"5' 1
'" "". ,



./ '









I 20

. ······0·······




.... -E-.

EL CIDAND -.····· E~"CONQU. TA •. S

1 1





N···········.IC· E P"----;ID,' •.••·.·,Q ..•. ····· ·IILLH
. I

Text by

Colour plates by ,A,NGUS MI,cBRIDIE

D .'. C' ._ID1l F 0[' Dr. Ad a Bruhn de Hoffm eye:r, Institute de Estudios ' ibr . rma.s . ,:n,tigla.as.~Jarandilla ..
'II ...

Artist" :Not:_
T~e artist wi 11 : 0 d ~. ieate th,l. COtl0W~ pbt'es rnn this b: .ok to. the memorj r III _.l ue Rona.d. E , ·1 ton,

}.] "s.L pll!.lb~ih,
_: 1'1

d in re' t itall' ], Os prr:y. an ]lrupr hu of Reed C onsumer B ouks .L~d. kn:]n Hous ~8.J, 111111.· m &0 d. Land r ~:'N3 6 .• au, d -ll' "k1a:Fld ~) ef ourn . '~iin .apore and Toronto

Reader s rna Y ea re to l'IIJeD It tha l II .' 0]1" J nal p:3li,Jrtings . .'01'J1 wh ich h c .tour pl. tes in [hi. ook \'. 'T prepared are available for prU"v;!l,te sale, All
I 1,

reproduction ·p·ln,ht whatsoev _' . retai ed b publ is her, _.~ '~11]U i ;ie· shou ld be addressed to: ~ ".co' pio ' .all '
50 I'iih


© ( ~oP. "gil [ 1·88 .& ,. d Int .rnat] n~J Books e


B9 (~ ...ice), J992. ]9,,' _' 1[!l9'

Bartl .'sussex TN'33, oE'

P rmined under the ~ opyrigh .~ .es~, lLS and P .' -'n ]g88 ~no pa~ l of tl '. publication rna} be reproduced r d in a: . br1\.~ I tern, . ir ~.r: nsmitted ]l1n~ rm or h· mlY]]rle,:lDS lei.ectm nic, electrical, chemical, me hanical, optical, p-_ OlO op~~I,n'~ reco ;odin (rr oth rwi I~ '\J\ '(1 cut: he' prior permissi n of the copyrigh own r. IlqLUx'C 11. .. mld - . addr ssed to the Pub~~~ l!1l"S;

,-. " ri~ ". re' i,V!. ..' par" fnull any fail" d €Jilin ,fo. th . pUJ p~se' private sltud:y re searcb, . lIl'~tidsm, or revi \1V as


. .he p"U bl ish I: r .... l tha L lJ"JJey can enter :i in to grc 'orr spond nc u 0 f1 lhi matt! L

fl' .

i ·o:~ Da vid le,
.d and th
l. ...



11 .I!]


I' ary op. rauons . 1.'


1.1.· .. ries e

Fi' mset i:liliG eat Bl-im"u

Pri nte ,. 1J]~rtD l 1111d f1l"inl[ 1Il~1I

td, l-locrng


If you woul d like to I • eive more amio]'m,;:ltion about ~pr{:y~flniLary bo",' "he '. SPI.. d\le :" r i a regular rewsleu 'T \,\1]lirh ~OI lain articles n 1. tid intITbrrnation and special offers 0 ioin Ii' ". r,~ham~

pl a

'I!.\ it to:

'0 ,p-, y "'i1i:mry M,. " .. D!!r'_ fiO' BN. S., =1Jj .:h .- DL;. -'1I"1!!I.1I·1t [V ~:I A A C'IllI"V N ,......&!i... = _1Gl~UllaDt 1"11.~.'1..

Ei Cid sums up much of the sp ecial character of medieval Spanish warfare, I t comes [[-om the Arabic al sQ)yid~ master or chieftain. and seems to hav-e been. gi vein to Rod rigo de Vi var by his .N uslim foes But 'was it given in recognition of ~1. Cid's victories against Islam In the 'Reconquistat--> or b eeause ~bD5 Castilian nobleman was as conten t to serve beside rhe Muslims as to 6gh' them? Rodrigo de Vivar came from the lesser nohillt}! of
The 'Very
11 arne

Castile ..H~ 'was.not on e of the ,g.feat magnates, a nd his successes were sometimes di st~'sI[I~~.fnt.d such to

barons, The- popular view sees :E:~ as a IC~hr~fjd.a:n Cid champion whose earl 'Ill vicrories ga.vle leadership of Spain to, Castile rather than Leon, but who was then exiled ro Aragon through the machinations of his rivals, El Cid was supposedly obsessed wirh the Idea ora unified Spain and rhe defeiBLiIrof the ~.J1oo,r~ " while his capture and ,guve:rnmeul[ ofl['usUm, Valen cia :~sportrayed as an ex ample of cult ural harmony under Christian leadership, ·H:-' is also believed to ha ve hal red. the .AJmora Vl, t.~ African (and cons equend y ba rbarlarnTh) tide 'whruch [11 ,,,, rea ened to engulf Spain, Anothe» view of HI Cid comes Irom those who study the civilisation of al .A.~ulai'tu (.Mu~~im. Spain and. Portuga l) ~some ofltv:hom, note his acceptance of ,·::ralb-A.ndm~u$ian culture, and portray hirn almost as an Andal usian fa. '[her than Spanish hero, Perhaps E·] C,id ~r,3S simply an adventurer, one ,of

S em p3 vor-- -'W1l{l< ~e.~~ed Muslim c~.~y B~d,~jO~ the or .in the 1 ~:IGOS on [y 'to' lose ].cto rhe Almoh ades j us t as .E1 Cid s foUo",rers los t Valencia to the Almoravids ..
The story of the Reconquis a, or the 'Chr]stian eonq uest of the I b erian peni nsula ia a el assie ease of history being written by 'the winning' sid e. For hundreds of'years tbe M'us~im period 'W8~ dis-missed

nBJ3ny seen on d~- turbulent rrondct~':1 eom pa~~,a to' the ble

IC~1(r.rusH.aJ1 lfusJim .....
P'OIt:t ugue

Giral do

1:3'. :maDNilIsmpt.g~l :1!nV~d,'wi'th.a li:riIlo- .
,BGR.i1U~ ,Ci~mim'E!iP;I.;Ari;u'$


100f' 'iIlIi",

mge piec~;!OiQf' :neaVJ ,~ lli-'Dr.' 'I rM· .ct..:ildl

f,li;lf. A.pI!l!!c:aZyp~'V!!! :fi.gh~s 11]1;1::· 1ilie.pomim'e .. d1W'H~g'
In -1:leritd :I!.~~5i:ll



Be s~ ,~;r:;Miimg a
,OIUJtil'i1.' ·~fim11: Ii



:5 .'·rt

_fli_ ;~e.l". \ .. \. ~_.



i •. _..

Ib .~

.d o,g~ilIIIc;r-pe.i":bnpliiil.
'Ii.. :1", _ ...:iI..~ M!!OI!""j.(lli1l!lM.0D.."

f~·agmen~ed states of I['he " hristian north was c hangi ng; Each faced diftereO'[ 'pro blems, The


ki'ng of Aragon had been poli tically weak and chronicall Y short of mone Y'since the I O~hI cen tury .. Urban militias appeared as C~ rlyas the 9th. cen tury in . eon, and were certainly a major feature in I I rh ccmury Castlle, Such forces included m.0L11 ted {;aban~r(}S and i.nfantry .peoru,. CabctilettJs were sumrnoned more oftten. I~han peo,~;J while southern rt-on.'~. r eities (a,ted heavier military burdens than those in the nort h.' he I .W'th and :12 'th. cent uries were a ti ITI.f' of population expa nsion in Ch ristian ~UfOlJe" and
nor h ern Spain was soon relalti,\n.~·~yoverpopulated (thou.gb dlle ciries of the ,:.uslim south \ _ere still m uch bi gJfer than those of the ", h'l"isd~n north). Christian confidence and ,m.ggre&SlOn ·\;\I,3.S also seen In the Iberian peninsula, Y'C'l there was no real Crusading attitude b efor dte ],2 th century, and even then religious motives were ofien ~J'oonda:r-y to po·]-i.6ca] or eeonomic calc ulatio 115 •. '~n. this. explosive situation warfare 'was domin ated by mountain ranges and grea.t rivers w hich tended Ito provide defensive frentiers, while a. road system created by 'the Romans and lex tended by the Muslims ch annelled :major CB. m pai gns,. Spai n's fierce clim ate also mean t that 1l10St :fi.,glurti.ng took place ill summer 'O.rautumn. Cmsdes varied greatl yo run size, somede ',endiu,g b'rldges) fords or p~es while the big~csl served as, major operarional bases,


an alien interlnde. H·~],e.:' uslim .', dalusians n simply being 00inq uerors justly reconquered, In fact these Andalusia ns '"fe~re of mixed. ori g,WI1. '. ' he

Muslims were descended '[i'om ~,oc~d converts Arab and Berber immigrants, an d northem or eastern European sla ves, hose who had remai n ed

C,a5d,e~were not however) Lhe target of ex pans "o,n: cities were the goal of all conquerors, their seizure usua Uy followi ng ye,ars of raiding', the destruction of
snrroundlng agric ultu f1C, ,9: blockade of trade and finally a .sj,eg,e', Iberian '\-, rfare differed from. that of the rest of a wes tern Europe ,in. .i.~s emphasis Ot1 'migh,t cavalry ~ light infantrv (rnnc]:[ld.rung archers) ~ a lack of 'body armour and on :ra_iding rather than pitched battles. ffi the Christians pushed sou ell of the sierras and
0,11110 ~he

'Christian were called Moaarabs ~and [here was also a siseable J ewish populaticnr Family and tribal d ~visions were now poli t~.ca]rather than ethnic, the cnrire community being Arabised ,in culture, though generally spea ki ng~an ea rly form Spanish in their homes. By '(be' ]:~th century the local elite '\Va8 Iargely demilitariscd, the ~r,my being drawn



etl'ti~e~.y from European slaves and CHew

hwgh plains, long ..distance



The A,nnies ~ Islam ,ith~ll' til C'Jlllll'ies) ;,Sm.ill. wonder th at when the Imayyad CaHpha.te of 'Co:n:l,[]!'va. 1(:0].[25,

Afd'C2JJ, (see MA,

gadas by cavalry forces increa.~ed 'in importance,
The P eninsnla had, CJOUf.s(:; been a cavalry arena since the time of the I b e1"O- elts, ~ 'I heir tactics of C repe'a ted at tack and retreat can be compared to th . Rom an tuts(rtes:el t1ejensO'ftS ~the Arab kart wajtl'tt and the ~:aer S:p\alli~h 18YrM' fo.>YJ·. !Of cou De these t traditions we're constantlv _ refined the soread of .r-


lapsed early in the 'I: rth ce 'L1Jf)f!, it was the Berber and Slav ;army which fought over the' pieces In

md their pu ppet Cal iph were defeated, and And al us, fragm.e'n ted in.' 0 '0 umerous

the Berbers

petry s tares known as lava kingdoms. : eanwhile the situation amlong the almost 4

~ '-----"-"1<1lnr"ods ~ ~

The M1ul,sUml ...Christlon fronlt.He,r
•••'.",' ..., i 0'3,S • ...... ~o -,", 80 _

,_. -


II~O 11.210

iii,!!' !I'-.' il ",.

,.,''., ••''''.''"' Ai mOhlg ~i2~. I~~ 0


'" .~ - t rrli4l h5i-'oo'hi'llJ"\L'iI - ..~~


'l rad!:il: rOl!Jt!2:~

uperior Barb and Ara b horses gi v.~ even gre,a [emng advantage to a cavalryman, culminating in thejin.ete ~igbt cavalry of la ter medieva land ren aissa nee Spain .. Both Spaniards laud. Andalusians adopted the Middle Eas tern palate-curb bit in the r t Lh. century thou ·11. Andalusian saddles and bridles seem 'to have belen. ,s:-n1i at [0 rhose of I hristiaa ~ Iberia, ·\1\,~ea.ponsike maces, cavalry axes. sephisticated l W'L1f~ul'try weapons, composite bOI'¥YS and a cominued

, •

or j ave] ins a lso set

I beria apart from he rest of



, ,


nl~ljta'riffi'Y' isolated- swords being impom'~,edJrom many parts ,of
WIC:lU,rn not

Europe .. Yet the ~egm.'QID1, wa

Europe while eq uipm en t a lso eelme ftom the rest of the A-1uslimworld. n terms of armour' Iberia MO clilJerod. slighll,y 'mID coun tries to dle nor th '"
Separate 'mail coifs, round helmets ef one-piece construction or cxaended [0 protect the :&ffidc'si and back.of'the head were quite advanced and probably berra fled .l\4:mdd ~e Eastern ..ru uence, On the other nA
h,~nd iron h]'m ~s were rare and ~'.P nsive in h Clu:-hrtruan. states w:hHc]'] ardened lea ther defences seem to b;a V~· been v!'jf~degpre-.ad both sid!e~of the on. fron tier. The bi.d.. COal, ts men tioncd in some sou rces e



were proba b[y of b uff 1eat her , 'though hardened cuir /Jtllliil'i .Ia.m Ilar '. f Easrern inspiratim nlay hav·, b ~ n kno n. ... m o hristian so Ci~S. .',[0 . ak ' f "lvloors wearing cordwain' but this \"!J'8S a soft Ieat e ori:] an. - .a,: . in ,'.lordova and probably 1". fer-red (0 light 1 ather clothing worn b scunl,
I ..

I'O'~ .,J,





c. l: 0"9


F ormation of :slmora vid movemen Il in w tern Sahara, ragmenta -[0 of ._orth .. ' frica, AJ moravids ra.wd ..hana, "..'aifa 'slaltj ~ri,bU'la~J'to ,rng-ii:m.Ptt.ror oj C tile-. eon. 'Cap~1J"1) of C'oi'lnbTa bJj PO'f,higcll., Ci,n~war j as il -Ln.

,A.] moravids
'11/Jtn1~C ,oj

S .),:11"


r Morocco,
& ,

ca.p'tU.li _, - -gi,ers"

·r·gional peculiarities inch ided '1(1 lb. [. hr;wst~n sid e, a .ustom of raisi ng newly 'Pf10a c~:arum' d l· acl rs on two s:p ear-shafts, and austrong, . lm l anti-feudal . 1an: pirit whi ch echoed til . upposed tribalism of _' ndalus, . . 0 the sou tl the Andalusian eJlit~ had adopt d Egyptian rather than I . rber fashions .• n sh. \'\ ed s r)'IG],n,g reluct net to n w ar ru rb~Uls, rh se being reserved for religious


~o85 ~o816
m 09'4~

, cledo by r 'astil«; Almora "ids fl' 'f id.

u· lirns __,k '

AlmlJ(am:'ds ,d4~al C(M,~iJe-Leo~ at ?Jall,aka, ,. :J . ra ids conq u 'r . -:ri '"a lus" ~ ITII El r id Se-lJ;eJ o.lt'll'io. .


the mili'lary sporred scarl t cape in pired by the '.'p: ish capa,.
~,cade~"S whik
1:108 I ] [0

AbruJ'ftJ-r.n'ds difeal Castile ll.'t Cowu.egr:a {Old IQl_ m:Q' autonomy of Por u.,al ]"':-0 '_. nised by L eon. A.lroWl'llvith bt.riege ,El Cid in Val'nu:ia. .'a h of . I ·idJ. -lm,()Ulmds. dif«l~ Chrutiaru (it '-,It!-J.






]']18. ] U! ::,

las - laifa k· g~ CfJPt~f"t of' SaragfJs:rca' hy Al6:eon. Formata n '. ~'. mohade m ,yt!men ].

(Main Mu Hm-. hristian conflie ..~mill i.tali:es) IO:rr

i ·rocoo,.,

1. ['~n. 1 [25

aH ihar ,in sndah .' fra,gm'enlalmon n to taijli' pert:


sta..es, t


,,]l.ti-A].m ravid revolr in CWClO'V3". ,Cas;lil, rarmge:r A ruJ'al ."., : I • on inv les Po 'cu.: _.' Kj 1'1g of I. eon recognised as overlord of

::.·.a.var.f," I :rn,3;gl

,8 nd


A1lmoh,~d,es conq uer



C •. I ]:4.:[-7

at/tat A lm(jr~lJidsat 'O~riq~(f, Almohades defeat Almoravids, captur 1\ arrakesh ,.

Almoravid s
A'lm:oh,~de~d feat A1moravids in Tunisia, 12'[2






Full :i ndependence of Portugal, Cap.mr;e t1 Tuu:isitm teas! ~J' ·.orm(11tli~ qf

,CIiri..f~~(Dl' {lUiance dllft'a,t~~ 'lmo.luutrrs al Las

Almohades capt ure Seville .Almo-

At (l7)aJ de Toles«. Almoh ade civil war and conflict ~d.th
.1;;" ounda

:[ rnSO I:rn:52
I rn.,59

ra vides 'Dee 'ito M~jof.ca" 'Caphl1~eof L isbfU,i hy l;)(Jri'ugai and .En.glish Cmsaders " Alm ohades recognised as [".lers cf
Andalus ..
Almohades 'COllqU elf Algeri it" A.l'nu'JIIAdt!s d:ri;'{Je. .'.rOfmQ'1ZS' j.,o.m Tunisian

don Tunisia , 12~'9-35
['2'3'(1 ['2'30S

CC!p,~JUe qf .... Jl.qjo,-,a bJ' ,A] ragon.

~in.al 'r-eunion of Loon and Castile, 1:bn Hud controls most .of Andalus;
, '".ly,an.l1"d'i C ,y n.~~Y·~ .Ji.~er,la, . n t]'l't',·'

coast ..



Jnresmineat war between .' eon and

I ]:19


Castile, 11 lmoltoxie:s iCtlp,~Uri! illuflcia~ Castile and Aragon agree future pa titian of: md alus, im.ohxuies dge:aud' tIt Sa.'l ta rem " Almoiztides difcat ,Castil~' at i!J:ar~g; Alm ~ ra vids or "daj'ol1ca seize 'unisi a"



]'2'46, ] 2'47-58,

Cast.Ut dgeats: Gr{l~:O;da'a:/, Jere~., CapilJte of Cordova ~y ,Ca'slile'. CtJ./),~UJ'C of A 19t1rve ~y PwtugaL Captl.t1't! oj'Vfilel,1Q.a bJ' Arago"~,, GTlm.ada tJa:Jj';st11 rif ,C(lJ~ile'. A4uslim :rt?:lJoll [i~ lauth.ern Valentia.


npttJJ~eof ,cllill' hy I·.·.,{J.' ~lile" Ioun _allon 'J asrid dyna 'ty in . ranada ..
~'2'5,OI W..;.52-I lO



Marinid . ynasty


F es,


Periodic civil w, rs in '., astile, 1(' .L' if . ~ng ·ouu 0.: . trance ~n,ua'ae~ . UlllXUl ~ difl!fJiecl. f",our i\1an'tlid (!xpttditions to Spail'~" .wIlirl1 re,r;olt in Valencia. '.rng on ese eonq uesi f···.· icil y. VVar be tw . n ra.Dlce and ~.~., . :,on~ :

.i fil lA ar in .'.a'· ti l -....11 m(' asti lians ::' de 'eat :ranco-Casrili ans a.: '. ·ajiera. Anglo-Portuguese lr--3.ty'~gnod for eve,"



:'ush'm ,~ uoU in 1~dnllui{l. Extim rion of A]lno~lad,es by M'an [fl)jids.

-'ngmo-Portuguese def .at of Cas ti ~ia. , -]-Wl vasion a t .. u barrota ,. ~lj
. nch adver
urer, , e uP'Y( ·a -arie in u


nam.e of. a. tile ..

.,1. 80

W4Flj W+.20

Cas tile captures Ante,quera
CaPt&1~- oj'"



euia hy Portuguese. Portugue e occupation of "fade.iraL~
-( -I ~. •


Arazon defeated b . :cno. ··e.,
PQort~jt' . :"U

t a.' a]. nia,



asti le and Aragon agree partition of : ..orth ': .rica ill ex p c tation of COi nest . Cas tile captlJ:rl!.r Ta1~ifa .frown .A4{i.n:~ids,. . ivil \: ars in Castile,


of .:' Z01'1es. Re bel no bffiUity of Castile d. rea t d by
. cup


roy mists,3't"ID1ed


W44 .



civil war ..

Cl~ptl,l.fie of,

A. ~'l~nJi,ports


~.3,r ~,3]"91
[3;2 .'

':.'astil« ,ap~lires G "braUar ..

[ ~3Q' '.Ji

Cas lilia~' .invasio.n d'efeated' ordside' G~~(ilUlila. m¢9 .'latalonia occupies .-ardinia, .. "b.'ltlUaT retek. ~ by !G'rtrnn.dfl" ~4-70., Marinruds capture Tlemcen, m·47· 9
Castilian Jf~-t d~fealed by



,P'ort.ugu8S! ~ "ibral'tar a,goi~1captu1ild' by >(lS,ll:le, .'.~arria,g1f of 1Ferdinand Prince of .tileand Isab lla Prince of ····raOll., ull asti i n.i onq ue t of' nar ies, 101vil war b [WI. n Cas lilian~PI(H~ut
,j .

// aritll~d in uasion defeated at Salado. cyl1ue of Al_g'fl,'C'irtlj ~J ,C(i.'",ll'le, A.lge.ciras :





IsJ.and ..

g\ . .'' alli a Ice· and C _! tHian .. -srag. nese alliance; victory 0,' I' ~astilianleads 'to unification of 'n und r Ferdinand and Castile,-Artl'€J(It ttllulu.er Aing.Jo1:ll of G,anada: eJr, ulsion of Jcv. .ill_~a 'til

IS,' '~9 [ 3,S.8-

Marin id occu pa don. of 'T unisi .' '~IMinids lose Tlemccn,


' .xpulsion

of Spanish

l\~ ulims


violation ot 1:49·' urr ender t· rm ..


The loose feudal structure of Spanish military organisa tion is reflected in troubadour epics of the per;ioC]~'w ncluding the Peema del C·i";., ~. en the area' s y
frontiers, particularly those b tween Christend om, and I $] am, were not v,ery , igidly defined, each sidle hoJdi11.g towns "\ hile the heavil y raided zone




w hoever

was :S,[l'OmlgC[f a'l the time,

On the' other hand French mili tary in Aue:noe was now fe~t, m ost 1)1' rongly i11 Caralenia, ,A, cav at]:~ryleU te adopted die ul~1 saddle, ~[raighm.-legged, r.id~rn1lg posi ilion and couched lance of typical r 2' th een tury knights, plus shock-cavalry ~,~cdcs, of close ..packed [ormaliom, designed 'to break enem y ra nks by w'tdght or momentum, }Jl~]_~hauberks became 'm,orn"l [or:nrm.OJ1" ,though. seale armour probably remained ]u use and rna y indicate a surviv ~dof Arab-I slam ic ideas. 'Qu.ihred armour was certainly used, either alone or ,"\f~ t h mai l;; and clearly reflected slamic inJI uence, Br.igh dy ICO[OU red cloaks were a mark of the military class but were normallyremoved before

of 'modern !C~ valry tac tw,cs was not al wa ys a.n, ad vantage, however, The diffic'U~ty cf remountis g when using a ta 11sadd le
and long stirrup landed marry a horsem all in trou hle whe n f;:u:ing lighter and rnore agi ]'c 'M uslim cavalry,

com bat t" The adoption

,CenD:J!li1l: 'waill..;pb.que &@m dlle Sa~I";3JPaJ]au· ~i!!li


1'1;sllu;W'S ~.h;ieJd and, '


(l.ar,dD l\.'!I:a eEltm,l Tu.!oti -)

IK-.ai'ded per'haps







'~lm~n :r.ouml,

. ~dl"l1 1l't:h,


perhaps more significant military development was the wides pread adoptien of crossbows d,w.:ring' '[hie ]'w th century: Spaniards


more '[r.oaps v ere


na.'luramly incloded siege e~jJgin"een<~ baggage train and the


to resist counter ..auack, Mu~Jim probably led the w~y but Andalusians were 'Qir9,:~y a, armies operated in the same '",ray and both sides [C\V 'yea rs behind. As elsew here in E u rO,pe this ~ d to dee .loped SY,SI[ ms ItO. ixch ange or ransom pri sOnen. e :By the' ]:[,3.r~\S 'hrw~alal1 fr.ontier It(YVfn:s incorporated C a decline in ord w na'fy arch :O'wy" yet for various f'\easons;~such as the remoteness of S-Omerf~a'llS and such regul atione ~n their charters and Dl0St of IIhe continued influence [rom North Africa, simple : HiI[.ar), Orders ,a,]S1:) had sp cial centres for this archery survived right up 1[0 the 151['h century'. purpose, Eat:1yin he' 13th cen tWJry a sp ectal Order Morale and figbtin,g spiri t were streng the ned by a of St, 1._aty of~e~cy was created speci fi,l:€JIJ~y to cantadof \\f ho rode ahead of lhe troops, si nging heroic nego tia te ransom s, M uslim, Ch ristian and J ewish 'tales, such as, that of E[ C~d, doctors served on both sides, while towns built ~ he' !. lhristialt offensive which began in the mid- hospi ttJrus to care ('b,r ,tt he Vi.rOlID nded, Such concern s


rn century th

foHo\tV'ed the . radition


earlier wa rs

and involved
were raids air

forms, of campaign, ,.'irst there va.ryi.:ng magnitude designed to seize

-d than elsewhere in Europe, but the[i~ were m,a'll.Y darker sides,

havemade Iberian warfare morecivilis

such expeditions were carried O'U~' by mounted trocps, and were of limited duration, Then then! were longer-term campaigns ill tended lID seize and hoJd terri tory;
Iivesrcck and prisoners;

Leon By the' :1 zth cen tu ry ~be Spanish, kingdoms ass umed
that a total



inevi tab le, 'E,H:h


kingdom claimed legal descent from. th. 'V~~'i\gl~)thic 'Ca5,tile' s ate overthrown by V\4 uslim ,A,[,'2I1blS in the Bth The 'fn~litary systems neighbouriag Oastile were \Ceotu f'} . but I eon c] ai med more: its rulers projec ted rooted in 'those' of eon .. In the late [I th eeneury a thernsel ves as " U"lPerors' over a] ~ ill berian slateskjng' or baron could give arms to any free man ,run Christian and Muslim. Leoo had ~nd'eed taken the r-.tu rn 'f'Ot lTd litary service, while ~quipment could lead a ~ai118C Andalus, but its c~,aiml to empire ,~]~O be ca ptured dj rectl y from thefo or purchased sounded increasi ng]:y hollow a the I J th cen t 'try 'wi~h. th profits of booty, The division of:spoils was, drew .0 a close'.. evertheless Leon, remal J1.1cd a in fact, c~.reru]]y regu].atc:d throughou t CastHe, pot~rrt fQ'fOe'and it - military aristo cracy b cca m . D~wfftl"ent forms of warfare were rc Bected in rum.crea!j'i ngly feuda lised, .'i d'S became hereditarysummons to, service, ,Fo~t:Jad(}' or ~ue'Jte were formal rhcugh in the rsth century a knjght could still pass ex pedi 'ions on horseback - while defe nsive actions 0:11. bis arms, arrno ur and horse to an heir' on I.y if he' against len~,m.yraids \\fe.n~called lapelliila. A,.;t,ubtfa and. died in actiorn-ifhe di,cd. in 'bed his ,g,c:~r11 verted to arrobda entailed siege, pitched battle, frontier guard ~he king, rban min ti a, i~fan try rOrCi~g were, or garrrnson work, .Fa~lure to answer a.ny such how ver relativel y undeveloped in. Leon even by summons led to a fine or jernsClderrJ ,-his eventuall y the' IS th century. evohring into a :~blrm oflrr,[l[x '\o\ridl.which a ruler cocld play professional troops. From th mid-i ']th to mid-reth • enturies the Castilian army basically consisted of'noble caballuos hidalgos who fought 21LS vassals ill retu r11 fOir' :fiefs ,Q'W' pa y,. M~ny~H the king hi mse~f had their Ol~nl ke prolessional private armies or 1_rlWUI4:OS, These in turn ·\tvere'led by mem bers of the mjmlZJ¥1ler or lesser nobill I~Y's uch as El Cid, !Of increasing importance were non-noble- but prosp erous cabaiieroJ ViUanflJ who f01LJJgh~ in return for.' tax. exemptions, They could, how ever, lose such status if they failed. to attend. a twice yead.y' military inspecrion prO'pedy equipped and mounted. U rban infantry J)tao,ruts also fbu gbt in ~- turn. {o,r privileges, The jue(; or leader of an urban force was usuall y appointed by the lkillg", but each city section elected its own al(;'€J.lde or leader \-vhen it joined a campaign. o 'her vitam 'nll~ida 2LU~j ~iaries inel uded the oJa'laytrDJ scoe ts, .. hey were S)[]1}11f thing of an eli tee moun ~.ed on the' swiftest h orses and paid. 3" special salary, ike many Spanish OO]lt3,1"Y terms these titles often come :f:t'om .-\rabie. D uring a raid these (o'lf'CeS were divided into two parts, one of ~{rn,chbuil and defended a base earn P whBe the rest, the ,a1fet'la or raiders, rode on to do v 'hat damag they could. Rules gov,ernin,g HI cruty1s involvement ]n , arfare were enshrined in i'tsjit,~?'~ charter; dle'S(';covered run:r():rm.ati'Oiilll-gachef'iDg~ espionage, the division of spoils, comp nsa tien for'



'~;,,-- (Ctlimtea)~·~~t· :Ij·t'th (l'- :IU"iiIiWild i[ :u·II~I'a1h.C de '~OR'i fiB) Calat:Fava h NIYl~'V9, (Oituil!ldl R~dh!Cady '!13th iC. ,Ci3J Ith:. 'wii~ '1'5th c. ,~~~mi£iilt." (e,ll .Mj~egiy-a. hJJac- I~San'g;~gs ')i :Il\~ti--8I". to) Galle' ~r'~~1.:iI.'W~A.El:mDlhrp. P~b~ (a~ada·h 1I;;Jt,& {lEO ~~hd-e! d.eJIe_n~e:!3,m:if' Qaiftt!fl"~. ~ 'Ili.~milg ~,tbQ"'"Q~Il!lil t'O"~'\!ie ' , !p~i~Q~g :f'l:0ifi th~- ,di'"irnll.t: ~ll" Ia,l:e 'i[~ilh:-'C.

"A~ ,Alm~~~


'l,nJury. and the IX 'lIIle.f 1Vedieval '"pain 'NIlS" ' " ' he historian W'= it socie ," 'f:', .nised 'r " a: ' ~




A~ ne1lhr It rritory was overrun

, , cr -ated and' "[.11 • U~ do such co enisation 'l!V,a3 pont .neous, [omrd:y laeer beim

towns had' 0 -Ies repop ulat d., '. ,,-l film t

,fi, malh d ' Y the gov rnnn u. F r much oJ th I ldl century blnd~ between the D. niro River and In h sierra v ba d 't 01,;' 'try 10 which ' utlaws and esca pir g ,serifs fled :r ntn b h ' wdes. 'Yet th, reI '
1~' I:

of ur' Ian. militias
'~: 001'1 i, la

irnpor ta IIIt ]' _ the' that CastiH,an l'ung eagerl y granted was

new ch a[f" 'ga v ' new f~ dams and cnco uragi dJ .e th eoloaisarion 0' s I 11. m "iJ,N [ rritories,.' ,t ',' ,"]1 rras

mained a bartle 2: 0[1:). b twee n ': :br'''g,c ndom and Ish 1m mtil with th: ' faU of Tot 'do in [hit! lite , I th ce tury, th, _;frontier wa , agam put ihed south a va'~' [ronl the mountain, and onto th bigll 'hu s of N ew Castile, R aiding now tonk a n 'Vi,.f turn with large-scab 'attl' ru t :" g irtually b ing inv U1:! d n in 12,[h eemurj T oledo, ' Jesire far the rich win ter , razi u', lands of a " " nch a. .; so pla yed its :pa rt in ,-ronti 'r. society for 'w:h,r m ca tl i" represenb 'd ',11 0" vious ~ [roll 01 wealth, [.uch I milita y systen wa hru:,h~'Y ' ffi clive when !facing fr,agT.nelllled '-"AlusHm cit. "'tat wit. cornparabl --"I itias, ll, [ail .1., however l[_Wnsl. unit d foe ~ ]j:llu~ a I: _ Almohades. ,h
'11 T'





.rs faH fOn'ilY~ ed a log hard s"eg' ',ag 'run~l a g,an;sou ,,_ '20 mangonels plus an e\ en more '. termined ith c 'ti:z n m lL a: '. '.~ , a n}f tarved befe _:' :s, rrende ~ , and ev 'n ,- n the iurvivors 0, ly ca it ~ h latcd after th.· def '...~ of an Alw·'oravid r. Ii. f force, ,".mike
, nts ar Barbastro, the


I slim



ts of

in Aragon, from southern rane play d a. ' a'gn~"cant ro~ein thr T" onquest and colonisation of eastern S ail, [[~hOM: 11. official ,'rench participati on ceil- 00. by' the mid-rzth c tury, Fer ign i'~vo~vemen" [U: not, however, ge ofrLo a happy tart, 'he capture oft-he

1Vlitita- y ('




Sar gos' a'~. r . gi'",-' , a s I' bu b in which 10 ~iv,e'~Ind. what is mor -:~rh .'. terms were kept though mos. L Saragossans '.till pr Ii r d to ~""v fo Muslim-held territory, Alfonso, I of 'rago 1] - he :B~,u:1er' as he m, to b .snow "d:ie~ ft fa.Uin' in ~ .. J] am nu h
' ..



idins M'usHm Lerida in 1134.

'<, .uslim frontier

~ov .,


Bar ba






largely the work of sorman, ~reneh and I ta 'ian Crus d, r,s, wh . b nke - L - su rrender 'Ifm and s aughtered not O]1J,), t e de enders but also some 6 000 mal inhabitants " hose woms [J) and childr n

.• c·



at d _ -ago] '_.


\"1111 _ind


er [0 unin unde 0 e the second bigge ,J pow r ·n


hem concu bin later Ba
ru lers

dl vid ed £UDJon:' t~_. conquerors as [ ,O'J' t· v s, housa ds m re . e ' tr the Myzantine' Emperor as a, gift a~dl, on~y " y ar

',pain:' but I atalonia' "cult re, a 11e easternrm , b: 'ri,ztn state was diO'er zn t from 1110, eof th r
i '! '

retak _, by rhe And tlusian
~ h

of Saragossa,
,''00' W,' ~ tself

ristian ~ngdloJrJ1~",Effectively Ul1W ' ., unr ': rIC unt Beren uer I in ,~06,;1, i s name like 'lhal ' r I, astil oris inally meant land of castk ' or more accura t[ Iy [ f castl =h ld '1'" ~ hi ;', as a regie of w
I ~




north-eai t




Andalus a d its : ruzu~~, [y' ~froin 0 of, ra n in I I m'8ope ed the ~n~iI1' .' 'g),on t, graldua[ conquest.

o 11g,ati n was p'fOp eJ~,)' r~ dlcr 'l~lan. tru·' ~ ud al ~rm, dllough : 'fuer

and often poo~ ,1i,efS.,': ]1.]. ary .;' sed on '-: nona! ) [de-:'[:, and



concep ts of vassalage did develop under strong
"., evertheless Catalan m.illita:r1-"

rench influence.

obHg;~[man. remained confused and unclear, the ,gM"ea~. vassals of Barcelona t[h~'ady,owing 'the' count som e mili car'y' duti s wh ~ in 0 t11 r areas service le



been, purely voluutary,

Portuga l~ as the westernmost state in Christ ian I beria also d.in7ercd from the gCllera], pat tern, I t 'was nor, 1n fact, fu I,Iy recognised as a separate in tity by

'lh others until the I 9'lh Ce~llul'y and 'mulch. of Portugal 's efrof'[ wen t into preserving its inde ..
pendenee from L, ·on and. Castile. The country's miHulry' organisation was; old ..fashioned. 'or at least remained true tO an Arab ..Andalusian tradieion until the [4,th century. I'he army commander had ;3.11. Ara bic title ,aifae:r mar, as did t he alcalde

'W'~]I pin.dn.S



,tlJis MO~F<:ll~



'1I!Ii~1U!dle~io!de Bejr'~all1i!iaJI S~i.rru~, ~'rl,· iI'~Jf~ ~,ty];e p,aiiD~Dg :I, hUD m~ \!I'-e- ,3" llu~


!bmw 'Ofplt':t.IDiitiv,e'

,eO-iii it~~tJiQD~

(P~.clLQ' .M;u -,- ~



t heir identi ty, I ran 's revival remained within [he- 'I slamic lor-hi ~; bu. r il n I beria Chri stians

gov1enJtors of castles or :'oJIl''[i Sed ci des. Portuguese costume continued to b influenced by ,', 'ozarabAndalusian tY~'ESwhile an even older tradition may

ha vie lain, behind a contin ued use of longbows, h . c.; 'h'" blOug~, cross b.OWShad al r ~.H:, arso come In to tasr .~IOin,


were numereus, perhaps even an overall majority w'h]~ neighbouring Chris ti an states could d r 2InN' e lupon the growi ng strength of Eu rope beyond the Pyrenees, .:.Iost sjgni.fi.can t of all, perha pIS ~ 'was the fact that the Muslims did not appreciate the changes taking place to their north, hey were conflden t of cultu ral su.periorm~)f and ~n~.reaccustomed to 'm.]]i tary securi ty. 11: aim.ply did not occur [0 Uti{a .fU~,ers tha t tl J.~ despised Cthristi~U11S of northern "IIIJI!!..-~. '''Iii posed 'I' m.... eri serio- u~ ~'h-~~~'-nnit ,-'L lIfO W~ '" rll,.,..~,l~ a, least, until rut W9;S almost too, late, And why should they?' Crusad,es to 11e Hol y Land bad 'Y'Ct [0 b~,grn'n,
'l,.!!'lI. .... ,'L,lJI..~, ~I!.,. "'11, ~ ~ .... ~,A/!U!. ';

and everywhere 'VV hen N] uslim A'ndalus settled do'~~n after th collapse of the Caliphate of Cordova, a kaleidoscope of petty states emerged, some quite large others
cons]:sting oflii" tle more than one town. These hav

else cxcept',ic"ly,~

Islam 'was

victorious. Twfa states als dJUl\ered Irom one ane 'heI"~ . he

too often been disnru18sed. as se]f-dcfe,arlDg~, as Inviting destruction 'by the gro!\!!Iing power of iChl'b;:oan beri a ~ :3nd as surrendering '[0 an Africa n- Isla mic ,Ern,pi,r,e as; the' Ol1~~.y means o~-. prolonging the II " b ;, , ,• exis renee 0f'Ad]' JIllusran IJ am. S ucn a. \ I U;'"':~ rs, ,11. ,S
I" !,.' ','~'" , ", ", -, ,, I,: ',' , • ' :. I, I' ,

however oversimpl ifi d, These lai/a (par[y or group) Slates represen t an example of the Iberian tradi tion of regionalism ~a tradi tion directly opposed ~o~ cen tra lis111g concept of unification, Both stwUexist and can .sU'U he SCiCl1:i11 > p,ain. The taifas were ~~so part of a 'wider trend in I, 1th Icerf'ur~ll'shl:rn]lc' hi$'tolty and wer ' mirrored by events, in Iran, where another people, sru~n.H;2[r.].y conqu, red by Arabs in the early Islamic period
r~ _ •

biggest B,ad~joz Toledo and Saragossa, were een rred upon the tlu~glulr-0'1"' mili tary ,·W"ont.ruer zones of the old Caliph a t ~ he iniest were clu ster 00, in 'the south-west (a.t Gho;:rb or the' A~arvt:) far from ,t he Ch ris tian fir.ontier, '\-\1hi Ie some were ru led bl;:l an Andal usian aristo cracy which thus e:~joYlE:dpowe:r for the first tin]c i~]1a center- '. Comparable fragmenta t1.O :n was ulk:ng plaice in N'orth Africa; in. fact C ut a and T a:trug]le'f ~ at the ver~J'
l' =


tip of Morccco. formed a l;(lifa state, ha\viW1!gpreviously been part of the Andalusian
!Calili,phau~,..~rom c. 1: 1[]160 to the
I 07015



ruled, by Barghawata Berbers, a people who, having evolved their own peculiar :re~igion" were 1[0]:1sidered infidel by ordinary ,Muslims, Though powerful enough to :fi,e.~d, 1: 2:<CU::U]i horsemen, rhe


.POlrt'ii~,~ih~",iDg ii)j, wal'r..iJl!J~ 'with :a riBid :€~ce-.!I:)Q'v,emg ~Slur 1~11 Ms :ItU!Ii:m.'1ii! an-d,ij.l~ : kil~e~:ha(ped ,!M" id, C+.'Il"II,i5 (i:N ~ru SaR'ta 'M~'rifil IIa, ]Re~ SiiUlr.n~8sa,N;A"ii!;B:r.~).

patently hoping to reunite Andal us und er '~tsown rule, Other'S, Iike Saragossa :~Uicd themselves with rheir Ch ristian neigh bours, geuing some assistance in re turn. " \'riSllr.f:~lre 'was not, ill fac~~, n ormal w,ay' of a. settling disputes a.m,ODg the taifa stases and. 'w':h, n ~ faced by' Ch'ri· tjan threats tbey paid trihu te, made pacts and encouraged w~utC':r:"'Chr.is~ian, iivalries, Some Mif(z' states, including Seville, retaliated ,ltvi'd] raids, albeit rare and otten. unsucces ful ones, rone 'the less the lai/a states d ~d ha ve warrior elli CC:'S t hough there was less class dl£rercn :tiation th au, in, [he Christian north, [anll~Y o.r tri ba [ ties 'being tn,oite impor ant, ,Mi.1:ilita,ry' tenancies often centred around small castles wer . w ncreasi ng' 'Y hered ~.ary', while garrisons were paid as wel ~a~ owi ng semi(eud~~, bligarions 'tot) the local Q'(lid gov'crnor or o casde .. older, TO'\1V"ns ere a more im nortanr . source h w ur' ,of military strength. These were similarly domin ated 'b,}," gf1eat rami lies as is rhe 'case 1n m uc h of the' 1Vfiddle ~€JJ;SI~ toda y,~ '\ii;/ hile even the Moz arab 'Chrrusti an nobil~ty seems '[0 h a ve risen in mili ,Iry importance. Though the role of infantry increased as Islam went on the defensive the most prestigious soldiers were' still cavalry, These followed ,I code' of conduct similar Ito the ":~ru~gh,dy'j.d,ea~s of their i Spanish counter-parts. Their skills, organisation and equipment of mail and quilted armour, Iong swords and spears, hC2I'lTY shields and helmets were clearl Y comparable. Face-covering mail coifs are mentioned, as. are leather taml shields "hl1portf!Jd from It he Sahara, 'Vi,f iIDi] e crossbows were now the' must ,wmporta'll'l infantry '~veapOn.m

Eargb awa ta were eventuall y crushed by the Almora "ids efrer a fierce struggle, Ceuta faUmg ill [ 0 "FJ,f", ' "his left the :!1~f1ce Saharan 9 ,Almora vids

The Almora'Wds, 1:085,-125,0 The A4 rifabi,~in.- or Abnora,v,ids as th!cy 'wern'l known
in Spain, originated as ~ .fund,a~]1Jj.enIUiJ.~s[ ISlamic sect anlJcn,g the' ,Afrol-Berbers of the' wes tern Sah ara ~5h,o':rdy before J ~J<50'. As 'i nha biJauts of th deep desere they owned few horses and. fought al most eru:b;"'elyas .inr~ntry" thoogb, combat on camel-back ''L''laJS also recorded. Later Alrnoravids reportedly had 3,O~OOO thoro~ghbred camels, saddled and ready fOir war, At fi.r,stl, however , they adopted, phalanx form ations in which a ftont rank knelt behind '~ong sp ears and "LaUshie~ds of tanned ory.x: skin ,vhi~,e rear ranks threw javelins. Later AID:morav.id cavalry also used :~,Oil1.8~ almost bodycovering shield s, Such ractics were essentiall y static, supposedl y ~,.v r n tr ~ab~'llgnor even 'pursuing a.

'poised on

8'1raies of 'GibraJi ~~'r. Elsewhere run, Nori h Africa a Fatimid withdrawal to. Egypt and an
invasion by nomad Beni Hilal tribes addled 'to the confusion, The fall 'of T O~I do 'to the Ieastilia ns and of Valencia to El Cid sen l shock waves 'tJrU ronghout the Musli 01 wes~., ,jB,u'[ what cou ld be do Jl.ie?'The kli/t1. states were neither s~T'ong 110r particuia dy rich; sam ,'had armi ' sof on ~Y'a hundred or :so ~1'DJ,en",A few , employed :N'(,rth A:ITill,can or 'Chris:dan Spa nish mercenaries Seville being one, B'I J Seville was more aggressive and expansionist than the: rest, ap]


defeated Cae.. A. m inori ty wore mai ~ h aub erks, and
all relied en curved daggers Cor close combat, The name flu r:r1bi'ti1J: probabl y reflected .hi s immobilityand fbrm~'tior;t rather I han the ribat or ror~ress with 'which itis often associated, Traditional Berber and l laharan tactics had illtongrelied O~ a barricade or Laager of'camels from which tribes:n1e'n
,] unched it

repeated charges, Like nom ad rae tics everywhere, this avoided u:ndne casualties among a
scarce m anpower, The ded ieared Ahnora vids, howeve f') ,aoclep ted hea vy losses, and dl U s '[Qf yF"~lrs

p(ro'N~dJvirtually invincible, particularly after ~~h.ey h,~d \--'\101;1 alli es among richer north : "aharia'!l ca v'ah"Y tri b es, The role of'such horsemen was now to break and pursue a. weakened foe, liVhi eh ~.n,turn add ed fI.e'X.rn bility to Ahnoravid U1CO,I(!S,. From the earfiest da y8 flags pb~;yedJ a ,~,el!Jding p~l'rt in battlefield control, again perhaps reflecting greater d lsdpline compared to other ~.: rth African armies, Although o the first Almoravid ~cad er regarded war-drums as paga.n devices, ~,ate Almoravid forces made great r use of them, particularly ~n Iberi a where dley terrified the Christians and panicked their horses, The most eharacteristlc feature of the Almoravid warrior was, however ~ 'his litiam. Of;" face vei ~.,The Almoravids 'were said to regard the mouth as unclean and to refer co unveiled peoples, as ,I ~ he :8y'"

mourned." ~
leader and the man destined 'to oonq.uer A ndal us, reorganised tID:l@e armies, O.ri.giJla~,Almoravid forces had 'been ,8 tribal 'ooml[meI'ari.O'n~, hut 'y'usuf changed the command stru eture and ereared a personal force of black s~,a.ve~ and foreigners, His bodYg'IilllB.Iid consisted of 500' non...Berber horsemen, including' Yusuf'ibn Tashfin, second Almoravid

iIlSl!i!~IA;1im@" !E!iUi:aitd :a'iii' 'ih ~ """,'I'IJ! '~e'"1"""'.1,...'ll.i-"".. ....~'I,: .. iIl' ,"'''''-;. "'~'_Iili' ,!J,DI .._ ~ IF"--~ ~I=~ ~ -,,", --_.. ~~"'-.J! ~ lI!'lIoUI"'~"':Ii 1Il1!i:'.Ul",,1; ...... r'lll',iIDe MGiD~-;te~r e[' I. D-o~m d!CII ,!jim II Cai!il!tiJ.~l! I[I:3!!i,--4~Q., H~iI'!i! iil~Wt-iFi!Ii. :ba,'ii.i'\E iIiIiIB.u ~.'W'lIlI :jI.~ S '$eil!r' ;r-a!l~e ; :a:md Wea'1I" pe;cuHrur 'Ito be



exJtIi:!:D!liJ!i).D~' li:iI!i'

,the V'iaom


s, iiI~DIil~g

'1I:!n~QII:~¢~. :1~I!eiC:k g_d[ ith~
di!i!: ~DWDI

'whalll:, :a;,'pCD!i"i8!

(r-miEDi ·P'~:i:I!!!Ij.t~r~'~Ii:






and other u'~Ca;miH.ar wea p-ons., ,,~ contiuui
Iarge nambers


use of

of camels also unsettled the Spaniards horses laJd~!o"gh~~n fact~ such animals had belen .m()\:\fD in southern And al us since at least Arabs, 'Turks, and Europeans supported by ,3, th e loth ten nrry" A bove all the Spaniards were further 2,O()O black African. cavalry, Christian completely oer-manceuvrcd by the highly mobile mercenaries as well as. converted Spanish prisoners ,A~m.onlvids~leading them tOI believe that their foes, C(](l1ti11 u.cd to ·fight rOiI~ the slmoravids and their were much more numerous Ilhan they really l1\l.·, '" successors both .jn A ndalus and ..."orrh Africa Even in Iberia, however, the Almoravids ultimately throughout the ]ate ~1-11 and reth cen turies, relied ,on 1:" infantry ph:a~,an:\.which now also served Cavalry also be 'Came more' jmportam than ,~S a. sale haven from. wm.lch cavalry GQlIl] ld emerge caw el -moun 'ted troops pal"ticularl y when opera t~· and to which ehey wou ld ret 1JJI"n. This was not, of ing j n Andalus, There the high number of black course, a new tactic, but it~had been refined by ~h,e' .A.frii,cansl in Almoravid armies, man y recruited '[nun A~hn.o\[avid51who a] SOl gave their horsemen greater freedom action, Yet the ,e] rnte status of meum cd Senegal on the sou tbern frontier of: the empire, had ,21 rerr~fying effeet on. Christian ]norn:~,aJ.,e:~asid the troops should n'OL be' overemphasised as there arc d U.Sf of massed d rums, unusual forms of bow i:e,por-t~ of men ridin.,g mules in battle when h,[.)]~s.t'!~ enormousl y ] ong' ~.eathe r shi elrls, bam boo spe,~rg were unavailabl .. " "


introduced, to be rapidly copied by the Christians The hlh.l;sii [ton tier was strengthened m being d e6 nded 'by local mi litias and :re~igru,ou_s volunteers backed up' by AJ moravid u 01 rs, :.••. trategic cities ,Hkc Cacarcs were garrisoned b}f what can on ~y be' descri bed as Muslim 'monk-soldiers', Such mell· in a ~ong-es(abHsh~d Is] a m rule 'tradition ~dedicated part ofd.1.eir lives to ~JH;~~e' d.udles b. fort: 'rt:turnjn,g to :~'~u~i'J families. In Andalus he Alm olr~vids not 'llnl y checked the 'Christi a n ,~d, ance bu t rolled it back a short 'W~ y. They also took over 0'1" rendered tributary all the tllif.(J. states, and strengthened an already ~Qlv.ring sense o[ jiJuui., This concept of Holy '\tVar 'was however, almost en th~{~~.y concerned '[101 defend Islam ra the r than [0 extend it, IOn the' other hand an atmosphere ofJiktJ eroded traditional Andalusian tolera tion, Such erosion similarly accornpani 00, growing Crus ader ideas en the Chtwsti an side JOf the rronde:'I!'" Persecution of the Andalusian ]\JIoza.rabs increased and a habit f head-hunting \\1' as

- he Late 12th and I 3~h centuries were culturally 'rich rOlf' the Ch'~i~,ti kingdoms ofl beria, But it was an a, warlike era, nOI[ on'[y be tween two fli ths bu t also between hristian states as they squabbl d ,Q\U!f their spoi~., 'he destruction, depopulaaion and agricul tural decline of h~ge areas ill whathad een 1V[ slim Andal us 1asted well beyo,nd the Ivndd~,'e' u ,Ages,.,Further south. and east much of th _.Mu~Hm

[ 16

and ". ozarab PI asantry ~ 'mained, yet a massive ex d us b} the Andalus ian ~ ~ ~,ft " a'p in the



here the 1. berian ili tar ~rd. ers W rl.. in the forefront, dealing with such situatie ns .. Apart f~'O:ln,their military role these Orders 'had thn '" other vital funcTions:: local governm ~-t ]n [.Y' as virtually outside .rO'·~ eon n I~ .~U .i us . rur al and the promotion of c Ionisation. The y, ,a:_e land '(0 secularlords and tri d to deve op towns, ,a ious Orders like [he Templars and Hospirallers Cil111.e' fa dy on the scene but tended. til) ~egard I b ria as a, S-o'U 0' rev' nue fo ' op ratif ns in h It()ly and .. ~:e C·· uentl thy wer ' riv ._ 'ron n stil an repla .. d h pu, [y Spanish Orders such a chi", of Cal t ava, Santiago . .nd caneara, Hospitallers and Templars played a more enduring T().I.e in . ragon. and sur ived for som.· dl - in P1flugal. until b-ing replaced' y ational 'rd ] ., uch '.'rd"rs wer not, ho\! level', the first rnilitar T' the rl oods in I b r ,. . T -m orarv contra t· - 0] ties a had be n rarmed Ito defend BeL hire :in ] [22 and Arlonrc al del Campo in r [IQ 8.. ,!\l1 tua,] infl uences u

.,r. ry'"

b etween sucb or anisa lon sand 'br h rhoods' .carIisonin,g ribats alom .he . ]u ian fronti r also seems likely.Rcligi n r till pl Iy d

a '. iral uart ][1, mamtaining

m.~F~.·IC, though

be th

sid S W[ ..J:'\· also' xtra rdinarilj fond. of capturing trophies, enemy Hags bewng 3. favoured item whil the ~:Iuslims delighted in capt 'lr~ng [church bells to b cenvi rt din. ,'m q e lamp .. ~~' It r ] [4.8 the Mful .ria . kingdom ~ t , irtualh ,no
l ~ ..

help from the rest of Europ 1~U1S'I(]in, :,n ~.',.,i. ' b ..i~l' . channel led tOI the Eas t. The: paniards wer' . IDlen alom 'to cope with the .pr[o J. ms of their own he major pro blems cam.' a fre r [3. gr~<p;" t


ilitari br akthr ugh Y U \<\rL_,, vie or over 'he Al .' ohades at L, s :N8.\ as to Tolosa in 12] 2 yet thex . " ad b~gun much earlier. Conquered areas were ~.01" of iCourse-lm·ui.r·]y abandoned, 'The great cities ~ m.w~i d with th ir sophisticated economic and politica tradi.tion :'.'In .....w Cas ~I-new to\'VDS with ~ . -1," fl·ro. ell r-t. rs sprar g up ... rere .poniJ might seill b come caballeros if the ' could afford the equipment,

&Jrlch~~l1ildDifll; [(t!if ·th ~1,'"~~~ij:I i~lw~I'"' (, ".g: I) [OiJl


(1t!!A:') or TmI




IBI.h~ .1I:2:iih.



dte m ,.


whili in Jd [. astile, s,'Dci ty' becam mo rigid, ~n, '•.\ u til conqu ~'r',d dl . .sndalu .ian hear' Iand r around Cordova, Seville and Murcia, even gr ater au~onom' 'was given to nil itar- , colonists, r. ]'.i, " .ike r ordova.. aen a .-. Baeza, , hit 1:1 '\I' ere t f1 main close to a, war-torn fran~icr (orr anot h "r two enturi ., esta -'lish ed IlifrllUJRdad mi Ljis and 1.agu . t or mutual defence. Th s e served not Or~11 against ,IIusH,M raids but also in th many ·astiH, n civil wars, ortugal's driv ., au thward was equally dramatic and had a .·i,mi~ad:yprofound effect 0'] the country s nilitary • UJ.I ural and naval fu U' '.·gail;) ho,'\ ever. the conquest at first brought rohlerns, up '0 alf of' some rowns fJlecin'. LO r 'anada or .,orth .
i I· I'

"b'aUey . ,gon '. m IU: ~', , an arid spa J~.l. pop lated andm .untai ou bind ~.:S was divid ed in-. 0 nri]wt'll!lr~ zones senl ·d by peasant in-fan Ty and har; .. Hi· n governed bv the] r 0\ Tb kings still rewarded th ir follower wi t n land .~

of which then


] -','.


L·iJ' ' \V~1l "

'were pL-nt~-- but royal pO\\fer- '1\~as af .... t': ., ~: 'tat 0'f a ~f \V b:·!rom~ 1 families ' ~re,~ ..

[the do p -'.. th, round ":" IjJencia,- there \\~as Iittle .: hristian -. tth mer' (until he _' luslirn ris]n' s



-o~., ,,~,a',cn~;- atalonia'

·"frica. In Aragon and Catalonia, united since



old .; mi-f udal . tructure bad been defensi, _. ~-hat \1-., J1r ed d n v '\'. Ir . r adily avail r,ble armies to hold down. huge n~lt\~' territories. SOUdl'OIf the' fertile

Franc (:'·~bi'-,nsia --,"ng Peter at th battl 0'-,: ur, t '\\r. S ri: us blows -0 a crown alr adv eset b _ preble ms, ii. L .- 's S'U cces-- r J ~m. .' cam!' to, the throne virtuall y pennile s, Hm. subs qu: nt seizure of A1[US.]i.ID ,~aj rei in an in [ restinz :, unple of ombine d land-s ea operations ~I,a~'a gamble that opened up' t adc aCl"OS' ill \-"!,.-I"t rn . _ editerran an, thus sol iu: tnal1J'~ [ f d!1. king's m ..y ]lifO [ 1 ·ms. Th

south rn rusade) and the do. ath of

presenc e of many Catalan mere n,~ry . oldi. - rn n N!rft " ; ~r~c, ' is ga\',e suhtl p li' .ca[ I. ,- \'ira: : lack 0 "luUy d. velnped Iendal attit id :8, in [31[h

Aragon obviously influenced the country s milit ,'. rgani ~at;,on ost soldier 1;JL__. oaid ~ profc sion als, l\n[·lia.~ incl uding ully ar In ed citi z .n cavalry, ' .,er ,fFI:' tiv hile til ' cities and church had 1: ,ore _, _~ - .. [\:v it' 1"1"1 -, ba :n,,, Evet ,I~I· king's h Au nee was. largely administr 11... '~'ID]']I in. the M L1' lim sou th :'.\ ragonese rule over "\-a lend, ~ wa .. tiule m..r , than a lnim al~y occupa 10. I he unreliability ~ the barons Inane ;3 full-time roya] army In obvious n c .&SJty. This wa .. now built aroW),n,_ the kill .. - small 1nf.mtlda using 1: .. _lID English French, ill talian and even ungarian m· 'reena]"]1 s, '-t \va'_' exp, nhr bu-- ·0 ' "011 . - as fou - d in '-ax. ',S, that ~a· und I' ]1 c~ crown control the , .0 . sigm1ifiea n t being 'that p,aid by the' ki n,gdom"g Jewi sh '.0 [',-" nit ... , "lgtlLl-ailt and almo t bloodle vi c t r was .' on b _. chiS 1:- lj,,\ ~ .rm y in 12.80 'when -;,J~1' Peter captu[i. d much of the rCOU ' try s nobililty by ,51 i: in, a astle in '\~ ich ,h '._ h~da,th r d lID '" Pi1 ,t _,g~un,t ilL. ,. , mrn But the king of Ani' _-0 had W' .f3JCC other troll, ;1,s a· ~ ell, abo\, all "~o \- US]il1lS who formed a ma.jority of the south. rn populatien. This area art first preserved sufficie nt independence :~' r alar" e par 0'- tb udal us eillite to rem' n. 10 C ] iCliri tian ,~ 'oz,a:rab l]rorbwii- y h~d ,a [~O play. di n ~nL __~l~ng110']' '. ven fo~e' Lh - 'agoo"e 'conqu L ro_

o 111uI y




i' [









In t he I 1608 [,Ol:r exam ple, the Azag.r~, fa;m'H}f held some mountain v alleys, 'firs~'as V~3S21]g, of ','" ='llW:sJirn Valencia and then as indep enden [ rulers, ,Afte'~~ 'the 'fall of Valencia the Azag,ra5 extended dl~] r- terri tory until the ~amily died out in E 2'76., 1\, u~U:mqt1'!J.ids ~bo survived the conquest administering a M'lltsliul sid ,-.JI " -,--:,~I ~'-' ,'J-'', witl ,_'" , 00 un U Y:S.I,-J;~ ann su P.P~) ] ng tne ,it'i;.lng \"V[ t 1 troops. .
, , " ,r ~'r'· -,,'

3th cent u ries. Regul a tions encerning eq,uipmen l became more specific: horses had '[0 be of a,

minim um q'uaHty l:fJ.iJaEliJ1:(},s' had 'to have shields, lances metal helmets, swords l mail hauberks and padded IMrp:ud sQfl~a'~m.ours plus arm and tJwigh defences, Certain tro cps such !!5 standard-bearers


~,OtdSI was '

a certain

a~. Azraq who, in

]'2'44 did homage fo,:r ciglu castles around a small palace' in, the Alcala valley, ,AI Az raq and his 'f€Uow :mudejar {'ta.mled.~) l\dlus~im lords might have continued in. relative freedowlJJ1 '~fcircumstanees had not pushed. them in to revel ,. I ncreasing Christian colonlsation migl"]t have beer 'Lh~ major cause'," and



it was eertainlvII a serious a.ifa~r. rouble bezan in ['!2 ,- 5 but really exploded tWOI years later. The rebds retreated hun al Azraq's mountains where the Y' seized more castles and maintai ned a guerrilla war, "C]'·'· crus 1_· .8., ,maJor _msnan 0 ffensi U.Ll,g ensrve aroun d .12, 9 and, almost capturing ,][]IJg , ames The next few

























r~ _:.






y~·a'r.ssa \~ sta emate

'while the' ,Ar,agone.sif: 'faced

France, 'fwgbling then Ilared up in I 2 j'~lj and 'two yle~n la er, ,"olloM,ng' A" C'" I,j'::]' , agreem ru \¥l"' ii;-'rn I'',' asu e, 'K~·" J~I" -,-:-, '. iauncnea an ,l.ng" ames I "."'!,,..J all-out assault, seized al Azraq s main citadel and brought the re hels ~)O heel, Even these e ents did rnot end A,nd~]usian participation 'ru n Christian armics-> Valencian M uslims Iought for AU" 2lig1011 against a :F r neh invasion Oll1y ,8, few ye,ars taler. . 'he role of Iberian urban militias con ti nu d, how eve r , to be more important, particularly in Castil "., Such troops were present at the great
" --," I, 1,,

fu:rth.· T' defeat in






','_avas de" olcsa, in [he capture of 'Cordova in :~"2',3,6 Valencia in 1238 and Seville in OM·]· '" t m2'40~ ",IJ.tH\S a 1 ong the 11h'· ~.mnu. r were ai- SiO a

,or Las


and reorganised in. the late




~beriatm. 'W~~,[!Jl![I!J;I5l. (4:l SIW,CfI'd, u'm-I,Jtib c. (~,VR; Pr~i\1"" ~,b.'1!Scnm~ Vitoria,)., fBl ~ord. 1$1" St, 'F.,e~~IiDa:IQ).'~~ 4udWIl' ,i!an '.]~e '-';Jtb C. (Real Ai.iIDJ~~, Madrid), (lj) S::-wol~iill , .,36 !L:. (lm.t~ru!iQI Vruen CliD,~D,JU~~ Madridl)., (I)) ~SW\Q\li'>d,IQ!f'5!t., H:;u"D.Wj Ar.apge:se?' _!c._lI·3~; (M;u it! dle' 1~'-_Ir.\fi1lef1'~ ,~ci~)~, {JE) SlW!O(F.1d ,r~ I~',3J:riin~s [la""c, Gilbrgl'it'llJ" AnclitdU1S,ii.t.m.? I~a~]y ,:/ ~il'i1lh·e., (:lBritL hi :MiuSiLi)Ddon). (1')1 Blatde caUll'd, !o'Gaj~e!te'i:I' 'N'Dlrdi, Am'emiil QI'" ~DJl:gk wilElllSIhDAU'I~, 'IHHi:'l",fll!rlill~ (~~galit~, @'f' lM\'I'SJ.nra ~mint'lle~, :N~!eria).I('e) FailddAij'lll, 11':,o:m :PiuJe-Drtc IG~d. ~~,13S-Q-I[4!0Cj(AFichaJeom" 'M1H!,ew;m~1 Ci!)r-d"Q,w}. (H) SWGii'd jj!.' :5-f[ ,"" '11'_1 ~"D ._'lm~" J M ~1Uii'iI1;Ii'jI~' '~.'!I,) J'Jn~te '1!iW,jl)~~..!I ,Ii:': ..'Ild ,.11'Ii 111' ,,," ~,!m; om!I:O "'·iiw~1lR li!FO:m IGm1:...n3.da[; la!i~ Iojdi C" (Met·"'Mus. ,m' J,\:rt ,_,~ 'l'oirk}m U) E'a;~ ew d_tl!jgg,e~:'~1P:~Q'~. ,fr.;om. G~dla.la;t)c' :Il,.. itb~~!I'b' :1l,5,m ,C. (In:8~nujto V3ilencm., :OD.ll1I JUaDl1, :~dridJ, (H.-,L,) ,M~t:e"~ ]l51th C. (.Aii"iiIllI]l M'~!'je-~Jn,! Maid:~d). (Ed N~ SiPeaii'/b~~ds, 1!,~th-]'$~h , (AJav;a C Pl-Qt'v.,:r~l'btselUJD'l~ V~~Dr.iia.). (O) Dagl!',. hd!a1Ju . i8rn.' :[[~'d!b,-Jl",tb C. (~~j,. ,JufiLn DY~O! M iCtimjj SiI!I(Fia]" ~;p) A;xle-:h1f',aa ,I,3,tb,-,iI-iltb Co (AllaY,a ,p~~~v" M'~~eum:j V'illliuia.). (QJ Spe:tr-b~1Ji~ 1l,orth 1r.3t1l,C. t"· ."-. 'Ih 'M' .. US.\Ij" 'M'..:II! '".dil'l; '"'.'iltt. ,H.if:'iCn3!~iO" 'aUin_~.l!'




important were the herdsmen th,:2IIJ,t they were exempt l];om other military duties, The oldest descriptions of an escort system date from the late I' '2'[ h oen 11 un"}'. ..ccordi rn to, 'these, the herds were g gal[ hered under an esculca or ,rajal{1: glLW.ard eonsisti ng of one caballero lor each herd of caul ; one for each

three flocks of sheep. ,A, leader or alcaldfJ was elected by the ua:ti'(jIi4€,ros b ' {o,re I[ he paJIiJf.ts (shepherds) and l}·{ulutlro,:r (cowboys) drove ~·he~r nimals south. The a entir ' outfit returned in March the esadsa being di .'banded, before the animals set ofr ,ag8!run. Fhis rime they headed no rth ]nto the high. sierras v i'th, a smaller infantry escort. This 'ran chi ng' system had a profound im pact 0]1 ]:3th century rhe overall command structure \,liIa" bei ng modernised, IS were tactics, ,Allol1s0 X call ed the 'Learned' advocated a OO'Re- for-nurdon for armoured cavalry I'hat '\'VB.S almost certainly based
on a Byzantine original, probably via ,A'ralic military man uals, Armour aud '-VIe-~:POin.~ ~e\v

Castilian mili,tarv develonmenes, By the end of the ~ .

heavier hone armour was: common, son armour
was worn over ra ther th an under 111 ail, and a greater use ofscale armou reflece !, the threat from

crossbows, Ha rdcned leather armour [Qr the Iirnbs and con ts-of-plares '~br the bod y were increasingly
popular; bUJ all-enveloping great hlelms and heavy • '1 "',..!II d as i Iron piIJ1 ate armour never b iecame as '~nnespreac as In.

ne:tghbou.ri,ng France, T11i~~ presumably reflected elim atic as much as 't aetieal COil ~ideracions. Islamic influence could still. be seen, ~nhelmet decoration. The mace was perhaps, more of ,3, symbol of rank

must also ha vie horse-armour.

dealt with the weaponry crossbowmen.

or infantry

0 ther regula tions

and mounted

"",hi' e Dn beria the sword, Rod, 1ts hilt WeE",e widely regarded as a sym b 0] of" he CI\OS$,. Paradoxically some surviving examples are decorated 110~ only with mSblnli"c arabesque designs but even with Koranic quotations ~raruJs],a~,t;d

aJ weapon,

'·.onlJ': militias were now involved in the in 0 Latin. 1[; has also bee suggested that a protection of'gr,eal herds '[hat migrated to and from Spanish type of single ..edgedJ falchion with an. seasonal pastures in central Spmrun. Until L1':H~ angled back showed - astern ,w nfl.u~~lc' via Islami c

~tuslims were driven hun d'[,eir last mouneai n Anda lus, T"his, weapon was certainl y popula and
hag, survived into modern, times as tbe machete. The distinction between armoured and light

ranada they too had used the fie grass] a nds much of tho ir terminology being adopted by the Spaniards, Both. sides raided each other's hi rds; and there wa abo competition between southern and nonbern Castilian cities, animals representing many a. Id,-_y' s wealth, V"lhile the high sierras provided su m mer graz] flg,~C he rich so uthcru g,ra:iSJarJds were vi ta,~, s "'fi,nter pas t u rt '. So a
fast ness around

hcrsemen, 'bu· 1 in their tactical lioles and equipfae becomi ·n·T 'Of';I;Io, d .it]" net -I II.l.. """ ]' m' ,p'Of.fl. "'"11;('!\IOJ I b WILL.. m of infan I[ry IN'3Ji ye [ to decline, despi te rhe [[iiIC t tba t SO(Il1 .. Peasant a uxiliarlcs were armed with primi Live e sl·ing.;, as la e as the mid-r 4th century. Jilv,ejinarmed mountaineers from '. avarr ' and the Basque
;iCO'II'1Ii'rIt ... L.Jj[ljIIl.,~ '·~Ir~ IIJ .LL.
'I "

'1mI .... W,IIJL,



~,C' rlol(L






~1L1~l., ,~

coun t~,. '~;. in wid ' dem and! as ~- e. ce arh S well ere in . 1- h ' .( I th century while : atalonia ,vas ~ rno u not 'nL if th ,nu 3J tur ~ f . bows but als . for its era S 'Q ....men . . nl on, how '\'""'J" 'W -' also the -om land of a di stin ctive warrier-e-t he t1lmug{1M~f. I 'i - name again com ~ om Arabic (al m~gJllJJnir-:raid rs) and te fon 1ed ~J profes ional b ckb ·n- . of 1- -. th and ~ uh e centur ra -Dim· se armie .... : om t1.1mugaooYJ were c. valr _ but WllQS{ f uJ l on 'OOL AJI \IV· rt lightly armed "vith swords, ja v Iin . or ".ros sbows an d wore forms of lea thcr armour. Nlan)' 'W re of iV[oo,ri~h origi n and. some ITl a y s tiU. ha ve b.' n Musli m. ' y rO:r~jl- d te bulk 0. " the famous :_ talan r . ra ... : - om'-,'a.ny~ a mercenary' t tha t ramp _g~d aero " Gr u.. and =na-toiia early .run the 14 h century, where their background probably accounted for dl ir ahil~ty to g ton .' well with Muslim Turks. At hom th -]: guerrilla ta c·.OJ broki i _ .. ' back .' r a ;'r' . h invasinn early m'n th . 3th century and t ey al o served in Arago 's growing empire in" m1dJy Sardi .nia nd « ls ·wh !l"1 ~ A. peasant nilitia or Jm'1uJllf'~',~ 'was S]m.~~lart raised in many parts or \~ on- atah n:ia L. rnaintaii th king 'Peace . IJ~d'uc -' whll1 : .fir U cities in I.~d]n--::rhose o' .atalonia developed nc~~ militi __ aU. d hermans dad s to, police an incr asLllgly tur _Ld n age'..








. tre tc hed over a go d a nd gm--eenwood 'n ea: .,.'--rh
le]it:e tf{)OPS


included archers,
mohade tactics

or I..

hu:?:z, Turkish

ong:un, Thoush



the 'arly' Almorax ids", descrn li".I: m) . n '\'. indi at, signi] ant differences, .H! wro .:
'IlID M·~I.IJO,",ln(l~n- or lmohades as. th: y were kn 1. n. in .... pain. or' gi n ill d as ,i31 reformist slami . sect in the mountains of_' orne .' ili .~ 'h· nomadic ·.fro-B: rb r _·~llin-ravid:.. \1 ho Lh[, y overthrew, U1,-'. dmohad 5 were strict}! Berber and evulVl d in a partially urbanised :. gion.. .heir mili tar) tn rue -ure \vas, consequently qui L· :..', phisti ~ cat d from an. r arly stage ... be Almohadc army va ', hot . r - ti n rgan ~ sed. OJ1J1J a. t ribal basi s Lhl u J i. L 'O,[l iill lud d b ac - slaves ar d Alrnora vid desert rs, Th blacks included ilabb(ll6~' drumme . responsi bl e :for huge kettledrums. l.n. fact 'lh· lli:n l , des made ~r.:, n g ater us' of war-drum than had their - red .~ors, I -1' b]gr~:" b iug seve al ards in cin umlen nc with its skin

a squar .ru·n the Hat land, .Jn all four srnd ... we placed at rank OftIle'n Vi/rm,'h ~on' spears ill th. i hands, hind them sto d a second Hoe with .P : and ·,a... Jj , _-hjl b ihind them \!-\I' - men with bags 0 {O., s (slingers), B hind JI S ood ,.rchers while th . cavalry \I\~ re ir the mi;-·-dl ' of the sq uare, '\1\ henevcr the A,~I m, __id horsemen v ch arged towards us they met on V the. 10 :P'~ ~ b aded spe.m.rs the j _ ·mins I he s toru s and v rrU1AS, '.,ome di d in Lh h __ :r' and th r turned to flee but then th Jmohad cavalry h arged through lanes whieh I ~ infa n trymen made in their. ranks strikin , U pOll the enemy's '"c_ ounded or fallen. If me .. lmer I·vi.ds attacked __'ain then . h y (the Almehade h: ir·.~n n) \ ithc rew within rh for S' of s " .a.-blade .'
I, -1

-'I~ie ormed





:2 'I

and U10l"eareas were treated as frop tier zones. These milita ry regions were governed by a w'Q'l£ and each ci y had a goV'~rnor or qaJ id ""ri~h an average' standing garrison of around aoo men. Following defea t at Las ,. a vas de T olosa in. 12 ~2' ~ 'lh, .pel~ Ahno:had.ie power. was 'lJ,:f101b nand loc 11 rulers


reasserted their independence ill m any parts of Andalus, This w.as 't10 be the third and fir :9.1laija pe ri.o '1. The second had blB ted lor onl y a few y:e~fS between the collapse of d:Dl(: Almora vids and the coming' of the Almohades, Yer in both 'these tater taifa perio ds small local armies, emerged ~ 'we]l trained and determined to p:resenl,e an Andalusia n identity, One of the most interesting revivals o:f the second. ta.ifl' period occurred in the west, in what .rus 'ROW southern Portugal. Here a. m.'ystruc named ,M bn f1i. . ...!l . 'nl ~If I~a~;ndeclare d L." mmsen 'J')' be tr e _c: san J (tb ngntee he hdi tne . 'h guid 'd O~· e \1\/11.00, l~fD uld pur.w.fy I ~s'] m) ) ~i'\o:n a a considerable :rono~,\ring~, captured a seri es of cas des rnn :144 and ahnost seized Seville, After various Il.pB and downs .1bn Qas.ru CI1 ppealed to the Portuguese fb'.f' he]p; and was consequently assassina ted by his own men. 'D urillg th is sal'm chao ic P eriod Lis b on f,e 11~o a. combined force of Engr]ish. Crusaders ~nd


I"firdfi~d dll!!Ij!l'~,@f'S., J~jJ '!PueT~olm;:uil!L- GaJU,da,,@ia.t"t,. flJ3di C.

Christiaua treated. the native Andalusians '\~,itb ~esp-cct: '~~.hil:e' sbu1JJgh't'ering' ,A] moravi ds, Th ey even sen t the son of the :I ast SU.ICh. tactics were refined still Iu rther in Andalus indepe nden l :khlg of Saragossa, Sa ~Jf aJ DI,awl a , and atl rhe decisive but close-run baule of Las -~avas south ,ru~ ~n attempt 'to'raise a general revolt against de Tolosa the' .A~:m,oh.~d{is. n(o,:roed their i~.eld the Almora vida, Sa;:yf ,801 Da wla had, j n fa,' L:) held .re.~ defences with, a chained palisade, This entered the Iands around ~I' eledo as ,8. vassal of the Castilian my rhQ:I.iogy of the Reeonquista M chains w~ which crown ever. since' 'the Almoravids drove his ' amily th the A.~m,J-~I~die' rul er' s gu,ards were sU,ppOS~clLI.Y' from Saragossa, bu his:at empt ~o set up a vassal [as tened together. Andalusi an state was short-Ii ved, Thrown ou t of Ana thel~ characteristic fea t ure of the purel y Cordova and I:.. ranad a, Satyr ~d Dawla went on 110 Berber warrior was an ancient habit o[ shavi.ng his rake ··.·lurcia and Valencia in I: ~4,6 but was kiUed ~11 ,i, C '·111· ~Id'· head. b~fo:n; battle, The ,g.rowin,g isolation of hese a q uarre ] "r~ I.~ 'I!... Q,wn•..asnnan $O~· ters, Th.e area ~ ms n western Iands from the' Ara b - Hd.dJc IE.M'[ started in dl, ~lfen to' a Ie ~ca:~n Ibn. 'M'a:rdl~urnlish,~, nown lIDO the k lIe ] l th century and led not o(nJy to the Spaniards as, "K"'ug 'T, obo', who h a ed the North disappearance of Arab cos ume but also '00 ~ 'period Africans more than he did the Christians, Though a of'Berberisation in, ,·nd:alusia..:nst~rle;s,. he' puritaniM LISt] m, Ibn. Mardanish spoke Spanish, dressed in cal Almohades were not, however 'we]!r ceived in S p~nish style, used Sp.aluslt ~roops ,3, nd ,mi~itl.£y Andalus, \\f here rich costu me was stil I p'te~,rred by eq uipmen tt and even recruited mercenar ies from those who could afford it, includiug the. military Italy, HIe 'formed an alliance \vru,th astile and elite, Almohade rule also seems to have' been deeply resisted the Almohades until his death, I n fact I btl .!IIardanish., ~;ogether ',,~dththe :. :·1itat·y Orders and unpopular and was largely rnaintained by foree, k the Christian conquest pressed south, so.more 'the = ortuguese, put up the only effective resis ance
1P'~::Jj!Ces !of II"-efrruac' ~~011blcd m, ~ ,;a.


Portug iese. . n Casaile the advancing




quantities o.f Spanish equipment available though, Ii'"''t" a'f"IId '~~cm'"....'lll· L'e~I,'V't..... ave '(:'o'u nd n1i1'11f""" h besieged in Murcia whereupon Ius Christian allies ~,~IJ, K ~)' u ~ I~. turned agai nst him" Betrayed and broken-hearted favour among Aadalusians dr],a~. I~hrir' North Ki ng' Lo b o' died m n 1 rn7'2" in~,truc'[i;t1.g 'his son to ArT]'Can allies, Ii,',," en Audalusian costume showed 11and :, m u:rei.a over 'N.) his Hfe ...lio:nlg £0' '"5 tln increasing Spanish in :8, ence I w hi le Andal usian u ,AI,lnQ,h,a,d,es" ~:nran were fj.'[)W more jmportant ~hGUl1 ever, being try The rise of petty rulers foUoiwing tile Almohade famed as crossbowmeo !Using heavy and ligh fer declin .involved i(ivi] \VI'!l"S that 'made the Christian (arms, of th is w apon on both ~a'lld,and sea, ad vance much easier, and this time there was no Out ,of such corutlSiO![l 011Ht:. trong state emerged .. : "orth Ail;can empire rcaud,y to reimpose h~us~im the kingdom of. Granada, The area's population eentral rule, :Instead the' Andalusian nobi lity had rJJ,~tijjraHy increased as refugees nod before the' ,Slq uabbled ,0', r ,21 mosaic or cas tle-klngdcms \\-rhU,' 'Chl"];sd~nladvance. Nblny n" the- new comers were attempting 1[.0 come to terms 'with, the advancing '~: rriors, eager for J1evenge and determ ru-ned to, a ICbr,ws.tiansm Local forces rna Y'have been dedicated preserve this last bas ciOll of berian Is] am", Yet I[ his and. well trai ned but they were f~\'\cf, 0nly those did not stop such troops rom, being sent to serve nearest the fn)lE1tler PUI[ up mu ·'h resi stance, and Castilian '~d,:ngsj'f()lt [he N asrid d)ma~ty ,- hich ruled once w,ey had been defeated the ,,¥hole of Andalus Geanada had also be-en vassals of Casti ~e' v r since ],ay open [0 conquest, 12:46+ Christian tro []PS from, the n,or th~ perhaps M '~,any' \lva:ys And al u s~ w arriors were now n an. P o.Htical exiles, sinllila,[;o:ly served the kwng ofIG-ranad,a, virtually 'i den tical to their Christian conn terparts as 'bod ygu ards whiie o~hen, fought a~ollgsidJe with a comparable code ofc·b.ivllll~ryand ald. Jight ']0 Andalusian mercenaries in ':,.orocco. the single combat of champions, It was quit III .--. ···'ortl1,A.f~l'ic:a, another PO'l,_ erful d y~l,asty hail, common [or hristian leaders to dub members of emerged from the ? lmoh ade wreck, These ~V,Cf.\~' 'the And al usian embassies as k nigh L~.,Th sir arrru an d ,,:,[ar~ nids ,of Moroceo, who also became in,\ olved in mcur 'j,"~~r£jo O"lI]mO""'L the same 'W,id·1L. ~". heavv II Iberian affairs; unlike thei r pred ecessors ~ however, 'a ~,_,,,~ !J...~.~ iong~~. lances, hca vy shields h u.ng on guiges, fun mail coils IUle Berb er Marinids ',"vre never powerf ul f:nou.g'h lEO e and perha ps, . ven faoe-...oorveri helmets . torse- conq uer what was [en, of }\n.da~,ruJ.s nor t~)drive back n"g armour 'wa~ now' OQ,mmOl1 ,a,'m(~jng Andalusian '[h. IChrrn~,tian Reconquista. ,MiH~~,rfl,ytheir tactics ca.va:[ryrhough rare in North Afr.ica", Andalusian horsemen also used tall saddles, a SIL[~w,gh'[-leggod ridhlg position and the couched lance, Occasional grn"e~victories like that at Eeija in I 2 75~ made huge t
!O!''II111 iIJ ":Ii, 1Ii""f"'II'lio'!:' ALlIl "'JI.ll~

the A~'w!rujh,ade~,.,Ev, n' uaUy. however, he "vas


'o::Ii ,G-ill.




"'l 'Iif!'.



. ],;










,1,~I.ll,V. '_~

~~ ¥lll. ~

IQ _ __

1i.:1 ~'_"_


__ "~

were trad itional b. in . 111~ ell the same . those of the .'.lmohades, altl 0 _gh th im] 0 tar C' of ms to hax d lin d. . Iarinid cavalry ~~.[ . ]1] tl '. quip d. ro gh '\'V~. h ~.a. h r ada1ga r .ihields little body arm 'ur anc '~~.ath·.Jy hon swords, Their low .addle w . Ii :tll uch ]-i ke he mod '~.L1 ridi g saddle, I ~~he very north f' .U 0(:00 r "he sort 0' [r euta had a soecial -01. i a thesur ival of

]",. ads "" 0' onl \ as it s base for pr vateers, hut n .N its def nc· were ir u~~Hyimpr gnabl before the days of gunpowde r. . uts was, ~:nfact, '[he .kc'y to

nav l communieations ~. tween North . frica and ranada and IN:lJ.i~, . its H. l~ remained p werfal erber recruits '11. "'[.1'1 \vhol '" ~T .'es could rapidly b ,-'m .ped to And lus,


~4th century saw a, further diveraence from _ a~ .tr· am "" '. t rn. Europ an styl : in the military quipm :']1' I. f'.' lhri nian lb. ria .. Tl er 'W' ~or

horse- armo ur . 1 d . ]l b :i ng loa th to Hgh t on foot upported by an ill-trained militia ',' rc . , owmen . p ar men iavelin-throwers and lin ,r .. lin t .ii-h' ca \ alry .incl ud i g troops from I : ranada fough (H1 tho fla .ks, Given th .good record ofI berian soldi r aga"'.1St other nor them in vasions tl . IC" . t astrophe at ~,., d' fa probably r S It d from .. mistak n . lecision Lf I h eir he vi er f . ~]I op n '. _~L • r . ps [rom .. ranada s ere ]fl fa t a. common feature in late rn and [4'th C ntury .... tile. "11 'Y 3lh las were effective not [only as allies but as fo' s du:ring rb ,- demic raiding ,of'he Cranadan .ron~ier-8o mu h so tha C._ cU[ - and aL__ ,t all other b [Ii " o states, d,. v-I" ed rhe . 0\ njin,~· igbt c· :-. ir', '._ h a typical quipmer I of such lro' P:' oeiginall eonsi t -d of a H h l . L ] h t_ .t, r shi -ld_ padded armour light sword and tlrVOI short S"P' Rr. 0 jav -lin . Some metal m tour was added later, bUll never mu h. E\ .._ I heir nam j1:~.lel(j \I. as a. 0- .. upti In of Z .n, [a the Berb r tribe w . ich '.e It III rv warriors to fiht for ran: d.a durin: this P rind astili an heavy cavalry also shot tened rh 11" lanees. perhaps .as a result ofjinete influence.
I I '.1 I _.
I ..








~·x~ pl '~ v ..ry 1'".1' 1 pIale __ 'rmlur in

·ar>y [. th

ccn cur: .·Ipa.rum.~.wh rca ~j. L· .. r eq U]f, rn n L uch as d e coat-of-plates and scale-lin d juc(j'U(! were popular .. ::00 v er heax Yll;r:gets t "prot ct tbr throat

th, ~r pop J 'nlY resultina trom dislik . , f' he e en

he vi r ~r at elm and visored bascinet, Further dev lopm n t of tb ' opeIDIJ war- at l. '.0 th _ 'Lypical d .,I la:ni~ ,abaCi· te. Many helme t were highly ' h d: cora ted or covered 'ww h cloth, ...uch s [y'! es resul ted lrom Islamic in' uence and more signiL

the special charact r of I .rian 'W' IW Ii J, \" h tie lig,. . val and IeI' IS b used oth n toot and 011 hOF ebaek were particularly pr .111]-nent, . ]g11']1' developed ~eathf!'r c .efences includina helmets, armour for the body or limbs, hoe. mour d kidney- haped atiara . ields of
, ICl[ t






': .foro.'

n origi , r :...


tho ~. factor '.. w.~_

handrnilit con idered arc aie b outsid

the othe

ry or··.· ..isati .

observi rs. -,~tNajera in I 367 UU~dcfeated C a tilian army of 'Henry of "ra t·m,ar censisted 0 armoured kni:- ts, fi.\tv· with

:b IE,'I.Ci!di ,eil~IUrol :2~ Alr~:a'(" Biier~ M.tll8,ya - e'.'llOI7l;, F
,'4JI: A.ndi'- m'I,IIl'l:I!i'D,m, Hilil. ;M-~I1.un,....;_.r _,~I!i.!!!i_In;g~ , ~-!Ji ~~_~£J:! U~
~ •• t: ,~_._




:2~ A:hm ad ~8iYf ,0:1 :Dawlai, c.'1l35


1~AIIUlaJittSiiao :8~ :mid.",lIlh 1[;,. :2~Le10Dese krug1D.~ early latb 18,. ,I~ AJm@':bBd~' ro Q,'ilsiMdlie:l"j, eady t'llth C,.

1 1~Portul1lese kDigbit c.13IO 2: Navarren root&ol~ mJd_.14th. C. 3: A.rqonese lmigh~ c.. 326 1




Ar,a_go:p;ese Ulh'~ boniGlnan., U46, 2::CiUt:iiti!a!1Il :pe.,aslIID't le~) I"G, 3:: Don, N,vam ,dJe :Luna 1445


].~ G:Ir'eDsdiD,e, fa ol'tso:lmel'l : a~e'mth Ci 2~: :lrenadiDe' ur.ha:n. :llli1ifitmmanj ~a!tei1.fiIr1. C .. G


. :: 1 Spani~h :tMjIflJd~1mllDe~~, :I:a:toe:m






1\10 hi] isarion s_s,··ms di . ered alons ..ari us parts
a· tilian frontir r with :!'r ada, ."'. Iving the MHita['), Orders as \'\.. 11 as lucal barons and large numb rs of :l1nUjia cai alry, Fn inti. r lords or a/cades wer g.f1, .... de. c ibed a, l eir g 'betwe rID time I.:,hristi.an: and Moo,.rs,,.and had as their primary f. .nsibility the maintcns n. ':f .p ace, leneath iii str In.g upp rte r of an . :ra: ' nese elairnan t to the a ~ ~[i1t throne, virtual ~ m a ni '.. Iati ~- ' he e~ ~,.. eli U g t _ m .. e the fitt 'f del r .ttl} or balleueros de mfuue whose d:uty was to track down l,U.om cia ~ ra iders, situation 1 Iewon a ',mx:~l victory 10,m be h" ~rf . ing o Next learn the (aoalt ros d la sierta \1\,h w r fronti r John II of astile at Olrn do in ]'I~. nly b v guards, a nd the alfaq,tltqll.U ~often J ew \\1110 a ted as disgra ed and •.xccuied eir ,hl . ·an rn te . h·..r go-l etweens whenever problems IIVO· e. ,f\ large . t.lu~Lim. mmunitv cur h d .n .be hri llal1. sid ' and thj~ ~]::;;0 a ted in '[I ~rmediarie . when n .. ,otiat]ng the n [ ase p, 1soners 'who. we ' o~ltte~_ .' .,n into the custody of . osques, i SUC~1 cful r 1< s, th 'Je wish a d· Iuslirn ' inon n faced inc-reagin: . he till ~y'by the ~ale 14th .int .ry. In. lat ']. ,th-I .-:-:,' h eentur . fa on- atalonia situa tion was sornewha L di -~er'i' t, ':. . empor'2l r)f rn ..jvw ]10111 ,of the o. untrs into the kingdoms of
I· 1 I







I'· .•



and. Rousillon ~MCl:·0 d- , in ~345 bu ~'the Ar3J:gonese .··_[,cditc' ra n ·a n ern p,i re ... . s now in, decline. l~ inances ,"'I~re ,a, ain ~O\\f and ~( l."" iffi'ult t pay the troops .. lrban militias . nd I[lu!:' somesen: wer-e f r haps more jtnpon am th an ever, he alnlugau, J' no ] ~ng': r fought Ol1~Yfor th ...~. rown









bels as


n' ~ atnances meant

·I1.L mat many .. ,~].'J"' :~J,~:f.l 'b., naroas now

ll, ..... lross-horder marriage

aeld fiefs in Ara 011- an ,ri e-ver .a, which led [0 divided 1 1)1' IUJ.S. '·:ortai n .~r ago 11es .. b roni a] .. families we re again rising in P O\\fcr" o'n: of the 1110st prominent bein that e DI,. una. varo una ~' as, one b~ron wi'~h a foot WU, each camlp:~ h be; came
I. .

I ~




persis t nt [hr. at from


"a trnI mean t f at merchants

and arti ans ';V'- re no, allow, d to keep weapons in their work plac " \vhiJe simple longbows wer still used in arts f the 0 un ry.. , 1\.1 ' nwhile th rulers of'rru y Ib rian states we~r, in, fi: ., ingl y concerned b ou t th wa y 'heir people ed, ~np II. bcular " '. i CJi"', ' sing wealth roded hi diffi renee ';, Som. regulations seem strana 0 modern ears, I~' I3:.0 ,~~,fonso of ]?ortugal tried IV t, pn!' ent Pi a ants WI,' aring th -, tight ' te r-revealin " hos 'w,bich had b ' n . mark of th fashionable UPIP. r (lass" ',' "0n50 X Dr c, tile wnof ted that knit ht always wear swords ~ .nd . 'm, ak~,kno t d [ n the right shoulder. even at mea ls ~ am.d that their clothes f brigh'[ COiOlU"S such as r d, ': ellow, orange ,r 6,[ 'ern: 110([' should knis hts cv r ride- m u] -. In th,' latter ha fo<tbe I.fth century ih Hundred Years '~ur ~pined south of the P, l"1 nees an It i had .r, ,:6 un military impact, ,'-, t11-'.,O, rs hac O vari us reasons '[or gettru.n,g inva[ved in. Hb ria, ~, he Fren .h wanted '[10 'eO. rid ,f tr, ubi s,' 'IDt! m 'r, enari ," during a brief pen, f p:' ace \t\flliJ, b: tll Franc and f.lg,land hoped. 'to improve their "I: '. ''', psii ion ' by '~l\~nnin: a lies ], the' south. Indi: iduals w ein sear h of'adventu e, bo -,ty or 0_:'






h' ..,!][U ,.,. cventua I],)1 u' - 1· . c: lU'~g ~e ill' 1m In i,'d '~ls' '" "'-1I1"h e' ~'JL S .ur. French ader o_u· :-', _rn,,' L~ may. '..:.' h' 01' d li carve OMt ] is own kingdom in : 'r,a !~d,a. miln ary intl p' ict \'-va. .0 n se n irJJ a eversion '~O




..1 0 me ,. . xt rn. ] in rrt m 'no' u pon Aragon ..han Ca itile, particularl' nona 1[- l. ~\ :1:1. re th - ra go est! ruling dynas~y rnaintai ed a ram.iJy empire and fr-on] 'N] ·i en the cou lIT - "m por [00 a g'fI. at deal
armour. ."a varre WU the far nOl til of Tb - ri a, h~lid lost :i ts r n,ti "'Nith . lam in th· earlv r: eh entury. . :_[thougb its armies took part in tlu fi ht a:g - .' , o arms an

dalus as alli,es.of Castile and Aragon, N avarre \\I'a ' be' 1 dra wn. ]JllJore and '_..,r,' in . . ' orl it 0
_outhem ~:F'an,ce.from where ,it imp 'rt, d rnu h mi litar}!' ,-, quipmen t Smal ~ in pe puls lion ~. t u r 'I, v 1Y' prosperous N avarre alrn s ,3.1l'r"fJ as, ,ad :for, ~ mercenaries a nd '1\11 uslirn I, ['0 -"ps [', g.' 'the T -I idela area in its, ser: ie .. Th co un try's mo J n1 ~

n __ tacti c ' wn.._sa _ -a.'voiding a fo, wh. n ~ he' was Oml , :0 t and rea dy, but h. rassing hi m when he', as mourn '. and 0 he IDa-ern. H, 'f' - th ji7lctes 'v,'~Te ill ~heir m rn. J hn f asn ~ at nl , reorganised his ~r.m,y aloi g ,'rene Hue' under two senior marshals but con idernd. reduci i iz, ' t' .a professional core 0 4,001' men-at-arms, J :50ojirMteJ and I ,000 mODnted are her s or ICl"IOSS bowmen ~ ea ,,,hUe in Portu al r $j':nn' r . mor: fu dam ntal brea -mug a,,\r~y from previou Andalusiae rnili ,-ry str ctures, The king"s vassal h,a.d to eq nip om. 0' th :" men i >,11 ~ h ",r f'" rch , ..] .. h , rol " alferer. m.(Jr ''ItI1 abolis hi, and henceforth
I I I, ~; I" I :

t aditi






rn m] i aery and .' dm~nJistr31tive du tie '. were di \rrn.dcd •


a cotuteslah.r

(ma r b ' ) 0.'11 th.

" cense ' J ) and 1UtZrit:ILai n Ji h mod , he anullstabrf. "'i'2.5

lain' us terrain also led, to a greater e :pI ' ,ws 0 hill llLr~'.than elsewhere.T' 0 major changes were seen in Porl gal U'. ,t11th ~ Iare 1, th. ce:nt.ury .. ' ,~e

also giv n g a: di sci plinary on: 1"'0] over baronial foree while t e old ,-'r · ta -ti-a~ t rms '''VI r finally abandom d.

. /L" '.111gt.)I(}fl2 0, -c·...··· . mnaaa ' d" 1J7J.1 ..
,I. ..
















a. • -~.'.







there was MsblfJ]ic .iI1A,uc~]jQC on Spanish " ~I.;"" "to: es the " ... 11. rrn.• u tal W1' Sol t'1-' J ~.lc:t r e", was aJJSo ,8',':"'-' - '.. ~ "-n,£I",::. -',''', o ,(1,. ' pa.WUS~fIl,~ .uence aspects of life in Gr,al1a-dil~ Cllothl ng soon differed from I[ hat of 1 orth Africa, the' rich wearing br.ight [o]O%J'FS while turbans again fell our offashwoTll." fter helpi ng Castile in the battle of :N aj ra th ' ruler ·of G'ranJada 1i1'IlaS even given a coat ..of-arms; this "Vilas not USIcd om],shield s or H.ags but did appear ~n the arehitec t u re o[ the A ~ha\mbr.a palace in Granada., as. well as bern.ng w ncorp orated into the decorai ion of war-dru ms, \!veapons and perha ps f~br.IDCS .. -F'wontiell' towns were ~[rOn"g~yfortified under the governorsh~"p of ~ q-a"id"j while Gran ada. itself remained an important arms manufacturing ce ntre, Though there we re peri 0 ds of P eace, 'Gran~d;~ was awareofthe 001::1SUtl:til ','.'hri::.ti.an thfieau and evolved t3JJct~{~S ro deal with it. These were essential [y defe nsive ~ though raj d~ 'we're also carried out Olm Castilian 't erri tory , here seem s 1[0 have been little gill aJl.l,i[),:ris ation of war, whieb 'W 2tS descri bed. by one writer thus: 'It starts as,lames tation, its, middle is u npredic ta ble and _1 nd is SOiIT()\II;r.,·' ts Never thel ess, the €jJ,rrn,y \fV~S ski ned and highJy organised; .., ranada \\\HiS, for ,i ts sm all size, a ' sigw fil[ant lnili[~,~y po""er~, often. a.ble to field [more men than its larger foes, J\ Ministry of '''V\i ar deal t

\tv hile

'wi' h. conscription, 'paymen l. and ad mi nistra rive m at ters =~:y varied ,acco(l~di.lJlg 'IJO ran k. and UC(DU'P's, included ]wght cavalry, infantry, archers and

erossbowmen rn an)! of the latter being moun ted, Andal usians form ed th e JUnd fCDI.rce under 1'I(lis and wali commanders. . he other hal f of . he army consisted ofvolunteers and exiles from North A rHea. with (1, separate command structure under the J/J:aykh at gllU;:td", lin ,(};]nir commanded .5;000 men.

with a .~Ylyi1 flag. 'U nder h~.m were the qa'id with I )O(] 0 men. and an "fllatn fla..g", the: 1Xaqi,b \1'i.-I'i,d~'oo m n and :30 liwrl Hag~the ·'{J.rif with ~'O men and a /J.(1ruJ flag:; and the ruv:.ir w,rn rh eigh'~ men and art ~$~qda ~ance"'·.pennon.,Eacl . sold~er also wore a distinctive (bu~ unklm;wn) emblem .. Andalusian ea.,-,aJry' had,

two horses, the spare bei ng Ied 'by a sq uire, whereas

African ,~lars'~m.'e:n had

M nfan [ry formed a growin.g defensive armies, PfOPO',' ti.'(H1S of 3: I and 6:~:being
recorded in [3,6,t, Discipline was strict and reviews

mcunt. ma}o(l;'iit'}I' in th ese

O'Il]), 0.11 e

were held either weekly, fo.r'tnighdy or month1y.
Training '~Va$ similarly rigorous. fOE both cavalry and crossbowmen, with special boob being wrieten after the m anner of th nU110US ~Hdd]!~ astern " JiimriyYtl training manuals Iosques s;eem 'tOI have
= 's"

leading part in the [raining' of urban rnili tias and the storage 'Of their weapons. pblyed


,eN a: m:ph'!l IOf

of J'~v.ii~F;1 'b-ilr.thllbce' of" St,,, F-lFd.Ddl~, ,X__ ,v.te~: iIIJ, ilinl:: ill 1! ;jiJtIh C.. ¢aI!5tt.fe' 'Widl :~ ila!1t:~' cll.ur.ch ;:!I:'tmC:I~H.~rl_.


siege warfare itself followed 'medieval patterns un ti.l the widespre ad in trod ucdon of gunpowdee. ascetics who i"nhabi.t[,ed man.y frontier Itt'owns" Profound changes had alreadv taken p] ace run. . nc 'II. lusi 'J' . ' . 'I '. 'iCcofiding [,0 [heir enemies sue h arm ies \1\r .. re U51:!,UlL" G" . rana d tan mr [.(3) ry eq uipmen [ C.iI!] ruru:g sJnguliar~y sober, f[u.gaJ and. enduring .. There was, the late rn' 3th and early ~4·th ce·nn.ui.es,d.a.ny crossbowmen not onl v rode [(D battle but now used however, frequent tension betw ell Andalusians -. d N" . . <l..U.!I:",ZIJ,n _, uers, parti cul '~~'--i ' ·']1e fierce their ·\·veapo:ns from horseback, .. 'eav-y armour, ;;;;Ul. _.,ot.",th ,\ .ji!..:l:,;ro ..... - - lB erb . ~_.IL· .. QI,""l·'U ,,-_I U.i...... Zcnata and after I:3 68 luhaJlJnm,ad of Gn'u1.avda horse-armour and associated tactics usim.g' couched reduced the power of North Artie an troops, :1 Iis lances and a long -legged 'riding position were personal g,uau~rdwas now recruited from captive abandoned ~ favour of light cavalry }uuJie styles 9Lt ...,'1 ad ~'" d ", anish converts called lna 'luglzun armed \t\f~ch. large p a venns, W 'Il.. 'J! ' dg., h ter :SW(H:'·. s JJLI C avairy :re=·_. 0p"cet_l JIaveli daggers and other wea.pons., Such "I mops of S pani 5h and fencing styles ofsword-play were evolved, Seine origffin~ t:h,oug.h never n umerous I someti mes OOfSe te javelins m,ay even have had reatben~d nights and h]gh rank. Crossbcwmen Wlen~ however, proba bJy the so-called "ear dagger' was developed, probably I the most important element in IG ranadan tactics from all. eastern Islamic prof.O~ype·1in 14~h and ] ,s'll} cen rurv Gran ada, S om e )"mete swords were eswhich relied on harassment, ambush and guerrilla .-: pecially debt y decorated, p:m bably as .gifts or bri bes action, In. cap._rnll battle Granadan .Hght cavalry were . :~o,:r neighbouring IChrrns'[]an aristocrats; m.any effective in close combat once heavier Castillan [0rm a,ti ons had been broken UP'c bu [ they could SUM ve to this day, Some Iate I 5,IUJ or early ]G·d, ra re 1 rae . armoured cavalry Lll a direct ch arg,e, century pictorial sources show GraJ,~acbrn 'troops y
• '~I

.1)] the field armies were accompanied by datil guides. who knew the mou ntainous fr'OnD er~ renegades from Ohristianranks, medics, labourers, armourers, poets, orators, plus those religious

loUl. sides laid grea t enrph asis
cha m pions prior to battle


slng'le com ba t by

during a siege ~while

.- I




.. -.:'

. I"
























D\~tailI:B fir-om a sme-s, O"f'mn'ed, w(lood,c1]I, Rm~;ef5WI!l!5~_nrdDlr;'~ '[:O'D.q"lIl.teslt ,~f:Gl'allQidaili IC.. i1S~ (1I'fJl. ,~bil: I09I}tliii~dlll"aJI. C~mIiiil["J''riiiJ_'~iIil!')\.

(.I..) MIIitS]lim dleledet of ,Padlu1!J 11:49 1["~B C) Spa:m..:L_1I:ih.aJD_d ... gwm;el" ~d '~,g, ~Ui~~iid~' [[irjfiTf.i.HIDI~d ~'H~dc, (.D') ,A~g:ildJ~ en bJlha-IIh~. :1:t8:l!!'" (E] .K.lfiiig' '1F'~ir~Jildi :m'~cc.i\!'~ :1!JUFreniter!Dr:

using' curved sab " s, S u 'h, weapons m a y have been ,PU!iiollJ(;:d,I,~a~r. (:".,:.illlm_g muS1:mJtJitmg:aft 'UDkllba-n 'tiil'i'~ iFiii''(i!bia:I!J,];y :~~i!l by a. 'n hin:~ Uwlia ri.i ~ .c:.• 1I3&O~ :lEl~ir.' M\1,~ inrrod uced '["om '" ,~o rocco sh,ordy before the [aU of ,h011rS!m1imil slay a Chds~ bignl., 1'bO!il:!j'& '~O'taIly 'Gut mi' C61r.;aeie-Ji 'wliith Dtb.e r df!1C0 II:'a n'!lJD5!, lin -the .Mha:mhn, !P'a!miCe~ Granada but this is still a d .batahle 'q ucstion, as are ,- 1...iil. ~~ "'miinS-' '!'ii'ihlinM'_ "'I-ii-,-~a:HiiW--'e' ofllli"~==·AL~,:imi ~-- --'ii, d,.-m:i,Il"t'!,l"i(ll! ' f~iPi: 5'U~t -, 5 _~_, ~e i!1: 10 '1!41'~ __ ~. _-e ~__ the origins ofthe ,.urved ,,'I 'arOQc~n flJ~r.fa1Jwhich was ,Sil;,1U S~.~ d~ :fo-- :ilefe' ,AIlham,b~- GPljjHI,d)a). l!Il~ :61""'.s.(a relatively short weapon. ':, ortn :\ "rica, 'W',M:; of course, a ,con ti m1JUng S01JJl] il roc used long,bows .of SJ mplc construction as well as of strength for lOran ada ~ 1\11 slim Anda lusians jfIJ:ve]ins. The cavalry of such Islamic ;· dean u migrated across the ' rai ts throughctn 'the ]ater counrries also relied on quiked BI1rrn.Q1J.[lr, a little mail iddle A,ge'i. They o[[~n [ough[, as mounted or and l,o:ng..hafted spears,. inf~ 11tr)f crossbowm en or later as hand-gunne ['8 ,ati,d, did m ~lch to hel P cou ntries Iike Morocco resist The· ' .aX Gf ICranad.a C hristian ru avasion, In fact the ~tlal.~ds of ] 4th The ~5th century saw a re-orientation in Iberian c D;ntum~)_f 1\~~oroccan rulers included ~roo,ps from affairs, I~, began with the' e'!ad.y stages of ,I re, Gr~f~ad a. as well as Spanis ~d:a ves, Span wsh Portu guese o v erse as, em p~ and closed '\\fi th tbe mercenaries and. Turkish ICaJ.V,a]IrV,. Morn zcan discovery of A_m,'rica on behalf of the rulers of " eq nipment was sometimes hi:ghly decorated '~~it].a. Casti ]'e and Ar,a~on by. Chri smpher . .alum bus, j ust hH ofgiJded metal, red and gilded leather, ·~,a.burait,~ over nine months after 'the final surrender of saddle-cloths and. numerous war-drums, :?~iIjdd],e Oranada . B, Kore- this date, however, both. Castile and Eastern in.9.'u,ence' "V,3~ stronger in Tunisia. where maces, Light cavalry axes and leather armour were Aragon endured setbacks. Aragon was. wracked by eommon, Tuni sian ru lers also had a 'bod yguard of civil 'war, ilthot,~gh. its armies became incJ~e'aswngiy black slaves from 'G'lllIline.2I!,. Further SO'[.I11~h in (he simi tar 'to those of the' rest ,of western Europe. In Sahara and sub-Saharan Sah~']regions warriors 8t~U Cas i~,e private war and quixotic duels between
,iI, J



nobles were a recurring pr blem, a ,o'rbin m re energy than the struggh against 11Th Moor. ~ An ex treme case ,- uk place in :1' 43 when S uero de a

'.Jl~non . , __ d

amiago against


other knjgblls b ld

Ilh . J"I ·ad t '

']'I , hallengers for a month.

n l is

so-called PUlO Ifoll1oso' U ros qui pm en 't "HlS carri din " art dlr-iv ,I by .dwarl and preceded 'y t ump"'LI J.", A.uF :p~.' y" rs and,': foolish drummers.

the h lrn t crests, for 80m, ' had in lgnia of wild bea ts, oth r~ p:1urn es of va iou S cclonrs, and at ers h,ad p]UID ., both on t e hclmet-cr - " ~ ~nd 'n tb ~ 0 cox rings of their horsesv Sorrx '11 irs men bad f athe ['5 that sp read Hk,e \011'1 rn:~gs :' gainst their shouk _'n. .''. .,'
]\,11" , d HElin' :-, ",;' hi

eric put


I -.tl e m.o, serious warfar

dlern ,:rontiex dl _.: "uk ,f ", '"lina ',ido Ia al ,ill was abt to field an. army or :,OO~) cavalry from his. Andalusian estates. A uUJitary revie 00 crine Itht;;, ',. e ville a:~:a in ]40· ]1. ted 142 royal kni "hls, 9614 other men-a "U


6, crossbowmen and 3' 7 0 hal b erdie plus r ,~go' :.(Jldi, r from nei ihbouring villag '".. Such r vi :ws were hi 1. thr ,ti,' . ~II y' ar, T I' T I~,urung oOf


J ~2' j

.he sru:m.rul8Jrit y h, Lween su h decurarions and those :f 'Ih ,I,' ~k I s hints a" a continnin ' leo mection da ting back 0 the m h ce n tur . 4l The eH'ec t~ve unw fi,cad,')n of Casl[,n ' ,3 nd A ragon ut d r King F, rdinan " and Qu en rsa ella m ant that for t 'lIJ first time Gran3,da fClJ d a uru ied foe. n fact there had been a con id erable increase ill '_.critian ,aggrwon b fon~ thi: unHl! _~ltiO[_ but the
S' I~ _

the Spanish knight was similar to that of his north ern count rparts, but lalI- 0 in, ~uded mou I ted bull-fighting whi h had long b ,~:,~" 0 iat 'wt I ll: ht covalry skiUs. :~j;s, arm,' and armour rna Y' also

final in vasion was more tha n mere! y an oversized raid t "vas ,3, carefully pla nn ed saul d' -signed to extins ui 'h .••IU'~!]-m Iberia 011'10, and for __ f ll. Ferdinand of ',astile WU, given command ill force • and hi . strategy "HIS sim p] L 'roll up' 11e have se . l :, 'Ut nde _ -' "~v d ,'I.: ria i kingdom of.--rana fl nm all side . b s],. jag aule Olmedo in ~~ ',5 wro e:: outlying castles and towns befo e a final. attack on. n -, le y' 'l.tng rr erne 0' th . b cW' -')f ranad a. Th bul k fF rdin and's arm y ( nnst Iblc s Hous ~. ,.v ct ,-'ve'ry ri hl~ 13,l'r11 CO[[SLSt d of P li.d prof. ssionals, "~ 'y the gre,ar "~rne had diff rent devices pa.i n ted on the barons ow iou.,g,h t a,s fe ud a l V,ISS als, hringi ng their o COV'eI'] ngs, of the r hors " and others j ew IS nom own a vy cavalry lanw more nurne r us .i ;iu their ladies 00;' . heir helmet-cr _-. Ot rers ill a cavalry jintJles and, infantry ui its. gold and silver bells, wi th stou t C~,'ai ns hanging t' .I Th" Vi ~aJ artiffile'J1" train was a ttachcd t'u the '_ -oya'i their horses' necks, Others had bad, es studded forces, whicb . 1,10 mel Ur ' cd marr espin,it rdtkf hand with pearl ;or costly !ill :n, ' around 1:1. gunners, Other royal tr .op' carne from the.6Ria Hermnrttiad or Holy Brotherhood'· this was a form of royal, on cription established in. ]47'6. paid throuah '~gl!l:lle5 m~ ~ '11'1)':Il ,~h C. ow p '~iltting iJlJlu. t~ ~g local Funds but commanded by prolessiona s, Local ,- Frio.it" ii:IJ iiDg- VBtriO!.l'- flliJrm . of 'Q1!lipilll'emt (i~ ~bl T~iJi"I.'ra:' dJ .b:mnandad militia foroes from southern C~_, tile '1& Dar~ .A1bam·br;· Gil', d; ,).















played an important ,p~r~in the invasion, providing nu merous :HgJru ca:v:illJ.lry and cresabowmen, while t other ,hemulnJadas carne fhl:m, various parts of Cas tile " So did ~he strange Itmnidwu}s ~ condemned crirni nB.\~Sfren:~d pardon :i n exch an ge for mi :~ita:ry o service. Similar A,r,agoneS!e' eon ringen ts used the ~H!JLm!c weapons and included troops [nom, Sicil y) w hile ~~"rerugnvol unteers also came from Ell gland) , ~"'~I,Ii!l;Ji"e_ B~I~r[l'g' ,t, ,,~rm, nmdv, manv and p., lande ~,_ T he campaign \,\ia:.~ long' and bit er ~ with he'
_ =~ _"'-' l' 'I!.I!!_ ,I!.I!! G., '!!..o ---"""
,f ~._ _i!;_,_,


Mus~ims, putting up ferocious 'resistance. VVhen, he' 'C:hri~t]an c.amp 01lJ tsid e 'G-ra nada IN',aS; bu rned down I, permanent '~O'N"ncalled Sante ~·e erected in its 'was, place. E;,ten 'his, did not break the defenders' ,\ViM '~O

resist. M the end the' ~ast :k.j ng ,ofC~ra'[l,ada, Boabdil n
Muhammad 'IX Abu Abd u Hab. '[[) the lV]uslims, negoti ated a private surrender aga~l1s~ the wishes of his p eople, secretly allowing ,: panish troops 'wnto ~he A] ham bra, Pa ace on 2 J ~nuaJry '1492,. to the Spaniards


coul d,

!Cl'\OSSl bowmen,

or course
I nh


also be occupied

by archers or



,Dnd' f,i~etlr1nS

to I Slith centu ry Christian states 'were simil arl,},' ~o,rti:fied~, tho~gh perhaps j n a legs sophisticated m:annier.. A,r'Ch~teen IDJay have been recruit d run <France and Italv,. but most castles, ~ 'l1\r.~US a nod g,ateeS show U1' - s rronger Is] amic ]n fluence of

<Andalusian ~ ortb A&i;c an and even ad va rn' GOO Some ,of the Middle ,Ages," 'moot elaboratedefensive 1'vlidd],e ,-as tern models, ~:'sse:nti.aUy Islamic tradi,Si;yS terns are co <be found in I[ he I b erian peninsula; eions o[ ben t ga.'~es;high walls, rectangular towers most are of Islamic origin druou.g,h man,)!, have a nd iii widespread trse of brick persisted righ t magnificentCh rlstian addi tlons, E \le·n hr':CQi~'. ill slam 'through. the- [ 4dl OCI1. tury, by w h~.h time the was forced on. to the defensive, the Iromiers of influence of Fra nee and, ,Ill,al~\'Vasperhaps t ronger, Anda ~'Uswere strongl y proteceed by a series of , he situation was s]milar in, Per ru al where most 'mIH~:~ry zones; the tk~lglllJ'(', where great f!o.:rtre~es survi v~Il1g castles are clearly of ,And alu sian origin served as regional centres of defence " 'Va;l~J'O{1 with, a .fel :I,iu,er addirions ~uch as tower-keeps, s m a terials iW]Jclucling stone, br.ick and a :fOW:ID, of cha p els and defences against gun fir '. Concern "fo'r concrete were used to strengthen both these and gunpowder artillery first appeared late in the 14th many oe:i wal b~ '[0] ~owin,g d ramatic t~l Christ iau cen t ury wi th the incerp oration of gull= advances in t]1C I ]'1[11. and :1 sth een UJ,r~! . Particul at' emplacements '1]01 [ire upon a b esi, ger., Only later s a ttention was given (0 adeq u ate war if 'res erves in did military ax chi tecis fee~ the need to design great cisrerns, The Al mebades subseq uen tl y in- defences ~,g[ainst firearms, 1'11, ,1,Ml 1v.~:'Usm.m bastion of Granada 'was trod uoed a sephistica ted system of external towers linked to at eurtai n wal [ by arcbed galleries, This parti .. ularl ''}l h avil y :rort] :11;. ~ From 'th late J.:3 [11, e d een ttl ry w ~s strongl y \l\1,aUt!d fron tier tewns and p'ro'bab~y refle ted the ad OptJOi[1 of cou nterweight trebttc:~'e$ s ton =Itb.t,o,'wirwg' machi nes which. being castles m ade 'use of ,erver~!'na 1I fa l fe:a.t'u:w:re ~n a opera too, by smaller teams ,of men J' could now be' moun tainous ]a nd, Hills overlooking even ehe most 'moun ted on such rowers to provid e nfil adwng' fire., unlikely invasion routes were crowned by small .."ucl t1Jbarrafm (Arabic b(J)'1arJ-i-ex' erior) towers observe d'Git], ·[O()S~S which aL~~O ~.""tved as, places of

CaBdJe o:iFOlmW1QS d !u: C~PII~ ilStb.IC. Tbii}i ,I)Ifi;F.iI:IIt@.s!:I iIlIf IIJIC caR!IlI,gl!m..Oi fallOn, ~s' !!Dille' Qf' tibJe1lD:~ it :p~@Sl~irY~ ii!i!f,iltsperiN · bot: :gc_', : ltiI!flil'VS, !liirtb~!~VJIlI ~ ,ft)I." g,_eaiWd.er: iilIFIitIICii'Y'"

refuge from raiders .. 1\tleanwhi[e the long coast v_as dotted 'w~.h ll1.li~ observation ~.o"V"'~rs, a fortresses and 'Ilea vi ly defended harbours, all linked by a signal system. The W'C~I[,ICrn Islamic states seem, 1.]1 fac t, to have been. the first '[0 build ·lfegu~at coas tal d,e~·nces against pirates or invaders." 'he idea. became more
common after the ,me t th ceo Lury,. The name J'ar:a'tf'120S give n to the carlies t Ch ristian coastal towers in, I tal y fID1IJJ ght; in fact, reflect 'the. olri.gin the 'wdea rather
thar [he expected enem Y~ The Almohades btu lt such defences in Mo:ro COO~ but it was the' mid-r 4 t:h


long be','"n. 'k.now n in Musli rn Andalu s, hut the first record of real gu.'npowder in this re:gion is more of a problem, Some form of advanced incendiary weapons were used b}l M'usHm forces iU Niebla in I 25 in. :&01lJthem M.OI1~OOOO in ~,27 Ltt an 'Co(rdo,'b~ru-tl 12180 and at Gibra,h;~r ]n 1"306". I ron balls either propelled by fire I~)r ontai ning fire 'tV'C'F.e used by the c forces of Granada against Alica 11[I~ and Or] huela run ~Q,3' , he Ma:~rinids, and Granadans rnav have had I ~ I real a ruUe:ry h1 the bat tl es of Salado and Tari r~in rn, ,3,4101 while the Casrilia s seem ttl h ave used the


s ame against Algeei ra. . a [e\-v ye;a:rs; ] at _.r.,'Gr~[llad a certainly' had cannon in, rn 39]

oentIDJJ'ry 'l\1arjnid sultan ~'AU.Abu'l Hasan who erected the fiJ"sl'comp~etie series at[" oastal towers 0]1 c
'...... orocco's Atlantic coast, A~[ho ugb gu npowd er atti,U cry was used in I 3 ~9 in. the' OOasl[,~~ defence of Barcelona and \i\~,a!S elcarl y

recorded in C,asti1e by [,36~:'1' traditional medieval siege engines were still used. during the conquest of Gra.llmada over' a century later. ~ ire-weapons ClOmtlJa'rab~ [101 rhos seen in the Middle East had e

QUleen Isab ·na who r "aUy encouraged a widespread adoption of firearms blle in the :~ 51tb century, bli~gj'fig in f)t,P:-I'1 S [tom France, iGe:rnl,any and Italy'. Firearms made a d .. cisive 'WUl pact d u'ring' the eonques t of iGr,a:n ada, e not on~,y:fOrnu;ng part of a l'IoyaJ ~rrtiJlery train of bronze and h'on eannon but ~~~O in. the form of n U'l11' ~rous U,pitlg(l,rda handguns, Of course the ...uf.dims. had firearms J inel udi ng fls}Jmgaldtu and · riba.~-ldc·qIJin.s, but they were "feltv in Rum ber, Thes .
t was, however,



fin in I' 86 and at ,- ah ga a year later, bur on I~, P' I} ed a ] anificaar roll l_ the final


uggle :~Ir' Gran ada. '[his city's defences h ' d ~ in fact be en trength ed wi rh lc emi- il cular artillery bas tW,on' a' he bas 0 '0, high ~;OW,e.TS,. J. ~'" illsarth, 'The ,punish ',~~ngtfanu 1',~5a-15,16 2: v,oJs, 10xford I 976 &" [ 91'8r. Yet it Inih. still b true to .sa~rrhat, in the el1d~ the las t ndalu ian kingdom of '" r;_ I: ,a "' 'was b etra yed bn Hudhavl .ra_ I,. i': T ·i~f'l La Parer des is, not by ~,'"defend. 'I nor , v' n i'_, _a t U[ll ortt n3;t.1 , ' !Cal)al~~",s~1l Jwigw.e der Preux Pads. [9': 2' e kin.g~ Boa dil ~,-l-'0, - oiby-« Tl , "pjuc_ky' -but by 'M., , '. Lad. TO Qpes:ada ICtlJiiU~ _. la Cfmqld isia del it ,- elk ofm ,-. r-- gunpo, der UUI-'ry~ Rcmo dJ! .' flQlUl,da '.' alladolid [967. J"D. Latham Con - -tr, d artie If!S),; From- "uslim >pfl.im llo ,Barba~ l London -986" .... ,'-'.Lomax Tire R cljrlqlUJ,~'oj :pain. ndon Igl,~t ~ R~,','"ur;, L EsIJI1',ne Arl/u:sul'lnm~i au: ,temps dis, ~(Jsri.d',j' r lenendez Pidal ~7~'e id arulilis .':"p(J.in~ London C





( 1233-,l'492) Paris rn 7'S. 9 T",' .,Bliss on , Tk· i'Vtdi ,rJ,'ai 'TOwn

.'1 i


of A ,agon,




,]'986,. R. I, Bu rns (eollected artiel s), ,1'" OOf S a'nd CrUSl1di:fS ii,,' di, Ml :pain. Londor 1'11"-,1,. ::. B~DI offm eye 1 , A,rnlS (mid Arm-our i72 S,'prlin 2 VO]S,

19 '71. ~rl iUJ '-fl; '. -E ""'usseu -. 'J' E' l"is'l~ 1:n,t '. R .'


- ~mtlon


. J' ~n".!pa2n anrfl,

Iadrid 19


'2 >

I 18'2.



.Po.rtugal ~;~!j,lke l
Oxford ]1955.
A:I Turtushi,


im,· ~f Edward 111 tInd R~dl(JJ'd' Il,

E ast, ~rorth A fri,ca,'; I beria 'i tself
Europe, Docu mentary


even Chri,s'tLan,

M, ,A.l a~f:'06, LtimJJ4f(l de las n .Prl~cilU!s~ M,adr~d ] '931., n 'i~7 • "T"",~~ R" JI F' l'~' ..J' I P v'· ,V.1i'ljj ~eR'LC,I,n,) j. ",re ,:~Mea~~ ruu V b~(1 ~,Q;r!y ,iiJi, ~ngJj
tran s,

eften mention armour but this rarely a ppears in pic torial sources .

Princeton r 985.

These' j ournals also W nclude useful materia]: A Illndal~~,s; Baletitl d8 Ia R'e,al A,c(l'af1nl.a ,d~ la ,HistGria'; C~lademco:r de ,H£J~bri(J de ,Es/mitli 'Gl'ul.ilt~; He:b1Jiri-s,; J-Ji:r:fmnia,; ,Le .M QyeT~ Ag'r Spec~lum.

Here a middle-s anking office'r bas a" cloak similar to that of lEI Cid. He ~s'comparatively lighdy armed except fb,,' ,I seale-covered cuirass, One such armour .V ., , .. ~ =J]];S. g 1 SlUJrVl eB, b. U C ~ ts d a tm g' is controveroa '1 1]" ~li' 1 t axe dearly betrays easteen Infleence. (Sources: scale cui rass I: ,~. th- ~ .at:!'] [C,' ~ Archaeol, Museum J' V it.. •• ,D, If" ., ,_J.. ..' 7]. 'B' " 0]1~~ ' oe($~~ !CU. j" an~rUlUJ' It 04 .,. 8"'''1'' i·...ac., ,I,a~ J,.. -L!iL '·3 I II ',1\[:>:!iod- ,or-t,.J:., ~ ',"'AJ··V· b v~.),.1 fr .... C' 'i •. a· w ,I,UJ:II -~-v_ ., '[ln 0· r''JI1 11' n 6· .IF:U A ~~r,iRi eel J:\iI useum.. Bu rgo.~,;Area Santa e.. .1 0 i 5~, amera San ta, ) C oV],IC d.0;, ,AI/O{Aro.lJ Mi,Jstd f otb-r ] til C. Acad . de Jill -- ;, '~1' ... id HiiHOl ru;~t, .L'.au drid.)










",~[.!... .



I""" II, ~ rii.


"JII ~~J.~L'U'











.R t: '-J' urabi t (.i:Umcrftt~:d) dmJrUi!er ~ ftrrry /,:2,ll" 'fi,~nl;~)~ ,A 1';' .Hi e. 10:50 Very few' s'lu'-vm,ving pictorial sources can be direc tly' I he Spanish hero is her shown in the traditional rela ted to j\lluJ'(:tlii,~ warriors, nut a bundant ~VT:Wuen Hg'ht cquipmenr used ~nmany parts of [ 1: th century descriptions Ic:l,e'~.r.~yhow 't ha ~ their dress 'was similar s Ohristian Iberia, Such styles were already gi:vi.ng '~O th at worn in parts ofN orth Africa and the Sahara wa y before :Freneh mi H tary in fJ uenee bu t would lLUF[tH modern times, E'~'en the forms of 'tht~t . 11 ":1'" , d ~" ,'Id never en tire I ensappear, EI C· .JI' s rou n. ~!!llie1,';-1 Wle~9j_'ponryseem eo have survived in isolated parts of .: r 'lUlj 're~,ative~y ruig.ht sword and even his red cloak were the south Saha fii! and Sudan. The most ch aract rfeatures also seen on the 1\4~JsHm,side of the frontier. 1 istie feature 0:( this .figure is, of course, his. lit/l{lm ar (S ources: sword, Archaeol. 1\~m useum, Vitoria; face-veil, (Sources; Pmltef of San Nlillti~ Ia Co,gfJUa de B'eatliS Co,mmnntarMs :~ ]-.l .~ Add ,. I\Jls,. l'] [69.5-, 1~th [C., Acad, de la, Histori a, N.[~d-rid; P,iltl 09 !o9~ Bif,.'[.Lib., London; ,Lib" Tt11,lamtn,tOfum R'egium early Andal usian carved basin ,[I 'lh C., A.~lCha 0[, [21h C,~ Cathedral Lib., Oviedo; ~'~ Ivla,r-tin,~' M useum, ."a tiva; Ftufa B'i'ble' I l: eh C., Vatican Lib,~ t painted altar front from 'ijJigb6~ Dioc, Museum, Cod..Lat. 512'~), ome; carvings 12th C. ~:'~ west R situ; Vich .... ) front Sa," Domingo, Soria; Libro tie los jfJ:egos la' . ].' 3th, C.,~ ,i\tmJ.L'las,t~[y Lib., .'~" T J.6, Escorial; ,/12,: AlZ1(lf F(lil(1Z, .lvli~.J'tJ, (;,,107j l.:i\I'.res~of Saint A.venti ~]lJ;S carving late l: 2' th C.,, it1. IE.! Cid's friend uses heavier mail armour and a kite- situ south portal of church, St. Aventin Hauteshaped shield i~l ICat~l~a,l1. ~ty:~,·similar to th a t of Garonne.) souther n F ranee. His helmet is of ,8, two-piece

,;J,;" ,E'J Cid tJ.1!J.:d' 12 is

13'; The Kijl.g:dorl~of' Sar~;fjss(J..

IlOO~ 1 soo:



probably descended


a late

R.om~l1! prototype, while his SWICH:"d. betrays Islamic influence via Andalusia, The mail fiap on his chest is seen '~Il t~FO Cata lan manuscript and recalls a similar feature on lITheBayeux Tapestry, Here lt Is in terpreted as an unlaced fOIN'm of primitive ven tall
'. "'~" to pn:h.ect " :it... .. t~H~ r..,., JI1l,Ce.( I

82: Akm,ad Sayf at Ddl~la~ '.1'135 Ahmad Sayf al Dawla, the last Muslim king of Saragossa, wears ,I full m:a~~hauberk of '[ypilc~Uy E uropean ,orm. Even the habi ~ .of pul Hng a. m ai 1 'len t3!U up over rhe nose is sc n 1n 0 ther parts uf
~. rope' u

'Vaticau Lib.- Cod. 'iL C n°'li... : . .IV!!),. ' ·att., (J'l' ·ans ) 11t~l ... :~,.·]u. -N at.~,"k..if 'L . l:. P '. ..

'" ,. J:i'- ...~r.- B-'ill ouroes,~ -PIQ:{Ja- ~ofIe ] ,r-,'1 'C [tJJl a.t., 5,7'291, ~Rome· RfJda Sih,l,
I.. ""

all'c'her);I' pO!!iled a. prfu:twcut~r dlreat.

Th'e Moorish. k~.ngs' hchl"'JJiti::'t .is~ :hc)'vvl.!ver" un] ~'k.'

art yd,~ occ~.ru. ng ou:~s],d€ dle lbcrhU:1lp~nitl!su] a" and is

based. on a very c~,earcarviling at Sa]1~oDo;m~n~o de
,appean '~O 'be' of Ie,a,th el" ,j1'nd reflects ,.'orth'IH,c~,n :s.t y:l!e" s.. (S,our,ces::: ~I :"iU,J],;!lr.djs~tU. the H(]J,y Sel~u ,clilre carvi:n,g 'm'35~40' i~J siu~ I cloisi' ers~:~onast'e'ry or Santo 'omingo' de Si.~,os:
~O:ll,g ::;hield

SH.os"JI is

Aj:: Afzaalusitui. ,algru,azi] c.JfJ8a ,M us]in1J Andlalusi an troop, u~ed, I~qrulipm.e nt reflecting varrious t.r,aditions :rl1J~ndle arly Isla:mj,c 'Middle

'!}lclnblo de ,SOlD JJo~e'~,'~pab:lJtled aII~~.'~ilk, C'. Jl¥O. (A.,l1ib~ ildll;g of A~jl}(n,""Coa:Iti1l\D'm, dletc:lIDn,g Ii:hC Moors. (B) .AD,~n:~'8 arming S~. GE:;!l)~i":~e' (,V'iciGlona, ltnd ,Mil-en: M'Dsil!:l!i1in~ ,Uifit],Qifi)\i,

Cathedral, Tudela; MOiZa:rab Beatus IC()inunent(niu'
I 2~h.

C. ~Archaeol,

Museum, ',Jjadrid.,)

fron t of '. D'(Hn~nOT(~, C;' The F aU of Aizd€iilU: !.,21.XJ-:50'~" 1 Soli a ;; Bi,bl'e ;;j Sa1u:hfJ 'f!l JVo.'L"atte r r 9 7~Bwb. IV unic, l C I: A:tufaiiunarl ladj,~rI~id~3t/~f:mty.ry Carving


'til], C, in situ




_. E08.,


B3: C'h~isliarl mef(;e-liary w~'id-'I2th ,c,mln1Y Cheistian warriors n]iugh~in 'many I:V~rulsllim Iberian
used -hem relatively rarely, n general _"_ pa]]is'h troops carried French= style equipment dlOUgh remaining lightly armoured com pared to their northern neigh.bours. One '\'~erySpanish fea turf" was, however, a series of helmets that protected much of the wearer "s face, These predecessors of the grealt heLm (see plate C2) sometimes had an integra) ext nsion to the front of the helme L wi lh cyc-ho:[("S pierced through, it. Others, as here.I nel uded a f xed visor rive'll!d to the helmet 'rim. (Sources: spearhead 1:21~h~]4.th C.~ Archaeol, ,~vIWJse~mVi toria; carved figures e.r ].5.5~ in. .rim loves: fron t of ..... M,ar~,a ]a Real Sa ng1lie,9,sa,; I carved capitals hue rn 2th IC..~ in suu cloisters of armies

Less is known about Andalusian fc,m,ale dress th a n about male costnme, ~bo1Jjjgh written and pictoria I, sources ,ag.ree th:a.t 'rut could be ''I,rery' attracai ve. On the other 11and sue h accoun rs rna y romanticise the subj eel" This btdy is l~'rge'[y based upon a. uniq ue illustrated Arab-Andaluslan love sl~o:ry", Her- crown or tal also appc!~rn, in other SOIUICf:S bu t rn.I[_S act ual method of construct jon is unknown. (So;u.f1ces~ B'elJ~' ,wo; R'f;yad ] 3th C.~ Vat", Li,b. ltIs" ,A:r~b ,368, Rome.)

C!1,,;' Leesese kfl.igAt~, ,earb' .13th' {e~'t'l:l?'J'
The armies of Leon seem tn, have been more feuds l 'than those of'Casdl ~wid1, less reliance on non ..noble u rban t.LlOOpS,. This man uses typical kn~gb dy gear though with some interesting' features. His lack of mail mittens seems old fashioned bU1 tbe hea vy coat-of-plates worn over his m,ai ~ hauberk is rem arkably ad va need and :m.ay sugg,est :Islamic or







ea\' infl




P opt ~

ment of such body armours, (,: au ees: J1 fJ{lt~lS ~ommtmlari.e, bit ,m2tl ar~: [S,d C,. Bi '. ,-,.at~" Nouv, .oq. Lar, ~"290'- Paris; Beal1u 'rY l.ifJbrm'{l, c.,] '201 Pi P mt l\/Iarg n ib., s, 429 : "\¥ Yor ~. Bealusfrom 'an iWillau t1l C~()gf)lal ,3tho IC~,_, ad. de 'I a c Historia, , s, II &. ,I ad id;,':" ord 'r 11' ando de Ia Ceril: mid-!3,th C., ',.i"o,na,t f}'" 0'-' L ~. Huelgas, ]Bur ;Os,,)

ath -r than ttl I,i o~ ,-h ' nomads. "his hum ble soldn ~:r wears a .. adi lion ttl hooded bV:l1ttlJ 'OV, I' a r - ativ iy primitive h elrnet

r North '-~frica:




based on a unique earl y '[31h century m an us ript [rom no th ern M 1r0, °eo,. is Ions - ha fL, d. ~n " le , dg, d \I\·eapon rue, in contrast an lb'-li 11. device, {Iource': Book of Fixed Stars by al ,ufiJ ,H22 Vat, LOb,;; :Ms,.Ross, ] 33 Rome; ICad' -r Cal· "tirtw: lat
i I,

J -u'chive31 Santia o .'", I, -elm ' P tella; Rol and and F a'nlgu t' ell---- d cap ital ~,a[:,
rzth [- .,.,_ad'





,I -

troops rha

h d (AlmtJ.IwJ..e)


ace ,sf).lltiiu, ,ea,l:1 '(3'IJ~' rsth [',., in sittJ. ,~Ia~ of the' Duke ,',of Ora nada, Estella; ¢Capllv:" nr carv d pillar t: rh ': Ztl.ntll

More i know 'n about fl, a pp a ranee of ,',' uwabizid

fonner Cathedral, 0


on 't~,':.,


of' he'

'urabi'ts b u t

' .,"

so 'most

:ictorial sources da t from the v ry nd of the " ,uwaMid P' -'n,1 d,. Their cost rme as essen i !Uy th same as ~h.( sti n worn by [he urban and ru ral

D .. ': 'Ile Ag6 'Qf ,,' ifo.n!w Hut 11 ise ,1'2.5


"n: "rngfJneSe ,krii,lll. m't8' 13"J~ cmlury' - his kl1ig~l~ bears rhe arms of olD53 quartered '\1Vith those of', 4talonia ,-;"1 t ' mid-r gth n ury ,a ~ea.t deal of' panis h arms and armo ur v '.' id, .n ie a 1- 0 th ( 0': I tal)! from where the kin ,d m of vr gon :~mlPor[~, 'm]~itary eqwpml~nt In berm· Of,oostlJ.nrm,e d howe , r', W, ' Spaniards remained :smigh-I y diffi en numb er of pieces of llulglu'lloen'[ cl,odlin:c:' a d ~:cadge r b a v ',a.]so urv ived full the to bs 0 kl ,s and princes ,ur 'S: ,> .\ _ ord of".' aJltl ta C~ sild a la e I31~ "., Inst, d ,', ale cia de Don Juan,. ca. 5"', ',adrid'~ scab ba r '. f Sword of, '.an F, rnat do" ,., eal " rmeria, Mad rid: sword belt of F, .rnando de' la erda, '" onastery or 'as Huelgas .Burgo~; ", .I ath
c e




of v\HUia,m de Mont ada am " aj ,rca wall painting, lar 13"h',."




':~us. of i

Catalan .."lft',al'celol1il ~ ,'hro'IJfc.le oj A lfo~uo " lat e 13~b':.. :.;onas ery L4b"" M. Tot I· . ,:" t)

on '

D']2~' C(JS,~llitm crtJSS,bOltm,ulf~, C.1'300 Iberian erossbowmen were among

efre itiv ir fartlltry ffin . urope, h ave b. en. s]igh.l! y hea "Imler armou red ' han the famous nlmon,{iv,e-r,!i of uagon, this man w arin , a cuirass of lar~ . lea ther .sca],1es. I ertain de" ails in the carvin ~~ which this ' rm ur is b ' "d suggest mal such protections w,ere \l\I'orn ~'rl'· pain but these illustration could also s'LI'm Iron ....:' i'rb~d 'reports of ;Islarnie lamellar armo f. His large ,~,:" eld or man tl r, era sbow and Iig~llsword are, however

the most hose' f, a' til ' rna

,ttaighttol'w,ardL (Sour<,:;


',3,' -



strong ;:reach 'i nfl U~O~·. This man has a brimmed chapel ..de.... a complete mai~ hauberk beneath a, er, full y developed coat-of-plates which llla.y be of Italian manufacture, plus [.cg armour of hardened leath .. Un Uke g reaves of iron such leg defences er·"


nl),hleJrUl1~, ,',,,.12!JO

had been infhienced 'by'·. or .h Africa d [u'm:ng dl ' M~lr(lbit and ,1l1J''tu;tJanllid' periods while Andalusian mi~.1.ta:r-y equipment was
, .'usHm. ,A.nda] usian cestume still comparable to '[hat of Cheistiar Iberia, Thus th is man ,Weaif:, ,I 'fuM mail hau berk and mail eh a USi.'3i _os ben,ea.t'll hi .' 'typ~,caIDl ;$~arnic tunic, His y sword is a" late development ota typilcaJHy Arab form 'W hile his bam b co-hafted spear and high ~y dec= orated leather ada,ga shield are ,w ~'iJl N"(l( tho Africa'[].
style, The ,gilded doc ora tion ,on. the f~Ollll of his

'weapon. (Sources: axehcad :[g,lth-I,'~ e'i; Prov, th ~"~liI!''''''~I'II,''''''''' -V' itori 'i':!il " 1~~1~ "I~!I!V_1. ,~·I ~1""1"i ~F.'" ~ iii::rc'o'm Puen '1t-,iI!'" G': """'1""111']' ~I 1350 1400, .,,;r,cha'f:ol.Museum, Cordoba; painted

were g,en,e'F'aIly laced rather than buckled into place, The man's falchion is held 'i'~J its scab bard bj!' a buckle while :his spiked . axe is a peculiarly Spanish



c .II!.!L, ... ,JI•. ~~




. Ll~JIL_tJl

by j.ai.me Serra c. ]'3,50 Episc, Museu m, Vic; "The Betrayal' wall pain. dn.g' early I' tho .~I' ,in; situ ch urch ofU,rries, S~rr',agioos~; arvwngs [,41th C.; i'~,sibl c Porta Preciosa of C~tbedJ:ral, Pam plona ~ carved retahle by Bernat Saulet e.r 314°1. Episc, A -.~scruun~



~m,nU111.e(riJIUS pictorial S·Q·LuFCe;s and finds unexpl ained parallels in [ .3Jh and, L4~h Ce11(llry Byza:nt~um .. (Sources: Sword of St, Ferdieand I 3 th C" Real ,Arm, ria, Madri d,; painted ~C'_' f lI.,'8i''' '!i ~I] '\+v'Ood- en pan.e.'1 ,an! d~ ,.,.,:'onq uc;'S:t ,~;)~ ,~:!!J;~il:jorc.a ",r~,~ , ,pawnt.ing late [,3th C.. iVlus" ,of Catalan At~,-, Barcelona; .Li'h,r:a de iaff j"uegO-J ['2 a,S and C(l,:!~'ig{U oj A.{fO,lUO X late [9 th IC.;~ :rvlonastery ib il . scoria], )

lm et

,E'3.~ ofi r~l.Q,tltse' kniglu,



This man bears the arms of'rhe 'pO:ltverfw.~[o,[1'tcad.a nuni[ y on his smeld.~ He i~ otherwise a(~ most 'n,l~i ~Ie'~.y based on the effigy o:f .011 Alvaro de 'Cabrera the 'y ounger, except for a hel met w:~~,ch iSj, ,8 farm of early bascinet with a nasal. .h.e hea vy rig;ffid h evor

ar-ound IDs neck

:ws. supported

by a collar w'hich:~like

Ii:"l;U~,~ "' If .. ar$ ir~ 1· . Ij2,5'-75-." C· ~rJ! . , l;fi'ltl: ,R I: .Po'ttugMtSt ,lenig/".) c..lj5o Portugal was mil iu~rily ,old fashioned un til the la te '~4th. ce nt~:ry yet some of its Bhe clearly used

the uppe'l" part of his surcoat and, his sa batons appear.s to 'be 'Iined 'wi~b, scales beld in place b}1 elaborate d .. vets, The extravagantlylong tuffi; of his gallndets are p.rnbahly or huff 1~1ther o:r rawhide, (Saurces: effigy of ,Don. AIVi'f'O elar'illy ... idl [4'th Ie.; m I.·' . 'lO]S, ten ,Museum, .. ew 'V'ork" unnamed effigy midI,4~ h


in sUt~ ,i. .. cnastery of Poblee Turagon,aI.:·

modern imported arms and armour. This man is effigy of I' ,'[Igh die Co:pons Ie., 1354, ioc, ,~~I useum, based on a Portuguese stamet te 'which. portrays au, S olsona; '\\'aU painting mid- I' 4'~ C ..~ il! situ Old h unusual form gre,lt helm \\~hich iucl udes a, hinged Refectory of Cathed ral, 'Pam plena.) rw 'c:k=p~otee twng hevor ~ Apart from plated leg' ifG d F ~~' ,;;_ ~n!l:~'m 0: ... y,cma~ra, 132'-14oo,,~ defences hH~ relies l(ull.'1l on mail, In. some Iberian ,,'W K~' fin horse-armou rs on ly the crupper or rear part was Fr: AI/rJuntc(i cross!JoWf]w:i'l 7tzid-14J'h, centltry gwven a. decorative heraldic covering, On, 'he' ether Crossbowm en who actuall Y used ttl ir wea pons. from horseback are ,I, rare phenomenon but 'Wer~ hand 'perhaps. onl 'ijl ~he fnont 'Part iq~~ uded mail. (SOUliUS: SUI tuette '~ ,$25-51(0) i1,1. si ttl. Capela des seen in Centeal Europe and, above ,all in. iGr;an ada F" en iros, Oliveira d 0 ":·,os.p~ . Portuguese knigh,ts ~,2liru; during the 14[h and '[·5d:ru centuries, ,',> aturally I[his . L '~QUJ ue' p.' ",L ., ae ··..... II ',L .s ..J' ~,A" 1· In nvuegu uusera« ,e,13,3,0 Iocanon mid9lDusesa relatively Hght crossbow :bis bolts being unknown' pla,~efr0L11 Pate:flul c',. 'm ,3;00.. M useo l\~ a,e. kept in a. q uiver fM~ ned [0 ,hi~ s add l ~ :H,e ~s " ~) d ;f .,.eral11lca"a, V'l en.aUl. C O'~hErl\ri.se a:rm.cd o,nl y w1.'th, a la:rg. dlagg,er a;rrud ,I '~I.i.. 'ib_ ,~, '-l 'a .'. '.' (8""or~rces.,<l:A'.1 • my ",. 'liL. " a rcu '~ ."V,an ," " ' on. ue m ~iIJ.. " u ,lIJlgill:w.l ,1e,illl!e iI:";;, ·;\("lI'~r..;<,j'_i'l'f'''" ;i\I!t".IliiJ'J'~¥"i;m. _,I ;t~l. cm~~~r - '-.!Ii.. ' pai,ntin,g :mid,- I 4tb. IC",~,~";rn' SJ;tr~ ·ro:rr\f d· ,bts, :D';'lmas:; ,L:,,~ ,; 'In ~:~~~ !;.;..~ ,~r~j'~'i~~.:j.'!I'an" ... 'f",l!;~~;''',~t;i~ £ riilf~u'j ~ry d.o]n:i.nat~d wa.rf~.uf':ein mountainous and praffinted l,eadler cei.Hng· !c., I 3.80; itli si'~n SaJla de 'I . air ,..',,avm.rre:~ all @.l ea w,'II"'h was a..:soun d er pal tlCII!.IIl 11 Y JU$ticia~ both ill ,Alham,b.ra .P.a]mcc,IGra:n~da.) ..rue".














,I -










- ,lIj




F.2.~ Qadi 1',(tl~gi.()m jiJJlgrc late

.I 4th '{f'f£~'tj,ry

Religious leaders pla yed a. gignrnfica n L role in the 111iHtZIlfY ~l'ff311rs of'G·r.anada~Their cos' Ul11.'C' was both more traditiot al and closer so that of North Africa '<11 was the d ress of the ordInary wa rrior. T 11[s an 'man carries a. decorated light sword of a typically Grenadine form a ',~eapon origwnaJJly developed for Hghl cavalry warfare iJ hl' jirude. (Sources: painted leather ceilings (;.~3;8,0 ~ iu situ S ala die J usticia, A~ha·rn,b.r:i Palace, Granada; GrC'n~dln. . Sword [4~ Lh C~~Archaeol, :E\' useum, Madrid.)

I berian statics. Naturally their ,eqWJipim.ent was often rudimentary .. TJ:ui5 man has a good Iqu ali ty chapel-d e-fer helmet, a Iq uilted or scale-Ii ned .1flICque a. long= bl aded g~ isarme

the' armies of



and 'wo uld

(Sources; "G'uarns a~.the I [,a[y Sepu lehre' panel painting by .1 uan de Borgona early 15 'lID le"j location unknown; '!Gua:rds at the Holy . iepulchre' byJ,am]]'11.eCabrera t. I 4'00; i~' situ ehu rch of Sain t. 1Vlarrin. Sarroca, Penades; ~'C atalan ]nfan try ]n army Count or l\rm~grnl,ac' wall painting late 'I'4lb C.~ lacation unknown ..)

C31Ty ,I, d agg'er..


f): Gre:natiW! tight cavalry, 1rn'd'_J4J.,l~ ct.l'ilurJ' Thi s horsem an ]S eq uipp eo '[~ figh~d fa jili.(!.te-· in a :1 wght leava Iry style whi c~ }based upon North ".frican talc tics, W3..S, Ievelope din Granada and \JI!l~, soon H" d d lI.. 'II a dopten d 'I![]I}? t. h.Ie C]msnans, '. '. ];8' IICOOtt'alC . ue!IJ met was probabl y irnpo ted Hnonl Mamlu k Eg~~pt as

~.'j';.. Don

Alv~ro de


E 'ere the victor of the' battle of Olmedo wears th latest and heav iest full-plate armour. mostly imported from Italy though \V~.th.a. French helmet. This b. a great baseine t, amass! ve form of protection

which cou [d not tu rn on the wearer' s shoulders. nughi[ his short mail hauberk wIth its stiffened neck, uch armour '\' M1 used ~rnliJ Spain but n ver becam I-Il:;leather adtrr,g;a shie..ld is of ,9. ~'. orth African ~.orm vel"')' popular even among heavily armoured adopted throughoue m nch of the I berian peninsula. knights, largely because of the strength of the but his sword is a. 'horoUJghly Andalusian weapon ... Iberian tradition o.fligh'[ cavalry warfare, (Sources: (Soun:cs: ~ Army on the- march' wall painting mid= ~ Retablo de San J orge' C.·[ 42;0', Victoria it nd A~ bert [t~du C,c; ;7~ ritl~ Torre de las. Damas, Alhambra ::' US~1l[m.~London; IGr,e~J.'[Bascinet, c. m 4-.3,0, Na varre Palace. Gran~d.a; cerarni . tile ~ imi rarios of a rug, n M:use1l1m Parnplona; ", 'I. Oeorge' panel painting 'by from Alham bra Palace, [4 th C., Archaeol " Huguet C'~ I: 4-5'1 l/Ius .. of 'Catalan AJt-t~ Barcelona.)

. ~JIiI_~1' M1LJISeUI11:l' l'!fJll. aorto

:iI )


.H·.' Tlie.F till
G.~ Tilt; .B'~~'Ue f 'Obn~'dnl" 1445: o

Q1 the .Kingdom. ~


G1',,~ 11ragm,'Wse light cavalr.l

Light cavalry i.w] the Christian states of I beria 'mary ha vie~~ou,ght lajirute in a manner copied fn:un their d :tVI slirn foes, bUI~ their appea ranee 'W:8!S generally u very di fteren'l. his m an, for example simpl y wears ~""1ifII'I'!i,]'~ amoun ~ of 11, .... rm "1] ·rr,;'.:uropea '11- ":I'lII'm" our u w ~.,. [I:',,~ ~ . including a ~cale.=:li·nerJ.i{l.(:flJ.'e, a brimmed chapel-de"::Ii .:Ji;U-~~"~JIu...~. a...1l Yl L' ~. , !JlJ '_ '__ ~ _'

(Sources: these figuf1e~ ;2iu~e ~.arg,.'"ly based upon late [.)lh century ' ·a~ved 'wood n ]13n Is illustrating the Conquest of the Kingdom. of G ranada in d'],~choir of Toledo Cathedral.)






pla te arm d.e~fin,ce"l' withou t the ir associ ated gauntlets and a small mail hauberk. IO.n the otherhand his .lli.ght spe'ar, round shield , soft boo ts spurs, and .. horse harness are distinctly I berian if not clearly Islamic, (Sources: 'Rerablo de San Jorge'~ t.1420, Victoria and Alb. r~ Museum, London; ~Slory- S~. George' panel pai ndng c. ] 4'20 Episc, fer


'"1renry 1'1 of" Aragon' in. Grn:eo1a:giade los Reyt$ earl y I j,llh. C., Bfb. .Pa lac., Museum, Tarragona;

G2.:' IC(1stili(n~ pta.s:an ~ levy ~:)ea.8an~ or urban lev~,es·pla.yed an important nlle :in

.N I~' G~reMlUfi~t~'.;if(1Jll?] Bod.y armour seems 'to' h ave been much rarer a~nong the ninop.~, of G-ra.na.d.a. than among their iCbrrus.tw;an foes though said h'~ m. ts were widespread . .1:\. few men aka "1;\. ore armnur whieh, likif the he] mers, appe,ars to ha ve been of Spa nish or I'il:a~ian origin, This man has a hehner w hich has 'been decorated locall y .. Hru~ breast and back plates are [rom a captured Spanish armour and arc worn over a jali'(Ju~; 0.1' coat-of- plates, he' long-hafted. ball and chaii rlElay hav - been a siege weapon 'LtvliU.c his s1igh[ly' curved sabre probably reflected ..Moroccan or even 0 Uom an T'D.[lrrkwsh ~nfhl.,ence on [h,e'S' biS'[ 'G.renadwne ,¢u'rn-n:i.f:!:S. (Additional sources.: 'He] m e~ of Boabdi1. l~I~!e [:~th IC..~ :M t.. :Museum of A:rl~ .··.=1[:\1\1 ....J Y or-k.; -Ba C't] .'. of Cbl'vij~)~and ~ S.cenes rnun 'll~,e


Pas ·~on'~ ngravings

by M rtin Schon rauer based u.P91l ,3. p1rBtl m ed vi S~'b to : 'pain ~atel: jth I.. '," at, .. allery 0 ~~. t, ."- ·"hint ~ a.)

H' .~Grmul'd:in'



1- s.. ms that everv a-I.I· '~b di d man took p31irt in the las t despera IL. den n ' 0: " the kingdom of . " anada, ~.hi!S, '\ .J hy but unarrnoured : '''tiz. 11 ,~." ragon 110\-'1.' lJe~uv ~Ily united under' Ferdin ~,d ,.. eo rs ci'\;,'·ia . clc the th l indica te jj U.· 10\\' and -'a, ella, I~,' lian influr n pf\ dominated and i' dwffi r'·n I and indeed how ·:pa.,'ni h', Gra ada 's was troops such as these '''',.he \\' re soon InoconCJ_Ut r a costume had b scorne :ompared to that of N' . th vast empi 'in the' ': _~1. -rica·. I e wear a pllt: .~i,ca. q uall . om.. ,-ka Ie 'i S th f ell tha t ISIlI _-_ uir ."- inc udi gilt, laminated jQulrl under a. :flghten still used U.ngs, at ,3. 'i me w her m,m,n,)" f'their o fashiona b.~y~ puficd j ack .t and he is ann. d wi th an fa,' h,ad adopted live matchlock gui plu: ~'\. rd and huckl r .. .~ toqu (word) ,,1' y m (Addi io~ aJ sources: ,', _r·=sw()rd of •.rdinand I 11 ' . Madrid. ) Ca Iho]ic~~ ·R·.31Arm ria, IVI,adrmd; "'Guard· at 111 e . oJy :" pulchr ~P l-: ] painting' ..5! 1500- D'~oC':",.
I I. ' II"

Hj'~ ·;P,(J.'niff/i ImruJ-.gul,l~i·er hi \': ure illust ate the die T' ~ f m '. rnisati D een in lh, armies 0" [at -' ~.sh century [ .astile am d .



urn, B_J'i . II' na.)

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful