Experiment 9 was about Acyl Compounds: Soaps and Detergent. The first test was for the solubility and acidity of Carboxylic acids. For water solubility, the samples used were acetic acid, benzoic acid, and sodium benzoate. We then tested with litmus paper. It is positive if miscible and negative for immiscible. We obtained positive results for the acetic acid, and sodium benzoate while negative for benzoic acid. This shows that the sodium benzoate is the only non soluble sample in the test conducted. In hydrolysis of acyl compounds we performed the test with acetyl chloride, acetic anhydride, ethyl benzoate and benzamide as samples. For acetyl chloride, acetyl anhydride and ethyl acetate, the blue litmus paper turned red indicating that they are acidic samples. However benzamide is the only sample where the blue litmus paper remains blue. In saponification of coconut oil, we first placed 10 ml of ethanol in 400 ml beaker and was added with a 15 ml 6 M NaOH. We then added 15 ml coconut oil and was mixed by swirling. We put boiling chips and covered the beaker with the watchglass. We heated the mixture over a small flame for 15 minutes. We cooled the mixture and added 50 ml saturated NaCl solution while stirring. We filtered the product and washed the soap with ice cold distilled water. We took much time in allowing the soap to dry because the water did not easily evaporate in the formed solution. For the comparison of soap and detergent, the first test was for hydrolysis. Both the soap and the detergent are base because the red litmus paper turned blue and the blue paper remained blue. For the reaction with the placed 5 ml of the sample i the test tube and added with dilute HCl solution. The soap is cloudy and there was the formation of white precipitate while in detergent, no precipitate formed but the solution seemed cloudy too. In the reaction with soft water, the solution formed in soap was uniformly distributed while in detergent, it was not totally uniform in appearance and there was no bubble formation. In the reaction with hard water, there was a formation of emulsion in soap while the appearance of the detergent solution was not uniform when it comes to cloudiness. The blank was also used and was observed. There was a formation of two layers, a less dense solution at the top and a clear solution at the bottom having greater amount. For the emulsifying action, a cloudy solution was formed and there was a formation of bubbles having somewhat green at the top for soap. In detergent, bubbles were also formed and there were small particles present at the bottom. Questions: 1. Sodium benzoate is more soluble in water compared to the benzoic acid which is not soluble because sodium benzoate is polar and water is a polar molecule. It follows a universal rule like dissolves like. Benzoic acid is more soluble in a nonpolar CHCl3. A. 1. Water Solubility Acetic Acid + acidic Benzoic Acid acidic Sodium Benzoate + basic 2. Relative acidities of Carboxylic acids Benzoic Acid + + Phenol + NaOH NaHCO3 B. Hydrolysis of Acyl Compounds Acetyl Chloride Blue to red acid Acetic anhydride Blue to red acid Ethyl acetate Blue to red acid benzamide Remains blue base D. Comparison of Soap and Detergent Soap Red litmus paper turns blue, blue remains blue, base Cloudy, formation of white precipitate Uniformly distributed Forms emulsions Formed 2 layers, clear Clear, formation of bubblesgreen at the top Detergent Red litmus paper turns blue, blue remains blue, base cloudy Cloudy, no bubble formation Not uniform cloudiness Formation of bubbles, particles settling at the bottom Hydrolysis Reaction with acid Reaction with soft water Reaction with hard water Blank Emulsifying action
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