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n this tutorial we look at 25 different elements and see how their colour varies when placed in a colourless flame.

The colours produced are a result of the emission spectra for each element. We don't go into the emission spectra in this tutorial but flame tests are an excellent introduction to the quantum world in which chemistry operates and a great starting point to explain electron configuration and electronic structure in atoms. Below is a list of the elements discussed in this tutorial together with the colour emitted during a flame test. As mentioned in the tutorial, flames tests are qualitative (that is it won't tell you how much of the element is present) but quantitative (that is how much of an element is present) techniques do exist and these will be covered in the analytical tutorials in more detail. Arsenic - Blue Boron - Bright green Barium -Pale/Apple green Calcium - Brick red Caesium - Blue-Violet Copper(I) - Blue Copper(II) (non-halide) - Green Copper(II) (halide) Blue-green Iron - Yellow/Gold Indium - Blue Potassium - Violet Lithium - Red Manganese (II) - Yellowish green Magnesium - Bright white Molybdenum - Yellowish green Sodium - Intense yellow Phosphorus - Pale bluish green Lead - Blue/White Rubidium - Red-violet Antimony - Pale green Selenium - blue Strontium - Red Tellurium - Pale green Thallium - green Zinc Bluish white