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1

b xy dng

chng trnh nng cao trnh k s nm 2002










bi ging

CNG NGH XY DUNG ONG AI








Ngi son bi v trnh by:

PGs L Kiu
Trng i hc Kin trc H ni





h ni , 12- 2002




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cng ngh xy dng ng i

PGs L Kiu
Trng i Hc Kin Trc H ni

1. Cng ngh s l nn mng

1.1 Cng ngh s l nn t yu bng m ct:

1.1.1 M t cng ngh

Vic s dng m ct c mc ch l :

(i) Gim chiu su chn mng,
(ii) Gim p lc ca nh hoc cng trnh truyn xung nn t yu ti tr s
m nn t c th tip thu c p lc y,
(iii) m bo cho cng trnh ln u v n nh nhanh chng do nc trong
t c thot ra theo ng ngn nht vo m ct.

Nu ti khu vc xy dng, ngay trn mt c lp t hu c hoc t
p yu th ng l phi chn mng bng xung mt chiu su kh ln,
ngi ta c th dng gii php kinh t hn , l vic thay th lp t yu
bng m ct. Kch thc m ct xc nh t iu kin l lp t t nhin
bn di c th tip thu c p lc truyn xung. Vi mng bng, chiu
dy m ct c xc nh t phng trnh :



Trong R
tc
cng tiu chun ca t ti y m ct ( kG/cm
2
)
P ti trng do mng truyn cho m ct ( kG/m di )
b chiu rng mng bng ( cm )

o
trng lng th tch ca ct trong m ( kG/cm
3
)
gc ma st trong ca ct , (
o
)
d chiu cao m ct ( cm )

Kch thc y m ct c xc nh t iu kin l : p lc do
mng cng trnh v trng lng m ct truyn xung lp nm di m ct
d
dtg b
P
R
tc
0
2

+
+
=
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khng ln hn cng tiu chun ca nn t v s n nh ca nn
c m bo .

Chiu dy m ct c tnh ton sao cho ln ca m ct v
ln ca cc lp t yu nm di phi nh hn ln gii hn ca mng
cng trnh.
Vic thi cng m ct sao cho cht t c kh ln c th loi
tr c ln khng cho php ca mng. Khi thi cng m ct trn mc
nc ngm , ct c ri thnh tng lp 15~20 cm , tng lp phi c m
cht mi ri lp tip theo . C th s dng m ln ( xe lu ) hoc m nn
( m chy ) hoc m thu chn ng cho ton chiu dy ca m. cht
t c phi l 1,65~ 1,7 tn/m
3
. Nu ct c vo h mng kh, dng
phng php m ln hoc m nn th sau khi ri mi lp li ti nc k
mi m.
Nn dng ct ht trung hoc ct ht to lm m ct.

Vi nhng cng trnh c chiu di ln t trn nn t st bo ho
trng thi nho c chiu dy nh hn 6 mt c th thi cng theo phng php
y tri t yu . Phng php ny c th c m t nh sau: ti khu vc
xy dng , p di t cao hn cao trnh thit k ca nn t 5 n 6 mt. Do
tc dng ca trng lng di t p , t yu b y tri ra hai bn. Khi
lp t b y tri khng dy lm , ch t 3 ~ 4 mt , lng vt liu p c
th xc nh gn ng bng khi tch t b y tri. Nu khu vc xy dng
c cu to bng cc lp trm tch dng phn lp , t kp gia l t st
trng thi nho hoc do mm th phi s dng cc bin php ngn nga
s sp ca di t p.

Khi cn xy cc cng trnh c trng lng ln trn cc trm tch st
yu v bn , ngoi mc ch tng nhanh qu trnh c kt, m ct cn dng
nn cht nn bn bng trng lng bn thn ca n. Khi nn cht t bn,
cn ct sao cho kt cu ca bn khi b ph hoi. Khi ct trn lp bn
y m khng dng cc bin php c bit ri ct u v t t m
tung lng ln th kt cu ca t bn s b ph hoi v ct s ln ngp
trong bn. Khi thi cng theo cng ngh ri ct , cc ht ln ri ngay st tu
cuc cn ht nh nm hai bn . Khi di chuyn tu cuc lin tc th ht ln s
ri u trn mt ct. Thi cng nh th , ct khng b trn ln vi bn m s
nn cht bn bng chnh trng lng bn thn ca ct. Nh tnh thot nc
ca ct, nn tip theo qu trnh nn cht l qu trnh c kt thm nhanh
chng. Do , tng c kh nng chng ct ca bn. C th kim tra c
qu trnh nn cht t bn bng cch xc nh m ca t.
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Chiu rng m ct c xc nh sao cho s n nh ca cng trnh
c m bo v khong gp 5 ~ 6 ln chiu rng mng.

m cht ct ri trng thi t p hoc trng thi t nhin , c
th dng cch m chn ng tng mt hoc dng phng php thu chn
ng.
Khi dng phng php m b mt my m c s dng l my
chuyn dng m b mt nhng c th m su c t 0,50 n 1,50 mt.
Loi my ny m ct hoc ct.
Khi chn kch thc qu m ca my m chn ng b mt c th tham
kho s liu ghi trong bng sau y:

Din tch y qu m ( m
2
)
Chiu dy lp t c m (m) Loi t
p lc n
v (t/m
2
)
0,25 0,5 1,0 1,5
Ct bo
ho

Ct m

t st
0,3-0,4

0,6-1,0

1,0-2,0
0,25

0,4

0,6
1,0

1,5

2,0
3,0

4,5

-
5,0

-

-

My mc thc hin m ln chn ng :

My Nga c loi BK 25 . Loi my ny m cht ct n su
1,50 mt, t st t 0,5 ~ 0,8 mt. Hiu sut khong 2000 ~ 3000m3 ct nn
trong 1 ca.
Tiu ch kim tra cht lng hon thnh cng tc l khi trng lng
th tch ct t c 1,60 ~ 1,75 G/cm3 , ng vi cht D = 0,7 ~ 0,90.

My Nht thc hin vic m v thi cng m ct trn t lin ( ti
liu do hng Nippon KaiKo gii thiu nm 2000 ) cho trong bng :

Loi my Cng sut
( PS)
Phn nng
(tn)
B phn Ghi ch
SW-180 150 50 1
PD 100 152 50 4 3 b phn
dng cho cn
trc
SP 100N 150 50 7
SP 110N 150 70 24
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SP 250 250 150 7 1 b phn
dng cho cn
trc
SP 300N 600 300 4 3 b phn
dng cho cn
trc

Dng m thu chn ng tng su c dng khi cn nn cht lp
ct trn 1,5 mt. Dng cc loi m su m ta quen gi l m di nhng l
loi mnh nh cc loi -50 , -86 v.v... v cc loi thu chn ng tng su
cc mnh . Dng cc loi m di c th t bn knh chn ng ti 0,4 ~
0,7 mt v chiu su ti 3 ~ 4 mt. Khi dng loi my thu chn ng nh B
- 76 hoc B - 97 bn knh nn cht n 3 mt v chiu su lp t c nn
cht n 10 mt v hn na.
Dng m rung th h my xung su bng cch xi nc , ngha l
gn vi my rung c u xi nc r ct khi h m su vo trong ct.
Di tc ng ca nc v m rung , ct c nn cht. Khi phun xi vi
p lc 4~5 atm vo lp ct, ct b xi ri ra do nc chuyn ng ln pha
trn. Cc ht t v ht mn trng thi l lng cng b y ln trn. Ht
nng s lng ng xung y. Bn knh lan truyn kh nh nn gia tc chn
ng c cc ht ct truyn l nh nn phi di chuyn m thnh nhiu
im b tr theo hnh hoa mai nh l thuyt m b tng bng m di.
Khi h m n v tr m dng nc xi. Qu trnh m cht th
ngng xi nc. Khi m xong li xi nc rt m ln v nh th , l
rng trong ct. Lp li l bng cch , rt ct xung. Nhiu khi rt
xung l y bng si nh ht.
C th kim tra cht lng m nn ct bng thit b xuyn , nn ti
trng th hay nn tiu chun nh kim tra mu t nguyn dng.

1.1.2 Phm vi s dng:

Phm vi s dng ca m ct l chiu dy lp ct khng qu 10 mt.
Nu chiu su ny qu ln th v vn kinh t m nn chn loi mng khc.
Di t c nc lu chuyn cng hn ch dng m ct v l do ct c th
tri theo dng nc m chn mng gim chu lc.

Trong nc :

m ct l phng php gia c nn t yu rt c hiu qu . Trc
nm 1990 s dng nc ta kh nhiu , nht l khi Lin x gip ta s l tt
mng nh C1 i hc Bch khoa H ni . Nh khch s 10 L Thch H ni
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cng s l nn ct ht trung vi chiu dy n 6 mt. Gn y do phng n
cc thi cng nhanh hn v gi ct ht trung t nn phng php ny t dng.
Phng n ny kh tin cy v cht lng nn nu c lp t st trn mt coi
nh vng vy quy kn lp ct. Nn trin khai thc hin phng n ny rng
ri khi iu kin cho php .
nhng vng sn ct m t yu, s dng bin php ny, t c kt
nhanh v gia c nn t yu c hiu qu. Cng ngh ny thch hp cho nh
c s tng t 6 tng tr xung trong iu kin nn t yu.

Nc ngoi:

Phng php dng m ct l phng php hu hiu vi nhng vng t yu
cn nhanh chng n nh sm thi cng. y l phng php kinh in
trong gia c nn t yu trong cc bi bn quc t s l nn t yu.
Bin php ny c t ra sm nht vi cc vng Trung u, sau n Lin
x c.
Nht bn c nhiu tp on thi cng ln bin ln chuyn dng m ct
xy dng ngoi khi, to ra nhng o ni bng ct c tng c vy, din
tch khu vc c lp ct n nhiu hecta.

1.2 Cc ct :

1.2.1 M t cng ngh:

C hai kiu cc ct c s dng gia c nhn to nn t yu bo
ho. Cc ct c ch to theo kiu khoan thnh l khoan thng ng xong
nht y ct c s dng tng nhanh qu trnh nn cht ca t yu di
tc dng ca trng lng khi t p v ti trng cng trnh xy trn .
Cc ct thi cng theo kiu ng cc ng rng xung t , khi nhi ct th rt
ng ln l mt cch ch to cc ct kiu khc.

(i) Cc ct c ng knh ln :

Cc ct thi cng c ng knh ln cn c gi l ging ct. L
khoan to cho cc ct loi ny c thi cng ging nh kiu to l khoan
cho cc nhi c vch bng thp vi chiu dy vch 8 ~ 20 mm. Thng
thng cc ct loi ny c ng knh l 600 mm. Ly ht li bng gu
khoan xoay cho n khi t su cn thit. Thng cc ct c su
khng ln nh cc nhi nn khng phi dng bentonite gi thnh vch v c
vch bng thp. Sau khi ngng khoan , nhi lng h khoan bng ct m
chc v rt vch ln khi nhi y. Trn mt cc ct thng l m ct. Kt
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cu phi hp ca h thng thot nc ngay trong nn di mng m bo
tng nhanh qu trnh nn cht ca nn chu ti do ng thm ca nc p
thot ra t l rng ca t c rt ngn li.

Cc ct ng knh ln c s dng c hiu qu khi cn tng nhanh
qu trnh nn cht ca t bi tch nh t st dng di. Cc ct ng knh
ln cng c s dng hp l khi cn m bo s n nh ca nn c din
tch chu ti ln bng cch tng nhanh qu trnh c kt thm nh nn nh
cng nghip cn n nh ln trong thi gian ngn.

C s xc nh khong cch cn thit gia cc cc ct l cc gi
thit v thi gian c kt ca nn nh sau:
* Thi im ban u , nc tip thu ton b ti trng truyn ln nn.
* Vng nh hng ca cc ct ng knh ln c xem nh trn.
* Vng nh hng chu ti trng phn b u.
* Ch xt n c kt thm.

(ii) Cc ct c ng knh nh :

Cc ct ng knh nh c thi cng do ng nhng ng thp rng
xung t m nhng ng ny c ng knh khong 500 mm lm cho t
c dn nn cht . Cc min m t c nn cht tip gip vi nhau . Nhi
ct trong ng khi rt ng ln. Theo iu kin lm vic th cc ct loi ny v
c bn khc vi cc dng cc b tng nhi hay cc cng khc . im khc
ch l cc ct v t nn cht quanh n cng tip thu ti trng v bin dng
nh nhau. Khi thi cng cc ct ta s khng c mt mng cc m c mt
nn nn cht vi mun bin dng trung bnh ln hn kh nhiu so vi
mun bin dng lc t cha b nn.
Thnh phn khong c nh hng n gii hn nn cht ca t st v
t bn. Hm lng cc cht khong st a nc trong t cng ln th gii
hn nn cht ca t cng nh. Kinh nghim cho thy , tr s nh nht ca
h s rng c th t c khi nn cht tng su ,
nch
tng ng vi tr s
ca h s rng
p
trong khong p lc p = 0,5~1,0 kG/cm
2
xc nh theo kt
qu th nghim mu t trn my nn .
Khi p lc khong 1 kG/cm
2
th phn ln nc l rng c p thot
ra khi t v h s rng ng vi p lc s l gii hn nn cht ca t khi
nn cht tng su bng cc ct.

(iii) Nhng c im thi cng cc ct:

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Thi cng gia c nn t yu tng su bng cc ct c nhng c im
sau y:

* nn cht t tng su cc thp rng , c gi l ng nng ,
thng dng c ng knh 500 mm v khng lm nh hn 420 mm. u
ng nng c m to ra c khi rt ng ln ct nhi bn trong ng s nm
li trong t.

* Ct dng nhi trong ng a xung t phi ng nht v kch
thc ht , l loi ct va hoc ct th. Hm lng st v bi khng qu 5%.

* Cc thp ng nng c th ng xung t bng thit b no cng
c : my ng cc , my nn , my h cc kiu rung, ba Franki ...

* Cn ch hin tng ct mc trong ng khi rt ng ln . Phi c
trang b chng mc ct trong ng khi rt ng nng ln.

* Ct trong cc phi c m cht. Dng cch no th ngi thit k
thi cng ch nh v t vn m bo cht lng bn cnh ch u t duyt y .
C th dng qu nn , cng kh nn hoc n thm ln na khi rt .

* Trnh t ng theo cch dn nn t ngoi vo trong nu din gn.
Nu din chy di th thi cng theo hng ngang chn l. Thi cng c mt
s hng l li n hng chn cho khu vc c ln cht u.

1.2.2 Phm vi s dng :

Ti nhng vng m nc ngm tnh , iu kin s dng cc ct nn
pht trin . Cn ht sc cnh gic vi iu kin mc nc ngm thay i ,
bin ng nhiu . Ti H ni c mt s bi hc cho vic s dng cc ct vi
v tr c mc nc ngm bin ng nhi , nc ko rt ct di mng
lm cho cng trnh b ln nguy him . Nu theo di tt iu kin thu vn th
gii php cc ct l gii php kinh t trong s l nn t yu.
y l bin php gia c nn t yu r v c hiu qu cho nh t 6
tng tr xung xy dng trong iu kin t yu.

Trong nc:

Cc ct c dng nc ta bt u vo nm 1958 cho nhng khu xy dng
nh tr s c quan c s tng 4 ~ 5 tng. Ngi nh s 42 Ng Quyn H ni,
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tr s cng ty Xut nhp khu Rau Qu, B Thng Mi nc ta l ngi nh
s dng cc ct sm.
Sau ny, vo nm 1982, ti khu Thnh Cng H ni, vic s dng khng
thnh cng cc ct ngi nh A2 Ngc Khnh lm nhng ngi s dng cc
ct tr nn thn trng.

Ngoi nc:

Cc ct c nu trong cc sch gio khoa v Nn mng v gia c t nn
ca nhiu nc trn th gii. T nhng nh a cht c tn tui nh Teczaghi
n Maslov ca Nga u nhc n phng php ny nh l phng php gia
c nn t yu c hiu qu v kinh t.

1.3 Gia c nn bng bc thm :

1.3.1 M t cng ngh :

Nn t snh ly, t bn v st bo ho nc nu ch lp t hoc
ct ln trn , thi gian lp snh ly c kt rt lu ko di thi gian ch i
xy dng. Cm xung t cc ng c bc thot nc thng ng xung t
lm thnh li vi khong cch mt li l 500 mm. V tr ng c bc
nm mt li. ng thot nc c bc thng cm su khong 18 ~ 22 mt.
ng thot nc c bc c ng knh 50~60 mm. V ng bng nha
c rt nhiu l chm kim nc t do qua li. Trong ng bc bng si
plime dc theo ng nc dn theo bc ln, xung, trong ng.
Phng php ny c gi l phng php thot nc thng ng
(vertical drain).
Vic cm ng xung t nh loi my cm bc thm. My ny nc ta
t sn xut c ( Tng Cng ty Giao thng 2 ). Hin nay ang c mt
nc ta nhiu my cm bc thm ca i loan.

Khi nn t c cc lp ct bn trn nng cao ng thi
dng lm lp gia ti gip cho s cht bt nc lp di su lp t ny
c kt kh nng chu ti, nc trong t b p lc ca ti lm nc tch ra
v ln cao theo bc, t c kt nhanh. Khi gim ti, nc cha trong ng c
bc m khng hoc t tr li lm nho t. Kt hp s dng vi a k thut
tip tc cht nc trong t v ct bn trn s ci thin tnh cht t nn
nhanh chng.

Va qua ti Vng Tu B Ra nhiu nh my c gia c bng phng
php s dng bc thm v kt qu cho thy rt ngn c thi gian n nh
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nn t l ng k . ng quc l s 5 ni H ni vi Hi phng , nhiu
on nn t cng c gia c bng bc thm. Bc thm c dng nhiu
trong vic xy dng ng i qua vng ng bng sng Hng , ng bng
sng Cu Long . Bc thm lm cho nn t n nh nhanh hn ch n nh
t nhin c nhiu thi gian. Bc thm c s dng nc ta trong vng 5
nm tr li y.

1.3.2 Phm vi s dng

y l bin php mi c s dng nc ta v vi nhng cng trnh
c thot nc theo phng thng ng ca bc thm chng t tc c
kt ca nn t yu l nhanh so vi cc phng php khc . Bin php ny c
th s dng c rng ri v theo kinh nghim nc ngoi , y l bin php
hu hiu trong bi ton gii quyt tc c kt ca nn t yu.
Cng ngh ny thch dng cho vic xy dng nh c s tng c s
tng 3 ~ 4 tng xy dng trn nn t mi lp m di lp t lp l lp bn
su.

Trong nc :

Vic s dng bc thm nc ta mi xut hin khong 10 nm tr li y.
Nhng cng trnh s dng bc thm vi s lng nhiu tp trung cho cc
cng trnh nn ng nh ng quc l 5 - H ni - Hi phng, nhiu on
trn ng quc l 1A, nht l nhng ng xa l ti ng bng sng Cu
Long nh cc ng thuc cc tnh min Ty Nam b v nhiu con ng
thuc tnh C Mau . Cng trnh dn dng v cng nghip s dng bc thm
c dng rng ri cc khu cng nghip B Ra-Vng Tu nh ti cc
nh my in Ph M, nh my Ho cht ...

Nc ngoi:

Bin php s dng bc thm c s dng cng khng qu lu so vi s xm
nhp phng php cng ngh ny vo nc ta. Ti Philippines, Indonxia l
nhng o c nhiu vng trng xnh ly, vic s dng bc thm kh ph
bin.

1.4 Lm cht t ln st tng su bng cc t :

1.4.1 M t cng ngh

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Vic lm cht t tng su vi loi t ln st c l hng ln c th
tin hnh thnh hai ng tc : to l v lp y l. Vic to l c th tin
hnh bng cch ng cc thp trn ng knh 400 ~ 500 mm ri nh ln ,
c th khoan , c th dng nng lng n. Vic lp y l thng dng t
ti ch , c th dng t kh trn vi vi v xi mng ri nhi cht xung l.

Nu s dng thuc n th cch tin hnh nh sau:
To l nh n mn . ng knh l n mn ch t 60 ~ 80 mm .
Sau khi khoan l nh ny ti su lp t cn nn cht , rt mi khoan ln
v cho thuc mn ni vi dy dn n hay dy kch n xung . Lp nh bng
ct v cho n . Lng thuc n loi BB khong chng 200 ~ 300 gam cho
mt l s to ra c l c ng knh gp 10 ln ng knh gi thuc . Sau
khi n , t quanh gi mn b p ra chung quanh v to l rng nhi t
hoc nhi hn hp t - xi mng - vi ri m cho cht.
Thng thng chiu su ca lp ln st c gia c n khong 12 ~
14 mt di y mng.

Mc nn cht ph thuc vo t ni cn nn v cht cn t.
cht ng vi ln st nh hn 0,02 dao ng khong 1,55 ~ 1,70 t/m3 v
ph thuc hm lng ht st v ht bi trong t. Trong trng hp iu kin
s dng phi t tnh khng thm ca nn ln th phi tng tnh nn cht.
cht khi ny phi trn 1,75 t/m3.

Gii hn nn cht ca t st xc nh theo cng thc :

Hoc theo cng thc :

Trong
c
,
h
l dung trng cht , dung trng su h ,
nch
cht ln
nht.
Nu gi l din tch tng i ca cc l ta c th tham kho
khong cch gia cc cc t trn vi xi mng nh bng sau:


100
1

h
l
h
c
W
+
=
nch
h

+
=
1
0
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rng
t nhin
ca t
(%)

55

52

50

48

46

44
H s
rng ca
t
trng
thi t
nhin

1,224

1,084

1,0

0,92

0,85

0,785
m2khi

c
=1,65
t/m3

0,264

0,224

0,182

0,149

0,115

0,084
Khong
cch
gia cc
cc t

1,8

2,0

2,25

2,5

2,75

3,25
m2khi

c
=1,7
t/m3

0,298

0,286


0,206

0,173

0,142

0,110
Khong
cch
gia cc
cc t

1,75

1,75

2,10

2,25

2,50

3,00
m2
khi

c
=1,75
t/m
3


0,321

0,260

0,229

0,198

0,166

0,137
Khong
cch
gia cc
cc t

1,6

1,8

2,0

2,1

2,25

2,5

Kim tra cht lng m cht thc cht l xc nh cht ca t
gia cc cc ti v tr t mng . Vic m cht coi nh t yu cu nu tr s
cht trung bnh xp x tr s thit k qui nh. thp so vi tr s thit
k khng qu 0,05. Nu cao trnh t mng nh hn chiu dy lp m th
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cn tin hnh lm cht thm bng m nng. Khi s dng nng lng n v
chiu dy lp t b xi ti ch d tnh gn ng v vt qu 2 mt.
Nu do iu kin s dng cng trnh v qu trnh cng ngh c th
xy ra s kin l nn nh b t m th cn kim tra cht lng m cht
bng th nghim ti trng th trn nn t c lm t nhn to. Khi m
cht khng t yu cu th lm thm cc chen thm vo ch cc lm.

1.4.2 Phm vi p dng

Phng php ny c nu trn l thuyt , nc ta mi s dng nh
l th im . Cha c cng trnh thc nghim nn iu kin s dng b hn
ch .

1.5 Cc xi mng t trn t :

1.5.1 M t cng ngh

Dng my o kiu gu xoay , b gu v lp li khuy t kiu li
chm ngang lm ti t trong h khoan m khng ly t khi l khoan.
Xoay v n cn xoay n su y cc. Ta c mt cc m bn trong t
c khuy u . Khi mi khuy y cc th bt u bm sa xi mng
c dn trong lng cn khoan n mi khoan. t li c trn vi sa xi
mng thnh dng xn xt c xi mng. Va rt va bm sa xi mng v trn.
Cui cng khi cn khoan nng mi ln n mt t , ta c cc t trn xi
mng. Xi mng s pht trin cng nh tnh ton.

Nhng cc xi mng t trn t thng b tr st nhau di chn
mng bng , ng knh cc n st cc kia . Lng xi mng dng cho 1 m3
cc t 250 kg n 350 kg. T l Nc/Ximng l 60% n 120% vi sa xi
mng bm xung cc. Sau 28 ngy , khoan ly mu trong cc cc ny cng
t 17 kG/cm
2
vi lng xi mng l 250 kg/m
3
v

hn na tu thuc loi
t ti ch.
Phng php ny c cc nc Hoa k , Anh, Php , c v nhiu
nc chu u khc s dng. Nc Nht cng xy dng nhiu nh vi loi
cc ny. Vi cc ny c th xy dng nh t 8 tng n 10 tng .
Gn y cc hng ca c gii thiu vo nc ta loi my do
Hercules Grundlgging sn xut lm cc xi mng t. Loi ny c th
lm c nhng cc t trn xi mng t ng knh 600 mm , su bnh
qun 4,4 mt hay hn na. Thay cho xi mng n thun , ta c th trn xi
mng vi vi thnh cc vi - xi mng vi lng hn hp vi v xi mng
cho 1 mt su ca cc l 26 kg nh trnh by trn.
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14
Nht bn gii thiu vi th trng nc ta loi my lm cc loi ny l
TENOCOLUMN.
Cc ch tiu khi s dng my TENOCOLUMN nh sau:

Loi t ti ch Lng
ximng/m
3

T l N/X
%
Cng mu
KG/cm
2

Ct 250 120 41,8
Bn,st 226 100 30
ct
250 60 17,1
t ln hu c 350 60 15,7
Than bn 325 60 16,4

Vi nhng ch tiu trn y, phng php t ra hu hiu khi qui i
sc chu ti di nn thnh tr s ng nht dng khi tnh ton mng bng
di cng trnh. Vi sc chu ca cc khong 15 kG/cm
2
c th qui i sc
chu y mng bng thnh bnh qun 5~7 kG/cm
2
l iu c ngha khi thit
k mng.

1.5.2 Phm vi p dng

Phng php ny mi c gii thiu vo nc ta nhng iu kin s dng
rng ri cn hn ch . y l bin php c ngha kinh t cao , nn c th
im nhiu nh hn na c kt qu nhn rng din s dng . Ti cng
trnh Tr s Cng ty Hng Hi ti u khu Kim Lin dng phng php
ny gia c thnh vch o lm hai tng hm cho nh chnh.
Ti B Ra cng dng phng php ny gia c nn y mng mt b cha
du ln, c hiu qu cao.
Loi gia c nn theo cng ngh ny c th lm mng cho nh c cao ti
12 tng.

1.6 Cc loi cc s dng cy trong thin nhin :

1.6.1 M t cng ngh:

Khi khi lng cc cho cng trnh khng nhiu v trong mi trng
cha cc thng xuyn ngm nc , c th dng cc loi cc l cy trong
thin nhin : cc g , cc cy trm , cc tre.

(i) Cc g :

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15
Loi cc g ph bin l dng g bch n , g phi lao , g m c thn
thng , di t 4,5 mt n 12 mt , i khi n 18 mt , ng knh t 16 n
30 ~ 35 cm . u di ca cc g c o vt nhn c hnh thp m u
nhn hng xung di. Rt nhiu khi lm b phn thp dt ghp thnh mi
m ly mi g chng cho mi cc b to hay dp v khi gp chng ngi
trong qu trnh ng.
Phn u trn ca cc nh ai trnh v u cc cng nh trnh
dp tot u cc khi va chm vi ba ng.

Vng ng bng sng Cu Long , cc vng ven bin khc nh
nng , Nha trang ...s dng cc g trm l mt sng to trong vic s dng
vt liu a phng nhm h gi thnh cng trnh. Vic s dng cc g trm
thi gian th nghim v chng minh l tt.
Trng hp nn t yu l bn ct pha st hoc bn st pha ct th c
trm ng vo t c tc dng nh ci nm nn cht t nn gia cc c trm
lm cho t t ch c h s rng t nhin e
o
t ti h s rng yu cu e
yc
.
Cng vic y l xc nh s cc cho 1 m
2
. Theo nghin cu ca trng
i hc K thut nng th s c trm n c ngd knh d c xc nh
theo cng thc :

T cng thc ny ta thy :
* t yu va c st I
L
= 0,55 ~ 0,60 , cng chu ti thin nhin
R
o
=0,7 ~ 0,9 kG/cm
2
ng 16 c cho 1m
2
.
* t yu c st I
L
= 0,7 ~ 0,8 , cng chu ti thin nhin R
o
=0,5 ~
0,7 kG/cm
2
ng 25 c cho 1m
2
.
* t yu qu c st I
L
0,80 , cng chu ti thin nhin R
o
< 0,5
kG/cm
2
ng 36 c cho 1m
2
.

Cc g thng phi s dng ti nhng ni m cc thng xuyn ngm
trong nc. Nu nc khng ngm thng xuyn cc g , cc rt nhanh b
mc lm h hng cng trnh. Cc g thng dng di y tr cu nh , tr
ct in vt sng , tr ct in dn in qua cnh ng , cn c trm c th
ng di mng nh 3 ~ 5 tng trn nn t yu . Hin nay cha s dng cc
g ph bin cho nh dn dng v cng nghip.

Vic s dng cc g nn ht sc hn ch v tin cy ca cc g cha
cao do nhiu iu kin ca thu cn khng an ton cho vic chng mc .

) 1 ( *
) ( 40000
2
o
yc o
e d
e e
n
+

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(ii) Cc tre :

Cc tre c s dng nh bin php gia c nn m khng nn coi l
mng cc. Thng thng ng cc tre vi s lng cc l 25 cc cho 1m
2
,
ngha l cc b tr theo hng vung gc vi nhau v cch nhau 20 cm mt
cc. Cc tre phi l tre c ti , mnh dy , ng knh 80 mm n 120 mm,
di 3~3,5 mt mt cc. Pha ngn o vt v cm xung di . Pha gc ca
gi st mt lm u trn cc , khi ng s ng vo mt tre . ng cc tre
theo chu vi dn vo gia v khng nn ng nhanh qu. ng qu nhanh c
th b hin tng dn p lm tri cc ng hoc b nn cht gi to. Hin
nay cha c nghin cu nghim tc no v cc tre cho nhng thuc tnh
cht , chiu di , tnh bn theo thi gian . Tuy th do kinh nghim dn gian
lu ngy , cc tre s dng tha tht khong hai chc nm ( 1960 ~ 1980 ),
gn y trong xy dng nh dn li xut hin nhiu nh s dng cc tre.
V cc tre l cht hu c nn ch bn theo thi gian nu mi trng
quanh cc ngp nc thng xuyn. Nu mi trng cha cc , kh , t
thay i lin tc hay kh thng xuyn , cc tre b mc v c kh nng mi
n hng. Mi trng s dng cc tre phi c theo di thng xuyn c
quyt nh ng n.

1.7.2 Phm vi p dng

y l bin php gia c nn truyn thng s dng nhiu trong dn
gian nc ta nhng t nhng nm 1960 n 1990 vic s dng b hn ch .
Sau nm 1990 , nhiu nh dn li bng ln phong tro s dng cc tre . Cn
ht sc ch n mi trng chn cc . Nu mc nc ngm thay i nhiu
phi ht sc thn trng khi dng cc tre.
Cng ngh ny s dng cho nh c s tng di 4 tng trong vng t
khng qu yu nhng khng rn . Sc chu cho php ca t di 1 kG/cm2.

Trong nc:

Trong nc dng ph bin cho nh 2 ~ 3 tng ni t yu. Mt giai on
di khong 30 nm t dng v cha thy c s chc chn cho ch li ca cc
tre v theo trng phi Lin x c t s dng loi cc ny. Sau i mi, dn
c t lm nh mi li s dng cc tre.

Ngoi nc :

Khi chu u gn nh khng dng loi cc tre gia c nn t. Gn nh
rt t ti liu vit v cc tre hoc c trm.
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1.7 Cc b tng ct thp c sn :

1.7.1 M t cng ngh

(i) Khi nim v phn loi :

Loi cc ny c dng rng ri trong xy dng dn dng v cng
nghip.
Theo phng php h cc xung t, chia lm cc h bng ba, bng
cc my h chn ng hoc cc ba chn ng hoc cc p . Tu theo a
cht ti ni ng hoc h cc , c th h cc theo cch s dng my h cc
hoc kt hp vi cch xi nc hoc khoan mi . Ti nhng ni m cc phi
i qua lp ct th vic h cc kh khn hn khi cc h qua lp st . Nhng
trng hp ny phi khoan mi v mun gi c thnh vch h khoan khi
xp , phi dng dung dch st bentonite gi thnh vch. Qu trnh khoan mi
bm vo h khoan dung dch st bentonite . Dung dch ny bm vo thnh
vch l khoan gi khng cho ct xp.
Theo cu to cc loi cc b tng ct thp c sn , cc c chia
thnh : loi c tit din vung ct thp thng, loi c tit din vung ct
thp ng sut trc. C loi cc c tit din vung tit din c , c th ch
to loi cc tit din vung tit din rng hnh trn mi kn hoc mi h. C
loi cc tit din trn , li c nhng cng c loi cc ng tit din rng .
C th ch to cc b tng ct thp c hnh nm . Ni chung hnh thi cc b
tng ct thp ch to kiu c sn rt a dng .

Theo kh nng chu ti ca cc m chia thnh cc chng hoc cc treo
( cc ma st ). Cc chng cm mi cc vo tng hoc tng t c coi l
tng y khng nn c. Cc ma st chu ti trng ngoi nh lc khng ca
t bao m chung quanh v mi cc. Nu ti mi cc c cc lp t cht th
phn ln ti trng truyn qua mi cc. Nu cc cm vo cc tng t c tnh
nn ln ln th phn ln ti trng s do ma st trn mt bao quanh cc tip
nhn.

(ii) D liu cn cho thit k cc:

* Cc ti liu v a cht cng trnh ti khu vc xy dng : mt bng
h khoan , im xuyn thm d v cc kt qu khoan , xuyn , cc ti liu v
th nghim cc th, ng vin v ng trc cng trnh, mt ct v ct a
cht, kt qu phn tch th nghim t . Cc kt qu thm d a cht thu
vn cng trnh.
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* Cc ti liu v thit k cng trnh.

* M t qu trnh vn hnh , s dng, khai thc cng trnh nht l cc
yu t v lc s c kh nng nh hng n s chu ti lu di ca cng
trnh. Cc kh nng lm cho nc di t b thay i trong qu trnh s
dng nh cc yu t sn sinh ra tc ng n mn , kh nng to dng chy
ngm , kh nng lm tng, gim mc nc ngm.

(iii) Chn loi mng cc , chiu di v tit din cc

Khi chn loi mng cc ch yu cn c vo c tnh v tr s ti trng.
i vi ti trng tp trung , nn chn mng cc c tit din hnh vung , ch
nht hoc hnh thang v cc b tr thnh nhm . Nu ti trng phn b theo
chiu di dng mng cc hnh bng v b tr cc trn mt , hai hoc nhiu
hng ( di tng ). Mng cc di cc xil, ng khi th b tr cc theo
ng trn.
Khi chn chiu di cc phi xut pht t iu kin a cht theo cc
iu kin sau y:

* T mt t tr xung c cc lp t p , bn hu c, bn , st v st do
nho v nho , ct bi v cc loi t khc c kh nng chu ti km th chiu
di ca cc c xc nh trn co s mi cc phi c cm su vo lp ct
tng i cht hoc vo cc lp st cng , na cng , do cng hoc cm vo
cc lp t to ht , lp .

* Khi cc cm vo cc lp t tng i cht th khng nn
chiu dy lp di mi cc qu mng nu di lp ny l lp c kh nng
chu ti km hn lp ny.

* Nu cc lp c kh nng chu ti km ( bn , st nho hoc do nho
...) c chiu dy qu ln n ni chiu di cc khng th i qua ht cc lp
th c th mi cc ti cc lp t yu nhng phi tnh ton sao cho kh
nng chu ti ca cc l do ma st quyt nh.

* Nu di cc lp chu ti km l cc lp chu ti kh hn nh ct
cht , st v st cng c chiu dy thay i rt nhiu trong phm v chiu
di nh cn thit k mng, coc th la chn gii php dng hai , ba chiu di
cc khc nhau ti cc v tr khc nhau.

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* Khi cch mt t k t trn xung t hn 2 mt thy c cc lp ct
cht , st v st cng cng nh t to ht hoc th gii php la chn
mng cc t ra ng nghi ng hoc c th ni l khng nn.

* Thng thng th cc nn xuyn qua cc lp t ln st cm vo
cc lp t ct tng i cht hoc cc lp t st v st cng , na cng
hoc do cng.
cm su vo cc lp t cht nn tu tnh hnh cc lp trong a
tng nh :
0,50 mt vi v t to ht;
1,00 mt vi t cht ;
1,50 mt vi t cht va.

Chn tit din cc li nht phi k n ti trng truyn ln cc , n
kh nng tn dng cao nht vt liu lm cc cng nh phi k n cc tnh
cht c l ca cc lp t m cc i qua v lp t di mi cc.

Kinh nghim cho thy , nn la chn tit din cc ln l hp l vi
cc trng hp:
- Khi coc ti trng ngang v mmen un m tit din cc nh khng
tip nhn c.
- Khi ti trng tc ng rt tp trung, khi hn ch din tch b tr
cc trn mt bng v khi c kh nng truyn ti trng tnh ton ln cc gn
bng tr s bn gii hn ca vt liu cc.
- Khi thit k cc n di ct.
- Khi chiu di cc ln hn 12 mt.
- Khi xy dng mng cc nhng vng ng t.
- Khi cc chu ko nhiu.
- Khi t c tnh n.

Vic la chn tit din cc nh l hp l khi :

- Ti trng thc t tc dng ln cc nh hn tr s tnh ton theo t
nn v theo vt liu lm cc.
- Khi cn thit phi thit k theo cu to vi s lng cc ln hn
nhiu so vi yu cu xut pht t iu kin sc chu ti tnh ton ca cc
theo iu kin cng t nn.
- Khi ti cng trng khng c cc tit din ln.
- Khi chiu di cc vung nh hn 8 mt.
- Khi cc dng thp ng sut trc thay cho cc thng c chiu di
ln hn 16 mt.
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(iv) H cc kiu ng :

Vic h cc bng ba c th thc hin vi bt k loi t chu nn no.
Hin nay ba c s dng nhiu l ba diesel kiu hai thanh dn ng
cc mc d nng lng xung kch c km ba hi n ng nhng u im
quan trng l ba t iu khin , khng cn c my nn kh . Gn y vic s
dng my diesel kiu ng c cng sut in cao so vi loi hai thanh dn nn
loi my ny c s dng rng ri.
T s trng lng phn chy xung kch v trng lng cc khng
c nh hn 1,5 ln i vi t cht , khng nh hn 1,25 ln vi t cht
va v 1,0 i vi t yu bo ho nc.
Khi dng ba diesel kiu ng , t s trng lng phn chy xung kch
vi trng lng cc c th ly thp hn v bng 0,7 ~ 0,8 . Khi bt u ng
ch nn nng chy cao khong 0,3 ~ 0,4 mt s a cc vo v tr kh chnh
xc.

Cc loi ba ng cc loi song ng kiu Lin x c cn c nhiu
trong nc ta l : Y-5 , C-32 , C-35 , C-38 , C-431 , CCCM 742A , CCCM-
501 , 502 , 503, 708 v PP-28.
Ba diesel kiu Lin x c c cc loi YPM-500 , YPM-1250 , C-524,
C-2544 , C-222 , C 222A , C-268 , C268A , C-330 , C-858 , C- 859.
Cc loi ba ng cc kiu diesel thu lc ca Nht c phn chy t
3,3 tn n 6 tn vi k hiu DH hin nay cng c nhiu Cng ty Xy dng
ang c. Cc loi ba diesel ca Hoa k c th mua c ti th trng l
DE150/110 , DE70/50C, DE70/50B, DA55C , DA45 , DE33/30/20C ,
DA35C , DA15C .
Ba dng hi nn c MS500 , Ms 350 , 11B3 , 10B3 , 9B3 , #7 , # 6 ,
v #5.
Cc dng dn khoan mi c H1200B , HA-18 , HVA -36 v AF-550.

(v) H cc kiu chn ng :

Ch i vi t ct bo ho nc v t st nho hoc do nho mi
nn s dng phng php h cc bng chn ng. h cc c tt th
my chn ng phi c trng lng ln th d h cc di 12~15 mt trong
t yu th trng lng my phi nng ti thiu l 5 tn v t cht th my
phi nng n 10 tn. Vic chn my h cc chn ng ph thuc trng
lng cc , ph thuc tnh cht c l ca t ni cha cc.
Cc my h cc chn ng ca Lin x c cn trong nc ta l cc
loi B-1 , 3 , 30 , 80 , 160 , 170 , 250 , v BY-1,6 , B-102 , B-104 , B108.
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21
Cc loi my h cc ca cc nc pht trin mi nhp vo nc ta rt
phong ph , c k hiu l V- ( V-chn ng , vibration ) nh V-140 , V-36 ,
V-30 , V-20 , V-20B , V-17 , V16, V-14 , V-5C , V-5B , V-5 , V2A v V-2.
Mt trong nhng Hng c nhiu my thi cng cc ni ting ca Hoa
K l ICE ( International Construction Equipment, Inc. ) ta c th c p
ng thng qua E-mail tip xc l: info@iceusa.com.

(vi) H cc kiu p :

Cc p l c th s dng rt c bit ca nc ta. Hin nay trong iu
kin thi cng trong ni do cc ng b nhc im v ting n v s chn
ng nn vic s dng rt hn ch. Ban u cc p ch s dng theo cch ni
nhng on ngn cc Mga . Sau ny chng ta c th p c nhng on
cc di trn 5 mt. V nguyn tc nhng cc ng u c th thi cng kiu
p. m bo cc p t c sc chu ti d tnh th lc p cc phi t
ti lc p gii hn ti thiu P
pmin
. ng thi m bo an ton cho h neo
gi v thit b p , cn khng ch lc p khng ln qu P
pmax
.
Lc p ti hn ti thiu v ti a ph thuc c tnh ca nn t cha
cc. Thng lc ny phi ln hn lc chu ti ca cc 20% ~ 50%.

Phn ln cc thit b s dng cho cc p u c sn xut trong nc
ta. B phn ch yu ca my p cc l h kch. C hai kiu my c bn l
my p nh cc v my p m ngang thn cc. C 3 cch neo kch l h neo
trong lng t , h gi nh i trng v h neo ngm cht vo cng trnh.
Hn ch ca cc p l kh s dng cc ln v kh nng kch p cng
nh h neo gi cng knh nu dng i trng.
Hin tng p cc lm tri t chung quanh l iu kin cn ch
trong tin p. Cn b tr tin p sao cho t khng b dn nn nhanh
gim hin tng tri t chung quanh , nht l ti cc v tr c nhng lp t
c tnh n hi cao.

(vii) Cc nm :

Cc nm l loi cc b tng ct thp c hnh nm. Cc nm s dng
rt tt khi lp t y mng l thun nht v dy cha nm. Mi
nm phi nm trong lp t n hi v cch ng phn gii vi lp di t
nht 1,2 mt. Do iu kin kh tho mn v chiu dy lp t cha nm nn
vic s dng cc nm l hn ch. Mt s cng trnh s dng cc nm do mi
nm xuyn qua lp t cha nm nn nm b chm xung cc lp t di
v hin tng x rch , lm tch lp t st mng gy nguy him cho
cng trnh.
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1.7.2 Phm vi p dng

Trong nc :

Cc b tng ct thp tr thnh gii php mng su kinh in v
truyn thng . Vic s dng gii php ny c kt qu rt n nh . S pht
trin ca phng php ny l tt yu v kt qu l khng cn bn ci .
y l gii php mng su c s dng cho nh c s tng t 5 n 17
tng, hin nay s dng kh rng ri cho cc dng nh Vit nam.

Nc ngoi:

Vic s dng cc b tng ct thp cho nh vng t yu l ph bin trn rt
nhiu nc. Chiu di cc c s dng n 30 mt. Tit din cc c th
hnh vung, hnh ch nht , hng trn hay hnh tam gic. Kch thc cnh
nu tit din hnh vung t 200 x 200 mm n 450 x 450 mm. C ngi
thit k cc b tng ct thp n tit din 500 x 500 mm.
Gn nh tt c cc nc trn th gii u c tiu chun thit k v thi cng
cc b tng ct thp.

1.8 Cc dng cc ch to ti v tr cng trnh :

1.8.1 M t cng ngh

(i) Cc nhi :

Cc nhi c s dng trong vic xy dng nh cao tng. Nh cao
tng c nhng c im ng ch :
*Ti trng tp trung thng ng chn ct ln ng k. Ngoi ra
di chn cu thang v thang my , chn nhng vch cng cng c nhng ti
trng kh ln. Ti trng ngang cng nh vn n nh ca nh cao tng l
nhng bi ton cn c xem xt mt cch nghim tc.
* Nh cao tng rt nhy vi ln, c bit l ln lch. Ln kiu g
cng gy ra nhng tc ng mnh m n s lm vic tng th ca cc kt
cu nh.
*Trong tnh trng th ca ta hin nay, nh cao tng s c xy
dng nhiu trong khu ng dn c, mt nh c sn kh dy c. Vn
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bo m an ton cho cc cng trnh c l mt c im xy dng nh cao
tng nc ta.
T nhng c im nu khi qut m gii php chn cho mng nh
cao tng hay thy l mng cc nhi v mng barrette.
Nhng u im ca mng cc nhi cp th tm tt :
@ Khi thi cng cc khoan nhi cng nh s dng cc khoan nhi m bo
an ton cho cc cng trnh hin c chung quanh. Loi cc khoan nhi t su
khng gy ln nh hng ng k cho cc cng trnh ln cn.

@ Qu trnh thc hin mng cc , d dng thay i cc thng s ca cc
(chiu su , ng knh) p ng vi iu kin c th ca a cht di
nh.
@ Cc khoan nhi tn dng ht kh nng chu lc ca b tng mng cc do
iu kin tnh ton theo lc tp trung.
@ u cc c th chn cao tu cho ph hp vi kt cu cng trnh v
quy hoch kin trc mt bng.
@ Nu s dng mng barrette rt d dng lm tng hm cho nh cao tng.
Theo kinh nghim ca cc nc ng Nam , Hng Cng, i Loan th c
6 ~ 7 tng cao nn lm mt tng hm cho nh cao tng l thch hp. C tng
hm, cng trnh cao tng c nhiu ci li.
Nu lm tng hm, nn di nh c gim ti trng do ly i lp t m
hm chim ch.. Nh c hm, tng n nh khi chu tc ng ngang rt
ng k. Nh c tng hm s dng thm din tch phc v nhng tng su.
Cc nhi mi vo Vit nam v mt thc t ( trc y c tc gi th
nghim quy m nh ) khong ba bn nm tr li y, ch yu cho cc cng
trnh lin doanh hoc nc ngoi u t.

(ii) Cng ngh lm cc nhi

ii.1 Cc dng cc nhi ph bin :

Cc nhi ni trong ti liu ny l cc nhi b tng ct thp thc hin
ti ch. NgoI ra cn c cc dng cc nhi ct, cc nhi cui hoc dm
m thut ng quen dng l cc balastre s cp ti mc khc.
a) Cc nhi n gin:
(i) Cc nhi n gin nng





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24





(ii) Cc nhi hnh tr su:










Cc lm xong Cc cn gi vch

b) Cc nhi m rtng y:

(i) M rng y trn hoc bt k







(ii) M rng y do khoan mt t m rng hoc nhiu t m rng xut
thn:








Ti liu ny ch cp n cc loi cc nhi hnh tr s dng kh ph bin
ti H ni v thnh ph H Ch Minh.
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ii.2 Cng ngh khoan

ii.2.1 Thit b v ph tng phc v khoan

(i) Thit b khoan :

* S dng cc my khoan a cht cng trnh v a cht thu vn sn c :

Tn dng cc b my v c cu quay ca ca cc my khoan a cht
cng trnh v a cht thu vn m nc ta nhp t trc nm 1990.
Khi s dng nhng my ny cn c nhng b phn chuyn dng cho
cng tc khoan ca cc khoan nhi nh mi khoan v gu khoan c ng
knh ln.

*Cc thit b, my chuyn dng khoan cc nhi :

Loi ny c thit k chuyn dng cho cng ngh khoan cc nhi.
Khng phi ch to thm cc ph tng phc v m s dng ngay, trc tip.

Ti H ni c nhng my ca cc Hng SOIMEC, HITACHI, NIPPON
SHARYO, SANWA , . . .

Nhng thit b khoan chuyn dng ca Hng NIPPON SHARYO ly th d
l cc loi c cho hng l DHJ-40, DHJ 60-2, DHP 80, DH 408-95M ,
DH 508-105M, DH 608-120M.
Nhng my ny thng c phc v nhng cng tc nh : khoan dn th
cc, dng lm my ng cc c, dng khoan trong vch.

My ch thng dng ng c diesel loi HINO, s dng nc lm lnh, 4
chu k, phun nhin liu trc tip. Cng sut thng t 117 m lc n 185
m lc. Ph bin l 2000 vng pht. Lng nhin liu tiu th t 165 ( g/ m
lc gi) n 171 ( g/ m lc gi ).
B phn thu lc ca my c bm ch vi p lc 245 Kg/cm
2
v c lung
chuyn l 223 lt /pht.
Tc quay t 2 n 3,5 vng/pht. Tc nng, h l 66/33 m/pht. Tc
di chuyn t 0,8 n 1,9 km/gi. My nng t 21 tn n 44,2 tn. Din
tch phn bnh ln t t 45.500 cm
2
n 83.060 cm
2
.
Thng my gn mt cn trc trc tip phc v cc cng on khoan. Cn
trc mmen nng tI t 35 tn x 3,7 mt n 65 tn x 3,9 mt. Cn chnh t
10 mt n 55 mt v mc ph t 6 n 15 mt.

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My c kch thc chiu di tng c 6,6 mt n 8,5 mt. Chiu rng my t
2,7 mt n 4,5 mt.
Cn o vn hnh theo nguyn tc ng lng. Chiu di cn ch thng 21
mt. Khi cn o su hn th t trong cn ch c on ng lng nh ra
o. Cc my ph bin nhp vo nc ta u c th o su ti 50 mt.

(ii) u khoan:

Thng s dng ba dng u khoan:

* Mi khoan gn kim loi rn hoc bnh xe quay c gn ccbit cn gi l
( cranhng)

Nhng loi ny thng dng khi khoan qua lp cng hoc qu trnh
khoan gp phi lp nhiu cui si trm tch lng l ( trm tch y ao h)
thnh dng thu knh cha n su t mng theo thit k. Loi mi
khoan ny dng kh ph bin trong khu khoan bn mn ph trong cc
m khai thc .

* Mi khoan cnh xon ( auger flight ).

Mi khoan c cnh xon vt c th c cc chiu dI khc nhau. C th on
xon theo chiu di c 21 mt nhng cng c th ch c cnh xon chiu
di 4~5 mt. Hnh dng ca mi khoan xon ging nh cI m nt chai cho
loi nt bng li-e ( in in ) hoc mi khoan xon khoan g.
Thng dng loi mi khoan ny khoan t st, khoan t lp trn c
nhiu r cy nh, gch v, mnh snh, c rc. Khi gp lp ct ln cui kh
cht, mng, c th dng loi mi khoan ny o xuyn hoc xi ti cho
gu vt tip.

* Gu khoan thng ( buck) :

i vi t khu vc H ni v thnh ph H Ch Minh s dng kh ph
bin loi gu ny. Gu kiu thng c np kim li ct t y. Np gn
vi thn thng bng bn l. np y c hai hoc ba rnh ct t ( ming ct
) b tr hng tm np. C gn rng o ca ct t ny.
Loi gu ny thch hp vi t tht, t st dng bn, ct ht nh, ht trung
hoc ct c hm lng si khng qu nhiu trong mi trng sng nc.
Khi gp lp si hoc ct cht hm lng si c ht trn 30 mm kh nhiu th
loi gu ny kh s dng.

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(ii) Mt s s c hay gp vi thit b khoan:

Mi khoan kiu xon, kiu thng thng hay b bin dng rng ct t khi
gp t rn hoc si cui, r cy nhiu. Rng ca gu thng thng c v
bc chng mn. Nhng v bc ny mau mn v gy nhng do c ch d
dng thay th nn khi o cn chun b v bc rng gu thay th trong qu
trnh o.
Phn cp treo cn o ni vi cn o nh mt c cu truyn gi cho khi cn
o quay m khng gy xon cp pha trn. B phn ny hay c gi l
con chut hay bp chui. Nu con chut b bi ct chui vo hoc st g,
khi cn thit quay gu thng xy ra hin tng xon cp. Cn lu bo
dng thng xuyn cho con chut ny.

ii.2.1.(*) Thit b mi:

Gn y ( nm 1998 ) nc ta mi nhp loi my o h Casagrand
loi o theo kiu xoay p. My ny nhp t Italia. Nhng nc khc cng
sn xut nh Hoa k, CHLB c. My c c tn l LEFFER. My Italia c
k hiu GCL-GCP HB/E loi GL-GV.

My ny o kiu n chm dn v casing xung t. t bn trong v
ly dn ln bng gu o kiu ngom. Cc ng casing ni dn theo su.
Mi khoang ng di t 2 mt n 6 mt v ni vi nhau kiu rng ngp ri
cht. ng knh o t 500 mm n 2500 mm.

ii.2.2 Cng ngh khoan:

(i) ng vch:

ng vch c ng knh ln hn ng knh cc l 100 mm. Chiu di ca
ng vch t 3 mt n c chiu su cc nu cn. Thng lm ng vch di
4~8 mt . Chiu dy tm thp cun thnh ng vch t 10 ~ 20 mm.
Nhim v ca ng vch l chng gi cho vch khoan lp trn ngay t mt
t xung khng b xp, st v gi cho t chung quanh lp trn ca h
khoan khng chui vo h khoan lm nh hng xu n cng trnh hin c
chung quanh ni ang thi cng.

Thng ng vch ny rt ln ngay sau khi b tng va xong s dng
cho nhiu h. Rt ln ngay sau khi b tng lm cho b tng vng c
vch to nn p lc nn trc tip vo thnh t v to ra mt khng phng,
lm tng ma st bn ca cc ln, tng an ton cho cc. Khi cc nm qu
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st cng trnh lin k th nn gi vch li m khng rt ln vi mc ch
khng lm rung ng cng trnh lin k.
C th lm vch bng v b tng ct thp ri li lun cng vi cc. S
dng vch bng b tng ct thp rt yn tm trong khu chng xp vch.

(ii) Vic s dng dung dch bn khoan bentonite:

Bentonite l loi t st c kch thc ht nh hn so vi ht t st
kaolinite. Nn dng t st bentonite ch to bn khoan. Khi him t st
bentonite c th dng mt phn t st a phng ( kaolinite) nhng t
ny phi c ch s do khng nh hn 0,2 v cha ht c kch thc ln hn
0,05 khng qu 10% v cc ht nh hn 0,005 khng t hn 30%. S thch
hp cui cng ca t st a phng c xc nh theo kt qu ca th
nghim trong phng i vi dung dch st ch to t t st y.
Dung dch st c thnh phn v tnh cht m bo s n nh ca h
o trong thi gian xy dng v lp y h.

Dung dch st bentonite c hai tc dng chnh:

@ Lm cho thnh h o khng b xp nh dung dch chui vo cc khe ct,
khe nt quyn vi ct d xp l gi cho ct v cc vt th vn khng b
rI v to thnh mt mng n hi bc quanh thnh vch h gi cho nc
khng thm thu vo vch. V l thuyt c nghin cu kh y
trong l thuyt v vch bn to khun ( parois moules ).

@ To mi trng nng bnng nhng t , vn khoan, ct vn ni ln mt
trn tro hoc ht khi l khoan.

Trong nhiu trng hp c th thay bn bentonite bng cht do sinh hc (
biopolymres ) . Ti H ni c cng trnh nh thp ( Ho L c ) s dng
loi cht do sinh hc ny.
Tu tng trng hp c th m trong bn st bentonite c th cho thm cc
ph gia nh Natri Cacbnat ( Na
2
CO
3
) hoc Natri Fluorua ( NaF ). Vic cho
thm ph gia nhm tho mn cc ch tiu c cc qui phm ra:

nht , c trng cho tnh lu ng ca dung dch bn trong khong
18 n 30 centipoa ( theo 5 ) ;
S kt ta ngy m ( tch nc) v tnh n nh c trng cho s
n nh ca dung dch chng s phn tng:


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Tch nc khng ln hn 4%
n nh khng ln hn 0,02 G/cm
3

( theo dng c IC-1 hoc IC-2 ).

Hm lng ct biu th mc trong dung dch phI di 4% ( theo
OM-2).
mt nc, c trng kh nng truyn nc cho t m, khng ln
hn 30 cm
3
( theo dng c BM-6).
ng sut ct tnh, biu th bn cu trc v xc bin ca dung dch
st trong phm vi t 10 ~ 50 mg/cm
2
qu 10 pht sau khi khuy trn
n ( theo dng c CHC ).
Mt tronmg khong t 1,05 n 1,15 khi dng st bentonite v t
1,15 n 1,3 g/cm
3
khi dng cc st khc.

Cc c trng ca bn khoan bentonite theo tiu chun Php ( DTU 13.2)
l:

Dung trng;
nht theo cn Marsh ( c s l 1/2 lt)
Hm lng ct trong dung dch
lc
Chiu dy lp mng bn ( cake ).

Bn mi trc khi s dng phI t cc thng s sau y:

Dung trng trong khong 1,01 v 1,05 ( tr trng hp cn c bn
nng hoc bn st)
nht Marsh trn 35 giy
Khng c c hm lng ct
tch nc nh hn 30 cm3
dy lp mng bn ( cake) nh hn 3 mm.

Bn bentonite sau khi khoan, lm sch h khoan phi t cc ch tiu sau
y :

Dung trng di 1,2 (tr loi bn nng)
nht gia 35 ~ 90 sec
Hm lng ct kh xc nh mt gi tr thc v rt ph thuc vo a
cht khu vc khoan, nhng ni chung hm lng ny khng c vt
qu 5%.
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tch nc nh hn 40 cm3
Chiu dy lp vch do ( cake) nh hn 5 mm.

Phm cht ca bentonite theo API ( American Petroleum Institute )

Theo Vin du m Hoa K th cht lng ca bentonite phI tho mn cc
yu cu sau y:
nht c khi quay 600 vng/pht ti thiu phi t 30 pht
T s YP/PV ti a l 3
tch nc ti a l 15 mls ( mililitre par second )
Ht cn ng trn sng 75 microns ti a l 4% theo trng lng
m khng qu 10%

Phm cht ca bn bentonite theo ngh ca Cng ty Bachy Soletanche:

Mt (g/ml) 1,025 0,0005
Sau khi ra h khoan, mt phi nh hn 1,08
tch nc sau 30 pht th nghim ( tnh bng mililitre ) l 25 4
trc khi b tng tch nc khng qu 40
nht Marsh cone, sec 30~35. Trc khi b tng t 30~ 40
Hm lng ct (%) t hn 2%
PH 8 ~ 10,8

Qu trnh s dng bentonite :

Nh trn bit , bn c tc dng gi vch nu n m bo ng cht lng
nh cc yu cu nu. Qu trnh khoan su th bn xm nhp vo khe l,
to vch bn, nn mt bentonite gim i, qu trnh khoan phi thng
xuyn tip thm bn mi vo h khoan.

(iii) Thi ra h khoan khi t chiu su:

Khi khoan t su, ngng cho c lng ng trong thi gian 30 oht, ly
gu vt cho ht lp ct lng ng ri bt u thi ra cho sch nhng mn
khoan v ct ln trong dung dch.
Qu trnh khoan, bi ct v mn khoan trn ln vo dung dch bentonite lm
cho dung trng ca dung dch ny tng ln. Vic vt b ct lng ng v
thi ra ht sc quan trng nhm bo m cho cht lng cc sau ny.

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Nu dung trng ca bn vt qu nhng ch s c trng nu, khi b
tng , be tng khng n ht c bn khi l khoan chim ch ca n,
gy ra nhng ti bn trong b tng. Nu khng vt sch ct lng ng di
y h khoan s to ra mt lp bn m gia cc v nn y cc, khi chu
tI cc s b ln qu mc cho php.

Vic thi ra c thc hin nh sau:

Trang b:

+ Mt ng bng thp c chiu dy 8~10 mm, ng knh 254 mm, di bng
chiu su h khoan ( cn c tn l ng trmie ). to thnh ng di nh
vy, ng trmie c ni bng nhng on ng di 3 mt c ni vi nhau
theo kiu ng di c ming bt tin rng ren m thnh bt v ng trn c
rng ren dng. u trn cng s l ming bt lm g ta cho ton ng
ta ln gi ta kim np cho h khoan.
+ Gi ta l mt thp tm lm thnh hai mnh nh cnh ca m theo ng
chia u gia. Mt bn l gn vo mt v tr mt u mt ng chia hai
mnh y sao cho khi m tch c hai na lp ng v tr chnh gia.
Chnh gia ng phn gii ca mt khot mt l m ly ng trmie,
c hai mnh np u m ly ng trmie nhng khng cho ming bt lt
qua c. Mt ta ny t ln ming ng vch.
ng trmie c dng trong qu trnh xc ra h khoan v dng khi b
tng.
+ Mt ng thp c ng knh ngoi l 60 mm, thnh ng dy 3 ~ 4 mm th
su cch y h khoan 60 cm dn kh nn xung h khoan. u trn ng
ny ni vi ng cao su chu p lc cao dn n my nn kh.

Qui trnh thi ra:

+ Thi im bt u : 30 pht sau khi khoan xong v vt ct lng ng bng
gu.
+ Thi gian thi ra : ti thiu 30 pht , trc khi thi ra phi kim tra cc
c trng ca bn bentonite theo cc ch tiu nu. Ty tnh hnh cc thng
s kim tra ny m d bo thi gian thi ra. Phi thi ra n khi t cc
c trng yu cu.
+ Ch , trong thi gian thi ra phi b sung lin tc dung dch bn
bentonite ti cho b s bn ln ct v mn khoan b qu trnh thi y
hoc ht ra. Chiu cao ca mt trn lp dung dch bn phi cao hn mc
nc ngm n nh l 1,5 mt. Nu khng cao ny c kh nng xp
thnh vch h khoan do p lc t v nc bn ngoi thnh h gy ra. Nu
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khng m bo dung trng ca bn ti nh yu cu cng gy ra xp vch
h khoan do iu kin p lc bn ngoi h.
+ p lc kh nn thi cn c vo l thuyt kh dng nh kh ( air lift ).

Dung trng ca dung dch c k hiu l
b
v dung trng ca dung dch
hn hp bn , kh l
bk
, chiu cao ct nc dung dch c thi c quan
h :

H

H
max






bk

b


Lng nkh cn thit v p lc kh tun theo quan h trong biu :

Q,

Q
max


max
Q


V
1
V' V
2

V nng nh kh s c chuyn chng ti s gii thiu chi tit trong
chuyn mc khc.

(iv) Kim tra cc ch tiu quyt nh cho lp ghp v cc trang b b
tng :

V su y cc khoan nhi : do ngi thit k ch nh. Thng thng
y cc nn t trong lp ct to ht c hm lng cui si kch thc ht
trn 10 mm ln hn 20% t 1,5 n 2 mt tr ln. iu kin c th cho tng
cng trnh, quyt nh su ca cc phi theo ti trng tnh ton m mki
cc phi chu.
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Thng gii php thit k tn dng cc khoan nhi pht huy ht kh nng
lm vic ca n, nn cc khoan nhi cho nh cao tng ti khu vc H ni ,
thnh ph H Ch Minh, nn lm trong khong 42 ~ 50 mt.

ii.2.3 Cng ngh lp ct thp:

Ct thp trong cc khoan nhi su t ngha chu ti m ch c tnh cht cu
to. Tu ngi thit k qui nh nhng thng thp t khi t n y cc.
Thanh thp hin nay bn trn th trng di 11,7 mt nn cc khoan nhi hay
chn chiu su c bi s ca 11,7 mt. Mng cc nhi ca cc tr cu hay
lm c chiu su ti y.
Ct thp khuych i thnh cc lng tng on 11,7 mt. Sau khi c php
th thp s mc vo cn trc th xung h. Th xong mt khoanh, nu ni th
ngng g qua u trn ca lng ni vi on trn. Khi ni chc s tho rt
thanh g h tip cho n khi su. Trn cng, c 3 thanh thp to
mc vo ming ng vch gi lng thp.
Thp dc hay dng c ng knh 25 ~ 28, cc thanh dc thng t
cch nhau 150 ~ 200 mm. ai c th xon hay thnh cc vng trn. ng
knh thp ai hay dng l 10 ~ 12.

ii.2.4 Cng ngh b tng:

Be tng c khi kim tra sch ca h khoan v vic t ct thp.
Thng lp li ng trmie dng khi thi ra lc trc dng lm ng dn
b tng.
Cp phi b tng do thit k tho thun theo mt trong bn dng:
- Hn hp c thit k
- Hn hp theo n t hng
- Hn hp tiu chun
- Hn hp c ch nh
st ca b tng thng chn t 120 mm n 160 mm p ng iu
kin thi cng ( workability). Nu khng st theo yu cu m lng
nc vt qu mc cho php phi dng ph gia ho do. Khng nn
st qu ln ( qu 160 mm) s nh hng n cht lng b tng.

(i) Thit b s dng cho cng tc b tng:

- B tng ch trn sn ch n bng xe chuyn dng
- ng dn b tng t phu xung su yu cu
- Phu hng b tng t xe ni vi ng dn
- Gi ng v phu m t trn.
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(ii) Cc yu cu b tng :
- ng dn b tng c nt bng bao ti hoc ti nylon cha va
ximng ct 1 :2 hay bt xp dng ht trnh nhng ti kh
trong lc b tng ban u. Nt ny s b b tng y ra khi
.
- Ming di ca ng dn b tng lun ngp trong b tng ti
thiu l 1 mt nhng khng nn su qu 3 mt.
- Khi b tng , b tng c a xung su trong lng khi b
tng, qua ming ng s trn ra chung quanh , nng phn b tng
xung lc uln cao dn, b tng c nng t y ln trn.
Nh th , ch c mt lp b tng trn mt ca b tng tip xc
vi nc bentonite cn btng trong lng cht lng vn rt tt.
- Phm cp ca b tng ti thi l C25 ( tng ng #300 th
nghim theo mu lp phng ).
- B tng phi lin tc cho n cao. Khi rt m cui
cng , lc nng rt vch c 1,5 mt nn thm b tng
b vo ch b tng chy lan vo nhng hc quanh h c to
nn, nu c khi khoan su.

1.8.2 Phm vi s dng

Dng nhi trong xy dng nh cao tng, mng tr cu, hin ang kh ph
bin xy dng ti H ni, thnh ph H Ch Minh v nhiu tnh thnh ph
khc. Mng cc nhi hn ch ln v chu lc ln. Loi mng ny c th
xy dng c hiu qu vi nh t 12 tng n trn 40 tng.
i b phn nh cao tng xy dng nc ta trong thi gian qua lm
mng cc nhi.

Trong nc :

T nhng nm 1983-1984 ti H ni lm th im mt vi nh c mng
cc nhi, nhng nhng cc ny khng su ( di 8 mt ) v ng knh nh
(450 ~ 600 mm ) nh cc cng trnh nh tr s 3 ph Nh Chung H ni, nh
trung tm bo ch 12 ph L o Thnh H ni, nh ca Cng ty Thng
mi Hon Kim ph Nh Th H ni. T sau khi c chnh sch m ca ca
ng v Nh Nc ta, nc ngoi vo u t lm nh cao tng ti thnh ph
H Ch Minh v H ni, cng ngh cc nhi mi tr nn thng dng trong
xy dng nh cao tng. Hin nay ti thnh ph H Ch Minh v H ni c
trn 500 ngi nh s dng mng cc nhi. Hu ht cc cu ln lm trong
nhng nm qua trn nc ta u lm tr cu trn cc nhi.
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Cng trnh s dng cc nhi ln u tin c chiu su ln n 35 mt, ng
knh cc 600 , 800, v 1000 mm ti H ni l ngi nh CIT ( Trung tm
Thng Mi H ni ) ti ph Trng Tin H ni.

Ngoi nc:

Chu u s dng mng cc nhi kh sm ti Php, B, , c, Anh v
cc nc Bc u . Chu M pht trin cc nhi t khi pht trin nh cao tng
c bit l ti Hoa K.
Nht bn, Hng Cng, Singapores, Malaysia xy dng nhiu cng trnh cao
tng c mng l mng cc nhi. Mng cc nhi bt u lm nhiu vo
nhng nm 1960 ~ 1975 ti nhng nc pht trin trn th gii.

1.9 Cc barrette v tng trong t xy dng trong thnh ph

1.9.1 M t cng ngh

Cc barrette c tit din ngang l hnh ch nht. Chiu rng cc ph
thuc gu o v thng c kch thc l 600 mm v 800 mm. Mi on c
cnh di ca tit din ngang l 2400mm , rng 600 ( 800 ) mm hoc hn na
v su n lp t tt, thng l lp ct ht trung chng cc c gi
l mt panen. Nu nhng panen ny lin nhau to thnh tng th l
phng php tng trong t bng b tng ct thp. i vi nhng nh c
nhiu tng hm th phng php barrette t ra u vit v d sao, phng php
cc nhi th vn phi gii quyt c chng nc, chng xp vgch quanh nh
khi lm hm nh v lm i cc.

Phng php tng barrette v tng trong t c m t nh sau :

Chu vi nh c lm mt h tng bao ngm trong t s dng lm
tng hm nh kim mng nh. Tng ny c chiu su ging nh cc nhi,
ngha l khong 30 ~ 50 mt su. Thng thng chiu su ca cc barrette
phi lm n lp t c tr s N trn 50 nhng tng trong t ch cn lm
su hn y tng hm hai ln chiu su ca hm. Chiu rng tng thng
thng l 600 mm, 800 mm, 1000 mm. Rt him thy chiu dy tng tng
hm trn 1200 mm. rong lng tng vy ny tu gii php thit k, c th c
nhng cc barrette ct.

Mng cc kiu barrette c th l mng c mt ct ch nht, mmg c mt
ct ch L , ch H, ch T , ch Y hay kiu ch + . . .

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36
0,6
2,2~2,8

2,2~2,4m

2,2~2,8m

2,2~2,4 m





2,2 ~ 2,8m

Loi tit din ch nht c th chu ti 600~ 1000 tn lc
Loi tit din ch thp c th chu ti 1000~ 1800 tn lc
Loi tit din ch T c th chu ti 1000~ 3600 tn lc
Loi tit din ch L c th chu ti 1000~ 2000 tn lc
Loi tit din ch H c th chu ti 1600~ 3200 tn lc
Loi tit din ch Y c th chu ti 1600~ 3000 tn lc

(i) Cng ngh o mng barrette :

o mng barrette nh gu xc kiu hai mnh nh cc kho vt liu ri hay
s dng. Ci c bit ca gu ny l lm thm khung dn hng khi o
h o c thng ng. Khung bao cao khong 3 mt bc quanh phm vi
o ca li gu. o nhng mt u tin, cn lm dng to hng
cho gu trt theo. Khi c vch t , gu s trt theo vch t.
C o tng on 2,2 ~ 3 mt theo chiu di tng c mt panen li t
thp v b tng. Chiu rng ca gu c bn l 600 mm.
Qu trnh o phI s dng dung dch bn st bentonite nh phn cc nhi
gii thiu.
Khi o n su thit k, kim tra cht lng dung dch, ngng 30 pht
ct lng ng, vt ct bng gu y tng i phng. Sau c th th ct
thp v xc ra nh nu phn cc nhi.

Sau khi xc ra xong h khoan, lp tm giong vo v tr s c tng tip ,
ri b tng. Cch b tng ging nh nu trong phn ni v cc
nhi.
Trang b c th s dng thi cng cc barrette c:
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37
- Gu c khung dn hng o.
- Ming giong ni chng thm gia khe thi cng.
Ming giong l phin cao su c chuyn dng, mt cnh di c ngm
mt na vo khi b tng chun b cn na na dng tm thp chuyn
dng c ch to ring , p st vo vch t s o tip cng on sau.
Khi b tng xong o tip tc cho on sau. Khi giI phng khng
gian thn tng, g tm giong na ny nm trong panen s sau. Nh
th, giong b tng s chn nc nu c nc xuyn qua khe ni gia hai
panen lin k nhau.

1.9.2 Phm vi p dng:

Trong nc:

Trong thi gian trc nm 2001, ti H ni c hai cng trnh dng mng
barrette l VitCombank Tower ti s 198 Trn Quang Khi H ni, Khch
sn Sunway ph Phm nh H H ni u do Cng ty BachySoletanche thi
cng. Nay ti H ni c 3 Cng ty thi cng Cc Barrette v tng trong t
rt c tn nhim l Cng ty BachySoletanche, Cng ty Xy dng h tng
ng Dng v Cng ty TNHH Delta.
Ti thnh ph H Ch Minh c nhiu cng trnh s dng cc Barrette v
tng trong t nh cng trnh HabourView ph Nguyn Hu, SaigonInn
ph Tn c Thng v 6 ~ 8 ngi nh khc . Cc Barrette v tng trong t
rt thch dng khi cng trnh c tng hm.
T nm 2001 H ni, thnh ph H Ch Minh v mt vi thnh ph khc bt
u lm nhiu nh cao tng nn phng php cc Barrette v tng trong t
kh ph bin. Ti H ni v thnh ph H Ch Minh trong hai nm 2001 v
2002 ny xy dng hng chc nh c s dng phng php cng ngh
tng trong t v cc Barrette.

Nc ngoi:

Tng trong t v cc Barrette c chu u v chu M cng nh ti i
loan, Hng Cng, Nht bn s dng kh rng ri t sau chin tranh th gii
ln th hai kt thc.
Trong h thng tiu chun th gii ta u thy c tiu chun ring cho cc
barrette v tng trong t. Hu ht cc tiu chun u coi cc barrette v
tng trong t l mt dng cc c c th ring ch khng coi l loi kt
cu ring bit.


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38
1.10 Cc c trng k thut dng kim tra cc khu trong qu trnh
thc hin cng ngh thi cng cc nhi v tng barrette:

Phng php lun c bn ca cng ngh l i i vi bin php thc hin
phi c cc phng n kim tra cht lng. Trong kinh t th trng, thng
thng c quan k thut c bn ch u t thu lm t vn k thut cng
vi bn thit k c nhim v nu cc c trng k thut phi t c trong
qu trnh thi cng nhm xc nh r cht lng sn phm coi nh iu khon
ca hp ng kinh t giao nhn thu thi cng.

Ngi bn sn phm chnh l ngi thi cng nn ngi thi cng phi chu
trch nhim cp chng ch cho sn phm ca mnh l t cc ch tiu k
thut. Vic cp chng ch ny thng qua cc th nghim kim tra do bn thi
cng t lm hoc bn thi cng thu mt c quan c chc nng tin hnh.

V h thng kim tra thng phn bit:
Kim tra c phng th nghim hoc dng c th nghim tin hnh cc php
th nhm bit cc ch tiu t c ca sn phm. Loi kim tra ny c th
nm ngay trong n v sn xut, c th l c quan chuyn mn coa t cch
php nhn tin hnh.

Kim tra s ph hp l s chng kin cc qu trnh thi cng, qu trnh th
nghim kim tra, i chiu vi cc tiu chun, quy phm v xc nh s ph
hp ca sn phm so vi yu cu ca hp ng.

Cc c trng k thut v yu cu kim tra phi a vo cc yu cu k thut
phi t trong hp ng giao nhn thu thi cng.

Nhng c trng ch yu v kim tra trong thi cng cc nhi nh sau:

iii.1 c trng nh v ca cc v kim tra:

(i) c trng:
- V tr cc cn c vo h trc cng trnh v h trc gc
- Cao trnh mt h khoan
- Cao trnh mt t ti ni c h khoan
- Cao trnh y h khoan

(ii) Kim tra :
- Dng my kinh v v thu bnh kim tra theo nghip v o c

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39
iii.2 c trng hnh hc ca h khoan v kim tra:

(i) c trng:

- ng knh h khoan hoc s l ng knh cc
- nghing l thuyt ca cc. nghing thc t
- Chiu su l khoan l thuyt, chiu su thc t
- Chiu di ng vch
- Cao trnh nh v chn ng vch.

(ii) Kim tra:

- o c bng thc v my o c
- Phi thc hin nghim tc qui phm o kch thc hnh hc v
dung sai khi o kim.

iii.3 c trng a cht cng trnh:

(i) c trng:

C 2 mt theo chiu su ca h khoan li phi m t loi t gp phi khi
khoan i chiu vi ti liu a cht cng trnh c c quan kho st a
cht bo thng qua mt ct l khoan thm d ln cn.
Phi m bo tnh trung thc khi quan st. Khi thy khc vi ti liu kho st
phi bo ngay cho bn thit k v bn t vn kim nh c gii php s l
ngay.

iii.4 c trng ca bn khoan:

(i) c trng:

Cc ch tiu bit: Dung trng, nht, hm lng ct, lp v bm thnh
vch ( cake ), ch s lc, pH.

(ii) Kim tra :

Trn hin trng phi c mt b dng c th nghim kim tra cc ch tiu
ca dung dch bn bentonite.

iii.5 c trng ca ct thp v kim tra

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40
(i) c trng:
- Kch thc ca thanh thp tng loi s dng
- Hnh dng ph hp vi thit k
- Loi thp s dng ( m hiu, hnh dng mt ngoi, cc ch tiu c l
cn thit ca loi thp ang s dng).
- Cch t hp thnh khung, lng v v tr tng i gia cc thanh.
- sch ( g, bm bn, bm bn), khuyt tt c di mc cho php
khng
- Cc chi tit chn mgm cho kt cu hoc cng vic tip theo: chi tit
hn v sau, mc st, chn bulng, ng quan st dng cho th nghim siu
m, phng x ( carota).

(iii) Kim tra :

Quan st bng mt, o bng thc cun ngn, th nghim cc tnh cht c l
trong phng th nghim.

iii.6 c trng v b tng v kim tra:

Cn da vo quy phm thi cng v nghim thu cc kt cu b tng v
b tng ct thp nu ra cc c trng ny.

(i) c trng :

- Thnh phn , cp phi
- Cht lng ct liu ln, ct liu mn ( kch thc ht, gc,
ln cc ht khng t yu cu, sch vi cht bm bn)
- Xi mng : phm cp, cc ch tiu c l, hm lng c hi: kim,
sunpht. . .
- Nc: cht lng
- Ph gia: cc ch tiu k thut, chng ch ca nh sn xut.
- st ca hn hp b tng, cch ly st
- Ly mu kim tra cht lng b tng ho cng
- Kim tra vic b tng ( chiu cao , ct nh cc, chiu di
cc trc hon thin, khi lng l thuyt tng ng , khi
lng thc t, d gia thc t v l thuyt.)
- ng cong b tng ( quan h khi lng- chiu cao k
t y cc tr ln).

(ii) Kim tra:

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- Chng ch v vt liu ca nI cung cp b tng
- Thit k thnh phn b tng c s tho thun ca bn k thut
kim tra cht lng
- st ca b tng
- Cch ly mu v qu trnh ly mu
- Kim tra giy giao hng ( tch k giao hng)
- Chng kin vic p mu.

iii. 7 Lp h s cho ton b cc nhi c thi cng :

Qu trnh thi cng mt cc phi tin hnh lp h s cho tng cc.
Da vo cc c trng nu m bn thi cng phi bo co y cc ch
tiu, kt qu kim tra tng ch tiu c trng.
Kt qu v h s ca cc kim tra cui cng bng tnh ti bng cc phng
php khc.
Trong h s c y cc chng ch v vt liu, kt qu th nghim kim tra
cc ch tiu c cp chng ch. Mt bo co tng hp v cht lng v
cc ch tiu l thuyt cng nh thc t ca tng cc.
Cn lu v tnh php l ca h s. Mt chng ch v xi mng l bn chnh
hay bn sao c nh my cp cho c l hng. Nh th cha y tnh
php l. Ngi s dng phi ghi r a ch s dng loi vt liu ny n kt
cu trong hng mc cng trnh. Phi ghi r a ch s dng cho tng m vt
liu.

Cng ngh kim tra cht lng cc nhi

Cht lng cc khoan nhi l khu ht sc quan trng v chi ph cho
vic ch to mt cc rt ln cng nh cc phi chu ti ln. Ch cn s xut
nh trong bt k mt khu no ca qu trnh kho st a cht, khu thit k
nn mng hay khu thi cng cng lm nh hng n cht lng cng
trnh. Vic kim tra cht lng cng trnh cc khoan nhi c khi qut
trong s :









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42





























Thi cng cc khoan nhi l vic kn khut, cng vic i hi nhng cng
on phc tp, kh nh gi cht lng v chu nh hng ca nhiu yu t
nh:

* iu kin a cht cng trnh v a cht thu vn.
* Trang thit b thi cng
* Cng ngh thi cng.
* Cht lng ca tng cng on thi cng.
* Vt liu thi cng.

Cc nhi l sn phm c ngha quan trng trong khu chu lc ca
cng trnh nn cht lng cn c lu tm ht sc. Vic kim tra k cht
Kim tra cht lng
cc khoan nhi
Trong qu trnh thi cng Khi lm xong cc
Cc qu trnh:

* Chun b

* Khoan to l

* Hon thnh khoan

* Ct thp

* b tng

* Ph u cc

* i cc
Kim tra cht lng nn:

* Cc phng php tnh

* Th cc kiu phn tch
ng lc (PDA)

Kim tra cht lng cc:

* Khoan ly mu

* Th nghim cc ton vn
(PIT) hoc m di (PET)

* Th nghim siu m, v
tuyn, phng x, hiu
ng in - thu lc, o
sng ng sut.
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lng thi cng tng cng on s lm gim c cc khuyt tt ca sn
phm cui cng ca cc nhi.
Trc khi thi cng kim tra cht lng cc khu chun b, trong qu
trnh thi cng loi b vt liu khng t, trang thit b khim khuyt, kim
tra k tng nguyn cng, phn on, tun th trnh t thi cng nghim ngt
nhm trnh cc s xut c th gy ra khuyt tt.

Cc khuyt tt c th :

+ Trong khu chun b thi cng cha tt nh nh v h khoan khng chnh
xc dn n sai v tr.

+ Trong khu thi cng : Cng on to l xp vch. co tit din cc,
nghing cc qu mc cho php. Nhiu khi thi cng cha n chiu su tnh
ton m bn thi cng dng khoan lm cc khu tip theo, c khi s
dng ny c ng tnh ca ngi gim st hoc thit k khng c kinh
nghim quyt nh m khuyt tt ny ch c pht hin l sai khi th ti khi
ngy.

Cng on b tng khi y h khoan cn bn lng ng, rt ng
nhanh lm cho cht lng b tng khng ng u, b ti bn trong thn cc.
C khi thn cc b t on.
Cng on rt ng vch c th lm cho cc b nhc ln mt on. cc
b tht tit din.

Nhng khuyt tt ny trong qu trnh thi cng c th gim thiu n
ti a nh khu kim tra cht lng c tin hnh ng thi im, nghim
tc v theo ng trnh t k thut, s dng phng tin kim tra m bo
chun xc.
Kim tra cht lng sau khi thi cng nhm khng nh li sc chu ti
tnh ton ph hp vi d bo khi thit k. Kim tra cht lng cc sau khi thi
cng l cch lm th ng nhng cn thit. C th kim tra li khng ch
cht lng chu ti ca nn m cn c cht lng b tng ca bn thn cc
na.

Kim tra trc khi thi cng:

(i) Cn lp phng n thi cng t m, trong n nh ch tiu k
thut phi t v cc bc cn kim tra cng nh s chun b cng c kim
tra. Nhng cng c kim tra c c quan kim nh kim v ang cn
thi hn s dng. Nht thit phi thng trc nhng dng c kim tra cht
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lng ny k vi ni thi cng v lun lun trong tnh trng sn sng phc v.
Phng n thi cng ny phi c t vn gim st cht lng tho thun v
i din Kin trc s/K s l ch nhim d n ng .

( ii) Cn c ti liu a cht cng trnh do bn khoan thm d cung
cp cho thit k ngay ti ni thi cng s dng i chiu vi thc t khoan.

(iii) Kim tra tnh trng vn hnh ca my thi cng, dy cp, dy cu,
b phn truyn lc, thit b hm, cc ph tng my khoan nh bp chut,
gu, rng gu, cc my ph tr phc v khu bn khoan, khu lc ct nh
my bm khuy bn, my tch ct, sng ct.

(iv) Kim tra li nh v cng trnh v tng cc. Kim tra cc mc
khng ch nm trong v ngoi cng trnh, k c cc mc khng ch nm
ngoi cng trng. Nhng my o c phi c kim nh v thi hn c
s dng ang cn hiu lc. Ngi tin hnh cc cng tc v xc nh cc c
trng hnh hc ca cng trnh phi l ngi c php hnh ngh v c
chng ch.

Kim tra trong khi thi cng:

Qu trnh thi cng cn kim tra cht ch tng cng on yu cu
kim tra:

(i) Kim tra cht lng kch thc hnh hc. Nhng s liu cn c khng
nh: v tr tng cc theo hai trc vung gc do bn v thi cng xc nh.
Vic kim tra da vo h thng trc gc trong v ngoi cng trng. Kim
tra cc cao trnh: mt t thin nhin quanh cc, cao trnh mt trn ng vch.
thng ng ca ng vch hoc nghing cn thit nu c thit k
cng cn kim tra. Bin php kim tra thng ng hay nghing ny
gii trnh v c A/E ( kin trc s hay k s l ch nhim d n) duyt.
Ngi kim tra phi c chng ch hnh ngh o c.

(ii) Kim tra cc c trng ca a cht cng trnh v thu vn. C khoan
c 2 mt cn kim tra loi t v tr thc a c ng khp vi bo co
a cht ca bn kho st lp trc y khng . Cn ghi chp theo thc t
v nhn xt nhng iu khc nhau, trnh bn A/E A/E cng thit k quyt
nh nhng iu chnh nu cn thit. c cng trnh ngay ti H ni vo
cui nm 1994, khi quyt nh ngng khoan lm tip cc khu sau khng
i chiu vi mt ct a cht cng nh ngi quyt nh khng am tng v
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45
a cht nn phi b hai cc c b tng khng m bo su v
kt qu p tnh th ti ch t 150% ti tnh ton cc hng.
(iii) Kim tra dung dch khoan trc khi cp dung dch vo h khoan, khi
khoan su v khi xc ra lm sch h khoan xong.
(iv) Kim tra ct thp trc khi th xung h khoan. Cc ch tiu phi kim
tra l ng knh thanh, di thanh ch, khong cch gia cc thanh,
sch du m.
(v) Kim tra y h khoan: Chiu su h khoan c o hai ln, ngay sau
khi va t su thit k v sau khi lng v vt li. Sau khi th ct thp
v th ng trmie, trc lc b tng nn kim tra xc nh lp cn
lng. Nu cn c th ly thp ln, ly ng trmie ln vt tip cho t
sch y h. y h khng sch s gy ra ln d qu mc cho php.
(vi) Kim tra cc khu ca b tng trc khi vo h. Cc ch tiu kim tra
l cht lng vt liu thnh phn ca b tng bao gm ct liu, xi mng,
nc, cht ph gia, cp phi. n cng trng tip tc kim tra st
Abram's, c mu kim tra s hiu, s b nh gi thi gian s ninh.
(vii) Cc khu cn kim tra khc nh ngun cp in nng khi thi cng, kim
tra s lin lc trong qu trnh cung ng b tng, kim tra thng ca mng
, mng n dung dch tro t h khi b tng ...

Cc phng php kim tra cht lng cc nhi sau khi thi cng xong:

Nh ta thy s cc phng php kim tra cht lng cc nhi,
thng c hai loi bn khon: cht lng ca nn v cht lng ca bn thn
cc.
Sau khi thi cng xong cc nhi, vn kim tra c hai ch tiu ny c
nhiu gii php c thc hin vi nhng cng c hin i.
Tuy chng ta mi tip cn vi cng ngh cc khoan nhi cha lu
nhng v kim tra, chng ta ban hnh c TCXD 196:1997 lm c s
cho vic nh gi cc nhi. Tiu chun ny mi cp n ba loi th: nn
tnh, phng php bin dng nh PIT v phng php siu m. Tnh hnh cc
cng ngh kim tra cc nhi trong nc v th gii hin nay l v cng
phong ph.
C th chia theo cc phng php tnh v ng. Li c th chia theo
mc ch th nghim nh kim tra sc chu ca nn v cht lng cc.
Ngy nay c nhiu cng c hin i xc nh nhng ch tiu m khi
tin hnh kim tra kiu th cng thy l ht sc kh.


(i) Kim tra bng phng php tnh :

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46
Phng php gia ti tnh :

Phng php ny cho n hin nay c coi l phng php trc quan,
d nhn thc v ng tin cy nht. Phng php ny dng kh ph bin
nc ta cng nh trn th gii. Theo yu cu m c th thc hin theo kiu
nn, ko dc trc cc hoc y theo phng vung gc vi trc cc. Th
nghim nn tnh c thc hin nhiu nht nn ch yu cp y l nn
tnh.

C hai qui trnh nn tnh ch yu c s dng l qui trnh ti trng
khng i ( Maintained Load, ML ) v qui trnh tc dch chuyn khng
i ( Constant Rate of Penetration, CRP ).
Qui trnh nn vi ti trng khng i (ML) cho ta nh gi kh nng
chu ti ca cc v ln cu cc theo thi gian. Th nghim ny i hi
nhiu thi gian, ko di thi gian ti vi ngy.
Qui trnh nn vi tc dch chuyn khng i ( CRP) thng ch
dng nh gi kh nng chu ti gii hn ca cc, thng ch cn 3 n 5
gi.
Nhn chung tiu chun th nghim nn tnh ca nhiu nc trn th
gii t khc bit. Ta c th so snh tiu chun ASTM 1143-81 ( Hoa k), BS
2004 ( Anh) v TCXD 196-1997 nh sau:











Qui trnh nn chm vi ti trng khng i

Ch tiu so snh ASTM D1143-81 BS 2004 TCXD 196-1997
Ti trng nn ti
a, Qmax
ln cp tng
ti
Tc ln n
nh qui c
200%Qa*

25%Qa
0,25 mm/h

200%Qa v
150%Qa~200%Q
a

25%Qa
0,10mm/h

200%Qa

25%Qmax
0,10 mm/h

(100%&200%)Q
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47
Cp ti trng c
bit v thi gian
gi ti ca cp
ln cp h ti
12 t 24h

50%Qa
100%Qa,
150%Qa
vi t 6h

25%Qa
a
= 24h

25%Qmax
Qui trnh tc chuyn dch khng i
Ch tiu so
snh
ASTM D 1143-
81
BS 2004 TCXD 196-1997
Tc chuyn
dch





Qui nh v dng
th nghim
0,25-
1,25mm/min
cho cc trong t
st
0,75~2,5mm/min
cho cc trong t
ri


t ti trng gii
hn nh trc



Chuyn dch t
15%D
Khng th qui
nh c th





t ti trng gii
hn nh trc
Chuyn dch tng
trong khi lc
khng tng hoc
gim trong
khong 10mm
Chuyn dch t
10%D
Cha c qui nh
cho loi th kiu
ny.
Ghi ch: Qa = kh nng chu ti cho php ca cc

V i trng gia ti, c th s dng vt nng cht ti nhng cng c
th s dng neo xung t. Tu iu kin thc t c th m quyt nh cch
to i trng. Vi sc neo kh ln nn khi s dng bin php neo cn ht sc
thn trng.
i b phn cc cng trnh th ti tnh dng cch cht vt nng lm
i trng. Cho n nay, ch c mt cng trnh dng phng php neo th
ti l cng trnh Grand Hanoi Lakeview Hotel s 28 ng Thanh nin
do Cng ty Kinsun ( Thi lan) thuc tp on B&B thc hin.
Gi th ti tnh kiu cht ti l kh cao. Hin nay gi th ti loi ny
t 180.000 n 250.000 ng cho mt tn ti th m cc qui phm u yu
cu th 1% cho tng s cc vi s cc th khng t hn 1 cc. Thi gian th
ti thng t 7 ngy n 10 ngy/cc.

Phng php gia ti tnh kiu Osterberrg:

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48
Phng php ny kh mi vi th gii v nc ta. Nguyn tc ca
phng php l mt lp b tng dy di y ri th h hp kch ( O-
cell ) xung , sau li tip phn cc trn. H iu khin v ghi chp
t trn mt t. S dng phng php ny c th th nghim ring bit hoc
ng thi hai ch tiu l sc chu mi cc v lc ma st bn ca cc. Ti th
nghim c th t c t 60 tn n 18000 tn. Thi gian th nghim nhanh
th ch cn 24 gi, nu yu cu cng ch ht ti a l 3 ngy. su t trang
thit b th nghim trong mng c th ti trn 60 mt. Sau khi th xong, bm
b tng xung lp h kch cho cc c lin tc.
Tin s Jorj O. Osterberg l chuyn gia a k thut c tn tui, hin
sng ti Hoa k. ng hin nay ( 1998 ) v hu nhng l gio s danh d ca
Northwestern University, Vin s Vin Hn lm K thut, 1985 l ging vin
trng Tersaghi, nm 1988 l thnh vin Vin nn mng su. Nm 1994
phng php th tnh Osterberg ra i vi tn O-Cell , c cp chng ch
NOVA. Chng ch NOVA l dng c coi nh gii Nobel v xy dng ca
Hoa k.
Phng php th tnh O-Cell c th dng th ti cc nhi , cc ng,
tng barettes, th nghim ti hng cc, th nghim cc lm kiu gu
xoay ( Auger Cast Piles ).
Nc ta c mt s cng trnh s dng phng php th ti tnh kiu
Osterberg. Ti H ni c cng trnh Thp Vietcombank , ti Nam b c cng
trnh cu Bc M thun s dng cch th cc kiu ny.
Ngay ti H ni, cng trnh s 37 ph Lng H cng dng phng php
th Osterberg th cc barrette vi tit din ngang th l 1,00 x 2,40 mt
v 1,50 x 2,40 mt vi ti trng th n 4800 tn.

(ii) Phng php khoan ly mu li cc:

y l phng php th kh th s. Dng my khoan khoan, c
th ly mu b tng theo ng knh 50~150 mm, dc sut su d nh
khoan.
Nu ng knh cc ln, c th phi khoan n 3 l nm trn cng
mt tit din ngang mi tm c khi nim v cht lng b tng dc theo
cc. Phng php ny c th quan st trc tip c cht lng b tng dc
theo chiu su l khoan. Nu th nghim ph hu mu c th bit c cht
lng b tng ca mu. u im ca phng php l trc quan v kh chnh
xc. Nhc im l chi ph ly mu kh ln. Nu ch khoan 2 l trn tit din
cc theo chiu su c cc th chi ph xp x gi thnh ca cc. Thng
phng php ny ch gii quyt khi bng cc phng php khc xc nh
cc c khuyt tt. Phng php ny kt hp kim tra chnh xc ho v s
dng ngay l khoan bm pht xi mng cu cha nhng on hng.
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Phng php ny i hi thi gian khoan ly mu lu, qu trnh khoan
cng phc tp nh phi dng bentonite tng mt khoan ln b, phi ly
mu nh khoan thm d v tc khoan khng nhanh lm.
Hin nay Vin Thit k Giao thng nc ta c yu cu nhiu cng
trnh th nghim theo phng php ny. Nhiu cc nhi mng tr cu Vit
tr khoan ly mu theo phng php ny.

(iii) Phng php siu m:

Phng php ny kh kinh in v c dng ph bin. Phng php
th l dng k thut nh gi kt cu khng ph hu mu th ( Non-
destructive evaluation, NDE ). Khi th khng lm h hng kt cu, khng
lm thay i bt k tnh cht c hc no ca mu. Phng php c Chu
u v Hoa k s dng kh ph bin. Cch th thng dng l qut siu m
theo tit din ngang thn cc. Tu ng knh cc ln hay nh m b tr cc
l dc theo thn cc trc khi b tng. L dc ny c ng knh trong
xp x 60 mm v l l ng nha hay ng thp. C khi ngi ta khoan to l
nh phng php kim tra theo khoan l ni trn, nu khng l trc.

u thu pht c hai kiu: kiu u thu ring v u pht ring, kiu
u thu v pht gn lin nhau.

Nu ng knh cc l 600 mm th ch cn b tr hai l dc theo thn
cc i xng qua tm cc v nm st ct ai. Nu ng knh 800 mm nn
b tr 3 l. ng knh 1000 mm, b tr 4 l... Khi th, th u pht siu m
xung mt l v u thu l khc. ng qut kim tra cht lng s l
ng ni gia u pht v u thu. Qu trnh th u pht v u thu cn
m bo hai u ny xung cng mt tc v lun lun nm cng su
so vi mt trn ca cc.

Trng i hc Northwestern Hoa k c Khu th nghim a k thut
Quc gia mi lm nhng th nghim v siu m kim tra cht lng cc nhi
vo nm 1997 vi cc nhi c c vi nhng khuyt tt nh trc. Kt
qu cho thy phng php qut siu m trong tit din ngang cc thu c
biu phn nh kh chnh xc v tin cy. Qui phm ca nhiu nc qui
nh th nghim kim tra cht lng cc b tng bng phng php khng
ph hu phi lm cho 10% s cc.

Phc tp ca phng php ny l cn t trc ng th u thu v
u pht siu m. Nh th, ngi thi cng s c ch trc nhng cc s th
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v lm tt hn, mt yu t ngu nhin trong khi chn mu th. Nu lm
nhiu cc c ng th siu m qu s lng yu cu s gy ra tn km.

Phng php th bng phng x ( Carota ):

Phng php ny cng l mt phng php nh gi khng ph hu
mu th ( NDE ) nh phng php siu m. Cch trang b th nghim
khng khc g phng php siu m. iu khc l thay cho u thu v u
pht siu m l u thu v pht phng x. Nc ta sn xut loi trang b
ny do mt c s ca qun i tin hnh.
Ging nh phng php siu m, kt qu c biu thu phng x c
th bit c ni v mc ca khuyt tt trong cc.

(iv) Phng php o m di:

Phng php ny th nghim kim tra khng ph hu mu bit cht
lng cc , cc nhi, cc barrettes. Nguyn l l s dng hin tng m di
( Pile Echo Tester, PET ). Nguyn tc hot ng ca phng php l g bng
mt ba 300 gam vo u cc, mt thit b ghi gn ngay trn u cc y cho
php ghi hiu ng m di v my tnh s l cho kt qu v nhn nh cht
lng cc.
Ti Hoa k c Cng ty GeoComP chuyn cung ng nhng dch v v
PET.
My tnh s dng s l kt qu ghi c v m di l my tnh c nhn
tiu chun ( standard PC ) , s dng phn cng b sung ti thiu, mi tn
hiu thu nhn v s l qua phm mm m phn mm ny c th nng cp
nhanh chng, tin li ngay c khi lin h bng e-mail vi trung tm
GeocomP. Phm mm da vo c s Windows theo chun vn hnh hin i
, c nghin cu ph hp vi s hp l ti a v cng thi hc ( ergonomic
).
Ch cn mt ngi lm c cc th nghim v m di vi nng
sut 300 cc mt ngy.
Khi tip xc vi http://ww.piletest.com/PET.HTM ta c th c c
kt qu chun mc khi th cc v c cung cp min ph phn mm cp
nht theo ng e-mail.
Vi s tin li l chi ph cho kim tra ht sc thp nn c th dng
phng php ny th nghim cho 100% cc trong mt cng trnh. Nhc
im ca phng php l nu chiu su ca cc th nghim qu 20 mt th
chnh xc ca kt qu l thp.

(v) Cc phng php th ng:
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Cc phng php th ng ngy nay v cng phong ph. Vi khi
nim ng lc hc ca cc, th trng cng c th nghim c rt nhiu trang
thit b nh my phn tch ng cc th theo phng php bin dng ln (
PDA), my ghi kt qu th theo phng php bin dng nh (PIT), my ghi
saximeter, my phn tch hot ng ca ba ( Hammer Performance
Analyzer, HPA ), my ghi kt qu gc nghing ca cc ( angle analyzer),
my ghi kt qu ng cc ( Pile installation recorder, PIR ), my phn tch
xuyn tiu chun ( SPT analyzer) ...


* My phn tch cc theo phng php bin dng ln PDA c loi mi nht
l loi PAK. My ny ghi cc th nghim nng cho mi trng xy dng c
nghit. My ny ghi kt qu ca phng php th bin dng ln cho cng
trnh nn mng, cho thm d a k thut . Phn mm s l rt d tip thu.
S liu c t ng lu gi vo a s dng v sau. Chng trnh
CAPWAP ci t c vo PAK nn vic nh gi kh nng ton vn v
kh nng chu ti ca cc rt nhanh chng.

* S dng phng php th Bin dng nh ( PIT ) l cch th nhanh cho s
ln cc. Php th cho bit cht lng b tng cc c tt hay khng, tnh ton
vn ca cc khi kim tra cc khuyt tt ln ca cc. Cc loi my phn tch
PIT dung ngun nng lng pin, c ng nhanh chng v s dng n chic.
Dng c ca phng php PIT dng tm cc khuyt tt ln v nguy him nh
nt gy, tht c chai, ln nhiu t trong b tng hoc l rng.

(vi) Phng php tr khng c hc:

Phng php ny quen thuc vi tn gi phng php phn tch dao
ng hay cn gi l phng php truyn sng c hc. Nguyn l c p
dng l truyn sng, nguyn l dao ng cng bc ca cc n hi. C hai
phng php thc hin l dng tr khng rung ng v dng tr khng xung.
Phng php tr khng rung s dng m t in ng c kch hot
do mt my pht tc ng ln cc. Dng mt my ghi vn tc sng
truyn trong cc. Nhn biu sng ghi c, c th bit cht lng cc qua
ch tiu ng u ca vt liu b tng cc v tr .

Phng php tr khng xung l c s cho cc phng php PIT v
PET. Hai phng php PIT v PET ghi sng m di. Phng php tr khng
xung ny ghi vn tc truyn sng khi p ba to xung ln u cc.
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S khc nhau gia ba phng php ny l my ghi c cc hin
tng vt l no v phn mm chuyn cc dao ng c l hc y di dng
sng ghi c trong my v th hin qua biu nh th no.

iv.1 Cht lng b tng thn cc:

(i) B tng thn cc mt tng mng do b tng c st qu ln.
(ii) B tng cc mt tng mng do c ti nc trong thn h khoan
(iii) B tng thn cc mt tng on do gp ti nc ln trong thn h
khoan
(iv) Mi cc mt mt on do y xc ra khng sch
(v) Thn cc thu nh tit din, l mt khi b tng bo v do rt ng
khi b tng s ninh, mt phn ngoi b tng b ma st vi thnh
vch chng i ln
(vi) Cc mt thng ng do khi rt ng c tc ng ngang trong qu
trnh rt ng
(vii) Cc b thiu mt s b tng do thp qu dy, b tng khng chy
dng kn ht khng gian
(viii) Thn cc nham nh do b tng c st nh
(ix) Thn cc c on ch c si hoc c cc l rng ln do b tng
b gin on
(x) on trn thn cc c cc nhnh b tng am ra nh r cy do
on ny khng c nc ngm, t kh, li b st trong qu trnh
khoan to thnh cc rnh c hnh r cy. Khi rt ng chng lc b
tng cn nho nn b tng chy ra
(xi) Tn nhiu b tng do vch b xp tng on


iv.2 Cht lng cc chu ti tnh khng p ng:

(i) Do khng khoan n su qui nh thi cng cc cng on
sau
(ii) Do cn lp bn qu dy tn y h khoan, xc ra khng sch
m b tng

iv.3 Cht lng ct thp khng t:

(i) t khng ng khong cch gia cc thanh, lng thp b mo
m, bin hnh so vi thit k
(ii) Thp b bn. Nh rng mi trng lm vic rt sn bn lm bn
ct thp
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53
(iii) Ni thp khng ng qui nh cch ni, v tr ni.

iv.4 iu kin cng tc km

(i) Mt bng lun ngp nga trong bn. Qu trnh khoan phi s
dng hng trm khi bn bentonite. Khi b tng s bn
trong h khoan b b tng y ln ming h, gy bn ra mt
bng thi cng.
(ii) Mt bng ngp nga bn bn lm cn tr vic thi cng nhng
cc tip theo. Nu bn ny chy ra cng thot nc ca thnh
ph s lm tc cng chung.
(iii) Phi thit k bin php thu hi ti s dng bn bentonite, va
tit kim, va to ra v sinh cho mt bng.

iv.5 Gp d vt khi khoan

(i) Gp r cy,gp nhng thu knh si cui do trm tch ao h
(ii) Gp rc xy dng do ph d dn khng sch:dm,mng
tng,khi b tng.
(iii) Gp cc c:Ch khng c nh cc c v nh th s ph hoi
kt cu nn.
(iv) Gp m ci chm.


iv.6 Khoan st cng trnh hin hu:

(i) C nhng h khoan ch cch cng trnh hin hu vi chc
cetnimet. Cn gi vch nhng ch ny. ng thi qu trnh
gy khoan khng gi mnh gu gy rung chn ng.
(ii) Cn c gii php chng hu hiu cc cng trnh hin hu c
kh nng bin dng do qu trnh thi cng cc.

iv.7 Cht lng thit b,trang b km

c tai nn do khi rt ng b tng b t mi hn.


iv.8 Ma:
Ma v bin ng thi tit cn tr thi cng. Khi thi cng c kh khn,phi
ngng thi cng khi ang o d,c th dng gii php lp tm bng ct sch
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cho y h v m bng qu nng. Gii php ny cng s dng cho khi b
ngng thi cng v nhng l do khc.

iv. 9 Kinh nghim v th nghim:

Nn t chc kim tra cp chng ch theo kiu kim tra cho gia cc n
v th nghim.

iv. 10 Lp h s :

Cn yu cu h s v h s cn c a ch kt cu nh trnh by phn
trn.

Vic s dng cc nhi rng ri mi xm nhp vo nc ta trn di
chc nm nay v cho kt qu kh n nh . y l bin php mng su c
hu ht cc nc trn th gii s dng cho nh cao tng v cc cng trnh c
ti ln . Ngnh giao thng nc ta s dng phng php ny cho hu ht
mng tr cu xy dng nc ta trong vng hai chc nm gn y . Vi nh
cao tng , gii php cc nhi v cc barrette l gii php rt tt nu khng
dm ni l gii php duy nht ng.

1.11 S dng tng c bo v h o su :

1.11.1 M t cng ngh

Trong cng ngh thi cng nn , mng nh dn dng v cng nghip t
khi phi o h su hoc nu c o h su th mt bng thi cng li thoi
mi m lm mi dc chng xp thnh vch t o. Gn y do phi lm nh
cao tng , h mng su v xy chen trong thnh ph nn vn chng vch
o thng ng c t ra nghim tc.

Tng c vch h o bng g la ngang :

Bin php ny c s dng nhiu do vt t lm c khng i hi
chuyn dng m l nhng vt t ph bin. My ng nhng dm I thp
hnh xung t cng l nhng my ng cc thng thng . Quanh thnh h
o c ng xung nhng thanh dm I-12 thp hnh c su hn y h
o khong 3~4 mt. Nhng dm I-12 ny t cch nhau 1,5 ~ 2,0 mt. Khi
o t su th la nhng tm vn ngang t dm I n n dm I kia , tm vn
ng theo chiu cnh , la gia hai bng ca dm I . Vn c p mt t
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vo cnh ca dm I . Khong h gia vn v cnh kia ca dm I c n
g cho cht.
Nu t o khng c nc ngm th bin php ny chng thnh h
o n gin . Cn kim tra lc y ngang v c bin php vng chng bin
dng u dm I phn trn .
Nu khu vc thi cng c nc ngm th bin php t ra c nhc im
l nc ngm s chy vo h o theo khe gia cc thanh vn v em theo
t mn hoc ct chung quanh vo h o v gy nguy him cho cng trnh
k bn.
Gii php ny rt ph thuc vo mc nc trong t v kt qu khng
n nh , rt tm b . Ch nn s dng trong phm vi cng trnh nh .

Tng c bng thp :

Tng c bng nhng tm thp ch sn t nh my . C nhiu loi tit
din ngang ca tm c nh c phng , c khum , c hnh ch Z gi l c
Zombas , c hnh ch U gi l c Lacsen . Nhng tm c ch to t nh my
c chiu di 12 mt , chiu dy taqm c t 6 ~ 16 mm. Chiu rng ca tit
din ngang ca mt tm thng t 580 mm n 670 mm. Chiu su ca tit
din th mng nht l c phng , ch 50 mm v su nht l c Lacsen khi
ghp i n 450 mm.
c im ca c l hai mp tm c c mng khi la nhng tm c
li vi nhau lc ng xung t , mng c c kht n mc nc khng
thm qua , khng di chuyn c t pha mt c ny sang pha mt c bn
kia.
C thng ng xung t trc lc o v mt pha ca tng c
khi o chng c t x v nc chy vo h o theo phng ngang.

Tng c c kim tra s chu p lc ngang nh dng tng chn t
theo s tng mng ( mm ) ng t do. Cn kim tra bin dng ca
tng, khng cho php tng c di chuyn gy xp l hoc lp cng trnh
o trong lng h.
Di tc ng ca cc lc ngang, tng mm ng t do , lm vic
nh mt cng sn c ngm n hi trong t. Do lc ngang l p lc t ca
mt bn mt c y vo c sau khi o hng bn trong, tm c s quay
quanh mt im no . T im xoay ny m xc nh su cm c sao
cho to c p lc cn bng ch ng v b ng. Thng thng phi thm
h thng vng gi v neo h tr chng li cc tc ng ca p lc ln
tng. Nu mt t c khng chng c p lc , cn to nhiu lp c
theo kiu dt cp , lp ngoi bao bc h rng , cc lp trong din tch bao
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bc s hp dn . Chiu rng mt bc cng c tnh ton sao cho cung trt
khng ph hu ton b h thng.
Hin nay trn th trng nc ta c mt Hng cung cp cc c ni
ting th gii TRADE ARBED c kinh nghim sn xut v cung ng cc
c hng trm nm nay.
Cc c thng c s dng nhiu ln . Ngay ti nc ta cng c
nhng cng ty chuyn cung cp hoc cho thu cc c qua s dng nhm
h gi thnh cho cc gii php s dng cc c.

Thit b h cc c xung t cng l cc my ng cc thng thng.
Nu s dng h cc c kiu rung, c th ghp nhiu tm cng rung h cho
tn dng sc my. Thng dng my ng cc diesel ng cc c .
Khi s dng tng c phi kim tra bic dng gy ra s chuyn dch
tng c vo pha trong h o . Nu c kh nng chuyn v phi thit k cc
t chng bng cc khung nm ngang . Nhng t chng ny l nhng
thanh thp hnh ch I , U khng nh , to thnh khung kn khp bn trong
tit din h o , c cc thanh cho gc v cc thanh vng ngang c tng
p cht vn c thnh vo t . Nu cn m bo khng gian thi
cng bn trong h o khng th lm h vng ngang m phi neo nhng
thanh thp hnh khung vn c xuyn qua vn c thnh m neo vo t bn
ngoi h o . Vic to dy neo bng cch khoan vo t theo my khoan
perforateur , sau a dy cp vo trong h khoan ny ri bm va xi
mng ti mt s im lm u neo.

Hng C-LOC ca Hoa k gii thiu sang nc ta loi vn c bng
VINYL c tit din ngang ta nh loi LACSEN s dng cp b h , b
mng th bn lu, vng chi v m quan. Nhiu cng trnh cp h s dng
phng php k hc t hiu qu v trng lng bn thn ca k ln m y
mng k li nm trn nn t yu sng nc nn chng bao lu , ch mt vi
nm k b st v hng . Nu cm k bng vn c nha , mi k nm su di
t , c khi phn chm gp ba , bn ln phn ni ca vn c nn chu lc y
ngang rt tt , k n nh lu di .

Tng c bng b tng ct thp ng lc trc:

Hin nay Nh my B tng Xun Mai bn cnh H ni ang ch to tng
c bng b tng ct thp ng lc trc s dng trong vic thi cng cc
tng hm. Tm c lm bng b tng ct thp c kch thc dy 120 mm,
rng 750 mm v di t 6 n 8 mt. B tng s dng c mc 300 , thp ng
sut trc. Loi ny h xung t c th ng, c th rung p.
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C b tng ct thp c thun li l nu li tng s s dng ngay lm
tng tng hm, ch cn bc thm cho chiu dy t 100 ~ 150 mm b tng
sau khi thi cng lp chng thm s gim c chi ph cho thi cng tng
tng hm.

1.11.2 Phm vi p dng

Trong nc :

Bin php vn c ny l bin php kinh in c s dng chnh thc
nh ti liu gio khoa trong cch s l o mng su . Phn l thuyt tnh
ton v thc t p dng chng minh rng kt qu rt n nh , ng tin
cy trong cc gii php chng thnh h o . Nu lun lu tt , y cng
l gii php kinh t . Cn nhn rng v quen thuc vi gii php ny.
Cc cng ty xy dng cu ng hoc thi cng cng bin, cng sng s dng
nhiu hn ngnh xy dng dn dng v cng nghip. Tuy vy vng chng
vch o su trong thnh ph, nhiu cng ty xy dng dn dng v cng
nghip lm quen vi tng c.

Nc ngoi:

Cc nc chu u l ni s dng vn c sm trn th gii. c, Php, Anh,
cc nc Bc u s dng vn c sm nht. Bc M cng l nhng nc c
nhiu kinh nghim xy dng dng tng c nhiu.
Cng ty ARBED l cng ty c lng vn c bn nhiu nht trong cc nc
phng Ty.
Nht bn cng l nc sn xut nhiu loi vn c thp dng Larsen bn trong
khu vc chu , Thi bnh dng.
Gn y, Nht bn v Hn quc lin doanh a ra th trng cc sn phm
vn c LX v Larsen di tn hng TUNGHAN INDUSTRY SDN BHD l
loi vn c chu cnh tranh vi vn c M v chu u ti th trng ng
Nam .
Vn c s dng k thnh vch o, k ng dn n cc cu ni trn mt
t bng phng cng nh k ven h, ven sng.



2. Phn xy dng cng trnh trn mt t :

2.1 Cng trnh nh xy gch sn ti ch :

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2.1.1 M t cng ngh

Nh xy gch , sn ti ch bng b tng ct thp c xy dng
kh ph bin nc ta t nhng nm 1930.
Kt cu chu lc ch yu l gch , gch c ct thp . Ngoi ra c
mt s kt cu nh sn v sn thang bng b tng ct thp. Thi k nhng
nh ny c xy dng ph bin th yu cu thit k cho cng trnh phi tho
mn yu cu tit kim xi mng v thp cng nh khuyn co rng phi tn
dng vt liu a phng v hnh dng kt cu n gin. Kt cu c yu
cu chng c cc tc ng c hc , xm thc ca mi trng , chng g
cho cc chi tit bng thp.

Kt cu m bo n nh theo phng ngang nh l tng ngang nh
c chiu dy 220 mm , hoc khung ngang kt cu sn hoc mi c gi
ta . Tu khong cch gia cc kt cu n nh ngang , nu khong cch ny
nh hn s liu trong bng sau y th nh c gi l nh c s cng v
nu ln hn th nh gi l c s mm.

Tr s ln nht ng vi khi xy nhm (m)
Loi sn v mi


I II III IV
1. Sn nh v mi bng b tng
ct thp v gch ct thp
c ton khi hoc lp ghp
xong ton khi ho.
2. Sn nh v mi bng b tng
ct thp lp ghp , bng cc
dm b tng ct thp hoc dm
thp cc tm bn b tng
hoc gch.




54




42



42




36



30




24



-




-
Nhng nh gch m ta thit k nhiu nm nay c tng ngang chu
lc v gc panen hoc sn ti ch nn nhng nh nh th l nh c s
cng. Nh c s cng th h tng ngang , tng dc cng tr v mi to
thnh h khng gian , nhng kt cu ny lm vic trong mt h thng chung
chu cc ti trng tc ng ln nh , k c trng lng bn thn.
m bo s lm vic lin hp gia cc b phn ca nh cn ch :
- Lin kt gia tng ngang v tng dc tt nht l s dng m dt.
- Khi tng ang xy m cn dng , phi ch m dt ri xy tip.
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- Mi tng nh phi c h ging tng lin kt cc tng vo nhau
v vo sn , mi nh.
- Tng v ct u phi neo gi vo sn , vo mi bng cc thanh thp
neo.
- Tng nh c khung b tng ct thp hay khung thp phi c neo gi
bng thp si 8 nm trong lp va xi mng ct , hai u si 8 chn trong
khung , c 6~8 hng gch xy li phi lm mt si neo gi ny.

Sn ti ch th nn kt hp sn vi ging tng . Khi u dm hoc
u sn k vo tng khng nh hn 120 mm th lc ma st gia sn v
tng ln nn c th gim b bt s lng si neo ni trn.

Nh xy gch c u im l khi xy chu la tt , chu nhng tc
ng ca n mn nh nn bn vng hng trm nm . Nh xy gch s dng
vt liu a phng , tit kim xi mng v thp, cch m , cch nhit tt , d
to hnh kin trc.
Nhc im ca nh xy gch l : khi lng ring va vt liu ln ,
t 1200 ~ 2000 kg/m3 m sc bn ca khi xy li nh nn nh nng n so
vi nh b tng ct thp hoc nh thp. Khi nh phi chu ti trng ng th
loi nh xy chu ng km . Khi c cc lc ko v ct ln th nh xy chu
ng km nn iu kin s dng b hn ch.
Yu cu ca khi xy to nn nh phi c chc , mch xy ngang
bng , mt xy phi phng . Thnh , cnh , gc xy phi thng ng theo di.
Mch xy phi u n v khng qu mng hay qu dy . Mch va tiu
chun l 12 mm. Mch ng khng c trng nhau m phi m bo so le
ti thiu l 1/4 chiu di vin gch.

Khi xy c phn lm 4 nhm cn c vo loi gch , , vo cu
to ca khi xy v cng ca va .

Sc chu tiu chun ca khi xy l gii hn bn ca khi xy , ph
thuc nhiu vo cht lng va cu to nn khi xy.

Khi c cc lc tc ng lm cho khi xy chu ko, chu un v chu
ct th tu thuc phng ca ni lc so vi mch ca khi xy m xc nh
c sc chu tiu chun ca khi xy ng vi cc loi lc ny.

Khong 5 nm tr li y, hu ht cc l gch u gia cng t bng
c gii nn cht lng vin gch tt ln rt nhiu so vi trc y .

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Vic xy trt vn c thc hin theo phng php th cng . Vn
chuyn ngang trong ni b cng trng s dng xe ci tin vi sc cha
khong 150 vin gch ( 300 kg ) mt xe . Vn chuyn theo phng thng
ng ch yu l thng ti vi sc nng 300 ~ 500 kg. Nhiu cng trng s
dng cn trc thp loi 5 tn th ng nhng thng chuyn cho vic ch gch
v benne chuyn ch va v b tng.

Gch xy nhng nm gn y , phn t nguyn liu c gia cng
bng my nn vin gch kh u n , p ng c kch thc hnh hc
theo tiu chun . Bn cnh nhng vin gch c , nhiu c s sn xut gch
a ra nhng loi gch rng nhiu l lm cho tng xy nh i , tng nh
tng tnh cch m , cch nhit.

Tuy nhin t nguyn liu lm gch l dng ti nguyn khng ti to
c cn dn dn hn ch sn xut gch nung.
Hin nay cng ngh sn xut vt liu nung ( gch, ngi nung ...)
ang hon thin cc loi l tuynen cng sut 5 ~ 20 triu vin / nm theo
hng thay th dn t st ly rung, ao bng t i hoc cc lp bi
tch sng. Kin quyt xo b l th cng v l do qun l ti nguyn khng
ti to c ( t st ) cng nh bo v mi trng. Pht trin gch trang tr,
ngi trng men mu.
Loi nh xy gch , tng gch chu lc s hn ch dn v so vi nh
khung b tng ct thp, din tch chim t ca tng ln , kh nng cao
c hiu qu s dng t . Tuy th , y l gii php truyn thng nn s
tn ti lu di vi s nghip xy dng nc ta.

2.1.2 Phm vi s dng:

Trong nc:

Loi nh xy gch, tng ti ch hin nay vn chim t l ln trong phng
thc dn t xy nh cho mnh. Loi nh ny c ci tin cht t l c thm
ct gc tng, n cao trnh y sn c thm h dm ging khng c
tnh ton to vi ct thnh khung lm cho nh thm n nh.
Loi nh ny dn lm ph bin t thnh ph n nng thn mi, cc th x,
th t, th trn lm nhiu dng nh ny.
Tuy phng thc xy dng ch yu l th cng nhng d thi cng ngay c
trong ng ngch, iu kin vn chuyn vt t kh khn.
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Phng thc ny to gip gii quyt nhanh nhu cu nh cho dn trong
thi gian ny.

Nc ngoi:

y l phng thc lm nh cho vng nng thn v cc th t nc ngoi
t gia th k 19 . Hin nay phng thc xy dng ny vn ph bin
nhiu nc c khu vc v th gii.
Tuy nhin vic s dng vt liu gch nung s dn n cn kit t st l ti
nguyn khng ti to c, nhiu nc thay th gch nung bng gch blc
b tng, blc rng hoc t trn xi mng ri dp thnh gch vin to xy
tng bao. Tng , vch rut nh lm bng vt liu mng, nh.

2.2 Cng trnh nh xy gch sn lp ghp :

2.2.1 M t cng ngh:

Vo nhng nm 1978 vi s ra i ca tm pa nen hp , nhiu nh
my b tng c sn c xy dng v ch to panen sn bn cho cc cng
trng. Loi nh xy gch c sn lp ghp bng panen tr nn ph bin .
Cng c cu lp panen ln sn l cn trc thiu nhi vi sc cu ph bin
l 200 kg , sau nng dn n 500 kg.

Panen hp c kch thc danh ngha tnh theo mm :
Chiu di : 2400, 2600, 2700, 2800, 3000, 3200, 3300, 3400, 3600, 4200.
Chiu rng: 500, 600, 1000, 1200.
Chiu cao : 200.
Cc tm panen c thit k vi ba loi ti trng tnh ton nh sau:
Loi a c ti trng tnh ton l 300 kG/m2
Loi b c ti trng tnh ton l 500 kG/m2
Loi c c ti trng tnh ton l 700 kG/m2.
B tng s dng lm loi panen ny l b tng mc 200 . Thp chu lc
trong sn pa nen ph bin l 210 ~ 216 vi lng thp cho 1m2 sn l
4 kg/m2 n 10 kg/m2.
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Khi ch to panen sn , phn sn trn ca hai u tm panen phi lm
khuyt chn gch phng khi xy tng ln u tm panen th phn gch
chn s ti trng ca tng v ca cacs tng sn trn xung. Vi
panen mi khng cn phi lm khuyt phn sn trn ny.
Sn bng panen hay tm an th nhng tm sn phi neo ging vi
nhau v ging vi tng ngn cn mi dch chuyn khi c rung ng hoc
chu cc dng lc ngang tc ng. Phi chn k panen bng b tng si nh
c mc cao hn mc b tng ca panen .
Mt t ca cc tm panen sn v panen mi ny nn l mt trn ca
ging tng.

Vo nm 1982 mt s c quan nghin cu nh trng i hc Xy dng,
Vin Khoa hc Cng ngh B Xy dng lm th immt s sn bng tm b
tng c l trn dc theo chiu gi ta , khng ct thp. Nhng tm ny ta
trn nhng dm nh ng lc trc gc qua gi ta c nhp t 2,50 mt n
4,50 mt. Loi ny c lm th im cho khong trn di chc nh, sau s
c xp sn ti mt ngi nh ph Cu G H ni nm 1984 loi sn ny
khng s dng na.

Loi sn Hourdi ca cc nc chu u m tm sn c sn bng gm hay b
tng ct liu nh, c 2 l rng ln dc theo chiu dm k c dng kh ph
bin nc ngoi. Nhng tm sn cao 200 mm, rng 600 mm v chiu di
600 mm ghp vi nhau theo chiu di k ln dm theo chiu ngang. Chn
mch bng va xi mng. Loi sn ny c u im l cch m, cch nhit tt .
Vo nhng nm 1992~ 1994 khi B Xy dng c quan h hp tc vi Hng
SOCOTEC, hng ny c gii thiu loi sn ny vi mt c quan t vn thit
k trong B nhng khng c ch to thc nghim .

2.2.2 Phm vi s dng:

Trong nc:

Loi nh ny thc cht ging nh loi trn, ch khc l sn c c
sn thnh cc panen. Vic ch to tm panen gip cho tng tc xy dng
v thm tin nghi v cch m. Tuy th, hin nay ang thu hp din xy dng
v nhng nh my b tng c sn khng sn xut panen bn na m t
c ti cng trng rt kh m bo cht lng. L do thu hp din s dng
v ngi s dng cho l n nh chung ca cng trnh theo cch xy dng
ny cha p ng yu cu ca h v khi ngi dn s dng nh ca h th
gii php sn ti ch c a chung hn gii php lp sn .

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Nc ngoi:

Phng thc xy dng ny lc u do cn b k s ta i hc trong cc nc
thuc khi x hi ch ngha c , m ch yu l Lin x c a v. Loi nh
ny khng pht trin ngay ti nhng nc lc u ra n.

2.3 Nh lp ghp tm nh :

Loi nh ny c xy dng vo hai thi k nc ta vi s khc bit
kh nhiu v kt cu .
Nm 1958 ti H ni xy dng th im loi nh bloc u tin ti khu
tp th Kim Lin v cng ch xy dng ti khu th im ny m khng nhn
rng ra . Thay cho tng trong nh xy gch l cc tm bloc bng x c c
chiu dy 300 mm v tm x rng khong 1,2 mt , cao 1,5 mt .
Thnh phn vt liu trong nhng tm x gm x nhit in c sng
c c ht nh hn 20 mm , ct vng v xi mng. Mc ca b tng x c
ch to lm bloc l 50 . Bloc ny c dung trng khong 1,4 t/m3 . Vi kch
thc nh trn , mi tm x nng khong 750 kg.
Cc tm c t ln sn qua lp va xi mng ct vng t l 1 : 3 dy
20 ~ 30 mm v ghp st nhau , mch va ng cng l xi mng ct vng 1 : 3
. Trc khi t tm sn c ging tng b tng ct thp mc 200 , ging dy
100 mm.
Sn s dng cho loi nh ny dng tm c sn c kch thc khong
12 m2/tm . Sn dy 100 mm , b tng mc 200. Mi phng lp 2 tm v
khu ph cho v sinh v bp c ti ch .
Vic lp ghp cc tm thi k xy dng ti khu tp th Kim Lin H
ni dng cn cu thp c sc cu 5 tn loi BKCM-05 .
Vic lin kt gia tm vi nhau , tm vi sn ch dng mch va xi
mng ct nn nhng t H ni c bo c bo trn cp 12 vo nhng nm
1965 ~ 1975 thnh ph ra lnh cho nhng ngi khu tp th ny phi s
tn . Nhng sau nhiu trn bo trn cp 10 cng trnh khng thy nt n do
bin dng , vic s tn khng t ra na .
Kt cu cho loi nh ny kh nng n v din tch s dng nh nhiu
so vi din tch xy dng do chiu dy ca tng ln . tin cy ca cc
mi ni cha cao nn to ra tm l khng yn tm cho ngi s dng , ng
thi kin trc ca nhng nh ti khu tp th c xy dng th im cn
nhiu nhc im nn vic s dng loi nh ny b hn ch.

Loi nh lp ghp tm nh khc l loi s dng cho nh hai tng tr
xung nhng ph bin l dng cho nh 1 tng , c khung l ct b tng ct
thp nh nh l , c rnh la tm tng mng 60 mm lm vch ngn.
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Kt cu chu lc chnh l khung ct v dm bng b tng ct thp nh . Sn
tm phng va cho c gian nh . Vch l nhng tm an b tng ct thp dy
60 mm, rng 500 mm v di chng 750 mm ~ 1200mm. Tm tng ny la
vo hai ct bng rnh dng mng . Mt s nh c tm tng chn gia ct
ca khung b tng ct thp tit din nh l tm kch thc nh ch to bng
x sng ht nh di 10 mm. Loi nh ny vo nhng nm 1964 n 1978
c dng nhiu thay ln tri cng trng gi nh tm cho cng nhn
c lu hn nh tranh l na , an ton hn v t kh nng b ho hon hn .
Vo nhng nm 1968 ~1978 cc khu tp th ca cn b ti H ni v
sinh vin cc trng hc c ni tr pht trin nhanh chng, a im xy
dng cc trng i hc , trung hc v trng dy ngh khng n nh song
song vi vic cha c kinh ph u t xy dng vnh cu nhng vn i hi
s lng ln nh cho sinh vin nn loi nh ny c xy dng nhiu cho
cc trng hc c sinh vin , hc sinh tp trung.
B tng c tm tng , ct , dm thng c mc 200. Thp s
dng cho , thanh ch l 12 v nhng thanh khc l 6 hoc 4. Thp
trong cc tm tng l li thp 4 an vung cch nhau 100 mm.
Loi nh ny c dng lm ln tri cng trng l chnh v s dng
cho cc mc ch khc c tnh cht tm b m trong mt thi phng chm
phc v l hy c ch nht ngi ri tin nghi tnh sau nn khng trt trong ,
khng trt ngoi , nn lng xi mng ct , khng hoc c trn bng ct np
tre.
Kt cu mi cho loi nh ny l v ko thp trn m cc thanh dc
mi hn bng thp trn thnh hai dm t hp thp trn v thanh cnh h s
dng mt si dy cng 12 ~ 14 c lp tng . Ta vo v ko ny l x
g b tng , x g g hay x g cng bng thp trn t hp t 6. Cht lp
ph bin l fibroximng , tn hay ngi xi mng. Mt s cng trng dng
cht lp cho loi nh ny l ct p trn ph giy du bitum.
T khi phn chia a bn xy dng cho cc cng ty xy dng theo a
d , s nhu cu ln tri gim v nht l khi Nh nc khng cho tnh 2,8 %
tin u t cho ln tri cng trng trong mc chi kin thit c bn khc th
khng ni no lm loi nh ny na. Cc c quan xo b c ch bao cp nh
tp th cho cng nhn vin chc nn loi nh ny cng khng c t
xy dng. Bn cnh , mc sng ca ngi dn ln cao dn , nhng loi
nh rt km tin nghi nh loi ny c hi pht trin l him hoi .

2.4. Nh lp ghp tm ln :

Nh lp ghp tm ln c nghin cu xy dng nc ta vo nm
1975 v bt u xy dng th nghim vo nm 1976 ti khu Vn Chng ,
qun ng a , H ni.
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Loi nh ny c kt cu chu lc chnh l h thng tng bng b tng
c mt t thp phn b cu to trong tm v gia cng g bin ca tm .
Tng chu lc gn vi sn thnh h kt cu khng gian cng chu lc v tu
theo s sp xp kin trc m bn sn k chu lc c coi nh bn k hai
cnh , ba cnh hoc bn cnh . Tng c chiu dy 15 cm bng b tng mc
150 ~ 200 , chiu cao bng chiu cao nh v chiu rng t 3,3 mt n 3,6
mt mi thn ngang nh phi lp t hai n ba tm. Tm tng mt s
khu tp th c lm bng khun b tng ct thp , nhi gia tm bng b
tng x p mn qua hc sng 5 mm .
Tm sn bng b tng mc 200 , ct thp t theo tnh ton v chiu
dy sn l 12 cm ~ 15 cm.
Vic lin kt gia nhng tm tng vi nhau v tng vi sn hoc
tng vi tm thang bng cch ni hn nhng ming chi tit t bng thp
sn chn trong tng tm c bn .
Khu v sinh thng c b tng ton khi .

Cu thang l tm khng cn t t ln tm chiu ti v tm chiu ngh
cng bng bn b tng ct thp mc 200 v dy 12 cm. Thp chu lc chnh
t theo phng di ca tm thang.

Mt thi gian kh di , nhng tm c ch to ngay ti bi hin
trng . Sau , vic sn xut tm do cc nh my b tng c sn m
nhim ri chuyn ch n v tr lp .

Loi nh ny thng c xy dng 4 ~ 5 tng trn mng b tng ct
thp ti ch. Mt s khu tp th s dng loi nh ny xy dng nh 2
tng theo nguyn tc , mt h c c tng di v tng trn . Nhng gian
u hi c li giao thng ring bit nn di nh l mt h t ngi , trn gc
l h nh.

Vic lp ghp nh loi ny nh cn cu thp c sc nng 5 tn . h
tr vic lp ghp nh trong lc cha di chuyn cn trc thp ti hin trng ,
c th dng cn trc bnh xch lp hai tng di .
Do trnh ch to tm v do ch trng ca nh qun l xy dng
nn tt c nhng nh loi ny u phi trt trong v trt ngoi nh nh bnh
thng. Loi nh ny thch hp cho cc chung c nhiu cn h .
Nhng nm cui ca thi k xy dng loi nh ny ( khong nm
1990 ) mu m loi nh lp ghp tm ln c ci tin nhiu th hin qua cc
mu nh ti khu Thanh xun Nam v Thanh xun Bc H ni.
Loi nh lp ghp tm ln nu tnh ton theo ng t cp 6
Richter tr ln th chi ph cho cc lin kt ht sc cao . My nm gn y
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thin tai do ng t lm nhiu nh trn th gii b xp nn hu ht cc
nc u phi xem xt li cch tnh ton nh chu ti trng ng t. Cng v
l y m hin nay CHLB Nga gn nh khng s dng nh lp ghp tm ln
na.
nc ta vo khong nm 1994 tr li y nh lp ghp tm ln
cng khng c xy dng na vi l do nh nc xo b bao cp trong vic
cung cp nh cho cn b cng nhn vin chc , t c phn cho nhiu
n v xy dng nh bn , v mun d bn , cc cng ty c t thng
lm nh cn h ring bit . Mt s n v xy dng nh chung c bn th
li lm nh nhiu tng , n chn mi tng , gim gi thnh u t cho
mt n v din tch nh s dng do mng chu ht kh nng lm vic .

Loi nh lp ghp tm ln ghi du ca mt bc pht trin trong
cng nghip xy dng nh trong cc khu chung c H ni trong xut thi
k 1978 ~ 1994. Nu loi nh ny gii quyt tt khu lin kt chng ng
t cho cc mi ni , gii quyt tt hn khu cch m v cch nhit , nng
cao chiu cao nh ln thm cht na th loi nh ny c th dn n cng
nghip ho xy dng nh nhanh chng . Tuy vy , vic gii quyt khu mi
ni cho chng ng t khng phi l n gin v kinh t . Hin nay nc
Nga ngng vic xy dng theo loi nh ny . Qua nhng tai bin trong
vng chc nm qua trn th gii , cc nc pht trin t vn tnh ton
khng chn rt nghim tc phn nh trong vic sa i quy phm tnh vi
cc tc ng khng chn. Vic ngng sn xut loi nh ny ti Nga hay ti
nc ta l ch trng ng n v s an ton s dng cng trnh .

2.5. Nh c thi cng theo kiu kch nng sn

Sn nh c c tm n trc tip ln tm kia ngay trn chnh mt
bng cng trnh . Lp sn n vi sn kia c lp chng dnh ngn cch
d dng bc tch tng lp sn ring bit m khng b kh khn g . Ct nh
c c trc khi c cc tm sn v c cao cho ht tng cao ca nh
lun mt mch.

Khi cc lp sn tui pht huy ht kh nng chu lc , nng ton
b tm sn ln nh h thng kch la qua l cha sn ti sn n ht cao
tng . Lin kt cht sn di cng vi ct c nh v tr sn ca tng trt .
Ta to dng xong mt tng v tng ny b cc tm sn trn ln .
Tip tc la kch qua sn tip theo tng nng nng nhng tm
sn cn li ln thm mt tng na . Sau cn chnh ri lin kt cht tm sn
ny vo ct . Ta li c thm mt tng na c to dng ng nh mt
tng nh thit k.
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C nng tng tng sn ri lin kt vi ct cho cc tng t di ln trn
cho n sn cui cng cao nht , ta hnh thnh khung chu lc ca ton nh.
Theo trnh t nng nh va m t , tng nh c hnh thnh t di
ln trn , t nng cui cng ta s c ton b khung ct v sn ca ton
nh .

C th nng theo trnh t ngc li . t u nng mt tm ln trn
cao nht . Khi gn chc chn sn vi ct ta c sn cao nht vo v tr .
Khi ct c gn vi sn n nh xong , nng tip sn tng p to ra tng .
C lm tip cho n khi nng ht cc tng nh .

Thit b ch yu s dng trong phng php thi cng nh nng tng l
h thng kch . H kch ny phi c cao bng mt tng nh v c kh
nng nng ti thiu cho c h l sc nng ton b trng lng cc tm
sn.
iu kin thi cng chn ct cho tng l thao tc tin hnh gia hai
tng sn c nng tch nh h kch nn phi ht sc ch n s bo m
an ton cho ngi lao ng . Qu trnh thi cng ht sc phc tp , i hi
s phi hp ng b v s iu khin thng nht .
u im ca phng php xy dng nh loi ny l rt ngn thi gian
hnh thnh to khung chu lc cho cc tng nh . phc tp v phi c h
thit b chuyn dng l hn ch ca phng php nn thc t , phng php
xy dng ny khng c nhn rng nc ta.
Ti Vin Khoa hc v Cng ngh Xy dng xy dng th im mt
ngi nh 5 tng thi cng theo phng php ny . Th nghim nhn rng ra
nh lm vic ca B Ti chnh , mt ngi nh trong To n Ti cao . Nhng
kt qu sau th nghim cho bit thi gian thi cng gim c so vi i
chng trn 30% , tit kim nhiu chi ph gin gio v gi thnh cng trnh
gim khong 10 % . Sau nhng ngi nh th nghim y , phng php xy
dng kiu ny khng c nhn rng chng t tnh kh thi ca phng php
cn tn ti nhng khc mc c bn . Tuy vy loi nh thi cng theo phng
php ny c th a vo danh mc tuyn chn cng ngh cho tng lai .

2.6. Nh xy dng theo cng ngh 3-D :

tng v mt dng kt cu khung thp 3 chiu vi li vt liu nh
c cc tc gi Hoa k a ra t nhung nm 1960 nhng thnh cu kin
phi i ti nm 1980 cc tc gi o mi a ra m hnh u tin v cc tm
cu kin ny vi hai lp li thp cng cao cng vi lp li polyurthan.
Hng EVG (o ) , Entwicklungs und Verwertungs-Gesellschaft m.b.H,
Raaba-Austria , tin hnh nghin cu v a ra cng ngh sn xut cc
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tm 3D-Panel ( three-dimentional panel) vi li li polystyrene nh , c gi
thnh h lm tt c cu kin cho c ngi nh t 1 n 5 tng . u nm
1987 h thng panen 3-D c gii thiu rng ri trn th gii v c a
vo sn xut hng lot . Ti nc ta , ngi nh u tin xy dng theo
phng php ny vo nm 1997-1998 ti huyn Bnh Chnh thnh ph H
Ch Minh.

Phng php xy dng da vo cu kin 3-D ph hp cho i tng
trung lu v nhng u im :
* Cng trnh c ti trng nh , kinh t trong s dng nn mng , trn
nn t yu , trong xy dng ci tng , nng tng trn c s cng trnh c c
nn mng yu.
* Thi cng nhanh chng nh lp ghp , c kh nng thi cng trn mi
a hnh , bng thit b chuyn dng hoc th cng cng thi cng c loi
nh ny.
* Nh c kh nng cch m , cch nhit tt.
* Khng cn nhiu chng loi th mi thi cng c thnh cng trnh.
* Gi thnh hp l.
* Thi gian thi cng nhanh.

Tuy th cng trnh xy dng da trn cu kin 3-D c nhng nhc
im :
* S dng thi qu panen sn cho cc kt cu khc nh tng , vch
nn gi thnh phi i theo .
* Khe nng chng la ca lp polystyrene km nn cng trnh mt kh
nng chu lc khi c chy.

Tng kt qua vic xy dng loi nh ny ti thnh ph H Ch Minh
thy , mi m
2
cu kin gi thnh l 45.000 n 95.000 ng. Nh th , loi
nh ny gi xp x bng nh xy gch nhng c nhng u im v thi
gian thi cng nhanh lm cho hp dn.
Th loi nh ny ph hp vi cng trnh va v nh khong 1 ~2 tng
nn cc nh thit k cng ch to nhng cu kin cho loi nh ny. Qua qu
trnh xy dng loi nh theo cu kin 3-D , cc nh thit k thy rng khng
nht thit khi s dng sn nh loi 3-D ny li c phi dng tng nh th
m c th tng l tng xy. Nu qu l thuc vo s s dng 3-D s dn
n g p v lm nng gi thnh hoc lm ngi nh km i chc nng s
dng hay tin nghi.
Loi nh ny mi vo nc ta , cn cn thi gian th nghim cng
nh cc ch u t cn nhc .

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2.7. Xy dng s dng cp pha trt :

Cp pha trt c s dng lm khun c cc cng trnh bng b
tng ct thp da vo nguyn tc lm mt on cp pha cho cc kt cu c
tit din ngang khng i hay bin i theo qui lut tuyn tnh. l cc
cng trnh ng khi , nh nhiu tng bng b tng c kt cu tng chu lc ,
nhng loi kt cu ny s c trt theo phng thng ng ; cc knh ,
mng , ng nm ngang , hm di , nhng kt cu ny c tit din ngang
khng i bng b tng ct thp s c trt theo phng nm ngang .

Nhng b phn ch yu ca b cp pha trt gm c :

* H thng vn khun ,
* H thng sn thao tc,
* H thng bm du p lc.

Cc yu cu ch yu ca h cp pha trt l :

+ cng khng b bin dng khi dch chuyn.
+ Tnh linh hot tt , d iu khin di chuyn , v
+ An ton s dng.

Nguyn l vn hnh ca h cp pha trt nh sau:

To cp pha cho mt on cng trnh . t thp v b tng . b
tng cho kt cu m vic b tng lm cho cng trnh pht trin theo chiu
cao th khi b tng ng rn cng cho cp pha tho khi vn bc
khng b bung , v , th trt cp pha ln on trn .
H cp pha phi c t ln vt ta gi l ty cho kch bm m vt ta
y phi m bo ton b kt cu ca cp pha trt di chuyn khng gy bin
dng ngoi mun .

H thng cp pha bao gm vn khun , vng gng v gi nng. H
thng sn gm sn thao tc trong , sn vn ra ngoi v h gio treo trong ,
ngoi. Ti trng thi cng trn sn c tnh tu theo trang b thi cng trn
, vt liu v ngi tin hnh cc thao tc . S liu c th tham kho t
1000 N/m2 n 2500 N/m2.

Mun s dng c cp pha trt khi thit k kin trc phi tun theo
cc yu cu :
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+ Mt bng v mt ng cng n gin cng tt xt theo quan im
hnh dng hnh hc.
+ B tr kt cu ca cc tng nn ging nhau , thng nht cao y
dm, cao cc l ca , tuyn trc cc dm , ct , vch nn trng hp vi
nhau qua cc tng. Chi tit t sn bng thp hn to lin kt vi cc kt
cu nh khi mt trt c thi cng khi trt xong c gng xp theo
phng ngang hay phng ng v khng xt .
+ Phn chia khu vc trt , ln ca vng trt xc nh theo c
im kt cu cn thi cng , tu theo tc nng v kh nng thi cng c th.
Gia nhng vng trt nn l khe bin dng hay khe ln .

Sai lch khi ch to hay nhp cc b phn cp pha trt tnh bng mm
i hi rt nh cho trong bng :

Tn cu kin Ni dung Sai s cho php
Cp pha lm b mt
Chiu di
Chiu rng
phng mt bn
V tr l lin kt
1
2
-2
2
0,5
Vng gng Chiu di
Chiu di <2 mt
cong nu chiu di
>3m
V tr l lin kt
5
2
4

0,5
Gi nng Chiu cao
Chiu rng
V tr thanh vng
gng
V tr l lin kt
3
3
2

0,5
Ty kch cong
ng knh
Tim thanh ni
2/1000
0,5
0,25

Thi cng cp pha trt i hi tun th cc qui nh k thut ht sc
nghim ngt .
Lp rp cp pha trt i hi chnh xc cao v sai s khi lp cp pha
trt phai at cc iu ghi trong bng :

S th t


Hng mc
Sai lch cho
php ( mm )

Ghi ch
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1 X dch tim cppha v tim
kt cu tng ng
3 Kim tra
bng thc
2 ngang
ca dm
ngang gi
nng
Trong mt
bng
Ngoi mt
bng
2

1
Kim tra
bng thc
ngn 2 m
3 thng gc
ca tr ng
gi nng
Trong mt
bng
Ngoi mt
bng
3

2
Kim tra
bng thc 2
mt
4 V tr vn
khun
Ming pha
trn
Ming pha
di
-1

+2
5 V tr lp t kch 5
6 phng mt cp pha bn 2
7 ngang bng sn thao tc 20
8 Sai lch phng ngang ca v
tr vng gng
3
9 ng knh cp pha trn,
chiu di cp pha vung
5





Kim tra
bng thc

Cng ngh thi cng cp pha trt in hnh theo trnh t sau y:

* Chun b cc iu kin thi cng
* Phng tuyn v kim tra trc c
* Lp t gi nng , vng gng
* Lp t mt mt cp pha
* Buc ct thp , lp cc ng ng chn sn
* Lp t cp pha cn li v cp pha cho cc l ca
* Lp t sn thao tc
* Lp t h thng p lc du : kch , ng dn du , b phn iu khin
* Lp t cc thit b kh ng lc , chiu sng thi cng
* Vn hnh th ton b h dm , bm du , h x kh
* Cm ty kch
* b tng t u
* Lp cp pha ca , buc thp ngang, t cc chi tit chn sn , b tng
khi c iu kin thch hp
* Trt khi m bo b tng sp l ng kt. Lp gi treo trong , ngoi v
cc trang b an ton
* Lp tun hon cc thao tc trn n khi kt thc kt cu cn b tng.
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Thi cng b tng trong cng ngh cp pha trt :

+ st b tng thch hp l 60 ~ 80 mm. Cng b tng sau khi c l
khi mt cp pha phi t 0,5 ~ 2,5 kG/cm
2
.
+ Chiu cao mi lp b tng khong 300 mm.
+ m b tng bng m di. Khi ang trt khng c m.
Trnh t trt tm tt nh sau:

* b tng tng lp n 2/3 chiu cao ca tm cp pha v trc lc lp b
tng u tin bt u ng cng , trt 1/2 hnh trnh , phi thng xuyn
quan st s lm vic ca h thng cp pha v b mt b tng ra khi khun.
Dng thit b kim tra , nu thy cng b tng l khi cp pha t 0,5 ~
2,5 kG/cm2 th cho trt bnh thng.
* C gng gin cch gia hai ln trt khong 1 gi .
* B tng mi lp xong phi t cng mt cao v trong khong thi
gian tng i ng u .
* Sau mi ln trt cn lm v sinh bn trong cp pha b tng sp
khng b dnh v cp pha.
* Qu trnh trt phi ch v thng ng ca kt cu . Nu c sai lch
cht t phi chnh sa ngay .

Cp pha trt to ra nhng cng trnh chc chn v bn vng v kt
cu s dng l b tng ct thp ton khi. Tuy th , qu trnh thi cng i hi
nghip v ca k s v cng nhn phi thnh thc v chuyn nghip.
Cc yu cu v cht lng kch thc hnh hc sau y ni ln tnh
nghim ngt :








S th t Hng mc Sai s cho
php (mm)
Ghi ch
1 Chuyn v tng i gia cc
trc
10 Kim tra
bng thc
2 thng Ca tng 5 Thc 2m
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73
ng Ton chiu
cao
H/100 ; 50 Kinh v
Vch , ct 10 3 Kch thc
tit din Dm +10,-5
Kim tra
bng thc
4 phng b mt 8 Thc 2m
5 Chuyn v tim l cha 10
Gia cc tng 10 6 Ct cao
Ton chiu
cao
30
Ktra bng
thc
7 V tr chi tit chn sn 20

Cp pha trt l bin php tin tin c hiu qu s dng cao. Trc
y ta ch c mt cng ty chuyn thi cng theo phng php trt vi nhng
b thit b trt ca Trung quc v Rumanie.
My nm gn y nhiu nc cho nhng loi thit b cp pha trt
mi vi chng ta. Cng ngh ny c trin vng ln khi thc hin cng
nghip ho xy dng.

2.8 Cng ngh thi cng ng lc trc trong xy dng nh :

Nm 1928 Freyssinet nghin cu thnh cng b tng ct thp ng sut
trc v t n nay vic s dng b tng ct thp ng lc trc t ra rt
hiu qu trong xy dng.
Nc ta bt u th nghim nhng cng trnh thit k s dng b tng
ng lc trc u tin trong xy dng cu b tng ct thp vo nm 1962 (
Cu Ph L trn quc l s 2 ). Trong xy dng cng nghip , b tng ct
thp ng lc trc c dng trong cc xil cha ht trong cc nh my. B
tng ng lc trc dng trong kt cu sn nh mi c s dng my nm
gn y nc ta . n nay cc cng ty t vn nc ta c th thit k
nhng kt cu ng lc trc v trong nc t thi cng kt cu ng lc trc
ny.
B tng chu nn tt v chu ko km . Trong kt cu b tng ct thp
thng thng , b tng v thp c thit k cng chu lc pht huy ht
nhng c im ca tng loi vt liu tham gia to nn kt cu . To ng sut
trc cho kt cu b tng ct thp l lm cho kt cu phi chu lc trc khi
s dng trong cng trnh v phng chu lc ngc vi khi n lm vic trn
cng trnh . Nh th , kt cu lm vic s hu hiu hn . Nh c vic to ng
lc trc m kt cu b tng ct thp c th lm ra nhng kt cu thanh
mnh , vt nhp ln , tng c kh nng lm vic , cng ln , tng kh
nng chng thm , chng nt cao , m rng phm vi lp ghp nng dn mc
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c gii ho xy dng. Do s dng thp cng cao trong kt cu nn tit
kim lng thp ng k.
Thp s dng trong kt cu b tng ct thp ng lc trc l dy ko
ngui , dy ti v ram , cc dnh thp , v thp thanh cn nng c hoc
khng x l tip . Nhng loi thp ny c hnh dng bn ngoi c th l dy
trn , dy vn , dy c vt n , dy c ln sng hoc dy tt thnh dnh.
Gii hn bn ko ca ct thp dng trong kt cu b tng ct thp ng
lc trc kh cao : t 1470 n 1960 N/mm
2
.
Vic thi cng b tng ct thp ng lc trc i hi phi c thit b
chuyn dng , qun l k thut cht ch v cng nhn lnh ngh.
Khu cng v neo ct thp c ngha quan trng i vi cht lng
ca kt cu b tng ng lc trc .
C hai phng php to ng lc trc cho kt cu : cng trc v cng
sau.
B tng ct thp cng trc s dng cho cc kt cu c sn nh
panen , dm b tng ct thp c sn , dn b tng ct thp . Ti nh my ,
plygn ch to kt cu c sn , lm nhng bi cng thp to ng lc trc.
Tu theo thit k sn xut m bi c mt , hai hay nhiu dn cng .
Sn cng c san phng v b tng kim sn y cp pha . Sn
chia thnh tng bng , mi bng c hai u m gi dy cng v ta kch
cng . Tu theo cu kin c ch to m khong cch gia hai m cng ng
lc trc lm xa hay gn. Thng mt h m cng nn b tr cng hai , ba
hoc bn cu kin sp xp thng hng tn dng sc cng ca kch v sn
xut c nhiu cu kin mt lc .
La ct thp vo cp pha ri cng thp . Phi c cc cng c o xc
nh ng lc trong cc si dy. ng lc ny phi p ng s liu thit k v
thit k tnh ton ngoi ng lc cn thit cn nhng tn tht do nhiu l
do tc ng. Sau khi cng thp v neo cht u neo t vo m th vic tip
theo l b tng.
Khi b tng t cng , ct thp cho ri thnh tng cu kin v ct
cha hoc vn chuyn n ni lp ghp.

Phng php cng sau dng ch to cc kt cu b tng ct thp ng
lc trc ti ch nh xil , sn nh , dm cng sau , dn rng , b mng .
Cng ngh cng sau c th c tin hnh theo hai phng php : cng c
hc v cng nhit in .
Cng c hc l dng kch bm vo u neo lm thanh thp dn ra
v sinh ni lc . Sau khi cng dng cht gi u neo v nhi chn va xi
mng trong ng cha si thp .
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Cng nhit in l phng php s dng dng in chy qua si thp
lm si thp nng ln v dn di . Neo trong khi si thp ang nng . Khi
thp ngui co li nhng b neo gi nn to ra ng lc .
Hin nay nhiu c quan thit k s dng kt cu b tng ng lc
trc trong vic lm y hm nh dn dng v cng nghip gim v hn
ch thm nc t y nh ln .
Vic s dng kt cu ng lc trc c rt nhiu u vit nn cn
khuyn khch p dng trong xy dng cng trnh.

2.9 Cng ngh thi cng nh cao tng :

S s dng nh cao tng nhm tp trung th cng nh tit kim
t ai th. S s dng nh cao tng phn nh tnh hin i. Tuy vy khi
s dng kin trc nh cao tng cng phi tr li hng lot cu hi t ra:
lch s pht trin nh cao tng, phn loi kin trc nh cao tng, nh cao
tng trong mng li qui hoch th, cc yu t k thut xy dng nh
cao tng, vt liu xy dng nh cao tng, thm m kin trc nh cao tng.

S s dng cc tng hm v cng trnh ngm lm tng hiu qu s
dng t ai xy dng. iu ny i hi nghin cu kin trc cho nhng
loi cng trnh ngm
nhm p ng cc yu cu s dng cng trnh v thy mi hi ho trong
ch trng hin i v tit kim t ai.
Tng hm cha ng ngay trong nh cao tng lm tng hiu qu s
dng din tch ca nh cao tng. Tng hm di nhng nh cng cng
lm ca hng, trung tm giao dch cng cng, lm nh tr v cc cng trnh
giao tip hoc k thut khc.
Cc nc trong khi ASEAN s dng c bnh qun 3 tng hm i vi
nh cao tng xy dng. Nht bn cng s dng bnh qun c 3 tng
hm cho din tch t xy dng. c bit ti Hoa k c thnh ph
Philadelphia s dng bnh qun n 7 tng hm cho nh cao tng. Nhng
nh cao tng mi xy dng nc ta my nm gn y mi s dng c
bnh qun 0,7 tng hm l iu ng tic.

2.9.1 S tng:

tn dng t ai th cng nh tit kim h k thut phc v
th, nng s tng nh trong th v khu tp trung dn c l iu cn thit
u tin. S tng bnh qun ca cc nh trong th cn c nhng nghin
cu y v cc mt sinh hc, x hi hc, k thut xy dng v kinh t
xy dng.
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Qua nghin cu v nh cao tng, t khi c trng phi Chicago n
nay, thnh tu ca nh cao tng c nhng tin b vt bc. Nhng ngi
nh nhiu chc tng ri n vi trm tng ln lt ra i m lot nh xy
dng sau to ra nhng k lc vt xa nh lm trc v gic tin nghi,
bn vng.

Tng kt v nhng thit hi ca trn ng t Kob, Nht bn thng
Ging nm 1995 th i b phn nh v h hng cng nh s ngi b
nn do trong cc nh c cao 4, 5 tng khung g, lp ngi. Nhng nh
loi ny nng bng, nh tch, ngha l pha trn nng do mi ngi, khung
nh pha di bng g nn khi gp rung ng b xp ngay. Cn hu nh
nh cao tng ti Kob b hng rt t n ni c th ni l khng h hng,
mc du hai loi nh nm cng nhau trong mt tiu khu.

Nm 1995 xut hin d n " Vt qu 4000" ( Excess 4000) ca Tp
on Taisei ( Nht bn ) xng mt ngi nh cao tng vi chiu cao nh
trn 800 mt v sc cha ca nh n 800 nghn ngi. Nh lm dng thp
c 5 chn choi u ri thu li tng 40. Trong ngi nh c ng t i
li, c sn, vn, sn vn ng, sn chi th thao v din tch phc v cng
cng khc y .

Nghin cu nh cao tng, xt v mt kin trc, qui hoch phi tr li
c cc cu hi: lch s pht trin nh cao tng, phn loi nh cao tng,
cc vn yu t to thnh nh cao tng, nh cao tng trong mng li qui
hoch th, cc yu t k thut, vt liu xy dng, thm m kin trc cao
tng v nhiu vn khc lin quan n nh cao tng.

Nh chc tri ( gratte-ciel ) l sn phm c bit ca nn vn minh
th ra i gn lin vi s tp trung th ho cao . S ra i ca nh
chc tri khng tch khi vic gi t th tng vt, s i hi phi tit
kim t ai th v s ch to ra thang my, s xut hin ca cc dng
vt liu kt cu cng nh phng php tnh ton kt cu mi.
Trn th gii c nhng nh cao tng c ghi nhn l:
Ngi nh Wooworth Building New York xy dng nm 1913 cao
232 mt.
Nh Chrysler Building cng New York nm 1930 cao 315 mt
Nh Empire State Building cng New York nm 1931 cao 330
mt.
Nh trung tm Rokejelar l cm nh chc tri ni ting xy dng
trong nhng nm 1931-1939 cng New York.
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Nm 1973 cng New York nh thp i World Trade Center
nng k lc chiu cao ln 415 mt v ri mt nm sau, 1974 ti Chicago,
ngi nh Sear Tower nng ln 443 mt.
Ti Hi ngh Quc t v nh cao tng ti HongKong nm 1990 cc
nh chuyn mn thng k 100 ngi nh cao tng cao nht th gii. S
tng cao nht l 110 tng. Ngi nh xp th 100 cao 50 tng. Tuy vy ,
khng phi l ch c 100 ngi nh cao tng ny mi c vinh d ca mnh.
Rt nhiu nh thp thp tng hn vn c ghi nhn gi tr ngh thut kin
trc.

Nh cao tng thng mang phong cch quc t. Mt kin trc s
Anh c th thit k nh cao tng cho Nht bn. Kin trc s Nht bn li i
thit k nh cao tng cho Singapore. Tuy th, trng phi thit k nh cao
tng chu u khc trng phi thit k nh cao tng chu M.
To nh thp Century Tower Tokyo, tc phm ca Kin trc s
Anh Noman Foster v cc ng tc gi l mt thnh tu ca kin trc
ng i. To nh ny th hin nhng tin b mi nht v ng lc hc
cng trnh v cng ngh xy dng. Dng v kin trc ca cng trnh l s
nhn nhng ln nhau gia phong thi chu u v Nht bn cng trnh
c tn ti hi ho gia th nc Nht.
Ngi nh Ngn hng Trung hoa HongKong cao 315 mt ca Leon
Ming Fei li l thch thc xt v mt kin trc vi ngi nh Ngn hng
HongKong Thng Hi t cnh ngi nh trn khng xa , ch cao 180 mt
theo trng phi Highlech.
Ngi nh ca Hng Bo him Lloyd's Building Lun n c nhiu
nt c o. Phong cch kin trc mi ng thi vi s dng vt liu mi
to nn du n tt p cho thnh ph c knh ny. iu c bit ca
ngi nh ny cn t chc khng gian trong nh. S phong ph ca ca
khng gian kin trc c tng ln rt nhiu qua cc attium ( sn trong
nh) c thit k rt cng phu. nh sng ca ngi nh tht l k diu. Ban
ngy th nh sng t nhin bn trong nh lung linh, lp lnh. Ban m th
hng v lm ngi ngm nhn chong ngp.

Kin trc cao tng mnh dn, to bo. Ly thp Thin nin k ( Tour
Millenium ) m Noman Foster thit k xy dng cao n 840 mt
ng thi vi ngi nh Thp V tn ( Tour sans fin ) ca Jean Novel. Nht
bn th gii thiu Vt qua 4000 ( Excess 4000 ). Chn tri kin trc nh
cao tng ang rng m.

Bao nhiu tng c gi l kin trc nh cao tng. y l nhng
nim qui c. Tm, chn, mi tng c th c coi l nh cao tng. Tuy
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vy, xt trn quan im tng th th khi nh c cao t 40 mt tr ln,
tng ng vi s tng 12 tr ln th nhng yu t t chc cuc sng, cc
yu t sinh hc ca ngi s dng cng nh cc yu t k thut phi gii
quyt bt u c d bit vi cc nh thp hn. V th, chng ta coi nh c
s tng t 12 tr ln hoc chiu cao 40 mt tr ln l nh cao tng.
Tuy th, c mt vi ngi nghin cu v nh cao tng nc ta li
cho rng nh cao tng nn tnh t 6 tng . L do l t 6 tng th nn mng
cho nh phi c gii php ch hn nh 5 tng tr xung. Trong iu kin
xy dng ti cc nn t ca cc trung tm th ca nc ta, thng 5
tng tr xung, ch cn lm nh theo phng n mng nng trn nn thin
nhin.

2.9.2 Phn loi nh cao tng:

C nhiu cch phn loi nh cao tng. Sau y l nhng cch phn
loi chnh.

* Phn loi nh cao tng theo chc nng s dng. Phn loi theo
chc nng c iu kh v chc nng s dng nh ca nh cao tng rt a
dng v phong ph. C loi nh c s dng theo chc nng n nh nh
thun tu, nh lm vic, khch sn, bnh vin, siu th, ngn hng ... Rt
nhiu nh cao tng c chc nng hn hp nh nh lm vic nhiu chc
nng: va lm vic, va khch sn, va gia inh.

* Phn loi theo s tng cao. Th d : t 12 n 17 tng, t 18 n 24
tng, t 25 n 40 tng. Trn 40 tng c gi l nh siu cao tng.

* Phn loi theo cc yu t k thut nh nh c h kt cu tng
chu lc, nh khung b tng ct thp, nh khung thp, nh khung hn hp
thp hnh v b tng ct thp.

2.9.3 Mt v t chc khng gian khu vc nh cao tng trong th:

S lng nh cao tng phn b trong th ph thuc vo t chc
th c th, ph thuc vo kin trc ca a im xy dng, ph thuc
cc yu t k thut nh vic cung cp in, nc, thot thi cht d sau s
dng,

Mt nh cao tng trong khu qui hoch cn to c s hi ho
khng gian th. C th xy dng hng lot nh cao tng trong khu vc
nh cm nh nhng cng c th ch xy dng nh cao tng theo tng
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nhm nh khu thng mi. Cng c th ch sp xp nh cao tng nh
im nhn khng gian kin trc nh s sp xp cc cng trnh th ln.
i song song vi b tr mt nh cao tng l s nghin cu mt
bng tng th khu vc. Nh cao tng cn c t bao vi t chc giao
thng, thm cy, c to trong sch kh quyn. Cng c th c cm nh
mi cn t ngoi vi. To khng gian kin trc khu vc xy dng nh cao
tng i hi nghin cu tng th cc yu t qui hoch, kin trc ng thi
vi cc yu t k thut, mi trng, an ton s dng. Khng th tch ri
cc yu t tin nghi, k thut, an ton, kinh t vi cc yu t thm m, cc
yu t tinh thn cho khu vc.

2.9.4 Nhn t kin trc khi s dng nh cao tng:

Khi s dng nh cao tng cn nghin cu cc nhn t kin trc sau
y:
* T chc mt bng chung khu vc nh cao tng. Trong mc ny cn p
ng cc vn nh mt nh cao tng trong khu vc, sn vn quanh
nh cao tng, ng x giao thng i ngoi ca ngi nh. Quan h gia
ngi nh v trc l. V tr ngi nh vi cu trc th.

* T chc khng gian kin trc trong tiu khu c cha ngi nh cao tng.
Vai tr ngi nh vi cnh quan chung quanh. Chc nng ngi nh vi cc
nh chung quanh v vi t chc dn c trong a bn tiu khu.

* T chc mt bng c th ca ngi nh : c cu mt bng, mt bng cc
tng v quan h gia cc thnh t mt bng vi nhau. Mi quan h gia cc
tng xt v chc nng s dng chung v chc nng s dng chuyn. Mi
quan h xt v cc yu t k thut xy dng v cc yu t phc v tin
nghi cng trnh.

* T chc mt ng cng trnh. S tng quan gia mt ng v mt bng
trong bi cnh chung ca cng trnh. Vai tr ca mt ng trong vic hnh
thnh silhouette ca kin trc khu vc c nh cao tng.

* T chc tin nghi sinh hot v tn ti trong nh cao tng cho ngi s
dng nm trong vng kh hu nhit i gi ma.

2.9.5 Nh cao tng v nhng vn k thut.

Nhng vn k thut phi gii quyt khi xy dng nh cao tng rt
a dng v phc tp. Tuy nhin c th tm tt trn nhng nt ln l nh cao
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tng phi gii quyt cc vn k thut ch yu sau y: nhng thnh t
kin trc v phc v chc nng nh thang my, iu tit khng kh, an ton
phng chng chy, an ton v an ninh x hi...nhng vn v kt cu
chu lc cho cng trnh, nhng vn v s dng tng hm.

2.9.5.1 Vn thang my:

C th ni rng thang my ra i cng vi s tp trung th lm
gi t th tng vt l l do trc tip to ra tng cng nh thc t xy
dng nh cao tng.

Theo TCVN 5744-93 thang my chia thnh 5 loi: thang chuyn
dng ch ngi, thang ch ngi nhng ngi mang theo hng, thang
chuyn dng ch ging trong bnh vin, thang ch hng nhng c ngi
i theo, thang chuyn dng ch hng.
ng vi mi loi thang my khc nhau c nhng yu cu v thng s
k thut, yu cu kt cu, phng php iu khin v nghim ngt v an
ton khc nhau. Thang my v ging thang l hai thnh t gn b mt thit
vi nhau to nn mt loi giao thng thng ng rt c trng cho nh cao
tng.
Nhng thng s k thut ch yu ca thang my l trng ti, vn tc
nng, chiu cao nng, kch thc cabin, chnh xc dng tng. i vi
ging thang cn ht sc lu v sai s cho php hnh hc ca ging thang,
cht lng xy dng ging, thng gi ca ging. Khi la chn thang
my phi m bo tng quan gia thi gian ch i v thi gian i thang
pha nm trong gii hn cho php tu thuc c im, tnh cht v mc
ch phc v ca ngi nh. Mc chnh xc khi thit k v thi cng ging
thang ht sc quan trng. i vi nh cao tng, thang my ng vai tr
quan trng c v phng din k thut ln kinh t.

Cn la chn thang my ngay t khi nghin cu thit k kin trc
ngi nh. Nguyn tc la chn thang l:
+ Kh nng kinh t
+ Mc tiu, v tr, c im ca cng trnh
+ S tng v khong cch gia cc tng
+ Dn c hay l s ngi cn c thang my phc v
+Yu cu cht lng phc v
+ Cc yu cu khc ( nu c)

Ch tiu c bn s dng khi la chn loi thang l: lng khch ti
a cn vn chuyn trong chu k 5 pht ti thi gian cao im ca ngi nh.
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v cht lng phc v khch c c th ho ra khong thi gian trung
bnh s dng thang.

Nhng kt lun quan trng khi la chn thang my cho nh cao tng
tm lc nh sau:
* Vic chn thang my phi c tin hnh ngay t khi thit k kin
trc cng trnh. S la chn cng ph hp vi tnh nng ca cng trnh v
kh nng u t cng tt. Mi phng php la chn cc thng s k thut
ni chung ch cho kt qu gn ng bi v cc phong php la chn u
da vo nhng thng s thc nghim cho mt iu kin khc vi ngi nh
ca ta ( v ngi nh ca ta lm u).

* i vi nhng nh c s lng khch s dng khng ln v b tr
t thang my khi la chn nn da vo nng sut thang v chn cc thang
c thng s k thut ging nhau.
Khi s lng thang nhiu ( >4 ci) nn s dng bng tra sn, cng
vic la chn s n gin nhng t yu cu v nhng bng tra ny c
thc t cc nc s dng nhiu thang my trc y chp nhn . Thang c
sc ti cng ln th gi cng cao. Thang c vn tc ln gi cng ln. Khi
la chn thang my, kin trc s nn tham kho cn b chuyn mn
phng n la chn tho mm c c thng s k thut v kinh t.

* Vic b tr thang trong mt ngi nh cn theo nhm mt cch hp
l v iu ny va p ng nhu cu ca khch va gim chi ph u t cho
xy dng c bn. Khi b tr theo nhm cn u tin chn theo phng php
tnh nng ging nhau.
Theo ISO, dy s ti trng thang ph bin l: 320, 400, 630, 800,
1000, 1250, 1600, 2000, 2500 ( kG) ng vi vn tc 0,63 n 2,5 m/sec.
Chng ti kin ngh i vi nh nhiu tng nc ta nn u tin
chn loi 400 n 800 kG vi vn tc 0,63 ~ 2,5 m/sec. Loi thang ny kh
thng dng nn gi thnh h. Cc thng s s dng ph hp vi s lng
ngi di chuyn mt ln v mc cn di chuyn ph hp.

* Yu cu khi xy dng thang, cc thng s hnh hc l thng s ht
sc quan trng, cn c kim tra v nghim thu vi mc chnh xc cao.

* Cn tun th cc qui nh v s ngng to ca thang m bo
nhng yu cu chng chy. Nh c s tng trn 40 khng c lm thang
ln xut nh m phi c nc thang cc s tng khc nhau trnh to ging
ht khi khi chy.

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2.9.5.2 Cc vn v iu tit khng kh v thng gi cho nh cao tng:

bo m tin nghi cho ngi sng trong nh cao tng cn gii
quyt tt vn thng gi v i tit khng kh. Mun thit k tt c
iu tit khng kh v thng gi cn xc nh cc thng s tnh ton bn
trong v bn ngoi nh. T cc thng s ny m tnh ton c ti trng
nhit hay c th hn l cng sut lnh/ nhit ca tng phng cng nh
ton nh.
Theo nhng kt qu nghin cu ca cc nh vt l kin trc nc ta
th nhit hiu qu tng ng ca khng kh ng vi mc cm gic
nhit hon ton d chu ca con ngi Vit nam l:
Ma h : 24 ~ 25
o
C
Ma ng: 22 ~ 23
o
C

T , cc thng s tnh ton cho khng kh bn trong nh thch hp
vi mi trng c nhit , m tng i v tc gi nh bng:

Ma ng Ma h
S
tt
Trng
thi
lao
ng
t
o
C
%
v
m/s
t
o
C
%
v
m/s

1

2

3

4


Ngngi

Lnh

L va

Lnng


22-24

22-24

20-22

18-20

70-60

70-60

70-60

70-60


0,3

0,3-
0,5
0,3-
0,5
0,3-
0,5

24-27

24-27

23-26

22-27

70-60

70-60

70-60

70-60

0,3-
0,5
0,5-
0,7
0,7-
1,5
0,7-
1,5

Thng s tnh ton cho bn ngoi nh c chn theo 3 cp iu
tit khng kh khc nhau. l:
Cp 1: Nhit ti cao tuyt i v nhit dung tng ng vi nhit y.
S gi khng m bo ch nhit m bn trong nh l 50 gi/nm.
Cp 2: Nhit v nhit dung khng kh p ng iu kin l s gi khng
m bo ch nhit m bn trong nh l 200 gi/nm.
Cp 3: Nhit v nhit dung khng kh p ng iu kin l s gi khng
m bo ch nhit m bn trong nh l 400 gi/nm. Tr s nhit tnh
ton y l tr s nhit ti cao trung bnh o lc 13 gi hng ngy cu
thng nng nht trong nm.
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thit k h thng iu tit khng kh cn tnh ton lng nhit
tha, lng m tha ca tng gian phng ring bit ri t thit lp qu
trnh iu tit khng kh v xc nh cng sut lnh tnh ton cho h thng.
y l khu tnh ton c th, t m, chi tit. iu ny i hi chnh xc
i vi tng ngun to nhit, thu nhit v tn tht nhit. i vi cc thng
s m cng phi xem xt chi tit nh vy.

Cc gii php iu tit khng kh cho nh cao tng theo cc phng
hng sau y:
c im ca loi nh cao tng l s lng phng trong nh rt ln.
Nhng phng ny li rt khc bit nhau v kch thc hnh hc, v cng
nng cho nn rt khc nhau v ch nhit m bn trong nh. Mt c
im rt bao trm na ca nh cao tng l cc phng va tri rng theo mt
bng li va xp chng nhau theo chiu cao. T nhng c im ny m
la chn gii php iu tit khng kh cho nh cao tng phi p ng yu
cu d b tr h thng, thun tin khi vn hnh, chim ch ti thiu theo
mt bng cng nh mt ng, ngoi ra phi p ng iu kin kinh t v
m quan. Nhng gii php c th kh d l:

* H thng iu tit khng kh trung tm: mt t my c lp hoc khng
c lp t ti mt v tr thch hp dn khng kh theo ng ng n cc
ming thi phc v cho phng ln hoc nhiu phng ln cn nhau nm
trong mt tng hoc chng st nhau theo chiu cao. tit kim cng sut
lnh, h thng lm vic theo ch tun hon nn trong h thng c dng
gi hi. u ca h thng ny l vic theo di, vn hnh thun li v
khopong kh c x l nhit m tp trung ti mt a im. Nhc im
l cn lp t 2 tuyn ng: cp v hi. Kch thc tit din ng dn khng
kh kh ln chim nhiu khng gian ca tng nh nn i hi khng gian
nh ln, tng nh phi cao ( h4m ) mi b tr c.
S phn chia khu vc phc v ca cc h thng trung tm iu tit
khng kh trong thit k nh cao tng l vic i hi s la chn cn thn.
Li khuyn ca nhng ngi thit k theo h trung tm l di tng cng
ca tuyn ng i v v khng nn qu 60 mt. Khi phi b tr di hn cn
c qut chuyn tip.

* H thng c cc b phn trao i nhit cc b dng my qut ( Fan
coil): l gii php thch hp vi cng trnh c nhi phng. Tu thuc knh
thc v cng sut lnh m c th b tr mt hoc nhiu b dn ng c
qut. V tr lp t c th l trn sn st tng, treo tng hoc lp trn
trn. Nhc im c bn ca h thng ny l s cha ng u ti cc v tr
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khc nhau trong mt phng. iu ny c th khc phc c bng b tr
thm qut bn hoc qut cy trong phng trn u khng kh.

* Thng gi ht kh thi khu ph nh bp v khu v sinh:
i vi nh cao tng, khu ph nh bp v khu v sinh cn thit t
chc thng gi c kh. Nu khng b tr thng gi c kh m ch nh vo
thng gi t nhin th mi hi hm lan to khp ni gy nhim v mt v
sinh. Lng gi thi phi m bo 50 m3/h cho mt chu x, 25 m3/h cho
mt chu tiu. Khu vc bp cn n 100 m3/h.

gii quyt tt vn thng gi v iu tit khng kh cho nh cao
tng, cn c nhng nghin cu c h thng xy dng nhng biu
quan h t - v cc biu tn sut ca cc yu t nhit v nhit dung
cho cc a phng xy dng nh cao tng. C th gim nh khi lng
cng vic bng cch phn chia lnh th thnh cc vng kh hu khi thit
k chp nhn sai s cho php. Trvs mt c th s dng TCVN 49-72 v
TCVN 4088 - 85 cho khu vc pha Bc.
Tnh ton c lng nng sut lnh dng cho iu tit khng kh i
vi mt s phng thng dng lm c s xc nh gn ng cng sut lnh
tng cng cho cng trnh.
Cn phn tch k hn cc u nhc ca tng loi s ca h thng
iu tit khng kh chn ra s ti u cho nh cao tng. Lu tm tho
ng n gii php thng gi cho khu ph v khu v sinh.

2.9.6 Vn cp nc cho nh cao tng.

Chng ta u bit vi tnh trng cp nc hin nay ca cc th
nc ta th cp nc cho cc nh cao tng hon ton khng p ng.
Yu cu c bn ca h thng cp nc l lm sao phn phi nc
u cho ton b ngi nh m bo ch lm vic ca mng li phn
phi gn ng vi tnh ton thu lc ca mng li.

Nhng kt qu nghin cu cp nc cho nh cao tng thy ni ln
nhng kt lun sau y:

(i) Nh cao tng thng trang b thit b v sinh hon chnh, s lng thit
b v sinh nhiu, tiu chun dng nc cao. Do vy nn lu lng tnh ton
ln dn n ng knh cc ng ng phn phi cng sn kh ln. Nu b
tr ng ng chnh phn phi pha trn, phi bm nc ln kt ri t kt
phn phi xung tng di th ng ng ng s c dng trn to di nh,
dung tch kt nc ln nh hng n kt cu nh. Nu lm ngc li,
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ng ng chnh phn phi pha di ln trn v xung kt chung thdung
tch kt nc nh hn nhung ng ng chnh cp nc c dng di to
trn nh lm cho p lc t do cc tng di rt mnh. iu lm cho
gi thnh mng li ln v cc on ng pha u phi c ng knh ln
ti lu lng cho cc on sau.
Gii php u vit s l phn ra tng khu cp nc ng knh ng s
nh i, lu lng nc cho cc im tiu th s ng u, gi thnh chung
s gim.

(ii) Vn p lc d v phn phi u p lc:
Nu nh cao tng ch b tr mt my bm th p lc my phi m
bo a nc ln tng cao nht v p ng s dng nc tng cao nht.
Lm nh vy, p lc nc tng di s qu ln. iu ny dn n vi cc
nh k thut l phi kh p lc d cc tng di m bo p lc t do ca
cc thit b tng i u nhau phn phi nc u, ch lm vic ca
mnh li st vi tnh ton s gp nhiu kh khn. p lc d qu ln s
gy tr ngi cho ngi s dng, kh chnh trn khi dng vi ho trn nng
lnh, gy n khi s dng.

(iii) Vn tiu hao in nng cho my bm:

Nh cao tng s dng mt my bm chung th my bm phi kh
ln cung cp lu lng cho ton nh v a p lc n tng cao
nht. V nh th nng lng tiu hao cho vic bm nc s ln. Nu chia
thnh nhiu my bm bm cho tng khu vc th tng nng lng s
gim i kh nhiu.
Vic cp nc cho nh cao tng thng phi phn chia nh cao tng
thnh cc khu vc c cp nc, gi l phn vng cp nc.
C hai cch phn vng chnh l: phn vng song song v phn vng
ni tip.

(1) H thng phn vng song song:

Chia s tng nh thnh cc vng khc nhau vi phm vi phc v ca
mi vng t 4 n 5 tng. Phn chia vi s tng nh th th s chnh p
gia cc tng trong mt vng gn nh khng ng k. Mi vng c cung
cp nc do mt my bm t tng k thut ti tng 1 hay tng hm.
Mun m bo vic t ng ho ng m my bm v cho my bm lm
vic theo chu k, c thi gian my bm c ngh ko di bn s dng
my cn c kt nc hoc trm kh p cho tung vng. p lc nc s do
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kh p cung cp nc cn nc th do kt cung cp. Thng c th t kt
nc cho tng vng tng trn ca mi vng.

(2) H thng cp nc phn vng ni tip:

My bm ca vng 1 va bm nc cung cp cho vng 1 va bm
vo kt cho vng 2 , my bm ca vng 2 t trn tng cao nht ca vng 1
bm nc cho vng 2 v c theo cch tng t cc my bm nc cho
vng trn nhn nc t my bm ca vng di. Khi ny ct p ca cc
my bm ch tng ng vi ct p ca my bm ca vng 1. Lu lng
ca cc my bm vng di ln hn ca vng trn, kt nc ca vng di
cng ln hn ca vng trn.

C hai trng hp phn vng song song v ni tip h thng cp
nc nh cao tng c gi thnh xp x nhau. Mi cch phn vng c ci u,
nhc ca n. Khi thit k s tu thuc iu kin c th v thit b v cc
iu kin khc la chn sao cho hp l, m bo cc yu cu kinh t, k
thut ra.

2.9.7 Nhng vn v kt cu nh cao tng

2.1.7.1 Nhng c im c bn v kt cu nh cao tng.

Xt v mt kt cu nh cao tng, nhng c im ni tri sau y
nh hng n cc gii php kt cu ca nh:

(i) Do nh c nhiu tng nn trng lng bn thn v ti trng s dng
thng rt ln li phn b trn din tch tng i hp. iu ny dn n
cn thit lm nn mng su truyn ti trng xung gc hoc lp t
rt tt.

(ii) Nh nhiu tng nhy cm vi ln lch ca mng. iu ny nh hng
kh nhiu n s lm vic v trng thi ng sut bin dng ca cng trnh
vn c siu tnh kh cao.

(iii) Do chiu cao nh ln nn tc ng ca cc ti trng ngang ( gi, ng
t ) v cc ti trng lch, ca bin thin nhit l ng k. T vic
chn gii php, hnh thc kt cu, cng cu kin, cc t l kchd thc
hnh hc ca ngi nh c nh hng kh nhiu n bn, n nh, tnh
chng lt ca cng trnh.

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(iv) S phn b cng dc theo chiu cao nh c nh hng n dao
ng bn thn
m dao ng ny li nh hng n tc dng ca cc ti trng, n ni lc,
chuyn v ca ngi nh. Phng hng gim cc dao ng ny khng ch
tm cch phn b khi lng hp l dc theo chiu cao m cn tm cch
gim khi lng tham gia dao ng: dng vt liu nh cho kt cu bao che,
vt liu c cng cao, vt liu c tnh do dai ln lm kt cu chu lc.
Nh th, thp , nht l thp cng cao c nhng tnh cht p ng yu
cu ny.

2.1.7.2 T hp kt cu chu lc nh cao tng.

(i) Cc cu kin chu lc, cc h kt cu chu lc c bn:
Cu kin bao gm: Cu kin dng thanh nh ct, dm, thanh chng
Cu kin dng phng: tm tng, tm sn, li cc
thanh dng dn phng.
Cu kin khng gian.
Tu thuc cch t hp cc cu kin to nn cng trnh, h kt cu
ca nh cao tng phn thnh hai nhm:
Nhm ch gm mt loi cu kin c bn nh h thanh, h tng (
vch ), h li, h hp.
Nhm c t hp t hai hoc nhiu loi kt cu c bn: h khung-
vch, h khung li, h khung-hp, h vch-li, h li-hp...

Tu theo cch lm vic ca khung m h kt cu chia thnh s
khung, s ging, s khung ging.

(ii) S khung chu lc:

Khung ngang v dc c lin kt cng ti nt khung to thnh khung
khng gian. Mt bng kt cu c th c hnh vung, hnh ch nht, a gic,
hoc hnh trn, hnh lp ... Nguyn tc chung l khung cn cng
truyn mi ti trng ( thng ng v ngang) xung mng.

Di tc dng ca ti trng cc thanh ct v dm khung va chu
un, ct va chu nn hoc ko. Kh nng chu ti ca cng trnh b nh
hng kh nhiu theo cch cu to nt khung v t l cng ca cc phn
t thanh cng t vo mt nt.

V tng th, chuyn v ngang gm hai thnh phn:
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* Chuyn v ngang do un khung nh chuyn v ca mt thanh cngxn
thng ng (nh (a) trn hnh v), t l ny chim khong 20%.
* Chuyn v ngang do bin dng un cc thanh thnh phn ( nh (b) trn
hnh v), t l ny chim 80%, phn ra do bin dng dm khong 65%, do
bin dng ct 15%.
Tng th th bin dng ngang ca khung cng thuc bin dng ct.
H khung thng c cng ngang b, kh nng chu ti khng ln.
Khi li ct c b tr u n trn mt bng vi bc ct 6~9 mt, c th
p dng cho nh n 30 tng.

(iii) S ging:

S chu lc ca cc h hn hp bao gm cc kt cu ging thng
ng v cc khung lin kt vi nhau bng cc tm sn cng ca cc tng
c coi l s ging. Vi s ging, khung ch chu phn ti trng
thng ng tng ng vi din tch truyn ti ca n. Nt khung hay b tr
dng khp hoc phn ln cc ct u c cng chng un kh b.

Ti trng ngang do gi, do ng t tc ng trc tip vo h thng
cc sn ngang cng ri truyn vo h thng kt cu ging ng ri xung
mng. Nh thng thng, sn ch chu tc ng ca cc ti trng thng
ng vung gc vi mt phng sn. Vi nh cao tng th sn phi cng
khng nhng ti trng thng ng m cn truyn c cc tc ng
theo phng ngang n cc h thng cng phng thng ng.
Trong nh cao tng, ni lc ch yu do ti trng ngang nn h thng
cc kt cu cng theo phng thng ng ng vai tr quan trng trong
vic gi n nh tng th, hn ch nghing, vng lch cho ton b
ngi nh. H thng ny lm vic nh dm hoc dn cng xn ngm vo h
mng v c chiu cao tit din kh ln truyn ton b ti trng ngang v
mt phn ti trng thng ng tng ng vi din tch truyn ti t cc
tng bn trn xung mng.
Tu thuc vo s phn b ca cc dn ging ny trn mt bng nh
m cc h kt cu sau y thuc v nhm cc kt cu lm vic theo s
ging:
* H vch chu lc: cc dn ging thng ng l cc dn phng dc
sut chiu cao nh, b tr ti v tr no trong mt bng nh.
* H li chu lc: Dn ging ng l cc dn khng gian, b tr
mt hoc mt ss trong mt bng nh. Khng gian bn trong ca cc
ging ny thng dng b tr thang my , thang b hoc cho vic lp t
cc ng ng k thut nh ging thng gi, h cp thot nc, dy dn
in...
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* H hp chu lc : Trn sut chu vi nh, ct hng hin c b tr
vi bc nh hn. H hp c li ch nht c to thnh do cc ct, cc
dm ngang trn tng bao. Khi b sung thm cc thanh cho thnh h
hp c li tam gic. Trong mt s trng hp hiu qu v chu lc cn
ln hn khi c b tr thm c thanh cho v thanh ngang to thnh li
dng qu trm. H hp chu lc, cc bn sn cng c ta trc tip ln
thnh hp, cc ct bn trong c th b tr tha hoc khng cn na. Nh h
thng cng theo phng ngang l cc bn sn, theo phng ng l cc
dn ging quanh chu vi, h hp to thnh h khng gian nhiu , khng ch
c cng chng un ln m cng chng xon cng ln. V th loi kt
cu chu lc ny hay c s dng lm nh c chiu cao kh ln v cc
ln.

(iii) S khung-ging:

Loi kt cu chu lc ny l h hn hp bao gm c khung cng v
cc h ging ng. Hai loi kt cu ny lin kt vi nhau bng cc sn
cng to thnh h khng gian cng chu lc. Khung cng tham gia chu
c ti trng ng v ngang. Nt khung phi l nt cng. Cc kt cu chu
lc khc nh vch cng, li cng, sn cng c c im, cu to, s truyn
lc ging nh trong s ging.
cng ca h thng c cc khung cng v cc kt cu ging
m bo. So vi cc kt cu ging th cng ca khung nh thua rt
nhiu. V th kt cu ging chu phn ln tc dng ca ti trng ngang, c
khi ti 70%.

tng cng cng ngang cho cc khung, thng b tr:
* Ti mt s nhp cn b tr thm cc thanh xin dc theo sut chiug cao
nh.
* Tng cng cc dn ngang tng nh nh hoc mt s tng trung
gian, ng thi lin kt cc khung vi hai h dn ng v ngang ny.

Cc dn ngang gi vai tr nh l mt b phn phn phi li lc dc
cho cc ct khung v cn tr s xoay t do ca ton h. Bng cch ny c
th gim ng k mmen y v chuyn v nh nh , c th dt ti
gim 30%.

B tr thm cc di cng ngang, dc c chiu cao bng chiu cao ca
mt tng nh. Kho ton h lm vic nh mt kt cu dng t ong, cc
di cng ng vai tr truyn nhanh nht ti trng ngang n vch ng
truyn xung mng.
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Cc gii php tng cng cng cho h khung

Dng dn ngang kt hp li cng: Hiu qu v chuyn v
Dng dn ngang kt hp li cng : Hiu qu gim mmen gi
Dng cc gii cng ngang v dc
(iv) Cc h kt hp:

Ngoi cc h thng chu lc c bn nh cc s nu trn, tu
thuc iu kin mt bng s dng, c im ti trng v kh nng thi
cng... m dc theo chiu cao nh, h thng kt cu chu lc cn c nhng
thay i.
(i) Cn tun th cc tiu chun ca vt liu lm kt cu cng trnh:

* C cng cao v trng lng nh. S la chn ny nhm lm
gim lc qun tnh khi cng trnh c dao ng m vn m bo hiu qu
cao nht v kh nng chu lc ca tit din kt cu.
* S dng vt liu c tnh bin dng ln nhm nng cao kh nng
phn tn nng lng khi cng trinhf c dao ng ln.
* S dng vt liu c kh nng chu ng tt cc ti trng lp v i
chiu.
* Vt liu c s dng c tnh ng nht, ng hng cao khng
b tch th hoc tit din kt cu chu lc b thay i khi chu cc ti trng
lp, ti trng i chiu trong lc cng trnh b dao ng.
* Vt liu c gi thnh hp l, iu kin cung ng khng qu kh
trn th trng v thi cng thun li.

p ng c cc yu cu trn thng s dng vt liu thp. Trong
chng mc no s kt hp gia b tng, b tng ct thp v thp em li
hiu qu tt.

(ii) V hnh dng cng trnh:

* Nn la chn hnh dng mt bng cng trnh n gin, gn, i
xng v c cng chng xon ln. Mt bng c hnh trn hoc hnh
vung chu ng tt khi cing trnh chu dao ng v khng chn.

Mt bng c dng L , H , Y khi chu cc lc do dao ng thng hay
b gy phn cnh do phn cnh xa tm un v tm xon. Trong nhng
trng hp ny, nn b tr thm khe khng chn bin mt bng phc tp
thnh t hp cc mt bng n gin. Khi c chn ng, phn nh hai bn
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khe khng chn dao ng c lp trong khi mc ng iu trong mi
phn s tng ln. Khe khng chn cn rng khi dao ng hai khi
tch bit khng va p vo nhau.
Mt bng nh di cn ct thnh nhiu on ngn trnh s lch pha
ca cc dao ng gy ra s tc ng khng ng u trn sut chiu di
nh.

Mt bng i xng c tm cng trng hoc gn trng vi trng tm
mt bng l gii php tt. Mt bng cn c cng chng xon tt. Vch
cng i xng l phng n tt cng nh b tr vch cng cng xa trng
tm cng tt.

* Theo phng thng ng, hnh khi cng trnh cn cn i, gin
iu v lin tc. Yu cu ny m bo tnh ng iu v dao ng ca cc
phn trong mt khi cng trnh. Cng trnh c t s chiu cao trn chiu
rng ln, chuyn v nh cng trnh s ln. Cc bin i t ngt v hnh
khi theo chiu cao s dn n cc t bin v khi lng tham gia dao
ng v v bin dao ng. S khng ng iu din ra gia phn khi
ln v khi b theo chiu cao v lm cho tnh cht chi lc ca cng trnh
tr nn phc tp. Cn thm cc vch cng truyn mt cch lin tc
to trng t phn ny sang phn khc ca cng trnh. Hnh dng thon dn
theo chiu cao nh dng thp EIFEL hoc Landmark Tower cng nh
Excess 4000 l hnh khi tiu biu c th gim thp nht nh hng ca
dao ng nh phn phi khi lng hp l theo chiu cao.

* Dc theo hai phng thng ng v ngang nh, khng nn thay i
cng, cng ca mt tng hay mt vi tng hoc ca mt phn nh.
L do khi tng th nh xut hin mt tng hay mt on mm th s
tp trung bin dng lm cho ni ny s l ni mau h hng nht.
Gi th cn thit phi bt mt s ct chng hn th phi b tr vch
cng tng ng lm sao cho cng ni b bt ct gn nh khng thay
i.

* Cn thit k khung chu lc ca nh cao tng c siu tnh cao.
L do l khi c ng t gy ra mt s ch cc b xp, st th nhng ch
khc vn bn vng, iu ny hn ch thit hi. Khi ny, s c s cn
bng li ni lc v ti mt s ni cn c ng sut ph do nhit b thay
i hoc do ln lch gia cc phn.

* Khi xt n s xut hin ca khp do th phng n chn thit
k sao cho khp do xut hin dm trc sau mi n ct. Ct xut hin
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khp do thng nh hng n nhiu b phn ca cng trnh. Khp do
dm ch nh hng cc b.
Cng trnh c ct yu bin dng s tp trung mt tng no , mc
nguy him s tng thm. S ph hng do ct v un ct thng ln hn
dm v ct cn thm tc ng ca lc dc ln hn dm.

2.9.9 B tr kt cu trn mt bng:

(i) Li ct:

Nhng nguyn tc b tr li ct trn mt bng nn nh sau:
* Li ct phi ph hp vi mt bng kin trc v s kt cu chu lc
ca ton ngi nh. Phi lu tm n cc yu cu nh hnh cu kin v h
mun.
* Li ct cn n gin , d dng thi cng v thun li cho trang thit b.
Nn chn li l ch nht hoc vung. Vi cc nh c mt
bng i xng nn tn dng trit tnh i xng ca mt bng. Nu mt
bng khng i xng, nn chia thnh li thng nht cho nhng phn c
th, phn cn li dnh cho khng gian m nh hnh lang, snh, thang, khu
phc v, khu k thut ...
Bc ct thch hp nn l 5~6 mt i vi s khung hoc
9~12 mt cho cc s kt hp khung-li, khung-vch. Vi cc h kt hp
khung-hp hoc vch-hp th khong cch ca cc hng ct c th n
18~24 mt.

(iii) T hp sn:

Vic chn s kt cu cho cc sn ngang ph thuc kch thc
sn ( nhp, bc cc ct), hnh dng sn v cu to bn thn tm sn.
Phng n sn c la chn s nh hng n chiu cao kin trc ca sn
v cng ngang ca ton b cng trnh.
Nh khung c li ct hnh vung hay ch nht, h sn c th theo 3
cch: gin n, ph thng hoc phc tp.

2.9.10 T hp cu kin theo phng ng.

cng khng gian ca ngi nh ph thuc rt nhiu vo hnh dng
ca n. Nh c dng thon dn theo chiu cao s hp l nht v phn phi
trng lng khi dao ng, ko theo s h thp ng k v tc dng ca cc
ti trng gi, ng t.

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Khi hai cng trnh cng c t s chiu cao trn b rng ngang nh
(H/B) bng 5 ~ 6 th chuyn v nh c thon 1/20 ch cn bng 25~30%
so vi nh khng c thon. Kt cu cc di ging ngang thng t
nh hoc cc tng k thut.

2.9.10 Thi cng nh cao tng

Thi cng nh cao tng c nhng vn sau y cn gii quyt :
(i) Vn vn chuyn ln cao : thng dng cn trc thp , cn trc leo
nu kh nng cao ln hn chiu cao phc v ca cc cn trc thp .

(ii) Vn chuyn b tng ln cao : thng dng bm b tng nhng bm
thng thng ch bm ti chiu cao 40 mt. Khi cn chuyn b tng bm
ln cao qu 40 mt th dng mt trm trung chuyn chiu cao thch hp
v ti cng t my bm chuyn tip.

(iii) Vn gio ngoi v an ton lao ng : gio ngoi cng nh cc
phng tin vn chuyn cn gn cht ch vi cng trnh , mi tng c mt
t lin kt.

(iv) Vn cp pha v gio v nu tc xy dng 7 ~ 8 ngy mt tng
cho phn th th phi gio v cp pha , khng c r n 3 tng ri
mi an ton r gio.

Nh cao tng ang c pht trin trong xy dng nc ta v thc
t hnh thi kin trc ny ci thin b mt th nc ta cng nh hiu
qu s dng t ca n .
Ngy nay , kin trc s v k s xy dng nc ta c th t thit
k v xy dng nh cao tng . Pht trin th , gii php nng cao s tng
nh l ht sc bc thit . B Xy dng v Nh nc ang khuyn khch xy
dng nh cao tng trn nhng khu th c quy hoch c ch nh.

2.10 Cng ngh thi cng nh thp tin ch :

Khi cn khi ng u , trong xy dng nh bng thp , nh khung
Tip khc c s dng kh rng ri nc ta . Khung chu lc ca nh l
thp hnh , v ko thp , lp tn . Do kt cu chu lc bng thp hnh nn loi
nh khung Tip kh kho . Nh khung Tip s dng cho cc phn xng sn
xut trong cc x nghip cng nghip , cho cc nh kho cha hng ho ca
cc doanh nghip thng mi , cc x nghip cng nghip .
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Sau khi ng u thay i ch kinh t , vic nhp khu khung Tip
tr nn him th hai Hng thp ln vo th trng nc ta l DHP ca
Australia v Hng Zamil Steel ca rp ang cung cp chnh loi nh tin
ch bng thp ny .
Nh ca Hng Zamil Steel kh mng manh , nhng Hng m bo
mi s an ton trong s dng nn bn c hng vi trm cng trnh vi
din tch xy dng n vi vn mt vung ring th trng pha Bc nc ta
m phn ln l nh sn xut .

Loi nh tin ch rt hu hiu , to cc xng sn xut nhanh chng
v ni chung sut thu hi vn kh cao nn c khuyn khch s dng cho
cc khu sn xu cng nghip .

2.11 Nh nhp ln b tng ct thp v mng :

V b tng ct thp chia ra v c cc hnh dng cong hoc thoi mt
hay nhiu chiu l loi c xy dng nc ta v loi v hnh cu chng ta
cha c . Ph bin vi loi v cong l v thoi hai chiu cong dng, v gm
cc tm cong hnh tr, v cong on lp xe, v cong hai chiu dng, v cu
l loi c s dng kh ph bin ti Hoa k.

Nh c mi nhp ln kiu kt cu dy v nh nhp ln thp thanh c
nt cu to nn dng mi nhp ln tinh th cng s dng nhiu cc nh
cng cng v cng nghip nhng nc ta cha s dng.

B mt ca v b tng ct thp c phn bit bng cong ( mt hay hai
cong), du ca cong ( dng , m , khng ) v phng php to thnh (
mt dch chuyn, mt xoay ...)

Mi c kt cu chu lc c bn vt ht nhp, s dng dy cp l mi dy. C
cc loi sau: kt cu dy, mi v treo, h thng t hp, mi c dy treo
ngoi...

Theo ngh ca V.Z. Vlasov , mt v c c trng bng cong
Gauss l ng cong tch ca ng cong chnh.
Mt v c cong Gauss dng khi tm ng cong ca cc mt ct
qua php tuyn i qua im ang xt mt v nm trn php tuyn v mt
pha ca mt v.
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Mt v c cong Gauss m khi tm ng cong ca cc mt ct qua
php tuyn i qua im ang xt mt v nm trn php tuyn v cc pha
ca mt v.
i vi v c ng cong Gauss dng, theo phn loi th P.L.
Pastenak gi l v liptic.
c trng quan trng ca mt v l ln ca on nng ca v f.
Tu thuc vo t l gi on nng vi kch thc mt bng ca v m ta gi
l v cao hay v thoi.
V thoi l v c nng khng qu 1/5 ca nhp trn mt bng ca
v. Nu mt bng trn th f D/5 trong D l ng knh ca mt bng
v.V thoi hay c s dng lm cc cng trnh kt cu khng gian.

Ti nh my xi mng Hi phng , c mt s mi lm theo v tr
mng b tng ct thp c dy cng chn mi nhp 24 mt. Loi v ny do
cc k s Rumanie thit k v cng ty Xy dng Hi phng thi cng
khong nm 1960 - 1961 . Ti trng i hc Bch khoa H ni c hai nh
n lm mi v tr 15 mt. Ti ng Anh c mt nh mi v thoi nhng
nhp 15 mt l nhng nh xy dng c tnh cht th im loi kt cu ny.
Loi nh ny kh thch hp cho nhng ni cn nhp nh ln nh nh
ga , nh thi u , garage v kho cha . Tuy th , loi nh ny mi c th
im chng minh rng lc lng xy dng c th lm c loi nh ny
ch cha nhn rng ri . iu kin xy dng rng ri khi c nhu cu nh
lm cc khu thi u ln hay cc khu cn c nh nhp ln l iu m thi
gian gn sp ti chng ta s c nhu cu.

3. Mt s cng ngh nc ngoi s dng nhng him s dng
nc ta :

3.1 Cng ngh xy dng nh nhp ln kt cu dy.

Kt cu dy hay chnh xc hn l nh nhp ln c mi l kt cu dy l
loi mi c kt cu chu lc mi l dy cp . Hai u dy neo vo khung
b tng ct thp hoc neo xung t. Kt cu dy c th vt qua nhp n
vi trm mt v thanh mnh . Kt cu nh , to khng gian ln , rt thun li
cho nhng nh thi u trong nh , nh kho cha , nh sn xut ln , nh trin
lm v cc dng nh cng cng khc .
Chng ta hy vng thi gian ti , im xuyt cho cc cng trnh
th , cn c mt s nh loi ny tng tnh mun mu mun v ca kin
trc hin i trn t nc ta .

3.2 Cng ngh xy dng nh vm cu bng b tng ct thp.
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Ti nhng vng xa thnh ph , vng i thoi , t rng ngi tha ,
ti Hoa k xy dng nhiu nh vm cu b tng ct thp cho cc trang
tri va v nh s dng. Loi nh ny c dng nhiu lm nh ngh cui
tun ca cc gia nh trong th .
Cng trnh c chun b sn trt bng tm b tng ct thp dy t
100 ~ 120 mm. Lm mt khuyn mng mng cho chn vm c chiu dy
khong 300 mm nh mt vnh ging .
t vo gia nh mt ti bng vi nilng cao su kh dy nu bm
cng c hnh bn cu chn bn cu ph ln ging mng lm cp pha . Buc
thp nh c tnh cht cu to thng ch dng thp si ng knh 3 mm ln
bn ngoi v na cu cao su sau dng sng phun b tng lm kt cu bao
che . V na cu b tng ct thp ny va l mi , va l tng .
Phn trang tr bn trong tu theo vn u t v mc tiu s dng cng
trnh . Loi nh ny c lm nhiu min Trung v min Ty Hoa k.
i vi nc ta , vic s dng loi nh ny thch hp cho cc trang tri
min trung du , va lm nh , va lm ni ct cha cho trang tri .

3.3. Cng ngh nh nhp ln khung khng gian bng thp mng tinh th

Thc cht loi kt cu ny l kt cu chu lc mi cho mt loi nh
nhp ln trn th gii hin nay ang s dng nh mt mt thi thng. Mi
c cu to thnh vm thoi na cu do nhng thanh ni vi nhau ti nt
hnh cu to thnh hnh dng ging nh mng tinh th kim loi. Nhng thanh
c bn c hai u tin rng ren vn vo cc nt cu lin kt mt. Cc nt
cu khot cc l c tnh chnh xc hng tm lm lin kt ni cc thanh
thnh mng. Tm lp thng bng tm b tng ct thp c sn lp ghp.
Mi loi ny c th c nhp vi trm mt v rt tit kim vt liu lm kt cu.
Loi mi ny rt thch dng cho cc nh cn khng gian ln nh nh
thi u , nh cng cng , kho cha ln , nh trin lm .
H ni ang thit k v th nghim xy dng th im mt vi cng
trnh . B Xy dng ng cho mt s c s sn xut xy dng v c kh
xy dng nghin cu lm th im loi mi nh ny . Nhiu nh thi u
phc v SeaGames 2003 lm loi mi ny.

4. Mt s cng ngh khng chn :

4.1. Khi nim:

ng t , hin tng rung ng t ngt mnh ca v tri t do s
dch chuyn cc mng thch quyn hoc cc t gy trong v tri t v
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c truyn qua nhng khong cch ln di cc dng dao ng n hi.
ng t ch yu lin quan vi ni lc kin to. i a s ng t xy ra
i ht chm cc mng thch quyn hoc dc cc t gy su. Nhng cng
c loi ng t do ngoi lc nh s trt l t vi khi lng ln hoc
s mt cn bng trng lc nhng ni c h cha nc ln v su nhn to .
Ni pht sinh dch chuyn ca ng t c gi l chn tiu hoc l ng
t. Ni tm tri t vi chn tiu qua ln mt t, ng ny gp mt t ti
ni c gi l chn tm. Khong cch t chn tm n chn tiu c gi l
su chn tiu, k hiu l H. Khong cch t chn tiu n trm quan st (
trm t my hay chn cng trnh ) c gi l tiu c , khong cch t
chn tm n trm quan st gi l tm c D. Cng ng t mt t
xc nh theo thang ng t hoc bng i lng manhitut ( magnitude ).

ng t trn th gii thng tp trung hai i: i vng quanh Thi
Bnh Dng v i a Trung Hi qua Himalaya vng xung Malaixia. Hai
i ny cng l ni tp trung nhiu ni la tt v ang hot ng. ng
t Chil 1960 l ng t mnh nht ( 8,9 Richter) c nng lng ln
gp trm ln nng lng qu bom nguyn t n Hirosima. Ti Vit nam,
ng t ch yu tp trung pha trng H ni, dc theo sng Hng, sng
Chy, sng , sng C, ven bin Nam Trung b. ng t in Bin Ph
(1-11-1935) t ti 6,75 Richter, cp 8-9 thang ng t, su chn tiu
l 25 km. ng t Tun gio ( Lai Chu) , xy ra ngy 24-6-1989 t 6,7
Richter, cp 8-9 , su chn tiu l 23 Km.
Nhiu nguyn nhn ca s pht sinh ra khi nng lng gy ra ng
t nh hang ng b xp, cc mnh thin thch va vo tri t, cc v th
bom ht nhn ngm di t, nhng nguyn nhn c bn l s chuyn ng
tng h khng ngng ca cc khi vt cht nm su trong lng t thit
lp mt th cn bng mi , thng c gi l vn ng kin to. ng t
xy ra do hu qu ca vn ng kin to c gi l ng t kin to. Theo
thng k, 95% cc trn ng t trn th gii c lin quan trc tip n vn
ng kin to.
Theo thuyt kin to v tri t, thch quyn l lp cng c to ch
yu l cc qun th giu nguyn t Si v Mg nn gi tt l Sima cn bn
trn n c gn cc lc a ri rc do cc qun th giu cht Si v Al nn
gi tt l Sial to nn. B dy thch quyn khong 70 km bin v 140 km
di cc lc a. Tuy bao trm ton b v tri t nhng thch quyn khng
phi l lp c b dy ng u m c dng kin trc phn mng bi cc vt
t su xuyn thng. Di thch quyn l lp dung nham lng, do nhit
cao. Thc t ny lm cho cc mng c s chuyn dch tng i vi nhau
v d nhin nhng lc a bm trn mnh n cng dch chuyn theo ( thuyt
lc a tri ni). Ngy nay tn ti 11 v mng mang tn : u , n c, Thi
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bnh dng, Bc M, Nam M, Phi, Nam Cc, Philippin, Cocos, Carib, v
Nazca. Cc mng ln li c phn chia thnh cc mng nh qua cc vt t
gy nng hn.
C nm dng chuyn ng tng i gia cc mng khi ng t l :
cc mng tch xa nhau ra, cc mng di ngm xung su , cc mng trn
ln nhau, cc mng va vo nhau, cc mng rc ng qui vo nhau. Trong 5
loi ny, cc chuyn ng di v trn to ng t mnh hn c.

Th d trn ng t Kob, Nht bn , thng Ging nm 1995 c
m t chuyn ng ca cc mng theo hnh km y.



Khi xy ra ng t, qu trnh chuyn ng trt tng i gia cc
khi vt cht khng ch vn ng c hc n gin m cn c c s tch lu
th nng bin dng hoc km chuyn ho nng lng, nng lng t trng
thi ny sang trng thi khc dn n s tch t nng lng nhng vng
xung yu nht nh trong lng t. Khi nng lng tch t n gii hn no
, khng cn th cn bng vi mi trng chung quanh nn thot ra di
dng th nng chuyn sang ng nng v gy ra ng t.
Cc im tch t nng lng , im chn tiu, nm su trong lng t
t 5 km n 70km. Trn ng t Tun gio ( 1983) c su H = 32 km.
Mt s trn ng t khc H = 70 km ~ 300 km. Cc trn ng t mnh
thng su 30 km ~ 100 km.
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4.2. nh gi cng ng t :
C th da vo hoc hu qu ca n, hoc nng lng gy ra trn ng
t y. Trong vng 200 nm qua trn th gii ngh khong 50 loi
thang phn cp o cng ng t. Cc thang sau y c nhiu nc s
dng :

Thang Mercalli ci tin:
Nm 1902 G. Mercalli ( Giuseppe Mercalli , ngi , 1850-1914 )
ra thang o cng ng t 12 cp. Nm 1931 Wood v Newmann b
sung nhiu in cho thang 12 cp ny v thang ny c mang tn MM.
Thang MM nh gi mnh ca ng t da vo hu qu ca n tc ng
ln con ngi, vt v cc cng trnh xy dng. Thang chia thnh 12 cp,
t cp I n IV l ng t yu, t cp V n VI tc ng n gic quan
con ngi, nh thc ngi ng, n treo trn trn nh lay ng, nh ca
rung nh v c cht t thit hi. ng t cp VII lm cho ngi phi b
chy khi nh, h hng t nh n va vi nh bnh thng v lm hng
nng nh m khu thit k v thi cng km. Mt s ng khi b . Cp VIII
lm h hng hng lot cng trnh, ngay nhng nh c thit k v thi cng
tt.Panen sn ri khi dm . Gi l ng t cp IX v cp X l ng t
lm hu ht cc nh. ng t cp XI gy thit hi trn phm vi ln. Cp
XII mang tnh hu dit km theo s thay i a hnh ni c ng t.

Thang MKS-64 :
Thang MSK-64 nm 1964 c Medvedev v Sponheuer v Karnic
xut nh gi ng t nh hng n cng trnh xy dng. Cng
ng t c nh gi qua hm s chuyn di cc i ca con lc tiu
chun c chu k dao ng ring T = 0,25 s. Thang KSK-64 cng c 12 cp
v quan h gia cp MSK-64 vi ph bin ca con lc tiu chun nh
bng sau:







MSK-64


Ph bin
(mm)

5

0,5~1,0
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6
7
8
9
10

1,1~2,0
2,1~4,0
4,1~8,0
8,1~16,0
16,1~32,0


Thang Richter:
Thay cho vic nh gi cng ng t thng qua hu qu ca n,
nm 1935 , Richter, k s a chn ngi Hoa k( Charle Francis Richter ,
1900-1985 ) a ra thang o cng ng t bng cch nh gi gn
ng nng lng c gii phng chn tiu. ng a ra nh ngha , ln
M ( Magnitude ) ca mt trn ng t bng logarit thp phn ca bin
cc i A ( m ) ghi c ti mt im cch chn tm D = 100 km trn my
o a chn c chu k dao ng ring T = 0,8 sec.
M = log A
Quan h gia nng lng E ( ergi) c gii phng chn tiu vi
magnitude c xc nh theo cng thc:

Log E = 9,9 + 1,9 M - 0,024 M
2


Tnh ton theo cng thc ny, thu c :

M 5 6 6,5 7 7,5 8 8,6
E 0,08x10
20
2,5x10
20
14,1x10
20
80x10
20
46x10
20
2000x10
20
20000x10
2

V mt l thuyt , thang M bt u t 0 v khng c gii hn trn, nhng
thc t cha bao gi o c trn ng t no c M t n 9. Trn ng
t mnh ti Columbia ( 30-11-1906 ) v ti Sanricum, Nht bn ( 2-3-1933)
cng ch t ti 8,9.

su ca chn tiu nh hng rt ln trong tng quan gia thang M
v thang MM. Trn ng t c thang M=8 nhng su H>100 km th nh
hng ca n kh rng nhng hu qu li khng ng k. C trn ng t
ti Maroc M = 5,75 nhng H = 3 km gy ra cng ng t ti cp XI
vng chn tm.

Thang nng lng Richter c 7 bc nh s t 2 n 8 Richter.
Gia thang Mercalli ci tin v thang Richter c quan h nh sau:


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Thang Richter M Thang Mercalli ci tin MM

2
3
4
5
6
7
8


I~II
III
IV~V
VI~VII
VII~VIII
IX~X
XI


Nm 1981, Vin Kin trc Nht bn thit lp mi quan h gia
thang MM , MSK-64 v t ra thang o ng t JMA ca Nht bn m
thang ny gm 8 cp vi gia tc cc i ca nn t W, cm/s
2
nh bng sau:

MM 0 I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII
MSK
64
I II III IV V VI
VII
VIII IX X XI XII
JMA 0 I II III IV V VI VII
Wcm/s
2
0,5 1 2 5 10 20 50 100 200
500 1000

Cc nc thng dng song song hai thang l thang Mercalli ci tin
v thang nng lng Richter nn chng ta hay thy ni trn ng t mnh
cp my v c my Richter. Mnh cp my , hay c hiu theo cp ca
thang Mercalli ci tin v Richter l theo thang Richter.

3.Nhng trn ng t t u nm 2001 cp nht n ngy 9-03-2001:

Theo thng k ca Trung tm thng tin quc gia v ng t ca Hoa
k, nhng trn ng t xy ra c th gy tc hi cho cng trnh t u nm
2001 ghi c nh di y:


Ngy Gi V Kinh
su

mnh
a im
2001/01/01

2001/01/09
06:57:04

16:49:28
6,907 Bc

14,898
126,613
ng
167,154
33
km

7,4

7,0
Mindanao
Philippines
o
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2001/01/10

2001/01/13

2001/01/26

2001/02/13

2001/02/19

2001/02/24


16:02:43

17:33:30

03:16:40

19:28:31

22:52:30

07:23:48
Nam
57,019
Bc
13,063
Bc
23,326
Bc
4,618
Nam
21,4 Bc

1,46
Bc
ng
153,398
Ty
88,787
Ty
70,317
ng
102,937
ng
120,8
ng
126,3
ng
111
km

33
km

39
km

22
km

36
km

12
km

33
km

6,8

7,6

6,9

7,3

5,3

7,0
Vanuatu
Alaska

TrungM

n

Indonexia

Vietnam

Bc
BinMoluca
2001/03/07

2001/03/07
2001/03/07
2001/03/07

2001/03/07
2001/03/07
2001/03/07
2001/03/07
2001/03/07
2001/03/08
2001/03/08
2001/03/08
2001/03/08
2001/03/08
2001/03/08
2001/03/08
2001/03/08
2001/03/09
2001/03/09
08:29:19

08:47:28
11:19:10
11:34:06

11:51:28
17:12:24
18:10:57
18:22:55
23:46:04
01:38:15
06:06:42
07:19:55
11:37:24
14:53:18
15:28:44
20:50:34
21:11:25
01:07:09
02:52:05
0,30Bc

62:74 Bc
23,18Nam
20,01 Bc

27,91 Bc
35,05 Bc
7,26Nam
20,02Nam
24,15Nam
8,70Nam
53,39Nam
6,37Nam
29,87Nam
35,29Bc
30,26Nam
36,55Bc
5,24Nam
32,51Bc
14,04Bc
97,57ng

148,35Ty
66,75 Ty
143,81

102,73
84,81Ty
12,97Ty
178,35Ty
179,72Ty
123,87
160,09
130,71
178,13Ty
99,49ng
178,32Ty
70,97ng
102,28
69,48ng
144,90
33
km

33,0
km
33,0
km
33,0
km

33,0
km
6,7
km
10,0
km
560,9
km
400,0
km
118,3
5,1

3,0
4,4
4,3

4,4
3,2
5,6
4,5
4,3
5,1
4,4
5,1
5,2
4,3
4,7
5,1
5,9
5,4
4,6
Sumatra
Indonxia
Alaska
Achentina
o
Mariana
Trungquc
Hoa k
o atxg
o Fiji
o Fiji N
Indonexia
Kamchatka
o Banda
NiuZiln
TQuc
NiuZiln
Apganistan
Indonexia
Pakistng
Mariana
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2001/03/09
2001/03/09
02:56:59
07:10:22
6,31Nam
64,48Bc

130,15
130,94Ty
km
84,8
km
114,5
km
33,0
km
33,0
km
300,0
km
148,6
km
33,0
km
33,0
km
122,1
km
200,0
km
10,0
km
5,2
4,9
o Banda
Canada

Ch thch cho bng: Gi GMT. To theo Greenwich.

Vo hi 22h52 ngy 19-02-2001 trn a bn tnh Lai Chu xy ra trn
ng t gy nn nhiu t chn ng ngn ko di n 6 gi sng ngy 20-
02-2001. Theo bo co ca Trung tm a chn, trn ng t lc 22h52
mnh 5,3 Richter, sau lc 1h24 ngy 20-02-2001 chn ng mnh 3,8
Richter, lc 2h04 ngy 20-02-2001 chn ng mnh 4,3 Richter sau
cn mt s t chn ng khc vi cng nh. Tm ng t cch th
x in Bin Ph 20 km v pha Ty to 21,4 v Bc; 120,8 kinh
ng, su 12 km.

Do chn tm cch th x in Bin khong 20 km nn tc ng khng
mnh. Nh ca h hng cht t v khng c nh xp. V thit k kt cu ngi
nh lm ti in Bin cn phi rt kinh nghim v hu nh khng c nh
lm kiu khung b tng ct thp. Ch c mt vi ngi nh lm kiu khung
khng hon chnh v phn ln l nh tng gch chu lc c xy vi mc
va rt thp.
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Nc ta hu ht cc trn ng t ghi li c th chn tm u nm
tp trung pha Bc, dc theo cc vt t gy a cht vng sng Chy, sng
Hng, sng Hng , sng , sng M , sng C... Theo s liu m tp Quy
chun Xy dng Vit nam ( tp III ) cung cp th vng d bo chn ng cc
i l 8 MSK-64, ngha l tng ng 5~6 Richter. Nhng nm qua
mi ghi c ti nc ta cc i l 6,75 Richter nhng phn ln vo thi
im ng t, nhng vng c nh hng ca ng t mt nh tha tht
nn thit hi khng ng k.
Ti n va qua, trn ng t thng 22 thng Ging nm 2001ch
c 6,8 Richter m hng trm ngn ngi nh v lm cht khong 20.000
ngi , lm b thng nng n 20.000 ngi na.
Nu vi su chn tiu chng 30 km, v th cch chn tm trn
20 km c th tham kho mt s kinh nghim tng kt ca kinh nghim trong
cu to cc chi tit nh sau khi s kt nhng trn ng t ln nh ti Osaka
( 17 thng Ging nm 1995; 7,2 Richter ):

(i) Nh khung b tng ct thp chu lc khng chn tt hn nh tng gch
chu lc.
(ii) Nh khung b tng ct thp, ti nt khung nn b tr thp ai trong nt
khung , ai phn b theo chiu ct khung, vic trnh c nt nt khung
tt. Khong cch ai 50 mm , ai 8.


(iii) Gia tng chn v khung cn b tr nhng thanh thp ru cm t trong
ct khung cu vi tng m khong cch gia cc ru khng ln qu 5
hng gch. Ni gia hai ct ru hai u tng l thanh thp chy theo
chiu di tng. ng knh thp ru 8 . Mch cha ru thp phi xy
bng va xi mng khng c vi v #100. Nn t ru thp ny khi t ct
thp ct, p vo mt cp-pha, sau khi r cp-pha s cy cho thp ny
bung ra cm vo cc lp tng xy chn.. Nu qun c th khoan l su
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100 mm vo ct khung ri nht thp vo sau nhng nh lp l chn bng va
c xi mng trng n ( sikagrout ).
(iv) Vi nhng nh tng gch chu lc phi xy bng va c xi mng v
cht lng va khng nh hn #25. Cn m bo cu gia nhng hng
gch. Khng xy qu ba hng dc mi n mt hng ngang v nn xy theo
kiu ch cng.
(v) Trong mt bc tng nn c t nht hai hng ging ti cao trnh bu ca
s, cao trnh lanh t ca. Ging bng b tng ct thp #200 c 2 ct dc 8
v ai ni 2 thanh ct dc ny. Ct thp t gia ging.
Nhiu cng trnh h hng do xut hin lc ct ln trong dm v ct
khung. Nhng ph hoi loi ny thng xy ra ti phn ct st ngay mc trn
sn. L do l cc chi tit quanh nt khung cha cng. Vi ct , ta
thy cha c cu to chng vi lc ct vng gn chn ct. Cn thit k li
p quanh chn ct. Nhng thanh thp dc m qua gi ct ca dm , nn un
mc 135
o
.
Nh nhiu tng b ng t hay dp nt ct tng trt v tng trn st
tng trt v c khi nh b xon. M do l tng trt thng phi lm thong
cho phng n tip, garage nn khng b tr sn gia cng ct. Cng hay
thy ct b dp st chn nhng tng gim cng theo chiu cao nh.
Nhng v tr va nu , chn ct cn gia cng chng xon.
khng chn tt, nn dng ct thp vn ( thp gai, thp g) v
Kob cho thy nhiu nh m kt cu dng thp trn thng b ph hng. H



hng thng do xut hin lc ct ln trong dm v ct khung. V tr ni ph
hoi thng xy ra ti phn ct st ngay mc trn sn. Nn lm li thp nh
p quanh chn ct , ct s tng cng nhiu. Thp dc chu mmen m d
l ct vn cng nn un mc 135
o
, m nhiu tiu chun cho rng vi thp
vn khng cn un mc.
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Trong khi ch i qui nh tm thi ca B Xy dng sp ban hnh,
chng ti c mt s khuyn ngh nh trn khng lm tng chi ph xy dng
l bao nh trn nhng m bo khng chn n 6 Richter.


5. Kt lun :

Phn trn trnh by nhng cng ngh xy dng nc ta . Nhng
cng ngh no mi vo nc ta nhng nm gn y c chng ti trnh by
chi tit hn nhng cng ngh khc .
Cng ngh sn xut bao gm : b quyt sn xut ( know-hown ) , cng
c sn xut , nguyn vt liu , nhn cng thc hin . Phn trnh by ni
ln cc phn ni dung cng ngh l g , phng tin s dng chnh v nguyn
vt liu c bn.
Do ng li i mi ca ng ta rt r rng trong quan h quc t l
giao lu vi tt c cc nc v nht l sau nm 1992 , nhiu doanh nghip
nc ngoi tham gia trong th trng nc ta nn cng ngh xy dng
nc ta c nhng thay i vt bc. My xy dng cng nh nguyn liu
c th c nhp vo nc ta kh mau l nn ni chung trnh cng ngh
xy dng nc ta khng thua km trnh khu vc l bao nhiu nu khng
ni rng ngang bng vi trnh khu vc.
Tuy th , vi yu cu hi nhp khu vc trong thi gian rt gp na ,
chng ta cn tm hiu tip cn nhanh chng vi cng ngh tin tin , thit
b hin i tn ti v pht trin trong thi k mi , thi k ca kinh t tr
thc , ca cng nghip ho , hin i ho t nc ./.
L.K















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cng tc gi :
( Ch nhng sch vit trong 2 nm 2001 -2002 ):

1. Gim st thi cng v nghim thu cc cng tc b tng ct thp
( 64 trang A4)
H ni 10-2001

2. Gim st thi cng v nghim thu cng tc lp t trang thit b trong nh
dn dng
( 75 trang A4)
H ni 12-2001

3. Gim st thi cng v nghim thu cng tc lp t ng dy v trm
(145 trang A4)
H ni 6- 2002

4. Gio trnh thi cng nh cao tng
( 143 trang A4)
H ni 8 - 2002

5. Ch dn thi cng cho vng c ng t nc ta
(45 trang A4)
H ni 4 - 2001

6. Gio trnh php lut trong xy dng
( 180 trang A4)
NXB XD - H ni 2001

7. T in Gii thch v Xy dng v Kin trc
( 780 trang A4 , chung vi on nh Kin, Trn Hng v on Nh Kim )

NXBXD - H ni 2002

Cc bn c nhu cu v ti liu lin h vi tc gi:

L Kiu
S 63/61 Thi Thnh H ni.
Tel: 84.4. 8532725 Fax: 84.4. 5620187
Mob: 0913231614 E-mail : lekieu@fpt.vn
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