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The individual efforts of social workers are expressed in micro-terms but it deals with conditions that are caused by large macro-structures. There are number of NGOs working for the tribal development in India. The researcher has studied 7 major NGOs from the research area engaged in the tribal development. These NGOs tackle development related issues and their ideological orientation differs widely. There are some NGOs who¶s nature is agitational and there are some who are engaged in both construction and agitational work. In the present study, the aims & objectives, project area, target group, views of NGOs on problems of tribal communities, their suggestions have been studied. The work of NGO has been evaluated on the basis of nature of work, their priorities, financial conditions of NGOs, staff position, their views on self-sufficiency, need for continuity of work. In order to have openness, their membership patterns, confidentiality of their accounts etc. are discussed. Their views on tribal liberation and need to work all NGOs under one banner also have been sought. Finally the problems of NGOs have been discussed at length. This paper thus evaluates the role of NGOs working with tribal communities, their strengths and weaknesses, future thrust, ROLE OF NGOs IN INDIA The growing disillusionment and the resultant discontent among the masses gave birth to a number of NGOs in 1960s in India. These grassroots movements are concerned with the plight of the exploited sections of society. They are part of the democratic struggle at various levels. The role of NGOs is neither antagonistic nor complementary with the existing sectors. It is a role at once more limited and more radical, taking up issues that the political parties are unwilling to take up, coping with a large diversity of situation that governments and parties are unable to cope, encompassing issues that arise from not merely local and national but also international forces at work. The individual efforts are expressed in micro terms but it deals with conditions that are caused by large macro-structures. The NGOs are thus a part of a large movement for global transformations in which non-State actors on the one hand and non-territorial crystallisations on the other are emerging and playing new rolesi. Most important role Indian NGOs play in of a µwatch dog¶. ACTIVITIES OF NGOs All activities of NGOs are aimed at social, economic, political & educational Development of oppressed people in the area. The activities stated by the respondent NGOs are listed below: 1. Comprehensive village development. 2. Activities related with education: Balwadi, supplementary classes for school-going children, school at the brick kilns, education to katkari women, hostel for children, motivate children to go to school. 3. Activities related with Women¶s development : Formation of Women¶s groups, Saving group of women, training of self-employment, Women¶s Co-operative Society, Income generation for women, Women¶s employment, etc. 4. Youth development activities: Formation of Youth groups. 5. Health activities: Primary health care, health education, health project of family planning,
Counselling activities: Women¶s counselling centre. 11. Family counselling centre.traditional medicines. 13. Advocacy & Organisational Work especially for Women. Anti liquor movement 14. implement developmental projects.Horticulture on the barren land. Education ± put tribal children to school. 17. 7. 10. Develop volunteers. Dissemination of information of Government scheme. human rights. To start the sale counter of Minor Forest Product (MFP) of Women. Strengths of Panchayati Raj 3. 10. 2. 16. To develop land of 100 tribal families and make them stable. Their focus is getting shifted as per the priorities of the funding organization . 15. Political activities: Awareness and training on Panchayati raj . brick societies. 16.Liquor movement. Their role as µwatchdog¶ is not being played effectively. helping people to secure benefits of Government scheme. Anti. Legal counselling. CONCLUSION It is found that though NGOs are doing good work with the tribal communities. Development of Katkari Leadership. Continue working on the present issues. Information dissemination. 12. 4. Fighting on land issues. Handicraft development etc. Educational complex only for Katkari 9. Grain bank. electoral systems . Availability of employment. Create Women¶s federation. Propaganda and implementation of our experiments. 5. 8. Self employment : Guidance on self occupation . Women and Panchayati Raj will be the priority. 8. Strengthening NGO. 12. FUTURE THRUST OF NGO WORK 1. Provision of food : Nutrition programmes. 18. 11. Health awareness. Protecting environment: . Form co-operative societies of tribals such as fisheries societies. restoration of land rights. 15. Many NGOs are now interested in implementing the projects by the Government in order to earn money for their survival. Watershed development. 9. Implement ideal project of Land Development. 7. Fighting against injustice. 6. Work with Youth. With co-operation of industries. 14. 13. Networking with NGOs in Maharashtra. 6. there is lack of coordination among them.
l o c a l i ty specific. f e lt need-based. t h e ir consequences etc. components of their deve lopment work.Journal of Tropical A g r i c u l t u re 39 (2001) : 52-54 ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT: A CASE STUDY Indu Bhaskar and P. Thrissur 680 656. health programmes. Geethakutty College of Horticulture. roles of NGOs. Kuriakose Elias Service Society (KESS) and Apex Vo l u n t a ry Agency for Rural Development (AVARD) were selected and t h e ir . S. MATERIALS AND METHODS Two well-established NGOs of Thrissur District. workers of NGOs and workers of other development agencies considered r u r al development works of the NGOs as effective for rur al development. transfer of technology. Major rur al development programmes of the NGOs were agricultural programmes. was evident. Key words: Evaluative perception about NGOs. India Abstract : Role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in rural development was analysed through a case s t u dy conduc t ed on two NGOs in Thrissur District of Kerala St a t e. With this objective. NGOs. In t h is context.r igid. NGOs in rural development. bene f i c i a ry oriented and committed na ture of service have established mu l t itude of roles wh i ch can effect rur al deve lopment. Ma jor i ty of the beneficiaries. INTRODUCTION Non-government organizations with their advant age of non. wh at the ir roles are. the need to analyse how far the NGOs are effective in r u r al deve lopment. a case s tudy was conducted in Thr i s sur District of Kerala State. c o m m u n i ty d e v e l o pme nt and i n d u s t r i al and trade programmes. human resource development programmes. nonbene f i c i a r i e s.
which consisted of 120 statements (on f i ve point c o n t i n u um .very strong. strong. From the f u n c t i o n al area of each NGO. neutral. a sample of 30 non-beneficiaries was selected as respondents f o l l owi ng purposive s a m p l i ng procedure. A sample of 50 b e n e f i c i a r i es from each of the organisations was selected through proportionate r andom s a m p l i ng procedure to make 100 beneficiary respondents for the study. Based on discussion with the implementing o f f i c i a ls and a u t h o r i t i es of NGOs. The scores obtained by each respondent were summed to . The effectiveness of the NGOs was measured in terms of the reflection of the evaluative perception of the different respondent categories about their experiences and roles played by the NGOs in connection wi th them by measuring their E v a l u a t i ve Perception Index (EPI). the major programmes and components of the programmes of these NGOs in rur al development were identified.progr ammes and coverage were identified. The index was formulated and standardised through i d e n t i f y i ng the major components of the programmes of NGOs. week and very weak) reflecting the components of the programme. Thirty NGO workers selected at r andom from the two NGOs and 30 workers of d e v e l o pme nt agencies other than NGOs in the selected area were i d e n t i f i ed as respondents.
No. A score of one for each positive consequence and a negative score of one for each negative consequence were assigned. The beneficiary respondents were asked to rate the components from their experience or on the basis of the benefits either as positive or negative. PCI = [Score for positive consequences + score for negative consequences] + Maximum possible desired scoreROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION 53 Table 1.get the i n d i v i d u a ls over all evaluation. The ratio of the ma x imum possible desired score and the score a c t u a l ly obtained by the bene f i c i a ry was taken as PCI. The sum of the positive a nd negative scores was taken as the actual score of consequences. Ma jor progr ammes for rur al deve lopment of the selected NGOs SI. EPI = Actual e v a l u a t i ve perception score obtained by an i n d i v i d u al + Potential eva lua t ive perception score The evolved consequences of the programmes were a l so ident i f i ed in r e l a t ion to the major components of the programme and were measured by deve loping Perceived Consequence Index (PCI). Programmes Ac t i v i t i es KESS AVARD A g r i c u l t u r al progr ammes HI .
IV Health programmes C ommu n i ty deve lopment progr ammes Human resource development Trade and i n d u s t r i al promot i on D i s t r i b u t i on of pl ant ing materials Di s t r ibut ion of diary cattle Poultry Demonstration farm Minor irrigation Lift i r r i g a t i on Land development Contour b u n d i ng C ommu n i ty i r r iga t ion Free medical care Safe d r i n k i ng water by providing we l ls Smokeless choola Sanitary l a t r ines H o u s i ng R e p a i r i ng of house 1RDP model v i l l a ge Vi l l age deve lopment project Common we ll .
Tr a ining programme Educ a t ion promotion Earn whi le you learn programme Integrated c o m m u n i ty development projects Creches Fabr i c a t ion works Wood works Umbrella assembling Beedi r o l l i ng P r i n t i ng press Qua r ry Khadi S t a b i l i z er assembling Distribution of p l a n t i ng materials Se r i cul ture Di s t r ibut ion of diary cattle Di s t r i b u t i on of poultry Lift irrigation Immu n i z a t i on of children Health education Fami ly couns e l ing centre Sani t a ry l a t r ines Construction of house Land for landless .
he a l th and hygiene. The data were then s t a t i s t i c a l ly ana lyz ed. It is to be mentioned that both the organizations have taken location specific activities. education. c o m m u n i ty deve lopment and trade and indus t r i al programmes.Roof ing of house Bore well Voc a t ional t r a i n i ng programmes Education programmes Creches and ba lwadi es Fibre and rope making u n it Apex s t abi l i z er indus t r i es St abi l i z er a s s emb l i ng Us i ng a structured and pre-tested interview schedule. A perusal of their programme activities provide a view on the combination of delivery and service activities and employment generation activities in the case of KESS whi le AVARD had made more efforts in delivery services. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 1 shows t h at the major rural development programmes of selected NGOs are agricul tur al programmes. h uman resource development. relevant data were collected from the selected respondents. which were formul a t ed after a n a l y z i ng the needs and priorities of their target. The study indicated that majority of the programme activities ul t ima t e ly lead to progress in health and hygiene. Both the organisations put considerable efforts for rural development. technology .
00 90.0-0. Di s t r i b u t i on of bene f i c i a r i es based on the Index of consequences of rural development efforts of the NGOs Gr o up Least beneficial Less beneficial Moderately beneficial Most bene f i c i al Class 0. employment generation.transfer.2 >0.91 and above Frequency 10 90 Percentage 10. self reliance.61-<0.6 0. Importance to ecological preserva-JOURNAL OF TROPICAL AGRICULTURE Table 2.9 0.21-<0.00 . economic development and behavioural changes.
Table 3: Distribution of respondents based on the index of evaluative perception of effectiveness of NGOs Respondents Beneficiaries (n=100) Non-beneficiaries (n=60) NGO workers (n=30) Development workers (n=30) Least effective Frequency % Less effective Frequency 11 - .
67 10 30 Highly effective Frequency 73 18 27 21 % 73 30 .33 Effective Frequency 27 31 3 9 % 27 51.% 18.
90 70 tion. they are closer to the minds and hearts of the people and they are with commitment and zeal of voluntary action. safety and security feeling and commun i ty development was also there. Table 2 depicts the d i s t r i b u t i on of beneficiaries of NGOs based on their consequence index of rural development efforts of NGO. while discussing about the role of NGOs had indi c t ed that the NGOs in general have firsth a nd experience and knowledge of local needs. problems and research at local level. Voluntary organizations have special qualities in their style of f u n c t i o n i ng such as f l e x i b i l i ty in operation. sensitivity to changing needs. high level of motivation of the functionaries and innovations. Dhillon and Hansra (1995). which reveals that none of the respondents had considered the programmes of NGOs as least beneficial and less bene f i c i a l. This high acceptance of NGOs among the beneficiaries can surely be attributed to many of the special qualities of NGOs. Nine ty per cent of the beneficiaries had considered the programmes of NGOs as most beneficial for them. . This whole-hearted acceptance of the programmes of the NGOs can be equated wi th the acceptance of the NGOs themselves in the scene of rur al development.
S. Kurukshetra 18(5): 10-13 . REFERENCES Dhi l lon. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The paper forms a part of the M. These h i g h l i g ht the simple fact that the non-governmental organizations are accepted by the different sections as an effective machine for rural development. B. Role of volunt a ry organisations in rural development.Table 3 presents a comparison of the evaluative perception by the di f f e r ent categories of respondents about the effectiveness of NGOs. thesis of the first author submitted to the Kerala Agricultural University and the authors are grateful to the University for the facilities provided. D. and Hansra.Sc.S. About 73 per cent of the beneficiary respondents and 30 per cent of non-beneficiaries and 90 per cent of NGO workers and 70 per cent of development workers had high eva lua t ive perception regarding the effectiveness of NGOs. 1995.
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