Christian Leborg

II, A DESIGN PRIMER
~-'~-'-~-,!--"'_k..~~~~~ ~,_~ _

-

;;;I ~

i. .... -!! ::..
~i ~ ~
I

~~
,;,

:': !!:!, ~ :; tt ;'~if =,,",,'.ij~
• J

~II, " !! ~\'
.... ; ~

J

,01; : ~

i'

==

3

4

5

r LJ
6
~~:;:;..~:: x-r-r.:

":.::-}:~::~ .-

p-15 16

I~

17

16

~,,;,~,,[[i[:: I
19 20 21 33 34 35

••• ••• •••

--

____,I __

:~.--:: :.....:...

31

32

---_
45 46

:.:_

r--=-~. "".,...=
'

nr ••. ••••• .~: ill~ V ... •• •• •• •••
59 60 61 62

..._-

I

~,,~-rll
~

...

~s

-...

..~, ... ~.:.,.

I

83

"_'~i).f .

71

12

73

74

15

'lEI

-

,...-----d.~

r

L__

-----,

67

98

89

SO

• •• ••• •••
~2 23
~L

::'f.':+';;"'''"2:i: ~
~ '~ ,", ,cC

II

~
9)

~
!&

,~, 'ii
':

a ~ _...-

>:

I /,; .....""".. I *' .r
·,It f:t 37

I

iii: ill: 1m • ,,1; 'i"): <I!I • ,II. Iii.' 'ill •

f:.""'J''f=;:.''"'::~'~:'

I

I

ActiVit. i.es l~.~.~.;~"

...~ ! ~--"-',> ,~
I

~".
-

;:·'1' ',' 1] • •• -;-'" .~

38
Retalions

')\ -t;: ~~ I ~l,,'~"'.~-:;~ \

,, .
.!!'

....... ...
._

:-..!:::;:,.r.___';'

--

I • .~-l!;
51 52

,'* _=-

-t,.

!,.

I.
~
G~ 66

.. •• •
, _,

55

56

'j

\

I ~.:.~~'~"=Ii' 68 69 10

87

79

SO

81

82

I
I

..

... ...
,-

83

..:.-

... r •

.' ,-' - 1

I

II
95

.

1

-.:,

I

... .. "D.O •
,

I

ge

ISBN-IS: 978+56898-581·7 (alk. Nancy Eklund Later. paper) 1.722.L39132006 701'. publisher Library ·of Congress Cataloging·in·PublicalionData Leborg.Tille.8-dc22 I. EngJishJ Visual grammar I Christian Leborg.800.Becca Casbon. Scott Tennent. First published in Norway by Abstrakt Forlag in 2004 CopYlightEnglish edition It:' 2006 Princeton Architectural Press 10 09 OB 07 06 5 4 3 2 1 First edition NO pari of this book may be used or reproduced in any manner without written permission from the publisher. Joseph Weston.Every reasonable attempt has been made 10 identify owners of copyr. Penny (Yuen 'Pik) Chu. call 1.com .inceton Architectural Press 37 East Seventh Street New York. For Princeton Architectural Press: Projeclediting: Nicola Bednarek Design: Christian Leborg Teanstation: Diane Oaltey Special thanks 10: Nellie Atjian. paper) ISBN·W:I·56898·581·9 (alk. Janel Behning. Clare Jacobson. Katharine Myers. New York 10003 For a free catalog 01 books. Russell Fernandez. Christian. Jan Haux. Lauren Nelson. em. Paul Wa. 2005034807 .5.ural Press -Kevin C. references.ight. and Deb Wood of Princeton Archilect. Jennifer Thompson. Dorothy Ball. Visual perception.Pr.gner. {Visuall grammatikk. 2. p.. except in the context of reviews. Errors or omissions will be corrected in subsequent editions.papress. Uppert.. Visit our Web site at www. Includes bibliographical. Unda Lee. Visual communication in art N7430. John King. Mark Lamster.6657.

Christian Leborq Visual Grammar Activit es Rela\ ons Princeton Architectural New York Press .

To Marianne .

They are listed in the selected bibliography at the back of the book.he same as for any language: to define i-s basic elements.ations between the individual elements i the system. friends and family. and volume. 1received valuable feedback from professionals and laymen. however. It intends to be both a primer on visual language and a visual dictionary of 1he fundamental aspects of visual communication. The irst chapter deals 'NI. Wrlll 9 this book I have stood 01 the shoulders of a number of the greats \'. This book is a ccntribution towards establishing such a language. who gave me resistance when I needed it and my Norwegian publisher Einar Plyhn. Visual language 'las no 'orrnal syntax or semantics. but without 8. Knowledge of visual concepts is often acquired through physical experience and applied wltl out tile use of written or spoken language: there are. In addition. Reflection about what one is going to create or what one has created alters the creative process: we think diiferently when we have a language to describe something. November 2005 Christian Leborg . I would also like to thank Anette Wang.11 abstractions such as dimension.enlial and enable you to better understand II-e graphics thai you encounter every day. Yngve lien and Bjarn Kruse contributed co structtve criticism. concrete objects and structures. describe its patterns and processes. Accordingly. color. who gave me no resistance whatsoever. a number of underlying processes before and after the act of creation where verbal language has an important function. and textu rs: the til iI'd part des cri bes th e act iviti es that can take place ina co mpos iti on su en as repetition. basic understanding of visual language many of these messages remain incomprehensible to us.'10 have thought a d written about visual lanquaqe. mirroring. and the fourth chapter deals with the relations between several objects in a composition. I hope tha this book will nelp you soeak and write about visual objects and their creative pot. and movement. and to understand the re. the book is divided j to four parts: abstract objects and structures.VISUAL GRAMMARI PREFACE Preface Every day we are confronted with vast amounts of visual messages. the second concerns concrete objects and structures such as form. and a productive dialogue between producers and consumers of visual communication cannot take place. Oslo. but the visual objects themselves can be classified. format. size. activities. The eason tor writing a grammar of visual language is . a d relations.

GRAMMARI CONTENTS Abstract Abstract Objects 10 11 Point Line Surface Volume Dimensions FOrmat 28 30 32 Concrete Concrete Objects Form Size Color 12 13 14 Concrete Structures 35 35 36 Visible Structures Active Structures Texture 16 Abstract Structures 19 20 Formal Structures Gradation Radiation Informal Structures Visual Distribution lnvi si b lei I nactive Structu res Structural Skeleton 21 22 23 24 24 .VISUAL.

~MI'.VISUAL GR.I..~RI CONTENTS Activities 40 40 42 43 44 46 48 48 49 49 50 50 Repetition Freq ue ncy IRhythm Mirroring Mirroring against a Volume Rotation UpscalinglDownscaling Movement Path Direction Su pe rord inate! Su bord inate Movement Displacement Direction 01 Displacement Relations 55 55 56 57 58 Attraction Static Symmetry IAsymmetry Balance Groups Fine/Coarse Diffusion Direction Position Space Weight Am ountl Dom inance Neutral Backg round /Foreq rou nd Coordination Distance Parallel Angle Negative! Positive Transparent/Opaque Tangent Overlapping Compound Subtraction Coincidence Penetralion Extrusion Influence Mod iii catio n Variation 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 89 96 Glossary Bibliography .

. -- . _ ..... ... 8 .VISUAL GRAMMARI ABSTRACT 5 10 POint! 11 Lne 12 S rface 13 Voume 6J s '4 ~ .Str\..1 ~ ~1J ! I Corceolric Racial 011 @ 21 Cent-i'uqal Radiation ..i ~I...m!_~ .. ...~ . \ II I...~~~ ...~ .--. '.... : .... ----- 23~_l_! Dlstnbutro-i 2~ Invisible: ... . I ..& SlruclJres ...

Abstract objects are ideal shapes that cannot be physically created. (Cambridge: MIT P'8SS.al'y a do: ~1''''lth a "The abstract CO·-l'.·eys the essential meaning~ cutti ng tt~rcuqh the conscious tc the urcor. for example.1?t of -:'lat 0': the jI'LJstration below. of a point. When you try to draw a point. Its size is O. I . The above ulustra: JI1 may leck uke a point." DOI~is A.sclcus.ly the reoresentatro-i surface. It's acti. -1973). 8-1. DOldis~ A Primer o! Visual Literacy.VISUAL GRAMII1ARI ABSTRACT I OaJECTS Abstract Objects. but it is o:. you do not end up with a point but with a surface. trom experleice of the substance i 1 tile sensory 'field ojl redly 10 tll~ nervous systerr from the event to perception.

I

VISUAL

GRAMMARI

ABSTRACT

I OBJECTSI 'POINT

iPoint. -¥ett-s-a~

or feel a point; it is a place without area, :he point has a pOSttt~at can be defined by coordinates (numbers on one, f 0, or three axes),

<, <, <, <,

!
/"" /""

/'
/""

)'

<,
<, /""

/""

<,
/"" /"" /"" /"" /"" /'" /""

/"" <, <, <, <, <, <, ...........

___

I~
The cce 'dio1sles '~, this ~'<l;rl ''''a ~"Q,69f)~ehe~, uceer eic'nar:d cc nerol ilw oa;;e. A ~c1erica, O:::<lro'irlllh:;~,s;err s J'stle ..... hen,:) war.t~ ~C'indo .a;e. fe' olXillllO'S ·"'IIl,e01'\the e<;llt a ee ~I '5 ocalec. T'le ~Ja~r (lnd till) ~e.'o·dc9·l1e""e· ar re:;;';:$l:nl mol2clo ce nts at '"IOrl~/S¢ul~ ~rc cMt/weSI. ·e$po~li·"" .

10

VISUAL

GRAM MARl ASS TRACT

I OSJ rcrs

ILl N E

. endpoints. The shor e straight line.

ber of points that • ve understoo d a_ can. be 'Infinite or hav two I'rnes anum. , other, A points .' IS a are adjacent to one t st distance be teen . ana '.. w two

L

· ine. A me can

I

be

-::::J <___ _______________________________
1

_I

----------<_

----I

VISUAL

G~AMMARI

ABSfRACT

I 0 GJECTSI SURI'A,CE

Surface. A surface is defined by two lines that do not coincide
or by a minimum of three points that are not located on a line, If the

two lines have one coinciding pomt, the surface will be a plane.
Slacked in e-re o rec: on 10 101 m a I ne; a su rtace is crea led w'en a te« 01 ires is $iae~eo a~ a rig11 argle:o ·.1~tc'rect'or-, Tnese di'\1~lic1s call also ce sean as 1'.'(lSand oj me~s;~~5. Because IESu Iiace sa pCi<1tt j .s I>r~Tiie'ate d in rwo di -e cl iC"'S." 5 ~.' ace U·a
has Iwo cjmensier-s,

po r-ts, a su=acc

I, t~e s~"'e way tha; e ir ocan be dese, ieee as a rcw 01 ad'iacen:
car ~e oe' ned es a 'OW ci h1es, Poin:s are

'he o.rlslde of a volume is a svrtace.It ear J039. can: nJOUS sw'ace will' dil'ered ~vr'.<es,Of a e·~llectIQn or poi)'gono. or
muWangv ~rsu "ac,c such as th", fig u '0 on thelef1.

a

"Tho path 01 a Ii~e in ,~otion becomes a plans. A pla~o has length a'ld bread,", Qui 110thrckness. II hes pes lion and diecllon. II '5 ~OUI' C oy I ncs, It e'el' nes the cxterr a I im.ts o' a VOl u ~,e." ",ue us "'le'1g, Prillciplas of Form and Design (Ne'N Yor~: \f~, Ncslra,d Reinhold, '1993). <12.

4~.r+ace 5 a IOvJ €If I nes. . On -ne ns cc 0' the scrfacas slre. In \wo-dif"'"en~io·. a ~olume s mace up of e number (" surtacss. It h~. "The path of a plal1e ln l110tiQn(in a dirccfion ether j'anlt5i~tl'i"SiC direelon). '$co .eomet' c vc vmes cannot be reprod". to RAMMARI. .chi~g cetween t~ese vertices is e"'llp~yspace. vc UIM is il usery" Wong.al dc~ign.. Volume. A cube hA s eig h I v« rtices (the po. we U S·C :C 'ep. lines. ABSTRACT I:OBJECrsl.a..' Is where l~e Ii ~¢s r ~ 'sect). Principlos of Porm aMI Design. th e fig J 'e's three eli"le!"lsic ~s. a 'PoSilion ir space ~nd is bound b)' planes.c<:d e xac tty. .r a 1)' thi ~g but is de Ii n<:d cy its edg es.·e. cccornes a volume. c -'e· va. Thi$ spice does no: cor .. and points. A volume is an empty space defined by surfaces. VOLU M E I. abslracl mode s.s . o .·..·'(: tie~ res Are "IIal1cr ahcal.e d ece the m e ~h' do es 'cl~ I c ~nr·O! !\a"a such 3 pe-lee! cesig.VIS UAr.1 'Ilat.he SliMe way lhfll a s.evs ". '" . Here the polnts arc c '€I ifera~d in Ihree irec t or s.:y lise a~ se t1e 1" !lttm<!.

A so-face 'with iour e~·g. we can only imagine them. 'Ne 14 . width. cuee hasewefve eig~s.lwo· ··tei:li. and an infinite number of dimensions. but we cannot perceive these. liie cannot orly fool it can see t. and depth-or three dimensions. I~·r G D • • o 2. o.f cur lwo-eyed. cimer stons .."Jorld..ces.VISUA" I3I'l.x surfaces. five. 59~60'. six teen vertices. eignl vC"iices. Objects can have four..e.Me 'e@1 . have height.AMMARI ABSTRACT I OBJECTSIDI M ENSI ONS II line I' !IS one edg. s. and three di-nens ons. along with everything that surrounds us. out w tn l'S ald. Dimensions.. 'Dimc-islcnexrsts in . Or~dimMsiC!"l Tbree dlmensior-s We. a~d' one dime'1siM. and lou' c lmensior s. A P.wer o~..imer of visue! Literacy." Dondis.e" 11M tOJr vertices Mel t'Ne. A hypercube has thirijdwo edges. sur lace s. r. More or less than three dimensions are abstractions for us.. '. srereccpticcn s 9i't.

Fistiand (London.I-. Illustration based en Abbott's .vin Abbott Abbott.j ra'.------~~-.6[ with its farni Iy of geometric fig Uf8S..VISUAL GRAM MARl ABSTRACT I OBJ ECTS I DIM ENSIONS • o Four dimensions o The sphere with its section at lui! size The sphere rising The sphere on the point of vanishing ( /\ My eye .hen the square tells the elsrgy about meeti ng someone trom another dirner s 'on..::.. 15 . 0 ne day a three-dimensional sphere cernes to visit. Above 'i'e..:- -= . it IS imprisoned 'lor blasphemy. \t...bbott's book Flatland tells the story 0. ..884).ving Ed'. see the sphere's vistt as '. a square that Ii"es in a two-d rnensioual world 'cgetr.~ Edwil' Abbott . ~ ~ - I~ -~- 1----------'( :.~/----------. Seeley & Co."iewed oy the square..

.

". ~nper tOfftla\s.s eaper.ola expresses Ii'll r~' Q ee: .'&. mill'".. -e~$Jn~9 "c~rox'mi\~c.old and w.n:e.:'. WI) ..um~or 'r n'l: seuue rce 1$ 11'0 sum at the l .~. etc.. 3'chilecton c 'Mmals. <:«. 3.:'lelnaF:: fC~-l.s one squa-e "'~"~'. 6. "'Ie sec uence pro_gICS.IOI'1 appreachcs a .y 0.'. n II"S case !.'.:"~L'e' ~'cr..ew~· ' T'lc 1'I~ig": o· tlape' is CaICJI3!. Bfcll. 'orex.8. i'ney are caacratic )'ld JOOl· O.iement) s U~esmai'cs. r. h'm lem·als.'. Tn" go'den sec".ji.'0' sir. 1 ."'ple': <..0'48 w:tes.". or :n'~o-to-r-at.:d X . UI'i~ 04 "Iform(!:\o~ it.)"$ 100 ~. ?.lo".e:t''''eon '-Ie ~e.. ::I 1OG.ccr 1'.erc scales cf measu"ec:"'e. :. '3..ol>cl- . or :.l"'I".q.C'l39 ircreS \~ SI":.... c<.~"o.1ill"~ges.~~ca. one di"ides ~ 'ire seg .o::e pace. where cacr .)n .-s . 34. also a. is based 0<' Ihe fool :> and a-c ca'ied A.)'.00' adJ~cer: n.ars..(> S'lCS.S '\um~ers ~ '('l r I.e who'e se9":c~t_ S. T~e '11:.gllS 1(10 . 55.:.aer I~e clawing arc the j>hy> ~al S ze.' : ~o. ~""1' :'10 .{ +. or S4 Exampl(!s a-c :jc<Jg'"pbc mf.ow ar o lI'c C'ooc on \:.VISUAL GRAMMARI ABSTRACT I OBJECTSI FORMAT PIt' :e'r" format call be "sed -c rcrer tc dim(!~slo~s.o. b.1 .tval =" ans 2'0 excressed as tne 'a:. metric measu-eme-its ("..(e r-ater. r.. ceil! m. thi:. map '0. pester . D"'pcr '0Ima1$.er. prece ~ . book lormets.:.. ccporucr-s."sa~e . Scree") ~oN\o'l:. s .0000000.t.olm"I:>.'e'.-:.'1~ . if. ~1. Ire i(lrmJI'l be. w~ic<.JsuaU.I. 1.. Ao equa.tH.nches).:~ .rs .Of r: aps . It :1e pape' wIl. A~ 2{l? Y ..:aSJ~ec I~ c xe s: a pIxel (piC lure ".e contral~'" of "lcas~'eme~1 .0.e. a. Ar~IO'Ame'I' ca~ rllcastJremeelS ('ele: a.I 5~ch e ~'IH :~e ratio oi shorter 'inc 10 the 'ong!!' 1 ne is :'le sarr e as thll 'a~Q of !he lo"gcr line 10 :~.ts.dlh 01 a page.. maans th:. T~'pcsr"ph'C pO'~'5 (abbrevratec as et) a'" :'lC ~mallesllypogr!l:"IJC urns.. Most bcc« 'orlllal. T~e C. dig. OW lI'Ie 01' system. :~o :)"!X:graphc sc/sle. 1'.:'20 The tor-nats .s ac-ueved whc.·. ano C.<: mete' 0' Ih."..at~ '0.rmile. 2rar. twe: ve lypofJtaP~'<: 00 nts.. In =".:CfO 'S :. arc oasec Of' the gQIOC~ section c: golder .)..c so cu'led Fioor'JCC' seqaencc.c''!e~ lowals.. ''''eter"le..\r:.'I basco C1 OM ~ou"...618.tc::.t cr e Sq~1.

:AMMARI !\IBSTRACT I STRUCTURES Abstract Structures. Placing' objects in relation to one another will establish a structure. We can only describe a st.ructureif we are able to recognize its pattern. . A structure that does not have visible structure lines is called abstract.WSVAL CI'I'.

I Formal Structures..h lI"e objecls Il:C placec." :>b. $:'uCI~re 'res U~ pass tb'avgh th" C{)je. ---1.eels and oell~e leJ""" str~clurel elernems wi:~• "". ___ L .~ich ell sectlons c· objects are 31ke and equal)' dlslriouled is ::~lIed a basic sir . ---------i----- . uSLal'y horizortally and . •~n beet".1 '''pel. ney can elso.' OpilCB cenlel.c:f certer 0. This . GRAMMAR! A8STRACTI STRUCTUqeSI FORMAL When objects are evenly distributed in a composition the structure is formal.ernca ')'.Jlar 10 o~e ancthe-.. ve structure is based or slr~clu-e lI~es mat 8'e l)e'Condie.-. The axes according to which the objects are organized are called structure lines.ictore or a grid.VISUAl. '9 . L.(.I -- A !:'uclule I~ ".re 0.e"" .

ABSTRACT I STRUCl'U'RESI I"ORMALI GRADATION Gradation.es '~'~~'~9 :~e " sa-a d"eel. (expand ngr.:o").!a. I Rad atier I Srada" on can apply to ~iS:a"C"'.t(~c· :J"es a"e 5~e'-'"n' ~~. 20 .VISUAL GRAMMAR. Or th. I I . I ! I I I. d sc aco+ent.e') and f"ciatie. .1g0 in a1g e. A gradated structure works in the same way as a repetitive structure" but here the structure units change in size or form (or both) at an even rate.dt $o~e cf the -nos: C<.c1jli. I I l I. Ch1. -"'Of grad\ltec .om a ce. and CLive.m"el grso.

. Radiation.~e +om the same eel' ter. I I .r.1 becai.I .structu-e lines arc circles ·".e spe~~ of concent-ic -aciation v-her II"../1 ///i ! I \'. The spiral IS I~us a 1}'bri~ ~etwe..lal .*~~t~ re.. I \'" 'I I \. \. I~is also cerr-ri ~g.st".r a corcer toc ar c ce. I I I' . T~e spi-al is concentric ~ that ils sr-ucture ire. A radiation is a formal repetitive structure with structure units that are situated around a common center.-.lrilL '. 2· . Iicall ne emelles +om a center..VISUAL GRAMMAR ABSTRACl STRUCTUR ESt FORMALI RADIA110N l . \ ! / I .th an uneqca d. \ \. have a~ ~-ieqca dis tarce +om the ce '1.se the ~.

It is ikely '. 22 .:J. coree'" orly It:· i$I.ppcil io nave a 'olm. T .at pa'cs 0' the sl'uc:~'e aae-e arc lor mal ever l~oJa~ we =2rncl-ecog~ilc :1e palle'n. A structure is informal even if one recognizes a pattern as long as the objects do not follow straight structure lines.VISUAL GRAMMAR! ABSTRACT! STRUCTURES!INFORMAL When no regularities in the arrangement of objects in a composition can be discerned) the structure is informal..lly de rot &.' s:.~(.sva.t i"e1 rcp'<!l3 r.eo v. T~o'e are some matklcma: c equ8lioF\S 1~3.e.e ::ef" t'C1S ~e'e w Informal Structures.a aspects et Sl'uet~rcs.

iple.s 01 FOlm lind Design.. ---- -VI~J~1 cis{' butio' Should allow eachi.ing by the eye. If objects are positioned in a structure judg..RMALI VISU. -~ .nr. space as JVe:'gec Jy I~e eye: WO'9 P'ir>r. STlfUCTURES1INFQ. .111!"'-Rl A9·S1RACf. 42. k>Nn to :)~CJPl' a sr-uar aml)J~j 0. the structure is based on visual distribution.VISUAL GRA!.ALDISfRIBU1!ON Visual Distribution. It can also be called a similarity structure .

"So \l1e M\ur9 of t\ visva experierce call '0" be desc.) Invisible/Inactive Structures. our brain has a tendency to fill in what is missing.11d invisiqle. These axes.. (See aloe Active Slr~CI~res. -.'. GIl"fIIMAIlI ASSi"ACi I STRL.. ''-.1 the 0 percs stual terees.e and c s:ance. i1acl'-:e strvctcres car'! be 'J siblc . :. 15.e message senile the eye i by the ph/sical ·Norld.. Inactive structures indicate the position of the objects but do not affect their form. These static +easurernerts de" ne ollly u-e 's:.... p. j"'9'ccs of ansle.mulus: 1112:s. SU.But the life of a percect-us cxc-esslcn and mean 11g-derlves en: fely fro.. can be called the format's or object's structural skeleton.bed in ~llims 0' riches 0' si. 24 . 19(4)... 25). AN an(/ ViS\iai Perception (8er<sls)': Uri . ersi1y of Caliio-1ia Press..di. so we see where they are. 33..."L . or paths.CiUR ESI' NFQRVALI' NVISI BLE/ INACTIVE Although the structure lines in an abstract structure are invisible. These varying degrees of energy follow certain axes with regard to form and proportions.e ~ngths of I'ue.' i'(udoll Aml"eim._ __ In all compositions or objects there are forces that are bound by the limits of the surface.. or ·N~·. the ac!i·. (See figure on p. Structural Skeleton.

/ I / i -: -. 25 . ..

.I.-~I
3:< S0:u'a:;o~

133

CoI-.:rSp"c·e

~

V,ISUAI. GRAMMA'RI CONC~eTel

OBJECTS

Concrete Objects. Objects are perceived within defined limits. These limits

are called contour lines. The contour is what defines the shape, or form,
A sunace can hMomany iorms. Forms aro def,ned by lhei,conlour$. which ean be waight Orourved. 11 visual tho lrllMition is qradaied Or has small nuances in shade or hve. '1 is diffie"'llo define the form .

•Form ("om Lat. "~coma). ,1 cOlTmo" USO,the exterior ef a (n'19' s. concrete: a ro~~d. sGJare-sf ailed, etc. '.. I 3. ?Ias: c. ~a'., ns "'0 U~ e,~. Fii!uralwely st<:~kir:;l, of 111 O·":,,'.:)II<"s o-,e'al 2po-llMP'lce as a ,,! b e ol))ec, ..... :10~: cC1sideraiic1 '0' corterc, 5. Cas: ng -011 c." e"obt"Johar5c1, Kunslofdbog, 65.

Form
Geometric forms
Georrelric

su·'aces. a,d solids.

forms are easee en ma:1ellla:

cal iacts abc.it ~ol'ls, incs,

o
Organic forms

o
Random forms

o
RanC':)m fo'-s are c-eatee It\r:)ug" '1I:;'od~~tior\ act 0'. or "IC'oo tat ir' ~e'co IrO"T'l"3;Jre. ~'C()'s~io'JS ~~-'" Asuol09Y: Matte'. the oa':, y. As/ronomy: Nort~. Alchemy: '0 fc Jr e erner1:'. Cartography: ChU'C1. chepe . O'.llllisric lerminology system: Posili~o

o
Cir~lij.
As/roI09Y; Elern .1"e. Asuo110my: Fu I moor. Me/corology: C ear ",.·28.tha '. Canography: ::;":1'., ,J 'clure. Elec:ricity: Mete'. CllemiSifY: Ac c. Ml!chanics: POI', 01 '01 uior. Biology: 5'0.

Eq ial-arrned Cross.

A-'o,"_
'A2.scuh1e ,ender. """creo,%BI: ;:'osl , b~. Physics: Gra·.i:aUor a center,
Diree tion, ooieal consec ~enee.

pole. c U~519'. posItive c1.;.r~e. irerease.

Cartography:
Runes: 8JI.

Oceardc c.nrents.

28

.\"SUAL GRAMh. Thcv are the basic sigr~.:j: . 2 D o o Square..ove. Cartography. 29 . Meteorology: The ground. Alchemy: Salt: Household article: Stop. leon tor the pl~'lsical heart. ldeoqrarr tor Iavatory. 1990)..~r6phy (lu. Military: Soldier.A. Heart.\·dirlg to Carl G. Liunqrnar (see his ccok SymboJer. IvI2tAriali7.~tion. r'/Iillrr.. l.:.'~~1 COI'<CRETEI OlOJECTSi FORM ':orlll~ cresentec he:e de some of the basic 963h. III love. .. Biology: He. Farm.(_..ldebaran FC"'la~.. the Ear th. rplele legible entitles.lts in \/'/esTern ideo.sman has ceated as co .

GRAMMARI CONCRETE I OBJI!CTS SIZE 30 .\I.VISU.

rOBJIOCTSiSIZE l'his recta l[JI~ is T1c spresc n th S nook. !".VISUAL GRAI'.jI_..tMl CONCRET!.. of a 31 .

Colors are different wavelengths of li. 0' ext'i!1sion: Johi~rcs 1Ii. is the color'seonterrt or blae!<. CorUa$t 0" h~e '2.cuW!cous ccot-ast €. Coriras. Tile A. namoly. with little sateration conl. Black. two colors. L. Co z-vr. Sir.elative ratio of ti'e colo's amount 01 while. gray. Saturated hues aee these we areaccustomed 10. SaMatiorl describes tile . aloe - ·T~e sever -dnds of color contrasts are :he 'o '()Wing: 1.mc eme":ary cortrast 5.. and white are celers without hlle. This book is printedir. also called the &hade.1.I of COIOf (Ne'I" YOlk: Rci~to'c P~b'iS~iI"9 Co·:oraiic "1. rm CO":·al· C. A colo. red. Hue refers 10 the w!loolengthof tho color a~d is separate from its inl'ensily' 01 saturation..9hl·g·ar~ cor-tras. but onlycnc h~e. Corl.ght. .. 3.. Concrete objects and the materials of which they are made reflect only part of the light spectrum and therefore appear as if they have color. TOM describes a coIQ('slightneS$fdaikness.'967).ut::li Silt~ratior 7.oios a .seeing in Ihe chrernatlc Circle.VI$UAL GRAMMA'RI GONeRaTEI 0 SJeCTSI COLOR Color.. <I. The 1000. hue and white content.

IM2..'1(: equator..ne hue.\edcetcrs w ~1 ""ryin9 black cO. ihe co".:~er" 'Ic"'.) mC~GS in .: $s(ural ad and pu re . O~ l~c surface ot !~e S{li..al'Urflted and pL're hues are . If ::)01.) T "0 u-idersta-id or 33 .1\G Ihem as \I~e CMtcnl arc' surtacec! a sp'iere where 'he Nor II' r-ole 's cG"'pleiely whil e ano tI~e South PO'e eel:' 010161) black... ..VISI.JAL GRAMMARI CONCA E1E' 06.:~'.I1:. shaca.lI-e co O'S W II become less satu-aied and ~'"ad~a'ly ae re~'ac~d by "ruy s~e':e$.pleie:y . (See 31$:)I~wn.ccalec along .awards tile teNer ~'e $oiele..JECTSI CO~OR Pofe: white: !ely wllite light .so'ler'e tl1erea.". he All oi Colo.e CQm~'eTe\jI ". BFa Saturation of cetors.

In contrast to abstract structures. A structure is concrete when its structure lines are visible or actively influence the form of the objects in the structure. concrete structures are visual compositions in themselves.VISUAl G RAM MARl CO NCRHEI STRUCTU RES Concrete Structures. 34 . which only indirectly indicate how objects are positioned.

A structure need not be visible to be active. Active Structures. .A visible structure can consist -:::structure lines and objects or of structure lines only.VISUA~ GRAMMARI CONCREl'EI SlRUCTVRESI VIS leu Visible Structures.. A structure is active when the str cture lines influence the form of the objects in the ucture. A visible structure is a structure . t visible structure lines . Si.'.

..1 .•.-""f . .. ..' " :'I RadLilitic" (e) Spiral (e) (e) +\.... ::t:.. ~I • iA-' 1. ..--.VIS UAI.a. @@@ -r'.~+-. .J .-+ I I I I \ - - - GradaliQn . C. tiD 00 00 . I .. '''+-'.... A texture is a structure than can be seen and/ or felt.--._._ : I I FQrmal I H-1~ ! . --1"""\. _. ••. @ @ @ ..'........ The texture can consist of structure lines and/or objects. -t-.~ g) 9) g) ... . i &-+-.• ..-.form.'-' ~--.. Texture exists in materials and can be created through inscription and application.~ \" 0\ . RAM MARl CONCR EiEI STI'\U CTU R~SI TEXTURE Texture. I \ '. .

..... gradation. The system of textures is the same as for abstract structures: formal. --. " \ •• ••• ... .I... · -t. . •• . . informal. -. . .. .' " \. •·... ·. ••••~ . •••• •••• ... • I' .. . •• .. or mechanical design.." . and spiral. . radiation. random. •••• .. • .iARICONCRETcl STRUCTURESI TEXTURE Textures can have an ornamental.. •• • 37 . •••• ..VlSUA~ GRAW....... . ·. . . ••• • ••• .

.isplacement SO~Of OisplacelT.en1 36 ..e ' 110 e . :. 43 Mirroring against a Vol'um • I i . 4g Directior 49 Suoe/ordinatel Subordinate Movemer1 50 O.VISUAl G RAMMARI ACTIVITI lOS 40 •• •• Rfifm9 40 Frequency I•• 40 Rylr-rr .---~\ . _ _/ 4{o\~i_O~ L5 Rolet on around Own Axis <z: : 48 Movemem .~ ~ Form •• <10 51z ~ fill fill <$ 40 Color 40 Oirectior 40 Te)!f'ure •• ~O 4~ I 42 Mirr(lfi'lg • •• _I O.

1993).VISUAL GRAMMAR I ACTIV ITI ES Activities. Film consists ot still images shown in a series at a high frequency. is a static representation or a sequence that creates an illusion of activity. Visual reproductions are static*. 'Kinetic art-art that uses analog movement as an instrument-is the only genre within pictorial and visual art where the illusion 01 movement is not created with sequences 01 pictures or static representations.+er@ between '"e tuturists' cynarn c rncvement and Ducilamp's diagr. 39 . ·~'~--H. Understanding Comics (New York: Paradox Press. '110. What can be perceived as an activity.\mmaiic: concept of mcve nent lies ::ll1es' '~/otiGf1llne_" Scott McCloud.

respectively.. the most dominant common feature is selected to describe the repetiti 0 n.40 Eve. even if other characteristics of the objects are different.. - Texture .. Form Size Frequency/Rhythm. the repetition has an even frequency. such as form or size. this repetition is called form repetition or size repetition... When a multitude of objects has one particular feature in common. When the distance between the repeated objects is identical. When the repeated objects have more than one feature in common.lr"quer:y Direction .VISUAL. When several objects with a single shared characteristic are arranged in a cornposition. the object has been repeated. GRAMMARI ACTIVITIESI REPETITION Repetition. Color . When the distance between the objeots varies between several given frequencies. the repetition has a rhythm.

VISUAL GRAMlvlARI ACTIVITI ESI REPETm ON • • 41 .

: P. 'A ~'irr:>r doesr't reflect :"'gs\he wt·or" wa1·o~rd.VISU-\L (>'RAMMAHIA:CTIVITI ~Sl MIRRO RING Mirroring. When light waves emanating from an object are reflected on a surface..ly rendered on an axis. TIlo Au 01 Looking Sideways (Lon(lor..).aio.. the object has been mirrored. U rellects whal i$ m.. The light waves are reflected off the surface at the same angle they fall onto it The physical object is symmetrical. 229. .lor e 'us. 20e. Alan Fletcher.eo aleY h treat of ~.

When the surface on which something is reflected has several different angles. 43 .VISUAL GRAI~MARI ACTIVITIESI M IRRO RING Mirroring against a Volume. it can be defined as a volume or as part of a volume. A volume that mirrors another object distorts the mirror image because the light that meets the surface is reflected at different angles.

it rotates.Niicr.1 (j screw ~r fu~ninQ orr 6 :_.tatlo~loll<)".~the rnoverne-it cl the SJn ~~ti lh(. Til S is alsn Ih~ drscvon lor sc't!wi 19 .VISUAl ail~AMMAR ACTIVITIESI ROTATION When an object moves around a point or an axis.". The shape of the path along which a rotating object moves can be either circular or elliptic. here ~'lC ". clock (clnckw se). The rot"ti19 object 44 ..

If the rotating object faces the rotation point with the same side at all times. This distance is the radius of a circle. the object will have rotated around it"elf after one revolution. 45 . The rotation poinl is the center ot a circle. if the objecl rotates around its own axis. This is also r~t@rred to as a revolving object.VISUAL GRAMMAR' ACT1VITIES ROTATION . The distance lrtim the center to the object's rotation path is called the pendulum. The rotation point can also be inside the object. ln case of an elliptical movement I he lenqth of the pendulum will vary.

These directions are called horizontal and vertical. the width-to-height ratio will remain constant. . or level and perpendicular.VISUAL GRAMMAR ACTIVITIESI UPSCALI N G/DOWNSCALI NO Upscalingl Downscal i ng. Objects are enlarged or scaled down along the x-axis and the y-axis. When an object is enlarged or scaled down proportionately.

.

' Movement path Path. . Movement within a visual composition is only a representation of movement.VISUAL c> RAMMARI ACTIVITI ES MOVEM ENT True movement (without sequences or steps) is only found in the real world. The positioning of an object can suggest forces that have influenced or will influence it and move it. AS . An object in constant movement will travel along an imagined line. Movement. The path can be straight or have the form of an arc. This line is called a path.

while still experiencing a superordinate movement along one path. o rsct on oi movsm.CTlON ----------..mt Direction. or move forward and backward. An \ \ \ object can rotate) swing.IARI ACTIVIT es DIRe.W.VISUAL GRB. 49 . The direction of a movement can be defined by the line that leads from the starting point of the movement to its presumed endpoint. Superordinate and Subordinate Movement.

. Displacement is defined by an angle.VIS UAL GRAM MAR ACTIVITIESI DISPLACEM ENT Displacement. When only parts of an object move) a displacement of the form takes place. Angle 01di$~lace"'enl Oi 'cellonand "9~e 01 <:I splacemenl Direction of Displaceme points or lines of an ove in a specific direction.

VISUAL G RAM MARl ACTIVITIeSI DISPLACEM ENT 51 .

•• 56 Gro\.:. I • 76/79 Overla:lo.. 72 Parallel 73 Angle .ce/ Weg..1 70171 Coo'dlnalorl Distance •• Opaque 76 langenl .V SUAl GRAVMARI RELATIONS 55 Al'ra::lionl Sate So Syrrrrelr{.ng/ 80/61 Suet-actlcn/ Ccmpeorc Coir odence S2/S3 ~~"'etratio'/ Ext'USlor 84 Influcrcc ~ 85 MoeHl catlcn 52 .' ASyl'rrre ry •• •• •• 57 6alarce 63 Pos tor tIJ 75 lranspare.1/ .ps .

. The 'Ilar:. ne comoo5iiior.ly.Re:lations. the format. E erner . "\Ilhoug~ tOIS(Pod dis: $. Is ccrr ~1"!.1~ave 11'0g-eat"sl mpj).".ro:lthe marg. The cojec.::. Visual objects in a composition relate to the viewer... ns lecatee c oscst (Q :~e ob.e~or .. is eraw~ :o.~s .! force) I~""ard eacn 5ther. T -us ts also Ihi! case ie.. h"·..o\hl).l!' o-or!s in.:.ge.. te(~es are work 19 <)~ t. .ne g.lio1Ioss en :a sheet 0' paPCI.:s I~a~are cosest tc eac~ Q"ar . and other elements within the composition.i".' t~e pa.....·ea:osl allr3clic ~ (lII~ral:l.. ...

VISUAl. GRAM~.".R I REL''I ONS I ArrRACTION 54 .i.

.Attraction.ork. Note that he object must be positioned slightly above the middle of the page for the enti re com position to be absolutely balanced. The object on page 54 is balanced and not in movement. Objects that are grouped together in a composition will either attract or repel one another. Energetic or hvely compositions seem as if they have come 1:0 a halt Or are about to initiate movement. Ai tile sa-ne ti rr e. The composition on page 54. This is callec the cotical center. In a stationary representation an activity is only suggested. crec. . 58 . even in a static C~Qm position there are forces at '.ting an rllusion cfthe activily belore or after that moment.'. on the ether hand. is passive Or static. The influential forces are equally strong and offset each other. Static.. It is not the representatior of a stooped movement.

.TlQN$ I SYMMETRY/ASYMMETRY iris tigu"e is arranged syrn ..... _.. \ '..etrically ale 19 an axis."..// -nis"9u1e has fi. .. This page is symh:~... they are sym obje'~~ can be monosymm1etric or rnultlsymmetri .~nged on both sides of an axis.. - ."'MM'./' .....~tric while the lay I ut of the spread' ... \ 5 4 3 .. ~- ..e... \ \\~ymmetry/ Asymmetry. An arr...\ ..V SJAL GR.. / :I / ..:~~/"elry axes. When objects are id lIy trical..._....~ I RELi.

a composition is static and not dynamic. vo-pflge layout as a comcosnlon to be balanced.Balance. rch furtt er helps .' '(his: t .. 57 .. Think 0'.hieh ads as the tipp n8 coint..r. A composition is balanced when all elements have optical equilibrium. Without this interaction between elements. . He black disc on he page offsets all he Objects on :he opposite page due tc its larger size and the tact that it is located further out on tte arm and thus has I~rea... or between objects that have contrasting forms.h create balance.:er optical INeight. The lett arc! righl pages can 8@ compared to tr e < arms of a scale on each side of the gu11. In addition. v·.. there s ("'lOre text on this page than or the opposite page. Balance can be created between objects that have the same form but different positions..

or a unit..n the model to I~e left. When several units are put together..j structure ce-ipesed 01 polygons as ." " linear Jrif_ T. The objects and the vis1O'e structure lines ir this group c-cate a :edure. they form a group. whie. Ob...(: objects 'I" .VISUi\~ G~AMMARIRI LATIO~SIGROUPS . Lrnear 9'O~P.ne f". ects that are repcatee along a l. Groups can be named after the form of their underlying structures.med of III<I"9Ic5. ....u~~:. are made up 01 tria~8ular units. is f<l.g When objects are repeated in a composition.. super-units are created..

rhombic structure form a rrc'mbic ur-i I. A pulygor 'nust have more than tou r sides ir Order 10 ce confused witI' a circle.>u:. of a circular form. Circular group. Ocjects that are repealed i 1 a tr anqular structure loren a tr. Rhombic grow p.\lISU. Ob: eels tbat are repeated in a.lol/gon instead of a Circle is a question of dst-ru: on. The KOlill at wh.anqula! W 1it.R I RELATIONS I GROUPS Triang ular gr:.ch a unit is seen as an eqi.'. curved Iines are a par.llatera . A unit can also ne based on parts of a [i(rle.>. Is the above grou p a seven-sided urut or a circle-based group? 59 .\L GRAVM.

icture. I. 60 . -------_---r-----. It also relative to the distance of the viewer to the structure.ee --. These i"NO structu-os a'~ equally saturater aut they neve dii'erel-t ceorees 0' Ii neness/coarserieS5.-re .S -j----. "".ATIC\S I 1'1N E/COARSE This structure is coarser than. Fine/Coarse. this S-" . The fineness or coarseness of a structure is determined by the distance between the structure lines. ..'·iISUIlL G~AI'AMAP I REL.----.

: ' ...VISIJA~G'!i\Mbt».....e coa-seness ":).eee ••.I'e <::Ojec:. T hI'! clegree o I as:' JC lure( s salu cecree -z: on as we I as iIs coa r SCOl'1s$ can v.. .••.~een the objects. '...• • ••• •••• .•. ry. :•••• • • ••• ...••••• ••••••••.••~•••• ..ewcr.. .3 dispersed field of object3 is oSTIe'ln ~cd by: ~c size c! ..... and from sparsely to highly saturated. .•• .ATIC\$ I AnR.. . ~ ••• • •• •••• ••• • ••••• •••• •••••••••• eee e./tCnON ~ • • •••• e eeee •••••. : ••. lis An irregular dispersion of objects in a cornposition is called diffusion.• •• _ eeeee ee e •••.ee be:-.... .... .."...:~..s 0' sa1Jraho....••• e eeee e _. ~. . Diffusion. •• • •• eeee e e e••• •••• e e eeee _ ••:•• .. ••••• ••• ••••• • e ••••••• •••••••••• .....•..· ••••• ••••••• ••• . 61 . ~e~end5 01 the dis:a...e ~. .. T.'l te!aho. :. The structure can gradually shift from being fine to coarse. to :..•.R I REI.

62 .Direction. A structure can actively define a direction.

an a enter. A group of objects can define a ositio layout. l' ++ ++ 63 . an edge.Position. such as a corner. a center.

The placement of objects in the str cture can reinforce this impression. GI~"MMA I RELATIO\'S I SPACE Space.'/ISUA. A composition dan have tense and open areas and in this manner create white~pace in he layout. .

I .Weight~ ThroUg conSCi~us use of the upper and pwer Freas of format!lhe designer can play with associftions of how we experience the world. or something thai lIowf· I r l. allu mg to t e earth and the sky. of so ething that flies. The composition can create t e illusion of something being ligrt or heavy.

compositibn can h with few objects.re not necessarily the m 66 .iIOI~S I AMOUNT/DOMINANCE with many objects and large number of obje dominant.V SU!"IL 3RMAIIi\R I r.ELr.

\'lSL'F.~ G ~AI·.\$ I AfI/IOU NT IDOMI NANCE £7 .·I"'IAF REU·TIC.

Neutral. 68 .

Mou '.1 6.flag. . . g. 8. s saturated). 20(2)\ 3~. .' for bild@f(0510: 0.. I\'lathem the cepth axis).u.FOREGROUND Backqround/Fore ived . r~-"'w·""n. allv small t).bstrak: fe.

~ The...is ~.osi.ueH.ng' closer :i~ space than.'0 oajec!>: are experic/"ced as be'n9 close to each othel.'e' .1 usteanoperspecttve. if their coordinates have the same value) the same focus.nes above are per\.1C fi9"((!S below are' rot.ow s perceived as be.ed low .e : v . the elemen. Re t.Hie .. Objects are coordinated.i.VISUAL G RAMMARI RELATIONSI COOROI NATION Coordination.tior'l.ei.ed lOS coordinated " . and are perceived from the same perspective. plae.'eee O~ti0~. 70 .ions te. WMI1 cojcc~s are ctosest tc "he v e'".'om:.'> ~'c. the vpper. . eLM 0' tim t"'o'. RiO fig .

71 . Relaiively speakinq.Distance. Closeness and remoteness are relative. be experienced as being remote. Two figures that are perceived as being close to each other can. The two objects on th is page are experienced as being positioned fa' from each other. The distance perceived between two objects can vary according to the viewer's perspective. they are eq ually dis:ani from each other as the two objects at the bottom of page 7Q. when seen in another format.

72 .VISUAL GRAMMARI RELATlOI~S. Regardless of how long they are. PARALLI:L Two lines are parallel when they lie on the same plane and are at an equal distance from each other at all times. they will never intersect.

.. B ngle is 9". ng ht angle is go'. Ths dlrec lion is nefrned by foe most Important axis in the oojecr's s lructura~ ske. 11 cot". does.) A circle.. ~c'" ins:ance.'1ar go'.VISUAL GRAMMARll'lElATIONSIANGLE " acute angle is less :. or the other hand.. . f it has a directior-. has no directro-i.ater than go'.. a1 elhcsls. caject can only be situated at an ang Ie to sorrethinp else. .etor (See sir uctural skeleton or pagE 2L.

A form th an be idled with a liqi.j it's tone i. 74 . id i ive..A form s callec cos. Ii something IS extruded Irom a form. tre ori9 nallorm is Text the:.e Of negative . is set on is negative.s lighter an rna bac<gfOllne vex.t. while the new iorm IS negatiye. A positive 10'1"1 is extroverted ned outward) is 1egatiye.

Transpar e. A transpar see-through. Light shines through it so that other elements behind it become visible. An opaque object is visually impermeable and prevents light from shining through. 75 .

they are called tangents. RELATI 0 NSI TANGENT Tangent.VISU"L a RAMMAR. / .cts are located next to each other and share one comma point. 7'5 . When two ob· .

_---------------. 77 . -----..\IISUAL GRAMMARI RELATIONS TANGENT ------ ---------... . -._ """'''~. -.. ~ '.

VISUAL GRAMMAR RELATIONSIOVERLAPPIN(l Overlapping. When parts of an object lie above parts of another object. 18 . the first object overlaps the second one.

the form is called a compound form. When two objects overlap each other and visually appear to be one object.VISUAL GRAMMARI RELATIONSI COMPOUND Compound. 79 .

VISW. 80 . Subtraction.l- GRAMMAR! REl-ATIONSI SUBTRACTION When the part of an object that overlaps another one is deducted from the underlying object. a subtraction has taken place.

Coincidence. I I I r f I I I .VISUAL GRAMMAR RELATIO S COl NCIDENCE When two objects have the same form and size and are situated directly above one another) so that from above they appear to be one form. they coincide.

T'IC oreviousl}' make. ~ylhdol' ~as creai~d a hole in the quadratic disc bl' ponetraling it WheU'er 01' no: lbe-e was a 10le in the esc 62 . Hlle dit'<3rel·ce. a penetration has occurred.VISUAL GRAMMARI FleLATIONSI PENETRATION When one object is pushed through another. Penetration. larger object.

""10 ~'olila aCGJ. 83 . If we press a rnatenal ~~IO"2~ the '1010:1at we ne-ietra'cd on lhe previous Nge.n. The process of forcing a material through an opening in an object so that the form of the opening influences the form of the material is called extruding a profile.lusll. depend Ilg Q" "e 3"1"0" 11of m5.i>·'as5'ed tnl:.-'~9 Ihe I:WTI oi 11le CI~e~.I~Jial. lhe -esolt wilJ 09 a cisc 0' a c1 ir::i~·.VISUAl GRAMMARI RiOlAiiONSI EXTRUSION Extrusion.! is called me extrudale.

When an object has changed its form because of another object. Mutw@1iniluence . it has been influenced.RE"ATIONSIINHUENCE Influence.VISUAl GRAMMA'f<1 . Objects can also mutually influence each other.

it has been modified. . When an object has been slightly altered.VISUAL GRAMMMI RELATIONSI MOOI.~ICATION Modification. A modification does not change the basic characteristics of an object.

GRAII1M~1<1 REi. 96 . Repetitions with varying and minor alterations (modifications) can be called a variation.ISU~'i.1f.AiIONS VARIATIO N Variation.

VISUAL GRAMMARI RELATIONS VARIATION 07 .

.

A~liM I\C!i v ~/ Aeut •• ogl. sp r·e ri :::.271.J re...A.-9 i.80 :j~gte~:!:i.. il"l 6~CiK~ I'OU 1":t1 whcsc f1 Jt"lCti"Or"l 'Si to·e r.:.::c.OL"J'~i"'Flt·(..r.rct ..11dLIh!.!:..c::o'" Not ~ymmf1.n1i-g us.:: o t 3. ~rghlr1CSS C~nt'e· scale ci '.-. The. or Ih~ Qf()Ie.-::j: w-e-e <:H~ 1:"I\stIa"~.~.'IlC~ ~jo... !~'t~dl ng rnpcflarl\:1I! to .o:l'h:otiM "".. Ie is lc ss tha --. Seg rnervt: Pa-t of t:1 e c ir cle 'b~"':we~1'"I:iI chol~::: C\1\cl the ·.I~k$aga:n::. !3aI81\r'~Ii!II:::1!4 l/i~~lal te. (ij tl U..re:ei~I!:'!:ae (.r..in flo:>: ::-e"Spe::t ve.e. Chore: S1r:.:int.~ n1(".I!')ClJt +e perceptlole Eql. ir a ri£iht-.nt..*..\motJnt .s or 11~~1'N:".".:ility 9.:Ie. I An acu le .at:ra:-:i .:i50~ril::~ mel eloog an axis...h.a:"Of"'I:.. ba..~II~" pes :iQrirg objects ~vith diff(:!l..d c~ti(}l~ 01 locelily The acd-ess Te.o.J.er.~ the dl'TCI.. Pc1nllo..)i:rI.i ar c-b1ed see.t 1t 6nl~I·.er..):5:: ed. men l ar d are a rc :XG!Sen la lion . d sttuch.:~ 'j..9.(:sr:~:1'.! lvocal U.~~.• r5p".. C.the FoOf""'Y a. pc.-d OO'f)lS~ sc ..: R~. 99 ..C' \<". fcr. A pr.t ~ l-es..n I''''' prot< on a oeipll~ a h .rc QrnaTo:f:"'I:ati::!ln.:-"'.ce 'Equilibriurfl :)('!t'.siler "'~!2ig'it~numt::e'.to hliJCk.-k:lk-.iikln SMwlh t-e-rs .1::.~.f.. wei3-~·s.. "-h!9 :Orv=. Distance trcm th~ :!::".. Ci1 c ·e to +e pef"if) iCfy'.. ~oC'-.eri p"hery.I -eel.:..i l(::t t.! slr:ti::J1~ . r Cbj.j ccnte-.. '~roC'-es.-e:>e ore unot.. set of :If f:."'C.ay 10'1\113$.... c.113 w I!ho.J'JlOpart cc rr.~' (~!>l... : F".nt o ejects.1 S :i II a nate -syst'i!lIt.1..de a-a latilude.between by::) r..e.s. f""ai1 ~t liE .": I e :l'I..ite c.... ben t..:'.}j ng ""'-'::eres Ihal delemliM Ih~ d"*it<n 01 s:~.I.' rJ ccnfice-rce. Ai1~]r~::i::i (C':. r er·..j I the irlcti'J '7. !\1i"t.. J.....lo":"'itil Tta~ ~.r'ltC't~_ eire e .. nf c f) ng Ih ~rl-::l:::' or will iriti!3iG-...'".maley 3.":8 (Of a set cf :::=Ji::J{SJ" ~.().er. er-ect. ::. eter.. .<\. atrAt"l. S~Ctor: Pa 1 ct t-i ~ c ircl€.:1«8. \..a. ~~'NM -="~Ilt ne .' . A :it~r.r.::o:hinqs ..!ity' or structure. P:J1S :. Pone' &cfde.. p051!~ and r<tylltls ha'."qUllity a::hie'Y·~I~ l~y~"s.hl li-te Ihl""l. Ir...·~1 ')is bdi(" C I" f\.n.1alW3"fS elt"'l6..:lrlb.col or's pt'.. Raej .r~~ and :J. f~~ymmel'i: .erj' Lengih a""rd Ih~ wier r" Ralio belwee. ocsmoncd i~ ee a·~rr~p'0X4m ~i r:2dl :y.:(i'J1~cner:~ . e !:fJTI! 11:'.f:j)/ -t-at ihey cala-ce each ml~l:r.~..I i~til om !!lilt..:.a ~~T:} deler-med iJ. Al:!lt~r~li..i:.'$·.. {ry:.'een elen.!d Ox-n ng aelseee. 4. ire bebveer iWoC p3rl~!.. r:..'oZ!s-cpced E el. a C!onl.a"d!".r.e-res.ililil 0"'1 Ab$iraoliM ~nlU:ile De:. ~te circle 10 the ov.ht{G~.an.')1'11 Ou~~..."S.i Il"ICV~· In a stattc representation.wr.i": ba ex:...-s1 im~r:..ers all·r"llined.:.Vitl.. A'g'" A'n··lg.:.!!!! til>! ~t a ':ls.'.":rr.'\tIra...onte· I-cln one ..j a.pD5 :11:: 1.':) :.e nnebel-""".t1 c:c~.eke j mte-crcc .. :.te lIT'S Ar. •• .I.£ $t:rn.U~e-.6tr. eu:"'.: ~r I . ~1rn~M:}hc anc vpla -e cs ~w·:1""i t-o-r a center.id~0.ri_sid~()~ it c c:)t'I'I'PC~ ~'Cr..em 01 ccwd~nale::5./ b:".ooIJ::h:::m EI{.·hOle.-.mf:i._'''lidl tends 0\..: nne with ...hc Cir(:. MII'Omali.:::.bee st-alq-: hl~rse::.:l:ii v it.h lh~ <..1'.]lm :Jf IOI1.n II!!..J.::::..n':. ErI::JIa5ize.'Jc·1 i....~iticn:1:) I\'k:tr.::nl !i'J:1'1 a '(r. L ne in a ~ysl.:J meesuraclc. ~.Y.ralt.c f ~ color.iluga Cgnl('I'~lal Tt:e Sl~i I '.'ed....)tI ~"e pe' phet)'. !O.en . activity is sugge:ii~o:":'~J._ O'i'h]:na r~ni$ical s-r.1 Ule Clip!(.:e irllerlt of FQ..S.J cc ccord C'.ss$.p-rsed v. I~el'i1ei.a. g1teilit '~.aIe<l: al Ihe c·e1'to!r ofa fo'ma:.":'n'0i3f -:)'1lM.:s An'! ~i~1~ ~'ty .tr...)'IQ5S.1~ 159). I... (..1~et: y. :.lh • """ d U. b fine.!fore l.' oer~re~~ rc.e :... pti. -:af'j~nillgpc:.:5 Irnasi"e~ .. ~-e·ythifl::J ::J::JI.. 0:.Glossary VISUAL GRAMMARI GLOSSARY . j~ ::..btrot1\.

".. ':i:o$I~·.h~ op~i~ 1\ o:n-~ at'iifk: ... ~ I ~••e . ~"J' ..t :"~ t:! lit te <.. "i~ J~I~"j ntti-:. d'.gl'! fM :.:..::$- ~·C" ~:::a'l"lI'~7M 1.~i" Ccr-:-::.~~.... 11::"'(:..1s..~:>U!il!l~:>'I' wi :. ••~~~ :...lil~ t.!d p"·. d'=t.)[ )j p~1!~I.::~.""'" I~ U..at¢ 1\ ~ rr.. • . ". ITS::·e$~~:lfe~...i/': 1...1t 'L tJ ~.~te :!'i .'.'.:f:hJ'lIti.)"Le'-""l:lCl:~:i..L:"." !I~ ""II!....~~ (l'i O"t'.-::.... a co "I"pw..li'I:.. }l'o!..Q.nlr~flJ."... dud IPPii."r:..'1 :::c."' •.. r.(..I!t'.. • t1. : Hue ~~~'''I~'~'<'j·l ~1~f~V:J~I·k ~ t·~":'I'I!...'" 3'<1\ Ig":. th.i~:)1 e.!?" U:""Il'l< ("A~fi-s.1 lise l.. ~.(JMt~I"a~ ~" o.~ ..J!.!:!111 .. with I".:w·hw hi Q:.ltr.I.f'ip.i.'IIn.Qk'lf~ :••~~91. t..d~'J."tr:9.~·· 1y='.l.i' & ~(.l r~ol~r!. j .:t:...·Vr.t...:)"I" ~ t~.. I.C1e"i"a .:. .t":':ldr:.'f(~ ~ 'S:.-::.f.<.dl~ ..'/ISUAL GRAM MARl GLOSSARY L.::t -... O:~I~If..:rf)l."(...II'....~.f"(I'rl:::~1)1:4i'..' (... b "~~u".If-J IOt.·t:lfffl.. I~~h\'et.~~I·:'I.:II'L'.::lI..r~:......11 \":~rt AtlloDn.o~"I::.:~'la:o-..~..~· ...r.""". =1. 0 .:nnni -:l :"It-tr<:fAlI !~i"'''l~ ... :::onlt:a....B~lut:. C-t"'"A:!:'~~": ~I'I'".·!:::'t!ltLI·f.-. ~~f:r:l'::'.".) fer -r .~ :.....:v t.r..l\::tr.a 00.. C Oi:!~ C(H'. t"!~1.u·o!'f:. 1~·~·· t ·~·ll"llal~t! C.1.-I: j.~f'('. 1 r-~ r.~'.~-'" '.M:h~'~.. ::'i.:. S.I1:':lrlirlfl:""t.'~JI'.fJ ~ ~"t I\J ( tillo!.. ~ mM ~ ~ :ir ~') ll~. '$'C' 0... 'D!I"'l!'a~!":= ~I·~~.Ih:: II'~or~ " •• ii.il"!l... ':=1·':="'1..~ :'.'\l< (""(>..:: en It.r'1~r.. ~1'''.en. Dt-i Md rvj ~"'rl":\":.. r.oo:f'I'I :""'~ I '1-0' ~ •• 'v ••: .::e:.\.~. C::-. :tcno :"If \'~~-¢ ~.... ~ 1.C'!(...ij :-r-ok&1" ..I:. ..~ 10'~ tn:ll IVI~'ll~lIl:' Do."ij. ei.~'I"I c=....cnt li:J""i w.. i""lIoo'. ftd fl)tl:s. Jl\'/~.. a:r<""" O~~'t!t':~'1I:: :':C'I. V.u -ai E~'~""!'J'l 01 '"""""lW' C(.... 0 PI.....e O'll'.... S¢ .Q·:r:.w' : .:.."" I~. 1 ("'..'It IJ '·d>1::t~~a..u<TP. ~~lC~."..I"Ir. ill '9 i.~ ~t. srru H~.J'~:I:'1I'·III'1 1:. op!t plZirh~ :L. MI: . ( ....::t...M. tit ~~'" i. If!..1"'1 eo. rJ. CO O~ pi9"1'1C..~ l'1."Y'~ Ih..~.u-i'(.: le-e !...·LI"')I...~ I- C:.n ':f'r~. 1.IJ(:~I~ !"kr. r.rtt qJ!Ui'lltyl'!fio:=t:h .nc:..!h C q.1" '1h..:o: ~).'j~r: t.oflk::..:-"" ~y.":v... X'". 0_ -<f. ee 3:.:~:"!":a.l:I~~ ttj cclcr d!:p..": ~1"'P::J oc(.J.r'r.1..ij~(~ ·.~I'-:."Jf':I1".(-r.:.t. _'·.:!n G"".1-:".~I~:"!' ~f~~'11 '''$ M~i.'":In.:.D.'II:..)1~ m (j~•·~ti!C 1 ::..: )i~!:":1"'...~.l.j..~.l."'I~~1 t:"1I.w\M4·"f:"/.i"Vf.t'f"&:C- Ar.:'1: (.:::::r..b"'C~c . . CI:~l'.":1.).-4 .: .'""" F".~I~n \..-tj(co~ . :.w ~I 'I F..nJ'.:r.:)t ~\t~d f'l..I~hl~ pi~lu·e~.t\.:.".". ... .1'~ t~:.)k:hl'iJ..."~n ~\'iW ut.: ~ w"d : I~~!..."".1 0: C~('I r.r~ '::Orlm'...«fr~lJ r f'~~·W~ .-r." .:.~yI-·c·.·lhy.cr:'iLry' '.w:..:..~ ....U Di"" i)i~t.:..!".:i~f ::.l>..~!l'-"'::r."".. Jtt!J\ ::i~tH' frr.~' DI'~"".)~I\I~'~\ oCQ!o'fld g~:!'..": AI~ . "''''...'~ .. Ji~:mr:l Slfj.:¢:I"~ns ~~ t/H...:h:C:: ~CiC:1 ~ t ..If.":"I .-: 1":.. '1(0".:..J'f 111...I'!: .:I..-.'ii' W~i.t: (".~~~ .m1 1 it. cr9-.ro(\!e·ed. 4".. ~(Io~ M'.rll": r re ..::. J.I'il..'~m.....i:'·ti!nl~::trc rrUt ...'~ gt. F.)i:l"1':t.n Liik'.. c ~ :te :1\00'..o..I "::. •• 1-(3 11~1IC1"10 :)thr.n 1. h~~ ll'~.1. :-:'t\¢' ..llJ~ ..::I~". FlIi~...::.::....nll~.r..:"!4~... .:. ~~:.~.!f..I.:!I1krf" 0: ~ t:l ee n..:.p.I1...!.:1U~ .r'.a~1i(:'&1 ~"i'..:.~:"JI" :i:il..f~.:.. ~.."(.t~~~~. ..t'')': I:..t(':.So 0"'" a:. ~ :rJ 11.. :.~" ~1\l'~lli::r~~ Ccl"~ ~:.0 V.t:<J. P)1.!)f nr.'I'~r.:'1:.:..cr."'.-f t.t'lI1. tltJrnl~I:II$I.-~ .'\11'20-:-.: 1I!4\ ·Ih-=-·.::·r~ ~d of !:('N·<.)Inl~or ..l.:" • . ~.:..~.I.='.~ te...iI:·~ ~ IP.."Je en l"i"p"'.Y-t t..h..... C:..n~::).C c:t::. t ~~~.:..1~ sl.h: h:tl!3 a co t""1'!W...:..~)I'nm (:.:~.StI il'l::l~~ i ...s ."'itf.lh Is.r'~'S 11... J 1""U:.1 n e.I":"asl e III~i··1e: l·IJ: ~'1:~!'# "lh~rt~ .-y~ Ct.1irll...:r.'ltl~tlJ. irA O~~~seal" SIlt. SMJ(':t.1.J.. ~ '...(~.IE:': -nIh-!.'...lI"..i"·9 f:1S1.il'll ~I..:... ~"I " j.. ::0"4"I!l.t~·.L~! ~Jt1"~~..r...:I ".:J u~~t.~.Io.'.. 1'.:. ......JI ~!:i.:.::1 r:}'.~.-.. I'''''' I'M' ~"..tl~t :::!i.f.In ."t~:-... e.t.Ir!'i. .)o. tb I.ft .!'V\'l'1..111:".-.1~ "I:}:':I~ I"~ ~l·lI}I.··I\.. S..~::I(u Ilj.~"'"II:'I -:-..Ior.kpTle'~ M "' ..) ard .r.:':f~/::.::Ii-~-ad ~~~t:J: A «f~ .I'\')I':' :':Ii:'"'.* ~~tl o::je:::t.:~:. v ! ~!)::.l:31rl.i·'·~bl!tl·!·~~ . tnt.jl"otI1¢.1 m~"'(nOl - "~tw. t-l' . ~ h .::~...-:_\ W m ~t~C(ZLJ~. "tu vJ :Qfl~. tl W··(.1""t~::.'" L'!!pl" o.~~··.J" rei i r: e1j.t.'I"~~~:)"'II UI~I:.:'i ."I~_' .i l"Ior...t~.nr Ihoi':' eer:» 'f~""i'I ~·'tl.. !::U! Ir' ~..d"il' "..'!'IW:J -:. ·cn.wlf.~ i .•~: .. flt~~t'N:"" I:..-:..'johe"" :." ~M .. 'lDc6:)t1 ~. !'..~I·'Inlunlc:al!iln CC."'fl91 UI't ~. ~ i h!ll::) 0..ur'~I..I... e -r Oilloq..y. Sail!: Oh-N..ar...:)"l' Ir:>"tr ::...u:.I-"v:~C+ ':-. t:1!~'t'!fl. be~-e. (I:3 fWr::~plilJlt'! 1.r.··~·. " :d!\'::!Ii: f1Ut11CO..n.tu-~t.:1i'IC!l' ••• ::'C:..:.:illl:loc~ 'I i. C. .\": . l. i:I!!'JllJl :.."~ ~. (hff:"lrr:.r.(.!'.:I.:."aI"''Ci :e f. ··.I :ttvr.. ~1'Il'r....:ml S JP'...i:-.:JI~. .:.. l ~:"loVi."·g .:~='..r:":.s. '_':.!! .e"l~t":..:~lIIV_:'Ut Ii t~I'-:.'jI(. .nh": Th~ '. :=='Ph (::lh-=w~CUI d!.n-".· n~fSt'I' :'I"'~ c...er./Jisl ..:i .r:.j. .'.~ D-!TC-~~C" DI"!-::1t3fl of ~~ ikrr"... :l:"~:". ~M'l. C I":. . ..I"t.-'.sn {M.M 8 <~·C" t\I.."I'l t II I t"i.:.r.i ~r I~W" tl~ttll~~I.e ~d d I::".f 'r."t.r~~~ ~ ':T::'..:...V'6C~ Co"" _ A"I 0*='"1 :". M . ::rlll:!J 1.. Ilflhl h~S b!J{ln ~11t.11"(1-()O""\.~ 1D!:-="m3'1i.r.)'.r.D-...l!')t 1.. 1...-.1~~t r.i C~I.:r.t. Itt:: cy..e-<I<l.O-'f'i":t 'J1 :...·:S 1:) =:lC' ~!..I~":. :d"t..I. \'qwr \".: ':Jj ..(:..":.:i ~(.~ :I'~d l.~' ~~~.·"'d -oQl·:.oi.':' vA' •.:"\ .'lII.~ ~ ~':!'.Ih": ('J:)p."r.. • jnltM!..! ..iiliQ .r..).-.r.1~.m~~1·~~~COr. r.r.h -:~ :"""'i-i e ..' t..."~* 01101'" IhM·' o.!":':¥.'W~"i'. :Urle1.:d-of t.u.!btan {.U." :et.'.:. il "I"I.Il.'II.Ii".. 1'11.cJt'UrlWI:'t.:' .' t\~X~i.'" ll"l1:' ~!t4J1 fH:U~:~"'.'j..I·tJ~.= ~'r:~" ~i. Q or.."(... ~u at tJ~~~~:)l) III ~ ' ' ' ' ' -f.11 ·'1.'1· l:''ilitn.:~.

Appc -tion "an To e-r. one ~ .e i.::'0:: --e8!ci'.J2f.) Glcsey G 01de f"' section Tc f:-!I"II: P((:·:-:uce. uler e i.· . t.:.:1 oriented.. ~\!w.:)f\: of .!I2!.. A contour c.'. the rules ct :~e~r cc-obrrcnon Gravity Grid '~~(CI"IP o:::r:-l'. disjcir ted.n. c:..)f '~.eer I h eck ar d 'i.iin] a :-::t. e··e(sy. ith -P :.lI.ilh ~o . l:!'ouphl [(nil I «tout Ly 1'8e~ lo·cinS a male. l-Iyp6r"ul~ 91 . c~ +e 10np~:s: ~.an object in a pla-te oef nes lts -orm. .j'::' about pC..Jnc_I(::'. a-rive at .f:: X.::c"f". and :::.tic. o-red ir. T~::::(:·nc.f.d.~: or tW.re: :)'J(il/ an j si I' of p :i·:::~y.:::=: ifl3 ~c.I.:. es that . 1\1 Ref ed p.::IH(:-I'. c::m~p·i~'ns.0 they are :-l:-:::. or Gr8dali·:)n Gr2. (. 0 opes Strenq+. (I' lcnr. "he eid o! (-I.iii r:[lhl :.~r:(""!r :-:-r0r:.: ./' n. ~~n:"'-'as~s .y r-an to TI.:0 s.. th on: :.IJ1:Cln are han:i:. G" \· .'.a.{:·.d~l::d :':·~8JIJe. .::::I.~>:s Lnction tcqet-rer. er-r pha to si...pes ~il~rs +at (1:?i2:nn n~ lhe des qn oi the objector . R:-l~-C·. j: ·:)r li8ht(~s:~ p8~l cJ ·~.: by bet a-d .:.·r:)Jgrl an coe :i·.vrth the lo-me.between oqects tr.. :-:7 c": cca -s 8.be lv.:)(!cti·.• c-rt occuvcrcc..i~·i'·9 :"'_.i·~!:1 d·:) ·. nenl.I:n":'. e:~"e· 81l:)ulU·I€ i:l::. r:~ 01 ern oits tr.~oIi_:r sU'face r~c::. 'n uccodance visua Fe-mat Th-e: tnr.l. cor-crete tyon of form S~lr'cundil"':?S ~l·'Nhid-.:J:2!:]~ViL:?: ~)'(~8. Dt-e-tly wheconlrasl nftucrccc by . Con-rast is 8 fC~CG il~ cp:::·~):JiliGn lc hal·ro··:i.s harncny f~.)!f! U ~ tts jni'l . the skcfetcr..per or mcoum. r:~:"..r~ily TI1-9 L:Rh: -r-nt can CrL:r-lTr:. I.rnder the that oi ethers.)lid~J and their mutua re!r1ticm::.r:. .=.. L rl L n0 '..1 ii:-::i\i.l re.':ich tie .il·no&ar The li~liJl:=: deli-r. :C'.re.ide.j:. ~.. :.I~ be ha'nl~~'1iGl_.::..1 F..~ush: t. F. the thf.i:~j or I-===Pi:::. ~ and Grar-m-a- TC8... ::::.:n noacc. -on a rBr-s:~. several ee-ne-r.l r·l~el. Dividinq c.:." df(""!ct:-:: varies: r8:::. Ttl is r etic is d:?'u:?asi~~1 1. Cpp:Jsite t 01 kn(_.:) or m .(et-c-d). (C~ shs:)e.Jnit -t.::ll~':=:-as lhal .'.:reL.' S'. tr.rizcr.e eler-ienls EArth...11(!1-:0:-::t t-o to lc:rW·:-::t is the.lit (n) led-::'::lifl.-:.. By -erncvlnp or ceereas sc meth ·ng thai apcea -s D'Jl"·i:::.nq nl1. Ha'f-to-ic Har.B"ntl.:(lji:-:-I!lar). ~iZ..s at ~ '.c:·:-:-iat(!(1 \'itr.'i~--: tr-eak::..·'. -vhc e.. ·.. b.orn Fer l8. U. n reierence lh:ollGh lc a tone or textu-e's N..'.1 i ~ . saturation.g Ccmpcne-:s contributinq to the creation oi a whole. a ·.:)·~Il:)n-e SC2.n c.. upon .:..I: U3.::rl?n(:y}.1 r~ n t ...s ~.::menls S lal! be :'·e o- L.thGr. (:1 the OCe&i.here the rs ...'.8 1-18·'.i I '-"'.:Jte (Of -r--cntton ·'Ni~~ fr8q:_. an ohcct.p. < \'\"" en Ft. :()'. +at drvicec nuruoer oi parts. ··'e .e . btru·:::.e ancther.:~~t!~ :.: (:c:!-~ c. A r2Vc·:::\di·:)n ~--:a~is :8irr~er lha·' the c- qinal that Ep sod c EveExlr cver . Mathematic l3est:...vi::..i sua I ·:::CI"I:)usi lion..)r~l::ln(:~~..:.t:'j size. .t:i. surfaces.:l~(.··~)rr·I~-I.elements pes.rtoDorni.i:.sicn tv ..8 sy.t:.:Jnsq.:)1nc ::.elilion \'.i.\". rcq .:.i~31 Fique.anl . made olacer-tent fer-r-et..'.s lr:ii h l «r d curvec i.'1SUAL GRAM MARl G WSSARY Dls-ort C'i:::.W:.} Eyelevel Fine ~··!fJ·. units ::':':"lnlpri.:Jn~.lIoct:..nover-enl cf i.~r:. Ge::ta:~ (.~ the e .v.IS 8r:? lr2..:: si.'. out. drf ~~ic •."7::r.8~r. H:.:.:1(·:.f II te. is :-:Ii:f curt lc C.. ri'. i.:)~t:.( .er··ce bod es -elt c . :-1nc. Fra-r-a Frcctc-r F re-qu-==nc:.IIeler-ienls together a shared c'iarac-erts-c .nsu-c a CULnt :.:::i1g or cecreasinq to ar \~.c:i':' i(lC"r'::~s. cd (~!(""!f:::r..bir.tj2:C1S are re'I€~Je·:_:: n n.sition intc nrna ler em.ularl~' p-orn r»(ekes its pre.I:€ cl la"!~.' hV0 e-rqths ratio :.c.·. tcr-r-s are def-ned by contccrs created . the and shinv lhfJl cl:. (r:.=::i.cr or by 0.ri:.aSfTI~rlla·y l--equlaBroken I he -ite A fe-rn t. lirht.es. Ir-es.C~i~nS "orcc :Vec:uie 2:~'~I:.c:mr:(. cower. the character of a surfecc) a :-::IJrT:-lC(!tna: v .: In pieces ~~C()110::-\". persoective.vr:CfC triG sk"~' 81"1<1arth c L-::vel.(""!(j:.iluence o- Creates ar..li~~ht H·::.:'sr.d-r ade Har-rc-y He:-::aqra:'ll H gr.. 1i8. sheet oi pa.lrrouildin(~ (-I..:.si9~8. oi r::1"l~'. "ransttlon -rom one area One c·i :'.·. e1ers:/. cuts Into a. Economfca Edge [br:'16nl Endpcinl EI"I·i?_rn-e:lTlc:nt =ru..Sf=:or:-sd.:. er . that .d reduces te-rs c.:'n~vi.3fof the syste-r. A harmcr..us 2JJ~~ulltle .. This \'lilt:"·I:)ut can by ntr-ttc --mhnatrons oi conte-rt.. mal 1-] d.:) lhe P'opcrticn bet-veer.-:""! T ako c: r.I~clSlti o· \:i5i':.p_.. ~h: of the -och\~ classtca .tn~l:e..s_ R-ec.618.ilec .if"..

r~:·)I'(!:ils~r~t .:- Pc"" F'i:rd..c.en.. ".inLJsr:d -:. C sr In cne d 'nt"'.:na1h 811<."'C' ~~~:"..::rit~Med. o:""(:re!..iy:i to.....lrl. "A"'rkh ill :i!.n~ h '~'SJ-!I: :.tiing ~tlt(l .. : is ca lad \t ·J~~wr. «~~jtic:A af.-~f~ 010. OI .I"I. ~1".r::1.. rrnagr:"« I'ht."l'1 "'." dei.r.. :r- ~i'i.oCria. 00 ." (:.r hCol: .t £~~~ .N.:!::"'t:·f'. a .!$!i'n .. ..."r.....'rIO'.'j. t I"".. dime"'li!'.j i\"~l ne'.JJnIt':!:..Ce.: h. lh S 'i!..n t~..... 118.. ~sl"lC* :he chH'C. ..... Of QCW'~' ir'ct.c ~~(II' ol. 1....i~tl. sb~nt u e.:.. "Iotll-.rJlt!o o~ ~n"m(H .)"tfJ'e 'ool ..Y1 f'~ '\!:f1'J::!M~t~~ ::>l n)"..~'i" ~xtreM!::1..:1l. rJ~:r. r~aJl.:F'!L . Li£lOl LI.."f'..·."1 :s.~nl:S i"I 1 (1{)1-' -="1..~~t~ :.e: ~ ~u ...1$ fcur-a l ~ IS 19: .: by l' re ~'ye m~ l. ~ ir. r.."~ f : n. I:.i:"..fit \ftt. lja:.. ~ .:1r. ng. ty.r p I!Jk".rJ: ~n~H\. :fc-at~ "ten' :~h' .:".l~...r.sy.:.:. me hl"..01.opos :. Ol)~ite ' of fi::r'.~ ~. PO'I""..:.lt::. ltY'I':'_ r-es e...."c"' .!"H:'x..~~ U'IC'"..1 ~'/I-....:.".nlar. :J."g (~ Ii!.~JoSC .elliG':1 'SIal ~ itLl'ld !oM-pc" nl.r.t I.:'Kl I . If.l..)U~'I.Jor.:'~"e :31'1I1~! '!I!i! 'C£~l"~P lc-r '\c.... i'flp.Jt IIp"'Y~i~ ('._t . -w.1 ..h.....urmc.o~m.'j_ecti..:..tio .. looA"'cd: oot.ws "H~"" ~IS' ':'y i~. cf ~~"i"g.. lo.}~(fie ::. ~..i"...fG'ct:b r11:..r...ah:: i~~'1 :)""' .. Cp. !1.-"$ "". M nur ~d.:"~I(' .:~ i Ie."II'r.~ eatre 'Y'e.c '-"i?In s 9'e'!" U~"9:r....' lhe:rr ale-~'I$""/hr~" :O':':.j"~s.F.u~ ~-tf"'l~r p.>l:!us..'f2O': ::.~(..'"'r.:.!~1'\ . W" r::t'.91· IIw IO'ce o:1pp i~ to ~n.~I"~ IIo:V"i)Iln '46(> """ ':.a ::...."i:I' ... o"'.~ 'Or' (:t.e c· ~Jri'.I(h LI·h":~.:.·m. Shdl:.. Op"'-':.. QI"C IQ\'." Cb!.f-J.':~.'III"n l"SClio: cIi"It~'.. \'jI"llch <. 1'0:: re..IJ+.1(. e'-~.turn I··IJJ~O~~ 1'0 (~"g'!!" enc \!.~ir""g....At'ar~.'II!F.f sons / .. II II ~e i-e ~ ~t.< -1>0 Cop<>.....a--.•. ~'. ("ItO ..1.:~"""'J.'1-.'Cj\ II'M 8'~ ~ (. 'SO ~teS'""je" ! ~~~ .. n~~~ ! U. b¢1... d th 0 samo.":t E!"~k ~'.l 1~·ltC:". w·~lion bolwr:<::'" :'X'Il$.tJ.1 d ~I....'! 0'..:. :Q-. 'l:.''!).S ere :..~~fI Ir~t!t ~lt. .cn:..~~"'':!s.J....:~:te~.:)::. A~ T"l"riA.a (h". cr Mo."'t'rC": t. .~u::hjt·9 1I!!::It). ti"l'::: is Ihe ~lli.:!'·"""''' -t:r.. "'::>'' :' '~~i101e OOC. it . I n-e i" I~$~t>s lHt~~I lo-rn CQ "l r.... :e't is.-"_ IN''·c...o!!da...j) .~lCLU. i'\ . it:=. l~ar M<I. n'trO'iffi'~ ntlt pt'C~c""tC'...~ ax ~ h~e ..". _ ~i. M l'rHlll~' O S'lHiJ~:'t 0.. pt..: nf (...S~ thJe:.b/li9" oom. It. n.:r . b:on!itiLnt. t.lii~:..M..:d."... R:: '""9" r on ~ li~ M!o.oJ pnI)(lOl'l'I"~ or cc:-mr. " hcf~"i la' Rurn~ n the ">":tllsio<1.t..ee-' I'I\"U p:.:""'1'r.~ p("ift!!o :t1 ituate-::f n.)ons.ille:::.1' ~n~~s::"Jn (Of r~\..:! TO .::eh .is: t-.. ~eJ ..".e :..ilh exhc e ~ Iln:!l1~be h'lr.~r:rt1~¢l'a'~!e·~:.'j.-~~~...: l.::)S: lne ..ns-::int" W-e"'l ~~tf:tij"!l ca. K . Or"lt!' ~'.:. Cnt· ...)'t!' :"i.f~=::rl~'=nte...C:~I''''·n'S\"'J:):iti:Jnlalt! an-: ~rt ~:tII.1li:r'CL. ~ "'" ' ..:O!lmi.I'O-«..'C"'1f:..~ ~J:".":j ~:: '''.IS:' rllle2i.?S '. 0 r..etlt II".".II:I' (Jd".ral..·(:)st~'b'~ wt.o. 'v.~"\ !IflQ " o.. p".0" A b:..:'c.~t r.. Opaque 0".:p. ~ se ~I"'...~I~'C Ali kn. •.b..I'hi1D e!~. . ~o i-cs Of n1~~e:s. .)n :"r~ d Mct\.. Ir. te (j' .~-t:: $h~ is br"~hl-t'llh=n.: ~"'tTCA: st~"*oC'Io2 -c-b.-alex!> ~11.. dn::.ecbi~ ...j $t I 'S ue ~."'1...<ily V:ahl:( Vn~ ~b-:)mi Mi"'o' M.nx11r.e... OO"curlt:'i~ :.. ~ (.'ap Par.U'li) ~rgk1 c e-re .:t~~I...:t:e:ed I).....n.l"l. .euroi1". dn\oefi~lf\t)! N l~ t!lo..sp·~wJ ~I' ~.. C" ~.re.1 Sl-ls"!.· ~"OJ~ (Oi :-~si:l"'l~*. rlt'..:.l..ro..~ j ..l M..j.:r !.u'( ss -UT~~ '. D"'tS.trmcr. .·.: 'ij.."'~'Tc··~ rla~~ PI.d (~_~ .j"'lll..:91 ~~. :a COTPOS :-t.dy lh3l ~~o:: R~L..::n i 'Q 'S.!b..kH::.f/1".I~r~~~a' ..r:.iihtr... csrk...$u'la(..Ii)..y ~.Jf. Ci'.h.~' ·N·nea~ :r:'i! a-d 'C''!].:..'!V: Zt!!""ilh 0'1....'r!n:ly ."t-¢"" . ..n'i 0(0 .'...'i'li.r.I~ O~:)~: .-n...:c" lr..:Ilioalioo Mod ••'" t-..~. 00 e\e.. Tha· Ill':'...~ex:r'C~'f.A.a...f'. O"("Ate~"t G l~J"-d.).erj)F!.:: (:f:£::n iII•• 13'" e: f'1C1o-e .!ar' :~ilt. iii! rc... ~."c~i<ledll~r'I!' co.'€!C':lf-9..~-.IO 01 1""lIPilJent nr....1S ..:lr~I~rn:i~~ r..r~ "he 'pnth.~n or".::l1'1.IA:~"I."..I!~ 01 :. ('..'(:l ~~fl:ec:: a I -:) c~MO'o't::"r'E!"'!::'1.. 0'9" Q-.." ~boul ..Op:JQ.'Op:'Mitr:-.. v...-0 "J:":f"'l. \l=' Lal.t':jr. :Si~~¥ .i2:t ~t.d EI':!!:c~·\~rr'\Clgllr:~tt. :r:"it.'!i:i3i 1.j Prc'IC!'i.r~~:j.."k of I:Jla.t.9i al : . .. '''''OCI'tioll Q< .'" I~Q..".. f.I:.:cr.t 5oaTi1! ~j~ QI::\:wgci·cle..00.d 01 hQ.."of':!..t)·c ~ ~.\lIS UALO'RAM'MARI GLOSSARY 1:i!i'JI'~'c~1 In$"l...~~"V.'..s c~ an . i1'l~3~'~1"'9 ~"... '..ng c:.1'19U'"iilbeu._t')' E e .m ....

i! pOi"':'.IC ~ nt To.per . IJf'it ol m e..i'U. RCP'il"~(:litRt'Q'1 of 11 ~C'.lI'_"\1'4'" ~.:" \cd 1J'~~¥i(:a :C.o"Je~:o ~ j. Rliror.1 on So f.aJ u~ ~ o~ .1.:' P.:.. Cn 10rs lhat ceo ret I~~ CI eeted by mix ill @ [Jtl"l~ r L..r ~hl3.. ii:fft.:ai:Q: roCO'.~-d nlixi 1..~f"eEu.i3j G"I..ar"'th ...If ore D~ i'U~ !Mud dl:!. one thir. !=rL'l1Lie lion f!1ropor:ir...I"':aI.(l'r I<~<!. ::.l.: Iro"t'. ~. fn.. ree-d ~·lcr'T.' a ct'lnte~.c:~i fI ~ sperjfk."""" tv"..." R~'''''!]C RIo~b'91o '1~.'!t(ltk ~ectll"i{ric."eta:'1 Urnes.i~iol:["j 1'>11 m~')' "0.) net "" QvIi"9 ""I)' ~y<:1<! 0' Io"'l~ Q<lll<:...:3r1th3.c...nt ~li':ere' rro...l ze lM11lCU!&.:olc-r!>.gr..IT...<>M J~~!. R~yll\m R~t~lion ~lJbrlc $nl~'ali"n SC~ltld '~~C'0errtent 'l'G!... .v~ an Ir-natc wealth ::.)II.. o·~ v.'J<: ~!a~ e.~". e'e-neus. OtIp:"lIo .:-t ..nt.' 9.'.e. mut lateoal M:trn'!:. rq en r.t'")"L PI:. c.~C"~te.te. e"':llh lUO Jrd t-II': ~ -01 of '! O"f.CJ crier tim=. 'fC ce-rer. e Re=lu~!' cr ~ •. w· ·elJilch!l$. ..' a.n o~jo:-:::t's r(O.n~ ce i"l"i1cr.r ~~ lJb.~i!i .eI~1(lI\ O'ga·liz5t~ P~~I Curv~ th.VISUAL GRAMMARI GLOSSARY 1\l.oo .al telR\ ~u.j!{!.1.r R~L4i.u- s."\9~s.. D~tl G~ a Com~ :.~. ~.oe RtMEfi"Q ~OOlil..-oj'iu:..eeic~ l!tx'. abst -a.". Repr""omlali.uallan~1h. til. s g" _..".:!'. s. G oce..!i • .a.~.:c. /~ ~br. Sh. [tot: r-cla_i:r~"Croo {'!IIleagth a :~1iI!\ Q~ 3-= (:~ n-et~ure¢ .I.!O:::..~dL t. ~"Ii~ ~twee n {OIIT ~ d"o...~tl :In .d' (fit bul:t st·"" Sl'. fT.) .''r::.. ¥. !"(:fIe" :l1!lC'. ~n Lc.t::e. ~5!IP-Eft 0~ .y ~ t+.n.roe.... ty ~ ~L-r=i1cp' surli5. T~. o-f th~ coler Ii~$ tMt~ repl'::J.s:ual 5\Ji"mIJI"'I:jIl~g~: II:u~~r~1C:..U<1i b'l .CC~ ('. :. ~".3 ~met-':tfJ !5!li.s1.>:Ie" . V'!SW .e ~Itt. 'S..Els"lr~d if] tlme...ri.iTt "JoOnts (}.e ntc%iti A reptiOd. "'"..At' a':9€ V.g"""'1 S~MO'cgy n. A :'iitru<:lu'~ ·11...Itfa:a.)I'irra... Ro!l~ti\)n :jl.ni...w·la~ .o..I'!jb'tQUtoo! Oi""... 't--t.rite-:J( ~1'tJ.'-d ta:ng a. :ou~· 5 00:1 i qu. Ar..n.~ pili ('i ~circe Sh>"Y 01 tna: is-tl'~f~j'K lWf~hI=ry.l":~ ~ -...1 Three-::fi! r el~ic:r. (Qlor.ee-d ~\ot b~ rffl'11 M9 es..ioraaon GcrOI'G1H representecor of :)1".e t. on 1hr: ."'c i'Y!p'...:1.Ck..F""'Y ~ic..:au:Ji~l!j: Dcoicliun of one nL~gi"l... K:~O".~:Ii!:-mef~s ~-~ * 3U'I cts1~IIIC""S: c· itM~ '.i:J· ='. Rod.>..'r.1aU.o'1J ~~:thc ~$O dt!'!::!1 ~ s.B· .a. tese-r-ose-re-n ':r:or'i a w....~ r: {IIC~t ~ ~t4s. ~$ tdi.. t-"d"l IN' . s..:l1 wh'.. ema. I$CUi5 ~~.. Bas lc . i?'i c~~.-o SJ·".[:I-':d~g a-ounc r.a..:'!Q.-.. o.sf"doo.-~.t~rni$s.'i. E.."'tO:'lr~... e.:.' ~-E.an ~i.(>tO itJ reis.i1.&'·a<:h~:1!.11 .e-:Iioo (or '''''9'''' -ar aoo.>j~ct."' R~pol"'M l~l'¢lrl) Oroc ini"~sl". Ca.(lr!!.¥i:oneS. ""'.e:stul"4.~'..")lor:)."rt-.:l.~'i3.. thl-Rl t:d e-bj~r.a pc."9 ti"e dislanc.i"1~..iCo. S:c-3pr:-j r~iI?.g to' a'itiltler. ~ 0.. -.~t 0.'e er.)tiOf"l-n :.:crl" mm8fr"'!<.::..I"'r-c<" ::.~n '.(.:i a I"Id '8: 'eTIe:~Lt:U:.'M d <lepa:!ute '"olyg"" ""-.rc. SOn"."~"I"'.001 htJe.!.on<la'l'c<lIo' A (_~ d~-rr.e ij"'9'1~t<: r."" R".CI. by 7hc Sc<:1'" pa-t e' e oeoa :·~tlie.~ A-.jr.:Oe fJIt ~!!!. limeS! as 1 <jj'. T.. ~:.n cf a color's a hble.nC".. A-. f1.n ~icr .."cs f-om lhe cente- (Jr:::re ~ the rw..c as j"..-"... e Rii!.lt~goly ~i) .f:f~'~lfl& Ci"CJJT i:.:)II(j:'Y.:ons C 0":'0'" tc-rl€ 0.roci:::. Sn*df Seedi \~~ta Il. becajeds 'n!ll<>.onrt:h"g t:'-"!'C!'.:Jir~ 10.f c(. $~~ cf rno. K~'"$'tj :Re:I!~Q"_ 9" •s "9' a t....a..jih srdes :)'.. O)TIMiJN ~ QI a tltr~""1'1'Wf~~ cbj_lX"" .. r~I!9:.-"~ "'li?. C\~.'.:) ~. Pllr'~II(~'ICrrarn h\...enoe. :p ace.e-ne-n Fe.e.-o. lhat is vral'e- Ino. ~ W" en an e.. sk : It&..-'~TIf::fCall ff::rI.-t s. I~*pe( ~iOf" III grC'Jllps."ffl'rl85i:IL S. vi.. ""t-. fe_. on a title..csd hv '.I<..OMt or column. ib~ ~Ie.io·i.~ lH-CV"e.. iO"""'.~1'"."ea S'T.. dow....!'<i·:1luliCI~round a 1\ (:F. un!l~turat. U p~rn.y «Iktr'~..?kd:'i.+or. iY'i(. AICO.ee" cuter ed~ :lf~")_ o ... II: 2 "'~Iith l.o·d~..n 4opth.t-self l.i.~ ~~ a~af in Ih·e U~.:!:'. Otsl....

'j:309 T'!-!: Va-:l~0'" Vi:.. 't:: nl':l rr n-er l-r :.l"y .. ~.''''!l~.al'.!it' .:"I V sunl ~.:m("...:".:.t11l"1 :t5....ilil.s: 11·~!t·.i~::!:.:"..IS n a lu-nI..rri\1 ~ftJ'o!'fn.. 94 .:ai =-~:I"fi'C'r<l W~. * .iY:l'" mni..VIS UAL GRAM MAr.:J1I:1!C'J rl:.!n se -. I~~ .!'!iI. imp'~IIJI"'o!'.>.:...'Ili ul i."'~ If-:.~.i~ ~ :..ts he-r ~ 'I"~MI =-.. V·a"·g:"... ::tCi09t~:J \"~.. CpPrK. :-""t i!i c: r:'i"H""'It.e·Coi!:P~"(:..JI.t *::tj ~ J~) ~~. QI Th~~ v:hl(:h ~":Iin irl·~t :"1::: re~ re~\'!'nU"'ln M')('. Inll("..' /....rir3it t.I:.)."..~~~-:.:t~ .t:i.. :--.. t":I'J O:)jtC". ~ :-18.e-:r ir 9t-:(trl.h.1:) =.:z..h ."(!s.i·. rI-..chi:.i tl at ~ u :.::n:'iilit.. !l.E.. ·!' lerilh V!SI:oI9. ~.!X=:.Ii.ot~ l:)Io!:':-: I'" ."'"lA."'U:::.t ~'5 i..:C'i·.~'ti\i' s..~. U'l"~C·¢ITC""~.:. :F'::. "t..oiN::': ..:"...~~ -:<"I!1t~""i]:" ..l. ::.t. S~. pa-t t!:r -q $0: 1:a"M TotII~~ '0 -:i..~' . ICXllji"! (.In ..!llholJr c_~ of ciiM~t.l~ ~"':".-nf:o:1 -o ::::e: ::.1...!.. I oh-f-'.or... T"'c :!.1 GLOSSARY V'.t ~lf....:n f-o d :to'!n1e"....n . ~:!I I'i • C~~rte I!:rfll:".~~t ..::tII:J5 51~~:-:nt.)".li' :.:~ !lin =*-" CCl~ 1::.Im t S-f.r.~.'(~"!.r..')' V~:.~.-s \"'i~::. ra~ ~5:k". :n.f :il~ j')®rlur~. c: Ih ~iII ~ oI:'~:':i!!'I'!n-:~d iI::". S-~. . Q·rq co o-s .:JQlnl n (~i"": (..IJ:>J: ~~·n:..h hn"'lt l.t Rei "" ~ • cd "'IJ."'!:r: Iexlare I h·~~.:".. :a"l': :·IUle d r'k"'. 1:.f1ihon."..'~ JI i~=:.= ::J.1. c.t~ C.Ii art •• =h'i~i(. tIC:::!.a h Qfl it a -d tC'o(. .l::.1 ::··#Ji!Cil)ij::::t. 00:·1 :a:::blo!:tl iili1::! \.r tnng. lrll"..l'l Jrd-_~rsl:'l:":f'n(!(ll ne ~ i11"'~eU~:)IiI~ Th ~ i~~" "")5(.le<: Tc :ilke .j. 10·:":~:~::.)ja-c:: 1N:s~ c'" ":r.t"'i~·.. V"$c ~ V ~I.ln~km ~ ~ 1.lal~in.:... rA n..fll Suctrcc~I.:!1 ~~i::i=J1-::o co ~rvi~i'Ol~} 11I1-:'Y. f.~ • ·I:. C .Jv..:.t sru :. t(lO~ e: :a"1 ~1k.jl' ~11~h~'''l. s gn.url Shcke e. }. 0' 0:1'" c. :) 1.: Va d VO 1}1IIe :oi"'i"'!! h e b"!" : -e eierel"l::=': In S (ihl rf..: S-~nYneh·rj.iI I=~~~:'ill :".re ':t"~1 '!!tl a-::l~r_ s~· J-:::tlJ S<.""I..~.1 0:::1d n ~ 7 ~I· fit-=- h.~·I b! :hc C~""I:=-:rn~=': <:Xr. ...nl~) (1.~e li."~A.1'\".I. j -o . ~f .'''I'UJl'11 U~ cl ::e :...'E'tltQ~ it::: "\": 'i' !oC ~oj ¥"~.:-n... 3.W.·~··'=i[c":! T:iflt.r . '~i!<l E-::!.:~ I:)"tit.DI""'C .)"f"1 ~~..Ij "d OCI:eu.IC T3i'tg'.ep..Iu·. ~H::l~orliJ.1-1 S.l. 1~1f:I~J n.:"'a~ t:r.i'i~::J .lo1l"F.. ::{)f"llrC·...V1"..c··::.. mni-cr.:Il rs w:!y ~ \'~Mk: is pyl w':::!....i.!"ri'lr er :::.sC:$S.I.. l"'l(":"wt:s-u..lt~ md r. O"':J h:"l!.l.-r='.J' ~ :~'It....."X'.~:-':en ~'""!:!l·3 e-b.PI I :J1"¥i-r.: :o*-=t . U~ $~I 1::.t.:s.::r-u"'it ':')I"nl.-d :!if itH".fir-: ~Jt.':-:Iol'.b~C~l".: ..! ec:~ c~ ='~:r: O::. ~.c:!. ·i..I~le ~M.eI\:.o t:MCSo-::lo F.""....):TI ~ <..s .d••ft!o :S::8 cis!1 b....r":lTI 'i'ic W: I~~ Ii!.il<: ."lfl-..-'i"rlru-.. ~1!rf~U~jtl':l..~th r)i:":viuLI~ lack c~ pl~..·~. ':.u .1. Vl:=I ti.: :0'" lh<lt ~.p.= I:!! ~~jJ3:t n!'..::'. .lI·~""I:.....fJ.~ Obj:.:"(r"::Jr.i i"I~.111C Va· ~h Po' ':!.. ~·". -r-es.¢of"..."I...1.1{' ...:".f'i"II ~~XI"'Se 10 i. ~ .:''1 it .1~ 1I't13 "!l1\'j~ If} ~I """.9 gil ~X~.~: -lIrif 'Sib'uc.~I"~t (fu'''n~ :.-~·.~:::l). .1"'.II"iI }:.i\.·· b":M'~r r.JO!I" .. Clp~:it~.o:llJ. un..t.ith(~i~ltri"i:.: .!'~·u·"i.. :::J:..(I1.'t 0..l.i:.l\i"oi'F:: UI·~e -:i.Jurc i..'n ':::In~ ilw Ar~3 Ql'1"! (""t j •• .:'~.-"Id...'4:("$ O' i!.itCi I :.. .:1'- eels.:rl! ~'1fI... ~ T"rcc-s~~: :~'Ijj~.dJr'!: t-ie n •.UIII gt te-rpemr .b::-: r.. 1"...r1:"k~~ ..'fj!.__:o.. I).:h3::.:or.avil"llC"Li":d·d~ the Eer: ....a (::""if'IIJ(::"...~.:e-O ir~.)rt Start n9 SIO:" :)(1 nl p:) f\ t r..¢tC'.h I h~ ~"1I:!C~:. .J1 e .".I..o.:1!! nn..btr.1:. iaMcl.I:·'rfl!!.::t :0 1 c~ :It:tt::''. I.i:") T"'''.nA.tl:.t. T~. ('.::m vr r.Mnr=)...c.I..1~ TlJnl:' ts ~..· r-.~~a'f~~ ultw~ ob. j"'IP:'1I.: A Ir:-.d:I. M~J '.d.md U.~"".al.ltex -:::!t'q.iuil I "I~·.~O-.! "lsar-spa-ent -.U··CI ~~!" Ii tJljl"lm :Sl~j.(.~ I"V' -:bjx:'sv:e..rr. ""'Ig'h·(':i"'r..il~. EX:~\':n'll~~I\.c: _ CoMp::.tI!.i"·p·Jr _. :'lo.·41S~:.rl<::*-"1 :Jinl:'n!FJn!.::I!l~ :21~1&1~ Uvilcr-r V'''il V..rC'......C(.!!I~: 1£ I~ he 1>3-! e o· 1 1...

8okUtl'l. Visu.3· The Art of Lookin9 $i"ew~ys.cepliol).on & CC. 1990. M2. ed.nd 96 .-: Ol<li'On.Johr.. 1. '995.. Pri'/8. Fuller.1 Desigll.iorary. S.~()~1.'nho d. Lo"dcoc P~laidol1 ".. Wir'l:e-s. 2000.1'. lo. 'Ways 01 Seeing. LiJngman.ican L.lIttU. . .. Grllfisk Ildndbok. Yo". T'10"'" Berger. lCX1QII. i=aktikofl.gH. A Primer QI Visual WerBey. F.cis A. H~mb)..Ullisl·'e's. '961.."rl.:k'lolr.d. Tho Grammar 01 Visual Desig". ord:el. Car-b' age: MIT Press.C'I'lile.lcna niles.. of C!Jf!enl Eng/i.VISUAL GRAMMARI BIBLIOGRAPHY B ibl iography Flall and. SymbolM. Now Y:)fk. New "or~: R"irilo O.he /hi.~: O"IOfd' WasSily. Kra'J5Se. Os.. Tor.. Oslo: A~glr8~1 forla~. K -ess. 8roby-.d Dimensio". Norsk ()r<iboi<. An and Vi"'UIII ~e. Ba. 1884. Gnnr ar.. ed.~ra')'. L'II ao. ~g2B The' Act of CrMlion.'Crsity cl ::111 'coni!. New vo·~: New A'1lC"ric~fl l. Fi. Press. 'Rucloll. Point and Unc /0 PI/me.~g. lo"as. 1919.blisbee ~"j L" 1dofl: S<~"61 & Co. Anna.-~. R... Oslo: Kl.lpslo' agel. O~ID: Gyldenda'. 'lg6~. 01 FOIfI! and Desigll. Hn'~. Do1<. 2C02.. Layror: Gibbl! Principles Sm (". O~ 1bolt. R". London: Pen~ul' Book:. New YO'~: Reirho. Advanced L<JfllIle':s Dictionary \Jrti~ersily Press...o: KU1nskap~fcc.m" tien-. Ne'~'York: Van \os:-.. Fletc're'. 1964. '95d. V bo'\): Forl?ge. i<unslordbog. p. '9'.1i~.:ag.n~sk. Louden: Rou:'ec9~..~irs: pi. Beyond . 199::!· e~. ".'99. New' York: 00 .:. J_. Lr>ndcn: HJlcrin.197~. £gil. S eridqels 9 ~d: Vis(J2f hngu"Be. . CMI '901. 8IJckmins!ar . 19·98. 81ikk 1m hilder.)61. C. Gur the" ~'<J. '996. K3ndir. O. Aro ~ei .I'CSS. ed.e.99.Ro. \. 5 'Ber~ riff: u'ri. O~II. '9'M. R.."e. ilrchi/eclure ill E/flmcnMry.cRO'(~ 'Inc.Ian. Mall''1i1: Aldebaran Ellbindslek:..~ClOlI. Na:~a".. . IgS6. Garrett. Ba(Hl1: L?rs I.): WkeSllppl!f'.".tijIJ"- Reading Images.Sao.. C.ikon. F 1'51puol shed al Baul'uus..I.'93.. Sclerv 'ie A..sh O~i". Sesam. .1.!ohansen. U:6: "':I~ Th» Arl 01 COIOf..\rlag '99C.sky. 100. se. Tveleras. Kn./o Sky.

'1 Line 10 ".StructJ'a Skeleton $5 Active Structures 36 Texlure 30 SilO 32 Colo' ze Form .icJlior '2". Racialion '23 Vis~al!Olst.i$i~ e:/hac-.h.oint 16 Formal Abstract T I 19 Formal Stru Clu res I 2".we St'~tlules Abstract Structures '2.

40 RepetitiOn 42 Mirronng 44 Rotation 89 Glossary 95 Bibliography 49 Dueclior 46 Upscaling/Oownscaling La Path : J 0 recnor 0' Oisol!lcerrenl 60 Fine/Coarse • 62 Oifeclion 58 Groups 64 SpacoiWeigh1 57 Balance 66 Amounl/Dominance 69 Baokground/Foreground 86 Varia IOn 71 Distance 55 I.' cdilicauon 74 Negative/Posi1ive 80/81 Subtraction/Coincidence 82 Penetration!Extrusion 75 Transparent/Opaqv 18 Overlapping/Compound .

Visual Grammar can help you speak and write about visual objects and their creative potential. Other titles available in this series: Geometry 61 Design Kimberlv EIi1m IS6 N !--b6898-249-6 Elements: of Design Gad Greet Hannah ISBN 1-56898-329-8 Grid SysieJJiS Kimbell)' Elarn ISBN 1-5689lH 65-0 Thinking witt: Type Ellen Lupton ISBN H56898-448·Q IS8H 1-36698-58 . if not always deliberate. He is a founding partner of K..Life in the image world has made us all voracious. Easy access to computer graphic tools has turned many of us into either amateur or professional image producers. Norway.898-581-7 8 $19.:. and better understand the graphics that bombard you 2417. Christian Leborg is a designer and design educator. ~ . consumers of visual messages..-s 075-1 5(. But without a basic understanding of visual language a productive dialog between producers and consumers of visual communication is impossible.95 51995 -~ ~~ DJ Y Design It Yourself Ellell Lupton ISSN 1-56898-552-5 DESIGN BRIEFS Ii . a knowledge and communications consultancy in Oslo. Itis both a primer on visual language and a visual dictionary of the fundamental aspects of graphic design.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful