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A.

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HH4OPMATHKA
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JHEBHOE ROCOBRE
www.phoenixbooks.ru
,K 373.167.1:004
EEK 32.973a721
KTK 448
H 33
Heepen A.
H 33 Hnqopxa+nxa . ixcnpecc-xypc a noio+onxn x EI3 .
ynenoe nocone / A. eeen. Poc+on n/] . dennxc,
2010. 250, [1] c. (Beci EI3. o+ A o C).
ISBN 978-5-222-16530-0
Hpeaiaexoe nocone c+ann+ neim naynn+i caxoc+oa+ei-
no pao+e ynamnxca npn noio+onxe x EI3 no nnqopxa+nxe n
HKT, a pon+ee, ecn i+o neoxonxo, npoxon+ponpona+i
noio+onxy n nsann+ica o+ opoioc+oameio pene+n+opc+na.
Kpoxe +oio, nocone npenasnaneno a pemenna ceym-
mnx, ne xenee nanix saan. cnc+exa+nsnpona+i noynennie
n cpene mxoe snanna, nocnonn+i +eope+nnecxne npoei,
xo+opie nenseni n cny +ex nn nnix npnnnn, ncnoiso-
na+i nocone xax cnpanonnym n+epa+ypy, onae+i xe+onxo
pemenna pasnoopasnix saan, noynn+i npax+nnecxne nanixn
a npooenna ynei n nicmnx ynenix saneennax, ie
neoxonxi snanna ocnon npoipaxxnponanna, xa+exa+nnecxo
oinxn, oqncnix npoipaxx n +..
]a pao+i c noconex ne nyen oxamnn nepconaini
xoxnim+ep, a oc+a+onno +oixo sanec+n paonym +e+pai n
pynxy. Hopaox pao+i na noconex n eio c+pyx+ypa nopono
nsoeni n npenconnn.
V]K 373.167.1.004
BBK 32.973a721
ISBN 978-5-222-16530-0
eeen A., 2010
Oqopxenne. OOO dennxc, 2010
www.phoenixbooks.ru

Hpepncnonne ......................................................................... 4
1. Hncvpyxnna no nmnonnennm paovm ...................................... 7
]exonc+pannonni napnan+ EI3 2009 ioa
c noponix pasopox saan. HHdOPMATHKA
n HKT, 11- xacc ......................................................... 9
2. Hpepvev nngopvavnxn. cvpocvno xovnnmvepa.
Apxnvexvypa 0BM ............................................................... 36
2.1. Hpexe+ nnqopxa+nxn ................................................. 36
2.2. Vc+poc+no xoxnim+epa n apxn+ex+ypa 3BM ..................... 38
3. Cncvevm cuncnenna n xopnponanne nngopvannn ................... 49
3.1. Cnc+exi cnncenna ..................................................... 49
3.2. Konponanne nnqopxannn ............................................. 52
3.3. Hsxepenne nnqopxannn ................................................ 55
4. Ocnonm nornxn n nornuecxne ocnonm xovnnmvepa .................. 60
Pemenne oinnecxnx saan cpec+naxn aiepi
oinxn ......................................................................... 64
5. Hngopvannonnme vopenn. Cvpyxvypm pannmx ..................... 68
Moen xa+epnainie n nnqopxannonnie ...................... 68
C+pyx+ypi annix ...................................................... 72
6. Kovnnmvepnaa nngopvanna .............................................. 73
7. Anropnvvn:anna n nporpavvnponanne ................................. 79
8. Texnonorna nporpavvnponanna .......................................... 87
9. Hngopvannonnme vexnonornn ............................................ 95
9.1. Texc+oni peax+op ..................................................... 95
9.2. Tannni nponeccop, xoxnexc npoipaxx,
npenasnanennix a cosanna n opao+xn
iex+ponnix +ann .................................................... 96
9.3. Koxnim+epnaa ipaqnxa ................................................ 98
9.4. Basi annix ............................................................. 100
9.5. Koxnim+epnie xoxxynnxannn ..................................... 102
10. Mopennponanne xax vevop nayunoro no:nanna.
Mopenn vavepnannnme n nngopvannonnme.
Kovnnmvepnoe n vavevavnuecxoe vopennponanne ........................105
10.1. Koxnim+epnoe xoenponanne ...................................... 105
10.2. Ma+exa+nnecxoe xoenponanne .................................... 106
11. Mopennponanne :nann n nornuecxoe
vopennponanne (xpavxaa cnpanxa) .......................................... 107
12. Bapnanvm EI0 .............................................................. 109
13. Ovnevm ........................................................................ 204
14. Pemenna ....................................................................... 206
15. Hpnnoenna ................................................................. 227
16. Hnvepavypa .................................................................. 251
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]annoe nocone npenasnaneno a noio+onxn x EI3 no


nnqopxa+nxe n HKT, a +axe a pemenna paa pyinx ne xenee
nanix saan, a nxenno.
cnc+exa+nsnponanne noynennix n cpene mxoe snann,
nocnonenne +eope+nnecxnx npoeon, xo+opie nenseni
n cny +ex nn nnix npnnnn,
onaenne xe+onxo pemenna pasnoopasnix saan,
npnope+enne npax+nnecxnx nanixon npn noc+ynennn n
nicmne ynenie saneenna, ie neoxonxi snanna ocnon
npoipaxxnponanna, oqncnix npoipaxx, ocnon xa+exa+n-
necxo oinxn n +..
Hocone nxee+ xoyinym c+pyx+ypy, ie o+opaena +eo-
pe+nnecxaa nnqopxanna. Kax npanno, xai xoyi coc+on+
ns +pex nac+e (ie +peye+ca pemenne npax+nnecxnx saan).
+eope+nnecxaa nnqopxanna,
pasop npax+nnecxnx saan,
saann a caxoc+oa+eino pao+i c o+ne+axn.
B noconn +axe npeaiam+ca xon+poino-nsxepn+einie
xa+epnai (napnan+i EI3), paspao+annie no ceymmnx
xa+eiopnax.
c omopo omoema xo qopxi o+ne+a B (yponeni co-
noc+n asoni B n nonimenni H),
c kpamku omoemo xo qopxi o+ne+a K (yponeni
conoc+n asoni B n nonimenni H, nicoxn
B),
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5
c paaoepnymm omoemo xo qopxi o+ne+a P.
nncixenni o+ne+ (yponeni conoc+n nonimenni
H, nicoxn B),
pao+a na xoxnim+epe (yponeni conoc+n asoni B
n nonimenni H, nicoxn B).
B coepanne nac+n 1 (A) nxoa+ +eope+nnecxn xa+epna,
nponopnnonaino +oxy oexy, xo+opi npec+anen n oasa-
+einox xnnnxyxe, nanoee nanie nonpoci nnqopxa+nxn,
xo+opie neoxonxo ocnon+i na pasnix yponnax.
Ha yponne npec+anenn nponepae+ca o+nocn+eino noni
xa+epna xypca nnqopxa+nxn, xo+opi n pasnix oexax npe-
c+anen n ynennxax.
pasnnnie noxoi x onpeeennm nona+na nnqopxa-
nna,
nni nnqopxannonnix nponeccon,
nnqopxannonni acnex+ n ea+einoc+n neonexa,
nnqopxannonnoe nsanxoec+nne n npoc+emnx connai-
nix, nooinnecxnx n +exnnnecxnx cnc+exax,
cymec+nymmne xe+oi nsxepenna nnqopxannn,
xoenponanne xax xe+o naynnoio nosnanna.
Ha yponne nocnponsneenna snann, anansa snaxoxix cn+y-
ann nponepae+ca qynaxen+aini +eope+nnecxn xa+epna.
ennnni nsxepenna nnqopxannn,
npnnnnni xonponanna,
cnc+exi cnncenna,
nona+ne aiopn+xa, eio cnoc+n, cnocoon sanncn,
ocnonnie aiopn+xnnecxne xonc+pyxnnn,
ocnonnie iexen+i npoipaxxnponanna,
ocnonnie iexen+i xa+exa+nnecxo oinxn,
apxn+ex+ypa xoxnim+epa,
npoipaxxnoe oecnenenne,
ocnonnie nona+na, ncnoisyexie n nnqopxannonnix n
xoxxynnxannonnix +exnooinax.
Ma+epna na nponepxy yxenn npnxena+i cnon snanna n
snaxoxo n nono cn+yannn xoe+ nxon+i no nce nac+n ixsa-
xenannonno pao+i. 3+o ceymmne yxenna.
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6 . -
pacne+ nnqopxannonnoio oexa coomenn,
nepeno ns ono cnc+exi cnncenna n pyiym,
apnqxe+nnecxne ec+nna n nonnno, nocixepnnno n
mec+nana+epnnno cnc+exax cnncenna,
ncnoisonanne c+anap+nix aiopn+xnnecxnx xonc+pyxnn
npn npoipaxxnponannn,
noc+poenne n npeopasonanne oinnecxnx nipaenn,
noc+poenne a oinnecxo qynxnnn +anni nc+nnnoc+n
n oinnecxo cxexi,
ncnoisonanne neoxonxoio npoipaxxnoio oecnenenna
npn pemennn saan,
peansanna conix aiopn+xon c ncnoisonannex conpe-
xennix cnc+ex npoipaxxnponanna.
Binonenne saann nac+n 1 (A) nosnoae+ saqnxcnpona+i
oc+nenne ninycxnnxox yponna oasa+eino noio+onxn no
Hnqopxa+nxe n nnqopxannonnix +exnooinax n onenn+i
noon+eino o+xe+xo 3. Binonenne nac+e 2 (B) n 3 (C)
nosnoae+ ocymec+nn+i noceymmym oee +onxym nqqepen-
nnannm ynamnxca no yponnm npexe+no noio+onxn n na i+o
ocnone nic+ann+i oee nicoxne o+xe+xn (4 n 5).
B xonne nocona npnnoa+ca napnan+i EI3 c o+ne+axn n
pemennaxn nac+n 3 (C), a +axe cnpanonnaa nnqopxanna.
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1


Ha ninonenne ixsaxenannonno pao+i no nnqopxa+nxe
n HKT o+non+ca 4 naca (240 xnny+). 3xsaxenannonnaa pao+a
coc+on+ ns 3 nac+e, nxmnammnx 32 saanna. Ha ninonenne
nac+e 1 n 2 pao+i pexoxenye+ca o+non+i 1,5 naca (90 xn-
ny+). Ha ninonenne saann nac+n 32,5 naca (150 xnny+).
Binona+e saanna n +ox nopaxe, n xo+opox onn ani. Ecn
xaxoe-+o saanne nisinae+ y nac sa+pynenne, nponyc+n+e eio
n noc+apa+eci ninonn+i +e, n o+ne+ax na xo+opie ni ynepe-
ni. K nponymennix saannax xono ye+ nepny+ica, ecn
oc+ane+ca npexa.
Hac+i A nxmnae+ 18 saann (A1A18) c niopox o+ne+a.
K xaoxy saannm ae+ca ne+ipe o+ne+a, ns xo+opix +oixo
onn npannini. Pemn+e saanna, cpannn+e noynenni o+ne+
c npeoennixn o+ne+axn. B anxe o+ne+on no noxepox
saanna noc+ani+e xpec+nx (X) n xe+onxe, noxep xo+opo panen
noxepy nipannoio naxn o+ne+a.
Hac+i B coc+on+ ns 10 saann c xpa+xnx o+ne+ox (x i+nx
saannax ni oni caxoc+oa+eino cqopxynpona+i n sann-
ca+i o+ne+). O+ne+i saann nac+n B sannmn+e na anxe o+ne+on
paox c noxepox saanna (B1B10), nannnaa c nepnoio oxomxa.
O+ne+ox xoe+ i+i +oixo nnco. Ecn n o+ne+e noynae+ca
nnco n nne pon, +o oxpyin+e eio o neoio nnca. Kaym
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8 . -
nnqpy nnca n snax (ecn nnco o+pnna+einoe) nnmn+e n
o+einox oxomxe no npnneennix opasnax.
Hac+i C coc+on+ ns ne+ipex saann (C1C4). ]a ninone-
nna saann i+o nac+n nax neoxonxo nannca+i pasnepny+i
o+ne+ n nponsnoino qopxe.
3a xai npannini o+ne+ n sanncnxoc+n o+ conoc+n
saanna ae+ca onn nn oee aon. Bai, noynennie
naxn sa nce ninonennie saanna, cyxxnpym+ca. Hoc+apa+eci
ninonn+i xax xono oime saann n napa+i xax xono
oime aon.
B ixsaxenannonnix saannax ncnoisym+ca ceymmne
coiamenna.
1. Oosnanenna a oinnecxnx cnasox (onepann).
a) ompuuanue (nnnepcna, oinnecxoe HE) oosnanae+ca


(nanpnxep,

A),
b) konmnkuuu (oinnecxoe yxnoenne, oinnecxoe H) oo-
snanae+ca . (nanpnxep, A . B) no & (nanpnxep, A & B),
c) uamnkuuu (oinnecxoe coenne, oinnecxoe HH) oo-
snanae+ca v (nanpnxep, A v B) no | (nanpnxep, A | B),
d) caeooanue (unaukauuu) oosnanae+ca (nanpnxep,
A B),
e) cnxno 1 ncnoisye+ca a oosnanenna nc+nni (nc+nn-
noio nicxasinanna), cnxno 0 a oosnanenna n
(onoio nicxasinanna).
2. ]na oinnecxnx nipaenna, coepamnx nepexennie,
nasinam+ca paonocuaonmu (akouoaaenmnmu), ecn sna-
nenna i+nx nipaenn connaam+ npn mix snanennax
nepexennix. Tax, nipaenna A B n (

A) v B pannocni-
ni, a A v B n A . B ne+ (snanenna nipaenn pasnie,
nanpnxep, npn A = 1, B = 0).
3. Hpnopn+e+i oinnecxnx onepann. nnnepcna (o+pnnanne),
xonmnxnna (oinnecxoe yxnoenne), nsmnxnna (o-
innecxoe coenne), nxnnxanna (ceonanne). Taxnx
opasox,

A . B v C . D connaae+ c ((

A) . B) v (C . D).
Bosxona sannci A . B . C nxec+o (A . B) . C. To e
o+nocn+ca n x nsmnxnnn. nosxona sannci A v B v C
nxec+o (A v B) v C.
www.phoenixbooks.ru
9
2009
.
, 11-
1 ()
Rpu omnoanenuu aaanu amo uacmu o aanke om-
oemoo A 1 no noepo omnoanueoeo oau aaanuu
(A1A18) nocmaoome anak o kaemouky, noep komopo
coomoemcmoyem noepy ompannoeo oau omoema.
A1
An+oxa+nnecxoe yc+poc+no ocymec+nno nepexonponxy nn-
qopxannonnoio coomenna na pyccxox asixe, nepnonanaino
sanncannoio n 16-n+nox xoe Unicode, n 8-n+nym xonponxy
KOH-8. Hpn i+ox nnqopxannonnoe coomenne yxenimnoci na
480 n+. Kaxona nna coomenna n cnxnoax?
1) 30 2) 60 3) 120 4) 480
.
Hpnxenaex aqann+ni noxo x ninncennm xonnec+na
nnqopxannn no qopxyax. N=2
i
n V=k-i, ie N xomnoc+i
aqann+a, i xonnec+no nnqopxannn, coepameeca n onox
cnxnoe aqann+a, k xonnec+no cnxnoon n coomennn.
N
1
=2
16
n N
2
=2
8
V
1
V
2
=k-16-k-8=480 8-k=480
k=60.
A2
B neoxpocce ynac+nym+ 119 cnop+cxenon. Cnennainoe yc-
+poc+no peinc+pnpye+ npoxoenne xaix ns ynac+nnxon
npoxey+onnoio qnnnma, sanncinaa eio noxep c ncnoisona-
nnex xnnnxaino nosxonoio xonnec+na n+, onnaxonoio a
xaoio cnop+cxena. Kaxon nnqopxannonni oex coomenna,
sanncannoio yc+poc+nox, noce +oio xax npoxey+onni qn-
nnm npomn 70 neocnnenc+on?
1) 70 n+ 2) 70 a+ 3) 490 nv 4) 119 a+
www.phoenixbooks.ru
10 . -
.
2
4
=64<119<128=2
7
nanxenimee xonnec+no n+ a
xonponxn noxepa panno 7 no qopxye V= k-i = 70-7 = 490
(n+).
A3
]ano. = D7
16
, b = 331
8
. Kaxoe ns nnce c, sanncannix n no-
nnno cnc+exe, o+nenae+ yconnm a<c<b?
1) 11011001 2) 11011100 3) 11010111 4) 11011000
.
Hepenonx nnca n nonnnym cnc+exy cnncenna. Hcnoi-
syex ne +anni a nepenoa nnce ns mec+nana+epnnno n
nocixepnnno cnc+ex cnncenna n nonnnym.
0
0000 0 000
1 0001 1 001
2 0010 2 010
3 0011 3 011
4 0100 4 100
5 0101 5 101
6 0110 6 110
7 0111 7 111
8 1000
9 1001
A 1010
B 1011
C 1100
D 1101
E 1110
F 1111
=D7
16
=1101 0111
2
=11010111 n b=331
8
=011 011 001
2
=11011001.
Hpn cpannennn nnce nannnaa co c+apmeio paspaa (+. e. cena
nanpano), noynaex.
11010111< 11011000 <11011001
www.phoenixbooks.ru
.
.

2.1.
Tepxnn unqopamuka (informatique) nponcxon+ o+ qpan-
nyscxnx con information (nnqopxanna) n automatique (an+oxa+n-
xa) n oconno osnanae+ unqopauuonnau aomoamuka.
Bnpoxo pacnpoc+panen +axe anioasinni napnan+ i+oio
+epxnna Computer science, n+o osnanae+ yxnaino ko-
nommepnau nayka.
Rnqopamuka i+o ocnonannaa na ncnoisonannn xox-
nim+epno +exnnxn ncnnnnna, nsynammaa c+pyx+ypy n omne
cnoc+na nnqopxannn, a +axe saxonoxepnoc+n n xe+oi ee
cosanna, xpanenna, noncxa, npeopasonanna, nepeann n npn-
xenenna n pasnnnix cqepax neonenecxo ea+einoc+n.
Hnqopxa+nxa naynnaa ncnnnnna c mnponamnx na-
nasonox npnxenenna. Ee ocnonnie nanpanenna.
paspao+xa ninncn+einix cnc+ex n npoipaxxnoio oec-
nenenna,
+eopna nnqopxannn, nsynammaa nponecci, cnasannie c
nepeane, npnexox, npeopasonannex n xpanennex nnqop-
xannn,
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37 . .
xe+oi ncxycc+nennoio nn+eex+a, nosnoammne cosana+i
npoipaxxi a pemenna saan, +peymmnx onpeeennix
nn+eex+yainix ycnn npn ninonennn nx neonexox
(oinnecxn nino, oynenne, nonnxanne penn, nnsyainoe
nocnpna+ne, nipi n p.),
cnc+exni anans, saxmnammnca n ananse nasnanenna
npoex+npyexo cnc+exi n n yc+anonennn +peonann, xo-
+opix ona ona o+nena+i,
xe+oi xamnnno ipaqnxn, annxannn, cpec+na xyi+n-
xena,
cpec+na +eexoxxynnxannn, n +ox nnce ioainie xox-
nim+epnie ce+n, oennammne nce neonenec+no n ennoe
nnqopxannonnoe coomec+no,
pasnoopasnie npnoenna, oxna+inammne nponsnoc+no, na-
yxy, opasonanne, xennnny, +opionm, ceicxoe xosac+no n
pyine nni xosac+nenno n omec+nenno ea+einoc+n.
Hnqopxa+nxy oinno npec+anam+ coc+oame ns nyx
nac+e.
+exnnnecxne cpec+na,
npoipaxxnie cpec+na.
Texnuueckue cpecmoa, +. e. annapamypa konommepoo,
n anincxox asixe oosnanam+ca conox Hardware, xo+opoe
yxnaino nepenon+ca xax moepme uaeauu.
A a npoepanmx cpecmo nipano (+onnee, cosano) oneni
yannoe cono Software (yxnaino uekue uaeauu), xo+opoe
nonepxnnae+ pannosnannoc+i npoipaxxnoio oecnenenna n caxo
xamnni n nxec+e c +ex cnoconoc+i npoipaxxnoio oecnenenna
xonqnnnpona+ica, npncnocanna+ica, pasnnna+ica.
Rpoepanoe oecneuenue i+o conoxynnoc+i ncex npo-
ipaxx, ncnoisyexix xoxnim+epaxn, a +axe nca oac+i
ea+einoc+n no nx cosannm n npnxenennm.
Hoxnxo i+nx nyx omenpnna+ix ne+ne nnqopxa+nxn
nieam+ eme ony cymec+nennym ne+ni aaeopumuueckue
cpecmoa. ]a nee poccncxn axaexnx A.A. ]oponnnnn
npeon nasnanne Brainware (o+ ani. brain nn+eex+). 3+a
ne+ni cnasana c paspao+xo aiopn+xon n nsynennex xe+oon n
npnexon nx noc+poenna.
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38 . -
Aaeopumm i+o npanna, npenncinammne ninone-
nne noceona+einoc+e ec+nn, npnnoamnx x pemennm
saann.
Heisa npnc+ynn+i x npoipaxxnponannm, ne paspao+an
npenapn+eino aiopn+x pemenna saann.
2.2.

Konommep (ani. Computer ninncn+ei) npec+anae+


coo npoipaxxnpyexoe iex+ponnoe yc+poc+no, cnoconoe
opaa+ina+i annie n nponsnon+i ninncenna, a +axe ni-
nona+i pyine saann xannnynponanna cnxnoaxn.
Cymec+nye+ na ocnonnix xacca xoxnim+epon.
uuqpoome konommepm, opaa+inammne annie n nne
nnconix nonnnix xoon,
anaaoeoome konommepm, opaa+inammne nenpepinno
xenammneca qnsnnecxne nennnni (iex+pnnecxoe nanpa-
enne, npexa n +..), xo+opie anam+ca anaoiaxn ninnc-
aexix nennnn.
Hocxoixy n nac+oamee npexa noanammee oimnnc+no
xoxnim+epon anam+ca nnqponixn, aee yex paccxa+pnna+i
+oixo i+o+ xacc xoxnim+epon n cono konommep yno+pe-
a+i n snanennn uuqpooo konommep.
Ocnony xoxnim+epon opasye+ annapamypa (HardWare),
noc+poennaa n ocnonnox c ncnoisonannex iex+ponnix n iex-
+poxexannnecxnx iexen+on n yc+poc+n. Hpnnnnn e c+nna
xoxnim+epon coc+on+ n ninonennn npoepa (SoftWare) sa-
panee saannix, ne+xo onpeeennix noceona+einoc+e
apnqxe+nnecxnx, oinnecxnx n pyinx onepann.
maa xoxnim+epnaa npoipaxxa npec+anae+ coo no-
ceona+einoc+i o+einix koan.
Koana i+o onncanne onepannn, xo+opym oen nino-
nn+i xoxnim+ep. Kax npanno, y xoxani ec+i cno ko (ycon-
noe oosnanenne), ucxonme annme (onepani) n peayaomam.
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39 . .
Hanpnxep, y xoxani caoumo oa uucaa onepanaxn
anam+ca caiaexie, a pesyi+a+ox nx cyxxa. A y xoxani
cmon onepanon ne+, a pesyi+a+ox anae+ca npexpamenne
pao+i npoipaxxi.
Pesyi+a+ xoxani nipaa+inae+ca no +onno onpeeennix
a anno xoxani npannax, saoennix n xonc+pyxnnm
xoxnim+epa.
Conoxynnoc+i xoxan, ninonaexix annix xoxnim+epox,
nasinae+ca cucmeo koan i+oio xoxnim+epa.
Pasnoopasne conpexennix xoxnim+epon oneni nenxo. Ho
nx c+pyx+ypi ocnonani na omnx nornuecxnx npnnnnnax, nos-
noammnx nien+i n mox xoxnim+epe ceymmne rnannme
ycvpocvna.
naumo (sanoxnnammee yc+poc+no, 3V), coc+oamym ns
nepenyxeponannix aneex,
npoueccop, nxmnammn n cea ycmpocmoo ynpaoaenuu
(VV) n apuqemuko-aoeuueckoe ycmpocmoo (AV),
ycmpocmoo oooa,
ycmpocmoo omooa.
3+n yc+poc+na coenneni kanaaau couau, no xo+opix
nepeae+ca nnqopxanna.
Ocnonnie yc+poc+na xoxnim+epa n cnasn xey nnxn npe-
c+aneni na cxexe. 2npnixn c+pexaxn noxasani ny+n n na-
npanenna nnenna nnqopxannn, npoc+ixn c+pexaxn ny+n
n nanpanenna nepeann ynpanammnx cninaon.
Omaa cxeva xovnnmvepa.
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3.1.
Cnc+exi cnncenna ea+ca na noauuuonnme n nenoauuuon-
nme. K nenosnnnonnix o+nocn+ca pnxcxaa cnc+exa cnncenna,
x nosnnnonnix p-nnnie cnc+exi cnncenna (nonnnaa,
+ponnnaa n +..).
Hpnxep pnxcxo cnc+exi cnncenna. I-1, II-2, III-3, IV-4,
V-5, VI-6, VII-7, VIII-8, IX-9, X-10, L-50, C-100, D-500, M-1000.
O+xe+nx, n+o n pnxcxo cnc+exe cnncenna o+cy+c+nye+ noi.
Io poenna ina Hnxoaennna Toc+oio sannme+ca ceym-
mnx opasox. MDCCCXXVIII 1828.
B nosnnnonnix cnc+exax cnncenna ceye+ sna+i +axne
+epxnni, xax aqann+ n xomnoc+i aqann+a (ocnonanne cnc+exi
cnncenna), cnepny+aa n pasnepny+aa sannci nnca.
Momnoc+i aqann+a i+o xonnec+no ncex pasnnnix nnqp
(yxn), ns xo+opix opasym+ca nnca.
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50 . -
Ocnonanne cncvevm
cuncnenna p
Angannv
2 0,1
3 0,1,2
4 0,1,2,3
5 0,1,2,3,4
6 0,1,2,3,4,5
7 0,1,2,3,4,5,6
8 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7
9 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8
10 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9
11 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A
12 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B
13 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C
14 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C,D
15 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C,D,E
16 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C,D,E,F
Cnepny+aa sannci nnca _(a
n
a
n-1
a
0
,a
-1
a
-2
a
m
)
p
.
Hpnvepm cnepnyvo n pa:nepnyvo :anncn uncen:
Paspai 3 2 1 0 -1
Hnco 1 0 1 1, 1
2
=1-2
3
0-2
2
1-2
1
1-2
0
1-2
1
Paspai 2 1 0 -1 -2
Hnco 2 7 6, 5 2
8
=2-8
2
7-8
1
6-8
0
5-8
1
2-8
2
Hpnvepm nepenopa uncen n: opno cncvevm cuncnenna
n ppyrym
Hpnxepi nepenoa ueamx ecumuunmx nnce n nonnnym,
nocixepnnnym n mec+nana+epnnnym cnc+exi cnncenna.
75
10
= 10010100
2
= 113
8
= EB
16
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51
1
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
4
9
18
37
75
1
1
1
0
0
0
75
9
1 1
3
8
8
75
11
16
14
Hpnxep nepenoa ponmx ecumuunmx nnce n nonnnym,
nocixepnnnym n mec+nana+npnnnym cnc+exy cnncenna.
0,5625
10
= 0,1001
2
, 0,125
10
= 0,1
8
, 0,875
10
= 0,E
16
0, 5625
* 2
0, 125
8
0, 875
16
1 1250
* 2
1 000 14 000
0 2500
8 2
0 5000
8 2
1 0000

1. B xaxo cnc+exe cnncenna 21 24 = 100?


.
Hyc+i x ncxoxoe ocnonanne cnc+exi cnncenna. Toia
100
x
= 1 x
2
0 x
1
0 x
0
, 21
x
= 2 x
1
1 x
0
, 24
x
= 2 x
1

4 x
0
. Taxnx opasox, x
2
= 2x 2x 5 nn x
2
4x 5 = 0.
Hoon+einix xopnex i+oio xnapa+noio ypannenna anae+ca
x = 5.
: Hnca sanncani n na+epnnno cnc+exe cnncenna.
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Anrepa nornxn i+o xa+exa+nnecxn annapa+, c noxomim
xo+opoio sanncinam+, ninncam+, ynpomam+ n npeopasonina-
m+ oinnecxne nicxasinanna.
Cosa+eex aiepi oinxn anae+ca nnmn n XIX n. ani-
ncxn xa+exa+nx ]op Byi, n nec+i xo+opoio i+a aiepa
nasnana yaeoo aaeepo omckaamoanu.
H+o e +axoe oinnecxoe nicxasinanne?
Hornuecxoe nmcxa:mnanne i+o moe nonec+nona+einoe
npeoenne, n o+nomennn xo+opoio xono onosnanno cxasa+i,
nc+nnno ono nn ono.
Vno+peaexie n oinno penn cona n conocone+anna
ne, u, uau, ecau... , mo, moea u moaoko moea
n pyine nosnoam+ ns ye saannix nicxasinann c+pon+i
nonie. Taxne cona n conocone+anna nasinam+ca aoeuueckuu
couakau.
Bicxasinanna, opasonannie ns pyinx nicxasinann c
noxomim oinnecxnx cnasox, nasinam+ca cocmaonmu. Bi-
cxasinanna, ne anammneca coc+annixn, nasinam+ca aaeen-
mapnmu.
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61
Kaaa oinnecxaa cnasxa paccxa+pnnae+ca xax onepanna
na oinnecxnxn nicxasinannaxn n nxee+ cnoe nasnanne n
oosnanenne.
Onepanna, nipaaexaa conox ne, nasinae+ca ompuuanu-
e (unoepcue) n oosnanae+ca nep+o na nicxasinannex (nn
snaxox

). Bicxasinanne nc+nnno, xoia A ono, n ono,


xoia A nc+nnno.
Onepanna, nipaaexaa cnasxo u, nasinae+ca konmnkuu-
e (a+. conjunctio coennenne) nn oinnecxnx yxnoennex
n oosnanae+ca snaxaxn . nn &. Bicxasinanne A . B nc+nnno
+oia n +oixo +oia, xoia oa nicxasinanna A n B nc+nnni.
Onepanna, nipaaexaa cnasxo uau (n nepasen+einox,
ne ncxmnammex cxice i+oio cona), nasinae+ca uamnkuu-
e (a+. disjunctio paseenne) nn oinnecxnx coennex
n oosnanae+ca snaxox v. Bicxasinanne A v B ono +oia n
+oixo +oia, xoia oa nicxasinanna A n B oni.
Onepanna, nipaaexaa cnasxaxn ecau ..., mo, ua ... cae-
yem, ... oaeuem ..., nasinae+ca unaukauue (a+. imlico
+ecno cnasani) n oosnanae+ca snaxox . Bicxasinanne A B
ono +oia n +oixo +oia, xoia A nc+nnno, a B ono.
Onepanna, nipaaexaa cnasxaxn moea u moaoko moea,
neoxouo u ocmamouno, ... paonocuaono ... , nasinae+ca
akouoaaenuue nn oono unaukauue n oosnanae+ca snaxox
nn -. Bicxasinanne A B nc+nnno +oia n +oixo +oia,
xoia snanenna A n B connaam+.
Taxnx opasox, naxn paccxo+peni na+i oinnecxnx one-
pann. ompuuanue, konmnkuuu, uamnkuuu, unaukauuu n
akouoaaenuuu.
Hopaox ninonenna oinnecxnx onepann saae+ca xpyii-
xn cxoxaxn. Ho a yxenimenna nnca cxoox oionopnnci
cnn+a+i, n+o cnanaa ninonae+ca onepanna o+pnnanna (ne),
sa+ex xonmnxnna (n), noce xonmnxnnn nsmnxnna
(nn) n n nocenmm onepei nxnnxanna.
Taxnx opasox,

A . B v C . D connaae+ c ((

A) . B) v
(C . D). Bosxona sannci A . B . C nxec+o (A . B) . C. To e
o+nocn+ca n x nsmnxnnn. nosxona sannci A v B v C nxec+o
(A v B) v C.
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62 . -
Rnaukauum xono nipasn+i nepes uamnkuum n ompu-
uanue.
A B

A v B.
Okouoaaenuum xono nipasn+i nepes ompuuanue, uamnk-
uum n konmnkuum.
A B (

A v B) . (

B v A) A . B v

A .

B.
Taxnx opasox, onepann o+pnnanna, nsmnxnnn n xon-
mnxnnn oc+a+onno, n+oi onncina+i n opaa+ina+i oinnec-
xne nicxasinanna.
]a ncex nepenncennix onepann npanna nx ninonenna
xono o+opasn+i n ucmunnocmu.
A B

A A v B A . B A B A B
1 n n n
2 n n n n
3 n n
4 n n n n n n
C noxomim oinnecxnx nepexennix n cnxnoon oinnec-
xnx onepann moe nicxasinanne xono qopxansona+i, +.e.
saxenn+i oinnecxo qopxyo.
Onpeeenne aoeuuecko qopyam.
1. Bcaxaa oinnecxaa nepexennaa n cnxnoi nc+nna (1)
n oi (0) qopxyi.
2. Ecn n qopxyi, +o (A . B), (A v B), (A B),
( ) qopxyi.
3. Hnxaxnx pyinx qopxy n aiepe oinxn ne+.
B n. 1 onpeeeni iexen+apnie qopxyi, n n. 2 ani
npanna opasonanna ns mix annix qopxy nonix.
dopxya nxee+ nopaaonym qopy, ecn n ne o+cy+c+nym+
snaxn ixnnnaennnn, nxnnxannn, nonoio o+pnnanna, npn
i+ox snaxn o+pnnanna naxoa+ca +oixo npn nepexennix.
dopxya nasinae+ca omnoanuo, ecn cymec+nye+ naop
snanenn nepexennix, npn xo+opix qopxya npnnnxae+ sna-
nenne nc+nna.
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y}:
Heepen Anexcanpp Eopnconnu
HHdOPMATHKA
3KCHPECC-KVPC ]2 HO]IOTOBKH K EI3
VHEBHOE HOCOBHE
O+ne+c+nenni peax+op .
Texnnnecxn peax+op .
Xyonnx .
Koppex+opi . , .
Honncano n ne na+i 22.12.09.
dopxa+ 84108/32. Byx. +nn. N 2.
Iapnn+ypa CG Times. Hena+i oqce+naa. Vc. n. . 13,44.
Tnpa 2500 ixs. 3ax. N
OOO dennxc
344082, i. Poc+on-na-]ony, nep. Xa+ypnncxn, 80
O+nena+ano c io+onix nanosn+nnon n 3AO Knnia
344019, i. Poc+on-na-]ony, y. Cone+cxaa, 57
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