted bread. to soften and swell the cellulose. gluten. Grains. and salads. thin corn cake baked before the fire. and frying were adopted. ices. boiling. This last was the primitive oven. or fried. stewing. or milk we drink . Sweet dishes and certain flavors.
and power of combination with.The Boston Cook Book. it would consume or burn up everything. a portion of the sun's heat and light is absorbed and held fast in it. and which lessens the combustibility of everything with which it comes in contact. every other element. and produce rapid combustion. Fire. — this heat and light are given out. like hydrogen gas or the solid carbon. but it is diluted or mixed (not combined) with nitrogen. The heat and the light come from the sun. or oil. If it ivere everywhere present in a perfectly pore state. —as in burning wood. coal. and this varies in different substances. Owing to this dilution. Thus combustion is within the power and control of man . to learn the properties and manage-. to cook his food" It is quite important then. or percussion. With every particle of vegetable matter that is formed by the combined action of the sun and the carbonic acid gaa in the air. The temperature at which this union takes place is called the burning-point. as a stepping-stone to cooking. Fire is boat and light produced by the combustion of inflammable substances. or the use of some more highly inflammable . of the air with some combustible body. Air is composed mainly of two elementary gases. or the chemical union of the oxygen. Pure oxygen is a gas which has a wonderful attraction for. another gas which is incombustible. except at a high temperature. oxygen and nitrogen (one part oxygen and four parts nitrogen). which are only definite forms of vegetable matter. The amount of each depends upon the mode of burning. Combustion is a chemical operation carried on in the air. And whenever this vegetable matter is decomposed.— friction. merit of a fire. with a small amount of watery vapor and carbonic acid gas. the oxygen will not unite with the carbon and hydrogen with which it is everywhere surrounded. and some extra means are usually employed to increase the temperature to the burning-point. and is attended with the evolution of heat and light.
" The heat generated for all household purposes is produced by the chemical action of the oxygen of the air upon the hydrogen ami carbon which are found w U» varkm* kinds ot wood and coal. some are incombustible. the greater the amount of flame. becomes heated. and checks the combustion. The heated air. being lighter. Some of the products of combustion are not entirely consumed. denser air rushes in to take its place. The chimney serves to carry on* the smoke and poisonous products of combustion . or. charcoal. Fires are usually kindled at the bottom of a fine or chimnej-. TheTe should be just air enough for perfect combustion. coal. the heavier. which escai>es into the air. The intensity of a fire and the amount of heat which it produces arc always in proportion to tho amount of oxygen with which it is supplied. the colder. It varies with the temperature and amount of air in the room. or by human lungs when there is no proper ventilation. The materials generally used as fuel arc wood. Tims a continuous current u established. This produces . and gas. •* kindles Uie fire. The supply of air should be controlled by confining it in a limited space. Fuel. and a constant supply of fresh air secured. the larger the amount of hydrogen in the fuel. incombustible products settle in the form of ashes. kerosene oil. The oxygen also combines with the hydrogen gas iu the fuel. cools the fuel. rises . and ascends. and remain as ashes. substances. The force of this current of air drawing through the chimney (a matter of great importance) is called the draught. An excess of air projected upon a Sre convojs away the beat. anil this produces the flame. from which it is absorbed by plants.The Boston Cook Book. like sulphur and phosphorus. and the length aud width of the chimney. and pass otf as smoke . producing carbonic acid gas. The oxygen first combines* with the carbon anil decomposes it. in common phrase. beat sufficient to eoropk-te the chemical tuik>D. .
5 Soft woods. The Making and Care of a Coal "ire. If you intend to buy a new stove or ranee. got one simple in construction. wis. The heat is intense. There need be no waste. ash. and are better where long-continued heat is required. if the fire be extinguished immediately after the work is done. burn more slowly. and burns for a longer time without replenishing than the hardest wood. Charcoal. With two good stoves having all the latest and best improvements. a tittle sulphur. which is coal made by charring or burning •wood with only a limited supply of air. and so thoroughly pressed that nothing is left bat pure carbon. and the incombustible ash. no superfluous heat. and if the stove be kept perfectly clean. and are now so nearly perfect that the care of a fire for cooking purposes is trilling. but transient. The cheapest fuel is the best kerosene oil. Cfeifce. which retain the heat longer. It kindles slowly. Anthracite coal is a kind of mineral charcoal derived from aucieut vegetation buried in the earth.uul dampers shutting absolutely close. steady heat. such as pine or birch. kiudle quickly.iy easily ktvp it clean .The Boston Cook Book. burns easily and produces greater heat in proportion to its weight than auy other fuel.li ilwrs . often used in cities. yields an intense. bat produce harder coak. and perfectly fitted part to part. produce intense heat. Hard woods. It should never be burned iu a close room. Stores for burning kerosene oil and gas have recently been introduced. blaziug fire. no vitiated air. a large amount of work can be easily and satisfactorily accomplished. that you m. aod hickory. Gas caa only be used in certain localities. and are best for a quick. is the residue of coal from which illuminating gas has been manufactured. plain in finish. so as to secure a free burning and perfect combustion. so that you may cuutrol the fire and heat This latter point is of essential . like oak. that you may quickly lnirn all it* parts and tbeir uses .
Brush up the hearth and floor. it has parted with most of its beat. till the fire-box with coal even with the top of the oven. and when the coal is burning freely. to regulate the dampers for all the variations of wind. take it apart. then clean out the grate. learn how to clean it in the inside. arranged crosswise. and. When all blackened. Watch the fire. and a layer of hard wood. leaving plenty of air space between the pieces. Open the direct draught and oven damper. rub with a dry polishing-brush until nearly dry. then fine pine kindlings. with more or less space underneath for ashes . When the bine flame becomes white. Remove the covers and brash the soot from the top of the oven into the fire-box. and add enough more coal to keep it even with the top of the fire bricks. moisten some pulverized stove polish with water. temperature. empty the teakettle.The Boston Cook Book. an outlet for the smoke . and a damper which regulates the suppVy of hot air. letting in the air . and push the coal down as the wood burns away. importance in regulating the oven and in preventing a waste of fuel. sending it around and underneath the oven. or letting it escape into the chimney. Put on the covers . close the oven damper. and rub the stove with a paint brush dipped in the polish. and light the paper. a slide damper under the fire. sift the ashes in the stove and save all the old coal and cinders. if the stove need cleaning. and fuel. and begins to die out. Become thoroughly acquainted with whatever stove you may have. Tons . When it becomes bright red all through. shut the direct draught. and fill it with fresh water. but not red. All stoves have a fire-bos. and then learn how to make and keep a fire. Be sure the wood comes out to each end of the fire-box. When the wood is thoroughly kindled. It seems impossible for some persona to understand that a coal fire is at its height as soon as well kindled. :ind needs only air enough to keep it burning. If necessary. Put in shavings or loose rolls of paper. as a slight heat facilitates the process of polishing. and if the stove have conveniences for so doing.
A portable range has only one oven-door. with the fire-box in front. — a pan on the grate above or underneath.. it is better to add a sprinkling of coal often. Hie articles to be baked are placed on a grate near the middle. Learn the hottest and coolest places in the oven. Large pieces of meat are placed on a rack in a pan : while small outs of meat. put a screen between it and the heat. and any dishes which are to be merely browned. ami the fire-box at the end. Keep the grate cleaned out and the fire burning freely. is placed on the bottom of the oven. . if the heat be too great. which are to be baked quickly. and. When the oven is not hot enough.. and ranges are needlessly burned out. In brick-set ranges the ovens are sometimes over the fire. of coal are wasted in many kitchens. lift a cover on the top partly ofl". At other times keep the draughts shut and do not waste the coal. by filling the fire-box till the eoul touches the covers. In ranges where tbe oven is over the fire. open the direct draught. etc. When the regulating dampers are closed and the oven is still too hot. and. like Hcallo|>ed dishes. when a very hot oven is needed. cake. Cultivate the habit of opening and shutting the oven-door quickly but gently. stove in which the parts are perfectly adjusted this will never be necessary. as the bottom of the oven is usually very. pastry. and rake out the ashes from the grate. rather than to let it burn rir>arlv out. like bread. by adding a larger quantity. although in a. mnst be placed on the grate near the top. that it may not touch the dough. If anything bake unevenly or too fast. birds. In stoves or portable ranges anything which has to rise in the ovep. or a frame of stiff paper made larger than the pan. Nearly atl stores and portable ranges have the oven at one side of and a little below the fire.hot. then. A stove has a door on each side of tbe oven. and leaving the draughts open tilt the coal is red.The Boston Cook Booh. a small rack or grate may be placed under it. etc. Look at tilings as they are baking. To keep a brisk fire for several hours or all day. anil turn and watch till you are sure they can be left alone.
No solid can boil until first changed tu a liquid. Boiling is the conversion of a liquid into steam by the application of heat sufficient to cause ebullition. Liquids take the form of steam or vapor at the boiling-point. you will understand where the greatest heat must be. g . which is really cooked water." "boiled beef. as applied to tlic. the steam is condensed and descends with the cold water." " the rice id boiling. expands into vapor. therefore. are nil goou illustrations of the rhetorical figure metonymy. In using the top of the stove remember the hottest place is over Ike fire and toward Uie middle. check the fire and retard the work. not on tlic front of the stove.i. Solids become liquid at the meltiug-noiut." etc. but they are practically incorrect. or agitation of its surface. as they come in contact with the cold water near the surface.ivater and the steam shoot up in the form of bubbles ..cooking of solids.imnnff +1*~ ^:. It U* one of the most generally used. Boiling. is heating or cooking in a boiling liquid. forms of cooking. The expressions " the teakettle boils. as it is heated from In-low. When you have once watched the flame in its passage over the top.Tile Boston Cook Rook. The term u boiling" is often used erroneously in cookery. out and up on the opposite side and out into tile i-uiniuey. Boiling. and abused. and under the oven. The air of tin. down the back. is tlic liquid usually employed. Water. Boiling water. which causes quit* a coinmOtlOn . In all cases it is only the water or liquid which boils. the bubbles collapse. then across. making a double set of currents.
anil material to keep tlit. owing to the enormous expansive force of the steam.water boiling at such a galloping rate that the cover has to be lifted to prevent boiling over. more quickly. the water is DO hotter. Water boilt when the bubbles rise to the surface. and can only be made hotter by confining the steam. clean gravel is sometimes kept in a smooth kettle to facilitate the boiling. Small.It takes longer for it to boiJ. in boiling over. timtnen when the bubbles all collapse beneath the surface. A kettle should never be quite full. Water boila at a higher temperature when t h e r e is sugar. and. If we put salt with the water in the lower part of a double boiler. When Uiia boiling-point is reached. as the water adheres to a smooth surface with greater force. Water will U>it tuoie quickly in a kettle with a rough surface than iu one w i t h a smooth surface. t i m e . and the steam is condensed to water again. a n d all the fire in the world can Dot make the water any hotter. or salt. the heat escapes with tlie steam . Observing housekeepers have often noticed how quickly things burn at such a time. a greater degree of l i e s t is obtained by which to cook the articles in the top. and foretell a rain by tile rapidity with which water evaporates. Before a rain the pressure of the air is lessened. as at 212 s . or at 1 « J ° . Water boils at a lower temperature. Fresh water boils at 212° .The Boston Cook Book. that is. so tliat these bubbles are formed ami expelled rapidly. No one who has been burned by boiling syrup ever doubted this fact. as t i i e water espands in heatiug. or anything in it to increase its density. and tui£ force or attraction m u s t be overcome before boiling takes place. salt water. If Uie fire lie very fierce. so long as the steam escapes. m a k e s needless work and injures the stove. it only evaporates or boils away faster. With a few exceptions it is a waste of fuel. because the air when filled with vapor is lighter. wfaiuh in ordinary kettles is impossible. . and the steam is thrown off. when the pressure of the air «i>on the water is diminished. wbeu that point is reached. but it is hotter. a n d the water boils over. at 224°.
Cooking in boiling water requires a inuth longer time in mountainous regions. fish. be any impurity in water. Beans or dried peas. In cooking meat. where it is subject to greater pressure. in bulling. Water. and retain the soluble and flavoring principles. for the water boiU so quickly that it holds less heat than in lower altitude. this hardens the albumen over tho entire surface. as in moat green vegetables. To do this we leave the meat whole. unless there are impurities to be removed. is better where we wish to preserve the articles whole. boiling or cooking will destroy it. which contain casein or vegetable albumen in larg| proportion. The pressure of the air is less the higher we asrend above the level of the sea. To keep the nutriment within the meal as in what is usually called boiled meat.The Boston Cook Book. should Incooked in soft water. broths. ^ Meat is cooked in water for three distinct purposes • — First. as the lime in hard water hardens the casein. and prevents the vegetables from becoming soil. tea. This is especially important iu making tea and coffee. ad in soups. and makes a coating through which the '•<••.- . or soft water salted. and vegetables in water. it becomes aerated and palatable. Then. loses the air or gases which give it a fresh taste and sparkling appearance. It* then. and coffee. and extract the soluble parts. we should remember these two facts : - Boiling water hardens and toughens albumen and fihi-ine bursts the starch grains. Soft water should be used in boiling where the object is to soften the texture. and is absorbed by the swelling starch. It becomes flat and tasteless. that only a little surface niav be exposed Plunge it into boiling salted water. should be used when freshly boiled. But water for cooking. by cooling. since we leave much of the air below us. and exposing to pure air again. and keen it there' for five or ten minutes. Hard water.
Third. Meats are cooked iu water to have the nutriment partly in the liquid and partiy in the meat. Put the meat iu cold water. etc. Vegetables. The water should be salted to raise the boiling-point. as in toupt and tntat tea*. than when kept boiling furiously. soak in cold water. as in stetcs. If the meat be put in the kettle with the bones uppermost. See that the cover fits tightly. cannot escape. Then move tho kettle whore the water will simmer slowly. or any very oily fish. as it reaches the boiliug-l>oiut. and keep at the siuiine ring-point. to keep in the steam. then skim. or it will settle on the meat and render it uninviting in appearance. as they have a very strong. which are mostly starch and water. the longer the better. and increase the density of the water. and thus prevent the escape of the juices. . In turning the meat do not pierce into it to let the juices escape. rich flavor. Salmon. the meat hardens. A small amount of the albumen in the outer surface will be dissolved and rise as scum. fricassees. and retains the remainder. Cut the meat in small pieces. and the meat made more tenjjer and of better flavor. mackerel. but the 6brine will be softened. then. that the small portions of albumen which they contain may be hardened on the surface . they will absorb the albuminous juices within. then the scum will not settle on the meat. should be put into boiling water and boiled rapidly. It will take a longer time to cook in this way.The Boston Cook Book. A little of this flavor can be lost without injury to the fish. This should he removed. and keep hot. As the flesh of fish breaks easily. until all the goodness is extracted. Fish is usually cooked in boiling water for the purpose of keeping the juices in the fish. then. The cold water will draw out enough of the juiws to enrich the liquid. Second. if the starch grains are burst quickly. the water should never be allowed to boil rapidly. but not boiling. and brought almost to the boilingpoint quickly. U-t the water boil quickly. Meats are cooked in water to hare the nutriment wholly in the h'fptid. should be put into cold water. heat gradually.
The word means a slow. or some Mniall game. and then browned in the oven. This is a convenient form of cooking many articles which it is troublesome Jo cook with a dry h e a t . and for a long t i m e . except where a fire has to be kept for this purpose alone. the principle is the s a m e . Fricasseemg (meaning " t o fry") is a form of stewing-. and I'riud cilhor boftirv . may be made tender and nutritious. the water should not stop boiling until the articles are cooked. gentle heat. with v e g e t a bles. or ragout. The term is usually applied to chicken. are much more easily and safely cooked in a tlouMe boiler. moist. S o m e times meat is steamed in its own juices alone . and ttwigh pieces of meat which cannot' be roasted. do not burst at the surface. In s t e a m ing. and yet do not need the solvent powers of water. >r after stewing. The bubbles rise rapidly. The long-continued aetiou o-f a gentle heat softens the fibres. Being thicker than water. Stewing is another form of boiling or cooking in a siuall quantity of water. and improve the flavor. veal. which is cut into pieces. cooked in this way. would be liable to adhere to the kettle.. and without vegetables. By judicious use of seasoning material. are first m a d e tender by steaming. from their glutinous nature. that of slow. and served with :i rich white or b r o w n eauce. rather than fierce b o i l i n g . custards. and any substances which. owing to their tenacity. aud the coarsest and cheapest kinds of meat.The Boston Cook Book. t h i s is called smothering. grains. Whether we call it simply a steie. haricot. Any incut thtit is q u i te juicy and not very tough may be first browned on the o u t side to keep in the jukes. steady simmering. C o a r s e . It is an economical mode of cooking. This is uue form of steaming. remnants can be made into s a v o r y and nourishing dishes. but climb o v e r one another till they run over the edge of the panMilk. and. or cooking over boiling water. or in a pail within a kettle of wator. W a t e r y vegetables are rendered drier by steaming. and the whole liquid becomes hot sooner than water. or salad. or pot-roasting. l e s s of the steam escapes. Milk boils at 196s. at a moderate heat.
but dipped in vinegar to soften the fibre. Braising is a form of stewing done usually in a braisingpan or kettle which has coals in the cover. Baking is hardening or cooking in a dry heat. like poultry. etc Meat and fish. and baste frequently to prevent drying. If the joint be very large. or the meat need thorough cooking. fowls. are better baked without water. pastry* and some forms of pudding—are more wholesome baked than when cooked in any other way. beans. and simple seasoning make it very palatable. When placed in the oven. 13 tough pieces shoulil not be browned. as it will then be impossible to have a greater heat than that of boiling water (212°). is required. the juices must be kept within the meat. to use in basting. Many forms of baking are really stewing. if baked in the right way. heart. lose less in weight than when boiled or roasted. but the closely confined heat of the Oven gives an entirely different flavor from that obtained by stewing over the fire. uniform heat. Nearly ail flour mixtures — bread. liver. herbs. bnt water. veal. This is seeu in the difference between stewed and baked apple-sauce. and pieces containing much gristle should be put into cold water. water can be added to check the heat aa soon as the outside is cooked sufficiently to keep in the juices. This will keep the meat moist. if a rich liquor be required . Au intense heat at first is necessary to harden the albumen . while for baking meat 280% or more. Stock. It 13 one of the most economical and satisfactory wavs of cooking large pieces of tough. or pork. Put one or two tablespoonfuU of beef drippings. where it is surrounded by a slow. and meats to In: eaten rare. or some of the fat from the meat. No water should be put in the pan at first. that the outside may not become too hard. in the pan. pig-eons. . as the fat can be made much hotter than water. vegetables. and bacon may be used. ss in a close oven.The Boston Cook Book. then reduce the heat. etc. Small cuts. it needs very little attention. lean meat. Any granite or iron pan with a close cover to keep in the steam will answer the purpose. To bake them properly.
and as it maybe used manv times. —not boiling fat. it will be found very convenient to pull the pan out upon it when banting or turning the meat. the articles are .Baste often. •JNIiinv persons accustomed to meat roasted before the opon fiiv ol'jvc-t to the flavor of baked meat. If the oven lie very hot at first. and. as no heat is required under the meat. and tlius prevent the fat from soaking into the inside of w h a t ever is to be fried. and opened every five minutes j u s t long enough for the basting. If there be no damper to check the heat underneath the oven. p u t the grate or another pan under the dripping-pan. but the flour unites "with them. if the juices begin to flow. If there be no shelf attached to the stove near the oven.in hot fat. F r y i n g . Frying is cooking. is immersion in smoking-hot fat. the skin keeps them in. This will prevent t h e fat ia the pan from burning and smoking the meat. and dredge with salt and flour after basting. and keeps t h e m within. keep a box or frame of wood just the height of the oven. the temperature for boiling fat is from o6i>° to 600". which is an essential p a r t of the cooking process. making a paste which soon hardens. All baked meat or fish should be salted and floured all over. T h e fat should be deep enough to entirely cover the artieles to be cooked .. As a much higher temperature ts required tban that for boiling or baking. it brings the side which is to be up in serving next the hottest part of the oven. Salt draws out the juiceB . for the final browning. which ia 3S5 3 . near by. and pushed up close to it. when turned. as it is so often called. when properly done.i4 The Boston Cook Book. the smoky odor escapes. P l a c e the meat with the skin side down at first. Frying. for fat can be made much hotter than the temperature required for cooking. then. it is n o t so extravagant as some suppose to use such a quantity. T h e prime secret of nice frying is to have the fat hot enough to harden instantly the albumen on the outer surface.
fritters. then roiled in beaten egg. are best to use in frying. and they have a flavor quite unlike that given by any other form of cooking. and fried muffiu mixtures contain egg and albumen sufficient to keep them from soaking fat. Then. The fat cools rapidly. and that. or deep iron or granite kettle.When hot enough to brown the bread while you count forty. or whatr ever you may be frying. it causes such a commotion that the fat and water boil over. because if the fat begin to boil up. it wili do for fish balls. or of condensed steam from another kettle. if the fat be only hot enough. it n hot enough for fried potatoes. and . AU articles to be fried should be thoroughly dried and slightly wanned. etc. and in fine crumbs again. to absorb any moisture . etc.. and there is great danger from the fat taking fire and spreading to your clothing. doughnuts.The Boston Cook Book. and a wire basket small enough to fit dowu into the kettle. The hot fat hardens the albumen of the egg instantly . oysters. but do not drop the handle. If very moist. — When the fat begins to smoke pat in a bit of bread. and wait till the ebullition has subsided before plunging it iu agaiu . A Scotch bowl. makes a fat-proof crust. or too many Articles'to fried at a time. plunge the basket into the hot fat to grease it. Fish balls. so that they will not touch each other. Meat. croquettes. and rolled in fine bread-crumbs. you can then raise the basket quickly. to say nothing of the trouble of cleaning the stove and floor. as the moisture heats and bolls. when many articles are fried at once. or while you can count sixty as the clock ticks. fall iuto the bot fat. For this reason be careful not to let a drop of water. Hold the handle of the basket with a long fork. the fat becomes chilled. if it brown quickly. croquettes. should be dried. The Tett for Hot Fat. and the grease soaks into them. etc. or very cold. and thus avoid the danger of burning from the overflowing fat. and then place in it the croquettes. 15 very quickly cooked. and plunge it quicklv into the fat. with the crumbs. When ready to fry. fish.
and are preferred by many. Keep a tin plate in your left band. Olive oil is the purest fat for frying. or very small fish. Before it is used for any purpose it should be clarified with slices of raw potato and heated until it becomes still. though many dislike its peculiar odor. Suet and drippings are cheapest. may be used for frying. and keep them hot till ready to serve. and shake slightly. as la shown by the froth a n d ebullition as soon as it becomes hot. and. is more generally satisfactory. Lard. There is often a very disagreeable odor to new lard. will be fried brown in one minute. and is an excellent fat for frying. Cottonseed oil has been recently introduced for cooking purposes. Time. the kettle should be set back from the fire to prevent them from becoming too brown before they are sufficiently cooked. Never pile fried articles one on another. till all dripping has stopped. but it is too expensive for general use. and you cannot find a much hotter place than right over the hot fat. and more or less water in it. or ladle. should be reheated to the test point before frying any more.. Suet used alone cools very quickly and leaves a tallowy taste. with a small proportion of suet or drippings. Braining. Then place the fried articles on soft or unglazed paper. — Thorough draining is another secret of nice frying. a mixture of half suet and half laul. Lard. so hold your basket of fried food over the hot fat. drippings. such as fish balls and croquettes. or oil. and fritters require longer cooking . . and hold it under the basket. Drippings should be carefully clarified (see page IS) and freed from water. be careful not to spill any fat on the stove. While frying.16 The Boston Cook Book. Fat for Frying. It may be heated much hotter than lard. scallops. — Any cooked mixture. etc. to absorb the fat. or the articles cooked will soak fat. Thicker fish. oysters. after plunging them into the hot fat. as you take things from the fat. chops.
When it becomes very brown. aod then use it for nothing except fish balls and Ssh. chops. Some people are extremely unwilling to make the change. following with doughnuts or flour mixtures. begin with potatoes. Fish balls.The Boston Cook Book. imparts no flavor to the food. With the exception of sait-fish balls and small. otherwise the crumbs will fall off. to disguise the odor. as. dyspepsia is a fell avenger. After every frying. half-hot fat which spatters over stove and floor. and many things browned in butter. but dipping it from the kettle witli a small long-handled dipper. if people will fry their food. and. but. aud persist in going on in the old way of cooking in a little. not pouring it. if very hot. they should do it in the only correct way. first on one side and then on the other. These directions for frying are given thus minutely not from any desire to recommend this method of eookiug. Sauteing. etc. while frying. soaks into the fish or meat. and is often served as the only gravy. dry. Let it cool slightiy before straining. white Ssh. — omelets. fried cakes. is much better immersed iii hot fat. and oysters are more quickly cooked.. when fried by immersion than when srutied. and absorb less fat. Upon such. Sprinkle coffee on the store. and adhere to whatever is put in subsequently. when properly used. The ordinary way of frying in a shallow pan with only a little fat. but nearly everything that requires any more fat than just enough to keep it from sticking. without burning. it will mult the strainer. put it with the soap-grease. even in . nse it for croquettes. If you wish to fry several kinds at the same time. When the fat becomes too brown for potatoes or doughnuts. answers very well for some purposes. strain the fat through a fine wire strainer or fine strainer cloth into a tin pail. which the French call sauteing. there is nothing fried. and crumbed articles last.
and all superfluous beef fat. in fact. the fat from chickens. Oysters. Cut the fat into small pieces. water off.But in most modern houses. Let it stand on the . or. muffins.The Boston Cook Book the right way. and the water nearly all evaporated. cut into thin slices. were obliged to inhale the smoking fat. or chips as they are called. Place tbe fai * in a i>. and they are equally so to a sensitive stomach. such as suet. and doughnuts may be cooked in many better ways. Frying answers very well for open-air cooking. You may put with the new fat any fat from sonp stock. Th«n strain and press all the fat from the scraps. or skim the fat from tbe water. To clarify Fat. for persons with weak digestion. add • a little very cold water. are really chips. apart from the indigestibility of the food thus prepared. or chicken . after stirring well.m over the fire. where appetite and digestion are strengthened. and smoked meat. that would not be equally good. pour tbe . on the seashore or in camp. If there be any sediment adhering to the fat. were it cooked otherwise. turkey. there are many serious objections. or made pure and clear. when molted. these dishes would seldom appear on the table. if soft. When cool. and. draw it to one side and U't the water underneath run off. and much more conducive to health. fresh pork. add one s raw potato. where the odors from the kitchen penetrate the remotest nook and corner.. If all those who nre so fond of croquettes. remove the cake of hard fat. should be saved and clarified. etc. fritters. drippings from roast beef. fritters. and cook over a slow fire until the fill has melted. Any uncooked fat. Saratoga potatoes. The acrid odors given off during the heating of fat are very irritating to the mucous membrane of the nose and throat. Some persons who can usually digest fried food cannot do so when the stomach has been irritated by the odor in frying. veal. chops. and. cover with cold water. and the materials in croquettes. anything except the fat from mutton. corned beef.
and chopped parsley with them. very much as charcoal purifies water. and salt and pepper for all others. Then dip the egg over them. For fish or meat mix a little salt. Beat the eggs slFgbtiy with a fork in a shallow dish. pepper. the potato. is still. Add H little sugar if they are to be used for sweet dishes.—frying. and as shortening for bread. 19 of the stove or in the oven till the fat has stopped bubbling. sauU-'ing. Add one tablespooBful of water or two tablespoonfu Is of milk for each egg. Hints on saving bread crusts and stale pieces. Cover all the articles with the crumbs and let them stand till dry.The Boston Cook Book. Egg and Bread Crumbing. shake off all that <\o nol adhere. Scallops and very small oysters can be more easily CILIIU'KHI 1V [ilucing them with the crumbs in a > . and slip the knife again lengthwise under the croquette. Drain from the cgg\ and roU again in the crumbs. Clarified fat (or dripping. Croquettes or any soft mixture should be held on a broad knife while being placed in the egg. and put it carefully into the crumbs. fish. Fat thus cleared will keep sweet for weeks. owing to its (wosity and power of absorption (being mostly starch and carbon). which should always be done when any new fat is added. Sprinkle the crumbs on a bo«rd. and be careful to liavr every part covered. Boiling the fat causes the water in it to evaporate. nuites with the sediment. as it is usually termed) answers for many purposes in cooking. and roll the chop. and the organic matters or imi>uritie3 to be decomposed. The crumbs should be sifted through a fine sieve. absorbs any odors or gases. plain pastry. and gingerbread. and deposited as Bediment. and thus cleanses the fat. are given on page 75. for egg and bread crumbing. then dip into the beaten egg. or croquettes first in the crumbs. drain. basting roast meat. Strain ttirough a floe strainer. and keep in a cool place. if melted occasionally. greasing pans . and the scraps are brown and crisp and rise to the top.
a very hot oven. When meat w plami in a ate oven. to harden the albumen. Routing. but DOW il i.. it implies Uie •clioo i>f a urn degree of beat than that employed in any of ibe j specified method* of cooking. with only a slight sprinkling of coal.. The nwat should bts r«bl>ed wiih sal! and flour. itBtnictc<. tbro «gg. ami basted often. sod j dredge two or three times with flour. Ov4-o» in »Ww an>l r:r. •)'-. In the days of open flrepkcea U*i» wu the graera! wa) of cooking large piet-es of uueal. being a cbeaper ami u*?rv ti>o*cin'-.' ! ' the additional expeo«ti of s tin kitchen. liaee two or three Rpoouftila of tini-rsi-ii "' the pan to use in basting the meat . i» nearly e»jual . am) bung In Uie jack '« a tin kitchen. or bf mrnin« the spit ui regtilar intervals. is more generally usotl.rv sabout l.2O Tk* ItoMton Cook Book. •' ••.tance to prevent Uie meat fn>m burning. and placed oa the spit.l especially for roantitig. As the juices of meat are composed largvly of watt the water will be cvaporate-d as SHKMI as it reaches I boiling-point. Roasting (meaning " to beat violently " ) U r»"" ' ' !-1fore an open fire . «nd meat when |>rop«-rty <•••• > • • ' very hot oven. or by tbow who f-n. or 212°. ven' iw»r the t*re nt first. before (IK •-• '•• is cooked. Tbe fir* for r • --:.. tben cnmiUs again.. sheet of paper. place a buttered paper over it.. now well ventilated. or rmt-i. The meat is placed on a ipit.>.000 J . tht beat is uot sullicit-nl to lianltu the a .^'l only in large establbbnienu. then removal a Iir. and made to revolve slowly before the nre bv winding a spring in the jack.* ehotild lie dear and brij^fat. . baste often.. Bntiuj. .l. When the joint it j very large. and of willk-H-iit Uxly l*> \a»l. and touring or turning Mil all are crumbed Remember Uiu order: eruiuba flnrt. iferuugh the time for roasting. awl a rn>.•>" . Tbc W'*t of ao oj«n i.r > r to that roasted befont an open lire.
tlie albumen hardens. which assists in communicating the heat to the insti. were they allowed to remain for any length of time over the fire. remove . Broiling (meaning " to bnrn " ) is cooking directly over the hot coals.The Bos/on Cook Book. This ia accomplished by broiling.it1. as the flame from coal is due to the com oration of tarry vapors. or a very hot oven. such as stcsks and chops. and if basted frequently with hot fat. on tbe outer surface . and will cause a deposit of coal tar on the meat. and checks the evaporation of the juices. that the evaporation may be more quickly arrested. a greater heat is required. therefore the smaller the joint to be roasted. nauseating Savor. and noarly to the top of the fire-box. which have a still larger surface in proportion to the weight. the higher the temperature to which its surface should be exposed. and the meat becomes dry ami tasteless. The secret of nice broiling ia frequent turning. But when meat is exposed to the intense beat of an open tire. For very thin pieces of meat. the meat is completely enveloped in a varnish of hot melted fat. so that tbe inside of properly roasted meat is really cooked in the eteam of its own juices. the highest degree of heat employed in any form of Cooking. it deposits a film of mutton or beef fat all over the meat. the watery juices evaporate. giving it a smoky. When the fat from the chop or steak drips on the coals ami blazes. The degree of heat is eo intense that the articles to be cooked would be very quickly burned. Broiling. The evnpo ration of juices is proportionate to tbe amount of surface exposed. There should be no flame. which has a very different flavor from that of the coal (lame. this prevents the escape of the steam. The fire should be bright red. the steam esca|>es. Wln>n Urn steak lias much fat. which should be done near Uie burningpoiiit. A small joint has a larger surface in proportion to its weight than a large joint weighing double or treble the amount. so that the broiler may almost touch the fire.
Meat should be broiled only IOOK e&ootfk to l. «lw»* with a bit of Ui# fal from U* «* »»• ** p l t t l •»h-»" Place the thickest part of »b»l©»er U U* Ue bn»ii the mi.n tin.*>.U.idle of tbe bn>iW. t>> iuaUinUy . nor brown a»tf dry. turuiiig.-». Hi* mil U> ba«« acTrrai « • * . and arw there retain.to deeiiie jtwt when to remove UM. they would soon cuuw tu UM? k f s awl tarniog the meat.^ ! ' it. cotiut teu..)uk«* rr**h tin other sorface i-t baf.-*). U»v »welJ aiwJ meat a pufly appt-arance..1 juu. A littl* vsprrirw. anil ttn-y nmuut *•»*•*(• . „. lUvc Um p b i u r heating. the juic*» have fa***' and the meat shrinks. the meat. dry.v-.>. «***> * " » r wrapped arouud your ba»tl U> pr»4«?tt i' riace it m near the firs a* powMhie.iem^l. Tura o « r »* often as you uau euunt Uju. aud *t*rt4 * They cannot escape through Uw ti but if the meat went cooked *!*.U^ an iosbutt. as this lets out the jui«. . and start the Sow of ib* jnu-*». if . tlivn m*r IW "t-•" hanlens the oaUklu. these juR-ca gratluallv o o u brtw to the surface. Uw juktw wautf Jrip into tbw tiJ if tlio meat bo turned brj'. ami inUigmUble. The t. and are evaporated .m.'. to the centre. and kf«p it 1W*. b r a i n s U*> rfr: OTCO damper th«uUl •)*«>• W ^ .-t spring up inatanUy when prosed »ito the knifr :*•'•• " it ceases to do this. that >ou may a--rt fc»*« Uw. Hold tbe broiler fifrol^.i «li.i that the smoke of U»e dripping bi ma* >« r»rn»l chimney. If the bruiting be too long. m thing elae ready.part of iU A Male fal will u»|*w*» Uw An. leathery.-r. Eweui di»w» oat the Juice. ttuj ^^ f^uf a»iuuU--o. it tfxmUi be ^ i . * ait. Tbcre is nothing better f«»r twwiltu« than a 'U>t broiler... A* tfa« j converteil into »tt»am by the h*at..n?l the fibres. 1X> ttu« «*U ib. cot raw and purple.
and serve very hot with salt mid butter. Season the chop or fish with salt and pepi>er. it is broiling on hot iron. If the pan be hot enough and no fat used. and after the first searing k«ep tLem at a little distance from the fire. or the greater the distances from the fire. Take a large sheet of white letter paper. but when the paper is well browsed. and fold the edges of the paper over several times and pinch them together close to the meat. tiic hotter should be the fire . turning twice. then turn without cutting into the meat. cook the inner side first. — free from any smoky flavor. this is not frying. the larger the article. and brown the other side before any juice escapes into the pan. which Deed to be thoroughly broiled Iiut not burned or dried. . This keeps out the uir. The paper will char a long time before blazing. place it near the centre of tile paper. A longer time will be required for the broiling. if care be taken not to break through the paper and thus let in the air and let out all the fat. but do not leave any fat in the pan. Rub them well with softened butter. The meat will be basted wilh its own fat and juices. the chop will be done. Pan-hroiling is broiling in a hissing hot spider or fryingpan. and dry fish aro also improved by broiling in the buttered paper. A large baking-pan to keep in tbc heat should be held over anything which is very thick and requires to be cooked a long time. 23 one inch thick. six. the more temperate the fire. Chops. bacon. Cook about four minutes. and tlie flavor is almost equal to broiling over the coals. or two small sheets. require about twenty minutes. if one inch aud a half thick. A safe way is to wrap them in buttered glazed paper. Fish should be floured to ket-p the slciu from sticking. It will be found juicy and delicious. birds. Heat the pan to a blue heat. Chickens.The Boston Cook Book. The smaller and thinner the article. Sear the meat quickly on one side. Rub it with a bit of the beef fat just enough to keep the meat from sticking.
. . well done. 1'isb. . up' iaeh. about 30 m. lung or short fillet 20 to Mutlon. peas. . >atmeal. beef a !a mode Ham . Muffing fritters. . tomatoes. Goose. thick hahbut Fish. chickens aad lamb . per Ib is to Beef. p e r l b . etc. Time Tables for Cooking. lhr. . . 15 to 20 m. sweetbreads . cauliflower . 15 to 20 m. . . a t o Beef. 4 to 6 lbs. . perlb. 4 •* IS. Baked beans Braised meat . per 1 I*. . 40 to COm. . . . Mutton. Winter vegetables. . 30 to 45 " li to 8hrs. Young beets. rolled rib or rump. perlb. bass. . .. bustards . 2t> "• 20 to 30 *' 30 to •*» « tiu •• i to 3 to 2 far*. parsnips. breudud eliop3 . Trt. Beef. | er Ib Blue-fish. carrots turnips. green corn. Scalloped dishes 3krv 14 " 40 t o tf» a. . Fowl?. Baking Bread. doughnuts Slices of fish. celery. . . aad Puddings. rare. . rare. . . 10tu20 " 30 " . . . . . coffee.en. . . 2 to 3 " . . squash. . turkey. Potatoes . . Cookies . per Ib. hominy a nd wheat. Graham gems . clam^ ovsters . 20 to 80 " . iice. 15 U. 1 " . smokei tongue. 10 lbs... well dune. . 10 to 15 m. Venison. per Ib Lamb. 20 t. Baking Mec it. . Gingerbread . Game " . .The Boston Cook Book. veal 7orned beef. Loaf bread . 1 to 3 " . Veal " " " Pork " " " Turkey. . Plain fruit " .» Sot '» Eiders. sirloin. . perlh 1 2 »• Beef. CaL e. 8 lbs Tame duck . . 1 '• " IS " 30 •' IO » ^i> " Itcamcd puddings Pie-crust . Bread pudding . . sirloin. .. . 3 to 4 " . 45 to 60 •' . . . well done. . . hard-boiled eggs Potatoes. . 30 to < I '• U 30 " 15 to at> " l * ** 1 hr. Pigeons Small birda . . . . Rice a a d Tapioca Indian pudding . Sponge cake . biscuit . 30 io 40 " . Rolls. G lo S lbs. aspa agus. . Fish. macaroni. long. onions. small . . Halibut and salmon n cubical form. thin f i s h . 2 to 3hrs. . . .
This will make the lardoons one quarter of au inch wide and thick nud two inches long. Small. Take a piece of fat salt pork two inches wide and four inches long. one and a half in. Larding is drawing small strips of fat salt pork or bacon through the surface of the meat. leaving the pork iu the meat. Daubing is applied to a broad. the same way as the rind . daubing is forcing strips of pork through the entire thickness of the meat. The tenderloin or fillet of beef. aud then insert the . the thick part of the leg of veaL. into strips one quarter of an inch thick. Draw the needle through. one inch thick . then hold the end of the pork and draw the needle out. thick piece of beef or veal.The Boston Cook Book. . then with the point of the needle take up a stitch half an inch deep and one inch wide in the surface of the meat. with the ends projecting al equal lengths. Cut the pork in strips one third of an inch wide and thick. . then cut each slice across the width. Steak. are often prepared ID this way. and liver. Thick fish Chops. broiled [• paper ChickeD Many kinds of meat which arc very lean and dry are improved by the addition of some kind of fat. Insert one end of the lardoon into the end of the larding-ncedle. Steak. cut only to the membrane which lies about an inch below the rind. grouse. then cut two or three slices about a quarter of an inch thick. as this is the firmest part of tlie pork. aud as long as the meat is thick. Take up more stitches one inch apart iu parallel or alternate rows. thin Gab . and help the pork to go through by pushing until portly through. Shave off the rind the long way of the pork . Punch ft hole clear through the meat with a stcd. until the whole surface is covered.
. or 6»ti. If there bo a |>it»et? of tenttfrloio uivkr the howe. p o i n t s Wmk% is nil that \» reqniml. stuff the cavity left by the bone.entl. It b well to begin on a ftinult fwak. llw aim b* to remove th*> flt"«h from tht* bone without cutting into ihv Jk?sb. au<l hxmrn Uie ftt'sh from the bone. requiring DO more skill than auy OUKT kind of wving. I that U-»>f r :.. Any one who can nsc s *har|» kntfr. or de«troyhi^ it« shape more thao is nwcaxarv.The Botton Cook Book hmlooii with a Urge lanling-nw«ll> Tbo salt ami fat from the lanioun* t~ •. and much of the juice would escape. Aiter removing the bone. A *wa)l knife with a sharp. and by nmiij an* wn*M*r<<i -M\ m^.Tin* |irwt"»* i« nut ditnVult. wiliumt cutting b**r own flenh.br rv-movit^. to a l*-g or forequartcr of lamb. if you cannot see it) until you come to the joint. then follow tbe bone (von ean easily to\\ by the feeling. — CUE it off at the first joint.r Those who object to the pork will flu.f suet.from a chop or steak. Directions for boning fi»h are given on page 161. serape the moat away. bat the 8e»h wonM have to be sewed together. salted. remove it. To Jione a Chop or Steak. awl s m p e moat or fish from a bone. or the pork may IK laid on tbv meal and removed after cooking. leaving all the gristle ami teiwtoiwt on thu Km*. at»t »era|w Ibe fat away from the backbone.' tbe meat. or a turfcey. can bone anything. leave all the gristle ami cants on the bone. To Bone a Leg of Mutton. from the mnflHi-st bint. insert the knife near the joint. tbr b>mt. and put it up clone to tbe nwat. ehop. short. seasonal as well by ismring the »urfiuv with mo. Then l«egin at the tail eti<l. leaving the bone cW-an atui the Hitth unbroken. — Begin at the bom. and continue scraping off the flesh till the whole bone is out. <>oe could easily cut through from the outside to the bone ami remove it in that way. wiit<h WHS above the bone ID the original form.
when cold. and care must be taken to avoid cutting through the skin at these places. Kemove tbe flesh round the second joint. Leave the first bone in the wing to aid in keeping the shape. To Jioae a Bird. . and. loosening the crop from the flesh. In removing the flesh from the breastbone. Any other pieces of meat are boned in a similar manner. Kemove the bone from the other wing in the same way. and down to the middle joint in the wing. Bud. and loosen the skin rotiud the end of" the drumstick. loosen the flesh from thia. and be careful not to break through the membrane into the inside. The skin should be firm and unbroken. that it is just aa well to cut them off at the middle joint. When the breastbone is bare. Make an incision through the skin from the neck to the middle of the back. the juices arc kept inside . Remove the hem) and pinfeathers. or near the junction of the side bone. then the drumsticks. then follow the collar hone from the wing down to the breastbone. 27 and sew tbe skin together at the smaller end. be careful not to cut through the skin on the ridge. The skin lies very near the bone underneath tbe joint. la small birds there is so little meat on the wings. and then follow the bone to the wing joint. does not become dry and bard. put in place afterwards. Fowl. crowding all the (Leah inside. it may be removed before serving. The flesh may be pushed away with the fingers. This gives a rectangular form of solid meat ami stuffing. or Turkey. lie move tbe tendons from the legs. and the fillets or pieces that are detached from the other flesh can be laid aside. the meat is more conveniently aerved. separate the flesh from the ribs.The liitston Cook Book. and sew the skin together tightly. —la this ease the flesh is to be kept in the skin in order to preserve tbe shape. When salted and floured and exposed to a hot oven. Scrape tbe flesh with the skin away from the backbone until you feel the eud of the shoulder-blade. singe and wipe carefully. Then bring the edges together at the upjjer end. turning the flesh wrong side out as in pulling a glove from the ilnger. and the bird should not be drawn.
then do the same on the other wing a n d l^g» leaving the breast till the last. and skewer or tie into the original shape. and nntil you have a large share of both t h e s e essential qualities. and cut through the l>oi»©. Iron . break the drumstick half-way from the joint. Separate the m e m b r a n e under the body without breaking." They do. Repeat thi8 process on the other side. meal. like mustard and baking p o w d e r if not sifted. and t h e whole rolled over and over. should lie stirred. They measure by judgment a n d e x perience . Tin1 s:ilt-|>oons. the stuffing is laid in the flesh. use your spoon and cup or scales. Any other m a t e r i a l s that have been packed. It has been said that " good eooks never measure a n y thing. Then scrape d o w n to the end of Uie backbone. Lay the stuffing in. is to cut off the wings at the second j o i n t . Measures. as they are more convenient for t h e m a jority of housekeepers. and tablespoons used in t h o s e Vi'ci_'i]jU iiiv the silver spoons now in general use. spices. "When measured and estimated by tlie Table of Weights and Measures on page 30. are used in n e a r l y all these receipts. Thus you have t b e flesh in the skin. remove the flesh from the wing and second joint. and the skeleton left entire with the c o n tents undisturbed in the inside. then sew the skin along the b a c k . t h e e u p and spoon may be used as accurately as the scales. and sewed on the edge of t h e skin and at the ends of the roll. and soda shonlil always be sifted before measuring. Flour. filling out the legs and wings. Measuring. leaving a part of it in the tail. sugar. teaspoons.28 Tiie Boston Cook Ilaok. turning the skin and tl«»U off like a glove . An easier way of boning a fowl where it is U> be r o l l e d like a galantine. out the s k i n down the entire length of the back. salt. The wings and legs* a r e turned inside. and broken up l i g h t l y One tablespoon t'ul of solid mustard taken carelessly fVorn the box has been found equal to three tablespoonfuls measured after sifting. in preference to weights.
A teatpoonfui of liquid is the spoon full to the brim. which in the cups used here is two tliirtls of the height. TabUspoonftdt are measured in the same way. or two ounces. Those with handles are more convenient. for which allowance must be made. A heaping capful is all the cup will hold.-1 heaping ttutpomtftd is alt the spoon will hold of am. Take two cups of the same size and shape. AM eren or tcntu teupoonful means the spoon filled lightly. A cupful of dry material should be tilled and heaped lightly (not shaken down). When divided across the width the tip is smaller thiui the lower half. The cap is-the common kitchen cup holding half a pint. but what the cap will hold without ruuning over. fill one with water. shake it slightly until it is just rounded over. This equals about one quarter of a cupful. A small scoop should be fcopt in the flour or sugar to use in tilling the cup. either of which U more eaaity . or in the bowl in which the. and levelled off with a knife. To measure a UoMpowfut of dry material. then pour the water •without spilling into the other cup until it stands at the same level in both cups. or ynu heaping tabUsen>ooufu!. ami take up a heaping spoonful. or witiiiu au im-li of the top. Be careful to use this size in measuring. then It-veiled off even with the top. Place your cup in a sancer. full to the brim. or convex in thfc same proportion as the apoou is concave. while tilling it. This gives you the half-cupful exactly. A cupful of liquid id not what you can carry without spilling. 29 mixing-spoons van* much in size. '-Butter the «» of OH egg. Haifa evpful is n<A half the distance from the bottom to the rim. Otu half Uotpocmful is most accurately measured by dividing through the middle lengthwise.lightly sifted material. liquid is to be poured. A scant cupful is within a quarter of an inch of the top. but there is a size which holds exactly Die same as a silver tablespoon.The Boston Cook Book. dip into the sifted material." is a very common expression. Most enpa are smaller at the bottom. . The quarter and thrte-quartter measures mav t>e found in the same way.
table»|>. measure butter and p u t it ia the mixing-bowl. and put it in a bowl or pau together with s a l t . All these measures mean a full measure. or p u t t i n g th« ingredients together. after using the beaten yolk. In e i t h e r way you can make one cup do for all without washing. in s c r u p i n g out the sugar. Keep a bucket or pan full of timir. measure the milk. measure all the dry ingredients. cream of tartar. A tablcspoonful of butter melted is measured befure melting. add it to the bcatt'ti yolks. A tabtespoonful of melted butter is measured after melting. Place an egg in one tablespoon.30 The Boston Cook Book.T w o eggs beaten separately " means that the yolks ami w h i t e s are to be beaten separately. in many of the receipts t h e a b b r e viations are written: one cup for one cupful. freshly sifted each day. and J*-»u will easily carry it in -mind. Table of Weights and Measures. and. and measure the melted butter last.>aten separately. then pack butter in another till it fitl^ the spoon in the same proportion as the egg. u n l e s s scant or heaping measures are specified. teasp. for teaspoonful. measure the milk or liquid. clean out the bowl w i t l i the milk. s o d a . Measure flour first. and. the egg is good. ... then measure tbe sugar.whiu> be clear. written than the first expression. take the butter which has adhered to tlw cup. and ready for use. Or. i saltspoonfills of liquid 4 teaspoon fills of liquid 1 tsblespoonfuls of liquid 2 gilli . not each whole egg lx. if th*. and saitsp. and all utensils ready before beginning the mixing. f u r tablespoonful. and spice. Have your materials measured or at hand. Break your eggs on the edge of the cup . break a m i separate the eggs. f o r saltspoonful. Put the 3"olks in one b o w l and the whites in another. To economize space.
or U liblespmrnfals. for muffins. teaspoonful nf MMI* to 1 pint of sour milk. scant measure of liquid to 3 fuil measures of flour. of baking powder lo I quan of flour. Ublespooofuk of liquid tablespounfuls of dry mate rial 8 heaping tablespoon fula o( dry material " caps of liquid cups of flour cups of solid bullet cop of butter cups of granulated sugar cups of powdered sugar cups of meal piat Of milk or irater pint of chopped meal packed solely large egg*. pound. taps. to one pint of liquid. 1 testpoonful of extract to I loaf M plain cake. acanl measure of liquW t« 1 full measure of Soar. 1 saltspoonful "f white peppfr to 1 quart of soup stock. of AMia ana * full tc^sp. wine bottle brandy small bottle Burnett's extract small boMle Barnett'a extract flisk of olive oil quart. 10 medium egga round tahletpoonfttl of butter heaping talikapooofnl ot butler Butter the sim of an egg heaping table*poonful of sugar round isMwpoonful* of dour n>und lableapooofqls of coffee round tablespooDfals of povd. A pitifh of wilt or ipin is about * Kalupooaful. M. 1 teaspuonful of extract to 1 quart of custard. rup uruit. for bread. or | enp ounces. I teospooDful of NX)« lo 1 cup of molasses. even leai$p. •ups. 1 teaspoetiful nf mixed herbs to 1 quart of soup stock. K-ant measure nf liqoid to 3 full measnrat of HOST. or 1 qosrt. : : : : : : : : : ounce*. tegtx tabie»poonful of liquid bottle S.([uart of nonr. A pinch of hops La J of a cnp. 1 ealtspoonful of u i t to t quart of milk for casUrd*. or 4S tible*poonfals. or3 tables pooafnU. of ejeaiD tarUr to 1. cnp of yeast. pnnnd. . 3 lU T a b l e of P r o p o r t i o n s . 1 tablespoonfiil of each chnpped r a t a b l e to 1 quart of soap stock. heaping. poanful t>f 8*\t tn 1 quart of g<tup stock or 9 qnarta of floor. A *prck of cayenne pepper is «li»r you can tike up on the point of a penknife or on a qoartervinch square ^urfnc*?. 1 Mltapoonful of salt to 1 loaf of sponge ctke. or J of compress) yeastcake.The Boston Cook Book. pound. for baiters. or 1 cnp. pound. or I even u-aspooiifuts. 1 lpoonful of xpice to 1 loaf of plain cake.
!K. . a m i mix thoroughly..irn.rl 11..„. .f a i i x i n ^ - frfrrh/r.e t h e r properly.W| of the ^[XH)11 rest riiffbtlj OD th^ li:>ttiu:) •)!' (In. for Soups and Braised H< 1 bunch each of whole thvinc and marjoram.„„. 3 ounces of celery salt 1 ounce each of while pepper and ground ill vme...!..l ( <r /•. and tuaco> Mis.in .po. 1 bunch each of summer savory and &i$^cj.> the o v e n or the iv. allspice.. ami tin' M:iiiir i. i teaspoon(ul each of clyvw.'iiuij> fiivlus.] <\.vii. and s t a l i c s . t'-nh.. The most accurate ineasureineAt of the best m a t e r i a l s is often rendered useless by a nporiwt u-> i»nf them t o g .. . • • • n n . Spice Salt for Soups and Stuffings.. C m s h and break the leaves... titan to remove any if t o o highly seasoned. and keep closely covered.l.32 The Boston Cook Book. S'.u.puuud of bay leaves. without lifting the spoon o u t of .WuI each of drives and allspice. i ounce of sage.. Mixed Spice for Rich Cakes and Plum Puddings i tea. 1 leospoonful t-si-h of mace and grated nutm*g. . \i:i^-i'onl . — I. MixingN e x t to care in measuring comes tlie manner of m i x i n g . Mixed Whole Herbs. "I'lit'i-o :IJV t!irt.».. The proportions of seasoning given in these m w ^ i p t a an not sufficient for those who like highly seasonal fixxii' ia easier to add more.-u'r. 1 sallspouaful of cajenne pepper. sift. tiu>n move r o u e w l " a w j round in widt. blossoms.. 1 ounce ca^h or ffl&irjoraoi and summer ii&vorv. 4 ounces of salt.t . • ' ' ' .
33 the mixture. and up through again. Beating. The faster we beat. and be sure the bowl of the spoon (not the edge nor the tip merely) touches the bottom and sides >wl. that all the material may be equally beaten. bringing the knife or spoon round the bowl and cutting up through the dough.f L thlC . under. from lumps.i n . . add the liquid gradually. l n nr I upeid* down withuiit '•pil' put to Teth t r aln u-. and bring it up through the mixture and over with a loog quick flop to the opposite side . to avoid spattering. When perfectly smooth . This is mashing as well as stirring.The Boston Cook Book. We stir simply to blend two or more materials. and tbe more w lum. or butter and flour and milk for a sauce. we beat to entangle all the air possible in the mixture. catch the air and hold it in the form of ri'Us. — Tip the bowl slightly. or when we make a batter or semi-dough. add more liquid till you have the sired consistency. ha\e but one -. Keep the bowl of the spoon and the aides of the mixing-bowl well scraped out. We stir flour and water together for ickening. When we make a stiff dough we stir at first. and the soon becomes a paste. except to scrape the sides of the bowl occasionally. We stir when we rub butter to a cream. scraping from the bottom at every stroke. the nvi 1 i l h l . owiug to their viscidity or glutinous properties.tiling rm tion >ull de Mi > ' s lit eiT2« shoulii l i t 1 1 K is 1 in 1 I <rtill tlK\ in l!_' 1 11I 1 1 1' thei lit htt i n l .. Stir slowly at first. something as we make soap bubbles by blowing •ui into soapy water. the material up from the bowl into the air. t hn is there isi ks« i\j-. and then turn the whole mass over. lifting the Bpoon out of the mass and cutting clear through. The albumen of [he eggs and the gluten of the flour. and hold tbe spoon ao that the edge scrapes the bowl. We beat eggs or hatter or soft dough.
should be beaten vigorously just before baking. have the yolks and whites of the eggs thoroughly and separately beaten. lifting the part from beiow. like pop-overs. except in those receipts where folding instead of beating is indicated. and all beating of soft dough. they will slip out easily. the beating is done more effectually. are most convenient. and snow pudding. All mixtures which are raised with eggs alone. cut through. Turn the mixture over with the spoon. Do not atir round and round.Bat after beating in air bubbles. and leave the bowl almost clean. before turning into the pans. . don't break them by stirring. up and over. If tipped slightly toward the right. Graham or whole-wheat flour is better than white flour for gems that are made •without eggs. use a perforated wooden spoon. unless you wish to keep tip the game of cross purposes indefinitely. sponge cake. should have the beaten white cut or folded in carefully to avoid breaking the air bubbles. the larger one for the whites of eggs. lift up.The Boston Cook Book the whites. or Lifting. Bowls with slightly flaring sides.. Always let the last motion. then ran a palette knife round the edge close to the bowl. Let the whites stand a minute. for nearly all purposes the Dover egg-beater is the best. For frosting. nor beat quickly. Hold the beater lightly in the left hand. stir any way you please. because it contains more gluten. whipped cream. There should be two sizes. Shall we stir only one way? N o . pancakes. . be one of quick. and mixing very gently until just blended. Cutting. and move it round through the egg while turning the handle. For beating eggs. so long as you blend or mix the materials. should . or gems made without eggs. and fold the materials together. vigorous beating. etc. — Omelets. any very thin batter. or Folding. and not too deep to be clasped from bottom to rim in the left hand.
. . . .07 .40 -33 i " nutmeg .OS -01 3 tcatpmnful* of tea . . . «nd 3 teaspoon fuU nf envin-tartJUT i n 1 Ubleepnonfal ofbuMcr . . .pioo . 1 Ublwpoonful of olive oil .l. . 80. . . bunch of watercrtiuu* bead of lettuce . Table of Average Cost of Material used in Cooking. . I " mustard . . . . . . . . .18 1 1 1 1 1 turnip . . . .03 . .m .23 1 pound o f m . . .00 .« .80 1 box o f gelatine .38 1 eofft*. .Ol 1 cup of flour or m « l 1 ' • sugar .1 . . . .06 1 " buiter .30 1 tumbler of jelly . '.13 . J 1 1 1 |< " '• " C 1 " dcviUnl ham and loagw .r.an . . . U> .0 l .. M 18 .. . 1 " Parmeun chaeM • -M t peck of potMoe* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fO..10 Icanofloroatwa . from Outober to J u n e . .H* . .10 . . .02 1 bwpwmfnl of v u i l U .18 1 " tontttarcb .0-1 Buttw-Ixfofamwr .03 1 " milk 1 ublnpoaniul of o m e . . M .03 . . . .oa |" "" crark.1! i " ginsrr . Those prices are for the l>est materials.oa .02 3 tabl^peonfi. '.02 1 " " tod*. and are estimated for the season. . . . . 1 » » . . T lB - ' ' . I.84 1 >' DewfnotcMMB . .. . . . . '.75 . .pi™ .15 1 " ulmon . . & . .U. . .OS. .. I C ] of BJ. . . . . of «>S« .18 1 •• " brandy . J8 iJTrioIr*™. . IHIWII nfwlerv . handful of par*lcv . . lire .The Bmkm Cook Book. . . • • . 1 quart of milkmaa'* o » u r . -H Paringe at whole herb* 1 pound uf cheen . . .33 . when b a t t er and eggs arc Ligbcr tlmo duriog the summer. . . . -Ifi E pound of iipagiietf i .
<\fr)i.•«!.mi |>. i i r i» nunni -X t h I5i ll i.vv:x<\ is made from a Tariotyor«ihst. BKEAD AND BREAD MAKING-. —easy.>•( the family than the quality of its daily bread. the plainest meal is a feast in itself. ttie most generally used.. • erly bread until they arc Then the Tinned oT.r. W i t i i $£. 11(iai:\ ('mm certain fuviiii-*. —Bread is one of the e a r l i e s t .' old nir. until experience furnishes a sufficient guttle: difficult. • . and the most important form* <f > food adopted by mankind." — V. or point '/.imvs. It should be regarded as one of t h e highest aecorsplisbmenta. using the judgment of t h e best authorities. or ». . a m i uiatle . made.—njots.IK bnu-ot. and thought which are devoted to cake a n d pastrv nnd fancy cooking were spent upon this most importan t article of foot!.-.4 i ] u . In primitive ti rmJS this' vV >tt 1 meal or dougli wan l>:ik« 1 Ht once in h>ot as hes. Nothing in the WIIDII 1 '-::ut of domestic life more affects the health and h a p pi < -. Origina»d Mining of >• Bread. The wore] b (y. ...and materials. fruits. the presence of good bread upon o u r tables would be invariably secured. frc t i n [>'••*' ing to wet. ex i8 d l ' l ' " • • : • • ' ' ' •• r l l W io br<. if there be any neglect to use proper cart..cd or mo 1st '-'(1 w i t h ' t •.. and if one tenth part of the interest. prossivo of th.$6 'The Boston Cook Book. but wr. But these brayed or <: round msit or ial s are n o t . if only sufficient interest be taken to master a few elementary principles ami to follow them always. without ii.wltholmrk of t r © « . 1 •wli eat or > •1HV -d > corn. Bread-making is at once the easiest and the m o s t clitfK-uU branch of culinary science. ol1 -soinoiliiiiij: bra . tW tnost elaborately prepared and elegantly served mrmt is unsatisfactory. Importance of Bread. time.ivon ics dotiffh. .**! bread.
. or lifted. ill th . i • !. fiim.. gluttu Ohenural Composition if Wheat —Wh*>at w thf ml\ „( nn wlinh contains gluten in th« proper propoition m'l <-i tin. and becomes the loaf of Hi ami »ft</e from Wheat.—Bread is made principally from •wheat flmr. or lift up.iipthedough. Eye used alone makes a close. The raised mass is held in jtliiM' !iy ilu. a firm. ilibmd qatliti psisentitl to tht_ aiakiue of light spon™ bn id It lonttin-. and made it 1.it Tht\ tre 01 hmd —fcott wheat being tender \u\ ' md hard wheat bung tough.The Boston Cook Book. The old dougti—or leaven.•. m 1 n. •. d r v a n d t r u m b h 1 lo-if ~\\ lie at is an iinnuitl grass of unknown origin.lu-at in baking. while corn meal alone makes t o .ttn«nU^ in the Northern htmisplnre Tbeu are mei une bundled and fiftj % mitv s of nht. conipatfc bread. a nl tliou mixing it with new doiisrh. moist. Bye and corn meal are sometimes used. • • -. th whole mass. ntiwl. atidry bread . cultivated iiiuie e\. si« i: -. Accidentally some one discove ed Lliat by letting the dough stand till it had fermented. exo sdingly hnrd of digestion.2V •• •! • Tin T(l loaf. it. bnt better results are obtained when there is a mixture of wheat with one or more of these grains.
. ckstie sototance.. a p o r . daikwbred or tough. it One.• •iiifennt p a r u of the wheal wiU Ui d n i g i u l n l u 4r<«. ilvpowder. (1 others. .«d u.. mon. Kur c w w o w i i ™ . It ram be eMnimcd .. and adheres do^ly to . consisting chiefly of vegetable nbrioe. . 1 1: i ..t j8 . aud peels off readily under the stones. Tbcre is alto « aoutil t a m m l uf gi. *biL. The proportiou and quality of the gluten auil atareh in dilfereut kiutU of wheat vary according to the climate autl soil in which they are grown.u The ghtttn 01 »i. n „ „ . conUioiiig gimtrm.u- r » i o*- „ *"' ^ hrart - of lh -^ ult txitt»UtM uf txtlm tukc i: ». . t ...ght-cul.l!.». The husky . tl. vM ls a gray. . summer ol'our OIVH Northwest. . . fc«| e I w p ( „.U> wbt-at grain*. il i« thitJt anil rough.-.„. k e r n c ) . at the iiiuer b n w cxwu. t i 0 ! l . They are ""•* O" 1 "*" also affected by the method • " " • * .Jt tfurirA. it is l. damp climates. "a p r o d u c t .38 The JSoHom Cook Book. w a U .>rfused among I he .. l K ) U t lalinixn m ^xuxn per cent ot . .>. tough... t . or the outer husk.-. & stance which i* Ibe uitrugeuou* or A wral mttiUrt whu I. In other.. aud Harc/>t or tue heart of U» wheat. Wheat gro«n in S. . It lost. and in the intenw.tarch « I U . . make up tbi* (»>«> t*M-' buth .. busk lie the inner bran coats. wbidi lias h u b V « 1 M a. Blitj UlV gives Uie character.. i.in and smooth. though abort.<-ni or warm climates. and consequently the seed t> smaller and harder In »me varieties of wheat the outer l. .. .1. ti. gluten. contains more iillrog™ thai.• *••"• of grinding the grain.:. Uiat grown in mid.
l with :ui mlVnor quality of fine liuM. and then cut finer and finer. The more gluten and the tougher or stronger it is. while the brittle starch. the tough. 39 easily by making a dough oi" flour and water. Louis Process.• I •. into fine //our. leaving a lump of gluten on tbe sieve.»I . One is by grinding between two horizontal stones. as tbe grain is poured into an opening in tbe upper stone. The gluten of good flour wilt swell to four or five times its original bulk . The proportion of g lute 11 varies from eleven to fifteen per oent.: r. . as it is carried to the circumference by the centrifugal force. The brnti "should be discarded . has a glue-tike appearance . ami l>r.m. . coarse Jtour. N <. U -m a foot I for tiio-c smlt-riHsr . It «a< :. and sometimes gives off a disagreeable odor. St. gluten.TJie Boston Cook Book. It closely resembles a piece of animal skin. sugar.fU-n mixv. is completely crushed. which forms two thirds ol" tbe grain. coherent gluten is divided minutely. and. •• • ! • . Preparing the Flour. owing to the deterioration ot the fatty or oily clement. by sh'ting or bolting. This tough. but becomes watery and stick)'. they approach closer together from the centre outward. hence its name.The surface of tbe stones presents an infinite number of minute cutting edges. and mineral matters into the pan below. The water will carry tbe stan-h. elastic quality of t i e gluten determines the quality of the flour. the upper one revolving. so that. the better the flour. it ia at first rather coarsely crushed.Ci'ab'im rlour. and the lower one stationary. The upper stone is convex. when dried. i \. — There are several methods of converting wheat into flour. and working it on a sieve under a stream of water. The inilltT then divides these products. the outer husk has been least affected . ••!. the lower one concave. while that of poor flour does not swell.n utterly n s o W s for human ln. gum.l one time o o i w : . As the grain leaves the stones. but instead of fitting perfectly.
and is easily separated by bolting. Flour made l>v tlii. or utd-prorest flour. it spoils very rapidly.pivots of -rimling with the stones heats the Hour. This flour has a slightly granular consistency. owing to the presence of minute particles of hard. and the whitest fine-flour. or Haxall process. which makes it irritating and indigestible.s prowls of grinding is called the St. nutritious bread. or decorticated.40 The Boston Cook Book. it makes a sweet. flinty gluten.UH1 a* ii is often ihnist upon the market without being propei-lv i-uuled and drit'il. When made of the very best quality of grain and carefully prepared. so called from the name of the inventor. The quality of the jine flour depends upon the quality of the wheat. this outer husk clings ao closely that much of it is ground up finely vitli tlie flour. which reduces it to a fine powder without the injurious effects of heating. and much of the fine. Tin. also upon tin. By this process the outer husk is first removed. according as it Las more or loss of the outer bran mixed with it. All of the 80called Graham flour made by tiiis process should be sifted before using. and is excellent ill cake aad pastry. HaxaU Process. and as these soft varieties contain the smallest proportion of gluten. :uv\ upon the way in which it is stored. It is often designated pastry four. they yield a coarse flour.nmtiluT of sittings. would be more nutritious were it not that much of the gluten adheres to the hulls. liL'Liiii nrhiT in gluten the less it is MTU-II . — Another method of making" flour is by the new. science Las shown us recently that minute points of glass (and bnin is nothing else) are not Nature's beat ageuts in removing ctft'te matters from the 83'steiH. then the cleaned grain is eut bv a system of knives. flinty wheats. aa it contains a large proportion of gluten. I^uit. giving it a dark color. flinty bran is retained in tiie flour. It is tisuajlv made . and is lost by sifting them out. containing only an average amount of gluteu. But in the hard. . This flour. The coarse flour will vary in quality. in the fust place . In the soft wheats the husk peels olf readily under the stones.
and all arc Luchideil under the term neic-prvcess Jtour. tvptrjine. and then through other and finer eomigatcd machines. But we can supply by other flours aud other food what this flour lacks in nutritious qualities . IIaxn] 1 flour swells more than that made by the old process. or patent-process. nicer-looking loaf. white bread from this. in which a largu pmportiou of the gluten is retained. 41 from the best quality of wheat. being quite finely powdered and easily separated from the brau or tailings. though cowling more per barrel. It is considered by many as the best Hour for bread. or middlings. Pillsuurv. and the opposing rollers grooved in an opposite direction. By repeated siftings. having shallow grooves cut spirally upon them. ami until the popular titfcU? is educated to demand thu amount of nutriment contained ia bread ratbur than tue whiteness of it. and keeps weQ. the atarchy parts. aud produce au exuelkjot quality of flour. TUe Wash burn. ami consequently in tlii-u inferior as a food. this flour loses iis ghiteu. The grains are crashed (not ground). the saint) measure making a greater quantity of bread tbiin the St. and made into the various grades of fint. and have it as nearly perfect as possible. It is. d/ flours. — The Minnesota. therefore. as it uiakvs a winter. it is well to make our fine. the best wheat-growing section in Aim-rica. Then it is sent through corrugated iron rollers. which is the best flour. Minnesota. There have been many variations of the It a sail process. The first step in the process U tltc breaking off of the germinal poiut of each grain by what arc called ending stnues. as a test of its quality. This Miuuesota dour is made from carefully selected wheat grown in the Red River region. aa does lhnl made by the St. Loub* process. aud many other mills located io Minneapolis are the largest di>ui'-iniiU in the world. cheaper in the end.The Bottom Cook Book. . Louis flour. flour is now considered one of the best grades. with rounded ridges between. as it contains more of the gluten. After this separation the middlings are passed through ten bolting-cloths.
Bread made with this flour b a a b< . and answering fully ail the demands of perfect nutrition. or nutritive part of the flour. Cheap inferior Graham flour. . the Fnmkliti. Good flour should not bo pure white in e-ofor bat . •••••• •>• bing by what is termed the '-attrition process. The Arlington. the name indicating that the wlioi« of i. Tbts in call wholt-xoheat flour. to t. after repeated trial. but does not affect tlie hartl glmcoats. taste. Health-Food Flour. has been recently iutrrah. and one which is indorsed by scientists and physicians. grains into atoms with tremendous force. but pulverized into all the vark-u • of crashed wheat. The Tests of Good Flour. which da&ti*.:* w.xn\ fine granulated w-hm each variety. containing all that valuable as food. then pulverized into variu! grades by a compressed eold-air blast. found. and some other U r a u d s of whole-wheat iiour. softens tlie woody fibre of tiie outer bran. tie Health Food Company of New York. to be sweet and agreenl»l*. — A still better method of • ing wheat into flour. Fine flour containing the most glut-c-u is i' most nutritious. and thus is neither eoonouiiea! nor healthful. gluten. and subjecting it to a g e n ." 'l'i.. The outer husk is first v> '•••I by moistening the grain. The grains are dried. Only tbe < kinds of wheat are used. arr higlily indorsed by those familiar with them. removed by sifting. It is n sifted like other flours.42 The Boston Cook Book. light and spongy in texture. with none of t b e obj< tionable features of Graham bread. because it is all digested. Any t t o u r containing much of the indigestible bran causes i r r i t a t i o n of the digestive organs. all the food is hurried ttirotigfh the alimentary Cimal before digestion is complete or alt tbe nutriment can be absorbed. and t h e lo&. even the finest flour. made of poor flour tnistd with bran. ^^ flour. The first requisite in making good bread is to u ^ t . is worse than no food at all. which i& I-SM. coarse granulated a.s albuminous material can be supplied from other s o u r c e s . is retained.
and vvvn the marks of die skin. are Archibald's Extra. If satisfactory. yellowish-white shade. when made into a dough. should it nave every appearance of being good floor.Haxsll flour 1ms a line granular consistency. or sticky. and buy this same brand us long as it proves of uniform quality. flatten. clammy. Louis flour feels Boft and oily.The Boston Cook Book. it is not the best. when squeezed by the hand. purchase whatever amount is required. It is estimated that one bam-l of flour will last one person one ywir: which gives a VHIO of proportion by which-to buy. and every year some now brand ia announced. ant) gradually form into lumps or cakes. and known to he good by personal trial. Taylor's Best. It is exlrava-fanl to buy poor or even doubtful flour. the same flour may be known in other cities under different names.stay in & round puffy shape. while good St. There are others equally good. Some of the varieties sold in Boston. and some oF them are amusing. easy to be kneaded. it is elastic. If it feel damp. 43 of a creamy. The floor may come from the same growth of wheat. The names given to flour (ire not a sure criterion of the quality. The best way is to buy a small quantity at first.handled. Spaolding. ^Vashbum's. and Ire ground in the same manner and at the same mill. Marguerite. Uwuyli . DO matter liow much flour is used. will . and mnkt it into dough . anil runs easily through the sieve or the fingers like fine meal. and be sure the fault is nowbere else. and will take up a large amount of water: while poor flour will be sticky. if not reliable. then. And the same brand will vary in quality from year to year. much longer than poor Hour. and yet the miller or the wholesale dealers will brand it different)?*. and retains the impression of the fingers. and yet not make good broad.. do not condemn the flour without a fair trial. Corrugated. etc. Every experienced ooofc bas her own tests for flour. or spread itself over the board. Good flour holds together in a mass. and will never seem to be stiff enough to U. Most good houseki.^pers Rgfee that flour is not improved by long keeping. Brown's Best. But.
i'. having discussed the subject of the dour. t b e next step in oilier is the different ways of making it into breadThese may all be included under two -divisions.i. Louis flour for cate and past r\ ^ tbe bag.• sugar of the m i l k into . Haxall. etc. as the least dampness causes it to . 1.: >• :••. j^i • i. ir eh. ! . are decomposed or recombined into new c o m p o s : -. The I. Bread.i an-in. Fermented and TJnfermented. Flour should be k e p t . and the best St. starcb. what is it? — Fermentation is that clmn»t> in organic substances by which their sugar.-:L1K' or hanloii. ^anseg it to c o a g u l a t e 1 .ce. These fermenting substances are iu great variety. and warmth .i! r> moisture. bome of t U t a o fer> . for bread. begins to decoinpose 1 . anil those without fermentation. M v\-. For small families it ia better to buy wuolc-whe-at fl««r by the bag or half-barrel.Ui^U'. ••-. or it may be b a s t v tM.-... in however minute a quantity.!!. and the germs of some of them am always p r e s e n t in the air. moisture. The oh-oholir 'fenn-utatiua is thai whirh is p r o d u ^ d in Bubstanc-a ru-h in ^ ^ r or 8 i.th*. when introduced iuto any other albuminous substance. nm. tbo«« made by fermentation. This change ma}'be spontaneous under favorable conditions of air.il by the presence of a ferment-.The Boston Cook Buok\ flour dealers think differently."-artel . dry pla. . ferment is some albuminous substance in a state of decomposition. Now. There are different kinds of fermentation.. :i cool.. becomes s-tit-*). ami ULMAS il . b^. as a much smaller proportion is needed (or -n . tbau for the " stuff of lit*.aiMimiuoua part of the m i l k . causes a change which porvmJes the whole mass. as tl.o fruits anti K r a i 1 1 8 iroiu which wiues and beer are made.n is the change in milt w h e n it The lactic / . by pOSl ire to ti nnl «:Lrnith. :•••. a n d . A. and Uie bread made from it is coarser n»<l less light.M be) for these indigestibles.. upon the r e m a i n d e r the milk. the glutoa loses its tenacity. Fermentation.
But it does not keep well. this produced lactic as well as alcoholic fermentation. and subjecting it to a temperature of 110c for five or Bix hours. Acetic fermentation is caused by allowing alcoholic fermentation to go on beyond a certain limit. and then baking it. a i>oition of the gluten ferments and changes the starch iuto sugar. they seize upon the sugar already present in the natural fruit juices. Leaven. allowing it to rise again. and is not generally liked.The Boston Cook Book. Bnt since the chemistry of veast fermentation has bee'n understood. Now. large bubbles of gas appear. lactic fermentation will he developed spontaneout/ij. 45 ment germs are present in tbe juice of grapes . and with no objectionable result. then. and tbe bread made from such dough will be sour and heavy. left to sour. and if the dough be kept warm for a certain time. moisture. which swell the whole mass. and any that may be added. In the grains. or a piece of old dough. by making first a batter (as the semi-flatd state is more favorable to rapid. Alcoholic fermentation can also be spontaneously produced in dough. it had an unpleasant sour taste. A familiar illustration of this is the change of wine or cider into vinegar. It is nut always convenient to wait for dough to be raised in this rummer. sugar. bread-dough contains ghitcn. adding more Hour. but as soon as the sugar is decomposed into alcohol and carbonic acid gas. and convert it into carbonic acid gas and alcohol. In converting the starch into sugar there is no change evident to the eye. yeast has come to be considered the best ferment for producing alcoholic fermentation in bread rapidly. and then the sugar into carbonic acid and alcohol. and under the influence of air. and warmth.chemical change). Bread made in this way is called salt or milkrising's bread. and though the bread was light and spongy in texture. and then mixed with the new dough was formcrlr need . or in a temperature above 90°. . so we hasten the process by the addition of some active ferment. and starch.
sufficient to cause alcoholic fermentation . In a short time a £prn\ it»hyeliovv fi-oth. showing there lias been sotmchange in its composition. from flour and" potatoes. and ouly become mixed with the juiise in t h e winepress. therefore we mrimifiu'tniv it from various substances rjfh in starch and sii^ar. Ii' grape-juice be filtered and left to stand in a warm j»l»w two or three hours. Eacii little cell consists of &. oj sprouting grain.n vaveloping skin t>r membrane. Teast. and cling to the e x t e r i o r of the fruit. particularly in the juice of grapes*.y fiud congetiiul food. i-oumiiun^ n liquid or sap. it becomes first cloudy. aud gives off bubbles of gaa. u?u:illy barU. Veast is therefore one of the simplest anil smallest of v«j5*. more porous.\ : home-made y e a s t . Under the microscope it is found to c*m»i*t of numberless minute rounded or oval bodies wliith are true vegetable cells. aud that an active ferment mav he dissolved out of these yeast cells. Tlwse cells are easily propagated in any medium where the.lt for our purpose to know that they grow in the juice a m i expand there.The Boston Cook Book. then tbtv-k. But it is enon«.—. and seem to bud off from each o t h e r and multiply into many millions to the cubic iueh.-t*l>k> organisms. Ymst Braid the Result of Chemical Changes. collecte on the &« rfatt. what is it t—Yeast is a plant or germ of the fungus tribe. or whether they arc always floating in the air. The natural developim-nt of yc-tist through the a g e n c y of plants is too slow and inomneiik>nt a process to rely upon . iin-wcrV \vn»t is made fronj malt. \iridaA pronerly ninde with yeast undergoes certain chvmical changes which render it lighter. " Whether the germs or spores of the yeast p l a n t uxist already in the juices of the living grape. is not known . They grow or expand froai tlie luiiiuteat uiii_n> seopic points." neither is it known just h o w they decompose the sugar of the grape. or layer of 3'east cells. more plea*- .
It must first be transformed into sugar. . dry. All starch that is not changed into sugar by the process of cooking or before our food is eaten. . before the alcoholic fermentation has changed ..• -••.. and more healthful. in its efforts -. and the ferment of the pancreatic fluid. The escaping . and difficult to masticate and digest. '•• ::: !v ilcr than the dough. Wheat contains a larger percentage of starch than of anythiog else.'.-. we try to expand the doogh as much as possible without destroying its natural sweetness. Owiug to the peculiar elasticity and tenacity of the wheat gluten. and. or ferment of the saliva. and the greatest possible amount of surface be presented to the action of the digestive fluids. in the chapter on Digestion. It is generally recommended by scientific and medical men as the best form of bread. and more convenient for general use. and the salivary and gastric fluids are no exception to this rule. and the sii^ir into alcohol and carbonic acid gas. will be close.—that ia." Any fluid will penetrate mare easily through a sponge than through putty. The yeast changes some of the starch of the flour into sugar. and baked at oace.-. We learn. and biead made simply witli flour and water. and of such a light. spongy texture that all the starch cells may be ruptured. \:. and it is tluin exposed for some hours to a temperature of about 70°. Good bread should lie sufficiently soft to be easily crushed in the month.uvo times its original bulk. rises. is so changed by the ptyalin. The flour is moistened with some warm liquid. and when this expansion has reached the desired limit. that starch as such is not absorbed into the human system.r i. yeast and salt are added. " Powdered alum will dissolve in water sooner: than a crystal of alum. Any process which produces this change for as makes our food more digestible. because more easily digested.u\«i <.i(h the elastic. glutinous rJongh into a ma. Thi-. this is very easily accomplished by alcoholic fermentation.The Boston Cook Book 47 ant to the taste. To obtain these qualities in bread. Wheat starch in its natural state is close and compact.
not a nutritive food . usually soda. and the rapid decomposition. The first method is only suitable for mixtures which are to be baked quickly in a very hot oven. causes the crust to assume a brown color. is harmless. By the introduction of water under pressure.—we check the formation of gas. or muriatic acid. The etarch cells are ruptured by the intense heat in baking. but if the gas bubbles burst before the heat has fixed the gluten wall. But Rochelle salt is a medicine. 3d. There are no chemical changes in the starch or sugar. the liljfi'fition of gas within the dough." and those who are ill (\o not often need this particular form of medicine.The Boston Cook Bool: to the acetic and soured the dough. This is a convenient form adopted by many people who think it hard work to make yeast bread. like gems. the elastic. and the air obtained by vigorous beating. and in such a proportion that they neutralize each other. highly charged with gas. if used only occasionally. The gas escapes quickly. The usual method is by sonic Lr. and all such bread must be baked a? soon aa possible after mixing. — This is made without yeast. produced by tbe intense heat. and "those who are well do not need the disturbing influence of a medicine in their daily bread. the bread will be heavy. bat i* is not practicable for home use. The latter method produces what is known as aerated bread. and forms the crust. This gas is produced in the bread dough in various ways: 1st. with either sour milk. Unfermented Bread. etc. and eaten i named lately. puffs. spongy loaf. When the chemicals used arc pure. and leave only Rochelle salt as a residue. making a light. Throua.!) ignorance or carelessness this broad is often made so that there is an excess . as the union of an acid anj :m . hut the principle is the same as in fermented bread. this bread. cream of taitar. and kill the ferment by baking the dough in a hot oven. 2d. By the gas in very cold water.dk:ili. aweet. The alcohol escapes into the oven . glutinous dough is simply expanded by the gas. glutinous walls of the air cells are broken. namely.is-generating compound. some of the starch is changed into gam. or the tough.
and to some extent poisonous. where only a quarter of a cake ia used per- . when away from stores or friends. Compressed yeast cukes. It is convenient to know how to make it well iu an emergency. the compressed. and it helps make variety. The Best Kinds of Yeast. It is not impossible for a young girl to succeed as well in her first attempt in this art as the mature housekeeper who counts her loaves by the thousand. where she can aeither buy nor borrow r are questions often asked. Ii is not so difficult a task to make perfect bread as most young housekeepers imagine. always ready to use. provided she learns the best way of making it. > it is injurious." are inexpensive. It is best. and uses a reasonable amount of comruon-seust:. and is not as indigestible. A pint of this ferment ia equal to one uup of old yeast in starting the new. auoh aa the "National" or "Twin Brothers. there is nothing equal to perfect. when freshly baked. Simply make a thin batter with flour and water. and let it stand in a warm place till it ferments.The Boston Cook Book. There are three kinds of yeast in general use. •Dry yeast caixs. Who made the first yeast? and how docs a young housekeeper start her own. like the " Vienna" or " Fleischmann's.— the dry. home-made yeast bread. But for a bread for general use. and then. when perfectly fresh . and generally liked by those who care more for economy of time and trouble than for the quality of their bread. when eaten hot. for bread for promoting health. for bread that will keep well. if used habitually. for bread that will leave a sweet. But for a small family. clean taste in the mouth. and the liquid. and is full of bubbles. — oaeu of which has its peculiar merits. as hot yeast bread. for bread that will yield the most in bulk from a given amount of flour." are excellent. in the form of small biscuit rather than in loaves. 49 c f alkali or a residue of alum. the best form of yeast where bread ia made in large quantities. or old housekeepers assert.
and Dever added till the boiling mixture has become lukewarm. they are inconvenient. or for those living at a distance from the stores. and does not dry quickly. and keeps longer without souring.. those who have used them both ways with equally good results think the grated potato has the advantage of being made in mnch less time. and wasteful. as iron and tin cause the yeast to turn dark-colored. than flour yeast. and the hops and ginger serve to prevent the yeast from souring by checking the fermentation before all the sugar is converted into alcohol. who shall decide when housekeepers disagree? Every good cook thinks her way the best. The salt and sugar assist in the fermentation. light. bread made from it is sweet. People who are inclined to shirk think it a deal of trouble to make yeast of any kind . The yeast for starting must be fresh and lively. they also give it an agreeably pungent taste. To this many add potatoes and a little sugar. because the3r contain more sugar. Porcelain or granite kettles for boiling the hops and potatoes. and earthen bowls and wooden spoons for mixing. expensive. As to which is best of the many varieties of home-made yeast. They are all good that make good bread. The really essential points are that the water shall be hailing. the only special advantage of one over another being the greater ease in making or the length of time it will keep good. but there are none so independent as those who make their own yeast. As to the comparative merits of grated raw potato or boiled potato. The simplest form of liquid yeast is made with flour. • haps twice a week. are best. aud some add ginger. They have almost entirely taken the place of baker's yeast. Old. and boiling hop water. if not used in too large quantities. so that all the cells of the flour or potato may be ruptured. salt. potatoes are better than new for yeast. Chemists say that the potato is the best form of starch for the growth of yeastPotato yeast rises more rapidly.50 The Boston Cook Book. .
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