2
Lessons In Electric Circuits, Volume II – AC
By Tony R. Kuphaldt Sixth Edition, last update July 25, 2007
i c 20002011, Tony R. Kuphaldt This book is published under the terms and conditions of the Design Science License. These terms and conditions allow for free copying, distribution, and/or modiﬁcation of this document by the general public. The full Design Science License text is included in the last chapter. As an open and collaboratively developed text, this book is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the Design Science License for more details. Available in its entirety as part of the Open Book Project collection at: openbookproject.net/electricCircuits
PRINTING HISTORY • First Edition: Printed in June of 2000. PlainASCII illustrations for universal computer readability. • Second Edition: Printed in September of 2000. Illustrations reworked in standard graphic (eps and jpeg) format. Source ﬁles translated to Texinfo format for easy online and printed publication. • Third Edition: Equations and tables reworked as graphic images rather than plainASCII text. • Fourth Edition: Printed in November 2001. Source ﬁles translated to SubML format. SubML is a simple markup language designed to easily convert to other markups like A LTEX, HTML, or DocBook using nothing but searchandreplace substitutions. • Fifth Edition: Printed in November 2002. New sections added, and error corrections made, since the fourth edition. • Sixth Edition: Printed in June 2006. Added CH 13, sections added, and error corrections made, ﬁgure numbering and captions added, since the ﬁfth edition.
ii
Contents
1 BASIC AC THEORY 1.1 What is alternating current (AC)? 1.2 AC waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Measurements of AC magnitude . 1.4 Simple AC circuit calculations . . 1.5 AC phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.6 Principles of radio . . . . . . . . . 1.7 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 COMPLEX NUMBERS 2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Vectors and AC waveforms . . . 2.3 Simple vector addition . . . . . . 2.4 Complex vector addition . . . . . 2.5 Polar and rectangular notation . 2.6 Complex number arithmetic . . 2.7 More on AC ”polarity” . . . . . . 2.8 Some examples with AC circuits 2.9 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 6 12 19 20 23 25 27 27 30 32 35 37 42 44 49 55 57 57 59 64 71 74 77 79 81 81 83 87 92
3 REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE 3.1 AC resistor circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 AC inductor circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 Series resistorinductor circuits . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 Parallel resistorinductor circuits . . . . . . . . . 3.5 Inductor quirks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6 More on the “skin effect” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE 4.1 AC resistor circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 AC capacitor circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Series resistorcapacitor circuits . . . . . . . . . 4.4 Parallel resistorcapacitor circuits . . . . . . . . iii
iv 4.5 4.6
CONTENTS
Capacitor quirks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 97 99 99 101 106 110 119 120 120 121 121 126 131 135 136 145 151 153 153 158 168 174 185 188 189 189 190 196 199 202 204 215 215 217 218 232 237 239 243 248
5 REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R, L, AND C 5.1 Review of R, X, and Z . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Series R, L, and C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Parallel R, L, and C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Seriesparallel R, L, and C . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5 Susceptance and Admittance . . . . . . . . . . 5.6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 RESONANCE 6.1 An electric pendulum . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Simple parallel (tank circuit) resonance 6.3 Simple series resonance . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Applications of resonance . . . . . . . . 6.5 Resonance in seriesparallel circuits . . 6.6 Q and bandwidth of a resonant circuit 6.7 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS 7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Square wave signals . . . . . . . . 7.3 Other waveshapes . . . . . . . . . 7.4 More on spectrum analysis . . . . 7.5 Circuit effects . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.6 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 FILTERS 8.1 What is a ﬁlter? . 8.2 Lowpass ﬁlters . 8.3 Highpass ﬁlters 8.4 Bandpass ﬁlters 8.5 Bandstop ﬁlters 8.6 Resonant ﬁlters . 8.7 Summary . . . . 8.8 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9 TRANSFORMERS 9.1 Mutual inductance and basic operation 9.2 Stepup and stepdown transformers . 9.3 Electrical isolation . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4 Phasing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.5 Winding conﬁgurations . . . . . . . . . 9.6 Voltage regulation . . . . . . . . . . . .
CONTENTS
9.7 Special transformers and applications 9.8 Practical considerations . . . . . . . . 9.9 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
v 251 268 281 281 283 283 289 296 300 306 313 318 343 345 347 347 352 355 360 365 367 367 374 382 385 387 396 406 406 407 408 412 420 421 426 438 442 460 464 469 471 479
10 POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS 10.1 Singlephase power systems . . . . . . . . 10.2 Threephase power systems . . . . . . . . 10.3 Phase rotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.4 Polyphase motor design . . . . . . . . . . 10.5 Threephase Y and Delta conﬁgurations . 10.6 Threephase transformer circuits . . . . . 10.7 Harmonics in polyphase power systems . 10.8 Harmonic phase sequences . . . . . . . . 10.9 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11 POWER FACTOR 11.1 Power in resistive and reactive AC circuits 11.2 True, Reactive, and Apparent power . . . . 11.3 Calculating power factor . . . . . . . . . . . 11.4 Practical power factor correction . . . . . . 11.5 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 AC METERING CIRCUITS 12.1 AC voltmeters and ammeters . . . . 12.2 Frequency and phase measurement 12.3 Power measurement . . . . . . . . . 12.4 Power quality measurement . . . . 12.5 AC bridge circuits . . . . . . . . . . . 12.6 AC instrumentation transducers . . 12.7 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 AC MOTORS 13.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.2 Synchronous Motors . . . . . . . . 13.3 Synchronous condenser . . . . . . 13.4 Reluctance motor . . . . . . . . . . 13.5 Stepper motors . . . . . . . . . . . 13.6 Brushless DC motor . . . . . . . . 13.7 Tesla polyphase induction motors 13.8 Wound rotor induction motors . . 13.9 Singlephase induction motors . . 13.10 Other specialized motors . . . . . 13.11 Selsyn (synchro) motors . . . . . 13.12 AC commutator motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482
14 TRANSMISSION LINES 14.1 A 50ohm cable? . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.2 Circuits and the speed of light . . . . 14.3 Characteristic impedance . . . . . . . 14.4 Finitelength transmission lines . . . 14.5 “Long” and “short” transmission lines 14.6 Standing waves and resonance . . . . 14.7 Impedance transformation . . . . . . 14.8 Waveguides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A1 ABOUT THIS BOOK A2 CONTRIBUTOR LIST A3 DESIGN SCIENCE LICENSE INDEX
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483 483 484 486 493 499 502 522 529 537 541 549 552
Chapter 1
BASIC AC THEORY
Contents
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 What is alternating current (AC)? AC waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measurements of AC magnitude . Simple AC circuit calculations . . AC phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Principles of radio . . . . . . . . . . Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 6 12 19 20 23 25
1.1
What is alternating current (AC)?
Most students of electricity begin their study with what is known as direct current (DC), which is electricity ﬂowing in a constant direction, and/or possessing a voltage with constant polarity. DC is the kind of electricity made by a battery (with deﬁnite positive and negative terminals), or the kind of charge generated by rubbing certain types of materials against each other. As useful and as easy to understand as DC is, it is not the only “kind” of electricity in use. Certain sources of electricity (most notably, rotary electromechanical generators) naturally produce voltages alternating in polarity, reversing positive and negative over time. Either as a voltage switching polarity or as a current switching direction back and forth, this “kind” of electricity is known as Alternating Current (AC): Figure 1.1 Whereas the familiar battery symbol is used as a generic symbol for any DC voltage source, the circle with the wavy line inside is the generic symbol for any AC voltage source. One might wonder why anyone would bother with such a thing as AC. It is true that in some cases AC holds no practical advantage over DC. In applications where electricity is used to dissipate energy in the form of heat, the polarity or direction of current is irrelevant, so long as there is enough voltage and current to the load to produce the desired heat (power dissipation). However, with AC it is possible to build electric generators, motors and power 1
2
CHAPTER 1. BASIC AC THEORY
DIRECT CURRENT (DC) I
ALTERNATING CURRENT (AC) I
I
I
Figure 1.1: Direct vs alternating current
distribution systems that are far more efﬁcient than DC, and so we ﬁnd AC used predominately across the world in high power applications. To explain the details of why this is so, a bit of background knowledge about AC is necessary. If a machine is constructed to rotate a magnetic ﬁeld around a set of stationary wire coils with the turning of a shaft, AC voltage will be produced across the wire coils as that shaft is rotated, in accordance with Faraday’s Law of electromagnetic induction. This is the basic operating principle of an AC generator, also known as an alternator: Figure 1.2
Step #1 S N N + no current! Load I Load I S Step #2
Step #3 N S S I
Step #4
N
no current! Load
+ I Load
Figure 1.2: Alternator operation
Connected to a load. especially if the shaft of the generator is revolving at high speed.3 Step #1 N S N S N S I Load Step #3 N S N S N S I Load Step #2 N S + + Load Step #4 N S + + Load Figure 1. WHAT IS ALTERNATING CURRENT (AC)? 3 Notice how the polarity of the voltage across the wire coils reverses as the opposite poles of the rotating magnet pass by. this reversing voltage polarity will create a reversing current direction in the circuit. their construction is not as simple as their AC counterparts. there are multiple sets of coils making intermittent contact with the brushes. In order for a DC generator to produce constant voltage. While DC generators work on the same general principle of electromagnetic induction. the coil of wire is mounted in the shaft where the magnet is on the AC alternator. and electrical connections are made to this spinning coil via stationary carbon “brushes” contacting copper strips on the rotating shaft.3: DC generator operation The generator shown above will produce two pulses of voltage per revolution of the shaft.1. All this is necessary to switch the coil’s changing output polarity to the external circuit so the external circuit sees a constant polarity: Figure 1. resulting in an alternating voltage and current that switches directions more often in a given amount of time. The faster the alternator’s shaft is turned. If the atmosphere surrounding the machine contains ﬂammable or explosive . The problems involved with making and breaking electrical contact with a moving coil should be obvious (sparking and heat). The diagram shown above is a bit more simpliﬁed than what you would see in real life. the faster the magnet will spin. rather than brief pulses of voltage once every 1/2 revolution. With a DC generator.1. both pulses in the same direction (polarity).
the transformer “steps up” the voltage from the source level to a higher level at the load: Figure 1. and so is immune to these problems experienced by DC generators. Without .4: Transformer “transforms” AC voltage and current. the current through the secondary coil is just the opposite: primary coil current multiplied by the ratio of primary to secondary turns.4 CHAPTER 1. the AC motor being dependent upon the reversing magnetic ﬁeld produced by alternating current through its stationary coils of wire to rotate the rotating magnet around on its shaft. business. or consumer use. using torque and speed to represent voltage and current. AC and DC motor designs are very similar to their generator counterparts (identical for the sake of this tutorial). If the secondary coil is powering a load.6 The transformer’s ability to step AC voltage up or down with ease gives AC an advantage unmatched by DC in the realm of power distribution in ﬁgure 1. There is an effect of electromagnetism known as mutual induction. The AC voltage induced in the unpowered (“secondary”) coil is equal to the AC voltage across the powered (“primary”) coil multiplied by the ratio of secondary coil turns to primary coil turns. this device is known as a transformer: Figure 1. But what else is AC good for? Surely there must be more to it than design details of generators and motors! Indeed there is. The fundamental signiﬁcance of a transformer is its ability to step voltage up or down from the powered coil to the unpowered coil. An AC generator (alternator) does not require brushes and commutators to work. then step the voltage back down and the current back up for industry. In fact. While DC motors require the use of brushes to make electrical contact with moving coils of wire. This relationship has a very close mechanical analogy. So we know that AC generators and AC motors tend to be simpler than DC generators and DC motors. the practical problems of sparkproducing brush contacts are even greater. When transmitting electrical power over long distances. The beneﬁts of AC over DC with regard to generator design is also reﬂected in electric motors.5 If the winding ratio is reversed so that the primary coil has less turns than the secondary coil. If we have two mutually inductive coils and we energize one coil with AC. we will create an AC voltage in the other coil.4 Transformer AC voltage source Induced AC voltage Figure 1. it is far more efﬁcient to do so with steppedup voltages and steppeddown currents (smallerdiameter wire with less resistive power losses).7. Transformer technology has made longrange electric power distribution practical. When used as such. and the DC motor being dependent on the brush contacts making and breaking connections to reverse current through the rotating coil every 1/2 rotation (180 degrees). AC motors do not. whereby two or more coils of wire placed so that the changing magnetic ﬁeld created by one induces a voltage in the other. respectively: Figure 1. BASIC AC THEORY vapors. This relative simplicity translates into greater reliability and lower cost of manufacture.
5: Speed multiplication gear train steps torque down and speed up. high voltage Power Plant Stepup .1. to other customers low voltage Stepdown Home or Business low voltage Figure 1.7: Transformers enable efﬁcient long distance high voltage transmission of electric energy. . Stepdown transformer steps voltage down and current up. WHAT IS ALTERNATING CURRENT (AC)? Speed multiplication geartrain Large gear (many teeth) Small gear (few teeth) + high voltage AC voltage source low voltage many turns few turns high current Load 5 "Stepdown" transformer + high torque low speed low torque high speed low current Figure 1. Stepup transformer steps voltage up and current down. .6: Speed reduction gear train steps torque up and speed down. .1. Speed reduction geartrain Large gear (many teeth) Small gear (few teeth) + AC voltage source low voltage few turns high current many turns Load + "Stepup" transformer high voltage low torque high speed high torque low speed low current Figure 1.
That rate is greatest when the magnet poles are closest to the coils. Because the phenomenon of mutual inductance relies on changing magnetic ﬁelds. • AC stands for “Alternating Current.” meaning voltage or current that changes polarity or direction.1. respectively. When graphed over time. and direct current (DC) can only produce steady magnetic ﬁelds. If we were to graph the trigonometric function of “sine” over a horizontal range of 0 to 360 degrees. As useful as transformers are. Often. over time. Perhaps more than any other reason. the voltage level changing most rapidly at the zero (“crossover”) point and most slowly at its peak. we would ﬁnd the exact same pattern as in Table 1.6 CHAPTER 1. • AC electromechanical generators. transformers simply will not work with direct current. and least when the magnet poles are furthest away from the coils. The voltage produced by the stationary coils by the motion of the rotating magnet is proportional to the rate at which the magnetic ﬂux is changing perpendicular to the coils (Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction). • REVIEW: • DC stands for “Direct Current. known as alternators. Of course. the voltage switches polarity over time. this is why AC ﬁnds such widespread application in power systems.8 In the voltage plot from an electromechanical alternator. but pulsed DC is not that different from AC. are of simpler construction than DC electromechanical generators. The reason why an electromechanical alternator outputs sinewave AC is due to the physics of its operation. it would be costprohibitive to construct power systems for anything but closerange (within a few miles at most) use. the “wave” traced by this voltage of alternating polarity from an alternator takes on a distinct shape. • A transformer is a pair of mutuallyinductive coils used to convey AC power from one coil to the other.2 AC waveforms When an alternator produces AC voltage. but does so in a very particular manner. • AC and DC motor design follows respective generator design principles very closely. direct current may be interrupted (pulsed) through the primary winding of a transformer to create a changing magnetic ﬁeld (as is done in automotive ignition systems to produce highvoltage spark plug power from a lowvoltage DC battery). not DC. respectively. the number of turns in each coil is set to create a voltage increase or decrease from the powered (primary) coil to the unpowered (secondary) coil. • Secondary voltage = Primary voltage (secondary turns / primary turns) • Secondary current = Primary current (primary turns / secondary turns) 1.” meaning voltage or current that maintains constant polarity or direction. they only work with AC. . BASIC AC THEORY the ability to efﬁciently step voltage up and down. over time. the change from one polarity to the other is a smooth one. known as a sine wave: Figure 1.
9659 1.9659 0.0000 zero 180 0.7071 + 225 0.8660 + 240 0.8660 + 300 0.7071 0. AC WAVEFORMS 7 (the sine wave) + Time Figure 1.7071 0.8: Graph of AC voltage over time (the sine wave).0000 zero 360 0.2588 0.5000 0.0000 0.2588 + 345 0.9659 + 255 0.1.8660 0.5000 0.0000 wave zero peak zero .2. Angle (o ) 0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180 Table 1.0000 +peak 270 1.0000 0.2588 0.7071 + 315 0.5000 + 210 0.2588 + 195 0.1: Trigonometric “sine” function.5000 + 330 0.8660 0. sin(angle) wave Angle (o ) sin(angle) 0.9659 + 285 0.
Since the horizontal axis of this graph can mark the passage of time as well as shaft position in degrees.” Older meters and electronic equipment often bore frequency units of “CPS” (Cycles Per Second) instead of Hz. on the other hand. A more popular measure for describing the alternating rate of an AC voltage or current wave than period is the rate of that backandforth oscillation. but may be measured between any corresponding points on the graph. but the amount of time one period occupies depends on the rate voltage oscillates back and forth. . gives no hint as to the unit’s origin or meaning. this is often called the period of a wave. frequency was simply expressed as “cycles per second.8 CHAPTER 1. The period of a wave in degrees is always 360. Prior to the canonization of the Hertz unit. we would have marked exactly one cycle of that wave. BASIC AC THEORY Mathematically. the dimension marked for one cycle is often measured in a unit of time. In the United States of America. and also the angular position of our simple twopole alternator shaft as it rotates: Figure 1. A radio station transmitter broadcasting at a frequency of 100 MHz generates an AC voltage oscillating at a rate of 100 million cycles every second.9: Alternator voltage as function of shaft position (time). The name Centigrade was based on a 100count (“Centi”) scale (“grade”) representing the melting and boiling points of H2 O. respectively. the rate of magnetic ﬂux change due to a rotating magnet follows that of a sine function. which represents the number of wave cycles completed during one second of time. the AC voltage only completes 50 cycles every second. so the voltage produced by the coils follows that same function. When expressed as a measurement. In Europe. A similar change occurred when the unit of “Celsius” replaced that of “Centigrade” for metric temperature measurement. where the power system frequency is 50 Hz. This is called frequency. The modern unit for frequency is the Hertz (abbreviated Hz). The degree marks on the horizontal axis of the graph represent the domain of the trigonometric sine function.9 one wave cycle 0 90 180 270 360 90 180 (0) one wave cycle 270 360 (0) Alternator shaft position (degrees) Figure 1. This is most easily shown by spanning the distance between identical peaks. The name Celsius. meaning that the AC voltage oscillates at a rate of 60 complete backandforth cycles every second. most often seconds or fractions of a second. If we were to follow the changing voltage produced by a coil in an alternator from any point on the sine wave graph to that point when the wave shape begins to repeat itself. the standard powerline frequency is 60 Hz. Many people believe the change from selfexplanatory units like CPS to Hertz constitutes a step backward in clarity.
1 Hz. is used to display a changing voltage over time on a graphical screen.1. Generalpurpose oscilloscopes have the ability to display voltage from virtually any voltage source. In musical terms. That is to say. or 1/10 of a cycle per second: Frequency in Hertz = 1 Period in seconds An instrument called an oscilloscope. used by physicians to graph the oscillations of a patient’s heart over time. AC WAVEFORMS 9 Period and frequency are mathematical reciprocals of one another. Because alternating current is a wave phenomenon.5 Hz period 16 ms Figure 1. Figure 1. Lowpitch notes such as those produced by a tuba or bassoon consist of air molecule vibrations that are relatively slow (low frequency). The ECG is a specialpurpose oscilloscope expressly designed for medical use. The relationship between period and frequency is very useful to know when displaying an AC voltage or current waveform on an oscilloscope screen. if a wave has a period of 10 seconds. OSCILLOSCOPE vertical Y V/div trigger 16 divisions @ 1ms/div = a period of 16 ms DC GND AC timebase 1m X s/div DC GND AC Frequency = 1 1 = = 62. Much more common to our everyday experience is sound. you can determine the frequency in Hertz. Voltage and current are by no means the only physical variables subject to variation over time. which is nothing more than the alternating compression and decompression (pressure waves) of air molecules. .2. it shares many of the properties of other wave phenomena. frequency is equivalent to pitch.10. By measuring the period of the wave on the horizontal axis of the oscilloscope screen and reciprocating that time value (in seconds). You may be familiar with the appearance of an ECG or EKG (electrocardiograph) machine. For this reason. sound (especially structured music) provides an excellent analogy for relating AC concepts.10: Time period of sinewave is shown on oscilloscope. plotted as a graph with time as the independent variable. interpreted by our ears as a physical sensation. its frequency will be 0. like sound.
Following this rule.88 523.08 246.66 311. two notes whose frequencies are exactly double each other sound remarkably similar. For example. the ﬁrst frequency shown (designated with the letter “A”) is 220 Hz.11 is a table showing the actual frequencies for a range of common musical notes.08 Hz) and the next A sharp (466.10 CHAPTER 1. Note A A sharp (or B flat) B C (middle) C sharp (or D flat) D D sharp (or E flat) E F F sharp (or G flat) G G sharp (or A flat) A A sharp (or B flat) B C # # # Musical designation A1 A or B B1 C C# or Db D D or E E F F# or Gb G G or A A A# or Bb B C 1 b b b Frequency (in hertz) 220.16 Hz). The next highest “A” note has a frequency of 440 Hz – exactly twice as many sound wave cycles per second.16 493. this is not the only kind of alternating wave in existence. only vibrating at a much faster rate (higher frequency). Audibly. While electromechanical alternators and many other physical phenomena naturally produce sine waves. The same 2:1 ratio holds true for the ﬁrst A sharp (233. Here are but a few sample waveforms and their common designations in ﬁgure 1.63 277.00 415. The familiar musical mnemonic (doeraymeefahsolahtee) – yes.18 293.13 329. A view of a piano keyboard helps to put this scale into perspective: Figure 1. and for all note pairs found in the table.30 440. the same pattern immortalized in the whimsical Rodgers and Hammerstein song sung in The Sound of Music – covers one octave from C to C. Other “waveforms” of AC are commonly produced within electronic circuitry.23 369. one octave is equal to seven white keys’ worth of distance on a piano keyboard.12 As you can see.25 Figure 1.00 233.00 466.13 . BASIC AC THEORY Highpitch notes such as those produced by a ﬂute or whistle consist of the same type of vibrations in the air.94 261. Astute observers will notice that all notes on the table bearing the same letter designation are related by a frequency ratio of 2:1. the shortest span on a musical scale separating such note pairs being called an octave. This similarity in sound is musically recognized. Figure 1.11: The frequency in Hertz (Hz) is shown for various musical notes. the next highest “A” note (one octave above 440 Hz) will be 880 Hz. the next lowest “A” (one octave below 220 Hz) will be 110 Hz.63 349.99 392.
1.12: An octave is shown on a musical keyboard.13: Some common waveshapes (waveforms). AC WAVEFORMS 11 C# D# Db Eb F # G # A# G b Ab Bb C# D# Db Eb F # G # A# G b Ab Bb C# D# Db Eb F # G # A# G b Ab Bb C D E F G A B C D E F G A B C D E F G A B one octave Figure 1.2. Square wave Triangle wave one wave cycle Sawtooth wave one wave cycle Figure 1. .
of an AC quantity is to measure its peak height on a waveform graph. With DC. we encounter a measurement problem if we try to express how large or small an AC quantity is. and by tracing the alternation over time we can plot it as a “waveform. Being that the waveform of an AC voltage or current is crucial to its impact in a circuit. we need to be aware of the fact that AC waves come in a variety of shapes. anything different being labeled as nonsinusoidal. • REVIEW: • AC produced by an electromechanical alternator follows the graphical shape of a sine wave. square.12 CHAPTER 1.” We can measure the rate of alternation by measuring the time it takes for a wave to evolve before it repeats itself (the “period”).15 Unfortunately. This is known as the peak or crest value of an AC waveform: Figure 1. where quantities of voltage and current are generally stable. • The period of a wave is the amount of time it takes to complete one cycle. 1 Hz being equal to one complete wave cycle per second. or sawtooth voltage/current waveforms. or magnitude (also called the amplitude). But how do you grant a single measurement of magnitude to something that is constantly changing? One way to express the intensity. They’re simply a few that are common enough to have been given distinct names. • Frequency = 1/(period in seconds) 1. and express this as cycles per unit time. frequency is the same as pitch. We also know that AC can alternate in a variety of different ways.3 Measurements of AC magnitude So far we know that AC voltage alternates in polarity and AC current alternates in direction. a square wave peaking at 10 volts is obviously a greater amount of voltage for a greater amount of time than a triangle wave . This is known as the peaktopeak (PP) value of an AC waveform: Figure 1. Some waveforms are so complex that they defy classiﬁcation as a particular “type” (including waveforms associated with many kinds of musical instruments). triangle. we have little trouble expressing how much voltage or current we have in any part of a circuit. Even in circuits that are supposed to manifest “pure” sine. either one of these expressions of waveform amplitude can be misleading when comparing two different types of waves. BASIC AC THEORY These waveforms are by no means the only kinds of waveforms in existence. which is the essential property distinguishing one note from another. However.14 Another way is to measure the total height between opposite peaks. the reallife result is often a distorted version of the intended waveshape. For example. or “frequency.” In music. • One cycle of a wave is one complete evolution of its shape until the point that it is ready to repeat itself. any waveshape bearing close resemblance to a perfect sine wave is termed sinusoidal. • Frequency is the number of complete cycles that a wave completes in a given amount of time. Generally speaking. Usually measured in Hertz (Hz).
15: Peaktopeak voltage of a waveform. MEASUREMENTS OF AC MAGNITUDE 13 Peak Time Figure 1. PeaktoPeak Time Figure 1.3.1.16: A square wave produces a greater heating effect than the same peak voltage triangle wave. . 10 V Time (same load resistance) 10 V (peak) more heat energy dissipated 10 V (peak) less heat energy dissipated Figure 1.14: Peak voltage of a waveform.
will be true for any waveform having equalarea portions above and below the “zero” line of a plot. either positive or negative). of course. This. Figure 1. we calculate the practical average value of the waveform by considering all points on the wave as positive quantities.17 + + + + ++ + + +  .14 CHAPTER 1. However. it will be assumed that the “practical” deﬁnition of average . all values assumed to be positive.. If we average all the points on the waveform algebraically (that is.16 One way of expressing the amplitude of different waveshapes in a more equivalent fashion is to mathematically average the values of all the points on a waveform’s graph to a single. because the inertia of the pointer against the tension of the spring naturally averages the force produced by the varying voltage/current values over time. the average value for most waveforms is technically zero. polaritysensitive meter movements vibrate uselessly if exposed to AC voltage or current. Conversely. Polarityinsensitive mechanical meter movements (meters designed to respond equally to the positive and negative halfcycles of an alternating voltage or current) register in proportion to the waveform’s (practical) average value. because all the positive points cancel out all the negative points over a full cycle: Figure 1. their needles oscillating rapidly about the zero mark. as if the waveform looked like this: Figure 1. indicating the true (algebraic) average value of zero for a symmetrical waveform.True average value of all points (considering their signs) is zero! Figure 1. The effects of these two AC voltages powering a load would be quite different: Figure 1. as a practical measure of a waveform’s aggregate value. “average” is usually deﬁned as the mathematical mean of all the points’ absolute values over a cycle. This amplitude measure is known simply as the average value of the waveform.18: Waveform seen by AC “average responding” meter. In other words. to consider their sign.17: The average value of a sinewave is zero. BASIC AC THEORY peaking at 10 volts.18 + + + + ++ + + + ++ + + ++ + + + Practical average of points. aggregate number. When the “average” value of a waveform is referenced in this text.
etc. equipped with identical blades (same tooth pitch. aggregate measurement is also present in this saw analogy: how might we express the speed of a jigsaw blade? A bandsaw blade moves with a constant speed. equally capable of cutting the same thickness of the same type of wood at the same rate.19: Bandsawjigsaw analogy of DC vs AC. We might say that the two saws were equivalent or equal in their cutting capacity. and a quantitative comparison of this common function can serve as a common basis for which to rate blade speed. its blade speed constantly changing. The problem of trying to describe the changing quantities of AC voltage or current in a single. the backandforth motion of any two jigsaws may not be of the same type. motorpowered metal blade to cut wood. toothed. MEASUREMENTS OF AC MAGNITUDE 15 is intended unless otherwise speciﬁed. the jigsaw uses a backandforth motion.). Although the mathematics of such an amplitude measurement might not be straightforward. But while the bandsaw uses a continuous motion of the blade to cut. because the power dissipated by a given load (work performed per unit time) is not directly proportional to the magnitude of either the voltage or current impressed upon it. Despite the fact that these different saws move their blades in different manners. power is proportional to the square of the voltage or current applied to a resistance (P = E2 /R. while another with a trianglewave motion. on the other hand. they are equal in one respect: they all cut wood. The comparison of alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC) may be likened to the comparison of these two saw types: Figure 1. Both types of saws cut with a thin. depending on the mechanical design of the saws. Picture a jigsaw and bandsaw sidebyside. the utility of it is. an AC measurement based on work performed by a waveform is not the same as that waveform’s “average” value. similar to the way DC voltage pushes or DC current moves with a constant magnitude. What is more.1. Consider a bandsaw and a jigsaw. One jigsaw might move its blade with a sinewave motion. and P = I2 R). angle. Unfortunately. A jigsaw blade. To rate a jigsaw based on its peak blade speed would be quite misleading when comparing one jigsaw to another (or a jigsaw with a bandsaw!). two pieces of modern woodworking equipment. . Another method of deriving an aggregate value for waveform amplitude is based on the waveform’s ability to do useful work when applied to a load resistance. moves back and forth.3. Rather.19 Bandsaw Jigsaw blade motion wood wood blade motion (analogous to DC) (analogous to AC) Figure 1.
peak voltage measurements are the most appropriate. iron vane.” but the quantity and principle are both the same. peak or peaktopeak measurements may be the best to employ. BASIC AC THEORY Might this comparison be used to assign a “bandsaw equivalent” blade speed to the jigsaw’s backandforth blade motion. Weston. For RMS measurements.20: An RMS voltage produces the same heating effect as a the same DC voltage In the two circuits above. For other considerations. Sometimes the alternative terms equivalent or DC equivalent are used instead of “RMS. analog meters must be speciﬁcally calibrated (or miscalibrated. Because the AC voltage source pictured above is equivalent (in terms of power delivered to a load) to a 10 volt DC battery. because the principal concern with current is overheating of the wire. Peak and peaktopeak measurements are best performed with an oscilloscope. analog meter movements (D’Arsonval. or other AC quantities of differing waveform shapes. we have the same amount of load resistance (2 Ω) dissipating the same amount of power in the form of heat (50 watts). Because the mechanical inertia and dampening effects of an electromechanical meter movement makes the deﬂection of the needle naturally proportional to the average value of the AC.20 5A RMS 10 V RMS 2Ω 5A RMS 10 V 50 W power dissipated 5A 2Ω 5A 50 W power dissipated Equal power dissipated through equal resistance loads Figure 1. RMS current measurement is the best to use. when dealing with measurements of electric power. to relate the woodcutting effectiveness of one to the other? This is the general idea used to assign a “DC equivalent” measurement to any AC voltage or current: whatever magnitude of DC voltage or current would produce the same amount of heat energy dissipation through an equal resistance:Figure 1. because the principal concern here is insulator “ﬂashover” caused by brief spikes of voltage. the algorithm used to obtain the DC equivalent value from points on a graph (essentially. More speciﬁcally. we would call this a “10 volt” AC source. For instance. averaging those squared values. then taking the square root of that average to obtain the ﬁnal answer). However.16 CHAPTER 1. depending on how you look at it) to indicate voltage . which is a function of power dissipation caused by current through the resistance of the wire. electrodynamometer) will work so long as they have been calibrated in RMS ﬁgures. we would denote its voltage value as being 10 volts RMS. not the true RMS value. irrespective of time. when rating insulators for service in highvoltage AC applications. The qualiﬁer “RMS” stands for Root Mean Square. RMS amplitude measurement is the best way to relate AC quantities to DC quantities. the procedure consists of squaring all the positive and negative points on a waveform graph. which can capture the crests of the waveform with a high degree of accuracy due to the fast action of the cathoderaytube in response to changes in voltage. when determining the proper size of wire (ampacity) to conduct electric power from a source to a load. one powered by AC and the other by DC.
1. average.5 (Peak) PP = 2 (Peak) Figure 1.577 (Peak) AVG = 0. just the laws of physics in action in fulﬁllment of the deﬁnition of RMS. simple conversion coefﬁcients exist for equating Peak. Sinusoidal waveforms have an RMS value of 0.636). RMS.15 (0. Triangle.707 (the reciprocal of the square root of 2) and a form factor of 1.577 (the reciprocal of square root of 3) and form factors of 1.707/0. is the ratio of its peak (crest) value divided by its RMS value.21: Conversion factors for common waveforms. Average (practical. for instance. and average amplitudes of sine waves. For “pure” waveforms. Electronic meters speciﬁcally designed for RMS measurement are best for the task. In addition to RMS. since the peak is the same as the RMS and average values. and RMS measurements to one another: Figure 1. The crest factor of an AC waveform.3. One such manufacturer produces “TrueRMS” meters with a tiny resistive heating element powered by a voltage proportional to that being measured. usually a sine wave.and sawtoothshaped waveforms have RMS values of 0. Bear in mind that the conversion constants shown here for peak.637 (Peak) PP = 2 (Peak) RMS = Peak AVG = Peak PP = 2 (Peak) RMS = 0.577/0. MEASUREMENTS OF AC MAGNITUDE 17 or current in RMS units.22 RMS = ??? AVG = ??? PP = 2 (Peak) Figure 1. square waves. The accuracy of this calibration depends on an assumed waveshape.5). This is a very important concept to understand when using an analog D’Arsonval meter . The accuracy of this type of RMS measurement is independent of waveshape. there are ratios expressing the proportionality between some of these fundamental measurements. PeaktoPeak. and peaktopeak measures of an AC waveform. and triangle waves hold true only for pure forms of these waveshapes. Some instrument manufacturers have designed ingenious methods for determining the RMS value of any waveform. The form factor of an AC waveform is the ratio of its RMS value divided by its average value. Squareshaped waveforms always have crest and form factors equal to 1. The RMS and average values of distorted waveshapes are not related by the same ratios: Figure 1.707 (Peak) AVG = 0.22: Arbitrary waveforms have no simple conversions. peak (crest).21 RMS = 0.11 (0. The heating effect of that resistance element is measured thermally to give a true RMS value with no mathematical calculations whatsoever. not algebraic).
When RMS indication is desired. the average amplitude of any waveform with equalarea portions above and below the “zero” line on a graph is zero.1107 (the form factor: 0. • The form factor of an AC waveform is the ratio of its RMS value to its average value. • Peaktopeak amplitude is the total height of an AC waveform as measured from maximum positive to maximum negative peaks on a graph. Often abbreviated as “PP”. • Analog. • Peak amplitude is the height of an AC waveform as measured from the zero mark to the highest positive or lowest negative point on a graph. the indication given by the meter will not be the true RMS value of the waveform. will only be accurate when measuring pure sine waves. electromechanical meter movements respond proportionally to the average value of an AC voltage or current. For a sine wave. a waveform’s average value is often calculated as the mathematical mean of all the points’ absolute values (taking all the negative values and considering them as positive). and is a way of expressing an AC quantity of voltage or current in terms functionally equivalent to DC. which will be equal to be the RMS value for a particular waveshape and a particular waveshape only. For example. • The crest factor of an AC waveform is the ratio of its peak (crest) to its RMS value. 10 volts AC RMS is the amount of voltage that would produce the same amount of heat dissipation across a resistor of given value as a 10 volt DC power supply. Technically. as a practical measure of amplitude. because the degree of needle deﬂection in an analog D’Arsonval meter movement is proportional to the average value of the waveform. Any waveshape other than a pure sine wave will have a different ratio of RMS and average values. For a sine wave. the meter’s calibration . BASIC AC THEORY movement to measure AC voltage or current. calibrated to indicate sinewave RMS amplitude. Also known as the crest amplitude of a wave. If the waveform of the voltage or current being measured is anything but a pure sine wave. Since the sinewave shape is most common in electrical measurements. not the RMS. average. peaktopeak. An amplitude measurement can take the form of peak.707/0. or RMS quantity.636: the ratio of RMS divided by average for a sinusoidal waveform). Also known as the “equivalent” or “DC equivalent” value of an AC voltage or current. analog AC meters not employing “TrueRMS” technology. it is the waveshape assumed for analog meter calibration. • REVIEW: • The amplitude of an AC waveform is its height as depicted on a graph over time.637 of its peak value. and the small multiple used in the calibration of the meter is 1. • Average amplitude is the mathematical “mean” of all a waveform’s points over the period of one cycle. Bear in mind that this limitation applies only to simple. the RMS value is approximately 0. However. and thus a meter calibrated for sinewave voltage or current will not indicate true RMS when reading a nonsinusoidal wave.707 of its peak value. An analog D’Arsonval movement. the average value so calculated is approximately 0. RMS meter calibration is obtained by “skewing” the span of the meter so that it displays a small multiple of the average value.18 CHAPTER 1. • “RMS” stands for Root Mean Square.
the same laws and rules of DC apply simply and directly. current. This means that the accuracy of an electromechanical meter’s RMS indication is dependent on the purity of the waveform: whether it is the exact same waveshape as the waveform used in calibrating. R2 500 Ω Rtotal = R1 + R2 + R3 Rtotal = 1 kΩ Etotal Rtotal 10 V 1 kΩ Itotal = Itotal = Itotal = 10 mA ER3 = ItotalR3 ER3 = 4 V ER1 = ItotalR1 ER1 = 1 V ER2 = ItotalR2 ER2 = 5 V Series resistances still add. 1. However. Actually. however. and opposition to current in more advanced mathematical forms.4.1. with simple circuits (ﬁgure 1. R1 100 Ω 10 V R3 400 Ω Figure 1. With purely resistive circuits. its just that we have to express the quantities of voltage. and so we can treat the numbers as though we were dealing with simple DC quantities. these rules and laws always hold true. you will learn that AC circuit measurements and calculations can get very complicated due to the complex nature of alternating current in circuits with inductance and capacitance.23) involving nothing more than an AC power source and resistance. these complexities of AC are of no practical consequence. and the Laws of Kirchhoff and Ohm still hold true. as we will discover later on. . SIMPLE AC CIRCUIT CALCULATIONS 19 must be “skewed” accordingly.4 Simple AC circuit calculations Over the course of the next few chapters. parallel resistances still diminish.23: AC circuit calculations for resistive circuits are the same as for DC.
Unless otherwise stated. all values of voltage and current in AC circuits are generally assumed to be RMS rather than peak. then all currents and voltages subsequently calculated are cast in terms of peak units. I promise! • The “table” method of organizing circuit values is still a valid analysis tool for AC circuits. More on this later. Kirchhoff ’s Laws. If the source voltage is given in AC RMS volts. peaktopeak. with more complex circuits. or peaktopeak. • REVIEW: • All the old rules and laws of DC (Kirchhoff ’s Voltage and Current Laws. This holds true for any calculation based on Ohm’s Laws. etc. If the source voltage is given in peak AC volts. However. peak measurements are assumed.5 AC phase Things start to get complicated when we need to relate two or more AC voltages or currents that are out of step with each other. average. we can make use of our familiar “table” method of organizing circuit values just as with DC: R1 E I R 1 10m 100 R2 5 10m 500 R3 4 10m 400 Total 10 10m 1k Volts Amps Ohms One major caveat needs to be given here: all measurements of AC voltage and current must be expressed in the same terms (peak.24 illustrates an example of this. then all calculated currents and voltages are cast in AC RMS units as well. 1. or RMS).20 CHAPTER 1. The graph in ﬁgure 1. this is called a phase shift. but in most applications (especially industrial electronics) the assumption is RMS. average. but they are out of step with each other. BASIC AC THEORY Because all these mathematical relationships still hold true. In some areas of electronics. Earlier A B . A B A B A B A B A B Figure 1.24: Out of phase waveforms The two waves shown above (A versus B) are of the same amplitude and frequency. By “out of step. In technical terms.” I mean that the two waveforms are not synchronized: that their peaks and zero points do not match up at the same points in time. we may need to represent the AC quantities in more complex form. Ohm’s Law) still hold true for AC.
we can express phase shift for two or more waveforms of the same frequency as a constant quantity for the entire wave. That is. Phase shift. “voltage ’A’ is 45 degrees out of phase with voltage ’B’. AC PHASE 21 we saw how we could plot a “sine wave” by calculating the trigonometric sine function for angles ranging from 0 to 360 degrees. Typically in the analysis of AC circuits. Mathematical operations of addition. multiplication.25 degrees A 0 90 180 270 (0) 360 90 180 270 (0) 360 A B B 0 90 180 270 360 (0) degrees 90 180 270 360 (0) Figure 1. the “A” wave being ahead of the “B” wave. quantities of AC voltage and current must reﬂect phase shift as well as amplitude. they will be out of step by the same angular amount at every point in time.” Whichever waveform is ahead in its evolution is said to be leading and the one behind is said to be lagging. A sampling of different phase shifts is given in the following graphs to better illustrate this concept: Figure 1. When applying Ohm’s Law and Kirchhoff ’s Laws. Fortunately. that voltage stated as “xxx volts at 0 degrees. full negative at 270 degrees. zero at 180 degrees. a full circle. and not just an expression of shift between any two particular points along the waves.” Any other AC voltage or current in that circuit will have its phase shift expressed in terms relative to that source voltage. subtraction. and division must operate on these quantities of phase shift as well as amplitude.26 Because the waveforms in the above examples are at the same frequency. For this reason.1. This is what makes AC circuit calculations more complicated than DC. We can use this angle scale along the horizontal axis of our waveform plot to express just how far out of step one wave is with another: Figure 1. There’s really no such thing as a waveform with an absolute phase measurement because there’s no known universal reference for phase. .5. like voltage. and back to the starting point of zero at 360 degrees. it is safe to say something like. the voltage waveform of the power supply is used as a reference for phase. progressing to full positive amplitude at 90 degrees.25: Wave A leads wave B by 45o The shift between these two waveforms is about 45 degrees. is always a measurement relative between two things. The starting point of a sine wave was zero amplitude at zero degrees.
.26: Examples of phase shifts. BASIC AC THEORY Phase shift = 90 degrees A B A is ahead of B (A "leads" B) Phase shift = 90 degrees B A B is ahead of A (B "leads" A) A Phase shift = 180 degrees A and B waveforms are mirrorimages of each other B Phase shift = 0 degrees A B A and B waveforms are in perfect step with each other Figure 1.22 CHAPTER 1.
A lagging waveform is one that is behind another. a voltage was produced along the length of that conductor. Example: Phase shift = 90 degrees A B A leads B. some of the basic principles will be covered. This requires the use of a mathematical system called complex numbers. • The amount of phase shift between two waves can be expressed in terms of degrees. The limited scope of this lesson on alternating current does not permit full exploration of the concept. The man responsible for this conceptual revolution was the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell (18311879). Maxwell’s discovery was this: . and its unveiling was one of the pivotal moments in modern science.1. • A leading waveform is deﬁned as one waveform that is ahead of another in its evolution. what he discovered was that electric and magnetic ﬁelds were intrinsically related to one another. it was realized that electricity and magnetism were related to each other. Likewise. if a conductor was exposed to a change in magnetic ﬂux perpendicular to the conductor. as deﬁned by the degree units on the horizontal axis of the waveform graph used in plotting the trigonometric sine function. This breakthrough in physics is hard to overstate. • REVIEW: • Phase shift is where two or more waveforms are out of step with each other. B lags A • • Calculations for AC circuit analysis must take into consideration both amplitude and phase shift of voltage and current waveforms to be completely accurate.6. Because the subject of complex numbers is so essential to the understanding of AC circuits.6 Principles of radio One of the more fascinating applications of electricity is in the generation of invisible ripples of energy called radio waves. With Oersted’s accidental discovery of electromagnetism. scientists knew that electricity and magnetism always seemed to affect each other at right angles. Stated more formally. who “uniﬁed” the study of electricity and magnetism in four relatively tidy equations. a major discovery lay hidden just beneath this seemingly simple concept of related perpendicularity. So far. PRINCIPLES OF RADIO 23 there is a mathematical system of quantities called complex numbers ideally suited for this task of representing amplitude and phase. the next chapter will be devoted to that subject alone. 1. When an electric current was passed through a conductor. a magnetic ﬁeld was generated perpendicular to the axis of ﬂow. In essence. However. with or without the presence of a conductive path for electrons to ﬂow.
As the powered loop antenna radiates its changing magnetic ﬁeld into space. Even light is electromagnetic in nature. The only difference between these kinds of electromagnetic radiation is the frequency of their oscillation (alternation of the electric and magnetic ﬁelds back and forth in polarity). The closed wire path of the loop antenna acts like an inductor with a large air core. An antenna is nothing more than a device built to produce a dispersing electric or magnetic ﬁeld. In this mode. Either antenna achieves the same basic task: the controlled production of an electromagnetic ﬁeld.27: Dipole and loop antennae While the dipole looks like nothing more than an open circuit. BASIC AC THEORY A changing electric ﬁeld produces a perpendicular magnetic ﬁeld. The two open wires of the dipole act as a sort of capacitor (two conductors separated by a dielectric). As the powered dipole radiates its changing electric ﬁeld into space. the alternating electric and magnetic ﬁelds supporting each other as they travel through space at the speed of light. an antenna acts as a transmitting device. There are many kinds of natural radiative energy composed of electromagnetic waves. All of this can take place in open space. This dynamic structure of electric and magnetic ﬁelds propagating through space is better known as an electromagnetic wave. a changing electric ﬁeld is produced at right angles. with the same endresult of a continuous electromagnetic wave sent away from the antenna. and so on as the wave propagates at the speed of light. again providing ample opportunity for the ﬁeld to disperse away from the antenna instead of being concentrated and contained as in a normal inductor. So are Xrays and “gamma” ray radiation.28 . with the electric ﬁeld open to dispersal instead of being concentrated between two closelyspaced plates. and the loop a short circuit. By using a source of AC voltage and a special device called an antenna. and A changing magnetic ﬁeld produces a perpendicular electric ﬁeld. a changing magnetic ﬁeld is produced at right angles. When attached to a source of highfrequency AC power. Two fundamental types of antennae are the dipole and the loop: Figure 1. we can create electromagnetic waves (of a much lower frequency than that of light) with ease.24 CHAPTER 1. an antenna acts as a receiving device: Figure 1. Antennas also have the ability to intercept electromagnetic waves and convert their energy into AC voltage and current.27 Basic antenna designs DIPOLE LOOP Figure 1. these pieces of wire are effective radiators of electromagnetic ﬁelds when connected to AC sources of the proper frequency. converting AC voltage and current into electromagnetic wave energy. thus sustaining the electric ﬁeld further into space.
1. and secondarily producing a magnetic ﬁeld in space. • A twin set of electric and magnetic ﬁelds. • The loop antenna consists of a loop of wire. oscillating at right angles to each other and traveling at the speed of light. See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information. Harvey Lew (February 7. primarily generating an electric ﬁeld when energized. even in empty space. • The dipole antenna consists of two pieces of wire (not touching). .28: Basic radio transmitter and receiver While there is much more that may be said about antenna technology.7 Contributors Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions. designed to radiate a changing electric ﬁeld or changing magnetic ﬁeld when powered by a highfrequency AC source. • An antenna is a device made of wire. CONTRIBUTORS AC voltage produced Radio receivers AC current produced 25 electromagnetic radiation electromagnetic radiation Radio transmitters Figure 1. constitutes an electromagnetic wave. primarily generating a magnetic ﬁeld when energized. 2004): Corrected typographical error: “circuit” should have been “circle”.1. or intercept an electromagnetic ﬁeld and convert it to an AC voltage or current. this brief introduction is enough to give you the general idea of what’s going on (and perhaps enough information to provoke a few experiments). and vice versa. from most recent to ﬁrst. and secondarily producing an electric ﬁeld in space.7. • REVIEW: • James Maxwell discovered that changing electric ﬁelds produce perpendicular magnetic ﬁelds.
Mark D.” Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting. .26 CHAPTER 1. John Symonds (March 28. BASIC AC THEORY Duane Damiano (February 25. 2002): Suggestion for improving explanation of the unit “Hertz. Zarella (April 28. 2003): Pointed out magnetic polarity error in DC generator illustration. which led to a much betterlooking second edition. 2002): Suggestion for improving explanation of “average” waveform amplitude.
Chapter 2
COMPLEX NUMBERS
Contents
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vectors and AC waveforms . . . . Simple vector addition . . . . . . Complex vector addition . . . . . Polar and rectangular notation . Complex number arithmetic . . . More on AC ”polarity” . . . . . . . Some examples with AC circuits Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 30 32 35 37 42 44 49 55
2.1
Introduction
If I needed to describe the distance between two cities, I could provide an answer consisting of a single number in miles, kilometers, or some other unit of linear measurement. However, if I were to describe how to travel from one city to another, I would have to provide more information than just the distance between those two cities; I would also have to provide information about the direction to travel, as well. The kind of information that expresses a single dimension, such as linear distance, is called a scalar quantity in mathematics. Scalar numbers are the kind of numbers you’ve used in most all of your mathematical applications so far. The voltage produced by a battery, for example, is a scalar quantity. So is the resistance of a piece of wire (ohms), or the current through it (amps). However, when we begin to analyze alternating current circuits, we ﬁnd that quantities of voltage, current, and even resistance (called impedance in AC) are not the familiar onedimensional quantities we’re used to measuring in DC circuits. Rather, these quantities, because they’re dynamic (alternating in direction and amplitude), possess other dimensions that 27
28
CHAPTER 2. COMPLEX NUMBERS
must be taken into account. Frequency and phase shift are two of these dimensions that come into play. Even with relatively simple AC circuits, where we’re only dealing with a single frequency, we still have the dimension of phase shift to contend with in addition to the amplitude. In order to successfully analyze AC circuits, we need to work with mathematical objects and techniques capable of representing these multidimensional quantities. Here is where we need to abandon scalar numbers for something better suited: complex numbers. Just like the example of giving directions from one city to another, AC quantities in a singlefrequency circuit have both amplitude (analogy: distance) and phase shift (analogy: direction). A complex number is a single mathematical quantity able to express these two dimensions of amplitude and phase shift at once. Complex numbers are easier to grasp when they’re represented graphically. If I draw a line with a certain length (magnitude) and angle (direction), I have a graphic representation of a complex number which is commonly known in physics as a vector: (Figure 2.1)
length = 7 angle = 0 degrees
length = 10 angle = 180 degrees
length = 5 angle = 90 degrees
length = 4 angle = 270 degrees (90 degrees)
length = 5.66 angle = 45 degrees
length = 9.43 angle = 302.01 degrees (57.99 degrees)
Figure 2.1: A vector has both magnitude and direction. Like distances and directions on a map, there must be some common frame of reference for angle ﬁgures to have any meaning. In this case, directly right is considered to be 0o , and angles are counted in a positive direction going counterclockwise: (Figure 2.2) The idea of representing a number in graphical form is nothing new. We all learned this in grade school with the “number line:” (Figure 2.3) We even learned how addition and subtraction works by seeing how lengths (magnitudes) stacked up to give a ﬁnal answer: (Figure 2.4) Later, we learned that there were ways to designate the values between the whole numbers marked on the line. These were fractional or decimal quantities: (Figure 2.5) Later yet we learned that the number line could extend to the left of zero as well: (Figure 2.6)
2.1. INTRODUCTION
29
The vector "compass" 90o
180o
0o
270o (90o)
Figure 2.2: The vector compass
... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Figure 2.3: Number line.
5+3=8 8 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 3 7 8 9 10 ...
Figure 2.4: Addition on a “number line”.
31/2 or 3.5 ... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Figure 2.5: Locating a fraction on the “number line”
30
CHAPTER 2. COMPLEX NUMBERS
... 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5
...
Figure 2.6: “Number line” shows both positive and negative numbers. These ﬁelds of numbers (whole, integer, rational, irrational, real, etc.) learned in grade school share a common trait: they’re all onedimensional. The straightness of the number line illustrates this graphically. You can move up or down the number line, but all “motion” along that line is restricted to a single axis (horizontal). Onedimensional, scalar numbers are perfectly adequate for counting beads, representing weight, or measuring DC battery voltage, but they fall short of being able to represent something more complex like the distance and direction between two cities, or the amplitude and phase of an AC waveform. To represent these kinds of quantities, we need multidimensional representations. In other words, we need a number line that can point in different directions, and that’s exactly what a vector is. • REVIEW: • A scalar number is the type of mathematical object that people are used to using in everyday life: a onedimensional quantity like temperature, length, weight, etc. • A complex number is a mathematical quantity representing two dimensions of magnitude and direction. • A vector is a graphical representation of a complex number. It looks like an arrow, with a starting point, a tip, a deﬁnite length, and a deﬁnite direction. Sometimes the word phasor is used in electrical applications where the angle of the vector represents phase shift between waveforms.
2.2
Vectors and AC waveforms
OK, so how exactly can we represent AC quantities of voltage or current in the form of a vector? The length of the vector represents the magnitude (or amplitude) of the waveform, like this: (Figure 2.7) The greater the amplitude of the waveform, the greater the length of its corresponding vector. The angle of the vector, however, represents the phase shift in degrees between the waveform in question and another waveform acting as a “reference” in time. Usually, when the phase of a waveform in a circuit is expressed, it is referenced to the power supply voltage waveform (arbitrarily stated to be “at” 0o ). Remember that phase is always a relative measurement between two waveforms rather than an absolute property. (Figure 2.8) (Figure 2.9) The greater the phase shift in degrees between two waveforms, the greater the angle difference between the corresponding vectors. Being a relative measurement, like voltage, phase shift (vector angle) only has meaning in reference to some standard waveform. Generally this “reference” waveform is the main AC power supply voltage in the circuit. If there is more than
2.2. VECTORS AND AC WAVEFORMS
Waveform Vector representation
31
Amplitude
Length
Figure 2.7: Vector length represents AC voltage magnitude.
Waveforms Phase relations Vector representations (of "A" waveform with reference to "B" waveform) Phase shift = 0 degrees A B A and B waveforms are in perfect step with each other A B
Phase shift = 90 degrees A B A is ahead of B (A "leads" B)
A 90 degrees B
Phase shift = 90 degrees B A B is ahead of A (B "leads" A) A B Phase shift = 180 degrees A and B waveforms are A mirrorimages of each other A 180 degrees
B 90 degrees
B
Figure 2.8: Vector angle is the phase with respect to another waveform.
32
CHAPTER 2. COMPLEX NUMBERS
A
B
A angle B
phase shift
Figure 2.9: Phase shift between waves and vector phase angle one AC voltage source, then one of those sources is arbitrarily chosen to be the phase reference for all other measurements in the circuit. This concept of a reference point is not unlike that of the “ground” point in a circuit for the beneﬁt of voltage reference. With a clearly deﬁned point in the circuit declared to be “ground,” it becomes possible to talk about voltage “on” or “at” single points in a circuit, being understood that those voltages (always relative between two points) are referenced to “ground.” Correspondingly, with a clearly deﬁned point of reference for phase it becomes possible to speak of voltages and currents in an AC circuit having deﬁnite phase angles. For example, if the current in an AC circuit is described as “24.3 milliamps at 64 degrees,” it means that the current waveform has an amplitude of 24.3 mA, and it lags 64o behind the reference waveform, usually assumed to be the main source voltage waveform. • REVIEW: • When used to describe an AC quantity, the length of a vector represents the amplitude of the wave while the angle of a vector represents the phase angle of the wave relative to some other (reference) waveform.
2.3
Simple vector addition
Remember that vectors are mathematical objects just like numbers on a number line: they can be added, subtracted, multiplied, and divided. Addition is perhaps the easiest vector operation to visualize, so we’ll begin with that. If vectors with common angles are added, their magnitudes (lengths) add up just like regular scalar quantities: (Figure 2.10)
length = 6 angle = 0 degrees length = 8 angle = 0 degrees total length = 6 + 8 = 14 angle = 0 degrees
Figure 2.10: Vector magnitudes add like scalars for a common angle. Similarly, if AC voltage sources with the same phase angle are connected together in series, their voltages add just as you might expect with DC batteries: (Figure 2.11) Please note the (+) and () polarity marks next to the leads of the two AC sources. Even though we know AC doesn’t have “polarity” in the same sense that DC does, these marks are
2.3. SIMPLE VECTOR ADDITION
33
6V 0 deg + 
8V 0 deg + +

6V
+

8V
+
14 V 0 deg

14 V
+
Figure 2.11: “In phase” AC voltages add like DC battery voltages. essential to knowing how to reference the given phase angles of the voltages. This will become more apparent in the next example. If vectors directly opposing each other (180o out of phase) are added together, their magnitudes (lengths) subtract just like positive and negative scalar quantities subtract when added: (Figure 2.12)
length = 6 angle = 0 degrees length = 8 angle = 180 degrees total length = 6  8 = 2 at 0 degrees or 2 at 180 degrees
Figure 2.12: Directly opposing vector magnitudes subtract. Similarly, if opposing AC voltage sources are connected in series, their voltages subtract as you might expect with DC batteries connected in an opposing fashion: (Figure 2.13) Determining whether or not these voltage sources are opposing each other requires an examination of their polarity markings and their phase angles. Notice how the polarity markings in the above diagram seem to indicate additive voltages (from left to right, we see  and + on the 6 volt source,  and + on the 8 volt source). Even though these polarity markings would normally indicate an additive effect in a DC circuit (the two voltages working together to produce a greater total voltage), in this AC circuit they’re actually pushing in opposite directions because one of those voltages has a phase angle of 0o and the other a phase angle of 180o . The result, of course, is a total voltage of 2 volts. We could have just as well shown the opposing voltages subtracting in series like this: (Figure 2.14) Note how the polarities appear to be opposed to each other now, due to the reversal of wire connections on the 8 volt source. Since both sources are described as having equal phase
34
CHAPTER 2. COMPLEX NUMBERS
6V 0 deg + 
8V 180 deg +

6V
+
+
8V

2V + 180 deg
+
2V

Figure 2.13: Opposing AC voltages subtract like opposing battery voltages.
6V 0 deg + 
8V 0 deg + 6V + 
8V + 
+ 2V 180 deg
+
2V
Figure 2.14: Opposing voltages in spite of equal phase angles.
2.4. COMPLEX VECTOR ADDITION
35
angles (0o ), they truly are opposed to one another, and the overall effect is the same as the former scenario with “additive” polarities and differing phase angles: a total voltage of only 2 volts. (Figure 2.15)
6V 0 deg + 
8V 0 deg + 
+ 2V 180 deg 
+
2V 0 deg
Figure 2.15: Just as there are two ways to express the phase of the sources, there are two ways to express the resultant their sum. The resultant voltage can be expressed in two different ways: 2 volts at 180o with the () symbol on the left and the (+) symbol on the right, or 2 volts at 0o with the (+) symbol on the left and the () symbol on the right. A reversal of wires from an AC voltage source is the same as phaseshifting that source by 180o . (Figure 2.16)
8V 180 deg +
These voltage sources are equivalent!
8V 0 deg + 
Figure 2.16: Example of equivalent voltage sources.
2.4
Complex vector addition
If vectors with uncommon angles are added, their magnitudes (lengths) add up quite differently than that of scalar magnitudes: (Figure 2.17) If two AC voltages – 90o out of phase – are added together by being connected in series, their voltage magnitudes do not directly add or subtract as with scalar voltages in DC. Instead, these voltage quantities are complex quantities, and just like the above vectors, which add up in a trigonometric fashion, a 6 volt source at 0o added to an 8 volt source at 90o results in 10 volts at a phase angle of 53.13o : (Figure 2.18) Compared to DC circuit analysis, this is very strange indeed. Note that it is possible to obtain voltmeter indications of 6 and 8 volts, respectively, across the two AC voltage sources,
36
CHAPTER 2. COMPLEX NUMBERS
Vector addition
length = 10 angle = 53.13 degrees
6 at 0 degrees length = 8 angle = 90 degrees + 8 at 90 degrees 10 at 53.13 degrees
length = 6 angle = 0 degrees
Figure 2.17: Vector magnitudes do not directly add for unequal angles.
6V 0 deg + 
8V 90 deg + +
10 V 53.13 deg
Figure 2.18: The 6V and 8V sources add to 10V with the help of trigonometry.
2.5. POLAR AND RECTANGULAR NOTATION
37
yet only read 10 volts for a total voltage! There is no suitable DC analogy for what we’re seeing here with two AC voltages slightly out of phase. DC voltages can only directly aid or directly oppose, with nothing in between. With AC, two voltages can be aiding or opposing one another to any degree between fullyaiding and fullyopposing, inclusive. Without the use of vector (complex number) notation to describe AC quantities, it would be very difﬁcult to perform mathematical calculations for AC circuit analysis. In the next section, we’ll learn how to represent vector quantities in symbolic rather than graphical form. Vector and triangle diagrams sufﬁce to illustrate the general concept, but more precise methods of symbolism must be used if any serious calculations are to be performed on these quantities. • REVIEW: • DC voltages can only either directly aid or directly oppose each other when connected in series. AC voltages may aid or oppose to any degree depending on the phase shift between them.
2.5
Polar and rectangular notation
In order to work with these complex numbers without drawing vectors, we ﬁrst need some kind of standard mathematical notation. There are two basic forms of complex number notation: polar and rectangular. Polar form is where a complex number is denoted by the length (otherwise known as the magnitude, absolute value, or modulus) and the angle of its vector (usually denoted by an angle symbol that looks like this: ). To use the map analogy, polar notation for the vector from New York City to San Diego would be something like “2400 miles, southwest.” Here are two examples of vectors and their polar notations: (Figure 2.19)
8.06 ∠ 29.74o (8.06 ∠ 330.26o) 8.49 ∠ 45o
Note: the proper notation for designating a vector’s angle is this symbol: ∠ 5.39 ∠ 158.2o 7.81 ∠ 230.19o (7.81 ∠ 129.81o)
Figure 2.19: Vectors with polar notations.
20: The vector compass Rectangular form. totally alien to the scale of the real numbers. For example. also symbolized by a lowercase letter “i”).38 CHAPTER 2. on the other hand. (Figure 2. Rather than describing a vector’s length and direction by denoting magnitude and angle. it is described in terms of “how far left/right” and “how far up/down. making 90o straight up. described by the lengths of the adjacent and opposite sides. or negative numbers less than 180. . since that dimension is compatible with normal. (Figure 2.21) The horizontal component is referred to as the real component. The vertical component is referred to as the imaginary component. In essence. In order to distinguish the horizontal and vertical dimensions from each other.” These two dimensional ﬁgures (horizontal and vertical) are symbolized by two numerical ﬁgures. scalar (“real”) numbers. a vector angled 270o (straight down) can also be said to have an angle of 90o . is where a complex number is denoted by its respective horizontal and vertical components. the horizontal and vertical quantities are written as a sum: (Figure 2. Vectors being twodimensional things. the vertical is preﬁxed with a lowercase “i” (in pure mathematics) or “j” (in electronics).81o .81 230. COMPLEX NUMBERS Standard orientation for vector angles in AC circuit calculations deﬁnes 0o as being to the right (horizontal). As a complete complex number. but rather are mathematical operators used to distinguish the vector’s vertical component from its horizontal component. These lowercase letters do not represent a physical variable (such as instantaneous current. and 270o straight down. Please note that vectors angled “down” can have angles represented in polar form as positive numbers in excess of 180.20) The above vector on the right (7. The “imaginary” axis of the graph corresponds to another number line situated at 90o to the “real” one.19o ) can also be denoted as 7.81 129. The vector "compass" 90o 180o 0o 270o (90o) Figure 2. the angled vector is taken to be the hypotenuse of a right triangle. 180o to the left. since that dimension lies in a different direction.22) The “real” axis of the graph corresponds to the familiar number line we saw earlier: the one with both positive and negative values on it.
21: In “rectangular” form the vector’s length and direction are denoted in terms of its horizontal and vertical span."imaginary" Figure 2.j4 "4 right and 4 down" 4 + j0 "4 left and 0 up/down" 4 j4 "4 left and 4 down" Figure 2. POLAR AND RECTANGULAR NOTATION 39 4 + j4 "4 right and 4 up" 4 + j0 "4 right and 0 up/down" 4 + j4 "4 left and 4 up" 4 .5.2. the ﬁrst number representing the the horizontal (“real”) and the second number (with the “j” preﬁx) representing the vertical (“imaginary”) dimensions."real" + "real" j .22: Vector compass showing real and imaginary axes . + "imaginary" +j .
The primary reason for having two methods of notation is for ease of longhand calculation. Either method of notation is valid for complex numbers... respectively: (Figure 2.24) . To convert from polar to rectangular.. 5 4 3 2 1 "real" number line 0 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 . thus the two number lines perpendicular to each other: (Figure 2. Conversion between the two notational forms involves simple trigonometry.. and polar form lending itself to multiplication and division. ﬁnd the real component by multiplying the polar magnitude by the cosine of the angle.23) 5 4 3 "imaginary" number line 2 1 . the hypotenuse of the triangle representing the vector itself (its length and angle with respect to the horizontal constituting the polar form). the horizontal and vertical sides representing the “real” and “imaginary” rectangular components. and the imaginary component by multiplying the polar magnitude by the sine of the angle. COMPLEX NUMBERS we must have a twodimensional “map” upon which to express them.23: Vector compass with real and imaginary (“j”) number lines. rectangular form lending itself to addition and subtraction. This may be understood more readily by drawing the quantities as sides of a right triangle. Figure 2.40 CHAPTER 2.
2.87o • REVIEW: 42 + 32 3 4 (polar form) • Polar notation denotes a complex number in terms of its vector’s length and angular direction from the starting point.5. ﬁnd the polar magnitude through the use of the Pythagorean Theorem (the polar magnitude is the hypotenuse of a right triangle.87o) = 4 (5)(sin 36. .87o (5)(cos 36.24: Magnitude vector in terms of real (4) and imaginary (j3) components. and the real and imaginary components are the adjacent and opposite sides. POLAR AND RECTANGULAR NOTATION 41 length = 5 angle = 36. and the angle by taking the arctangent of the imaginary component divided by the real component: 4 + j3 (rectangular form) c= a2 + b2 (pythagorean theorem) polar magnitude = polar magnitude = 5 polar angle = arctan polar angle = 36.87 ) = 3 4 + j3 o (polar form) (real component) (imaginary component) (rectangular form) To convert from rectangular to polar. respectively).87o 5 ∠ 36.87o +4 +j3 Figure 2. Example: ﬂy 45 miles 203o (West by Southwest). 5 ∠ 36.
j72 For longhand multiplication and division. the horizontal side representing the rectangular “real” component. simply multiply the polar magnitudes of the complex numbers to determine the polar magnitude of the product.” This section will show you how the basic operations are performed. COMPLEX NUMBERS • Rectangular notation denotes a complex number in terms of its horizontal and vertical dimensions. simply add up the real components of the complex numbers to determine the real component of the sum. subtracted.j3 6 + j2 175 .j34 . inverted. and subtract the imaginary component of the second complex number from the imaginary component of the ﬁrst to arrive the imaginary component of the difference: 2 + j5 . Some scientiﬁc calculators are programmed to directly perform these operations on two or more complex numbers. with the hypotenuse representing the vector itself (polar form: hypotenuse length = magnitude. and add up the imaginary components of the complex numbers to determine the imaginary component of the sum: 2 + j5 + 4 .j3) 2 + j8 175 . • In rectangular notation. and such. Addition and subtraction with complex numbers in rectangular form is easy.(20 + j82) 56 .j49 36 + j10 + 20 + j82 16 + j92 When subtracting complex numbers in rectangular form. the ﬁrst quantity is the “real” component (horizontal dimension of vector) and the second quantity is the “imaginary” component (vertical dimension of vector).(4 . and the vertical side representing the rectangular “imaginary” component. 2. It will make your study of AC circuit much more pleasant than if you’re forced to do all calculations the longer way. but these operations can also be done “by hand.42 CHAPTER 2.j19 36 + j1 0 .(80 . angle with respect to horizontal side = angle). squared. then turn and drive 18 miles South. and add the angles of the complex numbers to determine the angle of the product: .6 Complex number arithmetic Since complex numbers are legitimate mathematical entities. • Both polar and rectangular forms of notation for a complex number can be related graphically in the form of a right triangle. Example: drive 41 miles West.j15 255 . For addition.j15) 95 . When multiplying complex numbers in polar form. simply subtract the real component of the second complex number from the real component of the ﬁrst to arrive at the real component of the difference. they can be added.” sometimes called the j operator. multiplied. polar is the favored notation to work with. just like any other kind of number.j34 + 80 . The imaginary component is preceded by a lowercase “j. It is highly recommended that you equip yourself with a scientiﬁc calculator capable of performing arithmetic functions easily on complex numbers. divided. just like scalar numbers.
and inversion.6. subtraction. simply divide the number (in polar form) into a scalar value of 1. COMPLEX NUMBER ARITHMETIC 43 (35 ∠ 65o)(10 ∠ 12o) = 350 ∠ 53o (124 ∠ 250o)(11 ∠ 100o) = 1364 ∠ 10o or 1364 ∠ 350o (3 ∠ 30o)(5 ∠ 30o) = 15 ∠ 0o Division of polarform complex numbers is also easy: simply divide the polar magnitude of the ﬁrst complex number by the polar magnitude of the second complex number to arrive at the polar magnitude of the quotient. however. solving simultaneous equations with complex coefﬁcients. multiplication. roots.0032 ∠ 10o = 312. • REVIEW: .5 ∠ 10o These are the basic operations you will need to know in order to manipulate complex numbers in the analysis of AC circuits.6 ∠ 60o To obtain the reciprocal. Virtually any arithmetic operation that can be done with scalar numbers can be done with complex numbers. which is nothing more than a complex number with no imaginary component (angle = 0): 1 1 ∠ 0o = = 0.0032 ∠ 10o = 1 ∠ 0o 0. or “invert” (1/x). and you’ll have little trouble with AC circuit analysis. Operations with complex numbers are by no means limited just to addition. and inversion. Be sure that you’re familiar with the basic arithmetic operations of addition. including powers.1 ∠ 12o 10 ∠ 12o 10 ∠ 12o 1 0. multiplication.5 ∠ 77o = 11. and subtract the angle of the second complex number from the angle of the ﬁrst complex number to arrive at the angle of the quotient: 35 ∠ 65o 10 ∠ 12o 124 ∠ 250o 11 ∠ 100o 3 ∠ 30o 5 ∠ 30o = 3. division. subtraction.273 ∠ 150o = 0.2. division. and even trigonometric functions (although this involves a whole new perspective in trigonometry called hyperbolic functions which is well beyond the scope of this discussion).02857 ∠ 65o o o 35 ∠ 65 35 ∠ 65 1 1 ∠ 0o = = 0. a complex number.
44 CHAPTER 2.25) + 6V Figure 2. COMPLEX NUMBERS • To add complex numbers in rectangular form. using “+” and “” symbols.26) 6 V + Figure 2. divide the magnitudes and subtract one angle from the other. we have a choice in how we connect a voltmeter or other voltagemeasuring instrument to the source of voltage. If a digital voltmeter indicates a negative DC voltage. However. When we measure a voltage. for most people the equivalence between abstract vectors and real circuit quantities is not an easy one to grasp. and use colorcoded meter test leads (red and black).26: Decidedly unconventional polarity marking. Subtraction is similar. Although it would be mathematically correct to represent a battery’s voltage as a negative ﬁgure with reversed polarity markings. it would be decidedly unconventional: (Figure 2. • To multiply complex numbers in polar form. as there are two points between which the voltage exists. Voltage is an inherently relative quantity. as well as polarity markings. Batteries have their polarity designated by way of intrinsic symbology: the shortline side of a battery is always the negative () side and the longline side always the positive (+): (Figure 2. we know that its test leads are connected “backward” to the voltage (red lead connected to the “” and black lead to the “+”). these polarity markings and their relationship to phase angle tends to be confusing. . Being that alternating current has no set “polarity” as direct current does. multiply the magnitudes and add the angles. we denote the polarity of voltage sources and voltage drops explicitly. Earlier in this chapter we saw how AC voltage sources are given voltage ﬁgures in complex form (magnitude and phase angle). In DC circuits. add the real components and add the imaginary components. 2. To divide. and two test leads on the instrument with which to make connection.7 More on AC ”polarity” Complex numbers are useful for AC circuit analysis because they provide a convenient method of symbolically denoting phase shift between AC quantities like voltage and current. This section is written in the attempt to clarify some of these issues.25: Conventional battery polarity.
labeled with the exact voltage ﬁgures obtained by the voltmeter. Consider the use of a DC voltmeter in determining whether or not two DC voltage sources are aiding or opposing each other. Instead. and we have a choice in how we might connect a voltagemeasuring instrument between those two points. Thus. we simply say that one is 180o out of phase with the other. By deﬁnition. we describe to what degree one voltage aids or opposes another by phase: the timeshift between two waveforms. Actually. Using the voltmeter to measure across the ﬁrst source: (Figure 2.31) It should be obvious to any experienced student of DC electricity that these two batteries are opposing one another. The mathematical sign of a DC voltmeter’s reading has meaning only in the context of its test lead connections: which terminal the red lead is touching. voltage is relative between two points. though. MORE ON AC ”POLARITY” 45 Interpreting such notation might be easier if the “+” and “” polarity markings were viewed as reference points for voltmeter test leads. By deﬁnition.27) The mathematical sign of a digital DC voltmeter’s display has meaning only in the context of its test lead connections. this form of notation and interpretation is not as unusual as you might think: it is commonly encountered in problems of DC network analysis where “+” and “” polarity marks are initially drawn according to educated guess. We never describe an AC voltage as being negative in sign. and later interpreted as correct or “backward” according to the mathematical sign of the ﬁgure calculated. however. while the red test lead is actually touching the negative.29) Measuring the other unknown voltage source: (Figure 2. the phase angle of an AC voltage has meaning only in the context of knowing which of the two points is considered the “reference” point. because the facility of polar notation allows for vectors pointing in an opposite direction. If one AC voltage directly opposes another AC voltage. Let’s review these principles with some graphical aids. we know source #1 is a battery facing in this orientation: (Figure 2. draw the two sources as nondescript boxes. which tells us that the black test lead is actually touching the positive side of voltage source #2. and the red lead of the meter really is touching the positive. Still. we don’t deal with “negative” quantities of voltage. “+” and “” polarity marks are often placed by the terminals of an AC voltage in schematic diagrams to give the stated phase angle a frame of reference.7.” A voltmeter connected to the above battery with red lead to the bottom terminal and black lead to the top terminal would indeed indicate a negative voltage (6 volts).30) This second voltmeter reading. Because of this fact. assuming that both sources are unlabeled as to their polarities. Thus. opposing voltages subtract from one another. We could. Likewise. the “+” meaning “red” and the “” meaning “black. we know that source #2 is a battery facing in the opposite direction: (Figure 2. so we add 24 volts to 17 volts to obtain 7 volts: still the correct .28) This ﬁrst measurement of +24 across the lefthand voltage source tells us that the black lead of the meter really is touching the negative side of voltage source #1. however.32) According to this diagram. First. the principle of relating test lead connections to the mathematical sign of a DC voltmeter indication: (Figure 2. is a negative () 17 volts.2. aiding voltage sources add with one another to form the total voltage. the polarity marks (which indicate meter test lead placement) indicate the sources aiding each other. so we subtract 17 volts from 24 volts to obtain the total voltage across the two: 7 volts. In AC circuits. the polarity marks indicating voltmeter test lead placement: (Figure 2. and which terminal the black lead is touching.
28: (+) Reading indicates black is (). red is (+). The meter tells us +24 volts V V OFF A A A COM Source 1 Source 2 Total voltage? Figure 2. COMPLEX NUMBERS V V OFF A A V V OFF A A A COM A COM 6V 6V Figure 2.27: Test lead colors provide a frame of reference for interpreting the sign (+ or ) of the meter’s indication. .46 CHAPTER 2.
29: 24V source is polarized () to (+).2. MORE ON AC ”POLARITY” 47 24 V Source 1 Source 2 Total voltage? Figure 2. red is ().30: () Reading indicates black is (+).32: Voltmeter readings as read from meters.7. 24 V Source 1 17 V Source 2  Total voltage = 7 V + Figure 2. The meter tells us 17 volts V V OFF A A A COM Source 1 Source 2 Total voltage? Figure 2. .31: 17V source is polarized (+) to () 24 V Source 1 17 V + Source 2 + Figure 2.
35) Unlike DC voltage sources.48 CHAPTER 2. any polarity marks must be included as additional symbols on the diagram. however. The polarity markings show these two voltage sources aiding each other. whose symbols intrinsically deﬁne polarity by means of short and long lines. . The same is true for AC voltages. Again. and still arrive at the same total voltage: (Figure 2. with a reversed set of polarity markings.59o Figure 2.59o Figure 2. Therefore. AC voltage symbols have no intrinsic polarity marking.861 V ∠ 16. COMPLEX NUMBERS answer. However.34: Reversing the voltmeter leads on the 6V source changes the phase angle by 180o . 6 V 45o with negative on the left and positive on the right is exactly the same as 6 V 225o with positive on the left and negative on the right: the reversal of polarity markings perfectly complements the addition of 180o to the phase angle designation: (Figure 2. They must. the result will always be correct. If we let the polarity markings guide our decision to either add or subtract voltage ﬁgures – whether those polarity markings represent the true polarity or just the meter test lead orientation – and include the mathematical signs of those voltage ﬁgures in our calculations. correlate with the given phase angle to represent the true phase relationship of that voltage with other voltages in the circuit. it would be perfectly acceptable to represent the 6 volt source as 6 V 225o . except that phase angle substitutes for mathematical sign. we need polarity markings to provide frames of reference for those voltages’ phase angles. and there is no one “correct” way in which to place them.33) Take for example the following circuit: 10 V ∠ 0o + 6 V ∠ 45o + 14. (Figure 2. so to determine the total voltage across the resistor we must add the voltage ﬁgures of 10 V 0o and 6 V 45o together to obtain 14.34) 10 V ∠ 0o + 6 V ∠ 225o +  14. In order to relate multiple AC voltages at different phase angles to each other.59o .861 V 16.861 V ∠ 16. the polarity markings serve as frames of reference to place the voltage ﬁgures’ mathematical signs in proper context.33: Phase angle substitutes for ± sign.
with the exception of power calculations (Joule’s Law). The polarity marks for all three voltage sources are oriented in such a way that their stated voltages should add to make the total voltage across the load resistor. and all voltages and currents must be of the same frequency (in order that their phase relationships remain constant). Notice that although magnitude and phase angle is given for each AC voltage source. The setup of our equation to ﬁnd total voltage appears as such: .35: Reversing polarity adds 180o to phase angle • REVIEW: • Polarity markings are sometimes given to AC voltages in circuit schematics in order to provide a frame of reference for their phase angles. . it is assumed that all frequencies are equal.8 Some examples with AC circuits Let’s connect three AC voltage sources in series and use complex numbers to determine additive voltages. Kirchhoff ’s Laws.2. taking into account phase as well as magnitude.36) 22 V ∠ 64 + E1 + E2 + E3 load o 12 V ∠ 35o 15 V ∠ 0o Figure 2.36: KVL allows addition of complex voltages. All the rules and laws learned in the study of DC circuits apply to AC circuits as well (Ohm’s Law. . network analysis methods). SOME EXAMPLES WITH AC CIRCUITS 49 6 V ∠ 45o + .8. (Figure 2. thus meeting our qualiﬁcations for applying DC rules to an AC circuit (all ﬁgures given in complex form. all of the same frequency). is equivalent to . 6 V ∠ 225o +  Figure 2. . 2. The only qualiﬁcation is that all variables must be expressed in complex form. . If this is the case. no frequency value is speciﬁed.
37. In order to determine what the resultant vector’s magnitude and angle are without resorting to graphic images.37: Graphic addition of vector voltages. 22 ∠ 64o 15 ∠ 0o 12 ∠ 35o Figure 2. The sum of these vectors will be a resultant vector originating at the starting point for the 22 volt vector (dot at upperleft of diagram) and terminating at the ending point for the 15 volt vector (arrow tip at the middleright of the diagram): (Figure 2.38) resultant vector 22 ∠ 64o 15 ∠ 0o 12 ∠ 35o Figure 2. COMPLEX NUMBERS Etotal = E1 + E2 + E3 Etotal = (22 V ∠ 64o) + (12 V ∠ 35o) + (15 V ∠ 0o) Graphically. Remember.50 CHAPTER 2. we can convert each one of these polarform complex numbers into rectangular form and add. the vectors add up as shown in Figure 2. we’re adding these ﬁgures together because the polarity marks for the three voltage sources are oriented in an additive manner: .38: Resultant is equivalent to the vector sum of the three original voltages.
There are other components (notably capacitors and inductors) which do not respond uniformly to different frequencies.4740 . the 10 kΩ resistor value is quite arbitrary.5018o . not the angle.8. lagging the 15 volt (0o phase reference) by 20.end freq 6. but that is another subject! (Figure 2. This is extremely important in relating calculated ﬁgures of voltage and current to real circuits.000E+01 v(3) 3.8052 volts.681E+01 I’m using a frequency of 60 Hz as a default value vp(3) 2. it is not very applicable to practical measurements.5o (with reference to the 15 volt source.8298 + j6. Although rectangular notation is convenient for addition and subtraction.8906 V In polar form. not the phase angle. because resistors respond uniformly for all frequencies of AC voltage and current.050E+01 Sure enough.8052 volts).2. In this test circuit.6442 . The same principle holds true for AC ammeters: they indicate the polar magnitude of the current. Also. Rectangular ﬁgures must be converted to polar ﬁgures (speciﬁcally polar magnitude) before they can be related to actual circuit measurements. A voltmeter connected across these points in a real circuit would only indicate the polar magnitude of the voltage (36. What this means in real terms is that the voltage measured across these three voltage sources will be 36.j12. but not a voltmeter.8052 volts 20.0) vp(3.6442 .8298 + j6. SOME EXAMPLES WITH AC CIRCUITS 51 15 V ∠ 0o = 15 + j0 V 12 V ∠ 35o = 9.8829 V + 9.0) . An oscilloscope could be used to display two voltage waveforms and thus provide a phase shift measurement. this equates to 36.39) ac voltage addition v1 1 0 ac 15 0 sin v2 2 1 ac 12 35 sin v3 3 2 ac 22 64 sin r1 3 0 10k . It’s there so that SPICE does not declare an opencircuit error and abort analysis. and was indeed the ﬁnal step in our sample problem here.print ac v(3.8829 V 22 V ∠ 64o = 9.j19. We can use SPICE to verify the accuracy of our results.5018o .7735 V 34. we get a total voltage of 36. the choice of frequencies for the simulation (60 Hz) is quite arbitrary.ac lin 1 60 60 .81 volts 20.j19. whose phase angle was arbitrarily stated at zero degrees so as to be the “reference” .7735 V 15 + j0 V 9.
12 volt. waveform). Note how the 12 volt supply’s phase angle is still referred to as 35o . What if we took the same circuit and reversed one of the supply’s connections? Its contribution to the total voltage would then be the opposite of what it was before: (Figure 2. our “polarity” (phase shift) can vary anywhere in between fullaiding and fullopposing. But with AC. as voltage ﬁgures will either directly add or subtract. COMPLEX NUMBERS 3 22 V ∠ 64o 2 12 V ∠ 35o 1 15 V ∠ 0o 0 + V3 + V2 R1 + V1  3 10 kΩ 0 Figure 2. and 22 volt supplies connected in series? With DC. At ﬁrst glance. this is counterintuitive.40: Polarity of E2 (12V) is reversed. this would be impossible. the vector will be drawn 180o opposite of what it was before: (Figure 2.41) The resultant (sum) vector should begin at the upperleft point (origin of the 22 volt vector) .52 CHAPTER 2. Even though the angle is still written as 35o . How is it possible to obtain a total voltage of just over 36 volts with 15 volt.39: Spice circuit schematic. Remember that the phase angle of any voltage drop is stated in reference to its noted polarity. depending on polarity.40) 22 V ∠ 64o Polarity reversed on source E2 ! + E1 E2 + + E3 load 12 V ∠ 35o 15 V ∠ 0o Figure 2. even though the leads have been reversed. and this allows for such paradoxical summing.
and terminate at the right arrow tip of the 15 volt vector: (Figure 2. SOME EXAMPLES WITH AC CIRCUITS 53 22 ∠ 64o 12 ∠ 35o (reversed) = 12 ∠ 215o or 12 ∠ 35o 15 ∠ 0o Figure 2. The connection reversal on the 12 volt supply can be represented in two different ways in .2.42: Resultant is vector sum of voltage sources.42) 22 ∠ 64o resultant vector 12 ∠ 35o (reversed) = 12 ∠ 215o or 12 ∠ 35ο 15 ∠ 0o Figure 2.8.41: Direction of E2 is reversed.
it can be expressed in either of two different ways: adding 180o to the angle.094E+01 • REVIEW: • All the laws and rules of DC circuits apply to AC circuits.000E+01 v(3) 3.j6.8829 V The resulting addition of voltages in rectangular form. we will use SPICE to ac voltage addition v1 1 0 ac 15 0 sin v2 1 2 ac 12 35 sin Note the reversal of node numbers 2 and 1 v3 3 2 ac 22 64 sin to simulate the swapping of connections r1 3 0 10k . as Kirchhoff ’s Voltage and Current Laws require. • Meter measurements in an AC circuit correspond to the polar magnitudes of calculated values.8298 . this equates to 30. although they are convenient for performing addition and subtraction.7735 V 14.8298 .8298 . conversion to rectangular form yields the same result: 12 V ∠ 35o (reversed) = 12 V ∠ 215o = 9.9368o . or reversing the sign of the magnitude.ac lin 1 60 60 . . and all voltages and currents are at the same frequency. • When reversing the direction of a vector (equivalent to reversing the polarity of an AC voltage source in relation to other voltage sources).j26.050E+01 vp(3) 6.j6.0) .6442 . Rectangular expressions of complex quantities in an AC circuit have no direct. empirical equivalent. COMPLEX NUMBERS polar form: by an addition of 180o to its vector angle (making it 12 volts 215o ). or a reversal of sign on the magnitude (making it 12 volts 35o ).j19. with the exception of power calculations (Joule’s Law). Either way.8829 V or 12 V ∠ 35o = 9.8829 V + 9.0) vp(3. so long as all values are expressed and manipulated in complex form.6564 V In polar form. then: 15 + j0 V 9.print ac v(3.8143 .4964 V verify the results of our calculations: 60.end freq 6.j6. Once again.54 CHAPTER 2.
See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information. . from most recent to ﬁrst. CONTRIBUTORS 55 2. Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting.2.9.9 Contributors Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions. which led to a much betterlooking second edition.
COMPLEX NUMBERS .56 CHAPTER 2.
. .Chapter 3 REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE Contents 3.2) 57 . . . . . . . it would look something like this: (Figure 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . More on the “skin effect” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 3. . . . . .5 3. . . . . . . . .1: Pure resistive AC circuit: resistor voltage and current are in phase. . . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contributors . If we were to plot the current and voltage for a very simple AC circuit consisting of a source and a resistor (Figure 3. . . . . . . . . . . . Parallel resistorinductor circuits Inductor quirks . . . . . Series resistorinductor circuits . . . .7 AC resistor circuits . . . . . .1 AC resistor circuits ET I ER IR E T = ER I = IR R 0° IR ET Figure 3. AC inductor circuits . . . . . . . . . 57 59 64 71 74 77 79 3.6 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 3. . .1). . . . . . . . . . .3 3. . .
Because the resistor simply and directly resists the ﬂow of electrons at all periods of time. When the current is positive (above the line). when the current is negative (below the line). We can look at any point in time along the horizontal axis of the plot and compare those values of current and voltage with each other (any “snapshot” look at the values of a wave are referred to as instantaneous values. resulting in a power (p=ie) of a positive value.3) e= i= p= + Time  Figure 3. Likewise.2: Voltage and current “in phase” for resistive circuit. meaning the values at that instant in time). Ohm’s Law holds true for the instantaneous values of voltage and current. the voltage is also positive. taking it from the source and releasing it in the form of heat energy. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE e= i= + Time  Figure 3. the instantaneous voltage across the resistor is also zero. the voltage is also negative.3: Instantaneous AC power in a pure resistive circuit is always positive. at the moment in time where the current through the resistor is at its positive peak. the waveform for the voltage drop across the resistor is exactly in phase with the waveform for the current through it.58 CHAPTER 3. the voltage across the resistor is also at its positive peak. and so on. We can also calculate the power dissipated by this resistor. When the instantaneous value for current is zero. Whether the . Note that the power is never a negative value. and plot those values on the same graph: (Figure 3. At any given point in time along the waves. This consistent “polarity” of power tells us that the resistor is always dissipating power. which results in a positive value for power (a negative number multiplied by a negative number equals a positive number). Conversely.
the instantaneous voltage is zero whenever the instantaneous current is at a peak (zero change. if current is increasing in magnitude.7) Because instantaneous power is the product of the instantaneous voltage and the instantaneous current (p=ie). on the current sine wave).6) Things get even more interesting when we plot the power for this circuit: (Figure 3. the voltage wave seems to have a “head start” on the current wave. the polarity will reverse and “push with” the electron ﬂow to oppose the decrease. the induced voltage will “push against” the electron ﬂow. 59 3. the power equals zero whenever the instantaneous current or voltage is . let’s analyze a simple inductor circuit: (Figure 3. and the instantaneous voltage is at a peak wherever the instantaneous current is at maximum change (the points of steepest slope on the current wave. AC INDUCTOR CIRCUITS current is positive or negative. In accordance with Lenz’s Law.4: Pure inductive circuit: Inductor current lags inductor voltage by 90o . the relationship between the voltage dropped across the inductor and rate of current change through the inductor is as such: e = L di dt The expression di/dt is one from calculus.3. This results in a voltage wave that is 90o out of phase with the current wave. The inductance (L) is in Henrys. a resistor still dissipates energy. the voltage dropped across an inductor is a reaction against the change in current through it. the voltage “leads” the current. if current is decreasing. If we were to plot the current and voltage for this very simple circuit. but it means the exact same thing. of course.2 AC inductor circuits Inductors do not behave the same as resistors. Therefore. rather than resistance. Sometimes you will ﬁnd the rate of instantaneous voltage expressed as “v” instead of “e” (v = L di/dt). in amps per second. is in volts. where it crosses the zero line). and the instantaneous voltage (e). or level slope. by dropping a voltage directly proportional to the rate of change of current.5) Remember. inductors oppose changes in current through them. This opposition to current change is called reactance.2. and the current “lags” behind the voltage. Whereas resistors simply oppose the ﬂow of electrons through them (by dropping a voltage directly proportional to the current). Expressed mathematically. To show what happens with alternating current.4) ET I EL IL E T = EL I = IL L EL IL 90° Figure 3. this induced voltage is always of such a polarity as to try to maintain current at its present value. Looking at the graph. (Figure 3. meaning the rate of change of instantaneous current (i) over time. That is. it would look something like this: (Figure 3.
+ e= i= p= Time Figure 3.5: Pure inductive circuit.60 CHAPTER 3. (+) e= i= Time + current slope = 0 voltage = 0 current slope = max. waveforms. (+) voltage = max. instantaneous power may be positive or negative . current slope = 0 voltage = 0 current slope = max. () Figure 3.7: In a pure inductive circuit. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE + e= i= Time Figure 3.6: Current lags voltage by 90o in a pure inductive circuit. () voltage = max.
it will produce one cycle for every full turn of shaft rotation. and less voltage for slowerchanging currents. while a positive power means that it is absorbing power from the circuit. which is every 2π radians. except that its mathematical symbol is X instead of R. 120. quite unlike the resistance of a resistor. the result will be a ﬁgure in radians per second. if you imagine one cycle of AC to represent a full circle’s rotation. resulting in equally frequent occurrences of negative instantaneous power. An inductor’s opposition to change in current translates to an opposition to alternating current in general. Since inductors drop voltage in proportion to the rate of current change. What this means in a practical sense is that the reactance of an inductor dissipates a net energy of zero. Because of the differences. just like resistance is. . Whenever the instantaneous current and voltage are both positive (above the line). they will drop more voltage for fasterchanging currents. What this means is that reactance in ohms for any inductor is directly proportional to the frequency of the alternating current. known as the angular velocity of the AC system. If the alternator producing the AC is a doublepole unit. As with the resistor example. the power is positive.0796 In the reactance equation. there are times when one is positive while the other is negative.5398 2500 157. A radian is a unit of angular measurement: there are 2π radians in one full circle. it will manifest the reactances in Table Figure 3. and 2500 Hz. However. the inductor releases just as much power back to the circuit as it absorbs over the span of a complete cycle. Angular velocity may be represented by the expression 2πf. the reactance formula XL = 2πfL could also be written as XL = ωL. AC INDUCTOR CIRCUITS 61 zero. or it may be represented by its own symbol. which have no wire resistance. because the current and voltage waves are 90o out of phase. this is for perfect inductors only. If this constant of 2π is multiplied by frequency in Hertz (cycles per second). Mind you. which dissipates energy in the form of heat.1: Reactance of a 10 mH inductor: Frequency (Hertz) Reactance (Ohms) 60 3. Thus. but different in that it always results in a phase shift between current and voltage. To be speciﬁc. Since the positive and negative power cycles are equal in magnitude and duration over time. Reactance to AC is expressed in ohms. the term “2πf ” (everything on the righthand side except the L) has a special meaning unto itself. which is by deﬁnition always changing in instantaneous magnitude and direction. Table 3.7699 120 7. just as there are 360o in a full circle. But what does negative power mean? It means that the inductor is releasing power back to the circuit. and it dissipates zero power.1. the lowercase Greek letter Omega. The exact formula for determining reactance is as follows: XL = 2πfL If we expose a 10 mH inductor to frequencies of 60. it has a different name: reactance. reactance associate with an inductor is usually symbolized by the capital letter X with a letter L as a subscript.2. which appears similar to our Roman lowercase “w”: ω.3. or 360o . like this: XL . This opposition to alternating current is similar to resistance. the power is also positive when the instantaneous current and voltage are both negative (below the line). It is the number of radians per second that the alternating current is “rotating” at.
7699 Ω I= I= I = 2. an inductor will offer greater opposition to the passage of current. the voltage has a phase shift of +90o with respect to the current.8: Inductive reactance (inductive reactance of 10 mH inductor at 60 Hz) XL = 3. Alternating current in a simple inductive circuit is equal to the voltage (in volts) divided by the inductive reactance (in ohms). If the alternator has more than two poles. Any way we express the angular velocity of the system.7699 Ω E X 10 V 3.8) 10 V 60 Hz L 10 mH Figure 3. we ﬁnd that an inductor’s opposition to current has a phase angle. so as to distinguish it from mechanical motion.62 CHAPTER 3.9) If we represent these phase angles of voltage and current mathematically in the form of complex numbers. It is not necessarily representative of the actual shaft speed of the alternator producing the AC. For this reason. it is apparent that it is directly proportional to reactance in an inductor. As was shown earlier. just as either alternating or direct current in a simple resistive circuit is equal to the voltage (in volts) divided by the resistance (in ohms). and vice versa. too: . the angular velocity will be a multiple of the shaft speed. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE It must be understood that this “angular velocity” is an expression of how rapidly the AC waveforms are cycling. a full cycle being equal to 2π radians. we need to keep in mind that voltage and current are not in phase here. ω is sometimes expressed in units of electrical radians per second rather than (plain) radians per second. (Figure 3. An example circuit is shown here: (Figure 3.6526 A However. As the frequency (or alternator shaft speed) is increased in an AC system.
• REVIEW: • Inductive reactance is the opposition that an inductor offers to alternating current due to its phaseshifted storage and release of energy in its magnetic ﬁeld. meaning that an inductor’s opposition to current is a positive imaginary quantity. especially for complex AC circuits where reactance and resistance interact. • Inductive reactance can be calculated using this formula: XL = 2πfL • The angular velocity of an AC circuit is another way of expressing its frequency.6526 A ∠ 0ο Opposition = Opposition = 3.7699 Ω For an inductor: 90o 90o E 0o I Opposition (XL) Figure 3. This phase angle of reactive opposition to current becomes critically important in circuit analysis.3.7699 Ω ∠ 90o or 0 + j3.9: Current lags voltage by 90o in an inductor. It is symbolized by the lowercase Greek letter “omega. we say that the phase angle of an inductor’s opposition to current is 90o . in units of electrical radians per second instead of cycles per second. AC INDUCTOR CIRCUITS 63 Opposition = Voltage Current 10 V ∠ 90o 2. Mathematically. Reactance is symbolized by the capital letter “X” and is measured in ohms just like resistance (R).2. It will prove beneﬁcial to represent any component’s opposition to current in terms of complex numbers rather than scalar quantities of resistance and reactance. .” or ω.
REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE • Inductive reactance increases with increasing frequency.7699 Ω) Ztotal = 5 + j3. the higher the frequency. we need a more comprehensive term for opposition to current than either resistance or reactance alone.64 CHAPTER 3.262 Ω ∠ 37. the combined effect of the two components will be an opposition to current equal to the complex sum of the two numbers. just like resistance and reactance.3 Series resistorinductor circuits In the previous section.7699 Ω ∠ 900) or (5 + j0 Ω) + (0 + j3. and it is also expressed in the unit of ohms.016o . In the above example. the more it opposes the AC ﬂow of electrons. and the inductor’s reactance is an imaginary number (3.7699 Ω inductive reactance) Ztotal = 5 Ω (R) + 3.7699 Ω of reactance to AC current at 60 Hz. 3. while the inductor will offer 3.7699 Ω). the total circuit impedance is: Ztotal = (5 Ω resistance) + (3. In other words. This term is called impedance. or 5 + j0 Ω). we explored what would happen in simple resistoronly and inductoronly AC circuits.7699 Ω 90o .10: Series resistor inductor circuit: Current lags applied voltage by 0o to 90o .7699 Ω or 6. The resistor will offer 5 Ω of resistance to AC current regardless of frequency. its symbol is Z. In order to express this opposition succinctly.7699 Ω (XL) Ztotal = (5 Ω ∠ 0o) + (3. Take this circuit as an example to work with: (Figure 3. Now we will mix the two components together in series form and investigate the effects. This combined opposition will be a vector combination of resistance and reactance. Because the resistor’s resistance is a real number (5 Ω 0o . or 0 + j3.10) R ET I IR EL IL ET = ER+ EL I = IR = IL L EL 37° I ER ET 10 V 60 Hz R 5Ω L 10 mH Figure 3.
Any resistance and any reactance.016o + e= i= Time Figure 3. just as impedance is a far more comprehensive expression of opposition to the ﬂow of electrons than resistance is. separately or in combination (series/parallel). (The phase angles of resistive and inductive impedance are always 0o and +90o . To calculate current in the above circuit. form In fact.016o As with the purely inductive circuit. Voltage across the resistor is in phase (0o shift) with the current through . which is generally assumed to be zero.11) phase shift = 37.016o I = 1.262 Ω ∠ 37. we ﬁrst need to give a phase angle reference for the voltage source.016o as opposed to a full 90o as was the case in the purely inductive circuit. the current wave lags behind the voltage wave (of the source). not scalar.11: Current lags voltage in a series LR circuit.3. For the resistor and the inductor.3. I= I= E Z 10 V ∠ 0o 6.597 A ∠ 37. can be and should be represented as a single impedance in an AC circuit. in a manner similar to resistance in Ohm’s Law: Ohm’s Law for AC circuits: E = IZ I= E Z Z= E I All quantities expressed in complex. (Figure 3. this is a far more comprehensive form of Ohm’s Law than what was taught in DC electronics (E=IR). regardless of the given phase angles for voltage or current). although this time the lag is not as great: only 37. SERIES RESISTORINDUCTOR CIRCUITS 65 Impedance is related to voltage and current just as you might expect. respectively. the phase relationships between voltage and current haven’t changed.
telling us that E and I are in phase (for the resistor only). just as Kirchhoff ’s Voltage Law would predict: Etotal = ER + EL Etotal = (7.016o Notice that the phase angle of ER is equal to the phase angle of the current.7699 Ω ∠ 90o) EL = 6.016o)(3.984o . The voltage across the resistor has the exact same phase angle as the current through it.12) .66 CHAPTER 3.0203 V ∠ 52.016o)(5 Ω ∠ 0o) ER = 7. E = IZ EL = ILZL EL = (1. We can verify this mathematically: E = IZ ER = IRZR ER = (1.984o Notice that the phase angle of EL is exactly 90o more than the phase angle of the current.9847 V ∠ 37.9847 V ∠ 37.016o) + (6. a difference of exactly 90o between the two. We can also mathematically prove that these complex values add together to make the total voltage.984o) Etotal = 10 V ∠ 0o Let’s check the validity of our calculations with SPICE: (Figure 3.0203 V ∠ 52.597 A ∠ 37.016o . The voltage across the inductor has a phase angle of 52. while the current through the inductor has a phase angle of 37. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE it. This tells us that E and I are still 90o out of phase (for the inductor only). and the voltage across the inductor is +90o out of phase with the current going through it.597 A ∠ 37.
SERIES RESISTORINDUCTOR CIRCUITS 67 1 10 V 60 Hz 0 R 5Ω L 2 10 mH 0 Figure 3.end freq 6.016o .2) 7. Note how both the resistor and inductor voltage phase readings match our calculations (37. SPICE outputs current ﬁgures as though they were negative (180o out of phase) with the supply voltage.98o . just as we expected them to. Applying a table to this simple series resistorinductor circuit would proceed as such. respectively).print ac v(1.2) 3.02o EL = 6.000E+01 freq 6. respectively. With all these ﬁgures to keep track of for even such a simple circuit as this.597E+00 ip(v1) 1. ac rl circuit v1 1 0 ac 10 sin r1 1 2 5 l1 2 0 10m .000E+01 v(1.430E+02 Interpreted SPICE results ER = 7.597 A ∠ 143.2) v(2. draw up a table for E/I/Z ﬁgures and insert all component values in these terms (in other words.02o and 52. rather. Instead of a phase angle of 37. don’t insert actual resistance or inductance values in Ohms and Henrys.0o Note that just as with DC circuits. we get a current phase angle of 143o (37o + 180o ).020E+00 vp(2) 5.3.98o I = 1.298E+01 i(v1) 1. This is merely an idiosyncrasy of SPICE and does not represent anything signiﬁcant in the circuit simulation itself.985E+00 vp(1. First.0) i(v1) .print ac vp(1.702E+01 v(2) 6.2) vp(2.0) ip(v1) .3.020 V ∠ 52. into the table.985 V ∠ 37.12: Spice circuit: RL.ac lin 1 60 60 . convert them into complex ﬁgures of impedance and write those in): . it would be beneﬁcial for us to use the “table” method.
7699 ∠ 90o Rule of series circuits Ztotal = ZR + ZL 5 + j3. Now that our “given” ﬁgures are inserted into their respective locations in the table. However.016o Ohms Now that we know total voltage and total impedance. we can apply Ohm’s Law (I=E/Z) to determine total current: .7699 ∠ 90o Ohms Although it isn’t necessary. if you are forced to perform complex arithmetic “longhand” (addition and subtraction in rectangular form. we know that opposition to electron ﬂow (resistance or impedance) adds to form the total opposition: R E I Z 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o L Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o Volts Amps 0 + j3.262 ∠ 37. I ﬁnd it helpful to write both the rectangular and polar forms of each quantity in the table. writing each quantity in both forms will be useful indeed. then this extra documentation is completely unnecessary. If you are using a calculator that has the ability to perform complex arithmetic without the need for conversion between rectangular and polar forms. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE L Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o Volts Amps 0 + j3. Since this is a series circuit.7699 3. we can proceed just as with DC: determine the total impedance from the individual impedances.7699 3. and multiplication and division in polar form).7699 6.68 R E I Z 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o CHAPTER 3.
7699 6.7699 6.9614 1.016o 0 + j3.7699 3.9614 1.2751 .j0. therefore the rate of their ﬂow must uniform throughout. respectively. Consequently.016o Volts Amps Ohms 69 Ohm’s Law E I= Z Just as with DC.016o 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o L Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms 1.597 ∠ 37.7699 3.9614 1. the total current in a series AC circuit is shared equally by all components.7699 ∠ 90o L Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 1.597 ∠ 37.9614 1.j0.j0.2751 .597 ∠ 37. This is still true because in a series circuit there is only a single path for electrons to ﬂow.2751 .016o 5 + j3.j0. applied vertically in each column of the table: .7699 ∠ 90o 1.3.597 ∠ 37.2751 .262 ∠ 37. SERIES RESISTORINDUCTOR CIRCUITS R E I Z 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o 0 + j3.262 ∠ 37.016o 5 + j3. This is done through the use of Ohm’s Law (E=IZ).3.016o Rule of series circuits: Itotal = IR = IL Now all that’s left to ﬁgure is the voltage drop across the resistor and inductor. we can transfer the ﬁgures for current into the columns for the resistor and inductor alike: R E I Z 1.
Find the impedance at 60 hertz.3756 .9614 1.984o 1.7699 ∠ 90o Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 1.58×10−3 30 Ω R + jXL 40 + j30 .j4. with the caveat that all quantities must be represented and calculated in complex rather than scalar form.016o 1. measurement instruments simply tell you how long the vector is for that particular quantity (voltage or current). Now is a good time to review the relationship between these calculated ﬁgures and readings given by actual instrument measurements of voltage and current. it would indicate 7.0203 ∠ 52.2751 .2751 .7699 6.j0. there is no fundamental difference in how we approach basic AC circuit analysis versus DC.j0.9614 1.016o Volts Amps Ohms Ohm’s Law E = IZ Ohm’s Law E = IZ And with that. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE L 3. Impedance (Z) of a series RL circuit may be calculated.8071 7.9614 1.8071 (imaginary rectangular) volts.597 ∠ 37.13) Example: Given: A 40 Ω resistor in series with a 79. (Figure 3. The ﬁgures here that directly relate to reallife measurements are those in polar notation. Rectangular notation. but may be helpful for those following along without the beneﬁt of an advanced calculator. This is not absolutely necessary.9847 volts. reactance.9847 ∠ 37.58 millihenry inductor.70 R E I Z 6. the voltage phasor diagram can be replaced by a similar impedance diagram. Since E=IR.016o 5 + j3.2751 .016o 0 + j3.3756 (real rectangular) or 4. not 6. and impedance are proportional to voltage.262 ∠ 37. because it is the only one that can be directly correlated to real measurements. given the resistance (R) and the inductive reactance (XL ).6244 + j4. resistance. The exact same rules we applied in the analysis of DC circuits apply to AC circuits as well. if you were to connect a voltmeter across the resistor in this circuit.016o 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o CHAPTER 3. not rectangular! In other words. As I stated before. E=IXL . while convenient for arithmetical addition and subtraction.597 ∠ 37. respectively. and E=IZ. To describe this in graphical terms. I will indicate both polar and rectangular forms of each quantity in my AC circuit tables simply for convenience of mathematical calculation. our table is complete.7699 3.8071 6. XL XL XL Z Z = = = = = 2πfL 2π·60·79. is a more abstract form of notation than polar in relation to realworld measurements.597 ∠ 37. Thus. If we were to restrict ourselves to the use of only one form of notation.j0. the best choice would be polar. So long as phase shift is properly represented in our calculations.
just like resistance (R) and reactance (X). .87o Z = 40 + j30 = 50 36. respectively. Zn • A purely resistive impedance will always have a phase angle of exactly 0o (ZR = R Ω 0o ).14) Because the power source has the same frequency as the series example circuit.87o • REVIEW: • Impedance is the total measure of opposition to electric current and is the complex (vector) sum of (“real”) resistance and (“imaginary”) reactance.13: Series: RL circuit Impedance phasor diagram. . • A purely inductive impedance will always have a phase angle of exactly +90o (ZL = XL Ω 90o ). the total impedance will have a phase angle somewhere between 0o and +90o . Z = sqrt(402 + 302 ) = 50 Ω Z = arctangent(30/40) = 36. It is symbolized by the letter “Z” and measured in ohms. 3. The circuit current will have a phase angle somewhere between 0o and 90o .4 Parallel resistorinductor circuits Let’s take the same components for our series example circuit and connect them in parallel: (Figure 3. Just be sure to perform all calculations in complex (not scalar) form! ZT otal = Z1 + Z2 + . • Series AC circuits exhibit the same fundamental properties as series DC circuits: current is uniform throughout the circuit. • Ohm’s Law for AC circuits: E = IZ . Z = E/I • When resistors and inductors are mixed together in circuits. I = E/Z . voltage drops add to form the total voltage. and the resistor and inductor both have the same values of resistance and inductance. PARALLEL RESISTORINDUCTOR CIRCUITS 71 R ET I IR EL IL XL EL 37° I Voltage ET XL 37° Z ER Impedance R Figure 3. and impedances add to form the total impedance.3. • Impedances (Z) are managed just like resistances (R) in series circuit analysis: series impedances add to form the total impedance. .4.
7699 ∠ 90o Rule of parallel circuits: Etotal = ER = EL 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o L 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms Now we can apply Ohm’s Law (I=E/Z) vertically to two columns of the table. The approach is fundamentally the same as for DC. calculating current through the resistor and current through the inductor: .72 CHAPTER 3.14: Parallel RL circuit. We know that voltage is shared uniformly by all components in a parallel circuit.7699 ∠ 90o L Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms The only difference in our analysis technique this time is that we will apply the rules of parallel circuits instead of the rules for series circuits. So.7699 3. so we can transfer the ﬁgure of total voltage (10 volts 0o ) to all components columns: R E I Z 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o 0 + j3. they must also have the same values of impedance.7699 3. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE E I R 53° E I R 10 V 60 Hz R 5Ω L 10 mH IR IL L IL I I = IR+ IL E = ER = EL Figure 3. we can begin our analysis table with the same “given” values: R E I Z 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o 0 + j3.
6526 ∠ 90o 0 + j3. And if you’re determined to run through a formula like this “longhand.” be prepared for a very large amount of work! But. PARALLEL RESISTORINDUCTOR CIRCUITS R E I Z 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 2 + j0 2 ∠ 0o 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o L 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 0 .7699 ∠ 90o Rule of parallel circuits: Itotal = IR + IL Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 2 .7699 3.6526 2. we often have multiple options in calculating the quantities in our analysis tables.3. Z1 Z2 Zn The only problem with using this formula is that it typically involves a lot of calculator keystrokes to carry out.j2. No matter which way you calculate total impedance (Ohm’s Law or the reciprocal formula). parallel impedance can also be calculated by using a reciprocal formula identical to that used in calculating parallel resistances.3221 ∠ 52.7699 3.. just as with DC circuits.984o Volts Amps Ohms Finally.6526 ∠ 90o 0 + j3.. Zparallel = 1 1 1 1 + + .4. you will arrive at the same ﬁgure: . branch currents in a parallel AC circuit add to form the total current (Kirchhoff ’s Current Law still holds true for AC as it did for DC): R E I Z 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 2 + j0 2 ∠ 0o 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o L 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 0 .j2.6526 3. and this example is no different.j2. Incidentally. total impedance can be calculated by using Ohm’s Law (Z=E/I) vertically in the “Total” column.7699 ∠ 90o Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms 73 Ohm’s Law E I= Z Ohm’s Law E I= Z Just as with DC circuits.6526 2.
However.74 R E I Z 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 2 + j0 2 ∠ 0o 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o CHAPTER 3.984o Volts Amps Ohms Ohm’s Law Z= E I or Rule of parallel circuits: 1 Ztotal = 1 1 + ZR ZL • REVIEW: • Impedances (Z) are managed just like resistances (R) in parallel circuit analysis: parallel impedances diminish to form the total impedance.6526 3. . To begin with. The circuit current will have a phase angle somewhere between 0o and 90o . an inductor acts as a purely reactive device.8122 + j2. I = E/Z .0102 ∠ 52.4035 3.5 Inductor quirks In an ideal case. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE L 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 0 . • Parallel AC circuits exhibit the same fundamental properties as parallel DC circuits: voltage is uniform throughout the circuit.984o 1. That is.7699 3. Z = E/I • When resistors and inductors are mixed together in parallel circuits (just as in series circuits). 3. and impedances diminish (through the reciprocal formula) to form the total impedance.15) Consequently.j2.j2. which is AC’s tendency to ﬂow through the outer areas of a conductor’s crosssection rather than through the middle.6526 ∠ 90o 0 + j3. This builtin resistance acts as though it were connected in series with the perfect inductance of the coil. like this: (Figure 3.6526 2. and not electron friction as is the case with resistive components. . the impedance of any real inductor will always be a complex combination of resistance and inductive reactance.7699 ∠ 90o Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 2 . they’re made of wire. the total impedance will have a phase angle somewhere between 0o and +90o . inductors are not quite so pure in their reactive behavior. 1/Zn ) • Ohm’s Law for AC circuits: E = IZ .322 ∠ 52. its opposition to AC current is strictly based on inductive reaction to changes in current. using the reciprocal formula. Compounding this problem is something called the skin effect. and we know that all wire possesses some measurable amount of resistance (unless its superconducting wire). Just be sure to perform all calculations in complex (not scalar) form! ZT otal = 1/(1/Z1 + 1/Z2 + . branch currents add to form the total current. .
special . The skin effect becomes more pronounced as frequency increases. which is not as good a conductor as copper. tend to avoid travel through the very middle of a conductor. the heated substance not having to touch the coil(s) producing the magnetic ﬁeld. and thus where standard combustion heating technology would be useless. on the other hand. and so it manifests itself as resistance (power dissipation) in the circuit. In highfrequency service. contributing to additional resistive effects. When electrons ﬂow in a single direction (DC). These electric currents in the iron core have to overcome the electrical resistance offered by the iron. To counteract this tendency. there are other effects at work in ironcore inductors which manifest themselves as additional resistance between the leads. Added to the resistive losses of wire and radiation. where metallic elements and alloys must be heated in a vacuum environment to avoid contamination by air. the alternating magnetic ﬁelds produced tend to induce circulating currents within the iron core known as eddy currents. this process of “inductive heating” is often used in highpurity metal foundry operations. and can be so extreme that it is sometimes exploited in manufacturing processes to heat metal objects! In fact. they use the entire crosssectional area of the conductor to move. eddy current losses in metallic inductor cores manifest themselves in the form of heat.5. Eddy current losses are primarily counteracted by dividing the iron core up into many thin sheets (laminations). especially if the AC is of high frequency. current cannot circulate within that crosssectional area and there will be no (or very little) resistive losses from that effect. limiting the effective crosssectional area available. The effect is more pronounced at higher frequencies. each one separated from the other by a thin layer of electrically insulating varnish. eddy currents can even develop within the crosssection of the wire itself. It is a “noncontact” technology. the alternating magnetic ﬁeld of an inductor energized with AC may radiate off into space as part of an electromagnetic wave. INDUCTOR QUIRKS 75 Equivalent circuit for a real inductor Wire resistance R Ideal inductor L Figure 3. With the crosssection of the core divided up into many electrically isolated sections.15: Inductor Equivalent circuit of a real inductor.3. This radiated energy does not return to the inductor. Also. Electrons switching directions of ﬂow. When an inductor is energized with AC. As you might have expected.
individually insulated strands called Litz wire (short for Litzendraht) can be used. a highQ inductor is better than a lowQ inductor for design . Altogether. For some reason. Additionally. Counteracting this effect is best done by means of proper core material selection and limits on the peak magnetic ﬁeld intensity generated with each cycle.16: Equivalent circuit of a real inductor with skineffect. and hysteresis losses. for example. Because its so easy to add additional resistance if needed.” the “purer” the inductor is. Usually their combined effect is too small to notice. A radio transmitter antenna.16) Equivalent circuit for a real inductor "Effective" resistance R Ideal inductor L Figure 3. which tends to be confusing. The insulation separating strands from each other prevent eddy currents from circulating through the whole wire’s crosssectional area. radiation. To help quantify the relative amount of effective resistance in an inductor. any magnetic hysteresis that needs to be overcome with every reversal of the inductor’s magnetic ﬁeld constitutes an expenditure of energy that manifests itself as resistance in the circuit. the stray resistive properties of a real inductor (wire resistance. The higher the value for “Q. eddy currents. Some core materials (such as ferrite) are particularly notorious for their hysteretic effect. or “quality factor” which is calculated as follows: Q= XL R The symbol “Q” has nothing to do with electric charge (coulombs). radiation losses. Effective resistance in an inductor can be a serious consideration for the AC circuit designer. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE wire made of very ﬁne.76 CHAPTER 3. but at radio frequencies they can be quite large. another value exists called the Q factor. and hysteresis losses) are expressed under the single term of “effective resistance:” (Figure 3. It is worthy to note that the skin effect and radiation losses apply just as well to straight lengths of wire in an AC circuit as they do a coiled wire. is designed with the express purpose of dissipating the greatest amount of energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation. the Powers That Be decided to use the same letter of the alphabet to denote a totally different quantity. eddy current.
Due to the fact that the multiple turns of wire comprising inductors are separated from each other by an insulating gap (air. eddy current.6 More on the “skin effect” As previously mentioned. 3. increasing the resistance of that conductor above what it would normally be for direct current: (Figure 3. AC capacitance will be explored in the next chapter. An ideal inductor would have a Q of inﬁnity. with zero effective resistance. so will Q.17: Skin effect: skin depth decreases with increasing frequency. In order for a Q value to have precise meaning. and therefore further “taints” the reactive purity of real inductors.6. but it sufﬁces to say at this point that it behaves very differently from AC inductance. radiation losses.3.17) Crosssectional area of a round conductor available for conducting DC current "DC resistance" Crosssectional area of the same conductor available for conducting lowfrequency AC "AC resistance" Crosssectional area of the same conductor available for conducting highfrequency AC "AC resistance" Figure 3. This effectively limits the crosssectional conductor area available to carry alternating electron ﬂow. we have the potential for capacitance to develop between turns. . Q does not vary proportionally with reactance. limiting itself to conduction near the surface. it must be speciﬁed at a particular test frequency. the skin effect is where alternating current tends to avoid travel through the center of a solid conductor. since the resistive effects of inductors (wire skin effect. and hysteresis) also vary with frequency. Because inductive reactance (X) varies with frequency. However. MORE ON THE “SKIN EFFECT” 77 purposes. varnish. Stray resistance isn’t the only inductor quirk we need to be aware of. or some other kind of electrical insulation).
In the following photograph you can see some large inductors used in a 50 kW radio transmitting circuit.18) Most antenna structures and RF power conductors are made of hollow metal tubes for this reason. why not just use hollow metal rods instead of solid metal wires and save both weight and cost? (Figure 3. As a rule. at high frequencies the AC current avoids travel through most of the conductor’s crosssectional area.” the “AC resistance” of the same conductor referring to a higher ﬁgure resulting from the skin effect. For the purpose of conducting current. most notably) this effect is exploited. The degree to which frequency affects the effective resistance of a solid wire conductor is impacted by the gauge of that wire.18: High power inductors formed from hollow tubes. The inductors are hollow copper tubes coated with silver. the wire might as well be hollow! In some radio applications (antennas. As you can see. largegauge wires exhibit a more pronounced .78 CHAPTER 3. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE The electrical resistance of the conductor with all its crosssectional area in use is known as the “DC resistance. Since radiofrequency (“RF”) AC currents wouldn’t travel through the middle of a conductor anyway. for excellent conductivity at the “skin” of the tube: Figure 3.
CONTRIBUTORS 79 skin effect (change in resistance from DC) than smallgauge wires at any given frequency.0 10 27.6 1/0 88.9 4 55. inductive or capacitive.182 kΩ f 10 Please remember that this ﬁgure is not impedance.182 kΩ at a frequency of 10 MHz: RAC = (RDC)(k) RAC = (25 Ω)(27.6 2 69.86 6 47.0 14 17.2: “k” factor for various AWG wire sizes. Table 3.8 2/0 99.9  For example.5 8 34. gage size k factor gage size k factor 4/0 124. are entirely different matters.5 22 6.7. .6) RAC = 2. from most recent to ﬁrst. 3. and the combined effects of reactance and resistance (impedance). The equation for approximating skin effect at high frequencies (greater than 1 MHz) is as follows: RAC = (RDC)(k) Where. corrected for the skin effect. f RAC = AC resistance at given frequency "f" RDC = Resistance at zero frequency (DC) k = Wire gage factor (see table below) f = Frequency of AC in MHz (MegaHertz) Table 3. See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information. Reactance. This is simply an estimated ﬁgure of pure resistance for the conductor (that opposition to the AC ﬂow of electrons which does dissipate power in the form of heat). and it does not consider any reactive effects.2 gives approximate values of “k” factor for various round wire sizes. a length of number 10gauge wire with a DC endtoend resistance of 25 Ω would have an AC (effective) resistance of 2.7 Contributors Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions.3.8 18 10.
. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE Jim Palmer (June 2001): Identiﬁed and offered correction for typographical error in complex number calculation.80 CHAPTER 3. Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting. which led to a much betterlooking second edition.
(Figure 4. . . . . . . . . . Series resistorcapacitor circuits . . . . . . Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . the waveform for the current is exactly in phase with the waveform for 81 . . . . . .5 4. . . . . .2) Because the resistor allows an amount of current directly proportional to the voltage across it at all periods of time. . .1: Pure resistive AC circuit: voltage and current are in phase. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AC capacitor circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1) it would look something like this: (Figure 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Parallel resistorcapacitor circuits Capacitor quirks . . If we were to plot the current and voltage for a very simple AC circuit consisting of a source and a resistor. . . . . . . . . .3 4. . . . . .4 4. . . .1 4. . . . . . . .2 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 AC resistor circuits . . . . . . . . .Chapter 4 REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE Contents 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 AC resistor circuits ET I ER IR E T = ER I = IR R 0° IR ET Figure 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 83 87 92 95 97 4. .
82 CHAPTER 4. and plot those values on the same graph: (Figure 4. the voltage is also positive. the voltage. when the current is negative (below the line).3: Instantaneous AC power in a resistive circuit is always positive. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE e= i= + Time  Figure 4. Whether the current is positive or negative. At any given point in time along the waves. When the current is positive (above the line). Ohm’s Law holds true for the instantaneous values of voltage and current. taking it from the source and releasing it in the form of heat energy. which results in a positive value for power (a negative number multiplied by a negative number equals a positive number). meaning the values at that instant in time).3) e= i= p= + Time  Figure 4. the instantaneous current through the resistor is also zero. Note that the power is never a negative value. at the moment in time where the voltage across the resistor is at its positive peak. Likewise. the voltage is also negative. the current through the resistor is also at its positive peak. and so on.2: Voltage and current “in phase” for resistive circuit. We can look at any point in time along the horizontal axis of the plot and compare those values of current and voltage with each other (any “snapshot” look at the values of a wave are referred to as instantaneous values. a resistor still dissipates energy. . This consistent “polarity” of power tells us that the resistor is always dissipating power. resulting in a power (p=ie) of a positive value. When the instantaneous value for voltage is zero. Conversely. We can also calculate the power dissipated by this resistor.
4) ET I VC IC EC E T = EC I = IC C 90° IC Figure 4. To show what happens with alternating current. The ﬂow of electrons “through” a capacitor is directly proportional to the rate of change of voltage across the capacitor. This opposition to voltage change is another form of reactance. let’s analyze a simple capacitor circuit: (Figure 4. Whereas resistors allow a ﬂow of electrons through them directly proportional to the voltage drop. the instantaneous current is zero whenever the instantaneous voltage is . Sometimes you will ﬁnd the rate of instantaneous voltage change over time expressed as dv/dt instead of de/dt: using the lowercase letter “v” instead or “e” to represent voltage.2 AC capacitor circuits Capacitors do not behave the same as resistors.2.5) + e= i= Time Figure 4.4: Pure capacitive circuit: capacitor voltage lags capacitor current by 90o If we were to plot the current and voltage for this very simple circuit. Remember. meaning the rate of change of instantaneous voltage (e) over time. in volts per second. Expressed mathematically. and the instantaneous current (i). capacitors oppose changes in voltage by drawing or supplying current as they charge or discharge to the new voltage level. but it means the exact same thing. the current through a capacitor is a reaction against the change in voltage across it. Therefore.5: Pure capacitive circuit waveforms. The capacitance (C) is in Farads. it would look something like this: (Figure 4.4. of course. but one that is precisely opposite to the kind exhibited by inductors. the relationship between the current “through” the capacitor and rate of voltage change across the capacitor is as such: i=C de dt The expression de/dt is one from calculus. AC CAPACITOR CIRCUITS 83 4. is in amps.
too: (Figure 4. and the voltage “lags” behind the current.7) + e= i= p= Time Figure 4. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE at a peak (zero change. This results in a voltage wave that is 90o out of phase with the current wave.84 CHAPTER 4. This means that a capacitor does not dissipate power as it reacts against changes in voltage. where it crosses the zero line). the current “leads” the voltage.6) voltage slope = 0 current = 0 voltage slope = max. (+) e= i= Time + voltage slope = 0 current = 0 voltage slope = max.6: Voltage lags current by 90o in a pure capacitive circuit. As with the simple inductor circuit. or level slope. the instantaneous power may be positive or negative. (Figure 4. . the same unusual power wave that we saw with the simple inductor circuit is present in the simple capacitor circuit. and the instantaneous current is at a peak wherever the instantaneous voltage is at maximum change (the points of steepest slope on the voltage wave. on the voltage sine wave). As you might have guessed. () current = max. () Figure 4.7: In a pure capacitive circuit. Looking at the graph. the 90 degree phase shift between voltage and current results in a power wave that alternates equally between positive and negative. the current wave seems to have a “head start” on the voltage wave. it merely absorbs and releases power. (+) current = max. alternately.
5258 120 13. (Table 4. Just as the current through a resistor is a function of the voltage across the resistor and the resistance offered by the resistor. which is by deﬁnition always changing in instantaneous magnitude and direction. they will pass more current for fasterchanging voltages (as they charge and discharge to the same voltage peaks in less time). a capacitor of given size will “conduct” a certain magnitude of AC current. just as either alternating or direct current in a simple resistive circuit is equal to the voltage (in volts) divided by the resistance (in ohms).2629 2500 0. Thus.8: Capacitive reactance. Alternating current in a simple capacitive circuit is equal to the voltage (in volts) divided by the capacitive reactance (in ohms). As with inductors. Inductors oppose faster changing currents by producing greater voltage drops. The following circuit illustrates this mathematical relationship by example: (Figure 4.1) XC = 1 2πfC Table 4. capacitors oppose faster changing voltage drops by allowing greater currents. the AC current through a capacitor is a function of the AC voltage across it. . and less current for slowerchanging voltages. the reactance of a capacitor is expressed in ohms and symbolized by the letter X (or XC to be more speciﬁc). For any given magnitude of AC voltage at a given frequency. Since capacitors “conduct” current in proportion to the rate of voltage change. with ω cast in units of radians per second.6366 Please note that the relationship of capacitive reactance to frequency is exactly opposite from that of inductive reactance. the reactance equation’s 2πf term may be replaced by the lowercase Greek letter Omega (ω).2. which is referred to as the angular velocity of the AC circuit.4. and the reactance offered by the capacitor. As with inductors. What this means is that reactance in ohms for any capacitor is inversely proportional to the frequency of the alternating current.8) 10 V 60 Hz C 100 µF Figure 4. inductive reactance (in ohms) increases with increasing AC frequency. AC CAPACITOR CIRCUITS 85 A capacitor’s opposition to change in voltage translates to an opposition to alternating voltage in general. Capacitive reactance (in ohms) decreases with increasing AC frequency.1: Reactance of a 100 uF capacitor: Frequency (Hertz) Reactance (Ohms) 60 26. the equation XC = 1/(2πfC) could also be written as XC = 1/(ωC). Conversely.
As was shown earlier.9: Voltage lags current by 90o in a capacitor. we can calculate the phase angle of the capacitor’s reactive opposition to current. the current has a phase shift of +90o with respect to the voltage. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE XC = 26. It will prove beneﬁcial to represent any component’s opposition to current in terms of complex numbers.3770 A However. we need to keep in mind that voltage and current are not in phase here.5258 Ω I= I= E X 10 V 26. especially for complex AC circuits where reactance and resistance interact. .9) This phase angle of reactive opposition to current becomes critically important in circuit analysis.3770 A ∠ 90o Opposition = Opposition = 26.5258 Ω ∠ 90o For a capacitor: 90o 90o I 0o E Opposition (XC) Figure 4. Opposition = Voltage Current 10 V ∠ 0o 0. and not just scalar quantities of resistance and reactance. we say that the phase angle of a capacitor’s opposition to current is 90o .86 CHAPTER 4.5258 Ω I = 0. Mathematically. (Figure 4. If we represent these phase angles of voltage and current mathematically. meaning that a capacitor’s opposition to current is a negative imaginary quantity.
the combined effect of the two components will be an opposition to current equal to the complex sum of the two numbers. and it is also expressed in the unit of ohms.3 Series resistorcapacitor circuits In the last section. its symbol is Z. while the capacitor will offer 26.5258 Ω). the higher the frequency. In other words. (Figure 4.10: Series capacitor circuit: voltage lags current by 0o to 90o . The term for this complex opposition to current is impedance. just like resistance and reactance. The resistor will offer 5 Ω of resistance to AC current regardless of frequency.3° R 10 V 60 Hz 5Ω C 100 µF ET Figure 4.4. Reactance is symbolized by the capital letter “X” and is measured in ohms just like resistance (R). Because the resistor’s resistance is a real number (5 Ω 0o . the less it opposes (the more it “conducts”) the AC ﬂow of electrons. or 0 .5258 Ω 90o . the total circuit impedance is: . or 5 + j0 Ω).5258 Ω of reactance to AC current at 60 Hz.j26.3. 4. • Capacitive reactance can be calculated using this formula: XC = 1/(2πfC) • Capacitive reactance decreases with increasing frequency. SERIES RESISTORCAPACITOR CIRCUITS • REVIEW: 87 • Capacitive reactance is the opposition that a capacitor offers to alternating current due to its phaseshifted storage and release of energy in its electric ﬁeld.10) R ET I IR VC IC ET = ER+ EC I = IR = IC EC C I ER 79. we learned what would happen in simple resistoronly and capacitoronly AC circuits. and the capacitor’s reactance is an imaginary number (26. In the above example. Now we will combine the two components together in series form and investigate the effects.
although this time the difference is 79.325o I = 370.5258 Ω or 26.5258 Ω capacitive reactance) Ztotal = 5 Ω (R) + 26. Let’s place out known ﬁgures for this series circuit into a table and continue the analysis using this tool: . separately or in combination (series/parallel).11) As we learned in the AC inductance chapter.5258 Ω ∠ 90o) or (5 + j0 Ω) + (0 . Any resistance and any reactance. I= I= E Z 10 V ∠ 0o 26.j26. in a manner similar to resistance in Ohm’s Law: Ohm’s Law for AC circuits: E = IZ I= E Z Z= E I All quantities expressed in complex. the current wave is leading the voltage wave (of the source).933 Ω ∠ 79. just as impedance is a far more comprehensive expression of opposition to the ﬂow of electrons than simple resistance is. respectively. can be and should be represented as a single impedance. not scalar.j26. regardless of the given phase angles for voltage or current).5 mA ∠ 79. the “table” method of organizing circuit quantities is a very useful tool for AC analysis just as it is for DC analysis. (Figure 4.325o Impedance is related to voltage and current just as you might expect.993 Ω ∠ 79. (The phase angles of resistive and capacitive impedance are always 0o and 90o . we ﬁrst need to give a phase angle reference for the voltage source.325o As with the purely capacitive circuit.88 CHAPTER 4.5258 Ω) Ztotal = 5 .5258 Ω (XC) Ztotal = (5 Ω ∠ 0o) + (26. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE Ztotal = (5 Ω resistance) + (26. this is a far more comprehensive form of Ohm’s Law than what was taught in DC electronics (E=IR).325o instead of a full 90o . which is generally assumed to be zero. form In fact. To calculate current in the above circuit.
06m 370.623m + j364.11: Voltage lags current (current leads voltage)in a series RC circuit. so the ﬁgures placed in the “Total” column for current can be distributed to all other columns as well: R E I Z 68.5m ∠ 79.325o 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o 68.06m 370.5258 26.623m + j364.623m + j364.06m 370.06m 370. R E I Z 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o C Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 68.325o 0 .325o Current in a series circuit is shared equally by all components.5m ∠ 79.5258 ∠ 90o C Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 68.5m ∠ 79.325 degrees + e= i= Time Figure 4.623m + j364.325o Volts Amps Ohms 0 .4.5258 ∠ 90o 5 . we can apply Ohm’s Law (E=IR) vertically to determine voltage across the resistor and capacitor: .5258 26.325o Volts Amps Ohms Rule of series circuits: Itotal = IR = IC Continuing with our analysis.j26.993 ∠ 79.j26. SERIES RESISTORCAPACITOR CIRCUITS 89 phase shift = 79.5258 26.j26.j26.5258 26.993 ∠ 79.5m ∠ 79.3.325o 5 .
telling us that E and I are in phase (for the resistor only).623m + j364.90 R E I Z 343.8523 ∠ 79.5258 26.5m ∠ 79.06m 370.0) ip(v1) .5258 ∠ 90o Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 68.06m 370. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE C 9.j26.0) i(v1) .12) 1 10 V 60 Hz 0 R 5Ω C 2 100 µF 0 Figure 4.325o 0 . The voltage across the capacitor has a phase angle of 10.print ac v(1.12: Spice circuit: RC.06m 370.623m + j364.print ac vp(1.8269 ∠ 10.325o 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o CHAPTER 4. ac rc circuit v1 1 0 ac 10 sin r1 1 2 5 c1 2 0 100u .623m + j364.675o .325o Volts Amps Ohms Ohm’s Law E = IZ Ohm’s Law E = IZ Notice how the voltage across the resistor has the exact same phase angle as the current through it. This tells us that the capacitor’s voltage and current are still 90o out of phase with each other.j1.5258 26.2) v(2.2) vp(2.675o 68.6569 .5m ∠ 79.325o 68.8203 1.8203 9. Let’s check our calculations with SPICE: (Figure 4.11m + j1.325o 5 .j26.993 ∠ 79. exactly 90o less than the phase angle of the circuit current.5m ∠ 79.ac lin 1 60 60 .end .
SERIES RESISTORCAPACITOR CIRCUITS freq 6. While the rectangular form of complex number notation is useful for performing addition and subtraction. Example: Given: A 40 Ω resistor in series with a 88. and E=IZ. it must be emphasized that the calculated ﬁgures corresponding to reallife voltage and current measurements are those in polar form. (Figure 4.852E+00 vp(1. . However. Find the impedance at 60 hertz. Since E=IR. resistance. SPICE confusingly prints the current phase angle at a value equal to the real phase angle plus 180o (or minus 180o ). Thus. not 343.7o output by SPICE for current phase angle equates to a positive 79. its a simple matter to correct this ﬁgure and check to see if our work is correct. Real instruments connected to real circuits provide indications corresponding to the vector length (magnitude) of the calculated ﬁgures. our voltmeter would indicate 1.67o I = 370. which alone has direct correspondence to true measurements.827E+00 vp(2) 1.3. given the resistance (R) and the capacitive reactance (XC ).705E01 ip(v1) 1.7o Once again.3o .067E+01 i(v1) 3. respectively.13: Series: RC circuit Impedance phasor diagram.8203 volts (imaginary rectangular).5 mA ∠ 100.42 microfarad capacitor.007E+02 91 Interpreted SPICE results ER = 1.000E+01 v(1. reactance.000E+01 freq 6.325o . the 100. not rectangular form! For example.13) ER ET I R IR EC IC C 37° I ER 37° I R XC ET Voltage EC Z Impedance Figure 4. and impedance are proportional to voltage.4.852 V ∠ 79.33o EC = 9.827 V ∠ 10. Impedance (Z) of a series RC circuit may be calculated. In this case.11 millivolts (real rectangular) or 1.2) 7. the voltage phasor diagram can be replaced by a similar impedance diagram. which does correspond to our previously calculated ﬁgure of 79. Again. if we were to actually build this series resistorcapacitor circuit and measure voltage across the resistor.8523 volts. it is a more abstract form of notation than polar. E=IXC .933E+01 v(2) 9.2) 1.
• Series AC circuits exhibit the same fundamental properties as series DC circuits: current is uniform throughout the circuit.87o • REVIEW: • Impedance is the total measure of opposition to electric current and is the complex (vector) sum of (“real”) resistance and (“imaginary”) reactance. . . respectively. I = E/Z . 4. the total impedance will have a phase angle somewhere between 0o and 90o . and capacitive impedance are to be treated the same way mathematically. voltage drops add to form the total voltage. • Ohm’s Law for AC circuits: E = IZ . inductive impedance.42×10−6 30 Ω R . REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE XC XC XC Z Z Z Z Z = = = = = = = = 1/2πfC) 1/(2π·60·88. So. • A purely capacitive impedance will always have a phase angle of exactly 90o (ZC = XC Ω 90o ). regardless of what type of components comprise the impedances.j30 = 50 36.87o 40 . That is. Zn • Please note that impedances always add in series. resistive impedance. • A purely resistive impedance will always have a phase angle of exactly 0o (ZR = R Ω 0o ). and impedances add to form the total impedance. and the resistor and capacitor both have the same values of resistance and capacitance. Z = E/I • When resistors and capacitors are mixed together in circuits.j30 sqrt(402 + (30)2 ) = 50 Ω arctangent(30/40) = 36. • Impedances (Z) are managed just like resistances (R) in series circuit analysis: series impedances add to form the total impedance.92 CHAPTER 4.4 Parallel resistorcapacitor circuits Using the same value components in our series example circuit. Just be sure to perform all calculations in complex (not scalar) form! ZT otal = Z1 + Z2 + . we will connect them in parallel and see what happens: (Figure 4.jXC 40 .14) Because the power source has the same frequency as the series example circuit. they must also have the same values of impedance. we can begin our analysis table with the same “given” values: .
so we can place the ﬁgure for total voltage (10 volts 0o ) in all the columns: R E I Z 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o C 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o Volts Amps 0 .5258 26.j26.5258 26.4.j26. R E I Z 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o C Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o Volts Amps 0 . calculating current through the resistor and current through the capacitor: .14: Parallel RC circuit. we know that voltage is shared equally by all components. PARALLEL RESISTORCAPACITOR CIRCUITS 93 E I R IR IC C IC 10.7° I 10 V E IR 60 Hz R 5Ω 100 µF C I = IR+ IL E = ER = EC Figure 4.5258 ∠ 90o Ohms This being a parallel circuit now.5258 ∠ 90o Rule of parallel circuits: Etotal = ER = EC Ohms Now we can apply Ohm’s Law (I=E/Z) vertically to two columns in the table.4.
we will arrive at the same ﬁgure: .5258 ∠ 90o Rule of parallel circuits: Itotal = IR + IC Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 2 + j376.99m ∠ 90o 0 .94 R E I Z 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 2 + j0 2 ∠ 0o 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o CHAPTER 4. Once again.99m 376. Regardless of how we calculate total impedance for our parallel circuit (either Ohm’s Law or the reciprocal formula). branch currents in a parallel AC circuit add up to form the total current (Kirchhoff ’s Current Law again): R E I Z 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 2 + j0 2 ∠ 0o 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o C 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 0 + j376. especially without the assistance of a calculator capable of manipulating complex quantities. it doesn’t matter if we’re calculating a circuit composed of parallel resistors. all the terms are common and can be applied uniformly to the same formula.5258 26. parallel inductors.j26. the parallel impedance formula looks like this: Zparallel = 1 1 1 1 + .0352 ∠ 10. In other words.. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE C 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 0 + j376.675o Volts Amps Ohms Finally. parallel capacitors. total impedance can be calculated by using Ohm’s Law (Z=E/I) vertically in the “Total” column. or some combination thereof: in the form of impedances (Z).j26.. parallel impedance can also be calculated by using a reciprocal formula identical to that used in calculating parallel resistances.5258 ∠ 90o Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms Ohm’s Law E I= Z Ohm’s Law E I= Z Just as with DC circuits.99m ∠ 90o 0 .99m 376. + Z1 Z2 Zn The only drawback to using this equation is the signiﬁcant amount of work required to work it out.5258 26.99m 2. It is noteworthy to mention that this parallel impedance rule holds true regardless of the kind of impedances placed in parallel. As we saw in the AC inductance chapter.
5258 26. they will tend to dissipate less power than an equivalent inductor.0352 ∠ 10. branch currents add to form the total current. Just be sure to perform all calculations in complex (not scalar) form! ZT otal = 1/(1/Z1 + 1/Z2 + . The circuit current will have a phase angle somewhere between 0o and +90o . • Parallel AC circuits exhibit the same fundamental properties as parallel DC circuits: voltage is uniform throughout the circuit. In the real world. Consequently. and since their electric ﬁelds are almost totally contained between their plates (unlike inductors.675o Volts Amps Ohms 95 Ohm’s Law E Z= I or Rule of parallel circuits: Ztotal = 1 1 1 + ZR ZC • REVIEW: • Impedances (Z) are managed just like resistances (R) in parallel circuit analysis: parallel impedances diminish to form the total impedance.9135 ∠ 10. I = E/Z . 4.5 Capacitor quirks As with inductors. whose magnetic ﬁelds naturally tend to extend beyond the dimensions of the core). using the reciprocal formula. 90o ) than inductors. 1/Zn ) • Ohm’s Law for AC circuits: E = IZ . However.675o 4.j910. containing absolutely zero resistive (power dissipative) effects.j26. the total impedance will have a phase angle somewhere between 0o and 90o . nothing is so perfect. CAPACITOR QUIRKS R E I Z 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 2 + j0 2 ∠ 0o 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o C 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 0 + j376.14m 4. The practical result of this is that real capacitors typically have impedance phase angles more closely approaching 90o (actually. capacitors have the virtue of generally being purer reactive components than inductors.99m 2.99m ∠ 90o 0 .5. Capacitors also tend to be smaller and lighter weight than their equivalent inductor counterparts. and impedances diminish (through the reciprocal formula) to form the total impedance.4. Z = E/I • When resistors and capacitors are mixed together in parallel circuits (just as in series circuits). of course. . the ideal capacitor is a purely reactive device. . .99m 376. It is a lot easier to design and construct a capacitor with low internal series resistance than it is to do the same with an inductor.5258 ∠ 90o Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 2 + j376.8284 .
are also known for their notorious lossiness. This heating effect represents a loss in power. their resistive characteristics may be too severe a shortcoming for the application anyway. The source of capacitor loss is usually the dielectric material rather than any wire resistance.” A relative scale of dielectric loss from least to greatest is given in Table 4. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE they are less prone to transmitting or receiving electromagnetic “noise” to/from other components. circuit designers tend to favor capacitors over inductors wherever a design permits either alternative.2. Not all dielectric materials are equally “lossy. connected to a source of highfrequency AC voltage. much less signiﬁcant than the stray resistances present in an average inductor.2: Dielectric loss Material Loss Vacuum Low Air Polystyrene Mica Glass LowK ceramic Plastic ﬁlm (Mylar) Paper HighK ceramic Aluminum oxide Tantalum pentoxide high Dielectric resistivity manifests itself both as a series and a parallel resistance with the pure capacitance: (Figure 4. The effect is more pronounced at higher frequencies and in fact can be so extreme that it is sometimes exploited in manufacturing processes to heat insulating materials like plastic! The plastic object to be heated is placed between two metal plates. Table 4.15) Fortunately. For these reasons. One of the ways to mitigate the effect of dielectric “loss” is to choose a dielectric material less susceptible to the effect. due to both the characteristics of the microscopically thin dielectric ﬁlm and the electrolyte paste. and is equivalent to resistance in the circuit. Electrolytic capacitors. as wire length in a capacitor is very minimal. and the plates never have to contact the object being heated. Unless specially made for AC service. Dielectric materials tend to react to changing electric ﬁelds by producing heat. Even then. Capacitors with signiﬁcant resistive effects are said to be lossy. known for their relatively high capacitance and low working voltage. This effect is undesirable for capacitors where we expect the component to behave as a purely reactive circuit element. Temperature is controlled by varying the voltage or frequency of the source. electrolytic capacitors should never be used with AC unless it is mixed (biased) with a constant DC voltage preventing the capacitor from ever being subjected to reverse voltage. in reference to their tendency to dissipate (“lose”) power like a resistor.96 CHAPTER 4. these stray resistances are usually of modest impact (low series resistance and high parallel resistance). .
15: Real capacitor has both series and parallel resistance. which led to a much betterlooking second edition.6 Contributors Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions.6. 4. CONTRIBUTORS 97 Equivalent circuit for a real capacitor Rseries Ideal capacitor Rparallel Figure 4. Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting. .4. from most recent to ﬁrst. See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information.
98 CHAPTER 4. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE .
. Reactance is mathematically symbolized by the letter “X” and is measured in the unit of ohms (Ω). . . . . . . . . . . It is present anywhere electric or magnetic ﬁelds are developed in proportion to applied voltage or current. . . . . . . . . . .6 5. 119 Summary . . 106 Seriesparallel R. . . . . a voltage drop is produced that is inphase with the current. . .4 5. . . . . . . . . . . 120 5. . a voltage drop is produced that is 90o out of phase with the current. It is present in all conductors to some extent (except superconductors!). . . respectively. . . . . and C . . . most notably in resistors. . . . . . . L. and C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and capacitors connected together in the same AC circuits. . . . . . . . 110 Susceptance and Admittance . . . . . L. .5 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Parallel R. . . . X. . . let’s brieﬂy review some basic terms and facts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Review of R. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Chapter 5 REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R. . . . . . . . . 120 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . AND C Contents 5. and Z Before we begin to explore the effects of resistors. Resistance is mathematically symbolized by the letter “R” and is measured in the unit of ohms (Ω). . 99 Series R. . . . and C . . . . Resistance is essentially friction against the motion of electrons.1 5. . L. . . . X. . and Z . . . but most notably in capacitors and inductors. . . . . inductors.1 Review of R. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 . . . . . . L. . . Reactance is essentially inertia against the motion of electrons. . . . . . . . . . When alternating current goes through a pure reactance. . . .3 5. . .2 5. . . . . . When alternating current goes through a resistance. . . . . . . .
15 Hz R=0Ω X = 100 Ω Z = 100 Ω ∠ 90 o Capacitor 10 µF 159. form Kirchhoff ’s Laws and all network analysis methods and theorems are true for AC circuits as well. looks like this: Ohm’s Law for AC circuits: E = IZ I= E Z Z= E I All quantities expressed in complex. in complex form. and because of this universal quality. A revised version of Ohm’s Law. it makes sense to translate all component values (resistance. inductance. voltage drop always leads current by 90o . a voltage drop is produced that is somewhere between 0o and 90o out of phase with the current. the concept of power in AC circuits is radically different from that of DC circuits. it is conceptually simple and elegant. and capacitor.15 Hz R=0Ω X = 100 Ω Z = 100 Ω ∠ 90o Figure 5. not scalar.1) possess reactance but no resistance. and in all components. Resistor 100 Ω Inductor R = 100 Ω X=0Ω Z = 100 Ω ∠ 0 o 100 mH 159. and they diminish in parallel. inductor. Impedances in AC behave analogously to resistances in DC circuits: they add in series. and so an inductor’s impedance phase angle is said to be +90o . The impedance phase angle for any component is the phase shift between voltage across that component and current through that component. More on this subject in a later chapter! . Because reactance doesn’t dissipate power as resistance does. Perfect inductors and perfect capacitors (Figure 5. the voltage drop and current are always in phase with each other. The only real difference between DC and AC circuit calculations is in regard to power. It is present in all circuits. but not reactance. When alternating current goes through an impedance. While this qualiﬁed equivalence may be arithmetically challenging. Perfect resistors (Figure 5.1: Perfect resistor. including both resistance and reactance. based on impedance rather than resistance. and so a capacitor’s impedance phase angle is said to be 90o . Impedance is mathematically symbolized by the letter “Z” and is measured in the unit of ohms (Ω). capacitance) into common terms of impedance as the ﬁrst step in analyzing an AC circuit.1) possess resistance. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R. so long as quantities are represented in complex rather than scalar form. L. AND C Impedance is a comprehensive expression of any and all forms of opposition to electron ﬂow. For a perfect capacitor.100 CHAPTER 5. and so the impedance angle of a resistor is said to be 0o . voltage drop always lags current by 90o . For a perfect resistor. All components possess impedance. For an perfect inductor.
SERIES R.7684 kΩ The next step is to express all resistances and reactances in a mathematically common form: impedance.2) R 250 Ω 120 V 60 Hz C 1. L. AND C 101 5. of course.2.04 Ω or 245. L 650 mH XL = 2πfL XL = (2)(π)(60 Hz)(650 mH) XL = 245. L.2 Series R. and C Let’s take the following example circuit and analyze it: (Figure 5. is still regarded as a purely “real” impedance (polar angle of 0o ): ZR = 250 + j0 Ω or 250 Ω ∠ 0o ZL = 0 + j245. L.7684k Ω or 1. Resistance.5. while a capacitive reactance translates into a negative imaginary impedance (impedance at 90o ).5 µF Figure 5. The ﬁrst step is to determine the reactances (in ohms) for the inductor and the capacitor.3) Remember that an inductive reactance translates into a positive imaginary impedance (or an impedance at +90o ).2: Example series R.5 µF) XC = XC = XC = 1.04 Ω 1 2πfC 1 (2)(π)(60 Hz)(1. (Figure 5.04 Ω ∠ 90o ZC = 0 .7684 kΩ ∠ 90o .j1. and C circuit.
with impedance phase angles of exactly +90 and 90o . we know that the total circuit impedance is equal to the sum of the individuals.04 Ω ∠ 90o Now. are known absolutely. complex number format (as impedances. and so will be written at an angle of 0o . and capacitor).7684k 1. respectively. I’ll assume perfectly reactive inductors and capacitors from now on in my example calculations except where noted otherwise. Phase angles for impedance.j1.5233k Ω or 1.04 245.5437 kΩ ∠ 80.04 Ω) + (0 . L.3: Example series R.7684 kΩ ∠ 90o Figure 5. so: Ztotal = ZR + ZL + ZC Ztotal = (250 + j0 Ω) + (0 + j245. Notice that I’m assuming a perfectly reactive inductor and capacitor. This is an ideal time to draw up an analysis table for this circuit and insert all the “given” ﬁgures (total voltage. and the impedances of the resistor. and not as resistances or reactances). ZL 245. R E I Z 250 + j0 250 ∠ 0o 0 + j245. with all quantities of opposition to electric current expressed in a common.102 CHAPTER 5.j1. inductor. and C circuit with component values replaced by impedances. AND C ZR 250 Ω ∠ 0o 120 V 60 Hz ZC 1. and capacitor). because the phase relationships between voltage and current at each component are absolutely deﬁned. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R. For simplicity.j1.7684k ∠ 90o L C Total 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms Unless otherwise speciﬁed. the source voltage will be our reference for phase shift. inductor.680o Inserting this ﬁgure for total impedance into our table: . they should be fairly close. L. Although real components won’t be perfect in this regard. however (like those of the resistor. Remember that there is no such thing as an “absolute” angle of phase shift for a voltage or current.04 ∠ 90o 0 . since its always a quantity relative to another waveform. Since the above example circuit is a series circuit.7684k Ω) Ztotal = 250 . they can be handled in the same way as plain resistances in a DC circuit.
04 245.j1.j1.7684k ∠ 90o Rule of series circuits: Ztotal = ZR + ZL + ZC 250 . to determine voltage drops: .04 ∠ 90o 0 .708m 77.680o 250 .5233k 1. L.j1.7684k 1. Thus.708m 77.j1.04 ∠ 90o 0 .680o 0 .708m 77.589m + 76.680o 250 .5437k ∠ 80.7684k ∠ 90o L C Total 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 12.7684k 1.04 245. we can take the ﬁgure obtained for total current and distribute it to each of the other columns: R E I Z 12.680o 0 + j245.680o L C Total 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms 103 We can now apply Ohm’s Law (I=E/R) vertically in the “Total” column to ﬁnd total current for this series circuit: R E I Z 250 + j0 250 ∠ 0o 0 + j245.7684k ∠ 90o L C Total 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 12.680o Volts Amps Ohms Ohm’s Law E I= Z Being a series circuit.04 245.589m + 76. AND C R E I Z 250 + j0 250 ∠ 0o 0 + j245.680o 250 + j0 250 ∠ 0o 12.589m + 76.7684k 1.734m ∠ 80.589m + 76.734m ∠ 80.734m ∠ 80. SERIES R.04 ∠ 90o 12.589m + 76.5.j1.734m ∠ 80.5437k ∠ 80.708m 77.2.5437k ∠ 80.680o Volts Amps Ohms Rule of series circuits: Itotal = IR = IL = IC Now we’re prepared to apply Ohm’s Law (E=IZ) to each of the individual component columns in the table.5233k 1. current must be equal through all components.j1.734m ∠ 80.5233k 1.708m 77.
1472 + j19.j22. If the total impedance in a series circuit with both inductive and capacitive elements is less than the impedance of either element separately.680o 0 + j245. Ohm’s Law (E=IZ) still holds true.734m ∠ 80. the voltage across the capacitor is 137. To demonstrate Kirchhoff ’s Voltage Law in an AC circuit. equations in AC circuits are the same as those in DC circuits.680o 0 .048 ∠ 170.46 ∠ 9. Expressed as impedances. analyzing any AC circuit is only about as difﬁcult as analyzing any DC circuit.7684k ∠ 90o Total 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 12.46 volts! How can this be? The answer lies in the interaction between the inductive and capacitive reactances. they tend to cancel each other out! Although they’re still added together to produce a sum. the inductor’s impedance has a positive imaginary term and the capacitor has a negative imaginary term.177 19.0848 19. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R.04 245.680o 12.708m 77.04 ∠ 90o Ohm’s Law E = IZ Ohm’s Law E = IZ Ohm’s Law E = IZ Notice something strange here: although our supply voltage is only 120 volts. inductor. a bit of complex number addition proves otherwise: . Expressed in rectangular form. and so do Kirchhoff ’s Voltage and Current Laws.734m ∠ 80. and capacitor should equal the applied voltage from the source. L.797 + j3.68o 12.708m 77.5437k ∠ 80. voltages greater than the source voltage may be obtained across some of the individual components! Further consequences of inductors’ and capacitors’ opposite reactances in the same circuit will be explored in the next chapter.680o Volts Amps Ohms 18. except that the quantities dealt with are vector instead of scalar. With the exception of equations dealing with power (P).3199o 12.680o 250 + j0 250 ∠ 0o L CHAPTER 5.434 ∠ 80.262 137.708m 77.65 .j1. we can see that the inductor opposes current in a manner precisely opposite that of the capacitor. using impedances (Z) instead of resistances (R).589m + 76. Once you’ve mastered the technique of reducing all component values to impedances (Z). Even though this may not look like it is true at ﬁrst sight. we can look at the answers we derived for component voltage drops in the last circuit. KVL tells us that the algebraic sum of the voltage drops across the resistor. then the total current in that circuit must be greater than what it would be with only the inductive or only the capacitive elements there.589m + 76.734m ∠ 80.7684k 1. When these two contrary impedances are added (in series).680o 250 .589m + 76.5233k 1.589m + 76.734m ∠ 80. that sum is actually less than either of the individual (capacitive or inductive) impedances alone. It is analogous to adding together a positive and a negative (scalar) number: the sum is a quantity less than either one’s individual absolute value. With this abnormally high current through each of the components.j1.104 R E I Z 3.708m 77. AND C C 135.
65 .707E+02 v(3) 1.4) 1 120 V 60 Hz R 250 Ω L C 2 650 mH 0 1.905E+01 vp(2.4: Example series R.943E+01 vp(1.3) v(3.j22.177 V ER 18.1472 + j19.773E02 ip(v1) 9.print ac vp(1.2) v(2.3) vp(3.end freq 6. L.2) vp(2.2. Performed on a calculator (preserving all digits). the answer you will receive should be exactly 120 + j0 volts.0) i(v1) . L.5 µF 3 Figure 5.print ac v(1.0) ip(v1) .2) 8.3) 1. We can also use SPICE to verify our ﬁgures for this circuit: (Figure 5.5.068E+01 v(2.3) 1.ac lin 1 60 60 .000E+01 v(1.5u .262 V 120 + j0 V EL EC Etotal Aside from a bit of rounding error. and C SPICE circuit.320E+00 i(v1) 7.932E+01 .2) 1.797 + j3.0848 V + 135.375E+02 vp(3) 9. AND C 105 ER + EL + EC should equal Etotal 3. ac rlc circuit v1 1 0 ac 120 sin r1 1 2 250 l1 2 3 650m c1 3 0 1. SERIES R. the sum of these voltage drops does equal 120 volts.000E+01 freq 6.
and C We can take the same components from the series circuit and rearrange them into a parallel conﬁguration for an easy example circuit: (Figure 5. . there is little difference between AC circuit analysis and DC circuit analysis. because series inductive and capacitive impedances tend to cancel each other out.5) 120 V 60 Hz R 250 Ω L 650 mH C 1. 5. except that all quantities of voltage.05 V ∠ 170. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R. impedance) must be handled in complex rather than scalar form so as to account for phase angle.5 µF Figure 5.73 mA ∠ 99. Zn • Although impedances add in series.68o EL = 19. which is very different for AC.3 Parallel R. As you can see. This may lead to voltage drops across components exceeding the supply voltage! • All rules and laws of DC circuits apply to AC circuits. L. since it means all you’ve learned about DC electric circuits applies to what you’re learning here. L. • REVIEW: • Impedances of any kind add in series: ZT otal = Z1 + Z2 + .106 CHAPTER 5. the total impedance for a circuit containing both inductance and capacitance may be less than one or more of the individual impedances. so long as values are expressed in complex form rather than scalar. The only exception to this consistency is the calculation of power. L.68o) The SPICE simulation shows our handcalculated results to be accurate. and C parallel circuit.32o (actual phase angle = 80. The only exception to this principle is the calculation of power. which is so unique that it deserves a chapter devoted to that subject alone. AND C Interpreted SPICE results ER = 19.320o I = 77. So long as the power supply is the same . This is good. .5: Example R.5 V ∠ 9.43 V ∠ 80.7o EC = 137. The fact that these components are connected in parallel instead of series now has absolutely no effect on their individual impedances. current. and resistance (actually.
6) With all component values expressed as impedances (Z).7684k 1.5. we can transfer the ﬁgure for total voltage to all component columns in the table: R E I Z 250 + j0 250 ∠ 0o 0 + j245.04 Ω ∠ 90o Figure 5. we can apply Ohm’s Law (I=E/Z) vertically in each column to determine current through each component: .04 ∠ 90o 0 .7684k ∠ 90o L C Total 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms Knowing that voltage is shared equally by all components in a parallel circuit.7684k 1.j1.3.7684 kΩ ∠ 90o 245. and C parallel circuit with impedances replacing component values. frequency as before. PARALLEL R.04 245.04 ∠ 90o 0 . L.6: Example R. except this time following the rules of parallel circuits instead of series: R E I Z 250 + j0 250 ∠ 0o 0 + j245. L. AND C 107 120 V 60 Hz ZR 250 Ω ∠ 0o ZL ZC 1. we can set up an analysis table and proceed as in the last example problem.7684k ∠ 90o Rule of parallel circuits: Etotal = ER = EL = EC 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o L 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o C 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o Total 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms Now.j1.04 245. the inductive and capacitive reactances will not have changed at all: (Figure 5.
7684k 1.858m ∠ 90o 0 .858m ∠ 90o 0 .j1. then invert).71m 489.05 + j123.04 245. will provide the correct answers. The second way to calculate total current and total impedance is to add up all the branch currents to arrive at total current (total current in a parallel circuit – AC or DC – is equal to the sum of the branch currents).03m ∠ 41. Let’s try analyzing this circuit with SPICE and see what happens: (Figure 5. working through the parallel impedance equation with complex numbers is no easy task.79 ∠ 41. AND C C 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 0 + j67. and then calculate total current by dividing source voltage by total impedance (I=E/Z).j421. then convert back to polar form for the ﬁnal inversion.j489.108 R E I Z 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 480m + j0 480m ∠ 0o 250 + j0 250 ∠ 0o L CHAPTER 5. with all the reciprocations (1/Z). R E I Z 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 480m + j0 480 ∠ 0o 250 + j0 250 ∠ 0o L 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 0 .858m 67.71m ∠ 90o 0 + j245.71m 489. then convert them all to rectangular form for addition.04 245.858m 67. However.j1.04 ∠ 90o C 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 0 + j67. then use Ohm’s Law to determine total impedance from total voltage and total current (Z=E/I). REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R.7684k 1.311o 141.7) . we could calculate total impedance from all the individual impedances in parallel (ZT otal = 1/(1/ZR + 1/ZL + 1/ZC ). L.96 187.j489.71m ∠ 90o 0 + j245. This is especially true if you’re unfortunate enough not to have a calculator that handles complex numbers and are forced to do it all by hand (reciprocate the individual impedances in polar form.7684k ∠ 90o Total 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 480m . First. performed properly.311o Volts Amps Ohms Either method.04 ∠ 90o Ohm’s Law E I= Z Ohm’s Law E I= Z Ohm’s Law E I= Z There are two strategies for calculating total current and total impedance.7684k ∠ 90o Total 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 0 .85m 639.
L.print ac i(vi) i(vir) i(vil) i(vic) .800E01 ip(vir) 0. AND C 109 2 Vir Vi 3 1 120 V 60 Hz 0 R 2 Vil 4 2 Vic Rbogus 5 250 Ω L 650 mH 0 C 2 6 1.131E+01 i(vir) 4.000E+00 i(vil) 4.5u . and C SPICE circuit.000E+01 i(vic) 6. All are set to 0 volts.print ac ip(vi) ip(vir) ip(vil) ip(vic) .7: Example parallel R.897E01 ip(vil) 9.000E+01 .end freq 6. Battery symbols are “dummy” voltage sources for SPICE to use as current measurement points. ac rlc circuit v1 1 0 ac 120 sin vi 1 2 ac 0 vir 2 3 ac 0 vil 2 4 ac 0 rbogus 4 5 1e12 vic 2 6 ac 0 r1 3 0 250 l1 5 0 650m c1 6 0 1.786E02 ip(vic) 9.5 µF 0 0 Figure 5.000E+01 i(vi) 6.5.390E01 ip(vi) 4.3. L. PARALLEL R.000E+01 freq 6.ac lin 1 60 60 .
L.8: Example seriesparallel R.7 mA ∠ 90o IC = 67. just using complex numbers instead of scalar to represent voltage. and impedance. AND C Interpreted SPICE results Itotal = 639. Take this seriesparallel circuit for example: (Figure 5.31o IR = 480 mA ∠ 0o IL = 489. is to determine values of impedance (Z) for all components based on the frequency of the AC power source. L.8) C1 4. by installing the dummy voltage sources (current meters) in the proper directions. This way.5 µF R 470 Ω Figure 5.7 µF 120 V 60 Hz L C2 650 mH 1. and C Now that we’ve seen how series and parallel AC circuit analysis is not fundamentally different than DC circuit analysis.86 mA ∠ 90o It took a little bit of trickery to get SPICE working as we would like on this circuit (installing “dummy” voltage sources in each branch to obtain current ﬁgures and installing the “dummy” resistor in the inductor branch to prevent a direct inductortovoltage source loop. our current phase readings came out to exactly match our hand calculations. To do this. 5. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R. we were able to avoid that idiosyncrasy of SPICE of printing current ﬁgures 180o out of phase. Even more than that. but we did get the proper readings. L. as usual.4 Seriesparallel R. which SPICE cannot tolerate).110 CHAPTER 5. we need to ﬁrst determine values of reactance (X) for all inductors and capacitors. current. it should come as no surprise that seriesparallel analysis would be the same as well. then convert reactance (X) and resistance (R) ﬁgures into proper impedance (Z) form: . The ﬁrst order of business. and C circuit.0 mA ∠ 41.
that impedance will be combined in parallel with the impedance of the resistor.5 µF) XC2 = XC2 = R = 470 Ω XC2 = 1. SERIESPARALLEL R.7684 kΩ ZC1 = 0 . Then.4.38 564. Adding more columns horizontally to the table shown above would be impractical for formatting reasons.7684k ∠ 90o 470 + j0 470 ∠ 0o L C2 R Total 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms Being a seriesparallel combination circuit.j564.5. In order that our table may follow all these steps. so I will place a new row of columns underneath.7684k 1. each column designated by its respective component combination: . Finally.38 Ω or 564. The ﬁrst step is to combine L and C2 as a series combination of impedances.7684k Ω or 1. by adding their impedances together. AND C Reactances and Resistances: XC1 = XC1 = 1 2πfC1 1 (2)(π)(60 Hz)(4. it will be necessary to add additional columns to it so that each step may be represented.04 Ω ∠ 90o ZC2 = 0 .7684 kΩ ∠ 90o ZR = 470 + j0 Ω or 470 Ω ∠ 0o Now we can set up the initial values in our table: C1 E I Z 0 .j1. we must reduce it to a total impedance in more than one step.7 µF) XL = 2πfL XL = (2)(π)(60 Hz)(650 mH) XL = 245.38 Ω 1 2πfC2 1 (2)(π)(60 Hz)(1.04 245. that quantity will be added to the impedance of C1 to arrive at the total impedance. to arrive at another combination of impedances.j1.04 ∠ 90o 0 . L.j564.04 Ω 111 XC1 = 564.38 Ω ∠ 90o ZL = 0 + j245.04 Ω or 245.38 ∠ 90o 0 + j245.
and the “reciprocal” formula for complex impedances in parallel.5233k ∠ 90o R // (L .41 449.79 818.[R // (L .15 . This gives us one table with four columns and another table with three columns.C2) Calculating these new (combination) impedances will require complex addition for series combinations.5233k 1. Now that we know the total impedance (818.15 .j696.147o 429. This time.C2 E I Z R // (L . AND C Total C1 . L.j132.112 CHAPTER 5.j1.C2 E I Z 0 .C2) Total C1 .371o ) and the total voltage (120 volts 0o ).C2)] 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o Volts Amps 429.34 ∠ 58.34 Ω 58. there is no avoidance of the reciprocal formula: the required ﬁgures can be arrived at no other way! L .C2)] Volts Amps Ohms L .” we can safely discard that column from the ﬁrst table. we can apply Ohm’s Law (I=E/Z) vertically in the “Total” column to arrive at a ﬁgure for total current: . REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R.11 ∠ 17.[R // (L .371o Ohms Rule of series circuits: ZLC2 = ZL + ZC2 Rule of parallel circuits: 1 ZR//(LC2) = 1 1 + ZR ZLC2 Rule of series circuits: Ztotal = ZC1 + ZR//(LC2) Seeing as how our second table contains a column for “Total.
j696. AND C Total C1 .899m + j124. both C1 and the parallel combination R//(L−−C2 ) share the same (total) current.4.371o 429.899m + j124. Thus.38 ∠ 90o 0 + j245.[R // (L .7684k ∠ 90o 470 + j0 470 ∠ 0o L C2 R Volts Amps Ohms Rule of series circuits: Itotal = IC1 = IR//(LC2) L .j696.64m ∠ 58.371o Rule of series circuits: Itotal = IC1 = IR//(LC2) Now. SERIESPARALLEL R.j564. we can calculate voltage drops across C1 and the seriesparallel combination of R//(L−−C2 ) using Ohm’s Law (E=IZ) vertically in those table columns: .371o 0 .15 .899m + j124.79 818. L.5.5233k ∠ 90o R // (L .5233k ∠ 90o 429.371o 0 .C2) Ohm’s Law E I= Z At this point we ask ourselves the question: are there any components or component combinations which share either the total voltage or the total current? In this case.5233k 1. we can transfer the ﬁgure for total current into both columns: C1 E I Z 76.41 449.j132.04 245.15 .79 818.[R // (L .C2 E I Z R // (L .15 .371o Volts Amps Ohms 113 L .371o 429.147o 76. since the total impedance is composed of the two sets of impedances in series.5233k 1.86m 146.64m ∠ 58.34 ∠ 58.11 ∠ 17.147o 429.86m 146.64m ∠ 58.C2)] 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 76.86m 146.7684k 1.41 449.15 .C2) Total C1 .C2)] 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms 76.C2 E I Z 0 .11 ∠ 17.j1.j1.64m ∠ 58.86m 146.j1.j132.34 ∠ 58.04 ∠ 90o 0 .899m + j124.38 564.
467 . In a problem with as many steps as this one has.760 ∠ 31.15 .371o 0 . After having solved for voltage drops across C1 and the combination R//(L−−C2 ). AND C C2 R Volts Amps 0 + j245.j132.400 V + 49.371o 429.j43. L. According to Kirchhoff ’s Voltage Law.86m 146.j1.41 449. the resistor (R) and the combination of the inductor and the second capacitor (L−−C2 ) share the same voltage.C2)] 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 76.147o Total C1 .j1.[R // (L .j696. Occasional crosschecks like that one can save a person a lot of work and unnecessary frustration by identifying problems prior to the ﬁnal step of the problem.C2 E I Z 0 .371o Volts Amps Ohms Ohm’s Law E = IZ A quick doublecheck of our work at this point would be to see whether or not the voltage drops across C1 and the seriesparallel combination of R//(L−−C2 ) indeed add up to the total. we can transfer the voltage ﬁgure just solved for into the columns for R and L−−C2 : .5233k ∠ 90o R // (L .38 ∠ 90o L CHAPTER 5.857 ∠ 41.11 ∠ 17.899m + j124.371o 429.225o 76.114 C1 E I Z 70.400 82.533 + j43. because those sets of impedances are in parallel with each other.467 .C2) 49.04 ∠ 90o 0 .533 + j43.899m + j124.j43. Therefore. we again ask ourselves the question: what other components share the same voltage or current? In this case.04 245. it is! That last step was merely a precaution.34 ∠ 58.5233k 1.64m ∠ 58.38 564.64m ∠ 58.7684k 1. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R.899m + j124.15 .400 V 120 + j0 V Indeed.7684k ∠ 90o 470 + j0 470 ∠ 0o Ohms Ohm’s Law E = IZ L . they should! Etotal should be equal to EC1 + ER//(LC2) 70.64m ∠ 58.86m 146.400 65.86m 146. there is much opportunity for error.j564.79 818.629o 76.
L.11 ∠ 17.371o 429.341m 140.64m ∠ 58.j43.371o 0 .04 ∠ 90o 0 .400 82.857 ∠ 41.467 .64m ∠ 58.147o Total C1 .371o 0 . All we need to do is apply Ohm’s Law (I=E/Z) vertically in both of those columns: C1 E I Z 70.857 ∠ 41.4.629o 76.64m ∠ 58.39m + j92.j1.15 .899m + j124.371o 429.12m ∠ 41.j564.400 65.225o 105.j132.533 + j43.C2)] 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 76.899m + j124.5.533 + j43.38 ∠ 90o 0 + j245.533 + j43.533 + j43.[R // (L .38 564.857 ∠ 41.400 65.857 ∠ 41.86m 146.7684k ∠ 90o L C2 R 49.467 .15 .41 449.86m 146.371o Volts Amps Ohms Now we’re all set for calculating current through the resistor and through the series combination L−−C2 .7684k ∠ 90o 470 + j0 470 ∠ 0o Rule of parallel circuits: ER//(LC2) = ER = ELC2 L C2 R 49.225o 76.225o 470 + j0 470 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms Ohm’s Law E I= Z .64m ∠ 58.400 82.86m 146.760 ∠ 31.j564.400 65.5233k 1.225o R // (L .5233k ∠ 90o Rule of parallel circuits: ER//(LC2) = ER = ELC2 49.j43.38 564. AND C C1 E I Z 70.899m + j124.7684k 1.899m + j124.86m 146.04 245.225o Volts Amps Ohms 115 L .j696.C2) 49.7684k 1. SERIESPARALLEL R.j1.04 ∠ 90o 0 .629o 76.j1.C2 E I Z 0 .38 ∠ 90o 0 + j245.79 818.400 65.04 245.34 ∠ 58.760 ∠ 31.
533 + j43.64m ∠ 58.39m + j92. all we have to do is apply Ohm’s Law (E=IZ) vertically in those two columns to calculate voltage drops. .j1.400 65.225o 470 + j0 470 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms Rule of series circuits: ILC2 = IL = IC2 With one last step (actually.857 ∠ 41.j696.371o Volts Amps Ohms L .41 449.629o 76.400 65.490m + j32. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R.341m 140. L.5233k 1. it is! Since the L and C2 are connected in series.490m + j32.533 + j43.22o 0 + j245.39m + j92.64m ∠ 58.C2)] 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 76.516m 43. With impedance and current ﬁgures in place for L and C2 .899m + j124.j132.04 245.12m ∠ 41.15 .225o R // (L .467 .516m 28. According to Kirchhoff ’s Current Law. we can complete our analysis table for this circuit.86m 43.[R // (L .38 ∠ 90o 28.147o Ohm’s Law E I= Z Another quick doublecheck of our work at this point would be to see if the current ﬁgures for L−−C2 and R add up to the total current.79 818.5233k ∠ 90o 429.86m 146.490m + j32.j564.04 ∠ 90o 0 .225o 28.371o 0 .341m + 28.j1.11 ∠ 17.490m + j32.7684k ∠ 90o L C2 R 49.86m 146.371o 429.225o 105.C2) 49.116 CHAPTER 5. they should: IR//(LC2) should be equal to IR + I(LC2) 105.857 ∠ 41.400 65. we can distribute that current ﬁgure to the L and C2 columns following the rule of series circuits whereby series components share the same current: C1 E I Z 70.38 564. two calculations).516m 76.7684k 1.C2 E I Z 49.22o 43.400 82.760 ∠ 31.232m ∠ 131.64m ∠ 58.371o 0 .516m 76.232m ∠ 131.232m ∠ 131.899m + j124.86m Indeed.899m + j124.857 ∠ 41.15 .34 ∠ 58.899m + j124.22o 146.j43.533 + j43. AND C Total C1 . and since we know the current through their series combination impedance.
voltage phase angle.j564.12m ∠ 41. Each line of the SPICE output listing gives the voltage.225o 470 + j0 470 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms 117 28.22o C2 57. L.5 µF 0 0 0 Figure 5.7684k ∠ 90o Ohm’s Law E = IZ Ohm’s Law E = IZ Now. As you can see.501 + j50.516m 43.490m + j32.467 .7 µF more "dummy" voltage sources to act as current measurement points in the SPICE analysis (all set to 0 volts). and current phase angle for C1 .341m 140.04 245.225o 105. it must be emphasized that there is nothing really new going on here besides the use of complex numbers. While there is more potential for human error in carrying out the necessary complex number calculations.400 82.371o 0 .382 76.4.594 ∠ 221. current.629o 76.899m + j124.38 ∠ 90o L 7.j43. and R.225 R 49. C SPICE circuit.64m ∠ 58.86m 146.j6.j1.22o 0 + j245. L. let’s turn to SPICE for a computer veriﬁcation of our work: 2 C1 4.981 10.5.22o 43.232m ∠ 131.451 ∠ 41.516m 28.38 564.857 ∠ 41. SERIESPARALLEL R.7684k 1. As daunting a task as seriesparallel AC circuit analysis may appear.533 + j43. these ﬁgures do concur with our handcalculated ﬁgures in the circuit analysis table.400 65.490m + j32. in that order. the basic principles and techniques of seriesparallel circuit reduction are exactly the same.760 ∠ 31.39m + j92. .04 ∠ 90o 0 .232m ∠ 131.968 . AND C C1 E I Z 70. as do the voltage and current Laws of Kirchhoff.9: Example seriesparallel R. L. 3 Vir 4 6 R 470 Ω 3 Vit 1 120 V 60 Hz Vilc L 5 C2 650 mH 1. Ohm’s Law (in its new form of E=IZ) still holds true. C2 .
inductance (L).5) 1.3) vp(2. and capacitor.059E+01 vp(4.466E01 ip(vit) 5.312E+02 C2 freq 6.276E+01 vp(2.323E02 ip(vilc) 1.586E+01 vp(6) 4.000E+01 v(4.0) vp(5.5) vp(4. you must determine the impedance (Z) of every resistor.3) .3) 3.000E+01 v(2. and capacitance (C).print ac v(6.401E01 ip(vir) 4. That way.837E+01 C1 freq 6.323E02 ip(vilc) 1.000E+01 v(5) 7.print ac v(4.0) .122E+01 R • REVIEW: • Analysis of seriesparallel AC circuits is much the same as seriesparallel DC circuits. L.5) 1.118 CHAPTER 5. inductor.0) vp(6.388E+02 i(vilc) 4. AND C ac seriesparallel rlc v1 1 0 ac 120 sin vit 1 2 ac 0 vilc 3 4 ac 0 vir 3 6 ac 0 c1 2 3 4.3) 8.122E+01 i(vir) 1.print ac v(5.7u l 4 5 650m c2 5 0 1. all component values will be expressed in common terms (Z) instead of an incompatible mix of resistance (R).end circuit i(vit) ip(vit) i(vilc) ip(vilc) i(vilc) ip(vilc) i(vir) ip(vir) freq 6.312E+02 L freq 6.645E+01 vp(5) 4. .5u r 6 0 470 .000E+01 v(6) 6.print ac v(2. The only substantive difference is that all ﬁgures and calculations are in complex (not scalar) form. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R.163E+01 i(vit) 1.5) .122E+01 i(vilc) 4. • It is important to remember that before seriesparallel reduction (simpliﬁcation) can begin.0) .ac lin 1 60 60 .
pure reactances. conductance is the reciprocal of resistance.e. we had to have a new term: impedance. . the reciprocal of reactance. susceptance is the measure of how much a circuit is susceptible to conducting a changing current. Again. To be consistent. Its mathematical symbol is “B”. Like impedance.5. while conductance is the measure of how much a circuit conducts current. which diminishes as more parallel components are included in the circuit. Conductance used to be measured in the unit of mhos. it is equal to 1/X. and each 1/R term in the “parallel resistance formula” is actually a conductance. We call this timebased opposition. susceptances (B) add in parallel and diminish in series. Resistance is the measure of how much a circuit resists current. the proper unit of measurement is Siemens. . SUSCEPTANCE AND ADMITTANCE 119 5. . ﬁgures of conductance (G) and susceptance (B) are most useful in circuits where the two types of opposition are not mixed. “conductance” represents the ease of which electrons may ﬂow. admittance is a complex quantity rather than scalar. Likewise. It is a useful term when exploring the mathematical formula for parallel resistances: Rparallel = 1 / (1/R1 + 1/R2 + . Unlike resistance.5. Given a scientiﬁc calculator capable of handling complex number arithmetic in both polar and rectangular forms. or a purely reactive (susceptive) circuit. just like resistance and conductance. the proper letter to use for conductance is “G”. one could convert each reactance (X) to a susceptance (B). In order to express and quantify the effects of mixed resistive and reactive components. Now. we see a certain logic to the naming of this new term: while impedance is a measure of how much alternating current is impeded in a circuit. called susceptance. If one were tasked with determining the total effect of several parallelconnected. unchanging friction as resistors do. While reactance is the measure of how much a circuit reacts against change in current over time.5 Susceptance and Admittance In the study of DC circuits. Also like conductance. Like conductance. Reactive components such as inductors and capacitors oppose the ﬂow of electrons with respect to time. conductance simply adds. measured in ohms and symbolized by the letter “Z”. i. When symbolized in a mathematical formula. either a purely resistive (conductive) circuit. there is also a complementary expression of reactance. rather than with a constant. their combined effects can no longer be analyzed with scalar quantities of resistance (R) and reactance (X). 1/Rn ). The terms “reactance” and “susceptance” have a certain linguistic logic to them. and its symbol is “Y”. As conductance is the complement of resistance. the student of electricity comes across a term meaning the opposite of resistance: conductance. but now is measured in Siemens. susceptance is a scalar quantity. it used to be measured in the unit of mhos. When resistive and reactive components are interconnected. unfortunately the same symbol used to represent magnetic ﬂux density. 1/Xn ). Like conductances (G). we need a complementary measure representing the reciprocal of impedance. admittance is a measure of how much current is admitted. . Whereas the term “resistance” denotes the amount of opposition to ﬂowing electrons in a circuit. you may never have to work with ﬁgures of susceptance (B) or admit . or “ohms” spelled backward. The name for this measure is admittance. and like resistance we also measure it in the unit of ohms. Admittance is measured in (guess what?) the unit of Siemens. Mathematically. then add susceptances rather than diminish reactances: Xparallel = 1/(1/X1 + 1/X2 + . reactance. Mathematically.
of their existence and their meanings. where the magnitude (length of vector) directly relates to the magnitude of the voltage or current measured. L. Polar notation. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R. and will be covered in its own chapter in this book. which led to a much betterlooking second edition. AND C tance (Y). The same troubleshooting strategies applied toward DC circuits also hold for AC. and even the network theorems learned in DC still hold true for AC when voltage. Be aware. The only signiﬁcant difference is that fact that AC calculations use complex quantities while DC calculations use scalar quantities.120 CHAPTER 5. although AC can certainly be more difﬁcult to work with due to phase angles which aren’t registered by a handheld multimeter. . Rectangular notation is merely a useful tool for us to add and subtract complex quantities together. Ohm’s Law. Kirchhoff ’s Laws. 5. from most recent to ﬁrst. is the most practical way to express complex quantities for circuit analysis. based on the frequency of the power source. using the “new” form of Ohm’s Law: E=IZ . After that.6 Summary With the notable exception of calculations for power (P). See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information. current. all AC circuit calculations are based on the same general principles as calculations for DC circuits. and impedance are all expressed with complex numbers. though. When faced with analyzing an AC circuit. and the angle directly relates to the phase shift in degrees. and capacitor component values into impedances (Z).7 Contributors Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions. Because power in a reactive circuit is both absorbed and released – not just dissipated as it is with resistors – its mathematical handling requires a more direct application of trigonometry to solve. the ﬁrst step in analysis is to convert all resistor. Power is another subject altogether. Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting. inductor. I=E/Z . proceed with the same steps and strategies learned for analyzing DC circuits. 5. and Z=E/I Remember that only the calculated ﬁgures expressed in polar form apply directly to empirical measurements of voltage and current.
. If we assume that both components are subjected to a sudden application of voltage (say. 6. . . from a momentarily connected battery). . . . . Inductors store energy in the form of a magnetic ﬁeld. . . 6. . . the inductor will begin to build up a “charge” in the form of a magnetic ﬁeld as current increases in the circuit: (Figure 6. . . . 6. . . . .5 6. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Parallel resonant circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . When these two types of reactive components are directly connected together. . . Simple parallel (tank circuit) resonance Simple series resonance . . . creating their own AC voltage and current cycles. and electrically manifest that stored energy as a potential: static voltage. . .6. . its voltage decreasing. . . . . . . . . . .4 6. . . . storing and releasing energy in complementary modes. . . . .6 An electric pendulum . . . Capacitors and inductors are ﬂipsides of the same reactive coin.1 6.1 An electric pendulum Capacitors store energy in the form of an electric ﬁeld. . their complementary tendencies to store energy will produce an unusual result. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 6. the two components will exchange energy between them. . Q and bandwidth of a resonant circuit . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Series resonant circuits . . .7 Contributors . . . . . . .2) 121 . . . . . . . . the capacitor will very quickly charge and the inductor will oppose change in current. . . Applications of resonance . . . . . . . .Chapter 6 RESONANCE Contents 6. . . . . . . leaving the capacitor in the charged state and the inductor in the discharged state: (Figure 6. . . . . . . . Resonance in seriesparallel circuits . back and forth. . . . . . . . . . .2 6. . . . . . . . . . If either the capacitor or inductor starts out in a charged state. 121 126 131 135 136 145 146 148 151 6. . . . . . . . . .1) The capacitor will begin to discharge. . . and electrically manifest that stored energy as a kinetic motion of electrons: current. . Meanwhile. . . . . . . . . .
The capacitor. the capacitor will have reached full (voltage) charge in the opposite polarity as when it started: (Figure 6. as before.3: Capacitor fully discharged: zero voltage.5) Now we’re at a condition very similar to where we started: the capacitor at full charge and zero current in the circuit. it will generate a voltage (like a battery) in order to keep current in the same direction.1: Capacitor charged: voltage at (+) peak. still charging. will begin to discharge through the inductor. will keep electrons ﬂowing in the circuit until the capacitor has been completely discharged. The capacitor.2: Capacitor discharging: voltage decreasing. inductor discharged: zero current. inductor fully charged: maximum current. RESONANCE e= i= e Time capacitor charged: voltage at (+) peak inductor discharged: zero current Figure 6. causing an increase in current (in the opposite direction as before) and a decrease in voltage as it depletes its own energy reserve: (Figure 6. The inductor. e= i= + capacitor discharging: voltage decreasing inductor charging: current increasing Time Figure 6. will begin to accumulate a charge in the opposite polarity as before: (Figure 6.3) e= i= Time capacitor fully discharged: zero voltage inductor fully charged: maximum current Figure 6. In fact.6) Eventually the capacitor will discharge to zero volts. The inductor will maintain current ﬂow even with no voltage applied. being the recipient of this current. leaving zero voltage across it: (Figure 6. leaving the inductor fully charged with .4) When the inductor is ﬁnally depleted of its energy reserve and the electrons come to a halt. Inductor charging: current increasing.122 Battery momentarily connected to start the cycle + i CHAPTER 6.
inductor charging: current increasing.5: Capacitor fully charged: voltage at () peak.1.6: Capacitor discharging: voltage decreasing.6. inductor discharging: current decreasing. e= i= + capacitor discharging: voltage decreasing inductor charging: current increasing Time Figure 6. inductor fully discharged: zero current. .4: Capacitor charging: voltage increasing (in opposite polarity). AN ELECTRIC PENDULUM 123 e= i= + capacitor charging: voltage increasing (in opposite polarity) inductor discharging: current decreasing Time Figure 6. e= i= + capacitor fully charged: voltage at () peak inductor fully discharged: zero current Time Figure 6.
generating a voltage like a battery to continue the ﬂow. this behavior is akin to that of a pendulum: as the pendulum mass swings back and forth. inductor fully charged: current at () peak. In doing so. This completes one full cycle of the energy exchange between the capacitor and inductor: (Figure 6.7: Capacitor fully discharged: zero voltage. This oscillation will continue with steadily decreasing amplitude due to power losses from stray resistances in the circuit.9) e= i= + capacitor fully charged: voltage at (+) peak inductor fully discharged: zero current Time Figure 6.9: Capacitor fully charged: voltage at (+) peak. there is a transformation . inductor discharging: current decreasing. until the process stops altogether.124 full current through it: (Figure 6. desiring to maintain current in the same direction. Eventually the capacitor will become fully charged again as the inductor expends all of its energy reserves trying to maintain current.7) e= i= CHAPTER 6.8: Capacitor charging: voltage increasing. RESONANCE Time capacitor fully discharged: zero voltage inductor fully charged: current at () peak Figure 6. The inductor. Overall. the capacitor will begin to charge up and the current will decrease in magnitude: (Figure 6. The voltage will once again be at its positive peak and the current at zero. inductor fully discharged: zero current.8) e= i= + capacitor charging: voltage increasing inductor discharging: current decreasing Time Figure 6. will act like a source again.
maximum kinetic energy potential energy = kinetic energy = Figure 6. The same underlying principles govern both the oscillation of a capacitor/inductor circuit and the action of a pendulum.1. and not the weight of the mass itself. in a similar fashion to the way energy is transferred in the capacitor/inductor circuit back and forth in the alternating forms of current (kinetic motion of electrons) and voltage (potential electric energy). The rate of oscillation is strictly dependent on the sizes of the capacitor and inductor. The ability for such a circuit to store energy in the form of . At the peak height of each swing of a pendulum. potential energy (height) is at zero and kinetic energy (motion) is at maximum. The same is true for the capacitor/inductor circuit. In physics. the pendulum’s position and velocity measurements trace two sine waves (90 degrees out of phase) over time: (Figure 6. At this point. this kind of natural sinewave oscillation for a mechanical system is called Simple Harmonic Motion (often abbreviated as “SHM”). It is an interesting property of any pendulum that its periodic time is governed by the length of the string holding the mass. It is at this point that potential energy (height) is at a maximum and kinetic energy (motion) is at zero. a pendulum’s backandforth oscillation will continue with a steadily dampened amplitude. AN ELECTRIC PENDULUM 125 of energy taking place from kinetic (motion) to potential (height). not on the amount of voltage (or current) at each respective peak in the waves. That is why a pendulum will keep swinging at the same frequency as the oscillations decrease in amplitude. The oscillation rate is independent of the amount of energy stored in it. the result of air friction (resistance) dissipating energy. it passes quickly through a point where the string is pointed straight down.6. Like the circuit. Also like the circuit. As the mass swings back the other way. zero kinetic energy mass zero potential energy. the mass brieﬂy stops and switches directions.10) maximum potential energy. hence the similarity in effect.10: Pendelum transfers energy between kinetic and potential energy as it swings low to high.
In the above circuit. In fact. a condition of resonance will have been reached. This is true regardless of the circuit’s intended purpose. • When the power supply frequency for an AC circuit exactly matches that circuit’s natural oscillation frequency as set by the L and C components. Because inductive reactance increases with increasing frequency and capacitive reactance decreases with increasing frequency. • REVIEW: • A capacitor and inductor directly connected together form something called a tank circuit. Since we know the equations for determining the reactance of each at a given frequency. at a particular frequency is not limited to circuits exclusively designed for that purpose.126 CHAPTER 6. which oscillates (or resonates) at one particular frequency.11: Simple parallel resonant circuit (tank circuit). For this reason. we have a 10 µF capacitor and a 100 mH inductor. we need to be able to predict what the resonant frequency will be for various combinations of L and C. the circuit is said to be in a state of resonance. The unusual effects will reach maximum in this condition of resonance. Its property of maintaining a single. this tendency to oscillate. If the power supply frequency for a circuit exactly matches the natural frequency of the circuit’s LC combination.11) when the reactances of the capacitor and inductor are equal to each other. 10 µF 100 mH Figure 6. energy is alternately shufﬂed between the capacitor and the inductor in the form of alternating voltage and current 90 degrees out of phase with each other. and we’re looking for that . RESONANCE oscillating voltage and current has earned it the name tank circuit. natural frequency regardless of how much or little energy is actually being stored in it gives it special signiﬁcance in electric circuit design. and be aware of what the effects of resonance are. At that frequency. nearly any AC circuit with a combination of capacitance and inductance (commonly called an “LC circuit”) will tend to manifest unusual effects when the AC power source frequency approaches that natural frequency. there will only be one frequency where these two reactances will be equal. However. or resonate. 6.2 Simple parallel (tank circuit) resonance A condition of resonance will be experienced in a tank circuit (Figure 6.
. .2. representing a condition of equal reactance (resonance) .155 Hz. . simplifying . setting the two equal to each other. we arrive at a resonant frequency of 159. f= 2π 1 LC So there we have it: a formula to tell us the resonant frequency of a tank circuit. What happens at resonance is quite interesting.6. . . . SIMPLE PARALLEL (TANK CIRCUIT) RESONANCE 127 point where the two reactances are equal to each other. . 2πfL = 1 2πfC Multiplying both sides by f eliminates the f term in the denominator of the fraction . given the values of inductance (L) in Henrys and capacitance (C) in Farads. . f2 = 1 2π2πLC Taking the square root of both sides of the equation leaves f by itself on the left side . . . With capacitive and inductive reactances equal to each other. 2πf2L = 1 2πC Dividing both sides by 2πL leaves f2 by itself on the lefthand side of the equation . . Plugging in the values of L and C in our example circuit. . meaning that the tank circuit draws no current from the AC power source! We can calculate the individual impedances of the 10 µF capacitor and the 100 mH inductor and work through the parallel impedance formula to demonstrate this mathematically: . . we can set the two reactance formulae equal to each other and solve for frequency algebraically: XL = 2πfL XC = 1 2πfC . f= 1 2π2πLC . the total impedance increases to inﬁnity. .
RESONANCE XL = 2πfL XL = (2)(π)(159. We can plot the consequences of this over a wide power supply frequency range with a short SPICE simulation: (Figure 6. Current magnitude on the graph increases from . the total impedance of a tank circuit is inﬁnite (behaving as an open circuit) at resonance.12) A very low resistance value was chosen so as to have minimal effect on circuit behavior.12) The 1 picoohm (1 pΩ) resistor is placed in this SPICE analysis to overcome a limitation of SPICE: namely.128 CHAPTER 6.01 ∠ 90o Zparallel = Undefined! We can’t divide any number by zero and arrive at a meaningful result. I chose these component values to give resonance impedances that were easy to work with (100 Ω even). What this means in practical terms is that.155 Hz)(10 µF) XC = 100 Ω As you might have guessed. (Figure 6. Now.155 Hz)(100 mH) XL = 100 Ω XC = XC = 1 2πfC 1 (2)(π)(159.01 ∠ 90 1 0 o 1 + 0. This SPICE simulation plots circuit current over a frequency range of 100 to 200 Hz in twenty even steps (100 and 200 Hz inclusive). that it cannot analyze a circuit containing a direct inductorvoltage source loop. we use the parallel impedance formula to see what happens to total Z: Zparallel = 1 1 1 + ZL ZC 1 1 100 Ω ∠ 90o + 1 100 Ω ∠ 90o Zparallel = Zparallel = 0. but we can say that the result approaches a value of inﬁnity as the two parallel impedances get closer to each other.
368E+02 3..421E+02 2. 1.6..947E+02 4. 2..063E03 .684E+02 1.969E04 ..12: Resonant circuit sutitable for SPICE simulation.. . .... . . ... ..* . .... .000E03 .. .470E03 ..033E03 .. *. . 1. 1.053E+02 8.162E04 1..132E03 .. . . .789E+02 2.. *. 1. .. . .540E03 ....373E04 . 1.. ...542E03 . .2. * 1. . . * 1. . ..* . * . * .895E+02 3. .271E03 .... .. .590E04 . 1.. * .211E+02 5. . . ..105E+02 7. .350E03 .158E+02 6.506E03 . . . .0E02 . . 1. . . freq i(v1) 3. 1. 1. . . . 1.455E03 . * .316E+02 3. . .749E03 .. 1....842E+02 2. .263E+02 4... . . 1. * .737E+02 1... ..632E+02 4. SIMPLE PARALLEL (TANK CIRCUIT) RESONANCE 129 1 1 Rbogus 2 C1 0 0 0 10 uF L1 0 100 mH 1 1 pΩ Figure 6. . * .. * . .828E03 . . ... . 1.000E+02 9. * .609E03 .1. .632E03 .. .. ..934E03 . .. . . . ... * . * .. 1...000E+02 4.579E+02 1.474E+02 1. . 1..663E03 . * .505E03 . * .. . .526E+02 8.162E03 1. * .. 3. . 1. * . . ..
plot) in the last line producing the text plot on any printer or terminal.9 Hz. which SPICE can’t handle rbogus 1 2 1e12 l1 2 0 100m .plot) command. r raw file. It is at this point that total current from the power source falls to zero. The current in this circuit takes a sharp dip around the analysis point of 157. resonant frequency can be calculated with the following formula: fresonant = • 1 2π LC • The total impedance of a parallel LC circuit approaches inﬁnity as the power supply frequency approaches resonance. Such graphs plot amplitude or phase shift on one axis and frequency on the other. though it does no harm. input is resonant.cir). The following commands produce the plot below: (Figure 6. .end CHAPTER 6.raw resonant.cir) does not require the plot (. RESONANCE left to right.ac lin 20 100 200 . A better looking plot is produced by the “nutmeg” graphical postprocessor.raw From the nutmeg prompt: >setplot ac1 (setplot {enter} for list of plots) >display (for list of signals) >plot mag(v1#branch) (magnitude of complex current vector v1#branch) Incidentally. while frequency increases from top to bottom. The above spice ( *.155 Hz. part of the spice package. the graph output produced by this SPICE computer analysis is more generally known as a Bode plot. • For a tank circuit with no resistance (R).plot ac i(v1) . The plot above is produced from the above spice circuit ﬁle ( *.130 tank circuit frequency sweep v1 1 0 ac 1 sin c1 1 0 10u * rbogus is necessary to eliminate a direct loop * between v1 and l1.” or how sensitive it is to changes in frequency. The steepness of a Bode plot curve characterizes a circuit’s “frequency response. the command (.cir) nutmeg resonant. • REVIEW: • Resonance occurs when capacitive and inductive reactances are equal to each other. which is the closest analysis point to our predicted resonance frequency of 159.cir ( b batch mode.13) spice b r resonant.
(Figure 6.3. SIMPLE SERIES RESONANCE 131 Figure 6. • A Bode plot is a graph plotting waveform amplitude or phase on one axis and frequency on the other.6.13: Nutmeg produces plot of current I(v1) for parallel resonant circuit.14) When a state of resonance is reached (capacitive and inductive reactances equal).14: Simple series resonant circuit. the two impedances cancel each other out and the total impedance drops to zero! 10 µF 100 mH Figure 6.3 Simple series resonance A similar effect happens in series inductive/capacitive circuits. 6. .
j100 Ω) Zseries = 0 Ω With the total series impedance equal to 0 Ω at the resonant frequency of 159. which is the case: . while frequency increases from left to right.155 Hz.plot ac i(v1) .15) in series along with the capacitor and the inductor to keep the maximum circuit current somewhat limited.j100 Ω 1 R1 1Ω C1 3 L1 2 10 µF 100 mH 0 1V 0 Figure 6. (Figure 6. I’ll add a small resistor (Figure 6. This would suggest that our resonant frequency formula holds as true for simple series LC circuits as it does for simple parallel LC circuits.155 Hz: ZL = 0 + j100 Ω Zseries = ZL + ZC Zseries = (0 + j100 Ω) + (0 . this would not be good.16) The peak is still seen to be at the plotted frequency point of 157. series lc circuit v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 1 c1 2 3 10u l1 3 0 100m .16) ZC = 0 . RESONANCE At 159.15: Series resonant circuit suitable for SPICE.132 CHAPTER 6.ac lin 20 100 200 . the closest analyzed point to our predicted resonance point of 159.end As before.155 Hz.9 Hz. the result is a short circuit across the AC power source at resonance. In the circuit drawn above. circuit current amplitude increases from bottom to top. and perform another SPICE analysis over the same range of frequencies: (Figure 6.
155)(100mH)=j100Ω XC = 1/(2πfC) = 1/(2π(159.plot ac i(v1) v(2. voltage across the capacitor and inductor reach a peak somewhere around 70 volts! This is quite impressive for a power supply that only generates 1 volt.17) series lc circuit v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 1 c1 2 3 10u l1 3 0 100m . We can edit the SPICE netlist in the above example to include a plot of voltage across the capacitor and inductor to demonstrate what happens: (Figure 6.6.155)(10µF)) = j100Ω .155 Hz.3) v(3) . Needless to say. L = 100mH. it is possible to produce dangerously high voltage drops across the capacitor and the inductor.ac lin 20 100 200).3.ac lin 20 100 200 . This SPICE voltage is lower than the expected value due to the small (20) number of steps in the AC analysis statement (. What is the expected value? Given: fr = 159.end According to SPICE.16: Series resonant circuit plot of current I(v1). fresonant = 1 2π LC A word of caution is in order with series LC resonant circuits: because of the high currents which may be present in a series LC circuit at resonance. as each component possesses signiﬁcant impedance. R = 1 XL = 2πfL = 2π(159. caution is in order when experimenting with circuits such as this. SIMPLE SERIES RESONANCE 133 Figure 6.
the applied voltage. This voltage will stress these components to that level and they must be rated accordingly. • The same formula for determining resonant frequency in a simple tank circuit applies to simple series circuits as well. RESONANCE Figure 6. Q = VL /VR = VC /VR • REVIEW: • The total impedance of a series LC circuit approaches zero as the power supply frequency approaches resonance. • Extremely high voltages can be formed across the individual components of series LC circuits at resonance. The ratio of the capacitor (or inductor) voltage to the applied voltage is the “Q” factor.3) 70 V peak.532 A peak Z = 1 +j100 j100 = 1 Ω I = V/Z = (1 V)/(1 Ω) = 1 A VL = IZ = (1 A)(j100) = j100 V VC = IZ = (1 A)(j100) = j100 V VR = IR = (1 A)(1)= 1 V Vtotal = VL + VC + VR Vtotal = j100 j100 +1 = 1 V The expected values for capacitor and inductor voltage are 100 V. . I=I(V1#branch) 0. VL =v(3) 70 V peak.17: Plot of Vc=V(2. these voltages are out of phase and cancel yielding a total voltage across all three components of only 1 V. However. due to high current ﬂows and substantial individual component impedances.134 CHAPTER 6.
However..18) . this is not the case.18: Resonant circuit serves as stable frequency source. • REVIEW: . One use for resonance is to establish a condition of stable frequency in circuits designed to produce AC signals. to the rest of the "oscillator" circuit . this is how analog radio receiver tuner circuits work to ﬁlter.. Resonance is a very valuable property of reactive AC circuits. the frequency set by the tank circuit is solely dependent upon the values of L and C.. As was noted before. blocking them from getting to the load load Figure 6. Figure 6. and not on the magnitudes of voltage or current present in the oscillations: (Figure 6. exchanging energy between each other.. these particular circuits are called ﬁlters.6. In fact. employed in a variety of applications.19) the natural frequency of the "tank circuit" helps to stabilize oscillations AC source of mixed frequencies Tank circuit presents a high impedance to a narrow range of frequencies.4. one station frequency out of the mix of different radio station frequency signals intercepted by the antenna. and their design constitutes a discipline of study all by itself: (Figure 6. . or select.4 Applications of resonance So far.19: Resonant circuit serves as ﬁlter. so can a tank circuit be used to stabilize the electrical frequency of an AC oscillator circuit.. Another use for resonance is in applications where the effects of greatly increased or decreased impedance at a particular frequency is desired.. the phenomenon of resonance appears to be a useless curiosity. Usually. A resonant circuit can be used to “block” (present high impedance toward) a frequency or range of frequencies. with the capacitor and inductor directly connected together. thus acting as a sort of frequency “ﬁlter” to strain certain frequencies out of a mix of others. Just as a pendulum can be used to stabilize the frequency of a clock mechanism’s oscillations. APPLICATIONS OF RESONANCE 135 6. In essence. a parallel (tank) circuit is used for this purpose. or at most a nuisance to be avoided (especially if series resonance makes for a shortcircuit across our AC voltage source!).
it means zero impedance at resonance: fresonant = 1 2π LC However. the effects of radically altered impedance will manifest at the resonance frequency predicted by the equation given earlier. this means inﬁnite impedance at resonance. 6. just as a pendulum can be used to maintain constant oscillation speed in a timekeeping mechanism. In a parallel (tank) LC circuit. though. Watch. as soon as signiﬁcant levels of resistance are introduced into most LC circuits. this simple calculation for resonance becomes invalid. According to our simple equation.5 Resonance in seriesparallel circuits In simple reactive circuits with little or no resistance. an extra resistor (Rbogus ) (Figure 6. using the same values for capacitance and inductance as before: 10 µF and 100 mH. RESONANCE • Resonance can be employed to maintain AC circuit oscillations at a constant frequency. respectively. In a series LC circuit.22)is necessary to prevent SPICE from encountering trouble in analysis. • Resonance can be exploited for its impedance properties: either dramatically increasing or decreasing impedance for certain frequencies. We’ll take a look at several LC circuits with added resistance. where current reaches maximum or minimum in the following SPICE analyses: Parallel LC with resistance in series with L 1 1 R1 V1 1V C1 0 0 0 10 µF 2 L1 0 100 mH 1 100 Ω Figure 6. the resonant frequency should be 159. so the addition of a series resistor is necessary to “break . Circuits designed to screen certain frequencies out of a mix of different frequencies are called ﬁlters. Here.20: Parallel LC circuit with resistance in series with L.155 Hz.136 CHAPTER 6. SPICE can’t handle an inductor connected directly in parallel with any voltage source or any other inductor.
ac lin 20 100 200 . RESONANCE IN SERIESPARALLEL CIRCUITS 137 resonant circuit v1 1 0 ac 1 sin c1 1 0 10u r1 1 2 100 l1 2 0 100m .21: Resistance in series with L produces minimum current at 136.8 Hz instead of calculated 159.8 Hz instead of 159.6.end Figure 6.5.plot ac i(v1) .2 Hz! .2 Hz Minimum current at 136.
25). This resistor is chosen to be a very low value for minimum impact on the circuit’s behavior. In the following series circuit examples.138 CHAPTER 6. The astute observer will notice a pattern between the four SPICE examples given above.ac lin 20 100 400 . up” the voltage source/inductor loop that would otherwise be formed.22: Parallel LC with resistance in serieis with C. a 1 Ω resistor (R1 ) is placed in series with the inductor and capacitor to limit total current at resonance. (Figure 6.plot ac i(v1) .24) we experiment with placing signiﬁcant resistances in parallel with either L or C. resonant circuit v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 100 c1 2 0 10u rbogus 1 3 1e12 l1 3 0 100m . RESONANCE Parallel LC with resistance in series with C 1 1 R1 V1 1V C1 0 0 0 2 100 Ω 3 10 µF L1 0 100 mH 1 Rbogus Figure 6.2 Hz! Switching our attention to series LC circuits. a series LC circuit with the signiﬁcant resistance in parallel with the capacitor. And ﬁnally. (Figure 6. in terms of how resistance affects the resonant peak of a circuit: . The “extra” resistance inserted to inﬂuence resonant frequency effects is the 100 Ω resistor. R2 . The results are shown in (Figure 6.26) The shifted resonance is shown in (Figure 6.27) The tendency for added resistance to skew the point at which impedance reaches a maximum or minimum in an LC circuit is called antiresonance.end Minimum current at roughly 180 Hz instead of 159.
Series LC with resistance in parallel with L 1 R1 1Ω C1 V1 1V 3 L1 0 0 100 mH R2 10 µF 3 100 Ω 0 2 Figure 6. .24: Series LC resonant circuit with resistance in parallel with L.23: Resistance in series with C shifts minimum current from calculated 159. RESONANCE IN SERIESPARALLEL CIRCUITS 139 Figure 6.6.2 Hz to roughly 180 Hz.5.
RESONANCE Maximum current at roughly 178.plot ac i(v1) .2 Hz! . resonant circuit v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 1 c1 2 3 10u r2 2 3 100 l1 3 0 100m .ac lin 20 100 400 .8 Hz instead of 159.140 resonant circuit v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 1 c1 2 3 10u l1 3 0 100m r2 3 0 100 .25: Series resonant circuit with resistance in parallel with L shifts maximum current from 159.ac lin 20 100 200 .plot ac i(v1) .end CHAPTER 6.2 Hz! Figure 6.9 Hz instead of 159.2 Hz to roughly 180 Hz.end Maximum current at 136.
26: Series LC resonant circuit with rsistance in parallel with C.8 Hz. Figure 6. RESONANCE IN SERIESPARALLEL CIRCUITS 141 Series LC with resistance in parallel with C 1 R1 1Ω C1 V1 1V 3 L1 0 0 100 mH 2 2 10 µF R2 100 Ω 3 Figure 6. .5.27: Resistance in parallel with C in series resonant circuit shifts curreent maximum from calculated 159.6.2 Hz to about 136.
Maximum current at 159. but changing. you’ll see that the frequencies are shifted by the same amount. we also have to contend with the “core losses” of ironcore inductors. which manifest themselves as added resistance in the circuit.142 • Parallel (“tank”) LC circuit: • R in series with L: resonant frequency shifted down • R in series with C: resonant frequency shifted up CHAPTER 6. but at least it has the same natural frequency! . RESONANCE • Series LC circuit: • R in parallel with L: resonant frequency shifted up • R in parallel with C: resonant frequency shifted down Again. changing ﬂux produced by alternating current through the coil will tend to induce electric currents in the core itself (eddy currents).29) has not changed from the earlier series LC circuit (the one with the 1 Ω token resistance in it). and will not be covered in this brief lesson. This effects can be minimized with laminated cores. The only thing that has changed is the “sharpness” of the curve. The equations for determining antiresonance “shift” are complex. So long as all components are connected in series with each other. and that the shape of the complementary graphs are mirrorimages of each other! Antiresonance is an effect that resonant circuit designers must be aware of.2 Hz once again! Note that the peak of the current graph (Figure 6. this illustrates the complementary nature of capacitors and inductors: how resistance in series with one creates an antiresonance effect equivalent to resistance in parallel with the other. (Figure 6. While it is possible to manufacture capacitors with negligible unwanted resistances. and what its general tendencies are. thereby reducing the wire’s effective crosssectional area. Thus. due to a strange phenomenon known as the skin effect where AC current tends to be excluded from travel through the very center of a wire. One notable exception to the rule of circuit resistance causing a resonant frequency shift is the case of series resistorinductorcapacitor (“RLC”) circuits. the resistance of wire tends to increase as frequency goes up.28) The resulting plot is shown in (Figure 6. frequencydependent resistance at that. inductors not only have resistance. Obviously. good core design and highgrade materials. Since iron is a conductor of electricity as well as a conductor of magnetic ﬂux. What is more. As if the resistance of an inductor’s wire weren’t enough to cause problems. the resonant frequency of the circuit will be unaffected by the resistance. It should sufﬁce the beginning student of electronics to understand that the effect exists. but never completely eliminated.29). inductors are typically plagued with substantial amounts of resistance due to the long lengths of wire used in their construction. This effect can be thought of as though the iron core of the transformer were a sort of secondary transformer coil powering a resistive load: the lessthanperfect conductivity of the iron metal. this circuit does not resonate as strongly as one with less series resistance (it is said to be “less selective”). Added resistance in an LC circuit is no academic matter. If you look even closer to the four SPICE examples given. even though the resistance is now 100 times greater.
broadening the curve.5. series rlc circuit v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 100 c1 2 3 10u l1 3 0 100m .6.plot ac i(v1) .28: Series LC with resistance in series. .end Figure 6.29: Resistance in series resonant circuit leaves current maximum at calculated 159.ac lin 20 100 200 . RESONANCE IN SERIESPARALLEL CIRCUITS 143 Series LC with resistance in series 1 R1 100 Ω C1 V1 1V 3 L1 0 0 100 mH 2 10 µF Figure 6.2 Hz.
However. cars would bounce wildly at their resonant frequency after hitting any bump in the road. . and battery? All inductors contain a certain amount of stray capacitance due to turntoturn and turntocore insulation gaps. if you were to build such a circuit. Also.144 CHAPTER 6. If enough energy losses are present in a tank circuit. as almost all circuits do. resistor. this oscillation would continue forever. you might ﬁnd unexpected oscillations (AC) of voltage across the inductor when the switch is closed.30: L/R time delay circuit The idea of this circuit is simple: to “charge” the inductor when the switch is closed. the principle of employing resistance to eliminate unwanted resonance is one frequently used in the design of mechanical systems. If resistor R is large enough. the placement of circuit conductors may create stray capacitance.) in a tank circuit will cause the oscillations to decay in amplitude until they are no more. added resistance may be a way to combat it. But frictionless machines are difﬁcult to ﬁnd in the real world. dissipating enough energy to prohibit the inductance and stray capacitance from sustaining oscillations for very long. The rate of inductor charging will be set by the ratio L/R. exchanging voltage and current peaks just like a pendulum exchanges kinetic and potential energy. In the beginning of this chapter we saw how a capacitor and inductor connected directly together would act something like a pendulum. Without shock absorbers. Take note of the following L/R time delay circuit: (Figure 6. A very common application of this is the use of shock absorbers in automobiles. where any moving object with mass is a potential resonator. it will cause a condition of antiresonance. Interestingly enough. it will fail to resonate at all. RESONANCE It is noteworthy that antiresonance has the effect of dampening the oscillations of freerunning LC circuits such as tank circuits. there will always be some that you cannot eliminate. While clean circuit layout is important in eliminating much of this stray capacitance. In a perfect tank circuit (no resistance). (Figure 6. Antiresonance’s dampening effect is more than just a curiosity: it can be used quite effectively to eliminate unwanted oscillations in circuits containing stray inductances and/or capacitances. and so are lossless tank circuits. The shock absorber’s job is to introduce a strong antiresonant effect by dissipating energy hydraulically (in the same way that a resistor dissi . If this causes resonant problems (unwanted AC oscillations). Energy lost through resistance (or inductor core losses or radiated electromagnetic waves or .30) switch R L Figure 6. so how can we have resonant oscillation with just an inductor. just as a frictionless pendulum would continue to swing at its resonant frequency forever.31) Why is this? There’s no capacitor in the circuit. . which is the time constant of the circuit in seconds.
This formula is applicable to series resonant circuits. pates energy electrically). Q is the ration of power stored to power dissipated in the circuit reactance and resistance. Another source is that of core losses in ironcore inductors. Q AND BANDWIDTH OF A RESONANT CIRCUIT 145 ideal L/R voltage curve = actual L/R voltage curve = Figure 6. 6. respectively: Q = Pstored /Pdissipated = I2 X/I2 R Q = X/R where: X = Capacitive or Inductive reactance at resonance R = Series resistance. where the peak impedance effects happen at frequencies other than that which gives equal capacitive and inductive reactances. A higher value for this ﬁgure of merit correspondes to a more narrow bandwith. More formally. • REVIEW: • Added resistance to an LC circuit can cause a condition known as antiresonance.31: Inductor ringing due to resonance with stray capacitance. quality factor. One source of such resistance is the skin effect.6. Resonance still occurs when capacitive and inductive reactances are equal. resistance does not produce antiresonance.6 Q and bandwidth of a resonant circuit The Q. as we . • Resistance inherent in realworld inductors can contribute greatly to conditions of antiresonance. This is the case in practical applications. and also parallel resonant circuits if the resistance is in series with the inductor. caused by the exclusion of AC current from the center of conductors. • In a simple series LC circuit containing resistance (an “RLC” circuit).6. which is desirable in many applications. of a resonant circuit is a measure of the “goodness” or quality of a resonant circuit.
Current is maximum at resonance. the series resonant circuit looks capacitive since the impedance of the capacitor increases to a value greater than the decreasing inducitve reactance. the inductive rectance increases. This is correct for a large value of R in parallel with C and L. Bandwidth in terms of Q and resonant frequency: . capacitive reactance decreases. (Figure 6. Note: Some text may show X and R interchanged in the “Q” formula for a parallel resonant circuit. A low resistance. which changes the Q.34) This also affects the broadness of the curve.32: At resonance the series resonant circuit appears purely resistive. (Figure 6. current through L or C is Q times the total applied current. Our formula is correct for a small R in series with L. impedance at a minumum. leaving only the resistance to contribute to the impedance. leaving a net capacitive value. The resonant current peak may be changed by varying the series resistor. 6. impedance increases. the reactive components cancel. high Q circuit has a narrow bandwidth. Current is set by the value of the resistance.1 Series resonant circuits A series resonant circuit looks like a resistance at the resonant frequency.33) Below the resonant frequency.6. (Figure 6. Figure 6. low Q circuit. leaving a net inductive component. A practical application of “Q” is that voltage across L or C in a series resonant circuit is Q times total applied voltage. The impedance is also at a minimum at resonance.32) Since the deﬁnition of resonance is XL =XC . Above resonance it appears inductive. Below resonance it looks capacitive. Above resonance. In a parallel resonant circuit. as compared to a high resistance. RESONANCE are mostly concerned with the resistance of the inductor limiting the Q.146 CHAPTER 6. Above or below resonance.
6.34: A high Q resonant circuit has a narrow bandwidth as compared to a low Q .33: Impedance is at a minumum at resonance in a series resonant circuit. Q AND BANDWIDTH OF A RESONANT CIRCUIT 147 Figure 6.6. BW = fc /Q Where fc = resonant frquency Q = quality factor Figure 6.
35) Figure 6. BW = ∆f = fh fl = fc /Q Where fh = high band edge.∆f/2 = 32332 = 291 fh = fc + ∆f/2 = 323+32 = 355 Since BW = fc /Q: Q = fc /BW = (323 Hz)/(64 Hz) = 5 6. The 0.35. RESONANCE Bandwidth is measured between the 0.707 current amplitude points.2 Parallel resonant circuits A parallel resonant circuit is resistive at the resonant frequency. the 100% current point is 50 mA. The 70.35: Bandwidth. fl = low band edge fl = fc .5). (Figure 6. the reactive components cancel. The upper and lower band edges read from the curve are 291 Hz for fl and 355 Hz for fh .6.4 mA. The bandwidth is 64 Hz.707 current points correspond to the half power points since P = I2 R. and the half power points are ± 32 Hz of the center resonant frequency: BW = ∆f = fh fl = 355291 = 64 fl = fc . The impedance is maximum at resonance. (0. ∆f is measured between the 70.148 CHAPTER 6. (Figure 6.7% level is 0707(50 mA)=35. (Fig .∆f/2 fh = fc + ∆f/2 Where fc = center frequency (resonant frequency) In Figure 6.707)2 = (0.7% amplitude points of series resonant circuit.36) At resonance XL =XC .
the capacitive rectance decreases.37) A low Q due to a high resistance in series with the inductor produces a low peak on a broad response curve for a parallel resonant circuit. drawing the larger current.50) Since voltage is proportional to impedance. Impedance is maximum at resonance in a parallel resonant circuit.38) conversely. (Figure 6. ((0. thus. lower resistance wire. The 70. we may use the impedance curve.7% voltage points since power is proportional to E2 . a high Q is due to a low resistance in series with the inductor.6. inductive below resonance. The bandwidth is 62 Hz. This produces a higher peak in the narrower response curve. Above resonance. The high Q is achieved by winding the inductor with larger diameter (smaller gague). taking on a capacitive characteristic.39.39) In Figure 6. This corresponds to the 70.707)2 =0. capacitive above resonance. (Figure 6. The bandwidth of the parallel resonant response curve is measured between the half power points. but decreases above or below resonance. Q AND BANDWIDTH OF A RESONANT CIRCUIT 149 ure 6. the parallel resonant circuit looks inductive since the impedance of the inductor is lower.36: A parallel resonant circuit is resistive at resonance.7% level is 0707(500)=354 Ω. drawing the larger proportion of current. (Figure 6. Voltage is at a peak at resonance since voltage is proportional to impedance (E=IZ). The upper and lower band edges read from the curve are 281 Hz for fl and 343 Hz for fh . and the half power points are ± 31 Hz of the center resonant frequency: BW = ∆f = fh fl = 343281 = 62 fl = fc .37) Below the resonant frequency.∆f/2 = 31231 = 281 fh = fc + ∆f/2 = 312+31 = 343 Q = fc /BW = (312 Hz)/(62 Hz) = 5 . Figure 6. the 100% impedance point is 500 Ω.6.
38: Parallel resonant response varies with Q. . Figure 6. RESONANCE Figure 6.37: Parallel resonant circuit: Impedance peaks at resonance.150 CHAPTER 6.
∆f is measured between the 70.7% impedance points of a parallel resonant circuit. See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information.7. from most recent to ﬁrst. CONTRIBUTORS 151 Figure 6.39: Bandwidth. . 6.7 Contributors Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions.6. Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting. which led to a much betterlooking second edition.
152 CHAPTER 6. RESONANCE .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . we may encounter situations where DC is mixed with AC: where a waveform is superimposed on a steady (DC) signal. . . . . . . singlefrequency signals are the exception rather than the rule. . circuit waveforms may be something other than sinewave shaped. . but never changing polarity. Also. and any signal containing DC along with a signal of varying intensity (AC) may be rightly called a mixedfrequency signal as well. Square wave signals . . . Additionally. . . . though. . . . . . for example). . . . .1 7. . . . . More on spectrum analysis Circuit effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sometimes mixedfrequency voltage and current signals are created accidentally. . This may be the result of unintended connections between circuits – called coupling – made possible by 153 . . . . Since DC does not alternate as AC does. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quite often we may encounter circuits where multiple frequencies of voltage coexist simultaneously. Contributors . 153 158 168 174 185 188 7. . . . . . . . . . In many applications of electronics. . .3 7. . . in which case we call them nonsinusoidal waveforms. . . . . . . . . we’ve explored circuits powered by a singlefrequency sine voltage waveform. . . . . . analysis is more complex than what we’ve seen up to this point. . . . . . . . . . In any of these cases where there is a mix of frequencies in the same circuit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . its “frequency” is said to be zero. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 7. . . . . . . . . . .Chapter 7 MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS Contents 7. . . . . . . . . .5 7. . .1 Introduction In our study of AC circuits thus far. . . . . . . or changing polarity asymmetrically (spending more time positive than negative. . . . . . . . . Other waveshapes .6 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . .4 7. . . The result of such a mix is a signal varying in intensity. . . . . . .
2) The grounded cable shield – a wire braid or metal foil wrapped around the two insulated conductors – isolates both conductors from electrostatic (capacitive) coupling by blocking any external electric ﬁelds. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS stray capacitance and/or inductance between the conductors of those circuits.1: Stray inductance and capacitance couple stray AC into desired DC signal. When stray AC voltages from a “noise” source mix with DC signals conducted along signal wiring. The nearby presence of high AC voltages and currents may cause “foreign” voltages to be impressed upon the length of the signal wiring.154 CHAPTER 7. Stray capacitance formed by the electrical insulation separating power conductors from signal conductors may cause voltage (with respect to earth ground) from the power conductors to be impressed upon the signal conductors. power wiring and lowlevel signal wiring should always be routed through separated. dedicated metal conduit. Polarity marks placed near each inductive portion of signal conductor length shows how the induced voltages are phased in such a way as to cancel one another. the results are usually undesirable. Coupling may also occur between two sets of conductors carrying AC signals. while the parallal proximity of the two conductors effectively cancels any electromagnetic (mutually inductive) coupling because any induced noise voltage will be approximately equal in magnitude and opposite in phase along both conductors. while stray inductance formed by parallel runs of wire in conduit may cause current from the power conductors to electromagnetically induce voltage along the signal conductors.1) "Noise" source Mstray Zwire Cstray Zwire Zwire "Clean" DC voltage DC voltage + AC "noise" Figure 7. and signals should be conducted via 2conductor “twisted pair” cable rather than through a single wire and ground connection: (Figure 7. The result is a mix of DC and AC at the signal load.3) . (Figure 7. A classic example of coupling phenomenon is seen frequently in industry where DC signal wiring is placed in close proximity to AC power wiring. The following schematic shows how an AC “noise” source may “couple” to a DC circuit through mutual inductance (Mstray ) and capacitance (Cstray ) along the length of the conductors. For this reason. in which case both signals may become “mixed” with each other: (Figure 7. canceling each other at the receiving end for a net (differential) noise voltage of almost zero.
2: Shielded twisted pair minimized noise.1. .3: Coupling of AC signals between parallel conductors.7. INTRODUCTION 155 "Noise" source Mstray Cstray  + Shielded cable + Figure 7. Signal A Zwire Zwire Zwire A+B Mstray Zwire Zwire Cstray Zwire Signal B B+A Figure 7.
pure sine wave vibrations but rather are a mix of different frequency vibrations at different amplitudes. pure note or tone. the voltage waveform will likewise be a sine wave at a single frequency. the resulting voltage waveform produced by the microphone will consist of those frequencies mixed together.1 with a fundamental frequency of 1000 Hz (an arbitrary ﬁgure chosen for this example). the ﬁrst overtone would be 2000 Hz (the 2nd harmonic). etc. An illustration of these terms is shown in Table 7. However. Certainly these are examples of mixedfrequency AC voltages. However. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS Coupling is but one example of how signals of different frequencies may become mixed. It is generally quite easy to create mixedfrequency signal sources. mixedfrequency signals may be produced by a single voltage source. or two AC signals mixing with each other. If the sound waves consist of a single. Such is the case with microphones. If the sound wave is a chord or other harmony of several notes. The “ﬁrst” overtone is the ﬁrst harmonic frequency greater than the fundamental. Musical chords are produced by blending one frequency with other frequencies of particular fractional multiples of the ﬁrst. while the ﬁrst frequency is called the fundamental). . Some computer communications networks operate on the principle of superimposing highfrequency voltage signals along 60 Hz powerline conductors. mixedfrequency signals are the result of intentional design or they may be an intrinsic quality of a signal.156 CHAPTER 7. signal coupling via stray inductance and capacitance is usually accidental and undesired. Very few natural sounds consist of single. while the second overtone would be 3000 Hz (the 3rd harmonic). If we had an instrument producing the entire range of harmonic frequencies shown in the table above. investigating a little further. so as to convey computer data along existing lengths of power cabling.4: Series connection of voltage sources mixes signals. The particular mix of frequencies in the voltage signal output by the microphone is dependent on the sound being reproduced. In some cases. each frequency a wholenumber multiple of the ﬁrst (called harmonics. this application of the term “overtone” is speciﬁc to particular instruments. Whether it be AC mixed with DC. This technique has been used for years in electric power distribution networks to communicate load data along highvoltage power lines. In other cases. under conditions that are deliberately established. we ﬁnd that even a single piano note (produced by a plucked string) consists of one predominant frequency mixed with several other frequencies.4) 60 Hz AC + DC voltage 90 Hz mixedfrequency AC voltage Figure 7. Perhaps the easiest way is to simply connect voltage sources in series: (Figure 7. which convert audiofrequency air pressure waves into corresponding voltage waveforms. Sometimes the term “overtone” is used to describe the a harmonic frequency produced by a musical instrument.
Also. however. sounds very “ﬂat” and “featureless” to the human ear.1. . steel strings have a different sound than nylon strings. being entirely devoid of any harmonics. All these instruments produce harmonic frequencies (wholenumber multiples of the fundamental frequency) when a single note is played. As such. etc. Such an instrument set up to produce a fundamental frequency of 1000 Hz would also produce frequencies of 3000 Hz. and some types of bells). the measure of a tone’s harmonic content is called timbre or color. but the relative amplitudes of those harmonic frequencies are different for different instruments. lute.) tend to produce sounds composed of a single frequency (the “fundamental”) and a mix of harmonics.7. and neither produce the same harmonic content as stringed instruments. as well. In musical terms. 5000 Hz. Most musical instruments are incapable of producing sounds this simple. A distinctive blend of frequencies is what gives a musical instrument its characteristic tone. 7000 Hz. an instrument made from a tube that is open on one end and closed on the other (such as a bottle. or any other evenmultiple frequencies of the fundamental. The result is a distinctive tone that some people ﬁnd acoustically offensive. and so on. Instruments based on the vibration of a string (guitar. we would say that the ﬁrst overtone (the ﬁrst frequency greater than the fundamental) in such an instrument would be 3000 Hz (the 3rd harmonic). which produces sound when air is blown across the opening) is incapable of producing evennumbered harmonics. etc. or fundamental 2000 2nd harmonic 3000 3rd harmonic 4000 4th harmonic 5000 5th harmonic 6000 6th harmonic 7000 7th harmonic 157 It so happens that certain instruments are incapable of producing certain types of harmonic frequencies. pipe organ. Instruments based on the vibration of a ﬂat plate (steel drums. A pure sine wave (single frequency). not limited to wholenumber multiples of the fundamental. clarinet. As anyone who has played guitar can tell you. the tone produced by a guitar string changes depending on where along its length it is plucked. 6000 Hz. Brass instruments do not possess the same “harmonic content” as woodwind instruments. banjo. Musical tones become even more complex when the resonating element of an instrument is a twodimensional surface rather than a onedimensional string. What gives each instrument its distinctive tone is the same phenomenon that gives each person a distinctive voice: the unique blending of harmonic waveforms with each fundamental note. described by the physics of motion for each unique object producing the sound. are a result of different harmonic content produced by differences in the mechanical vibrations of an instrument’s parts. produce a much broader range of frequencies. For example. ﬂute. These differences in tone. tuba. but would not produce 2000 Hz.1: For a “base” frequency of 1000 Hz: Frequency (Hz) Term 1000 1st harmonic.) or of a column of air in a tube (trumpet. while the second overtone would be 5000 Hz (the 5th harmonic). dulcimer. etc. piano. 4000 Hz. INTRODUCTION Table 7.
• REVIEW: • A sinusoidal waveform is one shaped exactly like a sine wave. music provides a rich ﬁeld of study for mixed frequencies and their effects. Later sections of this chapter will refer to musical instruments as sources of waveforms for analysis in more detail. and the other sinewaves whose frequencies are wholenumber multiples of the fundamental wave are called harmonics. So long as it repeats itself regularly over time. or simply exist out of necessity. are not composed of a single frequency sinewave. plus an inﬁnite series of oddmultiple frequency sine waves at diminishing amplitude: .2 Square wave signals It has been found that any repeating. nonsinusoidal waveform can be equated to a combination of DC voltage. the lowest frequency sinewave is called the fundamental. while the “second” overtone is the next greater frequency produced.158 CHAPTER 7. In particular. • An overtone is a harmonic produced by a particular device. purposely created. 7. • When multiple sine waveforms are mixed together (as is often the case in music). • Mixedfrequency waveforms can be accidently created. and so their overtones would only include some (not all) harmonic frequencies. Most musical tones. The “ﬁrst” overtone is the ﬁrst frequency greater than the fundamental. sine waves. for instance. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS As you can see. Some devices and systems do not permit the establishment of certain harmonics. and/or cosine waves (sine waves with a 90 degree phase shift) at various amplitudes and frequencies. depending on the device producing the mixed frequencies. it is reducible to this series of sinusoidal waves. it has been found that square waves are mathematically equivalent to the sum of a sine wave at that same frequency. Successive overtones may or may not correspond to incremental harmonics. but are rich blends of different frequencies. • A nonsinusoidal waveform can be anything from a distorted sinewave shape to something completely different like a square wave. This is true no matter how strange or convoluted the waveform in question may be.
ad infinitum . 5th. In this particular SPICE simulation. but easily demonstrated with SPICE.7. .5) V1=1. 7th. 3rd.2. This truth about waveforms at ﬁrst may seem too strange to believe. . . We’ll use SPICE to plot the voltage waveforms across successive additions of voltage sources. and 9th harmonic . like this: (Figure 7. . This reasoning is not only sound.27V 50Hz V3=424mV 150Hz V5=255mV 250Hz V7=182mV 350Hz V9=141mV 450Hz plot voltage waveform plot voltage waveform plot voltage waveform plot voltage waveform plot voltage waveform Figure 7. SQUARE WAVE SIGNALS 159 1 V (peak) repeating square wave at 50 Hz is equivalent to: 4 (1 V peak sine wave at 50 Hz) π + + 4 (1/3 V peak sine wave at 150 Hz) π 4 (1/5 V peak sine wave at 250 Hz) π 4 (1/7 V peak sine wave at 350 Hz) π 4 (1/9 V peak sine wave at 450 Hz) π + + + . However. The circuit we’ll be simulating is nothing more than several sine wave AC voltage sources of the proper amplitudes and frequencies connected together in series. it stands to reason that we should be able to prove this by adding together several sine wave harmonics to produce a close approximation of a square wave.5: A square wave is approximated by the sum of harmonics. I’ve summed the 1st. if a square wave is actually an inﬁnite series of sine wave harmonics added together.
end I’ll narrate the analysis step by step from here.plot tran v(2. + 9th harmonics . . with no additional harmonic content. 1/3. they have been arrived at through the equations shown in the frequency series (the fraction 4/π multiplied by 1.plot tran v(3.648m 250 0 0) 5th harmonic v7 4 3 sin (0 181. explaining what it is we’re looking at. This is the kind of waveform produced by an ideal AC power source: (Figure 7.tran 1m 20m .0) Plot 1st + 3rd harmonics .0) Plot 1st + 3rd + 5th harmonics .6: Pure 50 Hz sinewave.0) Plot 1st harmonic . building a squarewave v1 1 0 sin (0 1.plot tran v(5. The fundamental frequency is 50 Hz and each harmonic is.6) Figure 7.471m 450 0 0) 9th harmonic r1 5 0 10k .0) Plot 1st + .413m 150 0 0) 3rd harmonic v5 3 2 sin (0 254. .plot tran v(4. of course. an integer multiple of that frequency.27324 50 0 0) 1st harmonic (50 Hz) v3 2 1 sin (0 424. 1/5.0) Plot 1st + 3rd + 5th + 7th harmonics . It is nothing but a pure sine shape. 1/7. In this ﬁrst plot. we see what happens when this clean and simple waveform is combined with the . Next. The amplitude (voltage) ﬁgures are not random numbers. for each of the increasing odd harmonics). we see the fundamentalfrequency sinewave of 50 Hz by itself. etc.160 CHAPTER 7. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS voltage sources in series for a total of ﬁve AC voltage sources.plot tran v(1.891m 350 0 0) 7th harmonic v9 5 4 sin (0 141. rather.
it doesn’t look like a clean sine wave any more: (Figure 7. Watch what happens as we add the next odd harmonic frequency: (Figure 7. The rise and fall times between positive and negative cycles are much steeper now.8) Figure 7.8: Sum of 1st. Suddenly. SQUARE WAVE SIGNALS 161 third harmonic (three times 50 Hz. .2. or 150 Hz).7.7: Sum of 1st (50 Hz) and 3rd (150 Hz) harmonics approximates a 50 Hz square wave. and the crests of the wave are closer to becoming ﬂat like a squarewave.7) Figure 7. 3rd and 5th harmonics approximates square wave.
The fact that repeating. but those dips and crests are smaller in amplitude than they were before. 5th. The point in doing this is to illustrate how we can build a square wave up from multiple sine waves at different frequencies. nonsinusoidal waves are equivalent to a deﬁnite series of additive DC voltage. Here we can see the wave becoming ﬂatter at each peak.9: Sum of 1st. Watch again as we add the next odd harmonic waveform to the mix: (Figure 7. adding the 9th harmonic. However. which we already know is composed of oddharmonic sine waves: The pulse option in the netlist line describing voltage source v1 instructs SPICE to simulate . which in fact they are. computer algorithms have been created to perform this analysis at high speeds on real waveforms. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS The most noticeable change here is how the crests of the wave have ﬂattened even more. Finally. There are more several dips and crests at each end of the wave.162 CHAPTER 7. and its application in AC power quality and signal analysis is widespread. outputting the frequency analysis as a table of numbers. to prove that a pure square wave is actually equivalent to a series of sine waves. of course) is a close approximation of a square wave. When a square wave AC voltage is applied to a circuit with reactive components (capacitors and inductors). and/or cosine waves is a consequence of how waves work: a fundamental property of all waverelated phenomena.9) Figure 7. electrical or otherwise. Let’s try this on a square wave. SPICE has the ability to sample a waveform and reduce it into its constituent sine wave harmonics by way of a Fourier Transform algorithm. those components react as if they were being exposed to several sine wave voltages of different frequencies. The mathematical process of reducing a nonsinusoidal wave into these constituent frequencies is called Fourier analysis. the ﬁfth sine wave voltage source in our circuit. 3rd. we obtain this result: (Figure 7. the details of which are well beyond the scope of this text.10) The end result of adding the ﬁrst ﬁve odd harmonic waveforms together (all at the proper amplitudes. sine waves. and 7th harmonics approximates square wave.
end .2.0) . 7th and 9th harmonics approximates square wave.1m . squarewave analysis netlist v1 1 0 pulse (1 1 0 . SQUARE WAVE SIGNALS 163 Figure 7. 3rd.10: Sum of 1st.1m 10m 20m) r1 1 0 10k .plot tran v(1.7. 5th.0) .four 50 v(1.tran 1m 40m .
MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS a squareshaped “pulse” waveform.000E+02 4.195 3 1.439E02 harmonic frequency fourier normalized phase normalized no (hz) component component (deg) phase (deg) 1 5.562E01 0.000E+02 4.443E01 0.164 CHAPTER 7.976 7 3.000E+02 5.000E+02 5.936E02 0. First we’ll plot the square wave to be analyzed: (Figure 7.756 17.195 0.171 100.390 4 2.010E02 0. Note how small the ﬁgures are for all the even harmonics (2nd.038757 98. 6th. plus a small DC voltage labelled DC component.144549 15.500E+02 4.892E02 0. I had to inform SPICE of the fundamental frequency (for a square wave with a 20 millisecond period.500E+02 1.039337 103. 9th is smallest).171 8 4.561 total harmonic distortion = 43. 4th. this frequency is 50 Hz).500E+02 1.841E01 0. we’ll print the Fourier analysis generated by SPICE for this square wave: fourier components of transient response v(1) dc component = 2. so it knew how to classify the harmonics.333987 6.500E+02 2.11: Squarewave for SPICE Fourier analysis Next. and how the amplitudes of the odd harmonics diminish (1st is largest.000000 2.390 92.12) SPICE has broken the waveform down into a spectrum of sinusoidal frequencies up to the ninth harmonic.000E+01 1. in this case one that is symmetrical (equal time for each halfcycle) and has a peak amplitude of 1 volt.116E02 0.780 6 3.976 8.11) Figure 7. 8th). (Figure 7.274E+00 1.040175 107.585 5 2.113316 19.201179 10.000 2 1.366 9 4.366 13.805747 percent Here.585 4. .780 96.253E01 0.038415 94.561 105.
A common computer algorithm (sequence of program steps to perform a task) for this is the Fast Fourier Transform or FFT function.5 kHz kHz 3. This same technique of “Fourier Transformation” is often used in computerized power instrumentation. the equalizer is able to selectively attenuate (reduce) the amplitude of certain frequencies present in music. Typically.7. sampling the AC waveform(s) and determining the harmonic content thereof.5 kHz kHz Figure 7. but be aware of their existence and application. This same mathematical technique used in SPICE to analyze the harmonic content of waves can be applied to the technical analysis of music: breaking up any particular sound into its constituent sinewave frequencies. You need not be concerned with exactly how these computer routines work. .2. Equipped with several knobs or slide levers.5 kHz kHz 10 12. there will be a “bar graph” display next to each control lever. displaying the amplitude of each particular frequency. In fact. SQUARE WAVE SIGNALS 165 Figure 7.12: Plot of Fourier analysis esults.5 kHz 5 7. (Figure 7. to “customize” the sound for the listener’s beneﬁt.13: HiFi audio graphic equalizer.13) Graphic Equalizer Bargraph displays the amplitude of each frequency Control levers set the attenuation factor for each frequency 50 Hz 150 300 Hz Hz 500 Hz 750 Hz 1 1. you may have already seen a device designed to do just that without realizing what it was! A graphic equalizer is a piece of highﬁdelity stereo equipment that controls (and sometimes displays) the nature of music’s harmonic content.
this plot is amplitude over frequency rather than amplitude over time. the amplitudes of all the even harmonics should be absolutely zero.” Ideally. Please take note of how the Fourier analysis from the last SPICE simulation isn’t “perfect. The design of spectrum analyzers may be as simple as a set of “ﬁlter” circuits (see the next chapter for details) designed to separate the different frequencies from each other. the less precise the analysis. they often have an appearance like that of an oscilloscope: (Figure 7. In that form. or as complex as a specialpurpose digital computer running an FFT algorithm to mathematically split the signal into its harmonic components. The term “domain” is mathematical: a sophisticated word to describe the horizontal axis of a graph. It is only when we have an equation describing a waveform in its entirety that . A waveform of inﬁnite duration (inﬁnite number of cycles) can be analyzed with absolute precision. we are performing frequencydomain analysis. Like an oscilloscope. Unlike an oscilloscope. but the less cycles available to the computer for analysis.166 CHAPTER 7. Thus. Spectrum analyzers are often designed to analyze extremely highfrequency signals. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS A device built strictly to display – not control – the amplitudes of each frequency range for a mixedfrequency signal is typically called a spectrum analyzer. Again. and so should the DC component. an oscilloscope’s plot of amplitude (vertical) over time (horizontal) is a “timedomain” analysis. this is not so much a quirk of SPICE as it is a property of waveforms in general.14: Spectrum analyzer shows amplitude as a function of frequency. In essence. whereas a spectrum analyzer’s plot of amplitude (vertical) over frequency (horizontal) is a “frequencydomain” analysis. such as those produced by radio transmitters and computer network hardware. the spectrum analyzer uses a CRT (or a computer display mimicking a CRT) to display a plot of the signal. a frequency analyzer gives the operator a Bode plot of the signal: something an engineer might call a frequencydomain rather than a timedomain analysis.14) Spectrum Analyzer amplitude frequency Figure 7. When we use SPICE to plot signal amplitude (either voltage or current amplitude) over a range of frequencies.
SQUARE WAVE SIGNALS 167 Fourier analysis can reduce it to a deﬁnite series of sinusoidal waveforms.000E+02 1.109662 phase normalized (deg) phase (deg) 1.382 88. • Computer algorithms exist which are able to sample waveshapes and determine their constituent sinusoidal components.946 12.273E+00 1. the less certain its frequency is.329 16.500E+02 1.500E+02 4. the imprecision of the ﬁrst analysis is not so much a ﬂaw in SPICE as it is a fundamental property of waves and of signal analysis.332897 4 2. and the result would be a spectrum analysis more consistent with the ideal. not just AC voltages and currents.015688 5 2. Again.500E+02 1.000E+02 1. In the following analysis. We could improve the precision of our analysis here by letting the wave oscillate on and on for many cycles. I’ve omitted the waveform plot for brevity’s sake – its just a really long square wave: squarewave v1 1 0 pulse (1 1 0 .182 5.804E01 0.529 77. This principle is common to all wavebased phenomena.000 86.989E02 0.0) .000E+02 1.four 50 v(1. • REVIEW: • Square waves are equivalent to a sine wave at the same (fundamental) frequency added to an inﬁnite series of oddmultiple sinewave harmonics at decreasing amplitudes.000E+01 1. The fewer times that a wave cycles.396E01 0.999E03 harmonic frequency fourier normalized no (hz) component component 1 5.199 14.plot tran v(1.015704 3 1.015627 9 4.tran 1m 1 .1m .500E+02 2.800 0.764 84.536E01 0.option limpts=1001 . a short pulse – a waveform that doesn’t even complete a cycle – actually has no frequency.015663 7 3.400 3. The Fourier Transform algorithm (particularly the .0) .000000 2 1. Taking this concept to its logical extreme.600 82. all because we let the computer sample more cycles of the wave.564 9.200 79.600 10.7.800 75.999E02 0.15) shows less of a DC component voltage and lower amplitudes for each of the even harmonic frequency sine waves.1m 10m 20m) r1 1 0 10k .994E02 0.238E01 0. but rather acts as an inﬁnite range of frequencies.000E+02 1.399 Notice how this analysis (Figure 7.2.000 7. Sufﬁce it to say that the number of cycles and the certainty of a waveform’s frequency component(s) are directly related.end fourier components of transient response v(1) dc component = 9.997E02 0.199215 6 3.141737 8 4.146 80.
producing current waveforms bearing little resemblance to the source voltage waveform powering the circuit. These devices have the ability to suddenly change their resistance with the application of a control signal voltage or current. due to voltage drops created by the nonsinusoidal current through circuit impedances. nonsinusoidal waveform is actually equivalent to a series of sinusoidal waveforms of different amplitudes and frequencies added together. While this is an advantage from the perspective of energy efﬁciency. thus “turning on” or “turning off ” almost instantaneously. any repeating. Circuit components that distort the normal sinewave shape of AC voltage or current are called nonlinear. Fast Fourier Transform.15: Improved fourier analysis. Square waves are a very common and wellunderstood case. but not the only one. If not taken into consideration by the circuit designer. Nonlinear components such as SCRs ﬁnd popular use in power electronics due to their ability to regulate large amounts of electrical power without dissipating much heat. These nonsinusoidal waveforms. the waveshape distortions they introduce can cause problems.168 CHAPTER 7. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS Figure 7. these harmonic waveforms created by electronic switching components may cause erratic circuit behavior. 7.3 Other waveshapes As strange as it may seem. are equivalent to a series of sinusoidal waveforms of higher (harmonic) frequencies. regardless of their actual shape. Electronic power control devices such as transistors and siliconcontrolled rectiﬁers (SCRs) often produce voltage and current waveforms that are essentially choppedup versions of the otherwise “clean” (pure) sinewave AC from the power supply. or FFT) is commonly used in computer circuit simulation programs such as SPICE and in electronic metering equipment for determining power quality. These current waveforms then produce changes in the voltage waveform to other circuit components. It is becoming increasingly common in the electric power industry to observe overheating of transformers and motors due to distortions in the sine .
or “rectiﬁed” into DC.0) v(2. In this section.0) . One very common way harmonics are generated in an AC power system is when AC is converted. This is generally done with components called diodes.0) v(2. we’ll compare this with the Fourier analysis of the halfwave . Figure 7. The simplest type of AC/DC rectiﬁcation is halfwave.0) .tran .16) Oddly enough. a pure sine wave voltage: (Figure 7.3.end halfwave rectifier First. This is no theoretical exercise: it is very real and potentially very troublesome. the conventional diode schematic symbol is drawn such that electrons ﬂow against the direction of the symbol’s arrowhead: 1 diode 2 + load  0 0 The diode only allows electron flow in a counterclockwise direction. I will investigate a few of the more common waveshapes and show their harmonic components by way of Fourier analysis using SPICE. there would be nothing but the fundamental frequency showing (being a perfect sine wave). though. which only allow the passage of current in one direction. Next. (Figure 7. where a single diode blocks half of the AC current (over time) from passing through the load.5m 17m . Ideally. but our Fourier analysis ﬁgures aren’t perfect because SPICE doesn’t have the luxury of sampling a waveform of inﬁnite duration.7. OTHER WAVESHAPES 169 wave shape of the AC power line voltage stemming from “switching” loads such as computers and highefﬁciency lights.plot tran v(1.16: Halfwave rectiﬁer. too small to show on the harmonic plot above. halfwave rectifier v1 1 0 sin(0 15 60 0 0) rload 2 0 10k d1 1 2 mod1 .four 60 v(1.18) Notice the extremely small harmonic and DC components of this sinusoidal waveform in the table above. we’ll see how SPICE analyzes the source waveform.model mod1 d .
467E03 0.283 8 4.607 63.492E03 0.800E+02 6.324 61. fourier components of transient response v(1) dc component = 8. V(1)+0.220E03 0.170 CHAPTER 7.400E+02 1.347 104.658 4 2.000099 52.482E+01 1.602 7 4.400E+02 1.288 56.664 9 5.000080 70.655 .354E03 0.016E04 harmonic frequency fourier normalized phase normalized no (hz) component component (deg) phase (deg) 1 6.000076 61.000E+01 1.4 shifts the sinewave input V(1) up for clarity.000082 56.600E+02 1. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS Figure 7.465E04 0.000091 54. This is not part of the simulation.091 70.663 86.185E03 0.000000 0.660 52.000044 86.000168 104.342 3 1.000E+02 1.092E03 0.200E+02 1.000074 63.17: Halfwave rectiﬁer waveforms.000 2 1.086 6 3.200E+02 2.669 54.319 5 3.005 0.132E03 0.800E+02 1.
Another method of AC/DC conversion is called fullwave (Figure 7.362 7 4.000E+00 1.20).017223 168.000000 0.22) What a difference! According to SPICE’s Fourier transform. but we can examine the waveform (Figure 7.21) and its harmonic analysis through SPICE: (Figure 7. it behaves a lot more like DC.200E+02 3.570 167.009117 152.7.420 8 4. By cutting out half of our AC wave.765 3 1.400E+02 4.493E02 0. we’ve introduced the equivalent of several higherfrequency sinusoidal (actually.600E+02 1.800E+02 1.800E+02 7. Because our AC voltage waveform has been “rectiﬁed” (only allowed to push in one direction across the load rather than backandforth).889 Notice the relatively large evenmultiple harmonics in this analysis.790 6 3.010703 61.195 2 1.3.492E02 0.167 132.206E01 0.100 152.000 89. reversing the polarity of half the AC cycle to get electrons to ﬂow through the load the same direction all the time. Also take note of the large DC component: 4. OTHER WAVESHAPES 171 Figure 7. pure sinewave.024676 79.224 61.005787 115.085 normalized phase (deg) 0. cosine) waveforms into our circuit from the original.382E02 0.479 9 5.005 4 2.000E+01 7.295 5 3.284 114.18: Fourier analysis of the sine wave input.456 volts.400E+02 5.19) fourier components of transient response v(2) dc component = 4. “rectiﬁed” voltage across the load resistor: (Figure 7.456E+00 harmonic frequency fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.073556 87. we have a 2nd harmonic component to this waveform that’s over 85 times the amplitude of the original AC source frequency! .200E+02 4.149E01 0. I won’t bore you with details of exactly how this is done.810 87.051E02 0.016E+00 0.430849 89.727E01 0.000E+02 6.595 79. which as you may have guessed utilizes the full cycle of AC power from the source.006417 132.
19: Fourier analysis halfwave output.four 60 v(2.3) .20: Fullwave rectiﬁer circuit. fullwave bridge rectifier v1 1 0 sin(0 15 60 0 0) rload 2 3 10k d1 1 2 mod1 d2 0 2 mod1 d3 3 1 mod1 d4 3 0 mod1 .tran .0) v(2. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS Figure 7.plot tran v(1.3) . 1 D1 V1 15 V 60 Hz 2 D2 0 1 D3 R + load 10 kΩ D4 0 3 Figure 7.model mod1 d .172 CHAPTER 7.end .5m 17m .
006043 118.787 0.507 6 3.21: Waveforms for fullwave rectiﬁer fourier components of transient response v(2.600E+02 3.3) dc component = 8.669415 90.000E02 1.070827 94.839 25.752 7 4.457E02 1.7.027 5 3.052023 95.023 0.271 6.400E+02 1.492 1.065240 90.026 1.000000 93.800E+02 1.519 0.000E+02 7.273E+00 harmonic frequency fourier normalized phase normalized no (hz) component component (deg) phase (deg) 1 6.800E+02 7.767350 100.241E02 1. OTHER WAVESHAPES 173 Figure 7.404E01 2.013E+00 14.3.907 2.364E02 1.000 2 1.997E+00 85.267 4 2.612 .400E+02 7.230 3.465161 92.034465 93.496E02 1.504 8 4.200E+02 7.200E+02 5.289 3 1.319 9 5.000E+01 7.337E01 4.
The DC component of this wave shows up as being 8.fourier option is also programmed into a variety of electronic test instruments to perform realtime Fourier analysis on measured signals. what may begin as a neat. Different waveshapes consist of different blends of sinewave harmonics. is a powerful tool for furthering our understanding of waveforms and their related spectral components.174 CHAPTER 7.4 More on spectrum analysis Computerized Fourier analysis. . which is interesting. The odd harmonics are actually stronger at some of the higher frequencies than they are at the lower frequencies. but before we do that we’ll take a closer look at waveforms and their respective harmonics. simple AC sinewave may end up as a complex mess of harmonics after passing through just a few electronic components. The practical effects of harmonic frequencies in circuits will be explored in the last section of this chapter. particularly in the form of the FFT algorithm. it is of the utmost importance to realize the principles at work and to grasp the practical effects that harmonic signals may have on circuits. • Rectiﬁcation of AC to DC is a very common source of harmonics within industrial power systems. This same mathematical routine programmed into the SPICE simulator as the . While the complex mathematics behind all this Fourier transformation is not necessary for the beginning student of electric circuits to understand. so long as it is repetitive.273 volts (almost twice what is was for the halfwave rectiﬁer circuit) while the second harmonic is almost 6 volts in amplitude. • REVIEW: • Any waveform at all. 7. can be reduced to a series of sinusoidal waveforms added together. Notice all the other harmonics further on down the table. This section is devoted to the use of such tools and the analysis of several different waveforms.22: Fourier analysis of fullwave rectiﬁer output. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS Figure 7. As you can see.
unfortunately. The single peak on the curve represents the predominance of a single frequency within the range of frequencies covered by the width of the display. you would see that this peak occurs at 523. The curve itself. a sine wave looks like a wavy curve traced horizontally on the screen. Close observation reveals imperfections in the sinewave shape.24) As you can see. of course.7. is a result of the speciﬁc equipment used to analyze the waveform. The plot below was taken from an oscilloscope display. This.” denoting the domain of this measurement. If we view this same AC voltage on a spectrum analyzer. the horizontal axis of the display is marked with the word “Frequency.25 Hz. MORE ON SPECTRUM ANALYSIS 175 First we have a simple sine wave at a frequency of 523. the signal measured for this demonstration was created by an electronic keyboard set to produce the tone of a panﬂute. one octave above “middle C”. Characteristics like these due to quirks of the test equipment are technically known as artifacts: phenomena existing solely because of a peculiarity in the equipment used to perform the experiment. the result is quite different: (Figure 7. If the scale of this analyzer instrument were marked with numbers. This particular frequency value is a “C” pitch on a piano keyboard.4.23) Figure 7.23: Oscilloscope display: voltage vs time. Viewed with an oscilloscope. a C . the closest instrument “voice” I could ﬁnd resembling a perfect sine wave. If we mix three different sinewave tones together on the electronic keyboard (CEG. showing signal amplitude (voltage) over time: (Figure 7. Actually. The horizontal axis of this oscilloscope display is marked with the word “Time” and an arrow pointing in the direction of time’s progression.25 Hz. represents the cyclic increase and decrease of voltage over time. The height of the peak represents the signal amplitude (voltage).
major chord) and measure the result. Other musical instrument “voices” are not as simple as this one.” The waveform itself is far from a pure and simple sinewave form. a direct result of the mixing of these three frequencies. while others are lower. the device used to generate these waveforms is an electronic keyboard: a musical instrument designed to mimic the tones of many different instruments. The spectrum display (frequencydomain) is much easier to interpret: each pitch is represented by its own peak on the curve.27) The fundamental frequency of this tone is the same as in the ﬁrst panﬂute example: 523. both the oscilloscope display and the spectrum analyzer display reﬂect this increased complexity: (Figure 7. one octave above “middle C.25 Hz. some of these peaks are higher than the peaks of the original singlepitch waveform. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS Figure 7. In fact.26) The difference in height between these three peaks is another artifact of the test equipment: a consequence of limitations within the equipment used to generate and analyze these waveforms.25) The oscilloscope display (timedomain) shows a waveform with many more peaks and valleys than before. nonsinusoidal waveform is equivalent to a series of sinusoidal waveforms at different amplitudes and frequencies. This is a result of the three different waveforms alternately reinforcing and canceling each other as their respective phase shifts change in time. The panﬂute “voice” was chosen for the ﬁrst demonstrations because it most closely resembled a pure sine wave (a single frequency on the spectrum analyzer display). Knowing that any repeating. (Figure 7. the unique tone produced by any instrument is a function of its waveshape (or spectrum of frequencies). For example. let’s view the signal for a trumpet tone: (Figure 7.24: Spectrum analyzer display: voltage vs frequency. As was stated before. we should expect to see multiple . As you will notice. and not a necessary characteristic of the musical chord itself. though.176 CHAPTER 7.
4.26: Spectrum analyzer display: three tones.7. MORE ON SPECTRUM ANALYSIS 177 Figure 7.25: Oscilloscape display: three tones. Figure 7. .
peaks on the spectrum analyzer display: (Figure 7. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS Figure 7. .28: Spectrum of a trumpet tone.28) Figure 7.27: Oscilloscope display: waveshape of a trumpet tone.178 CHAPTER 7.
we obtain a similarly complex oscilloscope (timedomain) plot (Figure 7. the third harmonic three times the fundamental (1569. This display only shows the ﬁrst six harmonics. Bear in mind that all this complexity is in reference to a single note played with these two instrument “voices.31) and frequencydomain (Figure 7. Although this display doesn’t show frequencies past the sixth harmonic. and so on.4. Trying a different instrument voice (the accordion) on the keyboard.7. MORE ON SPECTRUM ANALYSIS 179 Indeed we do! The fundamental frequency component of 523. The second harmonic is twice the frequency of the fundamental (1046. would create a much more complex mixture of frequencies than what is seen here. for example.29: Oscilloscope display: waveshape of accordion tone. with each successive harmonic represented as its own peak along the width of the analyzer screen.25 Hz is represented by the leftmost peak. Both instrument tones contain harmonics all the way from 1st (fundamental) to 6th (and beyond!).32) plots for a waveform approximating a square wave: According to the spectrum analysis.5 Hz). this waveform contains no even harmonics. The analytical power of the oscilloscope and spectrum analyzer permit us to derive general rules about waveforms and their harmonic spectra from real waveform examples.75 Hz).” Multiple notes played on an accordion. Note. for example.(Figure 7. Note the differences in relative harmonic amplitudes (peak heights) on the spectrum displays for trumpet and accordion. but there are many more comprising this complex tone. the time. but the proportions aren’t the same. the pattern of oddonly . However. close observation allows us to be more speciﬁc than this. only odd.30) Figure 7.29) and spectrum analyzer (frequencydomain) display: (Figure 7. Each instrument has a unique harmonic “signature” to its tone. We already know that any deviation from a pure sinewave results in the equivalent of a mixture of multiple sinewave waveforms at different amplitudes and frequencies.
31: Oscilloscope timedomain display of a square wave .180 CHAPTER 7. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS Figure 7. Figure 7.30: Spectrum of accordion tone.
That difference is symmetry above and below the horizontal centerline of the wave. and sixth harmonics. but this is due to imperfections in this particular triangle waveshape (once again. fourth. A perfect triangle waveshape produces no even harmonics. Let’s examine another waveform. we see a result that is quite different from that of the regular triangle wave.33) In this waveform there are practically no even harmonics: (Figure 7. for this analysis shows the strong presence of evennumbered harmonics (second and fourth): (Figure 7. the two different waveforms are common in their lack of even harmonics. this one very similar to the triangle wave. harmonics in descending amplitude continues indeﬁnitely. Known as a sawtooth wave. as we’ve already seen with SPICE that a square wave is comprised of an inﬁnitude of odd harmonics. Tiny peaks can be seen for the second. contained both even and odd harmonics. its oscilloscope plot reveals it to be aptly named: (Figure 7. artifacts of the test equipment used in this analysis). Let’s continue our investigation with an analysis of a triangle wave: (Figure 7.36) The distinction between a waveform having even harmonics versus no even harmonics resides in the difference between a triangle waveshape and a sawtooth waveshape.35) When the spectrum analysis of this waveform is plotted. A waveform that is . except that its risetime is not the same as its falltime. however. However.34) the only signiﬁcant frequency peaks on the spectrum analyzer display belong to oddnumbered multiples of the fundamental frequency. It should be obvious from inspection that the harmonic spectrum of the triangle wave is not identical to the spectrum of the square wave: the respective harmonic peaks are of different heights. This should come as no surprise. This difference in harmonic content is noteworthy. MORE ON SPECTRUM ANALYSIS 181 Figure 7.4. The trumpet and accordion tones.32: Spectrum (frequencydomain) of a square wave. just like a perfect square wave.7.
34: Spectrum of a triangle wave. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS Figure 7.33: Oscilloscope timedomain display of a triangle wave.182 CHAPTER 7. . Figure 7.
36: Frequencydomain display of a sawtooth wave. MORE ON SPECTRUM ANALYSIS 183 Figure 7. Figure 7. .7.35: Timedomain display of a sawtooth wave.4.
(Figure 7. and note that their harmonic contents are unchanged.37: Waveforms symmetric about their xaxis center line contain only odd harmonics. Again. the horizontal centerline of the waveform happens to be zero volts on the timedomain graph.38: Asymmetric waveforms contain even harmonics. I will show the same sets of waveforms. This rule of harmonic content (even harmonics only with unsymmetrical waveforms) applies whether or not the waveform is shifted above or below zero volts with a “DC component. Waveforms like the trumpet tone.38) Figure 7.39: These waveforms are composed exclusively of odd harmonics. shifted with DC voltage. and all are devoid of even harmonics. (Figure 7. In the examples shown. (Figure 7. and the sawtooth wave are unsymmetrical around their centerlines and therefore do contain even harmonics. and pure sine waves all exhibit this symmetry.40) . MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS symmetrical above and below its centerline (the shape on both sides mirror each other precisely) will contain no evennumbered harmonics.37) Pure sine wave = 1st harmonic only Figure 7. but this has nothing to do with harmonic content. the accordion tone. This principle of centerline symmetry should not be confused with symmetry around the zero line.” For further clariﬁcation. triangle waves. the amount of DC voltage present in a waveform has nothing to do with that waveform’s harmonic frequency content. Square waves. (Figure 7.39) Pure sine wave = 1st harmonic only Figure 7.184 CHAPTER 7.
5 Circuit effects The principle of nonsinusoidal. • REVIEW: • Waveforms that are symmetrical above and below their horizontal centerlines contain no evennumbered harmonics. evennumbered harmonics are rarely seen in those applications.40: These waveforms contain even harmonics. Also. the circuit in question will react as though its having an array of different frequency voltages imposed on it at once. the analysis of such circuits is made relatively easy by applying the Superposition Theorem. if you happen to measure even harmonics in an AC circuit with a spectrum analyzer or frequency meter. even harmonics being practically nonexistent. there being no symmetry at all above and below center. Now that we have this rule to guide our interpretation of nonsinusoidal waveforms. Why is this harmonic ruleofthumb an important rule to know? It can help us comprehend the relationship between harmonics in AC circuits and speciﬁc circuit components. It means that any time we have a waveform that isn’t perfectly sinewaveshaped. regarding the multiplefrequency source as a set of singlefrequency voltage sources connected in series. the components in that circuit respond to each constituent frequency in a different way. Since most sources of sinewave distortion in AC power circuits tend to be symmetrical. This is good to know if you’re a power system designer and are planning ahead for harmonic reduction: you only have to concern yourself with mitigating the odd harmonic frequencies. • The amount of DC “bias” voltage present (a waveform’s “DC component”) has no impact on that wave’s harmonic frequency content. repeating waveforms being equivalent to a series of sine waves at different frequencies is a fundamental property of waves in general and it has great practical import in the study of AC circuits. you know that something in that circuit must be unsymmetrically distorting the sinewave voltage or current.5. When an AC circuit is subjected to a source voltage consisting of a mixture of frequencies. and that clue may be helpful in locating the source of a problem (look for components or conditions more likely to distort one halfcycle of the AC waveform more than the other). Thankfully. Any reactive component such as a capacitor or an inductor will simultaneously present a unique amount of impedance to each and every frequency present in a circuit. it makes more sense that a waveform like that produced by a rectiﬁer circuit should contain such strong even harmonics. and . CIRCUIT EFFECTS 185 Figure 7. 7.7.
9623 .2k ∠ 0o C 2.4569 3.42: Circuit for solving 60 Hz.653k 3. summing the results at the end to determine the aggregate total: R 5V 60 Hz 5V 90 Hz Figure 7. Analyzing circuit for 60 Hz source alone: 2.2k + j0 2.2 kΩ C XC = 1.22µ + j1. .328o 2.j2.2k .328o 2.653 kΩ 1 µF Figure 7.446k ∠ 50. R E I Z 2.1919 ∠ 50.2 kΩ 5V 60 Hz C XC = 2.328o 926.2 kΩ C 1 µF R 2.328o Volts Amps Ohms Analyzing the circuit for 90 Hz source alone: R 5V 90 Hz 2.43: Circuit of solving 90 Hz.22µ + j1.j2.4569 3.22µ + j1.768 kΩ 1 µF Figure 7.6716o 926. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS analyzing the circuit for one source at a time.186 CHAPTER 7.328o 0 .1168m 1.4509m ∠ 50.4509m ∠ 50.41: Circuit driven by a combination of frequencies: 60 Hz and 90 Hz.1168m 1.653k 2.4509m ∠ 50.653k ∠ 90o Total 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o 926.0377 + j2.8486 ∠ 39.j2.1168m 1.
793o 1.793o (90 Hz)] EC = [3.2k + j0 2.4415 3.793o 0 . Technicians and engineers need to be made aware of the potential effects of nonsinusoidal waveforms in reactive circuits. . Just the opposite is true for the resistor’s voltage drop. we can regard it as originating from a seriesconnected string of multiple sinusoidal voltage sources at the appropriate amplitudes. Needless to say.4415 3.1325 ∠ 51. It’s bad enough that typical microprocessor clock signal frequencies are within the range of aircraft radio frequency bands.0375 + j2. and the like.7714m ∠ 38.1098m 1.j1. and phase shifts. or ﬁve sine waves in all!).8486 V ∠ 39.j2. It is this kind of unequal circuit response to signals of differing frequency that will be our speciﬁc focus in the next chapter.j1.768k 2. We can also apply the superposition theorem to the analysis of a circuit powered by a nonsinusoidal voltage.1098m 1. This has been known to translate into unexpected circuit resonances.1098m 1.7714m ∠ 38.768k 1. but it is possible.328o (60 Hz)] + [3.1919 V ∠ 50. electromagnetic noise over broad ranges of the frequency spectrum.9625 . This is worthy to note. Complex number notation give us the ability to represent waveform amplitude (polar magnitude) and phase angle (polar angle).793o 2. Harmonics are known to manifest their effects in the form of electromagnetic radiation as well. A reallife circuit will respond just the same to being powered by a square wave as being powered by an inﬁnite series of sine waves of oddmultiple frequencies and diminishing amplitudes. transformer and inductor core overheating due to eddy currents. especially in light of the fact that the two source voltages are equal. but worse yet is the fact that the harmonic multiples of those fundamental frequencies span an even larger range.3807m + j1.3807m + j1.7.2k .7714m ∠ 38. If we know the Fourier series (multiple sine/cosine wave equivalent) of that wave. we get: ER = [3.5.8971 V ∠ 38.3807m + j1. we cannot consolidate them into a single voltage ﬁgure as we could if we were adding together two voltages of different amplitude and/or phase angle at the same frequency.6716o (60 Hz)] + [3. this can be a laborious task for some waveforms (an accurate squarewave Fourier Series is considered to be expressed out to the ninth harmonic. due to the fact that clock signal voltages are squarewave in shape and not sinewave.207o (90 Hz)] Because the two voltages across each component are at different frequencies.823k ∠ 38. What we can tell from this application of the superposition theorem is that there will be a greater 60 Hz voltage dropped across the capacitor than a 90 Hz voltage. Studies have been performed on the potential hazards of using portable computers aboard passenger aircraft. but not frequency.793o Volts Amps Ohms 187 Superimposing the voltage drops across R and C.2k ∠ 0o C 1. I mention this not to scare you.207o 1. such as a square wave. but to inform you of the potential complexity lurking behind seemingly simple waveforms. CIRCUIT EFFECTS R E I Z 3.768k ∠ 90o Total 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o 1. frequencies.793o 2.1325 V ∠ 51.8971 ∠ 38. citing the fact that computers’ high frequency squarewave “clock” voltage signals are capable of generating radio waves that could interfere with the operation of the aircraft’s electronic navigation equipment.
. Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting. These unwanted signals may come by way of capacitive coupling. • Multiplefrequency voltage sources can be simulated for analysis by connecting several singlefrequency voltage sources in series. with harmonics abounding in very large quantities due to (nonlinear) electronic control of motor and electric furnace power. solidstate electronic motor controls providing greater energy efﬁciency. and those highfrequency harmonic voltages and currents tend to inductively and capacitively “couple” better to nearby conductors than any 60 Hz signals from the old controls used to. Suddenly there may be weird electrical noise being impressed upon signal wiring that never used to be there. This problem can manifest itself in industry when old motor controls are replaced with new. from most recent to ﬁrst. The mathematical process for determining the sinusoidal waveform equivalent for any waveform is called Fourier analysis. too. electromagnetic radiation. See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information.188 CHAPTER 7. since complex numbers only account for amplitude and phase shift. but those harmonic frequency multiples theoretically extend into inﬁnitely high frequency ranges. phases. 7. plus a DC offset voltage if necessary. Signal wiring nearby power wiring will tend to “pick up” harmonic interference from the power wiring to a far greater extent than pure sinewave interference. capacitive and inductive “coupling” caused by closeproximity conductors is usually more severe at high frequencies. nonsinusoidal waveform is equivalent to a particular series of sine/cosine waves of different frequencies. Analysis of voltages and currents is accomplished by using the superposition theorem. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS Electromagnetic “emissions” of this nature can be a problem in industrial applications. or a combination thereof. inductive coupling. Also. • REVIEW: • Any regular (repeating). NOTE: superimposed voltages and currents of different frequencies cannot be added together in complex number form. which led to a much betterlooking second edition. because the old controls never generated harmonics. but high frequencies do. The fundamental power line frequency may only be 60 Hz.6 Contributors Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions. Low frequency power line voltage and current doesn’t radiate into space very well as electromagnetic energy. and amplitudes. not frequency! • Harmonics can cause problems by impressing unwanted (“noise”) voltage signals upon nearby circuits.
. . . . . . . You may be familiar with equalizers. . . . 215 Contributors . . . . . . . . 199 Bandstop ﬁlters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 What is a ﬁlter? . . . 215 8. . . . A circuit designed to perform this frequency selection is called a ﬁlter circuit. . . 196 Bandpass ﬁlters . . . . . . . . .3 8. which allow the amplitudes of several frequency ranges to be adjusted to suit the listener’s taste and acoustic properties of the listening area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . or simply a ﬁlter. . . . . A tweeter (highfrequency speaker) is inefﬁcient at reproducing lowfrequency signals such as drum beats. . . . . . . .6 8. . . . . . . . .Chapter 8 FILTERS Contents 8. . . . . . . 204 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. .5 8. so a crossover circuit is connected between the tweeter and the stereo’s output terminals to block lowfrequency signals. . . . . . . . . . This gives better audio system efﬁciency and thus better performance. A common need for ﬁlter circuits is in highperformance stereo systems. where certain ranges of audio frequencies need to be ampliﬁed or suppressed for best sound quality and power efﬁciency. . . . . . . . . . . . . designed to accomplish ﬁltering of certain frequencies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Highpass ﬁlters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What is a ﬁlter? It is sometimes desirable to have circuits capable of selectively ﬁltering one frequency or range of frequencies out of a mix of different frequencies in a circuit. . . . . .4 8. . . . only passing highfrequency signals to the speaker’s connection terminals. . . . . . Both equalizers and crossover networks are examples of ﬁlters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 Resonant ﬁlters . . . . . . . You may also be familiar with crossover networks. . . . . . . . . which block certain ranges of frequencies from reaching speakers. .1 8. . 189 Lowpass ﬁlters . . . . . .7 8. . . .
• A Bode plot is a graph plotting waveform amplitude or phase on one axis and frequency on the other. then it should be possible to construct a ﬁlter circuit that only allows the fundamental waveform frequency to pass through. displaying Bode plots (amplitude versus frequency) for the various kinds of ﬁlters. blocking all (higherfrequency) harmonics. FILTERS Another practical application of ﬁlter circuits is in the “conditioning” of nonsinusoidal voltage waveforms in power circuits. • Audio equalizers and crossover networks are two wellknown applications of ﬁlter circuits. 8.1: Inductive lowpass ﬁlter The inductor’s impedance increases with increasing frequency.2 Lowpass ﬁlters By deﬁnition.190 CHAPTER 8. There are two basic kinds of circuits capable of accomplishing this objective.3 1 L1 3H 2 V1 1V Rload 1 kΩ 0 0 Figure 8. I will make extensive use of SPICE as an analysis tool. that these circuits can be analyzed over several points of frequency by repeated seriesparallel analysis. Bear in mind.1 and the capacitive lowpass ﬁlter in Figure 8. if the student is willing to invest a lot of time working and reworking circuit calculations for each frequency. This can be demonstrated with a SPICE analysis: (Figure 8. If a distorted sinewave voltage behaves like a series of harmonic waveforms added to the fundamental frequency.2) . This high impedance in series tends to block highfrequency signals from getting to the load. • REVIEW: • A ﬁlter is an AC circuit that separates some frequencies from others within mixedfrequency signals. Some electronic devices are sensitive to the presence of harmonics in the power supply voltage. though. and many variations of each one: The inductive lowpass ﬁlter in Figure 8. To reduce the load of math on the reader. much like the previous example with two sources (60 and 90 Hz). a lowpass ﬁlter is a circuit offering easy passage to lowfrequency signals and difﬁcult passage to highfrequency signals. We will be studying the design of several elementary ﬁlter circuits in this lesson. and so require power conditioning for proper operation.
2: The response of an inductive lowpass ﬁlter falls off with increasing frequency.plot ac v(2) . .end Figure 8. 1 R1 500 Ω 1V C1 7 µF Rload 2 1 kΩ V1 0 0 Figure 8.ac lin 20 1 200 .8. LOWPASS FILTERS 191 inductive lowpass filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin l1 1 2 3 rload 2 0 1k .2.3: Capacitive lowpass ﬁlter.
end Figure 8. The capacitive version of this ﬁlter is not that much more complex.4: The response of a capacitive lowpass ﬁlter falls off with increasing frequency. This low impedance in parallel with the load resistance tends to short out highfrequency signals. with only one component comprising the ﬁlter. and are less expensive. Inductors. The inductive lowpass ﬁlter is the pinnacle of simplicity. both in the long lengths of wire used to make them. By “pure” I mean that capacitors exhibit little resistive effects than inductors. despite their increased complexity. typically exhibit signiﬁcant dissipative (resistorlike) effects. However. the inductive lowpass ﬁlter is often preferred in ACDC power supplies to ﬁlter out the AC “ripple” waveform created when AC is converted (rectiﬁed) into DC.plot ac v(2) . dropping most of the voltage across series resistor R1 .4) capacitive lowpass filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 500 c1 2 0 7u rload 2 0 1k .192 CHAPTER 8. (Figure 8. on the other hand. with only a resistor and capacitor needed for operation. However. passing only . capacitive ﬁlter designs are generally preferred over inductive because capacitors tend to be “purer” reactive components than inductors and therefore are more predictable in their behavior. FILTERS The capacitor’s impedance decreases with increasing frequency.ac lin 20 30 150 . and in the magnetic losses of the core material. Capacitors also tend to participate less in “coupling” effects with other components (generate and/or receive interference from other components via mutual electric or magnetic ﬁelds) than inductors. making them almost 100% reactive.
ac lin 20 40 50 . In the design of a highcurrent circuit like a DC power supply where additional series resistance is undesirable. The primary reason for this is the requirement of low ﬁlter resistance for the output of such a power supply.” As mentioned at the beginning of the last chapter.7% of the source voltage (1 volt) even at a frequency as low as 30 Hz. we arrive at a cutoff frequency of 45. All lowpass ﬁlters are rated at a certain cutoff frequency. However. That is. sometimes AC signals can “couple” from one circuit to another via capacitance (Cstray ) and/or mutual inductance (Mstray ) between the two sets of conductors.end fcutof f = 1/(2πRC) = 1/(2π(500 Ω)(7 µF)) = 45.5) capacitive lowpass filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 500 c1 2 0 7u * note: no load resistor! . skewing it down from what the formula told us it would be.8. one capacitor). the frequency above which the output voltage falls below 70. In a simple capacitive/resistive lowpass ﬁlter. Without that load resistance in place. the inductive lowpass ﬁlter is the better design choice. If a cutoff frequency equation fails to give consideration to load impedance.2. when we look at the plot generated by the SPICE simulation.7% of the input voltage. it is always important to note that the response of the ﬁlter depends on the ﬁlter’s component values and the impedance of the load. What’s wrong? The problem here is that the load resistance of 1 kΩ affects the frequency response of the ﬁlter. below the calculated cutoff point.7 is not really arbitrary. One frequent application of the capacitive lowpass ﬁlter principle is in the design of circuits having components or sections sensitive to electrical “noise. it is the frequency at which capacitive reactance in ohms equals resistance in ohms. the cutoff frequency is given as: fcutoff = 1 2πRC Inserting the values of R and C from the last SPICE simulation into this formula. LOWPASS FILTERS 193 the pure DC component.plot ac v(2) . all though it may seem so at ﬁrst glance.473 Hz When dealing with ﬁlter circuits. On the other hand. SPICE produces a Bode plot whose numbers make more sense: (Figure 8. the capacitive lowpass ﬁlter might make more sense.473 Hz. it assumes no load and will fail to give accurate results for a reallife ﬁlter conducting power to a load. This cutoff percentage of 70.6) . if low weight and compact size are higher priorities than low internal supply resistance in a power supply design. In a simple capacitive lowpass ﬁlter (one resistor. A prime example of this is unwanted AC signals (“noise”) becoming impressed on DC power lines supplying sensitive circuits: (Figure 8. A capacitive lowpass ﬁlter requires an extra resistance in series with the source. whereas the inductive lowpass ﬁlter does not. we see the load voltage well below 70.
194 CHAPTER 8.473 Hz. .5: For the capacitive lowpass ﬁlter with R = 500 Ω and C = 7 µF. "Noise" source Mstray Zwire Cstray Zwire Load Zwire "Clean" DC power Esupply "Dirty" or "noisy" DC power Eload Figure 8. FILTERS Figure 8. the Output should be 70.7% at 45.6: Noise is coupled by stray capacitance and mutual inductance into “clean” DC power.
Normally. If we wish to prevent such “noise” from reaching the DC load. all we need to do is connect a lowpass ﬁlter near the load to block any coupled signals. power conductor impedance allows the two voltages to differ. • Inductive lowpass ﬁlters insert an inductor in series with the load. the AC being unwanted. this is nothing more than a capacitor connected directly across the power terminals of the load. and difﬁcult passage of highfrequency signals.7: Decoupling capacitor. a minimum amount of capacitance needed to produce a low enough impedance to short out any noise. A cursory glance at a crowded printedcircuit board (PCB) will typically reveal decoupling capacitors scattered throughout. applied to load. capacitive lowpass ﬁlters insert a resistor in series and a capacitor in parallel with the load. but size and economics limit decoupling capacitors to meager values. Capacitor size is usually 0. though. In its simplest form. ﬁlters noise from DC power supply. The former . However.1 µF or more. the capacitor behaving as a very low impedance to any AC noise. usually located as close as possible to the sensitive DC loads. LOWPASS FILTERS 195 The oscilloscopemeter on the left shows the “clean” power from the DC voltage source.2. and shorting it out. • REVIEW: • A lowpass ﬁlter allows for easy passage of lowfrequency signals from source to load. Such a capacitor is called a decoupling capacitor: (Figure 8. Greater capacitance will do a better job at ﬁltering noise. one would expect Eload to be precisely identical to Esource . because the uninterrupted conductors connecting them should make the two sets of points electrically common.7) "Noise" source Mstray Zwire Cstray Zwire Load Zwire "Clean" DC power Esupply "Cleaner" DC power with decoupling capacitor Eload Figure 8. which means the noise magnitude can vary at different points in the DC system. the voltage as measured at the load terminals is now a mix of AC and DC.8. After coupling with the AC noise source via stray mutual inductance and stray capacitance.
• The cutoff frequency for a lowpass ﬁlter is that frequency at which the output (load) voltage equals 70.7% of the input voltage.10) and capacitive (Figure 8.ac lin 20 1 200 .5u rload 2 0 1k . the reactive purity of capacitors over inductors tends to favor their use in ﬁlter design.plot ac v(2) .7% of the input. As with lowpass ﬁlters. requiring only one component above and beyond the load. above which the output voltage increases above 70. again.5 µF V1 1V Rload 1 kΩ 2 0 0 Figure 8. the output voltage is lower than 70. 8.end The inductor’s impedance (Figure 8.3 Highpass ﬁlters A highpass ﬁlter’s task is just the opposite of a lowpass ﬁlter: to offer easy passage of a highfrequency signal and difﬁcult passage to a lowfrequency signal. and vice versa.10) decreases with decreasing frequency. Just as in the case of the capacitive . the inductive (Figure 8.7% of the input (source) voltage. As a consequence. And. FILTERS ﬁlter design tries to “block” the unwanted frequency signal while the latter tries to short it out. This time. capacitive highpass filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin c1 1 2 0. (Figure 8. Above the cutoff frequency. As one might expect. the capacitive design is the simplest. The capacitor’s impedance (Figure 8.196 CHAPTER 8. (Figure 8. most of the voltage gets dropped across series resistor R1 . especially with highpass ﬁlters where high frequencies commonly cause inductors to behave strangely due to the skin effect and electromagnetic core losses.8) increases with decreasing frequency.9) This high impedance in series tends to block lowfrequency signals from getting to load.8: Capacitive highpass ﬁlter.8) versions of the highpass ﬁlter are just the opposite of their respective lowpass ﬁlter designs: C1 1 0.11) This low impedance in parallel tends to short out lowfrequency signals from getting to the load resistor. highpass ﬁlters have a rated cutoff frequency.
ac lin 20 1 200 .9: The response of the capacitive highpass ﬁlter increases with frequency.end .3. inductive highpass filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 200 l1 2 0 100m rload 2 0 1k . HIGHPASS FILTERS 197 Figure 8.8.10: Inductive highpass ﬁlter. 1 R1 200 Ω 1V L1 100 mH Rload 2 V1 1 kΩ 0 0 Figure 8.plot ac v(2) .
• REVIEW: • A highpass ﬁlter allows for easy passage of highfrequency signals from source to load. an inductor connected in series with the woofer (bass) speaker will serve as a lowpass ﬁlter for the low frequencies that particular speaker is designed to reproduce. we might like to have some kind of ﬁlter circuit capable of passing frequencies that are between low (bass) and high (treble) to the midrange speaker so that none of the low. In like fashion. A real stereo would have six speakers: 2 woofers.or highfrequency signal power is wasted on a speaker incapable of efﬁciently reproducing those sounds. imposing a high impedance to lowfrequency bass signals. What we would be looking for is called a bandpass ﬁlter. so that is the value for R in the formula. a capacitor connected in series with the tweeter (treble) speaker will serve as a highpass ﬁlter. For better performance yet. thereby preventing that power from being wasted on a speaker inefﬁcient for reproducing such sounds. FILTERS Figure 8. which is the topic of the next section. there is no resistance other than the load resistor. and 2 tweeters. the capacitive highpass ﬁlter’s cutoff frequency can be found with the same formula: fcutoff = 1 2πRC In the example circuit.11: The response of the inductive highpass ﬁlter increases with frequency. Also bear in mind that I’m only showing you one channel (either left or right) on this stereo system. In this simple example circuit. but this should give you the general idea.198 CHAPTER 8. 2 midranges. . Using a stereo system as a practical example. More elaborate ﬁlter networks are sometimes used. the midrange speaker is subjected to the full spectrum of frequencies from the stereo’s output. lowpass ﬁlter circuit.
12: Highpass ﬁlter routes high frequencies to tweeter. The result is called a bandpass ﬁlter.4.4 Bandpass ﬁlters There are applications where a particular band. inductive highpass ﬁlters insert a resistor in series and an inductor in parallel with the load. or frequencies need to be ﬁltered from a wider range of mixed signals. Above the cutoff frequency. Filter circuits can be designed to accomplish this task by combining the properties of lowpass and highpass into a single ﬁlter. • Capacitive highpass ﬁlters insert a capacitor in series with the load. and difﬁcult passage of lowfrequency signals. Creating a bandpass ﬁlter from a lowpass and highpass ﬁlter can be illustrated using block diagrams: (Figure 8. or spread. The former ﬁlter design tries to “block” the unwanted frequency signal while the latter tries to short it out.13: System level block diagram of a bandpass ﬁlter. while lowpass ﬁlter routes lows to woofer.14) Signal input Lowpass filter blocks frequencies that are too high Highpass filter blocks frequencies that are too low Signal output Figure 8. • The cutoff frequency for a highpass ﬁlter is that frequency at which the output (load) voltage equals 70. the output voltage is greater than 70.8. and vice versa. 8.7% of the input. BANDPASS FILTERS 199 lowpass Woofer Stereo Midrange highpass Tweeter Figure 8. .7% of the input (source) voltage.
5 µF Rload 1 kΩ V1 0 0 0 Figure 8. . Using real components. capacitive bandpass filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 200 c1 2 0 2.5u c2 2 3 1u rload 3 0 1k . It will still ﬁlter out all frequencies too high or too low.15) Source Lowpass filter section 1 R1 200 Ω 1V C1 2 Highpass filter section C2 3 1 µF 2.end Bandpass ﬁlters can also be constructed using inductors.200 CHAPTER 8.16.14: Capacitive bandpass ﬁlter. although the source voltage is a full volt. it is not without certain limitations. it can be difﬁcult to design such a ﬁlter to allow unhindered passage within the desired frequency range. FILTERS What emerges from the series combination of these two ﬁlter circuits is a circuit that will only allow passage of those frequencies that are neither too high nor too low. Both the lowpass and highpass sections will always be blocking signals to some extent. even at the peak of the “passband” frequency range. it might look something like Figure 8.14.59 volts. Because this type of bandpass ﬁlter works by relying on either section to block unwanted frequencies.plot ac v(3) . The fact that the highpass section comes “ﬁrst” in this design instead of the lowpass section makes no difference in its overall operation. and their combined effort makes for an attenuated (reduced amplitude) signal at best. While the general idea of combining lowpass and highpass ﬁlters together to make a bandpass ﬁlter is sound. the reactive “purity” of capacitors gives them a design advantage. The response of the bandpass ﬁlter is shown in (Figure 8.ac lin 20 100 500 . Notice the curve peak on the previous SPICE analysis: the load voltage of this ﬁlter never rises above 0. here is what a typical schematic might look like Figure 8. If we were to design a bandpass ﬁlter using inductors. but as mentioned before.
8. Source Highpass filter section R1 Lowpass filter section L2 L1 Rload Figure 8. . BANDPASS FILTERS 201 Figure 8.16: Inductive bandpass ﬁlter.15: The response of a capacitive bandpass ﬁlter peaks within a narrow frequency range.4.
this arrangement is commonly known as a “TwinT” ﬁlter.17) passes low frequencies Lowpass filter Signal input Highpass filter passes high frequencies Figure 8. We will discuss those methods a little later in this chapter. 8. giving easy passage only to frequencies within a certain range. When you turn down the volume control on your stereo. There are other methods to achieve bandpass operation without sacriﬁcing signal strength within the passband. R2 . Not surprisingly. • REVIEW: • A bandpass ﬁlter works to screen out frequencies that are too low or too high. this kind of ﬁlter passes all frequencies above and below a particular range set by the component values. narrower band of passable frequencies).18).17: System level block diagram of a bandstop ﬁlter. The highpass ﬁlter section is comprised of C2 . giving sharp response when the component values are chosen in the following ratios: Signal output Component value ratios for the "TwinT" bandstop filter R1 = R2 = 2(R3) C2 = C3 = (0. it can be made out of a lowpass and a highpass ﬁlter. Constructed using two capacitive ﬁlter sections.5 Bandstop ﬁlters Also called bandelimination. except that this time we connect the two ﬁlter sections in parallel with each other instead of in series.5)C1 . or notch ﬁlters. Together. and C1 in a “T” conﬁguration. and R3 in a “T” conﬁguration as well. • Bandpass ﬁlters can be made by stacking a lowpass ﬁlter on the end of a highpass ﬁlter. or vice versa. (Figure 8. just like the bandpass design. it looks something like (Figure 8.202 CHAPTER 8. you are “attenuating” the signal being sent to the speakers. FILTERS This signal attenuation becomes more pronounced if the ﬁlter is designed to be more selective (steeper curve. The lowpass ﬁlter section is comprised of R1 . bandreject. C3 . • “Attenuate” means to reduce or diminish in amplitude.
both the lowpass and highpass ﬁlter sections are of the “T” conﬁguration. the frequency of maximum rejection (the “notch frequency”) can be calculated as follows: fnotch = 1 4πR3C3 The impressive bandstopping ability of this ﬁlter is illustrated by the following SPICE analysis: (Figure 8.ac lin 20 200 1. . giving easy passage only to frequencies outside of that range. giving the name “TwinT” to the bandstop combination. Given these component ratios.5. Commonly. BANDSTOP FILTERS 203 R1 C2 source R3 C1 R2 C3 Rload Figure 8.plot ac v(3) . • Bandstop ﬁlters can be made by placing a lowpass ﬁlter in parallel with a highpass ﬁlter.5k .19) twint bandstop filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 200 c1 2 0 2u r2 2 3 200 c2 1 4 1u r3 4 0 100 c3 4 3 1u rload 3 0 1k .end • REVIEW: • A bandstop ﬁlter works to screen out frequencies that are within a certain range. or notch ﬁlters. Also known as bandelimination. bandreject. • The frequency of maximum attenuation is called the notch frequency.18: “TwinT” bandstop ﬁlter.8.
the two basic resonant strategies are this: series LC to pass a signal (Figure 8. and this property can be exploited in designing bandpass and bandstop ﬁlter circuits. while parallel LC (“tank”) circuits give maximum impedance at their resonant frequency. Series LC circuits give minimum impedance at resonance.6 Resonant ﬁlters So far. Knowing this. we have two basic strategies for designing either bandpass or bandstop ﬁlters.19: Response of “twinT” bandstop ﬁlter. but never both at the same time. The two schemes will be contrasted and simulated here: filter 1 V1 0 L1 1H 1V 2 C1 3 1 µF Rload 1 kΩ 0 Figure 8. For bandpass ﬁlters. We should know by now that combinations of L and C will tend to resonate.20). FILTERS Figure 8. 8.20: Series resonant LC bandpass ﬁlter. . or parallel LC (Figure 8.22) to short a signal. the ﬁlter designs we’ve concentrated on have employed either capacitors or inductors.204 CHAPTER 8.
21) series resonant bandpass filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin l1 1 2 1 c1 2 3 1u rload 3 0 1k . allowing the signal to get to the load with minimal attenuation. However. the tank circuit will have a low impedance.6. unlike the bandpass ﬁlters made from capacitors or inductors alone.plot ac v(3) .21: Series resonant bandpass ﬁlter: voltage peaks at resonant frequency of 159. (Figure 8. however. and block signals of any other frequencies from getting to the load. shorting out the signal and dropping most of it across series resistor R1 .22) The tank circuit will have a lot of impedance at resonance.15 Hz. the resonant frequency of which is unaffected by circuit resistance.end Figure 8. Under or over resonant frequency.23) . different values for the load resistor will change the “steepness” of the Bode plot (the “selectivity” of the ﬁlter). The other basic style of resonant bandpass ﬁlters employs a tank circuit (parallel LC combination) to short out signals too high or too low in frequency from getting to the load: (Figure 8. A couple of points to note: see how there is virtually no signal attenuation within the “pass band” (the range of frequencies near the load voltage peak). Also. the value of the load resistor will not skew the peak frequency.ac lin 20 50 250 . since this ﬁlter works on the principle of series LC resonance.8. (Figure 8. RESONANT FILTERS 205 Series LC components pass signal at resonance.
22: Parallel resonant bandpass ﬁlter.23: Parallel resonant ﬁlter: voltage peaks a resonant frequency of 159.plot ac v(2) .end Figure 8.ac lin 20 50 250 . parallel resonant bandpass filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 500 l1 2 0 100m c1 2 0 10u rload 2 0 1k .206 CHAPTER 8. . FILTERS 1 V1 1V 0 R1 500 Ω L1 filter 2 C1 100 mH 0 2 Rload 2 1 kΩ 0 10 µF 0 Figure 8.15 Hz.
8.6. RESONANT FILTERS
207
Just like the lowpass and highpass ﬁlter designs relying on a series resistance and a parallel “shorting” component to attenuate unwanted frequencies, this resonant circuit can never provide full input (source) voltage to the load. That series resistance will always be dropping some amount of voltage so long as there is a load resistance connected to the output of the ﬁlter. It should be noted that this form of bandpass ﬁlter circuit is very popular in analog radio tuning circuitry, for selecting a particular radio frequency from the multitudes of frequencies available from the antenna. In most analog radio tuner circuits, the rotating dial for station selection moves a variable capacitor in a tank circuit.
Figure 8.24: Variable capacitor tunes radio receiver tank circuit to select one out of many broadcast stations. The variable capacitor and aircore inductor shown in Figure 8.24 photograph of a simple radio comprise the main elements in the tank circuit ﬁlter used to discriminate one radio station’s signal from another. Just as we can use series and parallel LC resonant circuits to pass only those frequencies within a certain range, we can also use them to block frequencies within a certain range, creating a bandstop ﬁlter. Again, we have two major strategies to follow in doing this, to use either series or parallel resonance. First, we’ll look at the series variety: (Figure 8.25) When the series LC combination reaches resonance, its very low impedance shorts out the signal, dropping it across resistor R1 and preventing its passage on to the load. (Figure 8.26) Next, we will examine the parallel resonant bandstop ﬁlter: (Figure 8.27) The parallel LC components present a high impedance at resonant frequency, thereby blocking the signal from the load at that frequency. Conversely, it passes signals to the load at any other frequencies. (Figure 8.28) Once again, notice how the absence of a series resistor makes for minimum attenuation for all the desired (passed) signals. The amplitude at the notch frequency, on the other hand, is
208
CHAPTER 8. FILTERS
1
R1 500 Ω
2 L1 100 mH Rload 3 C1 10 µF 0
2
V1
1V
1 kΩ
0
0
Figure 8.25: Series resonant bandstop ﬁlter. series resonant bandstop filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 500 l1 2 3 100m c1 3 0 10u rload 2 0 1k .ac lin 20 70 230 .plot ac v(2) .end
Figure 8.26: Series resonant bandstop ﬁlter: Notch frequency = LC resonant frequency (159.15 Hz).
8.6. RESONANT FILTERS
209
C1 1 V1 0 1V
10 µF 2
L1 100 mH
Rload
1 kΩ 0
Figure 8.27: Parallel resonant bandstop ﬁlter.
parallel resonant bandstop filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin l1 1 2 100m c1 1 2 10u rload 2 0 1k .ac lin 20 100 200 .plot ac v(2) .end
Figure 8.28: Parallel resonant bandstop ﬁlter: Notch frequency = LC resonant frequency (159.15 Hz).
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very low. In other words, this is a very “selective” ﬁlter. In all these resonant ﬁlter designs, the selectivity depends greatly upon the “purity” of the inductance and capacitance used. If there is any stray resistance (especially likely in the inductor), this will diminish the ﬁlter’s ability to ﬁnely discriminate frequencies, as well as introduce antiresonant effects that will skew the peak/notch frequency. A word of caution to those designing lowpass and highpass ﬁlters is in order at this point. After assessing the standard RC and LR lowpass and highpass ﬁlter designs, it might occur to a student that a better, more effective design of lowpass or highpass ﬁlter might be realized by combining capacitive and inductive elements together like Figure 8.29.
1 V1 0 1V
L1 100 mH
filter 2
L2 100 mH 1 µF Rload
3
C1
1 kΩ 0
0
Figure 8.29: Capacitive Inductive lowpass ﬁlter. The inductors should block any high frequencies, while the capacitor should short out any high frequencies as well, both working together to allow only low frequency signals to reach the load. At ﬁrst, this seems to be a good strategy, and eliminates the need for a series resistance. However, the more insightful student will recognize that any combination of capacitors and inductors together in a circuit is likely to cause resonant effects to happen at a certain frequency. Resonance, as we have seen before, can cause strange things to happen. Let’s plot a SPICE analysis and see what happens over a wide frequency range: (Figure 8.30) lc lowpass filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin l1 1 2 100m c1 2 0 1u l2 2 3 100m rload 3 0 1k .ac lin 20 100 1k .plot ac v(3) .end What was supposed to be a lowpass ﬁlter turns out to be a bandpass ﬁlter with a peak somewhere around 526 Hz! The capacitance and inductance in this ﬁlter circuit are attaining resonance at that point, creating a large voltage drop around C1 , which is seen at the load, regardless of L2 ’s attenuating inﬂuence. The output voltage to the load at this point actually
8.6. RESONANT FILTERS
211
Figure 8.30: Unexpected response of LC lowpass ﬁlter.
exceeds the input (source) voltage! A little more reﬂection reveals that if L1 and C2 are at resonance, they will impose a very heavy (very low impedance) load on the AC source, which might not be good either. We’ll run the same analysis again, only this time plotting C1 ’s voltage, vm(2) in Figure 8.31, and the source current, I(v1), along with load voltage, vm(3):
Figure 8.31: Current inceases at the unwanted resonance of the LC lowpass ﬁlter.
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Sure enough, we see the voltage across C1 and the source current spiking to a high point at the same frequency where the load voltage is maximum. If we were expecting this ﬁlter to provide a simple lowpass function, we might be disappointed by the results. The problem is that an LC ﬁlter has a input impedance and an output impedance which must be matched. The voltage source impedance must match the input impedance of the ﬁlter, and the ﬁlter output impedance must be matched by “rload” for a ﬂat response. The input and output impedance is given by the square root of (L/C). Z = (L/C)1/2 Taking the component values from (Figure 8.29), we can ﬁnd the impedance of the ﬁlter, and the required , Rg and Rload to match it. For L= 100 mH, C= 1µF Z = (L/C)1/2 =((100 mH)/(1 µF))1/2 = 316 Ω In Figure 8.32 we have added Rg = 316 Ω to the generator, and changed the load Rload from 1000 Ω to 316 Ω. Note that if we needed to drive a 1000 Ω load, the L/C ratio could have been adjusted to match that resistance.
filter 316 Ω 1 Rg Vpp Voffset 1 Hz L1 1V C1 L2 1.0 uF Rload 316 Ω 4 100 mH 2 100 mH 3
0
Figure 8.32: Circuit of source and load matched LC lowpass ﬁlter. LC matched lowpass filter V1 1 0 ac 1 SIN Rg 1 4 316 L1 4 2 100m C1 2 0 1.0u L2 2 3 100m Rload 3 0 316 .ac lin 20 100 1k .plot ac v(3) .end
8.6. RESONANT FILTERS
213
Figure 8.33 shows the “ﬂat” response of the LC low pass ﬁlter when the source and load impedance match the ﬁlter input and output impedances.
Figure 8.33: The response of impedance matched LC lowpass ﬁlter is nearly ﬂat up to the cutoff frequency. The point to make in comparing the response of the unmatched ﬁlter (Figure 8.30) to the matched ﬁlter (Figure 8.33) is that variable load on the ﬁlter produces a considerable change in voltage. This property is directly applicable to LC ﬁltered power supplies– the regulation is poor. The power supply voltage changes with a change in load. This is undesirable. This poor load regulation can be mitigated by a swinging choke. This is a choke, inductor, designed to saturate when a large DC current passes through it. By saturate, we mean that the DC current creates a “too” high level of ﬂux in the magnetic core, so that the AC component of current cannot vary the ﬂux. Since induction is proportional to dΦ/dt, the inductance is decreased by the heavy DC current. The decrease in inductance decreases reactance XL . Decreasing reactance, reduces the voltage drop across the inductor; thus, increasing the voltage at the ﬁlter output. This improves the voltage regulation with respect to variable loads. Despite the unintended resonance, lowpass ﬁlters made up of capacitors and inductors are frequently used as ﬁnal stages in AC/DC power supplies to ﬁlter the unwanted AC “ripple” voltage out of the DC converted from AC. Why is this, if this particular ﬁlter design possesses a potentially troublesome resonant point? The answer lies in the selection of ﬁlter component sizes and the frequencies encountered from an AC/DC converter (rectiﬁer). What we’re trying to do in an AC/DC power supply ﬁlter is separate DC voltage from a small amount of relatively highfrequency AC voltage. The ﬁlter inductors and capacitors are generally quite large (several Henrys for the inductors and thousands of µF for the capacitors is typical), making the ﬁlter’s resonant frequency very, very low. DC of course, has a “frequency” of zero, so there’s no way it can make an LC circuit resonate. The ripple voltage, on the other hand, is a nonsinusoidal AC voltage consisting
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of a fundamental frequency at least twice the frequency of the converted AC voltage, with harmonics many times that in addition. For pluginthewall power supplies running on 60 Hz AC power (60 Hz United States; 50 Hz in Europe), the lowest frequency the ﬁlter will ever see is 120 Hz (100 Hz in Europe), which is well above its resonant point. Therefore, the potentially troublesome resonant point in a such a ﬁlter is completely avoided. The following SPICE analysis calculates the voltage output (AC and DC) for such a ﬁlter, with series DC and AC (120 Hz) voltage sources providing a rough approximation of the mixedfrequency output of an AC/DC converter.
2 V2 1 V1 0
L1 3H 12 V C1 1V 120 Hz
3
L2 2H 9500 µF Rload
4
1 kΩ
0
0
Figure 8.34: AC/DC power suppply ﬁlter provides “ripple free” DC power. ac/dc power supply filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin v2 2 1 dc l1 2 3 3 c1 3 0 9500u l2 3 4 2 rload 4 0 1k .dc v2 12 12 1 .ac lin 1 120 120 .print dc v(4) .print ac v(4) .end v2 1.200E+01 freq 1.200E+02 v(4) 1.200E+01 v(4) 3.412E05
DC voltage at load = 12 volts
AC voltage at load = 34.12 microvolts
With a full 12 volts DC at the load and only 34.12 µV of AC left from the 1 volt AC source imposed across the load, this circuit design proves itself to be a very effective power supply ﬁlter.
8.7. SUMMARY
215
The lesson learned here about resonant effects also applies to the design of highpass ﬁlters using both capacitors and inductors. So long as the desired and undesired frequencies are well to either side of the resonant point, the ﬁlter will work OK. But if any signal of signiﬁcant magnitude close to the resonant frequency is applied to the input of the ﬁlter, strange things will happen! • REVIEW: • Resonant combinations of capacitance and inductance can be employed to create very effective bandpass and bandstop ﬁlters without the need for added resistance in a circuit that would diminish the passage of desired frequencies.
fresonant =
•
1 2π LC
8.7
Summary
As lengthy as this chapter has been up to this point, it only begins to scratch the surface of ﬁlter design. A quick perusal of any advanced ﬁlter design textbook is sufﬁcient to prove my point. The mathematics involved with component selection and frequency response prediction is daunting to say the least – well beyond the scope of the beginning electronics student. It has been my intent here to present the basic principles of ﬁlter design with as little math as possible, leaning on the power of the SPICE circuit analysis program to explore ﬁlter performance. The beneﬁt of such computer simulation software cannot be understated, for the beginning student or for the working engineer. Circuit simulation software empowers the student to explore circuit designs far beyond the reach of their math skills. With the ability to generate Bode plots and precise ﬁgures, an intuitive understanding of circuit concepts can be attained, which is something often lost when a student is burdened with the task of solving lengthy equations by hand. If you are not familiar with the use of SPICE or other circuit simulation programs, take the time to become so! It will be of great beneﬁt to your study. To see SPICE analyses presented in this book is an aid to understanding circuits, but to actually set up and analyze your own circuit simulations is a much more engaging and worthwhile endeavor as a student.
8.8
Contributors
Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions, from most recent to ﬁrst. See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information. Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting, which led to a much betterlooking second edition.
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Chapter 9
TRANSFORMERS
Contents
9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 Mutual inductance and basic operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 Stepup and stepdown transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 Electrical isolation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 Phasing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 Winding conﬁgurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 Voltage regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 Special transformers and applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 9.7.1 9.7.2 9.7.3 9.7.4 9.7.5 9.7.6 9.7.7 9.7.8 9.8 9.8.1 9.8.2 9.8.3 9.8.4 9.8.5 9.8.6 9.9 Impedance matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 Potential transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 Current transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 Air core transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 Tesla Coil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 Saturable reactors
ScottT transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 Linear Variable Differential Transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 Power capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 Energy losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 Stray capacitance and inductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 Core saturation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 Inrush current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 Heat and Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
Practical considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
217
we could apply this fundamental law of electricity to describe the respective voltages of the source and of the inductor coil. From where does this opposing voltage arise? If the load were a resistor (Figure 9. in order that it may balance against the source voltage and produce an algebraic loop voltage sum of zero. the “friction” of electrons ﬂowing through the resistance. Michael Faraday discovered the mathematical relationship between magnetic ﬂux (Φ) and induced voltage with this equation: e= N dΦ dt e = (Instantaneous) induced voltage in volts N = Number of turns in wire coil (straight wire = 1) Φ = Magnetic flux in Webers t = Time in seconds Where. Kirchhoff ’s voltage law describes how the algebraic sum of all voltages in a loop must equal zero. oneload circuit. the voltage drop originates from electrical energy loss. As an inductor. Changing ﬂux induces a counter EMF.218 CHAPTER 9. and magnetic ﬂux in the device. limiting AC current. TRANSFORMERS 9. . the voltage dropped across the load must equal the voltage supplied by the source. though.1 (a)) iron core wire coil resistor (a) (b) Figure 9. For the purposes of this example. we would expect this ironcore coil to oppose the applied voltage with its inductive reactance. Here. When AC current changes.1 (b)). In other words.1 Mutual inductance and basic operation Suppose we were to wrap a coil of insulated wire around a loop of ferromagnetic material and energize this coil with an AC voltage source: (Figure 9. the opposing voltage comes from another mechanism: the reaction to a changing magnetic ﬂux in the iron core.1: Insulated winding on ferromagnetic loop has inductive reactance. assuming zero voltage dropped along the resistance of any connecting wires. as in any onesource. In this example. ﬂux Φ changes. we need to take a more detailed look at the interactions of voltage. current. limiting current through the coil as predicted by the equations XL = 2πfL and I=E/X (or I=E/Z). With a perfect inductor (no resistance in the coil wire). the load (inductor coil) must produce an opposing voltage equal in magnitude to the source.
Because the mathematical relationship between magnetic ﬂux and mmf is directly proportional. Due to its function in providing magnetizing force (mmf) for the core.1.” this motivating force is magnetomotive force. the ﬂux wave 90o lagging behind the voltage wave: e = voltage e Φ = magnetic flux Φ Figure 9. Graphed. electromotive force. Magnetomotive force generated by an electromagnet coil is equal to the amount of current through that coil (in amps) multiplied by the number of turns of that coil around the core (the SI unit for mmf is the ampturn). or EMF).9. Magnetic ﬂux through a ferromagnetic material is analogous to current through a conductor: it must be motivated by some force in order to occur. In fact.2) this shows itself as a set of sine waves (assuming a sinusoidal voltage source). due to the nonlinear B/H magnetization curve of iron. this motivating force is voltage (a. the mmf required to produce this changing magnetic ﬂux (Φ) must be supplied by a changing current through the coil. Magnetomotive force (mmf) and magnetic ﬂux (Φ) are related to each other by a property of magnetic materials known as reluctance (the latter quantity symbolized by a strangelooking letter “R”): A comparison of "Ohm’s Law" for electric and magnetic circuits: E = IR Electrical mmf = Φℜ Magnetic In our example. dΦ/dt.k.2: Magnetic ﬂux lags applied voltage by 90o because ﬂux is proportional to a rate of change. It should be mentioned that the current through an ironcore inductor is not perfectly sinusoidal (sinewave shaped).a. In electric circuits. or mmf. In magnetic “circuits. MUTUAL INDUCTANCE AND BASIC OPERATION 219 The instantaneous voltage (voltage dropped at any instant in time) across a wire coil is equal to the number of turns of that coil around the core (N) multiplied by the instantaneous rateofchange in magnetic ﬂux (dΦ/dt) linking with the coil. and because the mathematical relationship between mmf and current is also directly proportional (no ratesofchange present in either equation).3) This is why alternating current through an inductor lags the applied voltage waveform by 90o : because that is what is required to produce a changing magnetic ﬂux whose rateofchange produces an opposing voltage inphase with the applied voltage. (Figure 9. the current through the coil will be inphase with the ﬂux wave as in (Figure 9. this current is sometimes referred to as the magnetizing current. if the .
The distortion of an ironcore inductor’s exciting current may be minimized if it is designed for and operated at very low ﬂux densities. resulting in a magnetizing current waveform that looks something like Figure 9. Generally speaking. eddy current losses. inductor is cheaply built. lags applied voltage by 90o .3: Magnetic ﬂux. Thus. The effects of hysteresis and eddy currents conspire to further distort and complicate the current waveform. where “N” is the number of turns of wire in the coil and “I” is the current through it). using as little iron as possible. coil current increases dramatically at the peaks in order to maintain a ﬂux waveform that isn’t distorted. making it even less sinusoidal and altering its phase to be lagging slightly less than 90o behind the applied voltage waveform. the magnetizing current waveform becomes distorted. Because mmf is proportional to current through the magnetizing coil (mmf = NI. disproportionately greater levels of magnetic ﬁeld force (mmf) are required to deliver equal increases in magnetic ﬁeld ﬂux (Φ).220 CHAPTER 9. etc. When a ferromagnetic material approaches magnetic ﬂux saturation. like current. the large increases of mmf required to supply the needed increases in ﬂux results in large increases in coil current. accounting for the bellshaped halfcycles of the current waveform in the above plot. the magnetic ﬂux density might reach high levels (approaching saturation).) is called the exciting current. This coil current resulting from the sum total of all magnetic effects in the core (dΦ/dt magnetization plus hysteresis losses.4: As ﬂux density approaches saturation.4 e = voltage Φ = magnetic flux i = coil current e i Φ Figure 9. The situation is further complicated by energy losses within the iron core. this . TRANSFORMERS e = voltage e Φ = magnetic flux Φ i i = coil current Figure 9.
).6) the induced voltage waveform is drawn slightly smaller than the source voltage waveform simply to distinguish one from the other: This effect is called mutual inductance: the induction of a voltage in one coil in response to a change in current in the other coil. etc. we’ll assume that our example core is far from saturation and free from all losses.1. In the following graph. but unlike normal inductance it is symbolized by the capital letter “M” rather than the letter “L”: . If the inductor is perfect (no wire resistance. MUTUAL INDUCTANCE AND BASIC OPERATION 221 requires a core with large crosssectional area. a voltage of equal magnitude and phase to the applied voltage will be induced along its length. and has the same number of turns around the core. As we’ve seen already in the inductors chapter. (Figure 9. while the second will be labeled the secondary: iron core wire coil wire coil Figure 9. If this secondary coil experiences the same magnetic ﬂux change as the primary (which it should. For the sake of simplicity. Like normal (self) inductance. having a current waveform 90o out of phase with the voltage waveform creates a condition where power is alternately absorbed and returned to the circuit by the inductor.5: Ferromagnetic core with primary coil (AC driven) and secondary coil. except this time with a second coil (Figure 9.9. Let us now consider the same inductor device. The ﬁrst coil will be labeled the primary coil. resulting in a perfectly sinusoidal exciting current. no magnetic core losses. though.5) wrapped around the same iron core. assuming perfect containment of the magnetic ﬂux through the common core). it will dissipate zero power. it is measured in the unit of Henrys. which tends to make the inductor bulky and expensive.
so the only way the secondary coil’s mmf may exist is if a counteracting mmf is generated by the primary coil. this mmf is accompanied by magnetic ﬂux. Transformer dynamics is a complex . In this case. in accordance with the mmf=ΦR “magnetic Ohm’s Law” equation. Indeed. this is what happens. it would cause more voltage to be induced voltage in the primary coil (remember that e = dΦ/dt). it does not. the magnetic ﬂux in the core cannot be affected by secondary coil current. Polarity marks and current direction arrows have been added to the illustration to clarify phase relations: (Figure 9. Usually.222 CHAPTER 9.7) At ﬁrst. if we connect a load resistor to it. additional ﬂux is not permitted. an alternating current will go through the coil. However. e2 = voltage induced in secondary coil i1 = current in primary coil No current will exist in the secondary coil. inphase with the induced voltage (because the voltage across a resistor and the current through it are always inphase with each other). However. (Figure 9. an alternating current forming in the primary coil – 180o out of phase with the secondary coil’s current – to generate this counteracting mmf and prevent additional core ﬂux. Magnetomotive force is produced any time electrons move through a wire. Inductance di e=L dt Mutual inductance di e2 = M 1 dt Where. TRANSFORMERS ep = primary coil voltage Φ = magnetic flux ep Φ es ip ip = primary coil current es = secondary coil voltage Figure 9. of equal magnitude and opposite phase. In fact. Therefore induced secondary voltage es is the same magnitude and phase as the primary voltage ep. in accordance with Kirchhoff ’s voltage law. what does change is the amount of mmf in the magnetic circuit. do not worry. since it is opencircuited. one might expect this secondary coil current to cause additional magnetic ﬂux in the core. If more ﬂux were induced in the core. This cannot happen. because the primary coil’s induced voltage must remain at the same magnitude and phase in order to balance with the applied voltage. Consequently. though.8) If you ﬁnd this process a bit confusing.6: Open circuited secondary sees the same ﬂux Φ as the primary.
a counteracting mmf is produced by the loaded secondary.1. . + + + + wire coil wire coil iron core mmfprimary mmfsecondary Figure 9. However.9.8: Flux remains constant with application of a load. MUTUAL INDUCTANCE AND BASIC OPERATION 223 iron core wire coil wire coil Figure 9.7: Resistive load on secondary has voltage and current inphase.
In the next photograph. We call this type of device a transformer. TRANSFORMERS subject. then back into electrical energy again.10) Both coils of wire can be seen here with coppercolored varnish insulation. energy is now being coupled to the secondary coil where it is delivered to a dissipative (energyconsuming) load. which induces AC voltage in the secondary coil inphase with the source voltage.224 CHAPTER 9. In transformers. Rather than energy merely being alternately absorbed and returned the primary coil circuit. having a greater number of “turns” around the core. Additionally. just enough to magnetize the core to create the necessary voltage for balancing against the source (the exciting current). the iron core can be seen in this photograph to be made of many thin sheets (laminations) rather than a . the powered inductor of a transformer is called the primary winding. while the unpowered coil is called the secondary winding.” transformers are necessarily AC devices. this unit also utilizes primary and secondary windings of differing turn counts. Any current drawn through the secondary coil to power a load induces a corresponding current in the primary coil. The pair of vertical lines represent an iron core common to both inductors. The two inductor coils are easily distinguished in the above symbol. this particular transformer is open for viewing and so serves its illustrative purpose well: (Figure 9. While many transformers have ferromagnetic core materials. The following photograph shows a power transformer of the type used in gasdischarge lighting. The reason for this disparity in wire gauge will be made clear in the next section of this chapter. in reference to the manufacturing process where wire is wound around the core material. there are some that do not. wound around an iron core. their constituent inductors being magnetically linked together through the air.9) Transformer Figure 9. Like the transformer shown previously. exposing the crosssection of the iron core as well as both windings. Because its operation depends on electromagnetic induction between two stationary coils and a magnetic ﬂux of changing magnitude and “polarity. Its schematic symbol looks like two inductors (coils) sharing the same magnetic core: (Figure 9. What is important to understand is this: when an AC voltage is applied to the primary coil. The top coil is larger than the bottom coil. there is also an additional primary coil current lagging the applied voltage by 90o . it creates a magnetic ﬂux in the core.11. separated by lines indicating a ferromagnetic core. Here.9: Schematic symbol for transformer consists of two inductor symbols. Of course. Notice how the primary coil is behaving as a load with respect to the AC voltage source. drawing current from the source. a transformer is shown cut in half. the inductor coils are often referred to as windings. As modeled in our initial example. As far as the source “knows. the two inductor coils can be clearly seen. because it transforms electrical energy into magnetic energy.” its directly powering the resistor. and how the secondary coil is behaving as a source with respect to the resistor. Figure 9. The wire gauge can also be seen to differ between primary and secondary windings. While most transformer designs enclose the coils and core in a metal frame for protection.
solid piece. (Fig . MUTUAL INDUCTANCE AND BASIC OPERATION 225 Figure 9.10: Example of a gasdischarge lighting transformer. Figure 9. The reason for this will also be explained in a later section of this chapter. It is easy to demonstrate simple transformer action using SPICE.9.1. setting up the primary and secondary windings of the simulated transformer as a pair of “mutual” inductors.11: Transformer crosssection cut shows core and windings.
this example being set very nearly at perfection (1. As is seen here. and so the primary and secondary currents are almost equal. transformer v1 1 0 ac 10 sin rbogus1 1 2 1e12 rbogus2 5 0 9e12 l1 2 0 100 l2 3 5 100 ** This line tells SPICE that the two inductors ** l1 and l2 are magnetically ‘‘linked’’ together k l1 l2 0.12: Spice circuit for coupled inductors.0) i(v1) . The difference between primary and secondary currents is the magnetizing current spoken of earlier: the 90o lagging current necessary to magnetize the core. Note that with equal inductances for both windings (100 Henrys each). The better these two inductors are magnetically coupled.999 vi1 3 4 ac 0 rload 4 5 1k .print ac v(2. the AC voltages and currents are nearly equal for the two. What you are seeing here .ac lin 1 60 60 . the more efﬁcient the energy transfer between them should be.end Note: the Rbogus resistors are required to satisfy certain quirks of SPICE. magnetically.5) i(vi1) . The second provides a path to ground (node 0) from the secondary circuit. The ﬁrst breaks the otherwise continuous loop between the voltage source and L1 which would not be permitted by SPICE. (for SPICE to measure current) 1 Rbogus1 (very small) 2 3 Vi1 0V 4 V1 0 10 V L1 100 H 0 (very large) L2 100 H 5 Rload 1 kΩ 5 Rbogus2 Figure 9.226 CHAPTER 9. it is usually very small compared to primary current induced by the load. This coefﬁcient describes how closely “linked” the two inductors are. necessary because SPICE cannot function with any ungrounded circuits.12) The coefﬁcient of magnetic ﬁeld coupling is given at the end of the “k” line in the SPICE circuit description.print ac v(3.000). TRANSFORMERS ure 9.
5) 9.print ac v(2. and this transfer of power occurs with no moving parts or other components subject to wear.000E+01 freq 6. the two currents are closer to equality. which is substantially higher than the last time.13 amps.679E02 i(vi1) 4. showing what happens with different values of load resistors: transformer v1 1 0 ac 10 sin rbogus1 1 2 1e12 rbogus2 5 0 9e12 l1 2 0 100 l2 3 5 100 k l1 l2 0.000E+01 v(2) 1. If we decrease the load resistance so as to draw more current with the same amount of voltage. Take a close look at the next two SPICE simulations. In our ﬁrst simulation. The primary current is very close to being the same. In this second simulation. Anything less than 95% efﬁciency is considered poor for modern power transformer designs.000E+01 freq 6.962E+00 i(v1) 9.1.000E+01 v(3.348E+00 i(v1) 4.5) i(vi1) .000E+01 v(2) 1. both currents were approximately 10 mA.5) 9. it is electromagnetically “coupled”).000E+01 v(3.674E02 Notice how the primary current closely follows the secondary current. Let’s try another simulation with an even lower value of load resistance (15 Ω): Our load current is now 0.0) i(v1) .end freq 6. or 130 mA. Even though the AC power source is not directly connected to the load resistance (rather. we see that the current through the primary winding increases in response.print ac v(3. the amount of current drawn from the source will be almost the same as the amount of current that would be drawn if the load were directly connected to the source.ac lin 1 60 60 . Note also how the secondary voltage has decreased some with the heavier (greater current) load.975E03 i(vi1) 9. but notice how the secondary . but now they are both around 47 mA. MUTUAL INDUCTANCE AND BASIC OPERATION freq 6.9. because the magnetizing current remains the same as before while the load current has increased.962E03 227 Primary winding Secondary winding is quite typical of transformer efﬁciency.999 vi1 3 4 ac 0 ** Note load resistance value of 200 ohms rload 4 5 200 .
and thus cannot couple energy to it: (Figure 9.000E+01 freq 6. resulting in a reduced load voltage: .13: Leakage inductance is due to magnetic ﬂux not cutting both windings. some of the magnetic ﬁeld isn’t linking with the secondary coil.0) i(v1) .end freq 6.000) there is “stray” or “leakage” inductance.ac lin 1 60 60 . this “leakage” ﬂux merely stores and returns energy to the source circuit via selfinductance.999 vi1 3 4 ac 0 rload 4 5 15 .print ac v(3.print ac v(2. TRANSFORMERS voltage has fallen well below the primary voltage (1. The reason for this is an imperfection in our transformer design: because the primary and secondary inductances aren’t perfectly linked (a k factor of 0.5) i(vi1) . effectively acting as a series impedance in both primary and secondary circuits.13) wire coil leakage flux wire coil leakage flux core flux Figure 9.950E+00 i(v1) 1.999 instead of 1.300E01 CHAPTER 9.228 transformer v1 1 0 ac 10 sin rbogus1 1 2 1e12 rbogus2 5 0 9e12 l1 2 0 100 l2 3 5 100 k l1 l2 0.301E01 i(vi1) 1. Consequently. In other words.95 volts versus 10 volts at the primary). Voltage gets dropped across this series impedance.000E+01 v(3.000E+01 v(2) 1.5) 1.
999 k l1 l2 0. the ﬁgures for voltage between primary and secondary windings will be much closer to equality again: transformer v1 1 0 ac 10 sin rbogus1 1 2 1e12 rbogus2 5 0 9e12 l1 2 0 100 l2 3 5 100 ** Coupling factor = 0.658E01 Here we see that our secondary voltage is back to being equal with the primary.ac lin 1 60 60 .99999 vi1 3 4 ac 0 rload 4 5 15 . This results in a load voltage that is closer to ideal with the same (high current heavy) load and the same coupling factor: Simply by using primary and secondary coils of less inductance. At this .5) 9.987E+00 i(v1) 6. building a real transformer with coupling this complete is very difﬁcult.000E+01 v(2) 1. for any given degree of magnetic coupling inefﬁciency.99999 instead of 0. the strategy being that less inductance overall leads to less “leakage” inductance to cause trouble. and the secondary current is equal to the primary current as well.977 volts).end freq 6.5) i(vi1) . (Figure 9.print ac v(3. the load voltage for this heavy load (high current) has been brought back up to nearly ideal levels (9.14) 229 ideal transformer leakage inductance Source leakage inductance Load Figure 9.print ac v(2.0) i(v1) .9. If we change the transformer design to have better magnetic coupling between the primary and secondary coils.000E+01 freq 6. MUTUAL INDUCTANCE AND BASIC OPERATION voltage across the load “sags” as load current increases.658E01 i(vi1) 6.000E+01 v(3. Unfortunately.14: Equivalent circuit models leakage inductance as series inductors independent of the “ideal transformer”. A compromise solution is to design both primary and secondary coils with less inductance.1.
and consequently a much larger magnetizing cur . the primary current is 28.5) 9.ac lin 1 60 60 .print ac v(2.end With lower winding inductances. but easy to design coils with low inductance.5) i(vi1) . but the primary and secondary currents are not.990 mA: almost three times as much current in the primary as the secondary.print ac v(3. then why not just build all transformers with lowinductance coils and have excellent efﬁciency even with poor magnetic coupling?” The answer to this question is found in another simulation: the same lowinductance transformer.977E+00 i(v1) 6.652E01 CHAPTER 9.print ac v(2. Why is this? With less inductance in the primary winding.230 transformer v1 1 0 ac 10 sin rbogus1 1 2 1e12 rbogus2 5 0 9e12 ** inductance = 1 henry instead of 100 henrys l1 2 0 1 l2 3 5 1 k l1 l2 0.35 mA while the secondary current is only 9. TRANSFORMERS point.0) i(v1) . but this time with a lighter load (less current) of 1 kΩ instead of 15 Ω: transformer v1 1 0 ac 10 sin rbogus1 1 2 1e12 rbogus2 5 0 9e12 l1 2 0 1 l2 3 5 1 k l1 l2 0.000E+01 v(3.print ac v(3. there is less inductive reactance. then why worry about coupling efﬁciency at all? If its impossible to build a transformer with perfect coupling.000E+01 v(2) 1. “If less inductance is all that’s needed to achieve nearideal performance under heavy load. In this particular case.0) i(v1) .000E+01 freq 6.end freq 6.664E01 i(vi1) 6. one might ask.5) i(vi1) .ac lin 1 60 60 .999 vi1 3 4 ac 0 rload 4 5 1k . the primary and secondary voltages are closer to being equal.999 vi1 3 4 ac 0 rload 4 5 15 .
• Total primary current in an unloaded transformer is called the exciting current. In a perfect world. • A transformer is a device made of two or more inductors.phase with the primary winding source voltage and share the same waveshape. inducing an AC voltage across the second inductor. as if the source were directly powering a similar load. • The powered inductor in a transformer is called the primary winding. The unpowered inductor in a transformer is called the secondary winding. with no transformer there at all.5) 9. • Core ﬂux induces a voltage in any coil wrapped around the core. If the second inductor is connected to a load. The induces voltage(s) are ideally in. It is never perfectly sinusoidal in a real transformer. but may be made more so if the transformer is designed and operated so that magnetic ﬂux density is kept to a minimum. . However. A substantial amount of the current through the primary winding merely works to magnetize the core rather than transfer useful energy to the secondary winding and load.000E+01 v(3. An ideal transformer with identical primary and secondary windings would manifest equal voltage and current in both sets of windings for any load condition. MUTUAL INDUCTANCE AND BASIC OPERATION freq 6. The current drawn by the primary coil from the source to produce this ﬂux is called the magnetizing current.9. you can see this ideal goal can only be met if there is perfect coupling of magnetic ﬂux between primary and secondary windings. For now.835E02 i(vi1) 9.990E03 231 rent. Being that this is impossible to achieve. power will be electromagnetically coupled from the ﬁrst inductor’s power source to that load.990E+00 i(v1) 2. • REVIEW: • Mutual inductance is where the magnetic ﬂux of two or more inductors are “linked” so that voltage is induced in one coil proportional to the rateofchange of current in another. and is comprised of magnetizing current plus any additional current necessary to overcome core losses. • Magnetic ﬂux in the core (Φ) lags 90o behind the source voltage waveform. transformers must be designed to operate within certain expected ranges of voltages and loads in order to perform as close to ideal as possible. and it also lags the supply voltage by 90o .000E+01 v(2) 1.1. one of which is powered by AC. the most important thing to keep in mind is a transformer’s basic operating principle: the transfer of power from the primary to the secondary circuit via electromagnetic coupling.000E+01 freq 6. • Any current drawn through the secondary winding by a load will be “reﬂected” to the primary winding and drawn from the voltage source. transformers would transfer electrical power from primary to secondary as smoothly as though the load were directly connected to the primary power source.
975E05 i(vi1) 9. we can easily multiply or divide voltage and current in AC circuits. while the secondary current is approximately ten times greater (0.000E+01 v(2) 1. we’ve observed simulations of transformers where the primary and secondary windings were of identical inductance.15: Turns ratio of 10:1 yields 10:1 primary:secondary voltage ratio and 1:10 primary:secondary current ratio.5) i(vi1) . indeed. Equality of voltage and current between the primary and secondary sides of a transformer.print ac v(2.5) 9.962E04 Primary winding Secondary winding Notice how the secondary voltage is approximately ten times less than the primary voltage (0. as AC voltage can be “stepped up” and current “stepped down” for reduced wire resistance power losses along power lines connecting generating stations with . is not the norm for all transformers. TRANSFORMERS 9.9962 volts compared to 10 volts).962E01 i(v1) 9. however. the transformer has made longdistance transmission of electric power a practical reality. something interesting happens: transformer v1 1 0 ac 10 sin rbogus1 1 2 1e12 rbogus2 5 0 9e12 l1 2 0 10000 l2 3 5 100 k l1 l2 0. Indeed.000E+01 freq 6.999 vi1 3 4 ac 0 rload 4 5 1k . If the inductances of the two windings are not equal. With it.9962 mA compared to 0. giving approximately equal voltage and current levels in both circuits.end freq 6.print ac v(3.09975 mA).000E+01 v(3.0) i(v1) .15) Primary winding Secondary winding Figure 9. This is a very useful device.2 Stepup and stepdown transformers So far.232 CHAPTER 9.ac lin 1 60 60 . What we have here is a device that steps voltage down by a factor of ten and current up by a factor of ten: (Figure 9.
which doesn’t have to conduct as much current. efﬁcient operation of a transformer requires that the individual winding inductances be engineered for speciﬁc operating ranges of voltage and current.16) Figure 9. lowcurrent power into lowvoltage. a transformer designed to do just the opposite is called a stepdown transformer. may be made of smallergauge wire. At either end (both the generator and at the loads). Therefore. The largergauge wire used in the secondary winding is necessary due to the increase in current. lest it prove to be inefﬁcient (or lest it be damaged by excessive voltage or current!). as we saw in the ﬁrst section of this chapter.9. This is a stepdown transformer. STEPUP AND STEPDOWN TRANSFORMERS 233 loads. In case you were wondering. Conversely. as evidenced by the high turn count of the primary winding and the low turn count of the secondary. this transformer converts highvoltage. highcurrent power. As a stepdown unit. The primary winding.16: Transformer crosssection showing primary and secondary windings is a few inches tall (approximately 10 cm). a simple power transformer will have .2. One convention used in the electric power industry to help alleviate confusion is the use of “H” designations for the highervoltage winding (the primary winding in a stepdown unit. However. it is possible to operate either of these transformer types backwards (powering the secondary winding with an AC source and letting the primary winding power a load) to perform the opposite function: a stepup can function as a stepdown and visaversa. the secondary winding in a stepup) and “X” designations for the lowervoltage winding. A transformer that increases voltage from primary to secondary (more secondary winding turns than primary winding turns) is called a stepup transformer. Transformers are often constructed in such a way that it is not obvious which wires lead to the primary winding and which lead to the secondary. Let’s reexamine a photograph shown in the previous section: (Figure 9. so if a transformer is to be used “backwards” like this it must be employed within the original design parameters of voltage and current for each winding. voltage levels are reduced by transformers for safer operation and less expensive equipment.
Furthermore. There is usually signiﬁcance to the numbering of the wires (H1 versus H2 . In all fairness it should be noted that motor/generator sets have not necessarily been obsoleted by transformers for all applications. TRANSFORMERS wires labeled “H1 ”. they cannot convert one frequency of AC power to another. mechanical wear and balance are factors inﬂuencing both service life and performance. the other down) makes perfect sense when you recall that power is equal to voltage times current.17) Power in A motor/generator set Power out Shaft coupling Motor Generator Figure 9. albeit with the limitations of efﬁciency and mechanical factors already described. its angular momentum (the inertia of that rotating mass) will maintain rotation of the generator for a short duration. if the motor’s power supply is momentarily interrupted for any reason. As with the ﬁrst transformer example we looked at. Motor/generator sets can do all these things with relative simplicity. The fact that voltage and current get “stepped” in opposite directions (one up. power transfer efﬁciency is very good from the primary to the secondary sides of the device. and “X2 ”. which we’ll explore a little later in this chapter. on the other hand. or (by themselves) convert DC to AC or visaversa. While transformers are clearly superior over motor/generator sets for AC voltage and current level conversion. “H2 ”. “X1 ”. a motor is mechanically coupled to a generator. In such a machine. namely that energy cannot be created or destroyed. because motor/generator sets obviously require moving parts. While both motors and generators are fairly efﬁcient devices. the generator designed to produce the desired levels of voltage and current at the rotating speed of the motor. voltage/current level conversion could only be achieved through the use of motor/generator sets. only converted. only convert it. Transformers.234 CHAPTER 9. etc. The practical signiﬁcance of this is made more apparent when an alternative is considered: before the advent of efﬁcient transformers. and realize that transformers cannot produce power.17: Motor generator illustrates the basic principle of the transformer.). Motor/generator sets also have the unique property of kinetic energy storage: that is. are able to convert levels of AC voltage and current at very high efﬁciencies with no moving parts. making possible the widespread distribution and use of electric power we take for granted. Any device that could output more power than it took in would violate the Law of Energy Conservation in physics. the use of both in this fashion compounds their inefﬁciencies so that the overall efﬁciency is in the range of 90% or less. A drawing of a motor/generator set reveals the basic principle involved: (Figure 9. thus isolating any loads powered by the genera .
it should be apparent that our two inductors in the last SPICE transformer example circuit – with inductance ratios of 100:1 – should have coil turn ratios of 10:1.20) .18) is analogous to gear tooth ratios in mechanical gear systems. So.19) Stepup and stepdown transformers for power distribution purposes can be gigantic in proportion to the power transformers previously shown. so we can say as a rule that the voltage and current transformation ratio is equal to the ratio of winding turns between primary and secondary. we see that inductance is proportional to the square of the number of coil turns: L= N2µA l L = Inductance of coil in Henrys N = Number of turns in wire coil (straight wire = 1) µ = Permeability of core material (absolute. transforming values of speed and torque in much the same way: (Figure 9. Stepdown transformer many turns high voltage low current few turns low voltage high current load Figure 9. This works out to be the same ratio we found between primary and secondary voltages and currents (10:1).2. Looking closely at the numbers in the SPICE analysis. If we take another look at our inductance formula. and that the measured voltage stepdown ratio was 10 to 1. The winding with more inductance will have higher voltage and less current than the other. The following photograph shows a substation transformer standing about twelve feet tall: (Figure 9. we should see a correspondence between the transformer’s ratio and the two inductances. some units standing as tall as a home. The stepup/stepdown effect of coil turn ratios in a transformer (Figure 9. not relative) A = Area of coil in square meters l = Average length of coil in meters Where. the parameters affecting inductance for the two coils are equal except for the number of turns in each coil. Notice how the primary inductor (l1) has 100 times more inductance than the secondary inductor (10000 H versus 100 H). STEPUP AND STEPDOWN TRANSFORMERS 235 tor from “glitches” in the main power system.18: Stepdown transformer: (many turns :few turns). Since the two inductors are wound around the same core material in the transformer (for the most efﬁcient magnetic coupling between the two).9. because 10 squared equals 100.
236 CHAPTER 9. . while stepping speed up. Figure 9.19: Torque reducing gear train steps torque down. TRANSFORMERS LARGE GEAR (many teeth) SMALL GEAR (few teeth) high torque low speed low torque high speed Figure 9.20: Substation transformer.
5) i(vi1) .ac lin 1 60 60 . Voltage transformation ratio = Nsecondary Nprimary Nprimary Nsecondary Current transformation ratio = Where.3 Electrical isolation Aside from the ability to easily convert between different levels of voltage and current in AC and DC circuits.end . which is the ability to couple one circuit to another without the use of direct wire connections. imposing a high DC voltage between one circuit and ground through the use of an additional voltage source:(Figure 9. Voltage transformation ratio = Lsecondary Lprimary • 9.0) i(v1) .9.print ac v(3. A transformer designed to reduce voltage from primary to secondary is called a stepdown transformer. ELECTRICAL ISOLATION • REVIEW: 237 • Transformers “step up” or “step down” voltage according to the ratios of primary to secondary wire turns. • The transformation ratio of a transformer will be equal to the square root of its primary to secondary inductance (L) ratio. We can demonstrate an application of this effect with another SPICE simulation: this time showing “ground” connections for the two circuits. transformers also provide an extremely useful feature called isolation.3.21) v1 1 0 ac 10 sin rbogus1 1 2 1e12 v2 5 0 dc 250 l1 2 0 10000 l2 3 5 100 k l1 l2 0.print ac v(2. • N = number of turns in winding • A transformer designed to increase voltage from primary to secondary is called a stepup transformer.999 vi1 3 4 ac 0 rload 4 5 1k .
0000 Primary winding Secondary winding .21: Transformer isolates 10 Vac at V1 from 250 VDC at V2 .0000 (5) 250.975E05 freq v(3.962E04 0): 250. DC voltages referenced to ground (node (1) 0.0000 (2) 0.000E+01 1.0000 (3) (4) 250.238 CHAPTER 9.000E+01 9.5) i(vi1) 6. TRANSFORMERS (for SPICE to measure current) 1 Rbogus 2 3 Vi1 0V 4 V1 0 10 V L1 10 kH 0 V2 L2 100 H 5 250 V 0 Rload 1 kΩ 5 Figure 9.000E+01 9.962E01 9.0000 AC voltages: freq v(2) i(v1) 6.
(Figure 9. Using our SPICE example from before. • REVIEW: • By being able to transfer power from one circuit to another without the use of interconnecting conductors between the two circuits.4 Phasing Since transformers are essentially AC devices. PHASING 239 SPICE shows the 250 volts DC being impressed upon the secondary circuit elements with respect to ground. we need to be aware of the phase relationships between the primary and secondary circuits. It could be AC. and the transformer would isolate it from the primary circuit all the same. transformers provide the useful feature of electrical isolation. even at a different frequency. A benchtop isolation transformer is shown in Figure 9. In these instances. either.22. we can .21) but as you can see there is no effect on the primary circuit (zero DC voltage) at nodes 1 and 2. The transformer isolates the commonmode voltage so that it is not impressed upon the primary circuit at all. but rather isolated to the secondary side.4. There are applications where electrical isolation is needed between two AC circuit without any transformation of voltage or current levels. • Transformers designed to provide electrical isolation without stepping voltage and current either up or down are called isolation transformers. For the record. it does not matter that the commonmode voltage is DC.22: Isolation transformer isolates power out from the power line.9. and the transformation of AC power from primary to secondary circuits remains the same as before. Figure 9. transformers called isolation transformers having 1:1 transformation ratios are used. The impressed voltage in this example is often called a commonmode voltage because it is seen at more than one point in the circuit with reference to the common point of ground. 9.
24) Both . the voltage was stepped down by a factor of ten. to secondary. (Figure 9.23) for the primary and secondary circuits and see the phase relations for ourselves: spice transient analysis file for use with nutmeg: transformer v1 1 0 sin(0 15 60 0 0) rbogus1 1 2 1e12 v2 5 0 dc 250 l1 2 0 10000 l2 3 5 100 k l1 l2 0. (Figure 9. and stepped down by factor of ten.240 CHAPTER 9. V(2). In going from primary.5) Figure 9. TRANSFORMERS plot the waveshapes (Figure 9.999 vi1 3 4 ac 0 rload 4 5 1k .5) is inphase with primary voltage V(2).23: Secondary voltage V(3. V(3. and the current was stepped up by a factor of 10.5).23) .5m 17m .end nutmeg commands: setplot tran1 plot v(2) v(3.tran 0.
This is simple enough.23) waveforms are inphase in going from primary to secondary. After all. we would have no way of knowing which way to hook it up to a circuit to get inphase (or 180o outofphase) voltage and current: (Figure 9. Secondary current is stepped up by a factor of ten. If we were to look at an unmarked transformer.24: Primary and secondary currents are inphase.24) and voltage (Figure 9.25: As a practical matter. a transformer is nothing more than a set of magneticallylinked inductors. It would appear that both voltage and current for the two transformer windings are inphase with each other. PHASING 241 current (Figure 9. the polarity of a transformer can be ambiguous.4. at least for our resistive load. nutmeg commands: setplot tran1 plot I(L1#branch) I(L2#branch) Figure 9. but it would be nice to know which way we should connect a transformer in order to ensure the proper phase relationships be kept.25) + + or ??? +   Figure 9. . and inductors don’t usually come with polarity markings of any kind.9.
In other words. if the dots on each winding of the transformer do not match up. like this: (Figure 9. secondary black to dot. It is called the dot convention. Sometimes dots will be omitted. the phase shift will be 180o between primary and secondary. relative to the other winding(s). the transformer will come with some kind of schematic diagram labeling the wire leads for primary and secondary windings. The similar placement of these dots next to the top ends of the primary and secondary windings tells us that whatever instantaneous voltage polarity seen across the primary winding will be the same as that across the secondary winding. TRANSFORMERS Since this is a practical concern. If you want to reverse the phase relationship yourself. the dot convention only tells you which end of each winding is which. Of course.26) Figure 9.242 CHAPTER 9. Typically. transformer manufacturers have come up with a sort of polarity marking standard to denote phase relationships.28) • REVIEW: . The “1” wires (H1 and X1 ) represent where the polaritymarking dots would normally be placed. and is nothing more than a dot placed next to each corresponding leg of a transformer winding: (Figure 9. the subscript numbers are supposed to represent winding polarity. On the diagram will be a pair of dots similar to what is seen above. but when “H” and “X” labels are used to label transformer winding wires. the phase shift from primary to secondary will be zero degrees.26: A pair of dots indicates like polarity. On the other hand. all you have to do is swap the winding connections like this: (Figure 9.27) Figure 9.27: Out of phase: primary red to dot.
Consider this transformer circuit: (Figure 9. In fact. three inductor coils share a common magnetic core. provides multiple output voltages. • The phase relationships for voltage and current between primary and secondary circuits of a transformer are direct: ideally. • The dot convention is a type of polarity marking for transformer windings showing which end of the winding is which.9. secondary red to dot. zero phase shift. . this design of transformer was quite common in vacuum tube power supply circuits. two secondary windings) in which one secondary winding is a stepdown and the other is a stepup. magnetically “coupling” or “linking” them together. but all circuits are electrically isolated from one another. relative to the other windings.29: Transformer with multiple secondaries. It is entirely possible to assemble a transformer such as the one above (one primary winding. but transformers don’t have to be made with just two sets of windings.28: In phase: primary red to dot. The basic concept of energy transfer between mutual inductors is useful enough between a single primary and single secondary coil. Not only are voltages and currents of completely different magnitudes possible with such a transformer.5.5 Winding conﬁgurations Transformers are very versatile devices. WINDING CONFIGURATIONS 243 Figure 9. Here. 9. The relationship of winding turn ratios and voltage ratios seen with a single pair of mutual inductors still holds true here for multiple pairs of coils.29) load #1 load #2 Figure 9. which were required to supply low voltage for the tubes’ ﬁlaments (typically 6 or 12 volts) and high voltage for the tubes’ plates (several hundred volts) from a nominal primary voltage of 110 volts AC.
while high voltage is required to create the potential difference between the plate and cathode elements of each tube. TRANSFORMERS Figure 9. Low voltage is required to power the ﬁlaments of vacuum tubes. like Figure 9. Not surprisingly. One transformer with multiple windings sufﬁces elegantly to provide all the necessary voltage levels from a single 115 V source. The transformer in Figure 9.244 CHAPTER 9. the winding turn/voltage magnitude relationship of a normal transformer holds true for all tapped segments of windings. If electrical isolation between secondary circuits is not of great importance. The wires for this transformer (15 of them!) are not shown in the photograph. a primary and ﬁve secondaries. A tap is nothing more than a wire connection made at some point on a winding between the very ends. we end up with a “variable transformer.32) Carrying the concept of winding taps further.30 is intended to provide both high and low voltages necessary in an electronic system using vacuum tubes.31. This fact can be exploited to produce a transformer capable of multiple ratios: (Figure 9. a similar effect can be obtained by “tapping” a single secondary winding at multiple points along its length.31: A single tapped secondary provides multiple voltages.30: Photograph of multiplewinding transformer with six windings. load #1 load #2 Figure 9. being hidden from view.” .
and these switching circuits provide a convenient means. Typically. but multipole switches and winding taps are common for voltage adjustment. Adjustments need to be made periodically in power systems to accommodate changes in loads over months or years in time. WINDING CONFIGURATIONS 245 multipole switch load Figure 9. much more efﬁcient than control using a variable resistor! Movingslide contacts are too impractical to be used in large industrial power transformer designs.33) Variable transformer load Figure 9.32: A tapped secondary using a switch to select one of many possible voltages. the highest voltage obtainable from the secondary winding being substantially less than the primary voltage of 110 to 120 volts AC. able to connect with it at any point along its length.9.5. The effect is equivalent to having a winding tap at every turn of the winding. One consumer application of the variable transformer is in speed controls for model train sets. . The variablesweep contact provided a simple means of voltage control with little wasted power.33: A sliding contact on the secondary continuously varies the secondary voltage. and a switch with poles at every tap position: (Figure 9. where a sliding contact is moved along the length of an exposed secondary winding. These transformers were essentially stepdown units. especially the train sets of the 1950’s and 1960’s.
sacriﬁcing isolation.35: This auto transformer steps voltage down with a single coppersaving tapped winding. TRANSFORMERS such “tap switches” are not engineered to handle fullload current. The autotransformer depicted above performs a voltage stepup function. Autotransformer load Figure 9. Indeed this is possible. it makes sense that it should be possible to forego electrical isolation altogether and build a transformer from a single winding. and the resulting device is called an autotransformer: (Figure 9. saving copper.34) Autotransformer load Figure 9. A stepdown autotransformer would look something like Figure 9.34: This autotransformer steps voltage up with a single tapped winding. . Seeing as how we can tap any transformer winding to obtain the equivalent of several windings (albeit with loss of electrical isolation between them).246 CHAPTER 9.35. but must be actuated only when the transformer has been deenergized (no power).
making it cheaper and lighter to manufacture than a regular (isolating) transformer having both primary and secondary windings. the “bucking” conﬁguration.37: Ordinary transformer wired as an autotransformer to buck the line voltage down.36: Ordinary transformer wired as an autotransformer to boost the line voltage. Next.9. autotransformer windings can be tapped to provide variations in ratio. WINDING CONFIGURATIONS 247 Autotransformers ﬁnd popular use in applications requiring a slight boost or reduction in voltage to a load.5. The latter conﬁguration is popular enough to have earned itself its own name: the Variac. secondary. Primary. Like regular transformers. "boosting" 120 V 30 V 150 V Figure 9. First. being able to step household AC voltage down (or sometimes up as well) with a wide. and load voltages are given to illustrate how this would work. they can be made continuously variable with a sliding contact to tap the winding at any point along its length. In Figure 9. . Additionally. The prime advantage of an autotransformer is that the same boosting or bucking function is obtained with only a single winding. In Figure 9. (Figure 9. ﬁne range of control by a simple twist of a knob.36 the secondary coil’s polarity is oriented so that its voltage directly adds to the primary voltage.38) Small variacs for benchtop use are popular pieces of equipment for the electronics experimenter.37 the secondary coil’s polarity is oriented so that its voltage directly subtracts from the primary voltage: "bucking" 120 V 30 V 90 V Figure 9. the “boosting” conﬁguration. The alternative with a normal (isolated) transformer would be to either have just the right primary/secondary winding ratio made for the job or use a stepdown conﬁguration with the secondary winding connected in seriesaiding (“boosting”) or seriesopposing (“bucking”) fashion.
The winding. among other factors. of course. This allows for multiple stepup and/or stepdown ratios in the same device. For power transformer applications.248 CHAPTER 9.6 Voltage regulation As we saw in a few SPICE analyses earlier in this chapter.38: A variac is an autotransformer with a sliding tap. TRANSFORMERS The "Variac" variable autotransformer load Figure 9. • An autotransformer is a single. where the transformer is seen by the load (ideally) as a constant source of voltage. not the least of which includes winding resistance and the degree of mutual inductance (magnetic coupling) between the primary and secondary windings. • Transformer windings can also be “tapped:” that is. • Variable transformers can be made by providing a movable arm that sweeps across the length of a winding. The degree of variance is affected by the primary and secondary winding inductances. except without providing electrical isolation. it is good to have the secondary voltage vary as little as possible for wide variances in load current. • A Variac is a variable autotransformer. 9. intersected at many points to segment a single winding into sections. the output voltage of a transformer varies some with varying load resistances. The measure of how well a power transformer maintains constant secondary voltage over a range of load currents is called the transformer’s voltage regulation.Efullload Efullload (100%) . tapped inductor coil used to step up or step down voltage like a transformer. has to be bare (no insulation) in the area where the arm sweeps. making contact with the winding at any point along its length. It can be calculated from the following formula: Regulation percentage = Enoload . • REVIEW: • Transformers can be equipped with more than just a single primary and single secondary winding pair. even with a constant voltage input.
6. let’s compare the output voltage with a 1 kΩ load versus a 200 Ω load (assuming that the 200 Ω load will be our “full load” condition).000E+01 v(2) 1. a good power transformer should exhibit .110E12 Output with (almost) no load So.348 V 9. Taking our ﬁrst SPICE transformer simulation as an example.print ac v(3.000E+01 freq 6.5) 9.000E+01 freq 6.9.9.8678 % Incidentally.348E+00 i(vi1) 9. Now let’s take that same transformer circuit and place a load resistance of extremely high magnitude across the secondary winding to simulate a “noload” condition: (See ”transformer” spice list”) transformer v1 1 0 ac 10 sin rbogus1 1 2 1e12 rbogus2 5 0 9e12 l1 2 0 100 l2 3 5 100 k l1 l2 0.962E+00 v(3.0) i(v1) .990 V .348 V (100%) Regulation percentage = 6.990E+00 i(v1) 2.” Calculating voltage regulation with these ﬁgures. VOLTAGE REGULATION 249 “Fullload” means the point at which the transformer is operating at maximum permissible secondary current.ac lin 1 60 60 . This operating point will be determined primarily by the winding wire size (ampacity) and the method of transformer cooling.000E+01 v(3.000E+01 v(3. we see that our output (secondary) voltage spans a range of 9.999 vi1 3 4 ac 0 rload 4 5 9e12 .print ac v(2. Recall if you will that our constant primary voltage was 10.5) 9.end freq 6.5) i(vi1) . we get: Regulation percentage = 9.00 volts AC: freq 6.348 volts at the point we decided to call “full load.962E03 i(vi1) 4.990 volts at (virtually) no load and 9. this would be considered rather poor (or “loose”) regulation for a power transformer.674E02 Output with 1k ohm load Output with 200 ohm load Notice how the output voltage decreases as the load gets heavier (more current).5) 9.653E04 i(vi1) 1. Powering a simple resistive load like this.
but certainly better than nothing). Thus. which are nothing more than stepdown transformers supplying lowvoltage. Ferroresonant transformers offer several features useful in AC power conditioning: constant output voltage given substantial variations in input voltage. then the voltage is expected to drop off once the lamp begins to draw current. a stepup transformer with poor voltage regulation sufﬁces nicely for the task of conditioning power to the lamp. and the ferroresonant transformer is no exception. ferroresonant transformers have an auxiliary secondary winding paralleled with one or more capacitors. harmonic ﬁltering between the power source and the load. which means the secondary winding outputs a nearly constant voltage despite signiﬁcant variations in supply (primary winding) voltage. There are some applications. its iron core is “stuffed full” of magnetic lines of ﬂux for a large portion of the AC cycle so that variations in supply voltage (primary winding current) have little effect on the core’s magnetic ﬂux density.39) In addition to blocking harmonics created by the saturated core. These transformers are also highly tolerant . where a stepup transformer is required to initially generate a high voltage (necessary to “ignite” the lamps). TRANSFORMERS a regulation percentage of less than 3%. an arc doesn’t require as much voltage to sustain itself once the air has been heated to the point of ionization. One such case is in discharge lighting. “Ferroresonance” is a phenomenon associated with the behavior of iron cores while operating near a point of magnetic saturation (where the core is so strongly magnetized that further increases in winding current results in little or no increase in magnetic ﬂux). Inductive loads tend to create a condition of worse voltage regulation. where poor regulation is actually desired. cranked in or out of the winding assembly by the operator. however. which diminishes noload secondary voltage and makes for poorer voltage regulation. highcurrent power for the welding process. While being somewhat difﬁcult to describe without going deep into electromagnetic theory. Some arc welder designs provide arc current adjustment by means of a movable iron core in the transformer. A high voltage is desired to assist in “striking” the arc (getting it started). core saturation in a transformer results in distortion of the sinewave shape. No exposition on transformer regulation could be called complete without mention of an unusual device called a ferroresonant transformer. a decrease of secondary voltage under high load current would be a good thing. In this case. and provides the added beneﬁt of storing energy in the form of AC oscillations. forming a resonant circuit tuned to the power supply frequency.250 CHAPTER 9. This is because discharge lamps’ voltage requirements tend to be much lower after a current has been established through the arc path. and the ability to “ride through” brief losses in power by keeping a reserve of energy in its resonant tank circuit. That is. To combat this side effect. This “tank circuit” serves as a ﬁlter to reject harmonics created by the core saturation. Another application is in current control for AC arc welders. but like the discharge lamp. Moving the iron slug away from the windings reduces the strength of magnetic coupling between the windings. (Figure 9. which is available for sustaining output winding voltage for brief periods of input voltage loss (milliseconds’ worth of time. Normally. so this analysis with purely resistive loads was a “bestcase” condition. this resonant circuit also “ﬁlters out” harmonic frequencies generated by nonlinear (switching) loads in the secondary winding circuit and any harmonics present in the source voltage. the ferroresonant transformer is a power transformer engineered to operate in a condition of persistent core saturation. providing “clean” power to the load.
and are intolerant of frequency variations. in fact. which means they don’t work very well when powered by small enginedriven generators having poor speed regulation.39: Ferroresonant transformer provides voltage regulation of the output. these devices have equally noteworthy disadvantages: they waste a lot of energy (due to hysteresis losses in the saturated core). Semiconductor circuits exist to “condition” AC power as an alternative to ferroresonant devices. • REVIEW: • Voltage regulation is the measure of how well a power transformer can maintain constant secondary voltage given a constant primary voltage and wide variance in load current. that some may be brieﬂy paralleled with unsynchronized AC power sources. The lower the percentage (closer to zero).7 9. Some applications. of excessive loading and transient (momentary) voltage surges.9.1 Special transformers and applications Impedance matching Because transformers can step voltage and current to different levels. SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS AND APPLICATIONS 251 AC power output AC power input Resonant LC circuit Figure 9. the practical purpose for the power dissipated is to .7. and because power is transferred equivalently between primary and secondary windings. generating signiﬁcant heat in the process. they can be used to “convert” the impedance of a load to a different level. In the case of a resistive heating element. 9.7. so let’s investigate what it means. the more stable the secondary voltage and the better the regulation it will provide. necessitating expensive capacitors and presenting the service technician with very dangerous working voltages. may prioritize the ferroresonant transformer’s advantages over its disadvantages. That last phrase deserves some explanation. but none can compete with this transformer in terms of sheer simplicity. • A ferroresonant transformer is a special transformer designed to regulate voltage at a stable level despite wide variation in input voltage. though. They are so tolerant. The purpose of a load (usually) is to do something productive with the power it dissipates. Voltages produced in the resonant winding/capacitor circuit tend to be very high. allowing a load to be switched from one source of power to another in a “makebeforebreak” fashion with no interruption of power on the secondary side! Unfortunately.
we arrive at ﬁgures of 62. we could operate the 250 volt heater element on the 125 volt power system like Figure 9. Using Ohm’s Law to determine the necessary resistance of these heating elements (R=E/I). but it has transformed impedance as well. but they do so at different voltage and current levels (either 250 volts and 4 amps. or onequarter of its rated power. With a stepup transformer. we might refer to their opposition to current in terms of impedance rather than plain resistance. and the power dissipation would only be 250 watts (P=IE. If we desired to operate the 250 volt heater element directly on a 125 volt power system.625 Ω Pload = 1000 W Figure 9.5 Ω of impedance (resistance).5 Ω Pload = 1000 W I=8A 125 V Rload 15. or 125 volts and 8 amps).5). With 62. the current would only be 2 amps (I=E/R. but two loads of equal power rating are not necessarily identical. Take a close look at the primary circuit ﬁgures: 125 volts at 8 amps. The 250 volt heater would be said to be a higher impedance load than the 125 volt heater. In other words. TRANSFORMERS heat something up.41.5 Ω and 15. If these are AC loads. the same as the winding inductance ratio: .5 Ω load! The voltage and current ﬁgures for the primary winding are indicative of 15. Both heaters dissipate exactly 1000 watts of power. The impedance of the heater and the voltage of our source would be mismatched.41: Stepup transformer operates 1000 watt 250 V heater from 125 V power source The ratio of the transformer’s windings provides the voltage stepup and current stepdown we need for the otherwise mismatched load to operate properly on this system.40: Heating elements dissipate 1000 watts. and we couldn’t obtain the full rated power dissipation from the heater.625 Ω load impedance.5 Ω of the load itself. not a 62.252 CHAPTER 9. The transformation ratio of impedance is the square of the voltage/current transformation ratio. although in this case that’s all they’re composed of (no reactance). though.625 Ω. not the actual 62. As far as the power supply “knows.40) I=4A 250 V Rload 62. 125 x 2). not only has our stepup transformer transformed voltage and current. we would end up being disappointed.5 Ω 1000 watts dissipation at the load resistor ! Figure 9. Consider these two 1000 watt resistive heating elements: (Figure 9. I=8A 125 V I=4A 250 V Rload 62.” its powering a 15.625 Ω (R=E/I) load at 125 volts. All hope is not lost. Loads are engineered to safely dissipate a certain maximum amount of power. 125/62. at different voltage and current ratings. respectively.
Recall from our study of network analysis the Maximum Power Transfer Theorem. the speaker will load the ampliﬁer to just the right degree. With such a transformer in place.625 Ω (a 4:1 ratio. we must be able to properly match the load impedance and source (Thevenin/Norton) impedance together.5:1.906:1). If an 8 Ω speaker were connected directly to the 500 Ω ampliﬁer as shown.42) With an internal impedance of 500 Ω. we can use a transformer to match these mismatched impedances.7. low current) supply to a low impedance (low voltage. If we’re trying to obtain theoretical maximum power dissipation from a load. or 7. This is generally more of a concern in specialized electric circuits such as radio transmitter/antenna and audio ampliﬁer/speaker systems. To make this system work better. drawing power at the correct voltage and current levels to satisfy the Maximum Power Transfer Theorem and make for the . Let’s take an audio ampliﬁer system and see how it works: (Figure 9. SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS AND APPLICATIONS 253 Voltage transformation ratio = Nsecondary Nprimary Nprimary Nsecondary 2 Current transformation ratio = Impedance transformation ratio = Nsecondary Nprimary 2 Inductance ratio = Where.9. the ampliﬁer can only deliver full power to a load (speaker) also having 500 Ω of impedance. for it allows a load to dissipate its full rated power even if the power system is not at the proper voltage to directly do so. high current) load.5 Ω to 15. Additionally. the ampliﬁer would tend to dissipate more than its fair share of power in the form of heat trying to drive the low impedance speaker. Since we’re going from a high impedance (high voltage. Substitute the word “impedance” for “resistance” in that deﬁnition and you have the AC version of that Theorem. we would need a winding ratio equal to the square root of 500:8 (the square root of 62. Such a load would drop higher voltage and draw less current than an 8 Ω speaker dissipating the same amount of power. we’ll need to use a stepdown transformer: (Figure 9.43) To obtain an impedance transformation ratio of 500:8. the impedance mismatch would result in very poor (low peak power) performance. which is 2:1 squared). which states that the maximum amount of power will be dissipated by a load resistance when that load resistance is equal to the Thevenin/Norton resistance of the network supplying the power. Impedance transformation is a highly useful ability of transformers. Nsecondary Nprimary N = number of turns in winding This concurs with our example of the 2:1 stepup transformer and the impedance ratio of 62.
43: Impedance matching transformer matches 500 Ω ampliﬁer to 8 Ω speaker for maximum efﬁciency. . . impedance "matching" transformer Audio amplifier Thevenin/Norton Z = 500 Ω impedance ratio = 500 : 8 Speaker Z=8Ω winding ratio = 7. .906 : 1 Figure 9. equivalent to .254 CHAPTER 9. . Speaker Z=8Ω ZThevenin EThevenin 500 Ω Speaker Z=8Ω Figure 9. TRANSFORMERS Audio amplifier Thevenin/Norton Z = 500 Ω .42: Ampliﬁer with impedance of 500 Ω drives 8 Ω at much less than maximum power. .
45) . The use of a transformer in this capacity is called impedance matching. SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS AND APPLICATIONS 255 most efﬁcient power delivery to the load. human leg muscles are less efﬁcient at generating power.9. Is it because the rider is weak? No. If the rider attempts to start moving while the bicycle is shifted into its “top” gear. A human’s legs will produce maximum power when spinning the bicycle crank at a particular speed (about 60 to 90 revolution per minute). in the upper right corner.44) Figure 9. transformers perform the same matching function as the sprockets and chain (“gears”) on a bicycle to match otherwise mismatched sources and loads. The purpose of the bicycle’s “gears” is to impedancematch the rider’s legs to the riding conditions so that they always spin the crank at the optimum speed. A small impedancematching transformer (about two centimeters in width) for audiofrequency applications is shown in the following photograph: (Figure 9. selecting a gear that is too low will enable the rider to get moving immediately. Anyone who has ridden a multispeed bicycle can intuitively understand the principle of impedance matching.7. Again. but limit the top speed they will be able to attain. to the immediate left of resistors R2 and R1 . its because the lower speed ratio of the selected gear creates another type of mismatch between the conditions (low load) and the rider’s legs (losing power if spinning faster than 90 RPM). Another impedancematching transformer can be seen on this printed circuit board.44: Audio frequency impedance matching transformer. It is much the same with electric power sources and loads: there must be an impedance match for maximum system efﬁciency. On the other hand. its because the high stepup ratio of the bicycle’s chain and sprockets in that top gear presents a mismatch between the conditions (lots of inertia to overcome) and their legs (needing to spin at 6090 RPM for maximum power output). It is labeled “T1”: (Figure 9. Above or below that rotational speed. In AC circuits. he or she will ﬁnd it very difﬁcult to get moving. Impedance matching transformers are not fundamentally different from any other type of transformer in construction or appearance. is the lack of speed an indication of weakness in the bicyclist’s legs? No.
8 kV power system (a very common power distribution voltage in American industry): (Figure 9. top right. adding an additional level of safety to the metering system: (Figure 9. by using a precision stepdown transformer.2 Potential transformers Transformers can also be used in electrical instrumentation systems.46: Direct measurement of high voltage by a voltmeter is a potential safety hazard.8 kV load Figure 9. installing. and the electrical isolation they provide.8 kV down to a safe level of voltage at a constant ratio.8 kV conductors into an instrument panel would be severe.45: Printed circuit board mounted audio impedance matching transformer. Suppose we wanted to accurately measure the voltage of a 13.7. and isolate it from the instrument connections. 9. we can reduce the 13. high current power systems.46) highvoltage power source 13. TRANSFORMERS Figure 9. not to mention the design of the voltmeter itself. they can serve as a way of connecting electrical instrumentation to highvoltage.800 volts AC would be no easy task.256 CHAPTER 9.47) . and maintaining a voltmeter capable of directly measuring 13. Due to transformers’ ability to step up or step down voltage and current. However. Designing. The safety hazard alone of bringing 13.
since the PT will be sized to step the system voltage down to this standard instrument level. A standard secondary voltage for a PT is 120 volts AC.48). fullscale. This lends itself well to industry standardization of the actual voltmeter instruments themselves. CTs are built as donutshaped devices through which the power line conductor is run. the Current Transformer (or CT) is a stepup device (with respect to voltage).49) Some CTs are made to hinge open. PTs with custom winding ratios can be manufactured to suit any application. we can use a transformer to step down current through a power line so that we are able to safely and easily measure high system currents with inexpensive ammeters. or ratio. such a transformer would be connected in series with the power line. When used in this capacity. SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS AND APPLICATIONS 257 highvoltage power source 13. or simply PT. Now the voltmeter reads a precise fraction. The standard voltmeter range to accompany a PT is 150 volts. loading is kept to a minimum: the voltmeter is made to have high input impedance so as to draw as little current from the PT as possible. of the actual system voltage.7. To aid in precise voltage regulation.9. for fullrated power line voltage. Quite often. its scale set to read as though it were measuring the voltage directly. so there is no direct connection between the power lines and the instrument or instrument wiring.47: Instrumentation application:“Potential transformer” precisely scales dangerous high voltage to a safe value applicable to a conventional voltmeter. which is what is needed to step down the power line current. 9. a fuse has been connected in series with the PTs primary winding. As you can see. the power line itself acting as a singleturn primary winding: (Figure 9. Of course. the transformer is called a Potential Transformer.8 kV load fuse fuse precision stepdown ratio PT grounded for safety V 0120 VAC voltmeter range Figure 9.7. Potential transformers are designed to provide as accurate a voltage stepdown ratio as possible. Note that while the PT is a stepdown device. The transformer keeps the instrument voltage at a safe level and electrically isolates it from the power system. like (Figure 9. for safety and ease of disconnecting the PT from the circuit. allowing insertion around a power conductor without .3 Current transformers Following the same line of thinking.
8 kV load fuse fuse precision stepdown ratio PT grounded for safety V 0120 VAC voltmeter range Figure 9.48: Instrumentation application: “Currrent transformer” steps high current down to a value applicable to a conventional ammeter. Scaled down current is available on wire leads. . Figure 9. TRANSFORMERS grounded for 05 A ammeter range safety A Instrument application: the "Current Transformer" CT 13.258 CHAPTER 9.49: Current conductor to be measured is threaded through the opening.
seen often in radiofrequency circuits. is the air core transformer. CTs can be made with custom winding ratios to ﬁt almost any application. like this: 600 : 5 ratio (for measuring up to 600 A line current) 100 : 5 ratio (for measuring up to 100 A line current) 1k : 5 ratio (for measuring up to 1000 A line current) The “donut” CT shown in the photograph has a ratio of 50:5.7. and they are wound as voltage stepup transformers. The industry standard secondary current for a CT is a range of 0 to 5 amps AC. Because their “full load” secondary current is 5 amps. Failure to heed this warning will result in the CT producing extremely high secondary voltages. which are lowimpedance loads. CT ratios are usually described in terms of fullload primary amps to 5 amps. there will be 5 amps of current induced in the CT’s winding.51) True to its name. That is. shortcircuiting switches are often installed in parallel with the CT’s secondary winding. (Figure 9.7. Like PTs. it is perfectly proper and quite necessary when working with current transformers.50: Shortcircuit switch allows ammeter to be removed from an active current transformer circuit. Though it may seem strange to intentionally shortcircuit a power system component. SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS AND APPLICATIONS 259 disturbing the conductor at all. ever be operated with an opencircuited secondary winding. they should never.50) power conductor CT ground connection (for safety) current close switch BEFORE disconnecting ammeter! 05 A meter movement range Figure 9. Because CTs are designed to be powering ammeters. usually a hollow tube of some material. when the conductor through the center of the torus is carrying 50 amps of current (AC). 9.4 Air core transformers Another kind of special transformer.9. To facilitate maintenance of ammeter instrumentation. an air core transformer has its windings wrapped around a nonmagnetic form. dangerous to equipment and personnel alike. to be closed whenever the ammeter is removed for service: (Figure 9. The degree of coupling (mutual inductance) between windings in such a transformer is many times less than that .
Biﬁlar winding on toroidal form (b). The secondary is tuned to resonance with a variable capacitor. The over winding is connected between a radio antenna and ground for one such application. Biﬁlar windings are wound from a slightly twisted pair of wires. etc. (a) (b) Figure 9. Small millimeter size air core transformers are used in radio receivers. It is in highfrequency applications that these effects of iron cores are most problematic. but the undesirable characteristics of a ferromagnetic core (eddy current losses. saturation.260 CHAPTER 9. (Figure (a) 9.52.51) Toroidal air core transformers also show a higher degree of coupling. When isolation is required the over winding is added over one end of the main winding. named after the Serbian electrical genius Nikola Tesla. Frequently air core transformers are paralleled with a capacitor to tune it to resonance. 9. However. Unshielded air core solenoid transformers are mounted at right angles to each other to prevent stray coupling. Core materials other than air such as powdered iron or ferrite are preferred for lower radio frequencies. This implies a 1:1 turns ratio. The output may be taken from the tap point for ampliﬁcation or detection. Three or four wires may be grouped for 1:2 and other integral ratios. This allows arbitrary turns ratios. The basic schematic for a Tesla Coil is shown in Figure 9. Center tapped primary with secondary (a). without the over winding. The largest radio transmitters may use meter sized coils. Toroidal air core transformers are rare except for VHF (Very High Frequency) work.5 Tesla Coil One notable example of an aircore transformer is the Tesla Coil. Air core transformers are used at radio frequencies when iron core losses are too high. who was also the inventor of the rotating magnetic ﬁeld AC motor. Windings do not have to be biﬁlar.51: Air core transformers may be wound on cylindrical (a) or toroidal (b) forms.7. polyphase AC power systems. TRANSFORMERS of an equivalent ironcore transformer. hysteresis. the degree of coupling suffers.) are completely eliminated. The inside tapped solenoid winding. One of Tesla’s dreams was to employ his coil technology to distribute electric power without the need for wires. The Tesla Coil is a resonant. simply broadcasting it in the form of radio waves which could be received and conducted to loads by means of antennas. and many elements of radio technology. particularly for biﬁlar windings. highfrequency stepup transformer used to produce extremely high voltages. (Figure (b) 9.51). . could match unequal impedances when DC isolation is not required. Stray coupling is minimized when the transformer is wound on a toroid form.
The capacitor. For optimum operation. this secondary tank circuit is tuned to the same resonant frequency as the primary circuit. relying on the parasitic (stray) capacitance existing between the discharge terminal and earth ground to complement the secondary winding’s inductance. lowfrequency AC source and spark gap: (Figure 9. Several options exist for “exciting” the primary circuit. many secondary turns. SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS AND APPLICATIONS 261 discharge terminal "Tesla Coil" Figure 9. allowing it to oscillate at its resonant frequency. its low impedance acts to complete the capacitor/primary coil tank circuit. The “RFC” inductors are “Radio Frequency Chokes. with energy exchanged not only between capacitors and inductors during resonant oscillation. The secondary winding is wound in close proximity to the primary.52: Tesla Coil: A few heavy primary turns.9. The purpose of the highvoltage.53: System level diagram of Tesla coil with spark gap drive. usually around the same nonmagnetic form.7. but also backandforth between . The secondary side of the Tesla coil transformer is also a tank circuit. the simplest being a highvoltage. lowfrequency AC power source is to “charge” the primary tank circuit. forms a tank circuit. in conjunction with the transformer’s primary winding.53) HIGH voltage! HIGH frequency! RFC high voltage low frequency RFC spark gap Figure 9. When the spark gap ﬁres.” which act as high impedances to prevent the AC source from interfering with the oscillating tank circuit.
a transformer acts as an ampliﬁer. we’ve explored the transformer as a device for converting different levels of voltage. and the occasional low budget scienceﬁction movie. Although the highfrequency discharge of a Tesla coil has the curious property of being beyond the “shock perception” frequency of the human nervous system. The visual results are spectacular: (Figure 9. Now we’ll take a look at it as a completely different kind of device: one that allows a small electrical signal to exert control over a much larger quantity of electrical power. and even impedance from one circuit to another. It should be noted that Tesla coils can be extremely dangerous devices. TRANSFORMERS primary and secondary windings. showing up in high school science fairs. In this mode. Tesla Coils ﬁnd application primarily as novelty devices. basement workshops. current. can be very deep.262 CHAPTER 9. Burns caused by radiofrequency (“RF”) current. this does not mean Tesla coils cannot hurt or even kill you! I strongly advise seeking the assistance of an experienced Tesla coil experimenter if you would embark on building one yourself.54) Figure 9. 9.7. like all electrical burns. unlike skin burns caused by contact with hot objects or ﬂames. .54: High voltage high frequency discharge from Tesla coil.6 Saturable reactors So far.
decreasing its impedance. driving it closer to a condition of saturation. . the upper winding being the DC control winding and the lower being the “power” winding through which the controlled AC current goes. ZL will correspondingly change. but rather a special kind of inductor whose inductance can be varied by the application of a DC current through a second winding wound around the same iron core. and increasing current to the load. A saturable reactor capitalizes on this effect by forcing the core into a state of saturation with a strong magnetic ﬁeld generated by current through another winding. If an inductor has a saturated core. Actually. Now.9. In a circuit with a constant voltage source. The ability of an inductor to generate this opposing voltage is directly connected with the change in magnetic ﬂux inside the inductor resulting from the change in current. and the number of winding turns in the inductor. SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS AND APPLICATIONS 263 The device I’m referring to is called a saturablecore reactor. the DC control current is able to exert control over the AC current delivered to the load.55) L load I Figure 9. which may cause trouble for the DC power source. Thus. The ﬁrst problem is the natural transformer action of the saturable reactor: AC current through the power winding will induce a voltage in the control winding. and the “control” winding is one carrying a DC current strong enough to drive the core into saturation: (Figure 9. The reactor’s “power” winding is the one carrying the AC load current. When a material such as iron is completely saturated (that is. or simply saturable reactor. all its magnetic domains are lined up with the applied magnetizing force). thus changing the circuit current.56) The strangelooking transformer symbol shown in the above schematic represents a saturablecore reactor. and so there will be no voltage induced in opposition to the change in current. it is not really a transformer at all. inductance is the measure of how well an inductor opposes changes in current by developing a voltage in an opposing direction. The circuit shown would work. but it would not work very well. this will result in a change in current: (Figure 9. additional increases in current through the magnetizing winding will not result in further increases of magnetic ﬂux.7. Increased DC control current produces more magnetic ﬂux in the reactor core. no further magnetic ﬂux will result from further increases in current. If an inductor’s inductance changes. Like the ferroresonant transformer. In other words. an inductor loses its inductance (ability to oppose changes in current) when its core becomes magnetically saturated. the saturable reactor relies on the principle of magnetic saturation. then its reactance (and impedance) to AC current changes as well. thus decreasing the power winding’s inductance.55: If L changes in inductance.
Furthermore. impedance. Thus. TRANSFORMERS saturable reactor load I Figure 9. and current. Also. both problems can be overcome with a little ingenuity: (Figure 9. saturates the core. since the DC control current through both reactors produces magnetic ﬂuxes in different directions through the reactor cores. saturable reactors tend to regulate AC power only in one direction: in one half of the AC cycle.264 CHAPTER 9.56: DC. Fortunately. they subtract.57) load I Figure 9. in the other half. any voltage induced in the control windings by load current through the power windings will cancel out to zero at the battery terminals.” If both reactors are identical. one reactor will saturate more in one cycle of the AC . the core will have more ﬂux in it during one half of the AC cycle than the other. via the control winding. Thus.57: Out of phase DC control windings allow symmetrical of control AC. modulating the power winding inductance. thus eliminating the ﬁrst problem mentioned. and will saturate ﬁrst in that cycle half. Notice the placement of the phasing dots on the two reactors: the power windings are “in phase” while the control windings are “out of phase. passing load current more easily in one direction than the other. the mmf ’s from both windings add.
However. The ScottT transformer connection allowed 2φ and 3φ components like motors and alternators to be interconnected.7. but their utter simplicity still commands a certain degree of appreciation. Both 2φ and 3φ components coexisted for a number of years. .6% tap R3 2phase2 = V∠90° R4 50% tap Y2 R2 T1 T2 Y3 2phase1 = V∠0° R1 Figure 9.5 km (22 mi) threephase transmission line operated at 11 kV to transmit power to Buffalo. normally requiring the use of physically fragile vacuum tubes or electrically “fragile” semiconductor devices. and bandwidth (frequency response). Saturablecore reactors are less commonly known as “saturablecore inductors” or transductors.7. New York. SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS AND APPLICATIONS 265 power while the other reactor will saturate more in the other. namely size. General Electric built a 35. the more transmission line efﬁcient 3phase system became more prominent.58: ScottT transformer converts 2φ to 3φ. Yamamoto and Yamaguchi: In 1896. Saturable reactor technology has even been miniaturized to the circuitboard level in compact packages more generally known as magnetic ampliﬁers.7 ScottT transformer Nikola Tesla’s original polyphase power system was based on simple to build 2phase components. 9. as transmission distances increased. Magnetic ampliﬁers do have disadvantages over their more fragile counterparts. The twophase generated power was changed to threephase by the use of ScottT transformations. I personally ﬁnd this to be fascinating: the effect of ampliﬁcation (one electrical signal controlling another). weight. nonlinearity. This phasing of control windings can be accomplished with two separate reactors as shown. or in a single reactor design with intelligent layout of the windings and core. from the Niagara Falls Project. or vice versa. if not practical application.9. can be realized in a device both physically and electrically rugged. thus equalizing the control action through each halfcycle so that the AC power is “throttled” symmetrically. [1] 3phase23 = V∠0° 3phase31 = V∠120° 3phase12 = V∠240° Y1 86.
58.866(0+j1))=V(0. the other end is connected to the T1 secondary center tap. Both ends of the T1 secondary are the other two 3φ connections. V23 . More common these days is the application of 3φ power to produce a 2φ output for driving an old 2φ motor.6% . We show “DC” polarities all over this AC only circuit.866 respectively. D V23 + − T2 Y3 R3 + V31 + − + V2P2 − Given two 90° phased voltages: V2P1 =Vsin(θ+0°)=V∠0°=V(1+j0) V2P2 =Vsin(θ+90°)=Vcos(θ)=V∠90°=V(0+j1) Derive the three phase voltages V12 . V23 .5 0o + 0.866V2P2 = 0. TRANSFORMERS The ScottT transformer set.60 we graphically show the 2φ vectors at (a).5V∠0° = 0.866V2P 2 is added at V31 . .R4 + + Y1 R1 A Y2 R2 T1 + − + − V12 V2P1 C VDB = 0. V31 : V12=V2P1 =Vsin(θ+0°)=V∠0°=V(1+j0) (1) KVL: V12 +VAC = 0 (2) KVL: V31 VCB +VBD = 0 (3) KVL: V23 = VDB .866)=V∠−120°=V∠240° Figure 9.VBA = 0 (1) KVL: V12 = VAC (2) KVL: V31 = VCB +VBD (3) KVL: V23 = VDB .5V(1+j0) V12 = V2P1 = V∠0° V31 = (0.866V2P 2 due to the 86.5V2P 1 on the secondary ends. This 0.59: ScottT transformer 2φ to 3φ conversion equations. The T2 secondary voltage is 0. At (c) 1 120o = 0. In Figure 9.6% of 90o to 50% of 180o we get 120o . One end of the T2 86.6% of 90o from 50% of 180o yields 120o or 240o .866 90o . Figure 9. one of the 3φ voltages is identical to a 2φ voltage due to the 1:1 transformer T1 ratio. The T1 center tapped secondary produces opposite polarities of 0.5+j0.266 CHAPTER 9. to keep track of the Kirchhoff voltage loop polarities. along with input 1 0o (a). First.866V∠90° = 0. Application of 2φ Niagara generator power produced a 3φ output for the more efﬁcient 3φ transmission line.5)V∠0°0.6% tapped transformer T2 on the 3φ side of the circuit. At (b) the vectors are scaled by transformers T1 and T2 to 0.5)V∠0°+0. we use vectors in both polar and complex notation to prove that the ScottT converts a pair of 2φ voltages to 3φ. The three output phases are 1 120o and 1 240o from (c). Subtracting 86.6% tap. Subtracting 0o is equivalent to adding 180o .50% +B  . Keep in mind that this 2nd phase of the 2φ is 90o . The bottom line is when we add 86.5(1+j0)+0. The primaries of both transformers are connected to the 2φ voltages.866(0+j1))=V(0. VP 12 = V2P 1 .866V∠90°=V(0.6% secondary winding is a 3φ output. and 1 240o = 0.866V∠90°=V(0.0.VBA + 86. consists of a center tapped transformer T1 and an 86.5V2P1 = 0.5 0o .866)=V∠120° V23 =(0.5(1+j0)0.866 90o . This 0o is vectorially subtracted from T2 secondary voltage due to the KVL equations V31 . subtracted at V23 in the KVL equations.59. In Figure 9.866V(0+j1) VCB = VBA = 0.5 and 0.5+j0.
the voltage on this coil increases as the voltage decreases across the top coil.61) A movable ferromagnetic slug converts displacement to a variable voltage by changing the coupling between the driven primary and secondary windings. Theoretically. it is 180o out of phase with with V1 . 1∠90° yields 1∠−120° . (Figure 9. Moving the slug up increases V13 .9. It is extended outside the body by an nonmagnetic rod. 9.5 to 10 VAC at a frequency of 1 to 200 Khz. . bottom winding. LVDT’s are rugged and dirt resistant compared to linear optical encoders.5∠0° 1∠240° 1∠120° 267 a 0. while the voltage on the bottom coil decreases. If the core is moved toward the bottom winding.60: Graphical explanation of equations in Figure 9. the voltage across this coil increases due to increased coupling. As the core is moved toward the top winding. the top winding. Note that it is inphase with with V1 . SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS AND APPLICATIONS 0. Moving the slug down from the center position increases V13 . However. up V1 V1 V2 V13 V3 V3 center down Figure 9. In practice leakage inductance prevents the null from dropping all the way to 0 V.59. The LVDT is a displacement or distance measuring transducer.1∠240° Figure 9. with a 180o phase reversal in passing the center.5∠0° 0. Units are available for measuring displacement over a distance of a fraction of a millimeter to a half a meter. a centered slug yields equal voltages across both coils.7.866V∠90° 1∠90° 1∠0° 0. and inphase with V3 . A ferrite core is suitable at these frequencies. Moving the slug from top to bottom shows a minimum at the center point. the seriesopposing wired secondaries cancel yielding V13 = 0.61: LVDT: linear variable differential transformer.8 Linear Variable Differential Transformer A linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) has an AC driven primary wound between two secondaries on a cylindrical air core form. and 180o out of phase with V3 . With a centered slug. The excitation voltage is in the range of 0. the top winding. bottom winding.866V∠90° b c 1∠0°.7.
it is called impedance matching. though the current rating is usually derived from a voltamp (VA) rating assigned to the transformer. perfect voltage regulation. Thus. the ideal transformer would have to be inﬁnitely large and heavy to meet these design goals. TRANSFORMERS • Transformers can be used to transform impedance as well as voltage and current. no hysteresis or eddy current losses. compromises must be made.8. Also. With enough DC current. stepup transformer designed to produce very high AC voltages at high frequency. take a stepdown transformer with . • A ScottT transformer converts 3φ power to 2φ power and vice versa. • A saturable reactor is a special type of inductor. but each winding has to be sufﬁciently insulated from the other in order to maintain electrical isolation between windings. When this is done to improve power transfer to a load. aircore. 9. This means the winding conductors must be made of the proper gauge wire to avoid any heating problems. decreasing the inductance of the power winding in a controlled fashion. and wire thick enough to handle any amount of current. Additionally. is a distance measuring device. An ideal transformer would have perfect coupling (no leakage inductance).268 • REVIEW: CHAPTER 9. transformers must be designed to carry the expected values of primary and secondary winding current without any trouble. perfectly sinusoidal exciting current. Respecting these limitations. • A linear variable differential transformer. Unfortunately. • A Potential Transformer (PT) is a special instrument transformer designed to provide a precise voltage stepdown ratio for voltmeters measuring high power system voltages. as they often are in stepup and stepdown power distribution transformers. • A Current Transformer (CT) is another special instrument transformer designed to step down the current through a power line to a safe level for an ammeter to measure. Not only do the windings have to be well insulated from the iron core. • An aircore transformer is one lacking a ferromagnetic core. transformers must be well designed in order to achieve acceptable power coupling. in the business of practical transformer design. the inductance of which can be controlled by the DC current through a second winding around the same core. winding conductor insulation is a concern where high voltages are encountered. tight voltage regulation. the magnetic core can be saturated. • A Tesla Coil is a resonant. and low exciting current distortion. transformers are rated for certain levels of primary and secondary winding voltage and current.8 9. also known as an LVDT.1 Practical considerations Power capacity As has already been observed. For example. It has a movable ferromagnetic core to vary the coupling between the excited primary and a pair of secondaries.
This phenomenon is so pronounced that it is often exploited as a means of heating ferrous (ironcontaining) materials. 9.” . but this is typically seen on small transformers. but only with substantial increases in cost. but not as good as the copper or aluminum from which wire windings are typically made. and a VA rating of 1 kVA (1000 VA). PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS 269 a primary voltage rating of 120 volts. this loss can be a signiﬁcant factor. these “eddy currents” must overcome signiﬁcant electrical resistance as they circulate through the core. they do so with a minimum of loss. inducing eddy currents within the pipe wall by electromagnetic induction. there will always be power dissipated in the form of heat through the resistance of currentcarrying conductors. we have a source of inefﬁciency in the transformer that is difﬁcult to eliminate.9. size. Perhaps the most signiﬁcant of these “core losses” is eddycurrent loss. As it was stated earlier. which is resistive power dissipation due to the passage of induced currents through the iron of the core.62) shows an “induction heating” unit raising the temperature of a large pipe section. modern power transformer designs typically exceed 95% efﬁciency. The maximum winding currents can be determined as such: 1000 VA 120 V 1000 VA 48 V = 8. Hence. the bulk of transformer power loss is due to magnetic effects in the core. Consequently. Large transformers are almost always rated in terms of winding voltage and VA or kVA. a secondary voltage rating of 48 volts. The photograph of (Figure 9. There is.833 A (maximum secondary winding current) Sometimes windings will bear current ratings in amps.8. Resistive losses aside. These induced currents – as described by the perpendicularity clause of Faraday’s Law – tend to circulate through the crosssection of the core perpendicularly to the primary winding turns. however.333 A (maximum primary winding current) = 20. there will be currents induced in the iron just as there are currents induced in the secondary windings from the alternating magnetic ﬁeld. It is good to know where some of this lost power goes. In overcoming the resistance offered by the iron. and weight. Because transformers require such long lengths of wire. Iron is a fair conductor of electricity. power lost due to resistance of the wire windings. and what causes it to be lost. In order to maximize the eddy current effect. The box units at the right of the picture produce the highfrequency AC and control the amount of current in the wires to stabilize the pipe temperature at a predetermined “setpoint. Unless superconducting wires are used. of course. they dissipate power in the form of heat. Because iron is a conductor of electricity as well as being an excellent “conductor” of magnetic ﬂux. Increasing the gauge of the winding wire is one way to minimize this loss. Loops of wire covered by hightemperature insulation encircle the pipe’s circumference.8.2 Energy losses When transformers transfer power. highfrequency alternating current is used rather than power line frequency (60 Hz). Their circular motion gives them their unusual name: like eddies in a stream of water that circulate rather than move in straight lines.
The result is very little width in the core for eddy currents to circulate in: (Figure 9. The main strategy in mitigating these wasteful eddy currents in transformer cores is to form the iron core in sheets. used in many military and aircraft applications) must use thinner laminations to keep the losses down to a respectable minimum.270 CHAPTER 9.63) solid iron core "eddy" current laminated iron core Figure 9. Laminated cores like the one shown here are standard in almost all lowfrequency transformers.63: Dividing the iron core into thin insulated laminations minimizes eddy current loss.62: Induction heating: Primary insulated winding induces current into lossy iron pipe (secondary). each sheet covered with an insulating varnish so that the core is divided up into thin slices. Eddy current losses increase with frequency. This has the undesirable effect of increasing the manufacturing cost of the transformer. so transformers designed to run on higherfrequency power (such as 400 Hz. TRANSFORMERS Figure 9. . Recall from the photograph of the transformer cut in half that the iron core was composed of many thin sheets rather than one solid piece.
not lower. as evidenced by a “thin” B/H hysteresis curve).3 Stray capacitance and inductance Aside from power ratings and power losses. 9. than the design frequency of the transformer.8. In signiﬁcant measure. in the form of harmonics created by nonlinear loads. these granules of iron are individually coated in an electrically insulating material. We’ve already seen the detrimental effects of leakage inductance on voltage regulation with SPICE simulations . turn to turn (in a single winding). This type of loss can be mitigated through good core material selection (choosing a core alloy with low hysteresis. All ferromagnetic materials tend to retain some degree of magnetization after exposure to an external magnetic ﬁeld. Another “core loss” is that of magnetic hysteresis. Unfortunately it does. Flux containment (making sure a transformer’s magnetic ﬂux doesn’t escape so as to interfere with another device. similar technique for minimizing eddy current losses which works better for highfrequency applications is to make the core out of iron powder instead of thin iron sheets. but small signal applications (especially those of high frequency) may not tolerate this quirk well. eddy currents and hysteresis effects becoming more severe. Like their simpler counterparts – inductors – transformers exhibit capacitance due to the insulation dielectric between conductors: from winding to winding.8. Usually this capacitance is of no concern in a power application. For this reason. the effect of having capacitance along with the windings’ designed inductance gives transformers the ability to resonate at a particular frequency. Like the lamination sheets. Powdered iron cores are often found in transformers handling radiofrequency currents. one would think excessive frequency would never pose a problem. This tendency to stay magnetized is called “hysteresis. Power transformers can be engineered to handle certain levels of power system harmonics. and winding to core. The skin effect within winding conductors reduces the available crosssectional area for electron ﬂow. Also.9. deﬁnitely a design concern in signal applications where the applied frequency may reach this point (usually the resonant frequency of a power transformer is well beyond the frequency of the AC power it was designed to operate on). Closely related to the issue of ﬂux containment is leakage inductance. transformers of signiﬁcant size are designed to operate efﬁciently in a limited range of frequencies. these other frequencies are wholenumber multiples of the fundamental (line) frequency.” and it takes a certain investment in energy to overcome this opposition to change every time the magnetic ﬁeld produced by the primary winding changes polarity (twice per AC cycle). transformers often harbor other undesirable limitations which circuit designers must be made aware of. thereby increasing effective resistance as the frequency goes up and creating more power lost through resistive dissipation. they can cause severe transformer overheating. meaning that they will always be higher. and making sure other devices’ magnetic ﬂux is shielded from the transformer core) is another concern shared both by inductors and transformers. Transformer energy losses tend to worsen with increasing frequency. Magnetic core losses are also exaggerated with higher frequencies. which makes the core nonconductive except for within the width of each granule. and designing the core for minimum ﬂux density (large crosssectional area). In power systems. In most power distribution systems where the line frequency is very stable. and this capability is sometimes denoted with a “K factor” rating. PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS 271 Another. nonsinusoidal waveforms are equivalent to additive series of multiple sinusoidal waveforms at different amplitudes and frequencies. As we’ve seen in earlier chapters.
64) ep = primary voltage es = secondary voltage Φ = magnetic flux es ep Φ Figure 9. The core is designed to saturate quickly and sharply. TRANSFORMERS early in this chapter. 9. but there are exceptional applications. the less voltage available at the secondary winding terminals. and secondary voltage pulses only when the ﬂux is changing (below saturation levels): (Figure 9.272 CHAPTER 9. the overloaded transformer will distort the waveshape from primary to secondary windings.4 Core saturation Transformers are also constrained in their performance by the magnetic ﬂux limitations of the core.64: Voltage and ﬂux waveforms for a peaking transformer. As we discussed before. good voltage regulation is desired in transformer design. Usually. In other words. the core ﬂux may reach saturation levels during peak moments of the AC sinewave cycle. Special transformers known as peaking transformers exploit this principle to produce brief voltage pulses near the peaks of the source voltage waveform. For ferromagnetic core transformers. it manifests itself as a series impedance with the load. discharge lighting circuits require a stepup transformer with “loose” (poor) voltage regulation to ensure reduced voltage after the establishment of an arc through the lamp. harmonic content in AC power systems typically causes problems. This results in a severely cropped sinewave ﬂux waveform. which will in turn produce the poor regulation needed for discharge lighting. meaning that further increases in magnetic ﬁeld force (mmf) do not result in proportional increases in magnetic ﬁeld ﬂux (Φ). the voltage induced in the secondary winding will no longer match the waveshape as the voltage powering the primary coil. Remember that ferromagnetic materials cannot support inﬁnite magnetic ﬂux densities: they tend to “saturate” at a certain level (dictated by the material and core dimensions). Because leakage inductance is equivalent to an inductance connected in series with the transformer’s winding. . creating harmonics in the secondary winding’s output. The resulting leakage ﬂux will produce leakage inductance.8. When a transformer’s primary winding is overloaded from excessive applied voltage. the more current drawn by the load. As was stated before. we must be mindful of the saturation limits of the core. Thus. One way to meet this design criterion is to engineer the transformer with ﬂux leakage paths for magnetic ﬂux to bypass the secondary winding(s). If this happens. at voltage levels well below peak.
but taking a longer amount of time to complete each halfcycle. and the ﬂux waveform is the integral of the voltage waveform. (Figure 9. Since instantaneous winding voltage is proportional to the instantaneous magnetic ﬂux’s rate of change in a transformer. The integral of any mathematical function is proportional to the area accumulated underneath the curve of that function. Any amount of DC voltage dropped across the primary winding of a transformer will . and relate the original waveform to its derivative. Since each halfcycle of the 50 Hz waveform accumulates more area between it and the zero line of the graph than the 60 Hz waveform will – and we know that the magnetic ﬂux is the integral of the voltage – the ﬂux will attain higher values in Figure 9. the voltage waveform is the derivative of the ﬂux waveform. the ﬂux must reach greater peak levels than before in order to produce the same opposing voltage needed to balance against the source voltage.9. In this case. this is another example of calculus in action. we may call the original waveform the integral of the derivative waveform. it will climb to a greater peak value. PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS 273 Another cause of abnormal transformer core saturation is operation at frequencies lower than normal.8. if the ﬂux has to climb at the same rate as before. a voltage waveform reaching the same peak value. though. but for longer periods of time. Because the voltage is proportional to the ﬂux’s rateofchange.65: Magnetic ﬂux is higher in a transformer core driven by 50 Hz as compared to 60 Hz for the same voltage.65) e 60 Hz Φ e = voltage Φ = magnetic flux Φ e 50 Hz Figure 9. “derivative” being that calculus operation deﬁning one mathematical function (waveform) in terms of the rateofchange of another. if a power transformer designed to operate at 60 Hz is forced to operate at 50 Hz instead. demands that the ﬂux maintain the same rate of change as before.66) Mathematically. For example. Thus. This is true even if the source voltage is the same as before. If we take the opposite perspective.66. we say that the voltage waveform is the derivative of the ﬂux waveform. Yet another cause of transformer saturation is the presence of DC current in the primary winding. (Figure 9. but for longer periods of time.
TRANSFORMERS e 60 Hz Φ less area less height e 50 Hz Φ more area more height Figure 9. engineering the core for low ﬂux densities provides a safe margin between the normal ﬂux peaks and the core saturation limits to accommodate occasional.67) saturation limit flux centerline 60 Hz e Φ saturation limit Figure 9. which is good because it makes for less distortion in the magnetization current waveform. For most transformers. core saturation is a very undesirable effect. This ensures that the relationship between mmf and Φ is more linear throughout the ﬂux cycle.66: Flux changing at the same rate rises to a higher level at 50 Hz than at 60 Hz. This additional ﬂux “bias” or “offset” will push the alternating ﬂux waveform closer to saturation in one halfcycle than the other. abnormal conditions such as frequency variation and DC offset. and it is avoided through good design: engineering the windings and core so that magnetic ﬂux densities remain well below the saturation levels. . cause additional magnetic ﬂux in the core. (Figure 9.274 CHAPTER 9. Also.67: DC in primary. shifts the waveform peaks toward the upper saturation limit.
As the voltage builds to its positive peak. between continuousmode operation and the sudden starting condition assumed in this scenario: during continuous operation.72) This is analogous to the inrush current exhibited by an electric motor that is started up by sudden connection to a power source. however. the current waveform will be inphase with the ﬂux waveform. the ﬂux and current waveforms build to their maximum positive ratesofchange. Or. In order for the transformer to create an opposing voltage drop to balance against this applied source voltage. Thus. The result is that winding current increases rapidly. PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS 275 9. like current. there may be a substantial surge of current through the primary winding called inrush current. although transformer inrush is caused by a different phenomenon. and the mmf is proportional to winding current.9. in a transformer that has been sitting idle.68) Since ﬂux (Φ) is proportional to the magnetomotive force (mmf) in the core. the voltage waveform is the derivative of the ﬂux waveform. there is no “surge” or “inrush” or current in this scenario. Let us suppose that the primary winding of a transformer is suddenly connected to an AC voltage source at the exact moment in time when the instantaneous voltage is at its positive peak value.68: Continuous steadystate operation: Magnetic ﬂux. and the ﬂux waveform is the integral of the voltage waveform. During continuous operation (when the transformer has been powered for quite some time). this is the point in time where both ﬂux and winding current are at their negative peaks. the ﬂux and current levels were at their negative peaks when voltage was at its zero point. experiencing zero rateofchange (dΦ/dt = 0 and di/dt = 0). In a continuouslyoperating transformer.5 Inrush current When a transformer is initially connected to a source of AC voltage.8. (Figure 9. lags applied voltage by 90o . as stated before. We know that the rate of change of instantaneous ﬂux in a transformer core is proportional to the instantaneous voltage drop across the primary winding. and on upward to their positive peaks as the voltage descends to a level of zero: A signiﬁcant difference exists. and both will be lagging the voltage waveform by 90o : e = voltage e Φ = magnetic flux Φ i i = coil current Figure 9. let us consider what happens if the transformer’s connection to the AC voltage source occurs at the exact moment in time when the instantaneous voltage is at zero. however. these two waveforms are phaseshifted by 90o . a magnetic ﬂux of rapidly increasing value must be generated. both magnetic ﬂux and winding current should .8.69) Alternatively.69) Both core ﬂux and coil current start from zero and build up to the same peak values experienced during continuous operation. (Figure 9. (Figure 9. but actually no more rapidly than under normal conditions: (Figure 9.
e = voltage Φ = magnetic flux i = coil current e i Φ Instant in time when voltage is zero.70: Starting at e=0 V is not the same as running continuously in Figure 9.276 CHAPTER 9. . TRANSFORMERS e = voltage Φ = magnetic flux i = coil current e i Φ Instant in time when transformer is connected to AC voltage source.69: Connecting transformer to line at AC volt peak: Flux increases rapidly from zero. Figure 9. Figure 9. same as steadystate operation.3 These expected waveforms are incorrect– Φ and i should start at zero. during continuous operation.
During saturation. the magnetizing current would rise to approximately twice its normal peak value as well. so as to tolerate current surges such as this without opening the circuit.9. If the transformer happens to have some residual magnetism in its core at the moment of connection to the source. Figure 9. This means that winding current. it will increase from zero upward.71: Starting at e=0 V. PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS 277 start at zero.” the ﬂux will reach approximately twice its normal peak magnitude as it “integrates” the area under the voltage waveform’s ﬁrst halfcycle: (Figure 9.8.72) This is the mechanism causing inrush current in a transformer’s primary winding when connected to an AC voltage source. Because of this. In an ideal transformer. Φ starts at initial condition Φ=0. transformers may also exhibit undesirable physical effects. increasing to twice the normal value. disproportionate amounts of mmf are needed to generate magnetic ﬂux. ensuring that the core does . and so the core will almost certainly saturate during this ﬁrst halfcycle of voltage.71) Φ e flux peak approximately twice normal height! Instant in time when voltage is zero. most transformers aren’t designed with enough of a margin between normal ﬂux peaks and the saturation limits to avoid saturating in a condition like this. generating the necessary mmf to create this higherthannormal ﬂux. in a transformer that’s just “starting. the most notable being the production of heat and noise. When the magnetic ﬂux increases in response to a rising voltage. Noise is primarily a nuisance effect. assuming it doesn’t saturate the core. which creates the mmf to cause ﬂux in the core. not from a previously negative (magnetized) condition as we would normally have in a transformer that’s been powered for awhile. but heat is a potentially serious problem because winding insulation will be damaged if allowed to overheat. 9.6 Heat and Noise In addition to unwanted electrical effects. Heating may be minimized by good design. transformer overcurrent protection devices are usually of the “slowacting” variety. will disproportionately rise to a value easily exceeding twice its normal peak: (Figure 9. from a "cold start" condition. As you can see. However.8. Thus. the inrush could be even more severe. the magnitude of the inrush current strongly depends on the exact time that electrical connection to the source is made.
at 40o Celsius (maximum)ambient air temperature. at 40o Celsius (maximum) ambient air temperature. Current also increases to twice the normal value for an unsaturated core. Audible noise is an effect primarily originating from the phenomenon of magnetostriction: the slight change of length exhibited by a ferromagnetic object when magnetized. not approach saturation levels.” transformers are often rated in terms of maximum operating temperature “rise” (temperature increase beyond ambient) according to a letterclass system: A. • Class H: No more than 150o Celsius winding temperature rise. that eddy currents are minimized.73) Oilless. or “dry. or considerably higher in the (designed for) case of saturation. TRANSFORMERS i Φ e current peak much greater than normal! flux peak approximately twice normal height! Instant in time when voltage is zero. F. Figure 9. B.278 CHAPTER 9. or H. from a "cold start" condition. • Class F: No more than 115o Celsius winding temperature rise. at 40o Celsius (maximum)ambient air temperature. These letter codes are arranged in order of lowest heat tolerance to highest: • Class A: No more than 55o Celsius winding temperature rise. Heatdissipating “radiator” tubes on the outside of the transformer case provide a convective oil ﬂow path to transfer heat from the transformer’s core to ambient air: (Figure 9. and also to displace moisture which would otherwise compromise the integrity of the winding insulation. and that the windings are not overloaded or operated too close to maximum ampacity.72: Starting at e=0 V. at 40o Celsius (maximum)ambient air temperature. • Class B: No more than 80o Celsius winding temperature rise. The familiar “hum” heard around large power transformers is the sound of the iron core expanding and . Large power transformers have their core and windings submerged in an oil bath to transfer heat and mufﬂe noise.
PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS 279 Primary terminals Secondary terminals Heat Core Heat Radiator tube Radiator tube flow Oil Figure 9.8.73: Large power transformers are submerged in heat dissipating insulating oil.9. .
Large units are typically rated in VA (voltamps) or kVA (kilo voltamps). which can be problematic in signal applications. Leakage inductance tends to worsen a transformer’s voltage regulation (secondary voltage “sags” more for a given amount of load current). TRANSFORMERS contracting at 120 Hz (twice the system frequency. the winding generates an mmf. Transformer designers have to consider these physical forces in the construction of the winding coils. However. • Leakage inductance is caused by magnetic ﬂux not being 100% coupled between windings in a transformer. • Magnetic saturation of a transformer core may be caused by excessive primary voltage. which is how (self) inductance works. This capacitance can be signiﬁcant enough to give the transformer a natural resonant frequency. which may cause overheating in large transformers.280 CHAPTER 9. These opposing mmf ’s generated between primary and secondary windings as a result of secondary (load) current produce a repulsive. operation at too low of a frequency. Again. though. Another noiseproducing phenomenon in power transformers is the physical reaction force between primary and secondary windings when heavily loaded. Any ﬂux not involved with transferring energy from one winding to another will store and release energy. • REVIEW: • Power transformers are limited in the amount of power they can transfer from primary to secondary winding(s). Under heavy load (high current) conditions. If the secondary winding is opencircuited. which becomes counteracted by a “reﬂected” mmf in the primary winding to prevent core ﬂux levels from changing. physical force between the windings which will tend to make them vibrate. and/or by the presence of a DC current in any of . there will be no current through it. these stresses may be great enough to cause audible noise to emanate from the transformer. maintaining low magnetic ﬂux levels in the core is the key to minimizing this effect. as current will dissipate heat. • Increased frequency results in increased power losses within a power transformer. and consequently no magnetomotive force (mmf) produced by it. when the secondary is “loaded” (current supplied to a load). which explains why ferroresonant transformers – which must operate in saturation for a large portion of the current waveform – operate both hot and noisy. which is 60 Hz in the United States) – one cycle of core contraction and expansion for every peak of the magnetic ﬂux waveform – plus noise created by mechanical forces between primary and secondary windings. wasting energy. to ensure there is adequate mechanical support to handle the stresses. Among the effects are eddy currents (circulating induction currents in the iron core) and hysteresis (power lost due to overcoming the tendency of iron to magnetize in a particular direction). • Magnetic effects in a transformer’s iron core also contribute to inefﬁciency. • Resistance in transformer windings contributes to inefﬁciency. • Both transformers and inductors harbor certain unavoidable amounts of capacitance due to wire insulation (dielectric) separating winding turns from the iron core and from each other. The presence of harmonics in a power system is a source of frequencies signiﬁcantly higher than normal.
from most recent to ﬁrst. Rapid Electriﬁcation a Century Ago”. Inrush current is most severe when connection to the AC source is made at the moment instantaneous source voltage is zero. Physical forces causing winding vibration may also generate noise under conditions of heavy (high current) secondary winding load. http://www. Mitsugi Yamaguchi. EDN.9. Bart Anderson (January 2004): Corrected conceptual errors regarding Tesla coil operation and safety. • Transformers often experience signiﬁcant inrush currents when initially connected to an AC voltage source.html . Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting. See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information. “Electric Power In Japan. (4/11/2002). which provides an adequate margin of safety between peak magnetic ﬂux density values and the saturation limits of the core. Bibliography [1] Mitsuyoshi Yamamoto. which led to a much betterlooking second edition.ieee. • Noise is a common phenomenon exhibited by transformers – especially power transformers – and is primarily caused by magnetostriction of the core. 9. Saturation may be minimized or avoided by conservative design.9. CONTRIBUTORS 281 the windings.9 Contributors Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions.org/organizations/pes/public/2005/mar/peshistory.
TRANSFORMERS .282 CHAPTER 9.
. . . . . . . . . . .9 Singlephase power systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The distinction between a “power circuit” and a “regular circuit” may seem arbitrary. . . . . . . Phase rotation . . . . . .1) is a very simple AC circuit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 10. . . . . . . . Depicted above (Figure 10. . . . . . . . .1: Single phase power system schematic diagram shows little about the wiring of a practical power circuit. . .5 10. . . . . .2 10. . but the practical concerns are deﬁnitely not. . . . If the load resistor’s power dissipation were substantial. . . . . . . . . Harmonics in polyphase power systems Harmonic phase sequences . . . . . . . 283 289 296 300 306 313 318 343 345 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Chapter 10 POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS Contents 10. we might call this a “power circuit” or “power system” instead of regarding it as just a regular circuit. . . . . . . 283 . . . . . . . .1 Singlephase power systems load #1 load #2 Figure 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contributors . . . . . . .4 10. . .6 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 10. .7 10. . . . Polyphase motor design . Threephase power systems . . . . . . Threephase Y and Delta conﬁgurations Threephase transformer circuits . . . . .1 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
and would necessitate copper wire conductors of at least 1/0 gage.66 amps total circuit current. weighing over 300 pounds per thousand feet. Normally.2 adds up to 166. permitting the use of smaller. I= I= P E 10 kW 120 V (for each load resistor) I = 83.2) 120 V load #1 P = 10 kW load #2 P = 10 kW Figure 10.2: As a practical matter. we can determine the wiring needs for this particular circuit: (Figure 10. If we give the source in the above circuit a voltage value and also give power dissipation values to the two load resistors. the wiring for the 20 kW loads at 120 Vac is rather substantial (167 A). This is no small amount of current.67 A Ptotal = (10 kW) + (10 kW) Ptotal = 20 kW 83.33 A) + (83. lighter. However. The loads.33 A) Itotal = 166. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS One such concern is the size and cost of wiring necessary to deliver power from the AC source to the load. in the real world it can be a major concern. Such wire is well over 1/4 inch (6 mm) in diameter. The advantage would be less current required. of course. would have to have greater resistance values to dissipate the same power as before (10 kW each) at a greater voltage than before.33 A Itotal = Iload#1 + Iload#2 Itotal = (83. and cheaper wire: (Figure 10.284 CHAPTER 10. we do not give much thought to this type of concern if we’re merely analyzing a circuit for the sake of learning about the laws of electricity.3) .33 amps for each load resistor in Figure 10. Bear in mind that copper is not cheap either! It would be in our best interest to ﬁnd ways to minimize such costs if we were designing a power system with long conductor lengths. One way to do this would be to increase the voltage of the power source and use loads built to dissipate 10 kW each at this higher voltage.
lighter.33 amps. High voltage gives greater system efﬁciency by means of reduced conductor current. Another practical concern with power circuits is the danger of electric shock from high voltages. I= I= P E 10 kW 240 V (for each load resistor) I = 41.3: Same 10 kW loads at 240 Vac requires less substantial wiring than at 120 Vac (83 A). cheaper wire. This is a considerable reduction in system cost with no degradation in performance. Again. SINGLEPHASE POWER SYSTEMS 285 240 V load #1 P = 10 kW load #2 P = 10 kW Figure 10. this is not usually the sort of thing we concentrate on while learning about the laws of electricity. half of what it was before. However. which weighs less than half of what 1/0 gage wire does per unit length. This is why power distribution system designers elect to transmit electric power using very high voltages (many thousands of volts): to capitalize on the savings realized by the use of smaller. especially when large amounts of power are being dealt with.1. this solution is not without disadvantages. and insulating the lines from the supporting structures with large.67 A) Itotal = 83.10. The gain in efﬁciency realized by stepping up the circuit voltage presents us with increased danger of electric shock. Power distribution companies tackle this problem by stringing their power lines along high poles or towers. This tradeoff between efﬁciency and danger is one that European power system designers have decided to . At the point of use (the electric power customer).67 A Itotal = Iload#1 + Iload#2 Itotal = (41. but it might not always be practical to keep power wiring out of reach at the point of use the way it can be elevated out of reach in distribution systems. porcelain insulators. We can now use number 4 gage wire. there is still the issue of what voltage to use for powering loads.67 A) + (41.33 A Ptotal = (10 kW) + (10 kW) Ptotal = 20 kW Now our total circuit current is 83. but it is a very valid concern in the real world.
33 A load +120 V #1 10 kW load +120 V #2 10 kW 83. phase relationships will become very important. this would be expensive and inconvenient for anything but very small loads (where the transformers can be built cheaply) or very large loads (where the expense of thick copper wires would exceed the expense of a transformer).3 A total current. or being turned off (assuming each load has a series on/off switch to interrupt current) are not good. as well as the unidirectional arrows for current. even though the notation is valid to provide a frame of reference for phase. current would stop in the other load as well.33 A Figure 10.5) + 240 V  + 240 V  . not 240. Notice the polarity markings (+ and ) for each voltage shown. if either load were to open. just as the American tourist must do while in Europe. If anyone is going to get shocked. but each load is operating at a reduced voltage. so I’m introducing this notation early on in the chapter for your familiarity. the odds are that it will be from coming into contact with the conductors of a particular load rather than from contact across the main wires of a power system. This approach combines the efﬁciency of a highvoltage system with the safety of a lowvoltage system: (Figure 10. The current through each load is the same as it was in the simple 120 volt circuit. For the most part. but the currents are not additive because the loads are in series rather than parallel. to step the 240 VAC (volts AC) power down to a more suitable 120 VAC. That is why tourists from America visiting Europe must carry small stepdown transformers for their portable appliances. Being a series circuit. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS risk. I’ve avoided labeling “polarities” in the AC circuits we’ve been analyzing. we need to modify the design a bit: (Figure 10.4: Series connected 120 Vac loads. In later sections of this chapter. Is there any way to realize the advantages of both increased efﬁciency and reduced safety hazard at the same time? One solution would be to install stepdown transformers at the endpoint of power use.286 CHAPTER 10. However. Mind you. An alternative solution would be to use a higher voltage supply to provide power to two lower voltage loads in series. For this reason. There’s only one disadvantage to this design: the consequences of one load failing open.4) 83. The voltage across each load is only 120 volts. we still have a full 240 volts across the power system wires. all their households and appliances operating at a nominal voltage of 240 volts instead of 120 volts as it is in North America. driven by 240 Vac source at 83. so the safety factor is better.
In the above case.33 A + + 120 V ∠ 0o "hot" "neutral" 0A "hot" 83. The astute observer will note that the neutral wire only has to carry the difference of current between the two loads back to the source. An essential component to a splitphase power system is the dual AC voltage source. the neutral wire carries zero current. Three smaller wires are still cheaper than the two wires needed with the simple parallel design. This is a common feature in power systems containing “neutral” wires. that transformer can be built with a centertapped secondary winding: (Figure 10. the coils can be similarly centertapped for the same effect. since grounding the neutral wire ensures the least possible voltage at any given time between any “hot” wire and earth ground. This is called a splitphase power system. The extra expense to include a centertap connection in a . then run a third wire to the connection point between the loads to handle the eventuality of one load opening.6) If the AC power comes directly from a generator (alternator).10. so we’re still ahead on efﬁciency. SINGLEPHASE POWER SYSTEMS 287 83. designing and building one is not difﬁcult. with perfectly “balanced” loads consuming equal amounts of power.5: Addition of neutral conductor allows loads to be individually driven. Since most AC systems receive their power from a stepdown transformer anyway (stepping voltage down from high distribution levels to a userlevel voltage like 120 or 240).33 A (for each load resistor) Instead of a single 240 volt power supply. Etotal = (120 V ∠ 0o) + (120 V ∠ 0o) Etotal = 240 V ∠ 0o I= P E Ptotal = (10 kW) + (10 kW) Ptotal = 20 kW 10 kW I= 120 V I = 83. Notice how the neutral wire is connected to earth ground at the power supply end.1. Fortunately. we use two 120 volt supplies (in phase with each other!) in series to produce 240 volts.33 A load +120 V #1 ∠ 0o load +120 V #2 ∠ 0o  120 V ∠ 0o + 240 V  Figure 10.
4 kV + Figure 10. which would give 0 volts between the two “hot” conductors. If not for these polarity markings. Note that the splitphase sources in the schematic (each one 120 volts 0o ).7) 120 V 120 V + 240 V  "hot" + + 120 V ∠ 0o 120 V ∠ 180o + 240 V ∠ 0o "hot" Figure 10. we must subtract voltages.288 CHAPTER 10. This notation is often used to reference the phasings of multiple AC voltage sources.(120 + j0) V 240 + j0 V If we mark the two sources’ common connection point (the neutral wire) with the same polarity mark (). Here is where the (+) and () polarity markings really become important. To mathematically calculate voltage between “hot” wires.7: Split phase 120/240 Vac source is equivalent to two series aiding 120 Vac sources. we must express their relative phase shifts as being 180o apart. phase relations between multiple AC sources might be very confusing. so it is clear whether they are aiding (“boosting”) each other or opposing (“bucking”) each other. we’d be denoting two voltage sources in direct opposition with each other. transformer or alternator winding is minimal. with polarity marks (+) to () just like seriesaiding batteries can alternatively be represented as such: (Figure 10. Why am I taking the time to elaborate on polarity marks and phase angles? It will make more sense in the next section! . POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS Stepdown transformer with centertapped secondary winding + + 2. Otherwise.6: American 120/240 Vac power is derived from a center tapped utility transformer. because their polarity marks show them to be opposed to each other: Polar 120 ∠ 0o .120 ∠ 180o 240 ∠ 0o Rectangular 120 + j0 V .
This technique. But we know from our experience with vectors and complex numbers that AC voltages don’t always add up as we think they would if they are out of phase with each other. except that each voltage source was 120o out of phase with the other: (Figure 10. this kind of AC power supply is called single phase because both voltage waveforms are in phase.85 V ∠ 30o . with more than two wires. 10. The term “single phase” is a counterpoint to another kind of power system called “polyphase” which we are about to investigate in detail. In a more general sense. providing socalled 120/240 VAC power. the voltage across each load must be 120 volts as well. • A splitphase power system is one with multiple (inphase) AC voltage sources connected in series. by the way. Such systems are usually referred to as threewire systems rather than splitphase because “phase” is a concept restricted to AC. Suppose that we had two sources of AC voltage connected in series just like the splitphase system we saw before. delivering power to loads at more than one voltage.8) Since each voltage source is 120 volts.10.33 amps. However.(120 V ∠ 120o) Etotal = 207. They are used primarily to achieve balance between system efﬁciency (low conductor currents) and safety (low load voltages). works just as well for DC power systems as it does for singlephase AC systems. Apologies for the long introduction leading up to the titletopic of this chapter. applied to power systems. with each other. The advantages of polyphase power systems are more obvious if one ﬁrst has a good understanding of single phase systems. and each load resistor is connected directly in parallel with its respective source. each load must still be dissipating 10 kilowatts of power. The term “splitphase” merely refers to the splitvoltage supply in such a system. or in step. the voltage is: Etotal = (120 V ∠ 0o) .2.120 180o ) because the phase difference between the two sources is not 180o . Given load currents of 83. Instead. • REVIEW: • Single phase power systems are deﬁned by having an AC source with only one voltage waveform. can be put to use to make power systems with even greater conductor efﬁciencies and lower shock hazard than with splitphase. • Splitphase AC sources can be easily created by centertapping the coil windings of transformers or alternators. This principle. THREEPHASE POWER SYSTEMS 289 Power systems in American households and light industry are most often of the splitphase variety. voltage between the two “hot” wires is not 240 volts (120 0o .2 Threephase power systems Splitphase power systems achieve their high conductor efﬁciency and low safety risk by splitting up the total voltage into lesser parts and powering multiple loads at those lesser voltages. while drawing currents at levels typical of a fullvoltage system.
8: Pair of 120 Vac sources phased 120o . we say that the voltage between “hot” conductors is 208 volts (rounding up). we ﬁnd that it is not zero.33 A ∠ 0o + + "hot" 120 V ∠ 0o 120 V ∠ 120o "neutral" load +120 V #1 ∠ 0o load 120 V #2 ∠ 120o + + 207. "hot" Iload#1 . similar to splitphase.Iload#2 .33 A ∠ 240o or 83.33 A ∠ 0o) .33 A ∠ 120o .9: Neutral wire carries a current in the case of a pair of 120o phased sources.9) 83.(83.33 A ∠ 120o Figure 10. If we calculate the current through the “neutral” conductor. Kirchhoff ’s Current Law tells us that the currents entering and exiting the node between the two loads must be zero: (Figure 10.Iload#2 Ineutral = .290 CHAPTER 10. and thus the power system voltage is designated as 120/208.Ineutral = Iload#1 + Iload#2 Ineutral = Iload#1 . Nominally. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS 83.33 A ∠ 120o Figure 10.Ineutral = 0 .33 A ∠ 1200) Ineutral = 83. even with balanced load resistances.33 A ∠ 0o load + 120 V ∠ 0o #1 "neutral" Node Ineutral load o #2 120 V ∠ 120 + "hot" 83.(83.85 V ∠ 30o  "hot" 83.
A full mathematical analysis of all the voltages and currents in this circuit would necessitate the use of a network theorem.33 amps as before. Let’s see how this might look: (Figure 10.33 A ∠ 240o + 120 V ∠ 240o 120 V + ∠ 120o 83. we must use the same gage copper conductors. Notice that this circuit has no “neutral” conductor to ensure stable voltage to all loads if one should open. SPICE listing: 120/208 polyphase power system) Sure enough. just like each “hot” wire. equal currents). the voltage drops across the remaining load(s) will change. each load will be dissipating 10 kW of power. with each load’s “hot” wire carrying 83.10.33 amps. the easiest being the Superposition Theorem. To ensure load voltage stability in the event of another load opening. drawnout calculations because you should be able to intuitively understand that the three voltage sources at three different phase angles will deliver 120 volts each to a balanced triad of load resistors. This circuit we’ve been analyzing with three voltage sources is called a polyphase circuit. with (approximately) 208 volts between any two “hot” conductors and conductor currents equal to 83. we have realized a gain in safety.10) 83. we get 120 volts across each load resistor. the currents are the same as for two loads. why not use that third wire as another “hot” conductor. The fact that the neutral wire is carrying 83.33 A ∠ 120o load #1 load #3 120 V 10 kW load #2 120 V 10 kW 120 V 10 kW + 208 V ∠ 30o  Figure 10.33 A ∠ 0o + 120 V ∠ 0o 83. For proof of this. It is there just in case one or more load resistors should fail open (or be shut off through a disconnecting switch). powering another load resistor with a third 120 volt source having a phase angle of 240o ? That way.33 amps of current raises an interesting possibility: since its carrying current anyway. I’ll spare you the long. we ﬁnd that the “neutral” wire is carrying a full 83. .33 amps. Note that we are still conveying 20 kW of total power to the two loads. However. With the same amount of current through each “hot” wire.10: With a third load phased 120o to the other two. because the overall voltage between the two “hot” conductors is 32 volts lower than it was in the splitphase system (208 volts instead of 240 volts).11. we need a neutral wire to connect the source node and load node together: So long as the loads remain balanced (equal resistance. (Figure 10. we can use SPICE to do the math for us: (Figure 10. THREEPHASE POWER SYSTEMS 291 So. the neutral wire will not have to carry any current at all.12) At that current and voltage.2. we could transmit more power (another 10 kW) without having to add any more conductors. What we have here is a situation similar to our splitphase power circuit with no “neutral” conductor: if one load should happen to fail open. so we haven’t reduced system cost over the splitphase 120/240 system.
200E+02 VOLTAGE BETWEEN ‘‘HOT’’ CONDUCTORS freq v(1.print ac v(1.3) 6.200E+02 v(3.44 Ω 2 120 V ∠ 120o Figure 10.333E+01 8.44 r3 3 4 1.292 CHAPTER 10.44 Ω R2 R1 1 1. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS 1 + 0 + 2 120 V ∠ 0o + 120 V ∠ 240o 3 3 R3 1.000E+01 8. 120/208 polyphase power system v1 1 0 ac 120 0 sin v2 2 0 ac 120 120 sin v3 3 0 ac 120 240 sin r1 1 4 1.2) v(2.333E+01 .200E+02 1.3) v(3.4) v(3.000E+01 1.1) 2.4) .print ac i(v1) i(v2) i(v3) .end VOLTAGE ACROSS EACH LOAD freq v(1.4) v(2.11: SPICE circuit: Three 3Φ loads phased at 120o .4) v(2.44 .078E+02 2.000E+01 2.333E+01 v(3.44 Ω 4 1.44 r2 2 4 1.ac lin 1 60 60 .print ac v(1.2) v(2.4) 1.4) 6.1) .078E+02 CURRENT THROUGH EACH VOLTAGE SOURCE freq i(v1) i(v2) 6.078E+02 i(v3) 8.
This would necessitate 3/0 gage copper wire (very large!).13: For comparison.13) 120V 250 A load #1 10 kW load #2 10 kW load #3 10 kW Figure 10. we would need over a halfton of copper wire to do the job. On the other hand.10. (Figure 10. We could get away with using number 2 gage copper wire at a total mass of about 600 . Since the voltage sources are all at different phase angles (in this case. or 250 amps. this is a “polyphase” circuit.33 A ∠ 120o 0A "neutral" load #1 load #3 120 V 10 kW load #2 120 V 10 kW 120 V 10 kW Figure 10. If the distance from source to load was 1000 feet. pentagon and hexagon). 120 volt loads. at about 510 pounds per thousand feet.” as in “polytheism” (belief in more than one deity). THREEPHASE POWER SYSTEMS 293 83.12: SPICE circuit annotated with simulation results: Three 3Φ loads phased at 120o . three 10 Kw loads on a 120 Vac system draw 250 A. More speciﬁcally. it is a threephase circuit. The preﬁx “poly” simply means “more than one.2. Let’s survey the advantages of a threephase power system over a singlephase system of equivalent load voltage and power capacity. and with a considerable price tag attached. we could build a splitphase system with two 15 kW. the kind used predominantly in large power distribution systems.14) Our current is half of what it was with the simple parallel circuit. A singlephase system with three loads connected directly in parallel would have a very high total current (83. which is a great improvement.33 A ∠ 240o + 120 V "hot" ∠ 240o 120 V + ∠ 120o "hot" 83.33 times 3. and “polyatomic” (a substance composed of multiple types of atoms). “polygon” (a geometrical shape made of multiple line segments: for example.33 A ∠ 0o "hot" + 120 V ∠ 0o 83. three different phase angles). (Figure 10.
but then those phase shifts would depend on the phase angles of our load impedances as well (substituting a capacitive or inductive load for a resistive load would change everything!). with one lead of each source tied to . One question remains to be answered: how in the world do we get three AC voltage sources whose phase angles are exactly 120o apart? Obviously we can’t centertap a transformer or alternator winding like we did in the splitphase system. there is greater potential for dangerous electric shock to occur. The best way to get the phase shifts we’re looking for is to generate it at the source: construct the AC generator (alternator) providing the power in such a way that the rotating magnetic ﬁeld passes by three sets of wire windings. the six “pole” windings of a threephase alternator are connected to comprise three winding pairs. we also have to consider the increased safety hazard of having 240 volts present in the system. In our example circuit.294 CHAPTER 10. We can use number 4 gage wire at about 125 pounds per thousand feet. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS + + 125 A ∠ 0o "hot" 120 V ∠ 0o 120 V ∠ 180o "neutral" 0A load #1 load #2 120 V 15 kW 120 V 15 kW + 240 V ∠ 0o  "hot" 125 A ∠ 180o Figure 10. However. the advantages are quite clear. The interconnections between pairs of windings (as shown for the singlephase alternator: the jumper wire between windings 1a and 1b) have been omitted from the threephase alternator drawing for simplicity. permitting the use of much thinner and lighter wire. each set spaced 120o apart around the circumference of the machine as in Figure 10. ﬁguring about 200 pounds per thousand feet with three runs of 1000 feet each between source and loads. each pair producing AC voltage with a phase angle 120o shifted from either of the other two winding pairs. pounds. When we contrast these two examples against our threephase system (Figure 10.33 amps versus 125 or 250 amps). since that can only give us voltage waveforms that are either in phase or 180o out of phase.14: Split phase system draws half the current of 125 A at 240 Vac compared to 120 Vac system. Perhaps we could ﬁgure out some way to use capacitors and inductors to create phase shifts of 120o . with the additional beneﬁt that the maximum voltage in the system is lower (208 versus 240).12). First. even though each load only receives 120 volts. which will total 500 pounds (four runs of 1000 feet each) for our example circuit. the conductor currents are quite a bit less (83. we showed the three voltage sources connected together in a “Y” conﬁguration (sometimes called the “star” conﬁguration). This represents a signiﬁcant cost savings over the splitphase system. Overall. Together.15.
2. 180o phaseshifted from each other. More to come on this subject later in the chapter. A polyphase power system can deliver more power at less voltage with smallergage conductors than single. The advantage of this is the ability to have lower conductor currents while maintaining low load voltages for safety reasons. • A polyphase power system uses multiple voltage sources at different phase angles from each other (many “phases” of voltage waveforms at work).10.or splitphase systems. . • REVIEW: • A singlephase power system is one where there is only one AC voltage source (one source voltage waveform). The common way to depict this connection scheme is to draw the windings in the shape of a “Y” like Figure 10. a common point (the node where we attached the “neutral” conductor). The “Y” conﬁguration is not the only option open to us. powering a two seriesconnected loads.16: Alternator ”Y” conﬁguration. THREEPHASE POWER SYSTEMS Threephase alternator (b) Singlephase alternator (a) winding 1a S winding 1b winding 2a winding 1a S winding 3a winding 1b 295 N winding 3b N winding 2b Figure 10. but it is probably the easiest to understand at ﬁrst.16. • A splitphase power system is one where there are two voltage sources.15: (a) Singlephase alternator. + 120 V ∠ 0o + + 120 V ∠ 120o 120 V ∠ 240o Figure 10. (b) Threephase alternator.
winding 2’s waveform will be leading 120o ahead of 1 instead of lagging.3 Phase rotation Let’s take the threephase alternator design laid out earlier (Figure 10. them winding 2. then winding 2 will have a phase angle of 120o (120o lagging.17: Threephase alternator The phase angle shift of 120o is a function of the actual rotational angle shift of the three pairs of windings (Figure 10. that depend on having phase rotation being one way or the other. or 240o leading) and winding 3 an angle of 240o (or 120o leading). 10. which will hits its peak 120o after winding 1. the magnet will pass by the pole pairs in the opposite sequence. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS • The phaseshifted voltage sources necessary for a polyphase power system are created in alternators with multiple sets of wire windings. we . if we reverse the rotation of the alternator’s shaft (turn it counterclockwise). If we’re using a polyphase voltage source to power resistive loads. The magnet passes by each pole pair at different positions in the rotational movement of the shaft. Instead of 123. as we will see shortly.296 CHAPTER 10. and 3 will be another 120o ahead of 2. winding 2a winding 1a S winding 3a winding 1b winding 3b N winding 2b Figure 10. then winding 3). This order keeps repeating itself as long as we continue to rotate the alternator’s shaft. Whether 123 or 321. winding 3 will generate its peak instantaneous voltage exactly 120o (of alternator shaft rotation) after winding 2. (Figure 10. Where we decide to place the windings will dictate the amount of phase shift between the windings’ AC voltage waveforms. This sequence of phase shifts has a deﬁnite order. we’ll have 321. Now. If the magnet is rotating clockwise. Since voltmeters and ammeters would be useless in telling us what the phase rotation of an operating power system is. There are some applications of threephase power.18) However. (Figure 10. If we make winding 1 our “reference” voltage source for phase angle (0o ). These winding sets are spaced around the circumference of the rotor’s rotation at the desired angle(s).17) and watch what happens as the magnet rotates. the order is 123 (winding 1 peaks ﬁrst.18). phase rotation will make no difference at all. the voltage and current magnitudes will all be the same. For clockwise rotation of the shaft.19) The order of voltage waveform sequences in a polyphase system is called phase rotation or phase sequence.
3.1.2.1.3.3.18: Clockwise rotation phase sequence: 123.3. . PHASE ROTATION 297 phase sequence: 1.2.1. phase sequence: 3.2.2.10.3.1 3 2 1 TIME Figure 10.1.2.3 1 2 3 TIME Figure 10.19: Counterclockwise rotation phase sequence: 321.2.
20: Phase sequence detector compares brightness of two lamps. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS need to have some other kind of instrument capable of doing the job. The resulting phase shift from the capacitor causes the voltage across phase 1 lamp (between nodes 1 and 4) to fall to 48.20. the circuit being balanced. The capacitor is sized to have approximately the same amount of reactance at system frequency as each lamp’s resistance. which is then used to detect the sequence by way of comparison between the brightness of two indicator lamps in Figure 10. the capacitor introduces a phase shift between voltage and current in the third leg of the circuit equal to 90o .1 volts and the voltage across phase 2 lamp (between nodes . If the capacitor were to be replaced by a resistor of equal value to the lamps’ resistance.21: SPICE circuit for phase sequence detector. to phase #1 C to phase #2 to phase #3 Figure 10. The two lamps are of equal ﬁlament resistance and wattage. the two lamps would glow at equal brightness. One ingenious circuit design uses a capacitor to introduce a phase shift between voltage and current. ”phase rotation detector – sequence = v1v2v3” 1 + 0 + 2 120 V ∠ 0o + 120 V ∠ 240o 120 V ∠ 120o R1 3 3 C1 1 2650 Ω 4 1 µF R2 2 2650 Ω Figure 10.21). This phase shift. However.298 CHAPTER 10. skews the voltage and current values across the two lamps according to their phase shifts relative to phase 3. greater than 0o but less than 120o . The following SPICE analysis demonstrates what will happen: (Figure 10.
end freq v(1. the opposite rotation . However.795E+02 1.print ac v(1.ac lin 1 60 60 . There is a much easier way to reverse phase sequence than reversing alternator rotation: just exchange any two of the three “hot” wires going to a threephase load. Likewise. What is commonly designated as a “123” phase rotation could just as well be called “231” or “312.4) 6.4) .” going from left to right in the number string above.sequence = v3v2v1 v1 1 0 ac 120 240 sin v2 2 0 ac 120 120 sin v3 3 0 ac 120 0 sin r1 1 4 2650 r2 2 4 2650 c1 3 4 1u .4) v(2.4) v(3.4) v(3. making the ﬁrst lamp dim and the second lamp bright. .5 volts.end freq v(1.610E+02 Here.000E+01 1.4) v(2.4) v(2.795E+02 4. reversal of the alternator’s shaft rotation is not usually an option open to an enduser of electrical power supplied by a nationwide grid (“the” alternator actually being the combined total of all alternators in all power plants feeding the grid). Just the opposite will happen if the phase sequence is reversed: ”phase rotation detector – sequence = v3v2v1 ” phase rotation detector . .1 volts.ac lin 1 60 60 .810E+01 1.4) v(3. PHASE ROTATION phase rotation detector .print ac v(1.10.4) v(3.4) 6.000E+01 4.610E+02 299 2 and 4) to rise to 179.810E+01 1. This trick makes more sense if we take another look at a running phase sequence of a threephase voltage source: 123 rotation: 321 rotation: 123123123123123 .5 volts while the second receives only 48.4) .3. .sequence = v1v2v3 v1 1 0 ac 120 0 sin v2 2 0 ac 120 120 sin v3 3 0 ac 120 240 sin r1 1 4 2650 r2 2 4 2650 c1 3 4 1u .(”phase rotation detector – sequence = v3v2v1”) the ﬁrst lamp receives 179. We’ve investigated how phase rotation is produced (the order in which pole pairs get passed by the alternator’s rotating magnet) and how it can be changed by reversing the alternator’s shaft rotation.4) v(2. . 321321321321321 .
there are only two possible phase sequences: 123 and 321. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS (321) could just as easily be called “213” or “132. the phase rotation ends up being reversed (123 gets changed to 213. 10.” Starting out with a phase rotation of 321. or phase sequence. . (Other AC motor designs are not quite this simple. we can try all the possibilities for swapping any two of the wires at a time and see what happens to the resulting sequence in Figure 10. • Phase rotation can be reversed by swapping any two of the three “hot” leads supplying threephase power to a threephase load.22.300 CHAPTER 10. as shown in the operation of a phase rotation detector circuit. • REVIEW: • Phase rotation. corresponding to the two possible directions of alternator rotation. No matter which pair of “hot” wires out of the three we choose to swap. some types of AC motors are virtually identical in construction to their alternator (generator) counterparts. Original 123 phase rotation 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 End result 2 1 3 1 3 2 3 2 1 (wires 1 and 2 swapped) phase rotation = 213 (wires 2 and 3 swapped) phase rotation = 132 (wires 1 and 3 swapped) phase rotation = 321 Figure 10. but we will leave those details to another lesson). • Phase rotation has no impact on resistive loads.22: All possibilities of swapping any two wires. 132 or 321. all equivalent). consisting of stationary wire windings and a rotating magnet assembly.4 Polyphase motor design Perhaps the most important beneﬁt of polyphase AC power over singlephase is the design and operation of AC motors. As we studied in the ﬁrst chapter of this book. For a threephase system. but it will have impact on unbalanced reactive loads. is the order in which the voltage waveforms of a polyphase AC source reach their respective peaks.
. clockwise is not the only valid direction for this motor’s shaft to spin.24: Counterclockwise AC motor operation.23) However. It could just as easily be powered in a counterclockwise direction by the same AC voltage waveform a in Figure 10.4.23: Clockwise AC motor operation. Step #1 N S S I I + N N S Step #2 N S Step #3 S N S S N N Step #4 S N + I I  Figure 10. it will continue to be pulled around clockwise.10. If the rotating magnet is able to keep up with the frequency of the alternating current energizing the electromagnet windings (coils). POLYPHASE MOTOR DESIGN Step #1 N S N I I + S N S Step #2 N S 301 Step #3 S N N S S N Step #4 S N + I I  Figure 10. (Figure 10.24.
current. Where that “help” comes from for a singlephase AC motor to get going in one direction can vary. In fact. What can be a confusing concept is made much clearer through analogy. The natural question should arise at this point: how can the motor get started in the intended direction if it can run either way just as well? The answer is that these motors need a little help getting started.25) winding 2’s voltage waveform is 90 degrees out of phase with winding 1’s voltage waveform winding 2a winding 1a S winding 1b N winding 2b winding 2’s voltage waveform is 90 degrees out of phase with winding 1’s voltage waveform Figure 10. and magnetic poles produced by the coils). It was this concept of a rotating magnetic ﬁeld that inspired Nikola Tesla to design the world’s ﬁrst polyphase electrical systems (simply to make simpler. This is a common trait of all singlephase AC “induction” and “synchronous” motors: they have no normal or “correct” direction of rotation. (Figure 10. What makes the difference between the two types of bulb strings? Answer: phase shift! Examine a string of lights where every other bulb is lit at any given time as in (Figure 10. the magnetic rotor can spin in either direction. (Figure 10. more efﬁcient motors).26) That phase shift creates magnetic ﬁelds from coils 2a and 2b that are equally out of step with the ﬁelds from coils 1a and 1b. The line current and safety advantages of polyphase power over single phase power were discovered later. they will continue to spin that way as long as AC power is maintained to the windings. Have you ever seen a row of blinking light bulbs such as the kind used in Christmas decorations? Some strings appear to “move” in a deﬁnite direction as the bulbs alternately glow and darken in sequence. Once helped to spin in a particular direction. The result is a set of magnetic ﬁelds with a deﬁnite phase rotation. Polyphase AC motors require no such trickery to spin in a deﬁnite direction. It is this phase rotation that pulls the rotating magnet around in a deﬁnite direction. Usually.302 CHAPTER 10.25: Unidirectionalstarting AC twophase motor. and energized with an AC voltage that is out of phase with the main power. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS Notice that with the exact same sequence of polarity cycles (voltage. Because their supply voltage waveforms already have a deﬁnite rotation sequence. the combination of all three phase winding sets working together creates what is often called a rotating magnetic ﬁeld.27) . Other strings just blink on and off with no apparent motion. it comes from an additional set of windings positioned differently from the main set. These supplementary coils are typically connected in series with a capacitor to introduce a phase shift in current between the two sets of windings. so do the respective magnetic ﬁelds generated by the motor’s stationary windings.
Figure 10. .27: Phase sequence 1212: lamps appear to move.26: Capacitor phase shift adds second phase. POLYPHASE MOTOR DESIGN 303 1a 2a 1b C I 2b I these two branch currents are out of phase with each other Figure 10.10.4.
the necessary phase shifts are there already. and vice versa. which can run just as easily in either direction. the rotating magnetic ﬁeld necessary for selfstarting must to be created by way of capacitive phase shift. Now the lights in Figure 10.30. Your eyes could follow a “motion” from left to right just as easily as from right to left. the “1” and “2” bulb blinking sequences are 180o out of phase (exactly opposite each other). With singlephase motors.29. With polyphase motors. 1 all "1" bulbs lit 1 all "2" bulbs lit 1 all "3" bulbs lit 1 all "1" bulbs lit 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 Time 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 phase sequence = 123 bulbs appear to be "moving" from left to right Figure 10. The blinking pattern will either appear to move clockwise or counterclockwise depending on the phase sequence. With phase shifts of less than 180o we get true rotation of the magnetic ﬁeld. Technically. there is no deﬁnite “motion” to the bulbs’ light. It should come as no surprise that the appearance of motion will reverse if the phase sequence of the bulbs is reversed.29 appear to be “moving” in a clockwise direction because they are arranged around a circle instead of a straight line. This is analogous to a threephase AC motor with three sets of windings energized by voltage sources of three different phase shifts in Figure 10. Now imagine this blinking string of bulbs arranged into a circle as in Figure 10. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS When all of the “1” bulbs are lit.28)). the direction of shaft rotation for polyphase motors is very easily reversed: just swap any two “hot” wires going to the motor. but which cannot start on its own because its magnetic ﬁeld alternation lacks a deﬁnite “rotation. Plus.304 CHAPTER 10. and these three sets are equally out of phase with each other in Figure 10.28: Phase sequence: 123: bulbs appear to move left to right.28. This is analogous to the singlephase AC motor. If the lighting sequence is 123 (the sequence shown in (Figure 10. and it will run in the opposite direction! • REVIEW: .” Now let’s examine a string of lights where there are three sets of bulbs to be sequenced instead of just two. the bulbs will appear to “move” from left to right. the “2” bulbs are dark. With this blinking sequence.
bulbs appear to rotate clockwise. winding 2a winding 1a S winding 3a winding 1b winding 3b N winding 2b Figure 10. .10. 321 spins the magnet counterclockwise. POLYPHASE MOTOR DESIGN 305 2 3 all "1" bulbs lit 1 1 3 2 2 3 The bulbs appear to "move" in a clockwise direction all "2" bulbs lit 1 1 3 2 2 3 all "3" bulbs lit 1 1 3 2 Figure 10.4.29: Circular arrangement.30: Threephase AC motor: A phase sequence of 123 spins the magnet clockwise.
the “Y” conﬁguration becomes more obvious in Figure 10.31) 120 V ∠ 0o + + + 120 V ∠ 240o 120 V ∠ 120o Figure 10.306 CHAPTER 10. The three conductors leading away from the voltage sources (windings) toward a load are typically called lines. 10. there may or may not (Figure 10. a deﬁnite direction of shaft rotation can be established. their direction of rotation is ﬁxed by the phase sequence of the voltage they’re powered by. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS • AC “induction” and “synchronous” motors work by having a rotating magnet follow the alternating magnetic ﬁelds produced by stationary wire windings. (Figure 10. while the windings themselves are typically called phases. thus reversing its shaft rotation.31: Threephase “Y” connection has three voltage sources connected to a common point. If we draw a circuit showing each voltage source to be a coil of wire (alternator or transformer winding) and do some slight rearranging. This conﬁguration of voltage sources is characterized by a common connection point joining one side of each source. In a Yconnected system.33) be a neutral wire attached at the junction point in the middle. . although it certainly helps alleviate potential problems should one element of a threephase load fail open.32.5 Threephase Y and Delta conﬁgurations Initially we explored the idea of threephase power systems by connecting three voltage sources together in what is commonly known as the “Y” (or “star”) conﬁguration. • Singlephase AC motors of this type need help to get started spinning in a particular direction. • Polyphase motors don’t need such measures. • Singlephase induction motors often use an auxiliary winding connected in series with a capacitor to create the necessary phase shift. • Swapping any two “hot” wires on a polyphase AC motor will reverse its phase sequence. • By introducing a phase shift of less than 180o to the magnetic ﬁelds in such a motor. as discussed earlier.
threewire “Y” connection does not use the neutral wire. fourwire “Y” connection uses a ”common” fourth wire.33: Threephase.32: Threephase. THREEPHASE Y AND DELTA CONFIGURATIONS 307 "line" + 120 V ∠ 0o + + 120 V ∠ 120o 120 V ∠ 240o "line" Figure 10. "line" "neutral" 3phase.5. "line" (no "neutral" wire) .10. 3wire "Y" connection "line" + 120 V ∠ 0o + + 120 V ∠ 120o 120 V ∠ 240o "line" Figure 10.
At ﬁrst glance it seems as though three voltage sources like this would create a shortcircuit. One quick check of this is to use Kirchhoff ’s Voltage Law to see if the three voltages around the loop add up to zero.” for its geometric resemblance to the Greek letter of the same name (∆). the line voltage will be equal to the phase voltage times the square root of 3: For "Y" circuits: Eline = 3 Ephase Iline = Iphase However.34: Threephase. With the above circuit. Another conﬁguration is known as the “Delta. the line voltage is roughly 208 volts.308 CHAPTER 10. we need to be speciﬁc as to where we’re measuring. our KVL expression looks something like this: "line"  . threewire ∆ connection has no common. and consequently there will be no circulating current. the “Y” conﬁguration is not the only valid one for connecting threephase voltage source or load elements together. If they do. Phase voltage refers to the voltage measured across any one component (source winding or load impedance) in a balanced threephase source or load. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS When we measure voltage and current in threephase systems. "line" 120 V ∠ 0o + 120 V ∠ 240o + + 120 V ∠ 120o "line" Figure 10. then there will be no voltage available to push current around and around that loop. electrons ﬂowing around the triangle with nothing but the internal impedance of the windings to hold them back. For the circuit shown above. If the Yconnected source or load is balanced. The terms line current and phase current follow the same logic: the former referring to current through any one line conductor. however. this is not the case.34. and line currents equal to phase currents. Take close notice of the polarity for each winding in Figure 10. Due to the phase angles of these three voltage sources. Starting with the top winding and progressing counterclockwise. Yconnected sources and loads always have line voltages greater than phase voltages. the phase voltage is 120 volts. Line voltage refers to the amount of voltage measured between any two line conductors in a balanced threephase system. and the latter to current through any one component.
the line current will be the vector sum of the two joining phase currents. telling us that no current will circulate within the triangular loop of windings when that connection is made complete. Starting with the right winding (120 V equation looks like this: 120o ) and progressing counterclockwise.35: Voltage across open ∆ should be zero. THREEPHASE Y AND DELTA CONFIGURATIONS 309 (120 V ∠ 0o) + (120 V ∠ 240o) + (120 V ∠ 120o) Does it all equal 0? Yes! Indeed.10. our KVL (120 V ∠ 120o) + (120 ∠ 0o) + (120 V ∠ 240o) + Ebreak = 0 0 + Ebreak = 0 Ebreak = 0 Sure enough. there will be zero voltage across the break. the line voltage will be equal to the phase voltage. because each line conductor attaches at a node between two windings.5. Another way to verify the fact that these three voltage sources can be connected together in a loop without resulting in circulating currents is to open up the loop at one junction point and calculate voltage across the break: (Figure 10.35) 120 V ∠ 0o + 120 V ∠ 240o + 120 V ∠ 120o +  Ebreak should equal 0 V Figure 10. the resulting equations for a ∆ conﬁguration are as follows: . if we add these three vector quantities together. they do add up to zero. Because each pair of line conductors is connected directly across a single winding in a ∆ circuit. Not surprisingly. Conversely. Having established that a ∆connected threephase voltage source will not burn itself to a crisp due to circulating currents. we turn to its practical use as a source of power in threephase circuits.
36) 120 V ∠ 0o + 120 V o ∠ 240 + 120 V ∠ 120o 10 kW +  10 kW 10 kW Figure 10. given the fact that we have such greater conductor currents.34 A So each line current in this threephase power system is equal to 144. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS For ∆ ("delta") circuits: Eline = Ephase Iline = 3 Iphase Let’s see how this works in an example circuit: (Figure 10. it is still less than the 1000+ pounds of copper required for a singlephase system delivering the same power (30 kW) at the same voltage (120 volts conductortoconductor). necessitating thicker. .33 amps: I= I= P E 10 kW 120 V I = 83. One might wonder if we’ve lost all the advantages of threephase power here.310 CHAPTER 10. Although this circuit would require three number 1 gage copper conductors (at 1000 feet of distance between source and load this equates to a little over 750 pounds of copper for the whole system).33 A) Iline = 144. which is substantially more than the line currents in the Yconnected system we looked at earlier. the current in each phase of this circuit will be 83.34 amps. more costly wire. The answer is no.33 A (for each load resistor and source winding) Iline = Iline = 3 Iphase 3 (83. With each load resistance receiving 120 volts from its respective phase winding at the source.36: The load on the ∆ source is wired in a ∆.
10.5. THREEPHASE Y AND DELTA CONFIGURATIONS
311
One distinct advantage of a ∆connected system is its lack of a neutral wire. With a Yconnected system, a neutral wire was needed in case one of the phase loads were to fail open (or be turned off), in order to keep the phase voltages at the load from changing. This is not necessary (or even possible!) in a ∆connected circuit. With each load phase element directly connected across a respective source phase winding, the phase voltage will be constant regardless of open failures in the load elements. Perhaps the greatest advantage of the ∆connected source is its fault tolerance. It is possible for one of the windings in a ∆connected threephase source to fail open (Figure 10.37) without affecting load voltage or current!
120 V ∠ 0o + + 120 V ∠ 120o
120 V
winding failed open!
120 V
120 V

Figure 10.37: Even with a source winding failure, the line voltage is still 120 V, and load phase voltage is still 120 V. The only difference is extra current in the remaining functional source windings. The only consequence of a source winding failing open for a ∆connected source is increased phase current in the remaining windings. Compare this fault tolerance with a Yconnected system suffering an open source winding in Figure 10.38.
208 V + 120 V o ∠0 + 120 V ∠ 120o


104 V
104 V
winding failed open!
Figure 10.38: Open “Y” source winding halves the voltage on two loads of a ∆ connected load. With a ∆connected load, two of the resistances suffer reduced voltage while one remains at the original line voltage, 208. A Yconnected load suffers an even worse fate (Figure 10.39) with the same winding failure in a Yconnected source In this case, two load resistances suffer reduced voltage while the third loses supply voltage completely! For this reason, ∆connected sources are preferred for reliability. However, if dual voltages are needed (e.g. 120/208) or preferred for lower line currents, Yconnected systems are
312
CHAPTER 10. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
+ 120 V o ∠0


+ 120 V ∠ 120o
104 V 0V
104 V
winding failed open!
Figure 10.39: Open source winding of a ”YY” system halves the voltage on two loads, and looses one load entirely. the conﬁguration of choice. • REVIEW: • The conductors connected to the three points of a threephase source or load are called lines. • The three components comprising a threephase source or load are called phases. • Line voltage is the voltage measured between any two lines in a threephase circuit. • Phase voltage is the voltage measured across a single component in a threephase source or load. • Line current is the current through any one line between a threephase source and load. • Phase current is the current through any one component comprising a threephase source or load. • In balanced “Y” circuits, line voltage is equal to phase voltage times the square root of 3, while line current is equal to phase current.
For "Y" circuits: Eline = 3 Ephase
• Iline = Iphase • In balanced ∆ circuits, line voltage is equal to phase voltage, while line current is equal to phase current times the square root of 3.
For ∆ ("delta") circuits: Eline = Ephase
•
Iline =
3
Iphase
10.6. THREEPHASE TRANSFORMER CIRCUITS
313
• ∆connected threephase voltage sources give greater reliability in the event of winding failure than Yconnected sources. However, Yconnected sources can deliver the same amount of power with less line current than ∆connected sources.
10.6
Threephase transformer circuits
Since threephase is used so often for power distribution systems, it makes sense that we would need threephase transformers to be able to step voltages up or down. This is only partially true, as regular singlephase transformers can be ganged together to transform power between two threephase systems in a variety of conﬁgurations, eliminating the requirement for a special threephase transformer. However, special threephase transformers are built for those tasks, and are able to perform with less material requirement, less size, and less weight than their modular counterparts. A threephase transformer is made of three sets of primary and secondary windings, each set wound around one leg of an iron core assembly. Essentially it looks like three singlephase transformers sharing a joined core as in Figure 10.40.
Threephase transformer core
Figure 10.40: Three phase transformer core has three sets of windings. Those sets of primary and secondary windings will be connected in either ∆ or Y conﬁgurations to form a complete unit. The various combinations of ways that these windings can be connected together in will be the focus of this section. Whether the winding sets share a common core assembly or each winding pair is a separate transformer, the winding connection options are the same: • Primary  Secondary • • • • Y Y ∆ ∆ Y ∆ Y ∆
The reasons for choosing a Y or ∆ conﬁguration for transformer winding connections are the same as for any other threephase application: Y connections provide the opportunity for multiple voltages, while ∆ connections enjoy a higher level of reliability (if one winding fails open, the other two can still maintain full line voltages to the load).
314
CHAPTER 10. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
Probably the most important aspect of connecting three sets of primary and secondary windings together to form a threephase transformer bank is paying attention to proper winding phasing (the dots used to denote “polarity” of windings). Remember the proper phase relationships between the phase windings of ∆ and Y: (Figure 10.41)
+ ∠ 0o
+

+ ∠ 120o o
+∠0 o
∠ 240 (Y)
∠ 240
o
+ (∆)

+ ∠ 120o
Figure 10.41: (Y) The center point of the “Y” must tie either all the “” or all the “+” winding points together. (∆) The winding polarities must stack together in a complementary manner ( + to ). Getting this phasing correct when the windings aren’t shown in regular Y or ∆ conﬁguration can be tricky. Let me illustrate, starting with Figure 10.42.
A1 B1 C1 T1 A2 B2 C2
Figure 10.42: Inputs A1 , A2 , A3 may be wired either “∆” or “Y”, as may outputs B1 , B2 , B3 . Three individual transformers are to be connected together to transform power from one threephase system to another. First, I’ll show the wiring connections for a YY conﬁguration: Figure 10.43 Note in Figure 10.43 how all the winding ends marked with dots are connected to their respective phases A, B, and C, while the nondot ends are connected together to form the centers of each “Y”. Having both primary and secondary winding sets connected in “Y” formations allows for the use of neutral conductors (N1 and N2 ) in each power system. Now, we’ll take a look at a Y∆ conﬁguration: (Figure 10.44) Note how the secondary windings (bottom set, Figure 10.44) are connected in a chain, the “dot” side of one winding connected to the “nondot” side of the next, forming the ∆ loop. At
T2
T3
10.6. THREEPHASE TRANSFORMER CIRCUITS
315
YY A1 B1 C1 N1 T1 N2 A2 B2 C2
Figure 10.43: Phase wiring for “YY” transformer.
T2
T3
Y∆ A1 B1 C1 N1 T1 T2 T3
A2 B2 C2
Figure 10.44: Phase wiring for “Y∆” transformer.
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every connection point between pairs of windings, a connection is made to a line of the second power system (A, B, and C). Now, let’s examine a ∆Y system in Figure 10.45.
∆Y
A1 B1 C1
T1 N2 A2 B2 C2
T2
T3
Figure 10.45: Phase wiring for “∆Y” transformer. Such a conﬁguration (Figure 10.45) would allow for the provision of multiple voltages (linetoline or linetoneutral) in the second power system, from a source power system having no neutral. And ﬁnally, we turn to the ∆∆ conﬁguration: (Figure 10.46) When there is no need for a neutral conductor in the secondary power system, ∆∆ connection schemes (Figure 10.46) are preferred because of the inherent reliability of the ∆ conﬁguration. Considering that a ∆ conﬁguration can operate satisfactorily missing one winding, some power system designers choose to create a threephase transformer bank with only two transformers, representing a ∆∆ conﬁguration with a missing winding in both the primary and secondary sides: (Figure 10.47) This conﬁguration is called “V” or “Open∆.” Of course, each of the two transformers have to be oversized to handle the same amount of power as three in a standard ∆ conﬁguration, but the overall size, weight, and cost advantages are often worth it. Bear in mind, however, that with one winding set missing from the ∆ shape, this system no longer provides the fault tolerance of a normal ∆∆ system. If one of the two transformers were to fail, the load voltage and current would deﬁnitely be affected. The following photograph (Figure 10.48) shows a bank of stepup transformers at the Grand Coulee hydroelectric dam in Washington state. Several transformers (green in color) may be seen from this vantage point, and they are grouped in threes: three transformers per hydroelectric generator, wired together in some form of threephase conﬁguration. The photograph doesn’t reveal the primary winding connections, but it appears the secondaries are connected in a Y conﬁguration, being that there is only one large highvoltage insulator protruding from
10.6. THREEPHASE TRANSFORMER CIRCUITS
317
∆∆
A1 B1 C1
T1
T2
T3
A2 B2 C2
Figure 10.46: Phase wiring for “∆∆” transformer.
"Open ∆" A1 B1 C1
T1
T2
A2 B2 C2
Figure 10.47: “V” or “open∆” provides 2φ power with only two transformers.
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CHAPTER 10. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
each transformer. This suggests the other side of each transformer’s secondary winding is at or near ground potential, which could only be true in a Y system. The building to the left is the powerhouse, where the generators and turbines are housed. On the right, the sloping concrete wall is the downstream face of the dam:
Figure 10.48: Stepup transfromer bank at Grand Coulee hydroelectric dam, Washington state, USA.
10.7
Harmonics in polyphase power systems
In the chapter on mixedfrequency signals, we explored the concept of harmonics in AC systems: frequencies that are integer multiples of the fundamental source frequency. With AC power systems where the source voltage waveform coming from an AC generator (alternator) is supposed to be a singlefrequency sine wave, undistorted, there should be no harmonic content . . . ideally. This would be true were it not for nonlinear components. Nonlinear components draw current disproportionately with respect to the source voltage, causing nonsinusoidal current waveforms. Examples of nonlinear components include gasdischarge lamps, semiconductor powercontrol devices (diodes, transistors, SCRs, TRIACs), transformers (primary winding magnetization current is usually nonsinusoidal due to the B/H saturation curve of the core), and electric motors (again, when magnetic ﬁelds within the motor’s core operate near saturation levels). Even incandescent lamps generate slightly nonsinusoidal currents, as the ﬁlament resistance changes throughout the cycle due to rapid ﬂuctuations in temperature. As we learned in the mixedfrequency chapter, any distortion of an otherwise sinewave shaped waveform constitutes the presence of harmonic frequencies. When the nonsinusoidal waveform in question is symmetrical above and below its average centerline, the harmonic frequencies will be odd integer multiples of the fundamental source frequency only, with no even integer multiples. (Figure 10.49) Most nonlinear loads produce
10.7. HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS
319
current waveforms like this, and so evennumbered harmonics (2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th, 12th, etc.) are absent or only minimally present in most AC power systems.
Pure sine wave = 1st harmonic only
Figure 10.49: Examples of symmetrical waveforms – odd harmonics only. Examples of nonsymmetrical waveforms with even harmonics present are shown for reference in Figure 10.50.
Figure 10.50: Examples of nonsymmetrical waveforms – even harmonics present. Even though half of the possible harmonic frequencies are eliminated by the typically symmetrical distortion of nonlinear loads, the odd harmonics can still cause problems. Some of these problems are general to all power systems, singlephase or otherwise. Transformer overheating due to eddy current losses, for example, can occur in any AC power system where there is signiﬁcant harmonic content. However, there are some problems caused by harmonic currents that are speciﬁc to polyphase power systems, and it is these problems to which this section is speciﬁcally devoted. It is helpful to be able to simulate nonlinear loads in SPICE so as to avoid a lot of complex mathematics and obtain a more intuitive understanding of harmonic effects. First, we’ll begin our simulation with a very simple AC circuit: a single sinewave voltage source with a purely linear load and all associated resistances: (Figure 10.51) The Rsource and Rline resistances in this circuit do more than just mimic the real world: they also provide convenient shunt resistances for measuring currents in the SPICE simulation: by reading voltage across a 1 Ω resistance, you obtain a direct indication of current through it, since E = IR. A SPICE simulation of this circuit (SPICE listing: “linear load simulation”) with Fourier analysis on the voltage measured across Rline should show us the harmonic content of this circuit’s line current. Being completely linear in nature, we should expect no harmonics other than the 1st (fundamental) of 60 Hz, assuming a 60 Hz source. See SPICE output “Fourier components of transient response v(2,3)” and Figure 10.52. A .plot command appears in the SPICE netlist, and normally this would result in a sinewave graph output. In this case, however, I’ve purposely omitted the waveform display for
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CHAPTER 10. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
2 Rsource 1 Vsource 0 120 V 1Ω
Rline 1Ω 1 kΩ
3
Rload
0
Figure 10.51: SPICE circuit with single sinewave source.
linear load simulation vsource 1 0 sin(0 120 60 0 0) rsource 1 2 1 rline 2 3 1 rload 3 0 1k .options itl5=0 .tran 0.5m 30m 0 1u .plot tran v(2,3) .four 60 v(2,3) .end
Fourier components of transient response v(2,3) dc component = 4.028E12 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.000E+01 1.198E01 1.000000 72.000 2 1.200E+02 5.793E12 0.000000 51.122 3 1.800E+02 7.407E12 0.000000 34.624 4 2.400E+02 9.056E12 0.000000 4.267 5 3.000E+02 1.651E11 0.000000 83.461 6 3.600E+02 3.931E11 0.000000 36.399 7 4.200E+02 2.338E11 0.000000 41.343 8 4.800E+02 4.716E11 0.000000 53.324 9 5.400E+02 3.453E11 0.000000 21.691 total harmonic distortion = 0.000000 percent
normalized phase (deg) 0.000 123.122 37.376 76.267 11.461 108.399 30.657 125.324 93.691
10.7. HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS
321
Figure 10.52: Frequency domain plot of single frequency component. See SPICE listing: “linear load simulation”. brevity’s sake – the .plot command is in the netlist simply to satisfy a quirk of SPICE’s Fourier transform function. No discrete Fourier transform is perfect, and so we see very small harmonic currents indicated (in the picoamp range!) for all frequencies up to the 9th harmonic (in the table ), which is as far as SPICE goes in performing Fourier analysis. We show 0.1198 amps (1.198E01) for the “Fourier component” of the 1st harmonic, or the fundamental frequency, which is our expected load current: about 120 mA, given a source voltage of 120 volts and a load resistance of 1 kΩ. Next, I’d like to simulate a nonlinear load so as to generate harmonic currents. This can be done in two fundamentally different ways. One way is to design a load using nonlinear components such as diodes or other semiconductor devices which are easy to simulate with SPICE. Another is to add some AC current sources in parallel with the load resistor. The latter method is often preferred by engineers for simulating harmonics, since current sources of known value lend themselves better to mathematical network analysis than components with highly complex response characteristics. Since we’re letting SPICE do all the math work, the complexity of a semiconductor component would cause no trouble for us, but since current sources can be ﬁnetuned to produce any arbitrary amount of current (a convenient feature), I’ll choose the latter approach shown in Figure 10.53 and SPICE listing: “Nonlinear load simulation”. In this circuit, we have a current source of 50 mA magnitude and a frequency of 180 Hz, which is three times the source frequency of 60 Hz. Connected in parallel with the 1 kΩ load resistor, its current will add with the resistor’s to make a nonsinusoidal total line current. I’ll show the waveform plot in Figure 10.54 just so you can see the effects of this 3rdharmonic current on the total current, which would ordinarily be a plain sine wave. In the Fourier analysis, (See Figure 10.55 and “Fourier components of transient response v(2,3)”) the mixed frequencies are unmixed and presented separately. Here we see the same 0.1198 amps of 60 Hz (fundamental) current as we did in the ﬁrst simulation, but appearing in the 3rd harmonic row we see 49.9 mA: our 50 mA, 180 Hz current source at work. Why don’t
POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS 2 Rsource 1 Vsource 0 120 V 60 Hz 1Ω Rline 1Ω 1 kΩ 3 3 Rload 50 mA 180 Hz 0 0 Figure 10.tran 0.54: SPICE timedomain plot showing sum of 60 Hz source and 3rd harmonic of 180 Hz.3) .322 CHAPTER 10.5m 30m 0 1u .plot tran v(2.53: SPICE circuit: 60 Hz source with 3rd harmonic added. Nonlinear load simulation vsource 1 0 sin(0 120 60 0 0) rsource 1 2 1 rline 2 3 1 rload 3 0 1k i3har 3 0 sin(0 50m 180 0 0) .3) .four 60 v(2. .end Figure 10.options itl5=0 .
400E+02 2.000 2 1.845 249. . HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS 323 Fourier components of transient response v(2.800E+02 1.000E+01 1.000000 177.074E10 0.071 228.845 7 4.582 212.416667 144.736E11 0.570 3 1.570 216.000 97.000000 156.600E+02 5.800E+02 4.619E10 0.609E11 0.349E11 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.000E+02 3.990E02 0.200E+02 1.7.3) dc component = 1.546 5 3.000000 160.329E10 0.400E+02 1.772 232.772 9 5.000000 169.407E11 0.55: SPICE Fourier plot showing 60 Hz source and 3rd harmonic of 180 Hz.071 8 4.498 Figure 10.582 6 3.198E01 1.000 4 2.000000 67.000000 140.200E+02 8.871E11 0.10.666663 percent normalized phase (deg) 0.498 total harmonic distortion = 41.000 139.546 241.000000 72.000000 169.
end As you can see from the Fourier analysis. and 9th harmonics present. so some of its current is shunted through the load and never goes through the line back to the source. this is just a singlephase power system simulation.324 CHAPTER 10. It’s an inevitable consequence of this type of simulation. 7th. 3rd.options itl5=0 . and 9th harmonics present 3 3 3 3 3 2 Rsource 1 Vsource 0 1Ω Rline 1Ω 1 kΩ 120 V 60 Hz Rload 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 180 Hz 300 Hz 420 Hz 540 Hz 0 0 0 0 0 Figure 10. Nonlinear load: 1st.” we would see further distortion of the line current waveform from the ideal sinewave shape. and each of those harmonic currents would appear in the Fourier analysis breakdown. reading voltages across ﬁxed resistances of 1 Ω each gives direct indications of current through those resistors.plot tran v(2. 7th. 3rd.58 and SPICE listing “YY source/load 4wire system with harmonics”. 5th. where one part of the load is “normal” (a resistor) and the other part is imitated by a current source. (Figure 10. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS we see the entire 50 mA through the line? Because that current source is connected across the 1 kΩ load resistor. So far.3) .3) .9 mA each.57) every harmonic current source is equally represented in the line current.56 and SPICE listing: “Nonlinear load simulation”.tran 0. 5th. As before.four 60 v(2. Nonlinear load simulation vsource 1 0 sin(0 120 60 0 0) rsource 1 2 1 rline 2 3 1 rload 3 0 1k i3har 3 0 sin(0 50m 180 0 0) i5har 3 0 sin(0 50m 300 0 0) i7har 3 0 sin(0 50m 420 0 0) i9har 3 0 sin(0 50m 540 0 0) . and one for the voltage across the neutral resistor. Two Fourier analyses will be performed: one for the voltage across a line resistor. at 49. Things get more interesting when we make it a threephase simulation. If we were to add more current sources to the “load.5m 30m 0 1u . See Figure 10.56: Nonlinear load: 1st. . See Figure 10.
271E09 0.000000 93. .7.000 157.299E11 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.781 9 5.908 3 1.000 8 4.000000 85.416667 0.800E+02 4.000 4 2.900E09 0.990E02 0.600E+02 6.000E+01 1.400E+02 5.57: Fourier analysis: “Fourier components of transient response v(2.000000 72.742E09 0.416666 72.416666 144.200E+02 4.000 total harmonic distortion = 83.062 7 4.000000 116.908 216.416667 144.000 33.062 72.000 21.000 2 1.800E+02 2.3)”.198E01 1.873 5 3.000 44.990E02 0.990E02 0.200E+02 1. HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS 325 Fourier components of transient response v(2.219 144.000 6 3.000 Figure 10.000000 38.000E+02 4.469E09 0.990E02 0.3) dc component = 6.10.333296 percent normalized phase (deg) 0.873 72.400E+02 4.
1111m 0) i7har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 420 11.8) .55555m 0) i5har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 300 5.326 CHAPTER 10.55555m 0) * * phase 3 of load rload3 10 7 1k i3har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 180 11.55555m 0) i9har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 540 5.1111m 0) * * analysis stuff .plot tran v(2.four 60 v(0.1111m 0) rsource3 5 6 1 * * line and neutral wire resistances rline1 2 8 1 rline2 4 9 1 rline3 6 10 1 rneutral 0 7 1 * * phase 1 of load rload1 8 7 1k i3har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 180 0 0) i5har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 300 0 0) i7har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 420 0 0) i9har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 540 0 0) * * phase 2 of load rload2 9 7 1k i3har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 180 5.55555m 0) i7har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 420 5.8) .plot tran v(0.7) .7) . POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS YY source/load 4wire system with harmonics * * phase1 voltage source and r (120 v / 0 deg) vsource1 1 0 sin(0 120 60 0 0) rsource1 1 2 1 * * phase2 voltage source and r (120 v / 120 deg) vsource2 3 0 sin(0 120 60 5.options itl5=0 .1111m 0) i5har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 300 11.end .1111m 0) i9har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 540 11.5m 100m 12m 1u .55555m 0) rsource2 3 4 1 * * phase3 voltage source and r (120 v / 240 deg) vsource3 5 0 sin(0 120 60 11.tran 0.four 60 v(2.
198E01 1.000 Fourier analysis of neutral current: This is a balanced YY power system.877E10 0. it should come as no surprise that the Fourier analysis for line current in one phase of the 3phase system is nearly identical to the Fourier analysis for line current in the singlephase system: a fundamental (60 Hz) line current of 0. each phase identical to the singlephase AC system simulated earlier.990 5 3.200E+02 2.416667 0.209009 percent normalized phase (deg) 0.000000 147.975E02 0.200E+02 4.59 and Fourier analysis: “Fourier components of transient response v(2.000000 172.975E02 0. Fourier analysis of line current: Fourier components of transient response v(2.784E10 0.146 7 4. HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS Rline 1Ω Rline 1Ω 8 9 327 2 Rsource 1 Vsource 120 V 60 Hz 0o Vsource 0 60 Hz 120 V 240o 1Ω 1Ω 4 Rsource 3 120 V 60 Hz 120o Rneutral 1Ω 180 Hz 300 Hz 420 Hz 540 Hz 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 1 kΩ Rload 1Ω 1 kΩ Rload 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 180 Hz 300 Hz 420 Hz 540 Hz 1 kΩ Rload 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 180 Hz 300 Hz 420 Hz 540 Hz 7 Vsource 5 Rsource 6 Rline 1Ω 10 Figure 10. YY source/load 4wire system with harmonics. and odd harmonic currents of approximately 50 mA each. we would expect the neutral current to be zero.000 8 4.990E02 0.000 6 3.811 9 5.990E02 0.985 3 1.600E+02 1. Each .415423 0. as determined by the voltage drop across the Rneutral resistor between SPICE nodes 0 and 7.000000 148.000E+02 4.000 147.218E10 0.000E+01 1.60) In a balanced 3phase Y load.800E+02 2. See Figure 10.811 0.1198 amps.58: SPICE circuit: analysis of “line current” and “neutral current”.000 172.7.236E10 0.000 2 1.146 0.416666 0.404E12 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6. Consequently.990 0.8)” What should be surprising here is the analysis for the neutral conductor’s current. (Figure 10.415422 0.000 148.000 total harmonic distortion = 83.8) dc component = 6.000 4 2.985 0.800E+02 4.10.000000 166.400E+02 4.000 166.400E+02 4.000000 0.
7638 180.121 59.188 240.584 9 5.018 81.493E01 344147.000783 15.200E+02 1.400E+02 1.963 44.337E07 1.000 4 2.328 CHAPTER 10.257E09 0.002898 21.264E06 2.999 normalized phase (deg) 0.800E+02 5.000E+02 9.869E10 0.000E+01 4.493E01 344147.600E+02 3.400E+02 1.975E10 0.136 0.200E+02 1.000431 91.023E07 2.000000 60.819E10 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.4889 179.018 2 1.103 5 3.396E10 0.7) dc component = 1. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS Figure 10.981 6 3.913955 59.001378 35.000 31.025 24.017 .434 240.882 7 4.993 8 4.206 3 1.080596 119.800E+02 1.59: Fourier analysis of line current in balanced YY system Fourier components of transient response v(0.
with 149. HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS 329 Figure 10. we cannot say the same for harmonic currents in the same system.10. With three sources per harmonic frequency in the load. Examine this plot of balanced phase currents over time. individually. what a 3rd harmonic waveform for phase 1 would look like superimposed on the graph in Figure 10.493E01 volts across 1 Ω) each! This is very nearly 150 mA. In contrast.4337 µA of 1st harmonic when reading voltage across Rneutral . or three times the current sources’ values. though. In a system with no harmonic currents.61) With the three fundamental waveforms equally shifted across the time axis of the graph.62. See Fourier analysis: “Fourier components of transient response v(0.60: Fourier analysis of neutral current shows other than no harmonics! Compare to line current in Figure 10. The same may be said about the 5th and 7th harmonics. it appears our 3rd and 9th harmonic currents in each phase are adding to form the neutral current. leaving zero current through the neutral conductor. though it might not be apparent why this is so. The phase shift ﬁgure of 120o generally assumed in threephase AC systems applies only to the . Observe how this harmonic waveform has the same phase relationship to the 2nd and 3rd fundamental waveforms as it does with the 1st: in each positive halfcycle of any of the fundamental waveforms. Note that the fundamental frequency (60 Hz. the 3rd and 9th harmonics are strongly represented within the neutral conductor. (Figure 10. both of those currents having negligible magnitude. this is what happens.59 phase current – which by itself would go through the neutral wire back to the supplying phase on the source Y – should cancel each other in regard to the neutral conductor because they’re all the same magnitude and all shifted 120o apart. it is easy to see how they would cancel each other to give a resultant current of zero in the neutral conductor. you will ﬁnd exactly two positive halfcycles and one negative halfcycle of the harmonic waveform. The key to understanding this is made clear in a timedomain graph of phase currents. with a phase sequence of 123.7.7) ” This is exactly what’s happening. However. Our Fourier analysis shows only 0. What this means is that the 3rdharmonic waveforms of three 120o phaseshifted fundamentalfrequency waveforms are actually in phase with each other.3 mA (1. Let’s consider. or the 1st harmonic) current is virtually absent from the neutral conductor.
3 1 2 3 TIME Figure 10.61: Phase sequence 123123123 of equally spaced waves.1.2. 1 2 3 TIME Figure 10.3.330 CHAPTER 10.1.62: Third harmonic waveform for phase1 superimposed on threephase fundamental waveforms. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS phase sequence: 1.2.2. .3.
3 all coincide when superimposed on the fundamental threephase waveforms. For the more mathematically inclined. etc. both at the same frequency. Since only odd harmonics appear in systems where waveform distortion is symmetrical about the centerline – and most nonlinear loads create symmetrical distortion – evennumbered multiples of the 3rd harmonic (6th. uniﬁed waveform (shown in bold in (Figure 10. 12th. because the A’ and B’ waveforms alternate three times as fast as A and B. 21st. 2. the 9th harmonics. etc. this effect occurs . the 21st harmonics. Let’s call the 3rd harmonic of each waveform A’ and B’. but 3 times that.) to signiﬁcantly contribute to neutral currents. this principle may be expressed symbolically.7. In polyphase power systems with some number of phases other than three. When relating waveforms of different frequency. Thus. 18th. or 360o at the frequency of A’ and B’. and the timeshift between A’ and B’ is equivalent to 120o at a frequency three times lower.) are generally not signiﬁcant.63: Third harmonics for phases 1. A’ and B’ must be in phase with each other: Phase sequence = ABC Fundamental A 0o B 120o C 240o 3rd harmonic A’ B’ C’ o o 3x0 3 x 120 3 x 240o (0o) (360o = 0o) (720o = 0o) This characteristic of the 3rd harmonic in a threephase system also holds true for any integer multiples of the 3rd harmonic. 9th. and so on. the 18th harmonics. but shifted 120o from each other in terms of phase. The phase shift between A’ and B’ is not 120o (that is the phase shift between A and B). A phase shift of 360o is the same as a phase shift of 0o . but so are the 6th harmonics. Suppose that A represents one waveform and B another. respectively. we would see them precisely overlap and appear as a single. The shift between waveforms is only accurately expressed in terms of phase angle when the same angular velocity is assumed. leaving only the oddnumbered multiples (3rd.10. So.63) 1 2 3 TIME Figure 10. the 15th harmonics. the most accurate way to represent phase shift is in terms of time. not to their harmonic multiples! If we were to plot all three 3rdharmonic waveforms on the same graph. HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS 331 fundamental frequencies. 15th. the 12th harmonics. not only are the 3rd harmonic waveforms of each fundamental waveform in phase with each other. which is to say no phase shift at all.
but the 3rd and 9th harmonic currents are of negligible magnitude.332 CHAPTER 10. doing so just causes a different problem: the load’s “Y” centerpoint will no longer be at the same potential as the source’s. First. the harmonic currents that add in the neutral conductor of a starconnected 4phase system where the phase shift between fundamental waveforms is 90o would be the 4th. Due to their abundance and signiﬁcance in threephase power systems. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS with harmonics of the same multiple. and thus there is no provision for automatic interruption of these high currents. 12th. “5ω” represents the 5th harmonic. right? Unfortunately. The 5th and 7th harmonic currents are present at their normal levels (approximately 50 mA). indeed. We’ll rerun the last SPICE simulation without the 1 Ω Rneutral resistor and see what happens: Fourier analysis of line current: Fourier analysis of voltage between the two “Y” centerpoints: Fourier analysis of load phase voltage: Strange things are happening. The symbol “ω” is used to represent angular velocity. If there is no neutral wire in which triplen currents can ﬂow together. and so on. 20th. as other safety concerns prohibit neutral conductors from having overcurrent protection. 16th. and is mathematically equivalent to 2πf. “ω” represents the fundamental frequency. This is very problematic. the triplen harmonic currents may be of great enough magnitude to cause neutral conductors to overheat. The following illustration shows how triplen harmonic currents created at the load add within the neutral conductor. All triplen harmonics add with each other in the neutral conductor of a 4wire Yconnected load. Second. “3ω ” represents the 3rd harmonic. and so on: (Figure 10. the 3rd harmonic and its multiples have their own special name: triplen harmonics.64: “YY”Triplen source/load: Harmonic currents add in neutral conductor. one might be tempted to remove the neutral wire entirely. So. For instance. we see that there is substantial harmonic . 8th. then they won’t. In power systems containing substantial nonlinear loading. In an effort to mitigate these additive triplen currents.64) Source ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω line line Load ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω ω 3ω neutral 3ω 9ω 3ω 9ω 3ω 9ω 5ω 7ω 9ω ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω line ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω Figure 10. meaning that each phase of the load will receive a different voltage than what is produced by the source. we see that the triplen harmonic currents (3rd and 9th) all but disappear in the lines connecting load to source.
four 60 v(8.1111m 0) i7har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 420 11.55555m 0) * * phase 3 of load rload3 10 7 1k i3har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 180 11.four 60 v(2.7) .options itl5=0 .7) .55555m 0) i7har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 420 5.7.plot tran v(2.tran 0.plot tran v(0.8) .end 333 .7) .1111m 0) rsource3 5 6 1 * * line resistances rline1 2 8 1 rline2 4 9 1 rline3 6 10 1 * * phase 1 of load rload1 8 7 1k i3har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 180 0 0) i5har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 300 0 0) i7har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 420 0 0) i9har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 540 0 0) * * phase 2 of load rload2 9 7 1k i3har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 180 5.5m 100m 12m 1u .55555m 0) i9har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 540 5.1111m 0) i9har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 540 11.55555m 0) i5har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 300 5.7) .10. HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS YY source/load (no neutral) with harmonics * * phase1 voltage source and r (120 v / 0 deg) vsource1 1 0 sin(0 120 60 0 0) rsource1 1 2 1 * * phase2 voltage source and r (120 v / 120 deg) vsource2 3 0 sin(0 120 60 5.1111m 0) i5har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 300 11.plot tran v(8.8) .four 60 v(0.1111m 0) * * analysis stuff .55555m 0) rsource2 3 4 1 * * phase3 voltage source and r (120 v / 240 deg) vsource3 5 0 sin(0 120 60 11.
000003 90.462 179.000E+02 4.000000 13.999 .416665 0.400E+02 4.000 6 3.234E04 2.000E+01 1.000 4 2.334 CHAPTER 10.565 0.001E07 0.000000 19.000000 90.485 7 4.000 2 1.000E+01 1.000E+01 0.000008 90.400E+02 5.000000 0.963E11 0.747 5 3.7879 180.278E07 0.434 240.990E02 0.7) dc component = 6.000 158.510 0.800E+02 1.600E+02 1.200E+02 6.000000 60.000E+02 3.016 90.462 9 5.747 179.850 6 3.231E08 0.959E02 0.198E01 1.800E+02 5.423E11 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.913955 59.850 13.963 44.800E+02 5.000431 91.263E08 0.000835 179.136 0.000832 179.000 124.000 4 2.800E+02 8.200E+02 9.000E+01 344147.638 90.400E+02 4.023E07 0.638 9 5.016 3 1.000E+02 9.001378 35.000E+01 344147.121 59.126E11 0.417499 179.510 5 3.080596 119.790 8 4.999 total harmonic distortion = ************ percent Fourier components of transient response v(8.000 159.406E07 0.991E07 0.000 19.584 9 5.882 7 4.981 6 3.200E+02 6.103 5 3.000000 35.000000 111.093E08 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.473 3 1.800E+02 3.188 240.138E07 0.002898 21.606E11 0.005 normalized phase (deg) 0.4728 179.000 8 4.000E+01 0.925539 percent Fourier components of transient response v(0.417500 180.565 7 4.025 24.000000 0.000783 15.198E+02 1.400E+02 5.200E+02 4.206 3 1.043467 percent normalized phase (deg) 0.453E04 1.789 35.800E+02 2.000000 159.000000 158.018 81.400E+02 5.473 180.009 111.000 2 1.136E07 0.200E+02 2.017 normalized phase (deg) 0.000E+01 1.990E02 0.009 4 2.600E+02 1.000 31.995E02 0.8) dc component = 5.200E+02 4.018 2 1.005 total harmonic distortion = 58.000 90.485 179.000000 124.070E08 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.999 total harmonic distortion = 59.023E04 2.416668 0.600E+02 8.210E07 0.400E+02 9.388E10 0. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS Fourier components of transient response v(2.993 8 4.7) dc component = 6.
7. 0 time delay. 207.66) Note: the following paragraph is for those curious readers who follow every detail of my SPICE netlists. If you just want to ﬁnd out what happens in the circuit. which means 0 volts DC offset. the 0o source has these ﬁve specifying ﬁgures: “(0 207. all comprised of triplen frequencies. The measured parameters will be line current (voltage across Rline . load phase voltage (nodes 8 and 7). Source ω 5ω 7ω line line ω 5ω 7ω Load V ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω 3ω 9ω V 3ω 9ω ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω line ω 5ω 7ω Figure 10. skip this paragraph! When simulating circuits having AC sources of differing frequency and differing phase. Yconnected system. removal of the neutral conductor leads to a “hot” centerpoint on the load “Y”. keeping the load in its present Y conﬁguration.10. Triplen voltages appear across load phases.65 is a graphical summary of the aforementioned effects. and see what happens. nodes 1 and 2). nodes 0 and 8). and also to harmonic load phase voltages of equal magnitude. but at least each phase of the load received voltage nearly free of harmonics. The 120o phaseshifted source has these ﬁgures: “(0 207. the undesirable effect from harmonics was excessive neutral current. there is 50 volts of both 3rd and 9th harmonic frequency between these two points.55555m 0)”. Let’s try a ∆ source instead of a Y. the only way to do it in SPICE is to set up the sources with a delay time or phase offset speciﬁed in seconds. the voltage as measured across one of the load’s phases (between nodes 8 and 7 in the SPICE analysis) likewise shows strong triplen harmonic voltages of 50 volts each. Since removing the neutral wire didn’t seem to work in eliminating the problems caused by harmonics. which is deﬁnitely not normal in a linear (no harmonics). Thus. 60 Hz. In summary. between which the neutral conductor used to connect.846 volts peak amplitude (120 times the square root of three. (Figure 10. In the previous simulation where we had a 4wire.846 60 0 0)”. Finally. balanced Y system. all the same as the ﬁrst except for the time delay factor of 5.55555 milliseconds. HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS 335 voltage between the two “Y” centerpoints.846 60 5. to ensure the load phase voltages remain at 120 volts each). According to SPICE. perhaps switching to a ∆ conﬁguration will. Figure 10. and source phase current (voltage across Rsource . Nontriplen currents appear in line conductors. and 0 damping factor. or 1/3 of the full .65: Threewire “YY” (no neutral) system: Triplen voltages appear between “Y” centers.
2777m 0) i9har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 540 15.four 60 v(0.16666m 0) i7har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 420 4.options itl5=0 .7) v(1.1111m rsource3 5 0 1 * * line resistances rline1 0 8 1 rline2 2 9 1 rline3 4 10 1 * * phase 1 of load rload1 8 7 1k i3har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 180 9.2777m 0) i7har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 420 15.8) v(8.16666m 0) i9har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 540 4.8) v(8.plot tran v(0.846 60 11.846 60 5.72222m 0) i7har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 420 9.2777m 0) * * phase 3 of load rload3 10 7 1k i3har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 180 4.846 60 0 0) rsource1 1 2 1 * * phase2 voltage source and r (120 v / vsource2 3 2 sin(0 207.16666m 0) * * analysis stuff .7) v(1.72222m 0) i5har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 300 9.2) .2777m 0) i5har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 300 15.end 0 deg) 120 deg) 0) 240 deg) 0) .5m 100m 16m 1u .2) . POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS DeltaY source/load with harmonics * * phase1 voltage source and r (120 v / vsource1 1 0 sin(0 207.72222m 0) i9har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 540 9.336 CHAPTER 10.tran 0.72222m 0) * * phase 2 of load rload2 9 7 1k i3har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 180 15.16666m 0) i5har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 300 4.55555m rsource2 3 4 1 * * phase3 voltage source and r (120 v / vsource3 5 4 sin(0 207.
with negligible triplen harmonics: Fourier analysis of line current: Fourier analysis of load phase voltage: Fourier analysis of source phase current: Really. the load components receive the same harmonicallyrich voltages and the lines see the same currents as in a threewire Y system. then “Y” load voltages VA . when I speciﬁed the delay times for the harmonic sources. which should come as no surprise. requires a different set of timedelay ﬁgures for its harmonic current sources. and 210o . and 240o . on the other hand. .66: DeltaY source/load with harmonics period of 16.10. Source phase current is a fraction of the line current.6667 milliseconds for a 60 Hz waveform. Both 5th and 7th harmonics are represented there. The result of this analysis is almost as disappointing as the last. This is for the ∆connected source. HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS 0 Rline 1Ω Rline 1Ω 8 120 V 60 Hz 0o Vsource 0 Rsource 5 Vsource 4 4 1 kΩ Rload 180 Hz 300 Hz 420 Hz 540 Hz 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 1Ω 60 Hz 120 V 240o 9 337 2 Rsource 120 V 60 Hz o 3 120 1Ω 4 1 kΩ Rload 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 180 Hz 300 Hz 420 Hz 540 Hz 1 kΩ Rload 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 180 Hz 300 Hz 420 Hz 540 Hz 1 1Ω 2 Vsource Rsource 7 Rline 4 1Ω 10 Figure 10. This is an intrinsic property of all ∆Y circuits and not a quirk of SPICE.1111 milliseconds. equivalent to a fraction of 240/360 of 16. 4.16666 milliseconds (90o ). respectively. and 9. or +330o ). One ﬁnal note: when delaying AC sources in SPICE. because the phase voltages in a Y load are not in phase with the phase voltages of a ∆ source. Consequently. The 240o source must be timedelayed twice that amount.7. VB . If ∆ source voltages VAC . and VC will have phase angles of 30o .2777 milliseconds (30o .67) Line currents remain unchanged (the only substantial harmonic content being the 5th and 7th harmonics). I had to set them at 15. 90o . or 11. Therefore. VBA . and load phase voltages remain unchanged as well. which gives all sources in the netlist time to engage before any analysis takes place. respectively. I set the . Otherwise. The Yconnected load.6667 milliseconds.72222 milliseconds (210o ). they don’t “turn on” until their delay time has elapsed. which means any mathematical analysis up to that point in time will be in error. with a full 50 volts of triplen harmonic (3rd and 9th) frequencies across each load component. the only advantage of the ∆Y conﬁguration from the standpoint of harmonics is that there is no longer a centerpoint at the load posing a shock hazard. and VCB are referenced at 0o .tran transient analysis line to hold off analysis until 16 milliseconds after start. (Figure 10. 120o .
398E07 0.000000 150.000000 49.000540 151.400E+02 4.000 156.000038 179.7) dc component = 1.000000 174.338 CHAPTER 10.033E11 0.800E+02 2.267E06 0.000E+02 2.745 179.181 2 1.000578 148.491E11 0.324E11 0.000000 0.112 81. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS Fourier components of transient response v(0.200E+02 6.417440 179.000 100.815 110.998 92.000 2 1.000000 150.800E+02 5.883E02 0.416644 29.031969 percent normalized phase (deg) 0.674 3 1.186 .925038 percent Fourier components of transient response v(8.996 6 3.000E+01 6.466E02 0.417398 179.000000 110.000000 39.548 8 4.400E+02 2.800E+02 1.800E+02 8.000000 68.000E+01 0.400E+02 4.600E+02 2.417222 89.000000 66.519E07 0.993E02 0.000000 174.694 0.906E02 1.200E+02 2.897 59.800E+02 4.2) dc component = 3.518E06 0.002 6 3.723 3 1.802 7 4.234E11 0.198E01 1.433E07 0.200E+02 2.307 239.000000 156.8) dc component = 6.926 7 4.198E+02 1.995 normalized phase (deg) 0.000E+02 4.800E+02 1.000E+02 6.005 4 2.564E11 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.897 9 5.995 normalized phase (deg) 0.693 3 1.000000 91.000013 0.417221 90.998 83.006 total harmonic distortion = 59.000062 0.004109 percent Fourier components of transient response v(1.000000 159.024E11 0.390 179.162 7 4.000000 57.772 5 3.400E+02 5.000000 52.228 119.140E11 0.200 329.200E+02 1.525E11 0.200 9 5.813 39.506E06 0.994 8 4.875 9 5.259E08 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.400E+02 1.416682 30.600E+02 2.603 301.998 4 2.600E+02 1.850E11 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.941E07 0.000E+01 0.815 91.996 4 2.453 324.931E02 0.000021 179.000E+01 1.000 9.198 179.000E+01 1.998 8 4.722 149.422E06 0.200E+02 4.200E+02 1.400E+02 2.949E11 0.995 total harmonic distortion = 58.006 total harmonic distortion = 59.996 97.493 179.570 5 3.883E02 0.397 5 3.112 6 3.838 1.998 324.994E02 0.000 2 1.
Nontriplen currents appear in line conductors and in source phase windings. It would seem to be the ideal solution.1)”. If we were to reconﬁgure the system into a ∆∆ arrangement.10. with negligible harmonic content. See SPICE listing: “DeltaDelta source/load with harmonics”. since each load phase would be directly connected in parallel with each source phase. thanks to the direct connection with the source phases in a ∆∆ system.7. What we would have is current circulating within the loop formed by the ∆connected phases. nor in the load phase voltage. and “Fourier components of transient response v(2. nor in the source phase current! We know that triplen currents exist.67: “∆Y” source/load: Triplen voltages appear across load phases. Note the directions that the arrows of the current sources within the load phases are pointing. But what happened to the triplen harmonics? The 3rd and 9th harmonic frequencies don’t appear in any substantial amount in the line current. Fourier analysis of line current: Fourier analysis of load phase voltage: Fourier analysis of source phase current: As predicted earlier. These results may be graphically summarized as such in Figure 10.68) that should guarantee that each load component receives nonharmonic voltage. and think about what would happen if the 3rd and 9th harmonic sources were DC sources instead. (Figure 10. and source phase current. The complete lack of any neutral wires or “center points” in a ∆∆ system prevents strange voltages or additive currents from occurring. analyzing line current. This is a major beneﬁt of the ∆∆ system conﬁguration: triplen harmonic currents remain . “Fourier analysis: Fourier components of transient response v(0. Let’s simulate and observe.69. load phase voltage. because the 3rd and 9th harmonic current sources are intentionally placed in the phases of the load.6)”. HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS 339 Source ω 5ω 7ω ω 5ω 7ω line line ω 5ω 7ω Load ω 3ω 5ω ω 5ω 7ω ω 5ω 7ω 3ω 9ω 7ω 9ω V ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω line ω 5ω 7ω Figure 10. the load phase voltage is almost a pure sinewave. This is where the triplen harmonic currents have gone: they stay within the ∆ of the load. but where did those currents go? Remember that the triplen harmonics of 120o phaseshifted fundamental frequencies are in phase with each other. never reaching the line conductors or the windings of the source.
Nontriplen currents apprear in line conductors and in source phase windings. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS Rline 1Ω Rline 1Ω 0 Rload 1 kΩ 50 mA 180 Hz 50 mA 300 Hz 50 mA 420 Hz 50 mA 540 Hz 2 6 7 120 V 60 Hz 0o Vsource 0 Rsource 5 Vsource 4 1Ω 60 Hz 120 V 240o Rsource 120 V 60 Hz 120o 1 kΩ Rload 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 180 Hz 300 Hz 420 Hz 540 Hz 1 kΩ Rload 1 1Ω 2 Vsource 3 Rsource 180 Hz 300 Hz 420 Hz 540 Hz 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 1Ω 4 4 8 Rline 4 1Ω Figure 10. Source ω 5ω 7ω ω 5ω 7ω line line ω 5ω 7ω Load ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω ω 5ω 7ω ω 5ω 7ω ω V ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω 3ω 9ω 3ω 9ω 3ω 9ω ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω line ω 5ω 7ω Figure 10.68: DeltaDelta source/load with harmonics.69: ∆∆ source/load: Load phases receive undistorted sinewave voltages.340 CHAPTER 10. . Triplen currents are conﬁned to circulate within load phases.
55555m 0) i9har2 8 7 sin(0 50m 540 5.6) v(2.1) i(3har1) .1111m 0) * * analysis stuff .tran 0. HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS DeltaDelta source/load with harmonics * * phase1 voltage source and r (120 v / 0 deg) vsource1 1 0 sin(0 120 60 0 0) rsource1 1 2 1 * * phase2 voltage source and r (120 v / 120 deg) vsource2 3 2 sin(0 120 60 5.end 341 .1) .options itl5=0 .6) v(2.5m 100m 16m 1u .55555m 0) i7har2 8 7 sin(0 50m 420 5.6) v(7.1111m 0) i5har3 6 8 sin(0 50m 300 11.55555m 0) * * phase 3 of load rload3 6 8 1k i3har3 6 8 sin(0 50m 180 11.6) v(7.1111m 0) i7har3 6 8 sin(0 50m 420 11.1111m 0) rsource3 5 0 1 * * line resistances rline1 0 6 1 rline2 2 7 1 rline3 4 8 1 * * phase 1 of load rload1 7 6 1k i3har1 7 6 sin(0 50m 180 0 0) i5har1 7 6 sin(0 50m 300 0 0) i7har1 7 6 sin(0 50m 420 0 0) i9har1 7 6 sin(0 50m 540 0 0) * * phase 2 of load rload2 8 7 1k i3har2 8 7 sin(0 50m 180 5.four 60 v(0.1111m 0) i9har3 6 8 sin(0 50m 540 11.10.plot tran v(0.55555m 0) rsource2 3 4 1 * * phase3 voltage source and r (120 v / 240 deg) vsource3 5 4 sin(0 120 60 11.7.55555m 0) i5har2 8 7 sin(0 50m 300 5.
980E02 0.001 8 4.000 2 1.759 9 5.200E+02 4.000000 144.595E11 0.800E+02 7.200E+02 1.997 0.680E10 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.000003 89.600E+02 1.194E01 1.385E07 0.992E01 0.416669 150.007E11 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.235702 percent Fourier components of transient response v(2.000008 89.699 89.001 213.000 8 4.000000 150.000000 89.666 3 1.600E+02 2.955 156.974 36.000000 36.449 89.760 180.657E11 0.951E09 0.000000 179.911E11 0.001667 180.129E07 0.385 89.200E+02 5.800E+02 1.368 5 3.001667 180.000000 0.187 5 3.980E02 0.626E02 0.000 2 1.000 6 3.089E10 0.1) dc component = 1.626E02 0.251E06 0.000000 8.475 7 4.905 total harmonic distortion = 0.800E+02 6.905 normalized phase (deg) 0.666 60.571 359.991 total harmonic distortion = 58.800E+02 3.070E01 1.990 4 2.480E11 0.940 9 5.400E+02 4.6) dc component = 5.000E+01 1.000000 31. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS Fourier components of transient response v(0.000000 63.985 4 2.342 CHAPTER 10.200E+02 2.939 202.039E09 0.749 89.010 141.940 60.127 180.752E06 0.013 normalized phase (deg) 0.800E+02 1.961298 percent normalized phase (deg) 0.257E07 0.499E09 0.000 6.999 6 3.000000 89.923E12 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.385 9 5.000000 63.578E10 0.491 3 1.400E+02 9.000000 151.000E+02 8.939 243.000009 89.000E+02 4.997 7 4.940 2 1.000 144.000000 23.992E01 0.974 4 2.000 151.415 359.400E+02 3.416918 180.416664 149.000000 22.000003 89.400E+02 4.127 5 3.987 total harmonic distortion = 58.385E11 0.949 .000E+01 1.000 46.195E+02 1.416921 180.6) dc component = 6.200E+02 8.000E+02 1.813 300.400E+02 1.600E+02 4.000000 4.800E+02 2.760 7 4.000 181.877E06 0.400E+02 2.569E11 0.925538 percent Fourier components of transient response v(7.749 3 1.215E10 0.000000 133.000 8 4.000 6 3.000E+01 2.200E+02 1.000 4.000000 156.
we can say that nonlinear components generate harmonic currents.8 Harmonic phase sequences In the last section. They are in phase with each other. • Triplen harmonic currents in a ∆connected set of components circulate within the loop formed by the ∆. and do not “spread” to other parts of the system. This can be thought of in graphical terms. 15th) are known as triplen harmonics. (Figure 10. B. . C all coincide. and C are 120o apart. despite the fact that their respective fundamental waveforms are 120o out of phase with each other. • In a 4wire YY system. no rotation. where phases A. 10. • REVIEW: • Nonlinear components are those that draw a nonsinusoidal (nonsinewave) current waveform when energized by a sinusoidal (sinewave) voltage. HARMONIC PHASE SEQUENCES 343 conﬁned in whatever set of components create them. 9th. and integer multiples of it (6th. triplen harmonic currents add within the neutral conductor. • When the sinewave distortion is symmetrical above and below the average centerline of the waveform. Since any distortion of an originally pure sinewave constitutes harmonic frequencies.8. that is. In a 60 Hz threephase power system. not evennumbered. we saw how the 3rd harmonic and all of its integer multiples (collectively called triplen harmonics) generated by 120o phaseshifted fundamental waveforms are actually in phase with each other. B.10. the thirdharmonic multiples of those frequencies (180 Hz) fall perfectly into phase with each other. • The 3rd harmonic. the only harmonics present will be oddnumbered.70) and/or in mathematical terms: A B C TIME Figure 10.70: Harmonic currents of Phases A. 12th.
are called positive sequence. Triplen harmonics (3rd and 9th shown in this table) which don’t “rotate” at all because they’re in phase with each other.120o) 5th harmonic C’’ 5 x 240o (1200o = 1440o . POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS Phase sequence = ABC Fundamental A 0o B 120o C 240o 3rd harmonic A’ B’ C’ o o 3x0 3 x 120 3 x 240o (0o) (360o = 0o) (720o = 0o) If we extend the mathematical table to include higher oddnumbered harmonics.240o) CBA (120 ) B’’’ 7 x 120o (840o = 720o + 120o) o (240 ) C’’’ 7 x 240o (1680o = 1440o + 240o) o 7th harmonic ABC 9th harmonic (240 ) C’’’’ no 9 x 240o o o rotation (1080o = 0o) (2160 = 0 ) (120 ) B’’’’ 9 x 120o o o Harmonics such as the 7th. we will notice an interesting pattern develop with regard to the rotation or sequence of the harmonic frequencies: Fundamental A 0o B 120o C 240o ABC no rotation 3rd harmonic A’ B’ C’ 3 x 0o 3 x 120o 3 x 240o (0o) (360o = 0o) (720o = 0o) A’’ 5 x 0o (0o) A’’’ 7 x 0o (0o) A’’’’ 9 x 0o (0o) B’’ 5 x 120o (600o = 720o . Harmonics such as the 5th. This pattern of positivezeronegativepositive continues indeﬁnitely for all oddnumbered harmonics. lending itself to expression in a table like this: . which “rotate” with the same sequence as the fundamental. which “rotate” in the opposite sequence as the fundamental. are called negative sequence.344 CHAPTER 10. are called zero sequence.
which is 300 Hz in 60 Hz power systems and 250 Hz in 50 Hz power systems.9. Positivesequence frequencies work to push the rotor in the proper direction. and/or 23rd) in the power supplied to a threephase AC motor will result in a degradation of performance and possible overheating. from most recent to ﬁrst. See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information. Zerosequence frequencies neither contribute to nor detract from the rotor’s torque. . since the mechanical rotation of the rotor depends on the torque produced by the sequential “rotation” of the applied 3phase power. and generally originate with less amplitude anyway. 2002): Suggested better ways to illustrate the meaning of the preﬁx “poly”. whereas negativesequence frequencies actually work against the direction of the rotor’s rotation. which led to a much betterlooking second edition. Ed Beroset (May 6. An excess of negativesequence harmonics (5th.9 Contributors Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions. the primary harmonic of concern is the 5th. 11th. Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting. 17th. Since the higherorder harmonics tend to be attenuated more by system inductances and magnetic core losses. 10.10. CONTRIBUTORS 345 Rotation sequences according to harmonic number + 0 1st 7th 13th 19th 3rd 9th 15th 21st 5th 11th 17th 23rd Rotates with fundamental Does not rotate Rotates against fundamental Sequence especially matters when we’re dealing with AC motors.
346 CHAPTER 10. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS .
. . .3 Calculating power factor .4 Practical power factor correction . . . 360 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reactive. . . . . . . . . . . 60 Hz AC voltage source is delivering power to a resistive load: (Figure 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Contributors . . . .1 Power in resistive and reactive AC circuits Consider a circuit for a singlephase AC power system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 True. . . . .1 Power in resistive and reactive AC circuits . and Apparent power . . .1) 120 V 60 Hz R 60 Ω Figure 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 11. . 347 11. . . . . . . . . 347 . . . . . . where a 120 volt. . . .1: Ac source drives a purely resistive load. . . . . 365 11. . . . .Chapter 11 POWER FACTOR Contents 11. . . . . .
and calculations look similar to that in an equivalent DC circuit. RMS. it would look like Figure 11. If the source were a mechanical generator. current.2: Current is in phase with voltage in a resistive circuit. This means that power is always being dissipated by the resistive load. POWER FACTOR ZR = 60 + j0 Ω or 60 Ω ∠ 0o I= I= E Z 120 V 60 Ω I=2A In this example. When frequencies are not the same. and to handle any relevant phase relationships with trigonometry. e= i= p= + Time  Figure 11. . For comparison.2. and power waveforms for this circuit. The power dissipated at the load would be 240 watts. it would take 240 watts worth of mechanical energy (about 1/3 horsepower) to turn the shaft.348 CHAPTER 11. Also note that the waveform for power is not at the same frequency as the voltage or current! Rather. and impedance. because this form of mathematical symbolism implies unchanging phase relationships. its frequency is double that of either the voltage or current waveforms. phase relationships constantly change. current. never negative for this resistive circuit. the current is in phase with the voltage. If we were to plot the voltage.3. As strange as it may seem. the best way to proceed with AC power calculations is to use scalar notation. Note that the waveform for power is always positive. let’s consider a simple AC circuit with a purely reactive load in Figure 11. the current to the load would be 2 amps. and never returned to the source as it is with reactive loads. This different frequency prohibits our expression of power in an AC circuit using the same complex (rectangular or polar) notation as used for voltage. Because this load is purely resistive (no reactance).
11. .3: AC circuit with a purely reactive (inductive) load. let’s consider an AC circuit with a load consisting of both inductance and resistance in Figure 11. (Figure 11.319 Ω I = 1. Though it is alternately absorbed from and returned to the source.4) This means that power is being alternately absorbed from and returned to the source.319 Ω ZL = 0 + j60. because no power would be used by the load. and the inductor would not become warm as a resistor would.319 Ω ∠ 90o I= I= E Z 120 V 60.4: Power is not dissipated in a purely reactive load. Note that the power alternates equally between cycles of positive and negative. If the source were a mechanical generator. Now. XL = 60. The generator shaft would be easy to spin.1. POWER IN RESISTIVE AND REACTIVE AC CIRCUITS 349 120 V 60 Hz L 160 mH Figure 11. it would take (practically) no net mechanical energy to turn the shaft.989 A + e= i= p= Time Figure 11.319 Ω or 60.5.
the 160 millihenrys of inductance gives us 60.078 Ω).350 CHAPTER 11.319 Ω or 85.5: AC circuit with both reactance and resistance.319 Ω or 60. any inductive reactance in this load will likewise dissipate zero power. POWER FACTOR Load Lload 120 V 60 Hz Rload 160 mH 60 Ω Figure 11.152o I= I= E Z 120 V 85. This is the ﬁgure an RMS ammeter would indicate if connected in series with the resistor and inductor. our load current is 1.078 Ω I = 1. we may calculate current in the circuit by taking the polar magnitude of the voltage source (120 volts) and dividing it by the polar magnitude of the impedance (85. or 85.319 Ω ∠ 90o ZR = 60 + j0 Ω or 60 Ω ∠ 0o Ztotal = 60 + j60. We already know that reactive components dissipate zero power.319 Ω. This reactance combines with the 60 Ω of resistance to form a total load impedance of 60 + j60. the rest of the circuit. With a power supply voltage of 120 volts RMS.410 A At a frequency of 60 Hz. If we’re not concerned with phase angles (which we’re not at this point). XL = 60.078 Ω 45. The only thing left to dissipate power here is the .078 Ω ∠ 45.410 amps.152o . Therefore. and return power to. as they equally absorb power from.319 Ω of inductive reactance.319 Ω ZL = 0 + j60.
the phase angle for power represents a ratio between power dissipated and power returned. the imbalance of positive versus negative power is due to the resistance as it dissipates energy outside of the circuit (usually in the form of heat). . no circuit power is dissipated by the load(s). indicating that there is more power absorbed by the load than there is returned to the circuit. the power waveform will still alternate between positive and negative. the power alternates between positive and negative instantaneous values over time. The reactance dissipates no power. If we look at the waveform plot of voltage. resistance. Mathematically representing power in an AC circuit is a challenge. Furthermore. we see how this combination works in Figure 11. Voltage and current are in phase with each other. • REVIEW: • In a purely resistive circuit. POWER IN RESISTIVE AND REACTIVE AC CIRCUITS 351 resistive portion of the load impedance. Whereas the angle for voltage or current represents a relative shift in timing between two waves. However. Voltage and current are 90o out of phase with each other. In a purely reactive circuit that alternation between positive and negative power is equally divided. If the source were a mechanical generator. the combined inductive/resistive load will consume more power than it returns back to the source. What little returning of power that occurs is due to the reactance. and reactance than it is to try to derive it from vector. it is actually easier to arrive at ﬁgures for power by calculating with scalar quantities of voltage. Because of this way in which AC power differs from AC voltage or current. current. • In a purely reactive circuit. it should be evident that the wave spends more time on the positive side of the center line than on the negative. the resistor does.6: A combined resistive/reactive circuit dissipates more power than it returns to the source. current. or complex quantities of voltage. the amount of mechanical energy needed to turn the shaft would be the amount of power averaged between the positive and negative power cycles. Looking at the waveform plot for power. though. the phase angle for power means something quite different from the phase angle for either voltage or current. and impedance that we’ve worked with so far. but the amount of positive power will exceed the amount of negative power. In other words. + e= i= p= Time Figure 11. and total power for this circuit. power is alternately absorbed from and returned to the AC source. current. in circuits with mixed resistance and reactance like this one. Rather.6. because the power wave isn’t at the same frequency as voltage or current.1. resulting in a net power dissipation of zero. As with any reactive circuit.11. all circuit power is dissipated by the resistor(s).
and impedance (all using scalar quantities): . This “phantom power” is called reactive power. As a rule. there will be more power dissipated by the load(s) than returned. and Apparent power We know that reactive loads such as inductors and capacitors dissipate zero power. Voltage and current in such a circuit will be out of phase by a value somewhere between 0o and 90o . and it is measured in watts (symbolized by the capital letter P. both of these formerly complex quantities must be reduced to their polar magnitudes for the scalar arithmetic. Reactive power is a function of a circuit’s reactance (X). POWER FACTOR • In a circuit consisting of resistance and reactance mixed.2 True. as always). but some power will deﬁnitely be dissipated and some will merely be absorbed and returned. yet the fact that they drop voltage and draw current gives the deceptive impression that they actually do dissipate power. reactance. and it is measured in a unit called VoltAmpsReactive (VAR). 11. current. or dissipated. Reactive. true power is a function of a circuit’s dissipative elements. in a circuit is called true power. Apparent power is a function of a circuit’s total impedance (Z). usually resistances (R). any complex starting quantities such as voltage. and impedance must be represented by their polar magnitudes. rather than watts. without reference to phase angle. Apparent power is measured in the unit of VoltAmps (VA) and is symbolized by the capital letter S. and not merely the “real” or “imaginary” portion of the current. If I’m calculating apparent power from voltage and impedance. There are several power equations relating the three types of power to resistance. The actual amount of power being used. if I’m calculating true power from current and resistance. The mathematical symbol for reactive power is (unfortunately) the capital letter Q. For instance. Since we’re dealing with scalar quantities for power calculation. The combination of reactive power and true power is called apparent power. and it is the product of a circuit’s voltage and current. not by real or imaginary rectangular components.352 CHAPTER 11. I must use the polar magnitude for current.
11. reactive. AND APPARENT POWER 353 P = true power P = I2R P= Measured in units of Watts E2 R E2 X Measured in units of VoltAmpsReactive (VAR) Q = reactive power Q = I2X Q= S = apparent power S = I2Z S= E2 Z S = IE Measured in units of VoltAmps (VA) Please note that there are two equations each for the calculation of true and reactive power.10). given the lengths of the other two sides. Examine the following circuits and see how these three types of power interrelate for: a purely resistive load in Figure 11.7. and apparent – relate to one another in trigonometric form.8. We call this the power triangle: (Figure 11. a purely reactive load in Figure 11. Reactive load only: Resistive/reactive load: These three types of power – true.9. reactive power. TRUE. REACTIVE. and apparent power for a purely resistive load. Resistive load only: I=2A 120 V 60 Hz R no reactance 60 Ω P = true power = I2R = 240 W Q = reactive power = I2X = 0 VAR S = apparent power = I2Z = 240 VA Figure 11. we can solve for the length of any side (amount of any type of power). and a resistive/reactive load in Figure 11.7: True power. P=IE being useful only for that purpose. . There are three equations available for the calculation of apparent power.2. Using the laws of trigonometry. or the length of one side and an angle.
998 VAR S = apparent power = I2Z = 169.365 W Q = reactive power = I2X = 119.73 VAR S = apparent power = I2Z = 238.354 CHAPTER 11. I = 1.73 VA Figure 11.256 VA Figure 11. reactive power.319 Ω L P = true power = I2R = 0 W Q = reactive power = I2X = 238.410 A Load Lload 120 V 60 Hz Rload 160 mH XL = 60.9: True power. and apparent power for a resistive/reactive load. . and apparent power for a purely reactive load.8: True power.989 A 120 V 60 Hz no resistance 160 mH XL = 60. POWER FACTOR I = 1. reactive power.319 Ω 60 Ω P = true power = I2R = 119.
this ratio between true power and apparent power is called the power factor for this circuit. and S = hypotenuse length. It also happens to be the same angle as that of the circuit’s impedance in polar form. Reactive power is symbolized by the letter Q and is measured in the unit of VoltAmpsReactive (VAR). Q = opposite length.10: Power triangle relating appearant power to true power and reactive power. both dissipated and absorbed/returned is referred to as apparent power.3. P = adjacent length. • Power merely absorbed and returned in load due to its reactive properties is referred to as reactive power. • These three types of power are trigonometrically related to one another.3 Calculating power factor As was mentioned before. When expressed as a fraction. The opposite angle is equal to the circuit’s impedance (Z) phase angle.11. 11. Apparent power is symbolized by the letter S and is measured in the unit of VoltAmps (VA). Because true power and apparent power form the adjacent and . CALCULATING POWER FACTOR 355 The "Power Triangle" Apparent power (S) measured in VA Reactive power (Q) measured in VAR Impedance phase angle True power (P) measured in Watts Figure 11. • Total power in an AC circuit. • REVIEW: • Power dissipated by a load is referred to as true power. In a right triangle. True power is symbolized by the letter P and is measured in the unit of Watts (W). the angle of this “power triangle” graphically indicates the ratio between the amount of dissipated (or consumed) power and the amount of absorbed/returned power.
705 It should be noted that power factor. Using values from the last example circuit: Power factor = True power Apparent power 119. we would have been able to deliver a full 169. Power factor can be an important aspect to consider in an AC circuit. POWER FACTOR hypotenuse sides of a right triangle. to zero). Since this capacitor will be directly in parallel with the source (of known voltage). because true power equals zero. the power factor is zero.410 amps of current. because any power factor less than 1 means that the circuit’s wiring has to carry more current than what would be necessary with zero reactance in the circuit to deliver the same amount of (true) power to the resistive load. Here. If our last example circuit had been purely resistive.365 watts that it is presently dissipating with that same current quantity. For the purely resistive circuit. so we have to add a capacitor in parallel to our example circuit as the additional load. paradoxically. or at least closer. because the adjacent (true power) side would have zero length. Here. to cancel out the effects of the load’s inductive reactance. Poor power factor can be corrected. For the purely inductive circuit.365 W 169. because the reactive power equals zero. because the opposite (reactive power) side would have zero length.256 VA Power factor = Power factor = 0. the power triangle would look like a horizontal line. by adding another load to the circuit drawing an equal and opposite amount of reactive power. is a unitless quantity. we’ll use the power formula which starts from voltage and reactance: . The poor power factor makes for an inefﬁcient power delivery system.152o = 0. Since we know that the (uncorrected) reactive power is 119. then the true power must be equal to zero. the power factor ratio is also equal to the cosine of that phase angle. making any power in the circuit purely reactive.998 VAR (inductive). The power triangle for a purely capacitive circuit would again be a vertical line (pointing down instead of up as it was for the purely inductive circuit). respectively. the power triangle would look like a vertical line. The same could be said for a purely capacitive circuit.256 watts to the load with the same 1. The effect of these two opposing reactances in parallel is to bring the circuit’s total impedance equal to its total resistance (to make the impedance phase angle equal.705 cos 45. the power factor is 1 (perfect). Inductive reactance can only be canceled by capacitive reactance. rather than the mere 119. like all ratio measurements.356 CHAPTER 11. we need to calculate the correct capacitor size to produce the same quantity of (capacitive) reactive power. If there are no dissipative (resistive) components in the circuit.
solving for X .11) Itotal = 994. solving for C . .319 Ω 60 Ω 120 V 60 Hz Figure 11. and 3 are SPICE related.716 mA 1 V1 C 3 0 V2 IC = 995. X= E2 Q (120 V)2 119. and may be ignored for the moment. .002 Ω) C = 22. C= 1 2πfXC X = 120. . CALCULATING POWER FACTOR 357 Q= E2 X .3.257 mA L load 22 µF 2 Rload Load Iload = 1.11. V2 and node numbers: 0. . . . . 2. .11: Parallel capacitor corrects lagging power factor of inductive load.002 Ω C= 1 2π(60 Hz)(120.41 A 160 mH XL = 60.105 µF Let’s use a rounded capacitor value of 22 µF and see what happens to our circuit: (Figure 11. 1.998 VAR 1 2πfC XC = X= . .
41 amps to 994. The start time of 200 msec ( instead of 0) in the transient analysis statement allows the DC conditions to stabilize before collecting data. Note that the total current (Itotal ) is in phase with the applied voltage (Vtotal ). indicating that the circuit was more capacitive than inductive. We can compare those currents to Vtotal .9999887 Since the impedance angle is still a positive number.11) shows total voltage and total current are nearly in phase. has been substantially improved. The main current has been decreased from 1.64 Ω ∠ 0.358 CHAPTER 11.365 watts.cir power factor”. or purely resistive. indicating a phase angle of near zero. If our power factor correction efforts had been perfectly ontarget. There is no single current common to all components.64 . overall.272o cos 0.2724o P = true power = I2R = 119. Vtotal .60 Ω ∠ 0o) Ztotal = 120.j573. This is because the applied voltage. we would have arrived at an impedance angle of exactly zero. If we had added too large of a capacitor in parallel. appears across the parallel branches of the circuit.366 VA The power factor for the circuit.366 VA Power factor = 0. See SPICE listing “pf. A SPICE simulation of the circuit of (Figure 11.365 W S = apparent power = I2Z = 119. The SPICE circuit ﬁle has a zero volt voltagesource (V2) in series with the capacitor so that the capacitor current may be measured.9999887 Impedance (polar) angle = 0. to which all other measurements are compared. we know that the circuit. This is no coincidence. POWER FACTOR Ztotal = ZC // (ZL .365 W 119. overall.58m Ω or 120.272o = 0.7 milliamps. IL of the inductor would have caused the total current to have a lagging phase somewhere between (Itotal ) . while the power dissipated at the load resistor remains unchanged at 119. The reference is Vtotal . Note that the lagging current. The Nutmeg plot of the various currents with respect to the applied voltage Vtotal is shown in (Figure 11. is still more inductive than it is capacitive.57 Ω ∠ 90o) // (60. The power factor is much closer to being 1: Power factor = Power factor = True power Apparent power 119.319 Ω ∠ 90o .12). we would have ended up with an impedance angle that was negative.ZR) Ztotal = (120.
11. .cir power V1 1 0 sin(0 C1 1 3 22uF v2 3 0 0 L1 1 2 160mH R1 2 0 60 # resolution . The lagging IL with respect to Vtotal is corrected by a leading IC .end factor 170 60) stop start 200m 160m Figure 11.tran 1m .3.12: Zero phase angle due to inphase Vtotal and Itotal . CALCULATING POWER FACTOR 359 pf.
the product would have been negative where positive portions of one waveform overlapped negative portions of the other as in Figure 11. You may be fortunate enough to have an instrument called a power factor meter to tell you what the power factor is (a number between 0 and 1). IC . Negative power is fed back to the generator. In other words. You must also be very careful to use the proper capacitors for the job (rated adequately for power system voltages and the occasional voltage spike from lightning strikes. we say that its power factor is leading. by adding a parallel reactance opposite the effect of the load’s reactance. Moreover.705 lagging. If the load’s reactance is inductive in nature (which is almost always will be). our example circuit started out with a power factor of 0. and the apparent power (which can be ﬁgured by taking a voltmeter reading in volts and multiplying by an ammeter reading in amps). power. Most likely. parallel capacitance is what is needed to correct poor power factor. like an induction motor. will always be positive throughout a 60 Hz cycle. Conversely. You must be careful not to overcorrect when adding capacitance to an AC circuit. It should be noted that too much capacitance in an AC circuit will result in a low power factor just as well as too much inductance. Thus. The result is a total current phaseangle somewhere between the inductor and capacitor currents. you will have access to a wattmeter for measuring true power. it does waste power in the resistance of electric lines between load and generator.6. and capable of handling the expected levels of current).999 lagging. Had the phaseangle not been corrected to zero (PF=1).360 CHAPTER 11. that total current (Itotal ) was forced to be inphase with the total applied voltage (Vtotal ). the product of these two waveforms. 11. by the calculation of an appropriate capacitor value.4 Practical power factor correction When the need arises to correct for poor power factor in an AC power system. POWER FACTOR and IL . Note that reduction of line losses applies to the lines from the generator to the point where the power factor correction capacitor is applied. In less favorable circumstances you may have to use an oscilloscope to compare voltage and current waveforms. or reestablished at a value close to 1. you probably won’t have the luxury of knowing the load’s exact inductance in henrys to use for your calculations. It cannont be sold. whose reading you can compare against a calculation of apparent power (from multiplying total voltage and . real power as in Figure 11. if a circuit is predominantly capacitive. Since the total voltage and current are in phase. The parallel capacitor corrects this problem. the leading capacitor current. If a circuit is predominantly inductive. compensates for the lagging inductor current. and was corrected to a power factor of 0. This is not normally a problem because the power factor correction is applied close to the offending load. there is still circulating current between the capacitor and the inductive load. though. we say that its power factor is lagging (because the current wave for the circuit lags behind the applied voltage wave). • REVIEW: • Poor power factor in an AC circuit may be “corrected”. measuring phase shift in degrees and calculating power factor by the cosine of that phase shift. However.2. for continuous AC service.
5 kW. First. we ﬁgure the power factor of this load by dividing the true power by the apparent power: Power factor = P S 1. and from that determine the reactive power of this load: (Figure 11. PRACTICAL POWER FACTOR CORRECTION 361 total current measurements). From the values of true and apparent power. 2.65 Using this value for power factor.5 kW Ammeter reading = 9.615 A)(240 V) S = 2.13) wattmeter P 240 V RMS 60 Hz ammeter A Load Wattmeter reading = 1.14) To determine the unknown (reactive power) triangle quantity. product of voltmeter and ammeter readings yields appearant power. Let’s do an example problem to see how this works: (Figure 11.615 A RMS Figure 11. We can do this by multiplying load voltage by load current: S = IE S = (9. which tells us that the power factor in this circuit is rather poor (substantially less than 1).4.308 kVA As we can see.308 kVA is a much larger ﬁgure than 1.13: Wattmeter reads true power.” given the length of the hypotenuse (apparent power) and the length of the adjacent side (true power): . Now. we can draw a power triangle.5 kW 2. you can determine reactive power and power factor.11. we need to calculate the apparent power in kVA.308 kVA Power factor = Power factor = 0. we use the Pythagorean Theorem “backwards.
it will have a lagging (inductive) power factor. we can calculate the size of capacitor needed to counteract its effects: . Reactive power = (Apparent power)2 . Now that we know the amount of reactive power (1. which means that we’ll have to correct for it with a capacitor of appropriate size.362 CHAPTER 11.308 kVA Reactive power (Q) ??? True power (P) 1. POWER FACTOR Apparent power (S) 2.14: Reactive power may be calculated from true power and appearant power. wired in parallel.754 kVAR).(True power)2 Q = 1. or most any other industrial AC load.754 kVAR If this load is an electric motor.5 kW Figure 11.
737 kVAR = 16. . .761 µF Rounding this answer off to 80 µF. the capacitor’s reactive power will directly subtract from the load’s reactive power. . will not change the amount of true power consumed by the load. resulting in: Inductive kVAR .157 Ω.845 Ω C= 1 2π(60 Hz)(32. we can place that size of capacitor in the circuit and calculate the results: (Figure 11.845 Ω) C = 80.519 VAR This correction.15: Parallel capacitor corrects lagging (inductive) load.754 kVAR .754 kVAR 1 2πfC XC = X= . of course. Since the capacitor’s current is 180o out of phase from the the load’s inductive contribution to current draw.238 amps.Capacitive kVAR = Total kVAR 1. C= 1 2πfXC X = 32. . . solving for C .1. and of the total current drawn from the 240 Volt source: (Figure 11. . . and a corresponding reactive power of 1. solving for X .15) wattmeter P 240 V RMS 60 Hz C ammeter A Load 80 µF Figure 11. X= E2 Q (240)2 1. .4.11. giving a current of 7. PRACTICAL POWER FACTOR CORRECTION 363 Q= E2 X .737 kVAR (for the capacitor only). but it will result in a substantial reduction of apparent power.16) . An 80 µF capacitor will have a capacitive reactance of 33.
.5 kW Reactive power (Q) 16. POWER FACTOR Power triangle for uncorrected (original) circuit Apparent power (S) 2.364 CHAPTER 11.5 kW 1.737 kVAR (capacitive) Power triangle after adding capacitor Apparent power (S) True power (P) 1.16: Power triangle before and after capacitor correction.754 kVAR (inductive) True power (P) 1.308 kVA Reactive power (Q) 1.519 VAR Figure 11.
which led to a much betterlooking second edition.5.25 amps. using the standard form of the Pythagorean Theorem: Apparent power = (Reactive power)2 + (True power)2 Apparent power = 1. or 0.11.5009 kVA). and a new total current of (1. See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information.50009 kVA / 240 Volts). or 6. meaning greater system efﬁciency (less power wasted). Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting.5 Contributors Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions.5kW / 1. a substantial improvement over the uncorrected value of 9. CONTRIBUTORS 365 The new apparent power can be found from the true and new reactive power values. from most recent to ﬁrst. .50009 kVA This gives a corrected power factor of (1. 11.615 amps! This lower total current will translate to less heat losses in the circuit wiring.99994.
POWER FACTOR .366 CHAPTER 11.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oddly enough. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367 374 382 385 387 396 406 406 12. . . . . . . .3 Power measurement . . the alternating current must be rectiﬁed into DC. . . . . Arranged in a bridge. . because the direction of needle movement will change with each halfcycle of the AC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . you can think of it in terms of the direction of the current).1) Permanentmagnet meter movements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . This is most easily accomplished through the use of devices called diodes. 12. . . . . 12. . . . . .5 AC bridge circuits . . . . . .Chapter 12 AC METERING CIRCUITS Contents 12. . . . . . . .4 Power quality measurement . . 12. . . . . . . . . . four diodes will 367 . . . . . . In order to use a DCstyle meter movement such as the D’Arsonval design. . . . . . 12. (Figure 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Contributors . . . . . . .1 AC voltmeters and ammeters AC electromechanical meter movements come in two basic arrangements: those based on DC movement designs. . . . the arrowhead in each diode symbol points against the permitted direction of electron ﬂow rather than with it as one might expect. . . . . . . . . like permanentmagnet motors. . . . . . . . 12. . just remember that they each act like a oneway valve for electrons to ﬂow: acting as a conductor for one polarity and an insulator for another.2 Frequency and phase measurement 12. . . . . . . . and those engineered speciﬁcally for AC use. . . . . . . . . are devices whose motion depends on the polarity of the applied voltage (or.6 AC instrumentation transducers . . . .1 AC voltmeters and ammeters . . . . Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Permanentmagnet moving coil (PMMC) meter movements will not work correctly if directly connected to alternating current. . . . . . We saw diodes used in an example circuit demonstrating the creation of harmonic frequencies from a distorted (or rectiﬁed) sine wave. . . . . . . . Without going into elaborate detail over how and why diodes work as they do. . . . . . . . . . . .
1: Passing AC through this D’Arsonval meter movement causes useless ﬂutter of the needle.368 CHAPTER 12. .2: Passing AC through this Rectiﬁed AC meter movement will drive it in one direction. serve to steer AC through the meter movement in a constant direction throughout all portions of the AC cycle: (Figure 12. AC source Bridge rectifier Figure 12.2) 50 0 "needle" 100 magnet magnet wire coil + Meter movement needle will always be driven in the proper direction. AC METERING CIRCUITS 50 0 100 "needle" magnet magnet wire coil Figure 12.
Probably the simplest design is to use a nonmagnetized iron vane to move the needle against spring tension. This strategy has the advantage of being nondissipative (no true power consumed and no heat produced): (Figure 12. a single “multiplier” capacitor may be connected in series to give it a greater voltage measuring range.1. Also. But. just as a seriesconnected multiplier resistor gives a movingcoil (inherently resistive) meter movement a greater voltage range: (Figure 12. the electrostatic movement is an elegant technology. much smaller than the magnetic attraction between an energized coil and an iron vane. this technology possesses the advantage of extremely high input impedance. for some highvoltage AC applications. electrostatic meter movements are capable of measuring very high voltages without need for range resistors or other. to make voltmeter divider circuits. This means avoiding the use of permanent magnets.3. Electrostatic attraction between two metal plates separated by an air gap is an alternative mechanism for generating a needlemoving force proportional to applied voltage. external apparatus. or should I say. the vane being attracted toward a stationary coil of wire energized by the AC quantity to be measured as in Figure 12. When a sensitive meter movement needs to be reranged to function as an AC voltmeter. This works just as well for AC as it does for DC.5) If the meter movement is electrostatic.12.4) Capacitors may be used instead of resistors. just as poorly! The forces involved are very small. 50 0 "needle" 100 wire coil iron vane Figure 12. seriesconnected “multiplier” resistors and/or resistive voltage dividers may be employed just as in DC meter design: (Figure 12. If nothing else.3: Ironvane electromechanical meter movement. especially if the electron beam is swept sidetoside across the screen . and thus inherently capacitive in nature. AC VOLTMETERS AND AMMETERS 369 Another strategy for a practical AC meter movement is to redesign the movement without the inherent polarity sensitivity of the DC types.6) The Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) mentioned in the DC metering chapter is ideally suited for measuring AC voltages. meaning that no current need be drawn from the circuit under test. and as such these “electrostatic” meter movements tend to be fragile and easily disturbed by physical movement. though.
. . Electrostatic meter movement Cmultiplier Voltage to be measured Figure 12.5: AC voltmeter with capacitive divider. AC METERING CIRCUITS AC voltmeter Voltage to be measured Sensitive meter movement Rmultiplier Voltage to be measured AC voltmeter Sensitive meter movement Rmultiplier (a) (b) Figure 12.6: An electrostatic meter movement may use a capacitive multiplier to multiply the scale of the basic meter movement.370 CHAPTER 12. Sensitive meter movement Voltage to be measured Rmultiplier Figure 12.4: Multiplier resistor (a) or resistive divider (b) scales the range of the basic meter movement.
especially for power systems). and electrostatic) all tend to mechanically average the instantaneous values into an overall average value for the waveform.707 times the peak value while Average is 0. None of the meter movement technologies so far discussed inherently measure the RMS value of an AC quantity. size.637 times the peak. ironvane. A graphical representation of the AC wave shape and not just a measurement of magnitude can easily be had with such a device.109: 0. although many times it is mistaken as such.7) RMS = 0. there is another factor crucially important for the designer and user of AC metering instruments to be aware of. of course! Typically the assumption is made that the waveform shape to be measured is going to be sine (by far the most common. Note that for triangle waves. CRT’s have the disadvantages of weight. and fragility (being made of evacuated glass) working against them. AC VOLTMETERS AND AMMETERS 371 of the tube while the measured AC voltage drives the beam up and down. This average value is not necessarily the same as RMS. Meter movements relying on the motion of a mechanical needle (“rectiﬁed” D’Arsonval.1099 In other words. Average and RMS values rate against each other as such for these three common waveform shapes: (Figure 12.1.707 0. the ratio between RMS and Average is not the same as for sine waves: .12. so we can divide one ﬁgure by the other to obtain an averagetoRMS conversion factor of 1.637 = 1.7: RMS. signiﬁcant power consumption. For these reasons. It must be stressed that this “cheat” only works well when the meter is used to measure pure sine wave sources.707 (Peak) AVG = 0. what are AC meter designers to do? Cheat. Since RMS seems to be the kind of measurement most people are interested in obtaining with an instrument. With some of the advantages and disadvantages of these meter movement technologies having been discussed already. Average. As we already know. electromechanical AC meter movements still have a place in practical usage.637 (Peak) PP = 2 (Peak) RMS = Peak AVG = Peak PP = 2 (Peak) RMS = 0. the meter movement will be calibrated to indicate approximately 1.577 (Peak) AVG = 0. For sine waves we see that RMS is equal to 0. called RMS (RootMeanSquare) for the sake of meaningful comparisons with DC and with other AC waveforms of varying shape. and PeaktoPeak values for sine. and electromechanical meter movements naturally deliver average measurements rather than RMS. AC measurements are often cast in a scale of DC power equivalence. and then the meter movement scale is altered by the appropriate multiplication factor. and triangle waves. square.11 times higher than it would ordinarily (naturally) indicate with no special accommodations. This is the issue of RMS measurement.5 (Peak) PP = 2 (Peak) Figure 12. However.
Suppose that the AC source to be measured is connected across a resistor of known value. Calibrating AC voltmeters and ammeters for different fullscale ranges of operation is much .154 With square waves.8: Direct reading thermal RMS voltmeter accommodates any wave shape. the RMS and Average values are identical! An AC meter calibrated to accurately read RMS voltage or current on a pure sine wave will not give the proper value while indicating the magnitude of anything other than a perfect sine wave. and then the meter scale itself is calibrated to give an indication based on the squareroot of the thermal measurement: perfect RootMeanSquare indication all in one device! In fact. a similar problem arises: how do you determine the RMS value of a waveform from it? Conversion factors between Peak and RMS only hold so long as the waveform falls neatly into a known category of shape (sine. AC METERING CIRCUITS 0. for it will work with ANY waveform shape whatsoever: (Figure 12. and the heat output of that resistor is measured with a device like a thermocouple. This is because a CRT with its practically weightless electron beam “movement” displays the Peak (or PeaktoPeak if you wish) of an AC waveform rather than Average or RMS. The system’s mass works to average these values by the principle of thermal inertia.5 = 1. Still. this matter of accurate RMS measurement is no small matter. triangle. effectively squaring the values in realtime. The resistor converts the AC voltage or current quantity into a thermal (heat) quantity. the concept illustrated is very sound.8) sensitive meter movement AC voltage to be measured thermocouple bonded with resistive heating element Figure 12. This includes triangle waves. The astute reader will note that I have omitted the CRT “movement” from the RMS/Average discussion. While the device shown above is somewhat crude and would suffer from unique engineering problems of its own. With harmonics becoming an everpresent phenomenon in large AC power systems. square waves. This would provide a far more direct measurement means of RMS than any conversion factor could. one major instrument manufacturer has implemented this technique into its highend line of handheld electronic multimeters for “trueRMS” capability. and square are the only examples with Peak/RMS/Average conversion factors given here!).372 CHAPTER 12.577 0. One answer is to design the meter movement around the very deﬁnition of RMS: the effective heating value of an AC voltage/current as it powers a resistive load. or any kind of distorted sine wave.
we are not limited to these techniques as we were with DC: because we can use transformers with AC. meter ranges can be electromagnetically rather than resistively “stepped up” or “stepped down. (PT) Potential transformer scales voltage down. However. Potential Transformers (PT’s) and Current Transformers (CT’s) are precision instrument devices manufactured to produce very precise ratios of transformation between primary and secondary windings.” sometimes far beyond what resistors would have practically allowed for. simple AC meter movements to indicate extremely high voltages and currents in power systems with accuracy and complete electrical isolation (something multiplier and shunt resistors could never do): (Figure 12. Shown here is a voltage and current meter panel from a threephase AC system. normal precision resistors (multipliers and shunts) are used. They can allow small. Three AC ammeters (rated 5 amps fullscale deﬂection each) on the front of the panel indicate current through each conductor going through a CT. they are not used to scale AC meters for any applications other than high voltage and high current. The three “donut” current transformers (CT’s) can be seen in the rear of the panel. and parallel “shunt” resistors are used to allow ammeter movements to measure currents beyond their natural range.9: (CT) Current transformer scales current down.9) 05 A AC movement range A CT precision stepup ratio highvoltage power source 13.1. there are no currentcarrying conductors threaded through the center of the CT “donuts” anymore: (Figure 12.12.8 kV load fuse fuse precision stepdown ratio PT V 0120 V AC movement range Figure 12.10) Because of the expense (and often large size) of instrument transformers. AC VOLTMETERS AND AMMETERS 373 the same as with DC instruments: series “multiplier” resistors are used to give voltmeter movements higher range. • REVIEW: . For scaling a milliamp or microamp movement to a range of 120 volts or 5 amps. As this panel has been removed from service. just as with DC.
Every physical object possessing the property of elasticity (springiness) has an inherent frequency at which it will prefer to vibrate. Longer tuning forks have lower resonant frequencies: their tones will be lower on the musical scale than shorter forks. • Polarized (DC) meter movements must use devices called diodes to be able to indicate AC quantities. and frequency could be measured simply by measuring the speed of the shaft. • Electromechanical meter movements.10: Toroidal current transformers scale high current levels down for application to 5 A fullscale AC ammeters. Frequency measurement is very important in many applications of alternating current.374 CHAPTER 12. though. The tuning fork is a great example of this: strike it once and it will continue to vibrate at a tone speciﬁc to its length. One simple but crude method of frequency measurement in power systems utilizes the principle of mechanical resonance. . 12. naturally provide the average value of a measured AC quantity. These instruments may be ranged to indicate RMS value. but only if the shape of the AC waveform is precisely known beforehand! • Socalled true RMS meters use different technology to provide indications representing the actual RMS (rather than skewed average or peak) of an AC waveform. If frequency needs to be measured at some distance from the alternator. If the AC is being generated by an electromechanical alternator. whether electromagnetic or electrostatic. other means of measurement will be necessary.2 Frequency and phase measurement An important electrical quantity with no equivalent in DC circuits is frequency. the frequency will be directly proportional to the shaft speed of the machine. AC METERING CIRCUITS Figure 12. especially in AC power systems designed to run efﬁciently at one frequency and one frequency only.
12: Vibrating reed frequency meter front panel.11) sheet metal reeds shaken by magnetic field from the coil to AC voltage Figure 12.12.12. FREQUENCY AND PHASE MEASUREMENT 375 Imagine a row of progressivelysized tuning forks arranged sidebyside.11: Vibrating reed frequency meter diagram. and you have the vibrating reed frequency meter: (Figure 12. and that base is vibrated at the frequency of the measured AC voltage (or current) by means of an electromagnet. we could see the relative motion of each by the length of the blur we would see as we inspected each one from an endview perspective. They are all mounted on a common base. Well. make a collection of “tuning forks” out of a strip of sheet metal cut in a pattern akin to a rake. The user of this meter views the ends of all those unequal length reeds as they are collectively shaken at the frequency of the applied AC voltage to the coil. The one closest in resonant frequency to the applied AC will vibrate the most. looking something like Figure 12.2. Whichever tuning fork is closest in resonant frequency to the frequency of that vibration will tend to shake the most (or the loudest). Frequency Meter 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 120 Volts AC Figure 12. If the forks’ tines were ﬂimsy enough. .
While reedtype meters are imprecise. This deformation is very. See Figure 12. are not precision instruments. Piezoelectric materials produce a voltage across their length when physically stressed. The adjustment knob(s) are calibrated to show resonant frequency for any given setting. or at least a more modern variation of it called the quartz crystal. If we have access to an accurate frequency standard (a source of AC voltage holding very precisely to a single frequency). respectively) from the circuit under test to cause the meter to indicate. we turn our attention back to the tuning fork. One or both components are made adjustable. Essentially. but they are very simple and therefore easy to manufacture to be rugged. very slight in most cases. this is a tunable ﬁlter circuit which is adjusted and then read in a manner similar to a bridge circuit (which must be balanced for a “null” condition and then read). Quartz is a naturally occurring mineral possessing a very interesting property called piezoelectricity.13. especially because it doesn’t require direct connection to the circuit. Sensitive AC meter movement variable capacitor with adjustment knob calibrated in Hertz. obviously. their operational principle is not. They are often found on small enginedriven generator sets for the purpose of setting engine speed so that the frequency is somewhat close to 60 (50 in Europe) Hertz.13: Resonant frequency meter “peaks” as LC resonant frequency is tuned to test frequency. then measurement of any unknown frequency by comparison should be relatively easy.376 CHAPTER 12. the most accurate means of measurement are usually those where an unknown quantity is compared against a known standard. So long as the inductor and/or capacitor can intercept enough stray ﬁeld (magnetic or electric. we may substitute electrical resonance and design a frequency meter using an inductor and capacitor in the form of a tank circuit (parallel inductor and capacitor). For that frequency standard. it will work. and a meter is placed in the circuit to indicate maximum amplitude of voltage across the two components. Figure 12. This is the basic principle behind the DC (Wheatstone) bridge circuit and it is a sound metrological principle applied throughout the sciences. . but it does exist. AC METERING CIRCUITS Vibrating reed meters. In frequency as in other types of electrical measurement. and will physically deform when an external voltage is applied across their lengths. In lieu of mechanical resonance. and the frequency is read from them after the device has been adjusted for maximum indication on the meter. This technique is a popular one for amateur radio operators (or at least it was before the advent of inexpensive digital frequency instruments called counters). the basic instrument doing nothing more than indicating when the two quantities are equal to each other.
the quartz chip will tend to vibrate most when it is “excited” by an applied AC voltage at precisely the right frequency.12. crystal or xtal Figure 12. In other words. C capacitance C caused by wire connections across quartz characteristics of the quartz L Figure 12. Chips of quartz rock can be precisely cut for desired resonant frequencies. In reciprocal manner.15: Quartz crystal equivalent circuit. When packaged as such.14. just like the reeds on a vibratingreed frequency meter. if a chip of quartz is struck.2. and that chip mounted securely inside a protective shell with wires extending for connection to an external electric circuit. The schematic symbol is shown in Figure 12. the resulting device is simply called a crystal (or sometimes “xtal”). (Figure 12. that quartz chip is equivalent to a series LC resonant circuit. Electrically.15) The dielectric properties of quartz contribute an additional capacitive element to the equivalent circuit.14: Crystal (frequency determing element) schematic symbol. which means that it will have a mechanical resonant frequency of its own capable of being manifested as an electrical voltage signal. and that resonant oscillation will produce an equivalent voltage across multiple points of the quartz chip which can be tapped into by wires ﬁxed to the surface of the chip. FREQUENCY AND PHASE MEASUREMENT 377 Quartz rock is elastic (springy) within that small range of bending which an external voltage would produce. it will “ring” with its own unique frequency determined by the length of the chip. .
and if their amplitudes are equal: . the crystal in question may be placed in a temperature stabilized environment (usually an oven). AC METERING CIRCUITS The “capacitance” and “inductance” shown in series are merely electrical equivalents of the quartz’s mechanical resonance properties: they do not exist as discrete components within the crystal. thus eliminating frequency errors due to thermal expansion and contraction of the quartz. This is how quartz movement watches obtain their high accuracy: by means of an electronic oscillator stabilized by the resonant action of a quartz crystal. Rather. nothing discovered thus far surpasses the accuracy of a single resonating atom. known frequency. as resonant elements. Cathode Ray Tubes typically have means of deﬂecting the electron beam in the horizontal as well as the vertical axis. very low. If metal plates are used to electrostatically deﬂect the electrons. If the two frequencies are the same. which uses an atom of mercury (or cesium) suspended in a vacuum. A full discussion on crystal dynamics is not necessary here. For laboratory applications. though. and broadcast frequency signals based on those atoms’ vibrations for scientists and technicians to tune in and use for frequency calibration purposes. the resonant frequency variation over time with a quartz crystal is very. Here is a sampling of Lissajous ﬁgures for two sinewave signals of equal frequency. the Lissajous ﬁgure will take on the appearance of an oval. To achieve this. If we allow one AC signal to deﬂect the beam up and down (connect that AC voltage source to the “vertical” deﬂection plates) and another AC signal to deﬂect the beam left and right (using the other pair of deﬂection plates). For the ultimate in a frequency standard though. This is the principle of the socalled atomic clock. there will be a pair of plates to the left and right of the beam as well as a pair of plates above and below the beam as in Figure 12. the shape of that ﬁgure being dependent upon the phase shift between the two AC signals. a straight line will not be formed. mechanically). excited by outside energy to resonate at its own unique frequency. shown as they would appear on the face of an oscilloscope (an AC voltagemeasuring instrument using a CRT as its “movement”). becoming perfectly circular if the phase shift is exactly 90o between the two signals. Crystals. and it has an effect on the resonant response of the whole system. but what needs to be understood about crystals is this resonant circuit equivalence and how it can be exploited within an oscillator circuit to achieve an output voltage with a stable. The ﬁrst picture is of the Lissajous ﬁgure formed by two AC voltages perfectly in phase with each other: (Figure 12. how do we compare that against an unknown frequency to obtain a measurement? One way is to use a CRT as a frequencycomparison device. National standards laboratories around the world maintain a few of these hyperaccurate clocks. Now we get to the practical part: once we have a source of accurate frequency.16. making their resonant frequencies very deﬁnite and precise. typically have much higher “Q” (quality) values than tank circuits built from inductors and capacitors.17) If the two AC voltages are not in phase with each other. These patterns are called Lissajous ﬁgures and are a common means of comparative frequency measurement in electronics. even greater frequency stability may be desired. we will obtain a simple ﬁgure on the screen of the CRT. Because the resonant frequency is solely dependent on the physical properties of quartz (a very stable substance. principally due to the relative absence of stray resistance. patterns will be produced on the screen of the CRT indicative of the ratio of these two AC frequencies.378 CHAPTER 12. The resulting frequency is detected as a radiowave signal and that forms the basis for the most accurate clocks known to humanity. The capacitance shown in parallel due to the wire connections across the dielectric (insulating) quartz body is real.
12. .17: Lissajous ﬁgure: same frequency. zero degrees phase shift.16: Cathode ray tube (CRT) with vertical and horizontal deﬂection plates. FREQUENCY AND PHASE MEASUREMENT 379 electron "gun" horizontal deflection plates (vacuum) electrons electrons vertical deflection plates viewscreen light Figure 12. OSCILLOSCOPE vertical Y V/div trigger DC GND AC timebase X s/div DC GND AC Figure 12.2.
20) The more complex the ratio between horizontal and vertical frequencies.19) OSCILLOSCOPE vertical Y V/div trigger DC GND AC timebase X s/div DC GND AC Figure 12. .380 (Figure 12. Consider the following illustration of a 3:1 frequency ratio between horizontal and vertical: (Figure 12. Finally. 180 degrees phase shift.19: Lissajous ﬁgure: same frequency. Lissajous ﬁgures get quite a bit more complex. the more complex the Lissajous ﬁgure. AC METERING CIRCUITS OSCILLOSCOPE vertical Y V/div trigger DC GND AC timebase X s/div DC GND AC Figure 12.18) CHAPTER 12.22.18: Lissajous ﬁgure: same frequency. only this time it will be oriented in the opposite direction: (Figure 12. . the Lissajous ﬁgure will appear to “move. if the two AC signals are directly opposing one another in phase (180o shift). In cases where the frequencies of the two AC signals are not exactly a simple ratio of each other (but close).” slowly changing orientation as the . vertical = 2) in Figure 12. When we are faced with signal frequencies that are not the same. and a 3:2 frequency ratio (horizontal = 3. 90 or 270 degrees phase shift.21) . Consider the following examples and their given vertical/horizontal frequency ratios: (Figure 12. we will end up with a line again.
12. OSCILLOSCOPE vertical Y V/div trigger DC GND AC timebase X s/div DC GND AC Figure 12.21: Lissajous ﬁgure: Horizontal frequency is three times that of vertical.20: Lissajous ﬁgure: Horizontal frequency is twice that of vertical. .2. FREQUENCY AND PHASE MEASUREMENT 381 OSCILLOSCOPE vertical Y V/div trigger DC GND AC timebase X s/div DC GND AC Figure 12.
AC METERING CIRCUITS OSCILLOSCOPE vertical Y V/div trigger DC GND AC timebase X s/div DC GND AC Lissajous figure: Horizontal/Vertical frequency ratio is 3:2 Figure 12. Despite this limitation. atomic clock signal standards (based on the resonant frequencies of individual atoms) can be used. If the two frequencies are locked in an exact integer ratio between each other.22: Lissajous ﬁgure: Horizontal/vertical frequency ratio is 3:2.3 Power measurement Power measurement in AC circuits can be quite a bit more complex than with DC circuits for the simple reason that phase shift complicates the matter beyond multiplying voltage by . Reference frequency signals can be made with a high degree of accuracy by oscillator circuits using quartz crystals as resonant devices.382 CHAPTER 12. 1:3. Lissajous ﬁgures are a popular means of frequency comparison wherever an accessible frequency standard (signal generator) exists. • REVIEW: • Some frequency meters work on the principle of mechanical resonance. phase angle between the two waveforms rolls between 0o and 180o . usually) to indicate frequency. • Frequency can be measured in a comparative fashion. 12. etc. 3:4. • Other frequency meters use electric resonant circuits (LC tank circuits. 2:3. with an accurately calibrated adjustment knob. as is the case when using a CRT to generate Lissajous ﬁgures. indicating frequency by relative oscillation among a set of uniquely tuned “reeds” shaken at the measured frequency. and a sensitive meter is read for maximum voltage or current at the point of resonance. 1:2. One or both components is made to be adjustable. the Lissajous ﬁgure will be stable on the viewscreen of the CRT. For ultra precision.). The physics of Lissajous ﬁgures limits their usefulness as a frequencycomparison technique to cases where the frequency ratios are simple integer values (1:1.
Three phase power measurement can be accomplished using two dynamometer movements with a common shaft linking the two moving coils together so that a single pointer registers power on a meter movement scale. makes for a rather expensive and complex movement mechanism.12.23) voltage S current N current S N Figure 12. This. The voltage generated across the width of the ﬂat. whereby a voltage is generated along the width of a currentcarrying conductor exposed to a perpendicular magnetic ﬁeld: (Figure 12. An ingenious method of deriving an electronic power meter (one that generates an electric signal representing power in the system rather than merely move a pointer) is based on the Hall effect.23: Hall effect: Voltage is proportional to current and strength of the perpendicular magnetic ﬁeld. POWER MEASUREMENT 383 current ﬁgures obtained with meters. The amount of “Hall Voltage” produced for any given set of conditions also depends on the type of material used for the ﬂat. It makes sense then that if we were to build a device using a Halleffect sensor where the current through the conductor was pushed by AC voltage from an external circuit and the magnetic ﬁeld was set up by a pair or wire coils energized by the current of the AC power circuit. Mathematically. Hall in 1879. the Hall voltage would be in direct proportion to the multiple of circuit current and . rectangular conductor. rectangular conductor is directly proportional to both the magnitude of the current through it and the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld. and so modern Hall Effect devices are made of these. obviously. Fortunately. it is a product (multiplication) of these two variables. the common electrodynamometer movement with its stationary and moving coil does a ﬁne job of this. What is needed is an instrument able to determine the product (multiplication) of instantaneous voltage and current.3. but it is a workable solution. The Hall effect is an unusual effect ﬁrst noticed by E. It has been found that specially prepared “semiconductor” materials produce a greater Hall voltage than do metals. H.
Conditioned through a lowpass ﬁlter circuit. the alternate peaks of Hall device current and magnetic ﬁeld will never coincide with each other: when one is at its peak. Consequently there will be a net DC output voltage. but it will also be a DC signal! This is because the Hall voltage polarity is dependent upon both the polarity of the magnetic ﬁeld and the direction of current through the conductor. The output of such a meter can be set in units of Joules. meaning no real power delivered to the load). this device is able to provide instantaneous power measurement: (Figure 12. but spends more time positive than negative. being the product (multiplication) of current and magnetic ﬁeld strength. Having no mass to move (unlike an electromechanical movement). generating a signal corresponding to the instantaneous absorption and release of power through the reactive load. this net DC voltage can be separated from the AC mixed with it. At those points in time. or total energy . the ﬁnal output signal registered on a sensitive DC meter movement. the other will be zero. The net DC output voltage will be zero.24) voltage Rmultiplier AC power source Load Figure 12. the Hall output voltage will likewise be zero. indicating zero true power in the circuit. If both current direction and magnetic ﬁeld polarity reverses – as it would ever halfcycle of the AC power – the output voltage polarity will stay the same. Between those points in time. Often it is useful to have a meter to totalize power usage over a period of time rather than instantaneously. Any phase shift between voltage and current in the power circuit less than 90o will result in a Hall output voltage that oscillates between positive and negative.384 CHAPTER 12. If voltage and current in the power circuit are 90o out of phase (a power factor of zero. AC METERING CIRCUITS voltage.24: Hall effect power sensor measures instantaneous power. the Hall output voltage will ﬂuctuate equally between positive and negative. Not only will the output voltage of the Hall effect device be the representation of instantaneous power at any point in time.
Mechanical means for measuring WattHours are usually centered around the concept of the motor: build an AC motor that spins at a rate of speed proportional to the instantaneous power in a circuit. Remember that “averaging” type meters are calibrated so that their scales indicate volts RMS.4. The rule of thumb here is this: the greater the disparity between the two meters. A “power quality” meter is one that gives some form of harmonic content indication. Loads controlled by “nonlinear” electronic components are becoming more prevalent in both home and industry.25) . then have that motor turn an “odometer” style counting mechanism to keep a running total of energy consumed. cause exceedingly high neutral conductor currents in threephase systems. Anything other than a clean sine wave could be an indication of trouble: (Figure 12. the averaging meter will not register the proper value. with the rotating magnetic ﬁeld established by sets of coils energized by line voltage and load current so that the rotational speed of the disk is dependent on both voltage and current. reduce electric motor horsepower output. create electromagnetic “noise” in the form of radio emissions that can interfere with sensitive electronic equipment. the worse the power quality is. the output of the meter can be set in units of WattHours. clean sinewave voltages and currents are becoming highly distorted. since power is a measure of work being done per unit time. The “motor” used in these meters has a rotor made of a thin aluminum disk. meaning that the voltages and currents in the power system(s) feeding these loads are rich in harmonics: what should be nice. Or.4 Power quality measurement It used to be with large AC power systems that “power quality” was an unheardof concept. or cause nonsinusoidal currents to ﬂow in the circuit. Excessive harmonics in an AC power system can overheat transformers. and the greater its harmonic content. Almost all loads were of the “linear” variety. engineers and technicians require ways to precisely detect and measure these conditions. based on the assumption that the AC voltage being measured is sinusoidal. With problems like these plaguing power systems.12. aside from power factor. If the voltage is anything but sinewaveshaped. This is not true anymore. more commonly. whereas the trueRMS meter always will. POWER QUALITY MEASUREMENT 385 consumed. A simple way for a technician to determine power quality in their system without sophisticated equipment is to compare voltage readings between two accurate voltmeters measuring the same system voltage: one meter being an “averaging” type of unit (such as an electromechanical movement meter) and the other being a “trueRMS” type of unit (such as a highquality digital meter). and can be difﬁcult to pinpoint. meaning that they did not distort the shape of the voltage sine wave. Another qualitative measurement of power quality is the oscilloscope test: connect an oscilloscope (CRT) to the AC voltage and observe the shape of the wave. 12. to within the rated error tolerance of the two instruments. regardless of waveshape. which is equivalent to the presence of an inﬁnite series of highfrequency sine waves at multiples of the fundamental power line frequency. A power system with good quality power should generate equal voltage readings between the two meters. Power Quality is the general term given to represent an AC power system’s freedom from harmonic content.
26: Power quality meter is a low frequency spectrum analyzer. and blue is in that light). . and displays the result in the form of a histogram: (Figure 12. there is no substitute for an instrument speciﬁcally designed for that purpose.7 % Power Quality Meter Figure 12.26) 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 Total distortion = 43. numerical ﬁgures) is necessary. yellow.25: This is a moderately ugly “sine” wave.386 CHAPTER 12. AC METERING CIRCUITS OSCILLOSCOPE vertical Y V/div trigger DC GND AC timebase X s/div DC GND AC Figure 12. Such an instrument is called a power quality meter and is sometimes better known in electronic circles as a lowfrequency spectrum analyzer. Deﬁnite harmonic content here! Still. the spectrum analyzer splits a mixedfrequency signal into its constituent frequencies. What this instrument does is provide a graphical representation on a CRT or digital display screen of the AC voltage’s frequency “spectrum. orange.” Just as a prism splits a beam of white light into its constituent color components (how much red. green. if quantitative analysis (deﬁnite.
This is true with AC as well. When the bridge is in a balanced condition (zero voltage as indicated by the null detector). Power quality meters such as this might be better referred to as overtone meters. For American power systems. which are “calibrated. In threephase AC power systems (predominant for large power applications). and using a microprocessor (small computer) to perform numerical Fourier analysis (the Fast Fourier Transform or “FFT” algorithm) on those data points to arrive at harmonic frequency magnitudes. digitizing those points of information. These meters work by very quickly sampling the AC voltage at many different points along the waveform shape.” or whose resistances are known to a precise degree.5. the “5” for 300 Hz (the 5th harmonic). the circuit conﬁguration known as a bridge can be a very useful way to measure unknown values of resistance.5 AC bridge circuits As we saw with DC measurement circuits. with a nulldetector meter movement connected between them to indicate a condition of “balance” at zero volts: (Figure 12. and thus the more sensitive it will be.27) Any one of the four resistors in the above bridge can be the resistor of unknown value. A pure. the easier it is to detect a condition of imbalance between the four resistors with the null detector. Meters like these are very useful in the hands of a skilled technician. AC BRIDGE CIRCUITS 387 Each number on the horizontal scale of this meter represents a harmonic of the fundamental frequency. because they are designed to display only those frequencies known to be generated by the power system. there will be no fundamental error introduced as a result of a lesser or greater power supply voltage unlike other types of resistance measurement schemes. The black rectangles represent the relative magnitudes of each of these harmonic components in the measured AC voltage. evennumbered harmonics tend to be canceled out. the “3” for 180 Hz (the 3rd harmonic). and its value can be determined by a ratio of the other three.12. the ratio works out to be this: In a condition of balance: R1 R2 = R3 R4 One of the advantages of using a bridge circuit to measure resistance is that the voltage of the power source is irrelevant. and so only harmonics existing in signiﬁcant measure are the oddnumbered. 12. Practically speaking. . The process is not much unlike what the SPICE program tells a computer to do when performing a Fourier analysis on a simulated circuit voltage or current waveform. To review. 60 Hz sine wave would show only a tall black bar over the “1” with no black bars showing at all over the other frequency markers on the scale. the higher the supply voltage. A greater supply voltage leads to the possibility of increased measurement precision. However. because a pure sine wave has no harmonic content. or fundamental). the bridge circuit works as a pair of twocomponent voltage dividers connected across the same source voltage. and we can apply the very same principle to the accurate measurement of unknown impedances. and so on. because different types of nonlinear loads tend to generate different spectrum “signatures” which can clue the troubleshooter to the source of the problem. the “1” represents 60 Hz (the 1st harmonic.
An oscilloscope is often used for this. Headphone speakers are typically lowimpedance units (8 Ω). .388 CHAPTER 12. or minimum reading. only the balance equation is with complex quantities.28: “Modern” lowOhm headphones require an impedance matching transformer for use as a sensitive null detector.27: A balanced bridge shows a “null”. although very sensitive electromechanical meter movements and even headphones (small speakers) may be used if the source frequency is within audio range. One way to maximize the effectiveness of audio headphones as a null detector is to connect them to the signal source through an impedancematching transformer. requiring substantial current to drive. as both magnitude and phase across the components of the two dividers must be equal in order for the null detector to indicate “zero. on the indicator. An audio output transformer works well for this purpose: (Figure 12. and so a stepdown transformer helps “match” lowcurrent signals to the impedance of the headphone speakers. must be a device capable of detecting very small AC voltages.” The null detector. of course. AC METERING CIRCUITS R1 R3 null R2 R4 Figure 12.28) Press button To test Null detector for AC bridge made from audio headphones Headphones Test leads 1 kΩ 8Ω Figure 12. Impedance bridges work the same.
inductance. Listening to the headphones as one or more of the resistor “arms” of the bridge is adjusted. there will still be voltage across the terminals of the null detector and the bridge will not be balanced. When describing general AC bridges. Depending on how the bridge is set up. or even “Q. I’ve been able to detect currents of less than 0. the impedance ratios of each branch must be equal: Z1 Z = 3 Z2 Z4 Again. it is sometimes helpful to draw the respective bridge legs in the form of boxshaped components. Connected to a resistive bridge. Roughly equal performance was obtained using two different stepdown transformers: a small power transformer (120/6 volt ratio). and an audio output transformer (1000:8 ohm impedance ratio). be it capacitance. if the bridge’s power source frequency is within audio range) as the switch is actuated.5. It is insufﬁcient that the impedance magnitudes alone be balanced. resistance. With the pushbutton switch in place to interrupt current. this circuit is usable for detecting signals from DC to over 2 MHz: even if the frequency is far above or below the audio range.30) For this general form of AC bridge to balance.29. without phase angles in balance as well. Bridge circuits can be constructed to measure just about any device value desired. obtained from a highquality. a condition of balance will be realized when the headphones fail to produce “clicks” (or tones. Headphones R1 R3 R2 R4 Figure 12.” As always in bridge measurement circuits. each one with a certain impedance: (Figure 12.12. AC BRIDGE CIRCUITS 389 Using a pair of headphones that completely surround the ears (the “closedcup” type). the unknown quantity is always “balanced” against a known standard. calibrated component that can be adjusted in value until the null detector device indicates a condition of balance. or derived from . the unknown component’s value may be determined directly from the setting of the calibrated standard.29: Bridge with sensitive AC null detector. it must be stressed that the impedance quantities in the above equation must be complex. the whole circuit looks like Figure 12. accounting for both magnitude and phase angle. a “click” will be heard from the headphones each time the switch is pressed and released.1 µA with this simple detector circuit. where impedances and not just resistances must be in proper ratio for balance.
in the hypothetical world of perfect components. variable resistor in series or parallel with the reactive component to balance out stray resistance in the unknown component.31) and one for capacitance: (Figure 12.31: Symmetrical bridge measures unknown inductor by comparison to a standard inductor. They are a bit simpliﬁed from their reallife counterparts.390 CHAPTER 12. But. A couple of simple bridge circuits are shown below. Simple “symmetrical” bridges such as these are so named because they exhibit symmetry (mirrorimage similarity) from left to right. one for inductance (Figure 12.30: Generalized AC impedance bridge: Z = nonspeciﬁc complex impedance. that standard through a mathematical formula. as practical symmetrical bridge circuits often have a calibrated.32) unknown inductance Lx null Ls standard inductance R R Figure 12. these simple bridge . AC METERING CIRCUITS Z1 null Z2 Z3 Z4 Figure 12. The two bridge circuits shown above are balanced by adjusting the calibrated reactive component (Ls or Cs ).
the parallel impedance of the two determined mathematically. (Figure 12. AC BRIDGE CIRCUITS 391 unknown capacitance Cx Cs null standard capacitance R R Figure 12. used to precisely measure inductances.12. which uses a parallel capacitorresistor standard impedance to balance out an unknown series capacitorresistor combination.34) Calibrationgrade inductors are more .33) All capacitors have some amount of internal resistance. be it literal or equivalent (in the form of dielectric heating losses) which tend to spoil their otherwise perfectly reactive natures. They are also used as frequency meters. This internal resistance may be of interest to measure. An example of a little extra complexity added to compensate for realworld effects can be found in the socalled Wien bridge. Wien bridges are useful for determining the values of “lossy” capacitor designs like electrolytics.5. where the internal resistance is relatively high. because the balance of the bridge is frequencydependent. An interesting variation on this theme is found in the next bridge circuit. and the unknown capacitance and resistance determined mathematically from the balance equation (Z1 /Z2 = Z3 /Z4 ). and so the Wien bridge attempts to do so by providing a balancing impedance that isn’t “pure” either: Being that there are two standard components to be adjusted (a resistor and a capacitor) this bridge will take a little more time to balance than the others we’ve seen so far. circuits do just ﬁne to illustrate the basic concept. and is used to measure unknown inductances in terms of calibrated resistance and capacitance.32: Symmetrical bridge measures unknown capacitor by comparison to a standard capacitor. (Figure 12. When used in this fashion. It is assumed in the operation of the Wien bridge that the standard capacitor has negligible internal resistance. Once that balance is achieved. the capacitors are made ﬁxed (and usually of equal value) and the top two resistors are made variable and are adjusted by means of the same knob. or at least that resistance is already known so that it can be factored into the balance equation. the settings of Rs and Cs can be read from their calibrated knobs. This ingenious bridge circuit is known as the MaxwellWien bridge (sometimes known plainly as the Maxwell bridge). The combined effect of Rs and Cs is to alter the magnitude and phase angle until the bridge achieves a condition of balance.
AC METERING CIRCUITS Cx Rx Cs null Rs R R Figure 12.34: MaxwellWein bridge measures an inductor in terms of a capacitor standard.392 CHAPTER 12.33: Wein Bridge measures both capacitive Cx and resistive Rx components of “real” capacitor. . Lx Rx R null Cs R Rs Figure 12.
so there will be no AC voltage between it and the ground. However. Magnetic ﬁelds can be difﬁcult to shield. this problem is eliminated. and the frequency is read from them after the device has been adjusted for maximum indication on the meter. Unlike the plain Wien bridge. and thus no current through stray capacitances. the standard capacitor (Cs ) and the resistor in parallel with it (Rs ) are made variable. a special voltage divider circuit called a Wagner ground or Wagner earth may be used to maintain the null detector at ground potential without the need for a direct connection to the null detector. Because capacitances can “conduct” alternating current by charging and discharging. the total stray impedance for leakage currents made far less and any leakage currents through these stray capacitances made greater as a result: (Figure 12.5. With no second inductor to react with in the Maxwell bridge. The adjustment knob(s) are calibrated to show resonant frequency for any given setting. There are more variations beyond these designs.35) While reedtype meters are imprecise. The problem is worsened if the AC voltage source is ﬁrmly grounded at one end.12. Another advantage of using a Maxwell bridge to measure inductance rather than a symmetrical inductance bridge is the elimination of measurement error due to mutual inductance between two inductors. Because the phase shifts of inductors and capacitors are exactly opposite each other. AC BRIDGE CIRCUITS 393 difﬁcult to manufacture than capacitors of similar precision. the limiting factor being the inductor’s stability over a wide frequency range. designed to have the volt . In lieu of mechanical resonance. a capacitive impedance can balance out an inductive impedance if they are located in opposite legs of a bridge. but a full discussion is not warranted here. A potential problem in sensitive AC bridge circuits is that of stray capacitance between either end of the null detector unit and ground (earth) potential. and both must be adjusted to achieve balance. (Figure 12. and in some cases this bridge can be made to balance in the presence of mixed frequencies from the AC voltage source. in the latter conﬁguration it takes more trialanderror adjustment to achieve balance. and one of the other two). as it would create a direct current path for stray currents. the balance of the MaxwellWien bridge is independent of source frequency. and even a small amount of coupling between coils in a bridge can introduce substantial errors in certain conditions.36) One way of greatly reducing this effect is to keep the null detector at ground potential. this is a tunable ﬁlter circuit which is adjusted and then read in a manner similar to a bridge circuit (which must be balanced for a “null” condition and then read). and so the use of a simple “symmetrical” inductance bridge is not always practical. as they are here. the bridge can be made to work if the capacitor is ﬁxed (nonvariable) and more than one resistor made variable (at least the resistor in parallel with the capacitor.37) The Wagner earth circuit is nothing more than a voltage divider. directly connecting the null detector to ground is not an option. However. we may substitute electrical resonance and design a frequency meter using an inductor and capacitor in the form of a tank circuit (parallel inductor and capacitor). Generalpurpose impedance bridge circuits are manufactured which can be switched into more than one conﬁguration for maximum ﬂexibility of use. Essentially. One or both components are made adjustable. Instead. which would be worse than any capacitive path. However. For easiest operation. they form stray current paths to the AC voltage source which may affect bridge balance: (Figure 12. their operational principle is not. and a meter is placed in the circuit to indicate maximum amplitude of voltage across the two components. as the different variable resistors interact in balancing magnitude and phase.
36: Stray capacitance errors are more severe if one side of the AC supply is grounded. AC METERING CIRCUITS Cstray Cx Cs null Cstray R R Cstray Cstray Figure 12.35: Stray capacitance to ground may introduce errors into the bridge. .394 CHAPTER 12. Cx Cs null Cstray R R Cstray Figure 12.
any other divider circuit (including either side of the bridge) having the same voltage proportions and phases as the Wagner divider.5.12. age ratio and phase shift as each side of the bridge. (Figure 12. Thus. but the null detector is also guaranteed to be at zero potential with respect to ground.37: Wagner ground for AC supply minimizes the effects of stray capacitance to ground on the bridge. AC BRIDGE CIRCUITS 395 Cstray Wagner earth Cx Cs null Cstray R R Cstray Cstray Figure 12. There is often a provision made in the null detector connection to conﬁrm proper setting of the Wagner earth divider circuit: a twoposition switch. thus eliminating any errors due to leakage currents through stray detectortoground capacitances: • REVIEW: • AC bridge circuits work on the same basic principle as DC bridge circuits: that a balanced ratio of impedances (rather than resistances) will result in a “balanced” condition as indicated by the nulldetector device. will be at ground potential as well. • Null detectors for AC bridges may be sensitive electromechanical meter movements. Because the midpoint of the Wagner divider is directly grounded. the Wagner earth divider forces the null detector to be at ground potential. or any other device capable of registering very small AC voltage levels.38) so that one end of the null detector may be connected to either the bridge or the Wagner earth. its only required point of calibration accuracy is at zero. and powered by the same AC voltage source. headphones (ampliﬁed or unampliﬁed). oscilloscopes (CRT’s). Like DC null detectors. the bridge is not only guaranteed to be balanced. When the null detector registers zero signal in both switch positions. without a direct connection between the detector and ground. .
396 CHAPTER 12. This is especially true in the ﬁelds of automated machine tool control and robotics. • AC bridge circuits can be of the “symmetrical” type where an unknown impedance is balanced by a standard impedance of similar type on the same side (top or bottom) of the bridge.). AC METERING CIRCUITS Cstray Cx Cs null Cstray R R Cstray Cstray Figure 12.39) . 12. • AC bridge circuits often have more than one adjustment.” using parallel impedances to balance series impedances. A simple and easy way to do this is with a potentiometer: (Figure 12. • Some impedance bridge circuits are frequencysensitive while others are not. or even capacitances balancing out inductances.6 AC instrumentation transducers Just as devices have been made to measure certain physical quantities and repeat that information in the form of DC electrical signals (thermocouples. strain gauges.38: Switchup position allows adjustment of the Wagner ground. • A Wagner earth or Wagner ground is a voltage divider circuit added to AC bridges to help reduce errors due to stray capacitance coupling the null detector to ground. Or. they can be “nonsymmetrical. since both impedance magnitude and phase angle must be properly matched to balance. special devices have been made that do the same with AC. It is often necessary to be able to detect and transmit the physical position of mechanical parts via electrical signals. The frequencysensitive types may be used as frequency measurement devices if all component values are accurately known. pH probes. etc.
potentiometers have their own unique problems. but it is a possibility to be considered. Devices made for this purpose are called LVDT’s. The further away the core is from center position.12. this device is a transformer: it has a single primary winding powered by an external source of AC voltage. The design of an LVDT looks like this: (Figure 12. they rely on physical contact between the “wiper” and the resistance strip. Thus. their proportional output versus shaft position becomes less and less certain. You might have already experienced this effect when adjusting the volume control on an old radio: when twisting the knob. Excitation of the LVDT is typically 10 volts RMS or less. The primary advantage of an LVDT over a potentiometer for position sensing is the absence of physical contact between the moving and stationary parts. nor is there the possibility of creating an arc. If the potentiometer is to be operated in an environment where combustible vapor or dust is present. Those noises are the result of poor wiper contact in the volume control potentiometer. and two secondary windings connected in seriesbucking fashion. AC INSTRUMENTATION TRANSDUCERS 397 potentiometer shaft moved by physical motion of an object + V  voltmeter indicates position of that object Figure 12. this potential for arcing translates into a potential for an explosion! Using AC instead of DC. this physical contact between wiper and strip creates the possibility of arcing (sparking) between the two as the wiper is moved.40) Obviously. When the core is centered and both windings are outputting the same voltage. the greater percentage of input (“excitation”) voltage will be seen at the output. Zero volts means that the core is centered. As potentiometers wear. The phase of the output voltage relative to the excitation voltage indicates which direction from center the core is offset. It is called linear because the core’s freedom of motion is straightline. the net result at the output terminals will be zero volts. Being arranged to oppose each other (180o out of phase) means that the output of this device will be the difference between the voltage output of the two secondary windings. we are able to completely avoid sliding contact between parts if we use a variable transformer instead of a potentiometer. but slides in and out within a nonconducting tube. With most potentiometer circuits. you might hear “scratching” sounds coming out of the speakers.39: Potentiometer tap voltage indicates position of an object slaved to the shaft. The core does not contact the wire windings. the current is so low that wiper arcing is negligible. It is variable because the core is free to move between the windings. Also. It is differential because of the way the two secondary windings are connected. For one. which stands for Linear Variable Differential Transformers. the LVDT does not “wear” like a potentiometer. However. which means they suffer the effects of physical wear over time. at frequencies ranging from power . The AC voltage output by an LVDT indicates the position of the movable core.6.
398 CHAPTER 12. If very quick response times are desired. To illustrate the potential problem here. On the rotor is a single winding connected to a source of AC voltage. But this is not how a synchro is designed to be operated. AC METERING CIRCUITS AC output voltage AC "excitation" voltage movable core Figure 12. the frequency must be higher to allow whatever voltagesensing circuits enough cycles of AC to determine voltage level as the core is moved. Rather. then the voltages would be true threephase. this is a positionsensing device much like an RVDT. or Rotary Variable Differential Transformer. This device works on almost the same principle. A resolver produces sine and cosine outputs which indicate shaft position. imagine this exaggerated scenario: an LVDT powered by a 60 Hz voltage source. With the rotor energized by AC. which is mostly dependent on the frequency of the AC voltage source. The rotor is free to revolve a full 360o . Voltages induced in the stator windings from the rotor’s AC excitation are not phaseshifted by 120o as in a real threephase generator.40: AC output of linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) indicates core position. Continuing with this principle. (Figure 12. The stator windings are usually in the form of a threephase Y. which is a device constructed a lot like a woundrotor polyphase AC motor or generator. although synchros with more than three phases have been built. we have what is known as a Synchro or Selsyn. line to the high audio (20 kHz) range.41) A device with a twophase stator is known as a resolver. RVDT’s can be constructed for limited motion of 360o (fullcircle) motion. A variation on the LVDT is the RVDT. One potential disadvantage of the LVDT is its response time. except that the core revolves on a shaft instead of moving in a straight line. just like a motor. with the core being moved in and out hundreds of times per second. except that its output signal is much more deﬁnite. If the rotor were energized with DC current rather than AC and the shaft spun continuously. the stator winding voltages will be proportional in magnitude to the angular position . The output of this LVDT wouldn’t even look like a sine wave because the core would be moved throughout its range of motion before the AC source voltage could complete a single cycle! It would be almost impossible to determine instantaneous core position if it moves faster than the instantaneous source voltage does. much like the primary winding of an LVDT.
42) Synchro "transmitter" Synchro "receiver" The receiver rotor will turn to match position with the transmitter rotor so long as the two rotors remain energized. With their rotors connected in parallel and energized by the same AC voltage source. each secondary winding oriented at a unique angle. Rotating one moves the other.12. and a rotating ﬁeld.k.a "Selsyn") Resolver 399 AC voltage source rotor winding threephase stator winding rotor winding twophase stator winding stator connections rotor connections stator connections rotor connections modern schematic symbol Figure 12. You could think of it as a transformer with one primary winding and three secondary windings. phase either 0o or 180o shifted. As the rotor is slowly turned. producing full voltage. like a regular LVDT or RVDT. while the other windings will produce something less than full voltage. their shafts will match position to a high degree of accuracy: (Figure 12. A resolver has a twophase stator.42: Synchro shafts are slaved to each other. each winding in turn will line up directly with the rotor.41: A synchro is wound with a threephase stator winding. Figure 12. Such “transmitter/receiver” pairs have been used on ships to relay rudder position. or to . AC INSTRUMENTATION TRANSDUCERS Synchro (a.6. Synchros are often used in pairs. of the rotor.
44: Full rotation of the rotor will smoothly shift the phase from 0o all the way to 360o (back to 0o ). AC METERING CIRCUITS relay navigational gyro position over fairly long distances.400 CHAPTER 12. their respective magnetic ﬁelds being 120o phaseshifted from one another. As the synchro’s rotor is turned. The receiver rotor will no longer generate any torque and consequently will no longer automatically match position with the transmitter’s: (Figure 12. This can be thought of almost as a sort of bridge circuit that achieves balance only if the receiver shaft is brought to one of two (matching) positions with the transmitter shaft. The only difference between the “transmitter” and the “receiver” is which one gets turned by an outside force. The “receiver” can just as easily be used as the “transmitter” by forcing its shaft to turn and letting the synchro on the left match position. the rotor coil will progressively align with each stator coil. . it will act as a positionerror detector.44) threephase AC voltage source (can be Y or Delta) Synchro voltage signal output Figure 12. generating an AC voltage at the rotor if the shaft is anything other than 90o or 270o shifted from the shaft position of the transmitter. If the receiver’s rotor is left unpowered.43: AC voltmeter registers voltage if the receiver rotor is not rotated exactly 90 or 270 degrees from the transmitter rotor. provided that the stator is energized by threephase AC: (Figure 12. In between those positions. One rather ingenious application of the synchro is in the creation of a phaseshifting device. these phaseshifted ﬁelds will mix to produce a rotor voltage somewhere between 0o .43) Synchro "transmitter" Synchro "receiver" AC voltmeter Figure 12.
However. An Inductosyn R is a linear version of the resolver. and a movable winding known as a slider. Resolution of 25 microinches is achievable. the ﬁne position. though. Adapted from Figure 6.45) The slider has a pair of windings having the same pitch as the ﬁxed winding. This is an incremental encoder. . This low signal level is converted to to a 12bit digital format by a resolver to digital converter (RDC).6.16 [1] When we say sine and cosine waves are produces as a function of linear movement. A linear Inductosyn has a transformer ratio of 100:1. it bears slight resemblance. A few volts AC excitation into an Inductosyn yields a few millivolts out. AC INSTRUMENTATION TRANSDUCERS 401 120o . The Inductosyn consists of two parts: a ﬁxed serpentine winding having a 0. If absolute position must be known regardless of the starting point. or 240o shift. an auxiliary resolver geared for one revolution per length gives a coarse position. A synchro or a resolver may measure linear motion if geared with a rack and pinion mechanism. A linear movement of a few inches (or cm) resulting in multiple revolutions of the synchro (resolver) generates a train of sinewaves. The slider windings are offset by a quarter pitch so both sine and cosine waves are produced by movement.1 in or 2 mm pitch. (b) movable slider 2phase windings. The two slider AC signals must be measured to determine position within a pitch. Movement by one pitch produces a cycle of sine and cosine waves. (Figure 12. multiple pitches produce a train of waves. the number of pitches (number of waves) may be counted from a known starting point yielding coarse position. Compare this to the 1:1 ratio for a resolver. we really mean a high frequency carrier is amplitude modulated as the slider moves. One slider winding is adequate for counting pulses. This constitutes an absolute encoder. The practical result is a device capable of providing an inﬁnitely variablephase AC voltage with the twist of a knob (attached to the rotor shaft). The 2phase windings provide direction information in the phasing of the sine and cosine waves. P θ fixed slider fixed slider sin(θ) (a) cos(θ) (b) Figure 12.45: Inductosyn: (a) Fixed serpentine winding. It outputs signals like a resolver. How many pitches has the slider moved? The sine and cosine signals’ relationship does not reveal that.12. but provides no direction information.
AC being used to sense the change in capacitance and generate a variable output voltage. AC METERING CIRCUITS There is also a rotary version of the Inductosyn having 360 pattern pitches per revolution. However. then any measurement of capacitance between the surfaces will be solely indicative of changes in that third variable. Other transducers work by moving a dielectric material in and out between two ﬁxed plates: (Figure 12.47) . capacitive transducers can also be made to be selfcontained units. When used with a 12bit resolver to digital converter. and the dielectric constant of the material in between the surfaces. it is possible to make transducers which operate on variable capacitance as well. With a sufﬁciently high AC excitation frequency and sensitive enough voltage detector. either in such a way as to vary the overlapping area or the distance between the plates. a German researcher named H.402 CHAPTER 12.46: Variable capacitive transducer varies. a resolver may determine coarse absolute position. not just the pumping action but also the sounds of the active heart may be readily interpreted. capacitance being measured between the metal probe and the body of the subject. Alternatively. This is an incremental encoder. Cremer placed two metal plates on either side of a beating frog heart and measured the capacitance changes resulting from the heart alternately ﬁlling and emptying itself of blood. Here are a few examples of differential capacitive transducers: (Figure 12. Similar measurements have been performed on human beings with metal plates placed on the chest and back. metal probes have been inserted into organs (especially the heart) on the tips of catheter tubes. unlike the direct physiological examples described above. [1] So far the transducers discussed have all been of the inductive variety. much like the concept behind the LVDT (Linear Variable Differential Transformer). As early as 1907. the distance between them. (c) amount of dielectric between plates. Counting of pitches from a known starting point is necessary to determine absolute position. Some transducers work by making one of the capacitor plates movable. If two out of three of these variables can be ﬁxed (stabilized) and the third allowed to vary. Remember that the capacitance between two conductive surfaces varies with three major factors: the overlapping area of those two surfaces. Transducers with greater sensitivity and immunity to changes in other variables can be obtained by way of differential design. recording respiratory and cardiac action by means of capacitance changes.46) (a) (b) (c) Figure 12. better that 1 arc second resolution is achievable. (a) area of overlap. Like inductive transducers. (b) distance between plates. Medical researchers have long made use of capacitive sensing to detect physiological changes in living bodies. For more precise capacitive measurements of organ activity.
(b) distance between plates. Good conductor shielding is essential for reliable and accurate capacitive transducer circuitry! The bridge circuit is not the only way to effectively interpret the differential capacitance output of such a transducer.6.47: Differential capacitive transducer varies capacitance ratio by changing: (a) area of overlap. stray capacitances have the potential of being major sources of measurement error. but it is one of the simplest to implement and understand. high power supply frequencies (in the megahertz range!) are usually required to reduce these capacitive reactances to reasonable levels. As with the LVDT.12.48: Differential capacitive transducer bridge measurement circuit. and the direction of offset will be indicated by phase . the capacitance between the other “end” plate and the “common” plate is such to change in the opposite direction. typically in the picofarad range. all of the differential devices shown in the above illustration have three wire connections rather than two: one wire for each of the “end” plates and one for the “common” plate. AC INSTRUMENTATION TRANSDUCERS 403 (a) (b) (c) Figure 12. Given the small capacitances provided by typical capacitive transducers.48) Pictoral diagram capacitive sensor Schematic diagram V Figure 12. Capacitive transducers provide relatively small capacitances for a measurement circuit to operate with. the voltage output of the bridge is proportional to the displacement of the transducer action from its center position. As you can see. This kind of transducer lends itself very well to implementation in a bridge circuit: (Figure 12. (c) dielectric between plates. As the capacitance between one of the “end” plates and the “common” plate changes. Because of this.
Capacitor C1 is charged by the AC voltage source during every positive halfcycle (positive as measured in reference to the ground point).Output is across Rload .404 CHAPTER 12. the other capacitor discharges (at a slower rate than it was charged) through the threeresistor network. but rather the degree of imbalance represents the magnitude of the quantity being measured. It requires the use of diodes. As a consequence. While one capacitor is being charged.49: Differential capacitive transducer “TwinT” measurement circuit. C1 maintains a positive DC voltage with respect to ground. This kind of bridge circuit is similar in function to the kind used with strain gauges: it is not intended to be in a “balanced” condition all the time. AC METERING CIRCUITS shift.50) R + C1 R Rload + C2 Figure 12. and C2 a negative DC voltage with respect to . those “oneway valves” for electric current mentioned earlier in the chapter: (Figure 12.50: Differential capacitor transducer “TwinT” measurement circuit redrawn as a bridge.49) R R C1 + + C2 Rload Eout Figure 12. An interesting alternative to the bridge circuit for interpreting differential capacitance is the twinT. while C2 is charged during every negative halfcycle. This circuit might be better understood if redrawn to resemble more of a bridge conﬁguration: (Figure 12.
This helps minimize the ill effects of stray capacitance commonly plaguing bridge measurement circuits. when it comes time to discharge through the resistors. eliminating the need for an ampliﬁer circuit.51: Addition of lowpass ﬁlter to “twinT” feeds pure DC to measurement indicator. a lowpass ﬁlter may be added to the output of this circuit to block the AC. as there is negligible resistance in the charging current path from source to capacitor. not an AC voltage whose magnitude and phase must be interpreted to tell which capacitance is greater. will drop no DC voltage if the two capacitors’ DC voltage charges are equal in magnitude. the load resistor will drop a voltage proportional to the difference between these voltages.51) R Lowpass filter R C1 + + C2 Rload Rfilter Cfilter Eout Figure 12. resulting in a very short time constant (τ ). Furthermore. However. Thus. the capacitor with the greater capacitance value will hold its charge longer. The load resistor (Rload ).12. Across the load resistor. leaving only a DC signal to be interpreted by measurement circuitry: (Figure 12. on the other hand.6. As a measurement circuit for differential capacitive sensors. resulting in a greater average DC voltage over time than the lesservalue capacitor. with only the DC voltage being signiﬁcant to the difference in capacitance. one capacitor will increase in capacitance while the other will decrease. differential capacitance is translated into a DC voltage across the load resistor. connected at one end to the point between the two equalvalue resistors (R) and at the other end to ground. This has little effect on the peak voltage charge of each capacitor. First and foremost. If. This circuit is also easy to specify parts for. transducer displacement is indicated by a simple DC voltage. this DC output signal may be strong enough to directly drive an electromechanical meter movement. the twinT conﬁguration enjoys many advantages over the standard bridge conﬁguration. Normally. Another important advantage is that all important circuit elements have one terminal directly connected to ground: the source. AC INSTRUMENTATION TRANSDUCERS 405 ground. If the capacitive transducer is displaced from center position. likewise eliminating the need for compensatory measures such as the Wagner earth. there is both AC and DC voltage present. and both capacitors are all groundreferenced. Not so with . If desired. given the proper component values and power supply output. a measurement circuit incorporating complementary diodes requires the selection of “matched” diodes for good accuracy. one capacitor maintains a greater DC voltage charge than the other due to a difference in capacitance. the load resistor.
Personal experience with using this circuit has conﬁrmed its impressive performance.PDF . Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting. Not only is it easy to prototype and test. assuming a 50% duty cycle (equal positive and negative halfcycles).406 CHAPTER 12. and squarewave supply voltage works as well as sinewave.com/UploadedFiles/Associated Docs/ vices. Furthermore. Bibliography [1] Waltt Kestler. of course. AC METERING CIRCUITS this circuit! So long as the power supply voltage is signiﬁcantly greater than the deviation in voltage drop between the two diodes. See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information. 324695618448506532114843952501435805318549066180119988Fsect6. which led to a much betterlooking second edition. supply frequency variations have a relatively low impact on gain (how much output voltage is developed for a given amount of transducer displacement). but its relative insensitivity to stray capacitance and its high output voltage as compared to traditional bridge circuits makes it a very robust alternative. “Position and Motion Sensors”. the effects of mismatch are minimal and contribute little to measurement error. 12.7 Contributors Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions.analog. Analog Dehttp://www. from most recent to ﬁrst.
. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Permanent magnet stepper . . . . . . .9 Singlephase induction motors . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . .5 Motor starting and speed control . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . 13. . . . . .Chapter 13 AC MOTORS Contents 13. . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . .8 Wound rotor induction motors . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . 13. . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . .1 Characteristics . . 13. . . . . . . . . . .1 Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Capacitorstart induction motor .1 Speed control . .6 Brushless DC motor . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Permanentsplit capacitor motor . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . .6 Linear induction motor . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . .8. . . . 13. . . . . . .1 Synchronous reluctance . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. .2 Theory of operation . . . . . . . .2 Switched reluctance . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . .7. . . . . 13. . . . .3 Synchronous condenser . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Hybrid stepper motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Variable reluctance stepper . . 13. .2 Synchronous Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . .7 Tesla polyphase induction motors . . . . . 13. . . . . . . .4. 13. . . . . . . 13. . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Stepper motors . . . . . . .3 Nola power factor corrector . . . .4 Induction motor alternator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . .5. 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . 408 409 412 420 421 421 422 424 426 426 428 431 435 438 442 443 445 453 454 455 460 460 462 462 464 465 466 407 .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . .3 Electronic driven variable reluctance motor 13. . . 13. . . . . . . . . .2 Doublyfed induction generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Hysteresis and Eddy Current .4 Reluctance motor . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . .5 Nola power factor corrrector . . . . 13. . . . .5 Repulsion start induction motor . .4 Repulsion motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Shaded pole induction motor . . . . . . .12. . . . . . . . .10. . . . . . . . .4 Resistance splitphase motor induction motor 13. 13.2 2phase servo motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Eddy current clutch . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. .11 Selsyn (synchro) motors . .3 Control transformer . .1 Single phase series motor . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . .2 Compensated series motor . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. .11. . . . . . a gradual transition to the more economical AC system commenced. . . . . . . . . . . .1: Conductors of squirrel cage induction motor removed from rotor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Hysteresis motor . . . . . . . . . . .1 Transmitter . . . . . . . . . .10 Other specialized motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . .9. . AC MOTORS . . . . . CHAPTER 13. . .12 AC commutator motors . . . . . . . .receiver . . . 13. Lighting worked as well on AC as on DC. . . .12. .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Universal motor . . . 13. . . . . . . . . Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . .10. 13. . 13. . . . . . . .10. . . . . . .11. . 13. . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12. . . . . .11. . . . . . .4 Resolver . . . .9. . .408 13. . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Capacitorrun motor induction motor . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.receiver . . .12. .2 Differential transmitter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11. . . . . . . . . Transmission of electrical energy covered longer distances at lower loss with . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . 467 467 467 469 469 469 470 470 471 472 473 476 478 479 480 480 480 481 481 482 Original author: Dennis Crunkilton Figure 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction After the introduction of the DC electrical distribution system by Edison in the United States. . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INTRODUCTION 409 alternating current. If the laminations are made of silicon alloy grain oriented steel. one goal is to maximize motor efﬁciency. hysteresis losses are minimized. the Tesla motor reigns supreme. not spun by water or steam. is driven by alternating current square waves.1. Numerous problems were encountered due to changing magnetic ﬁelds. similar to the DC variety. And. is the workhorse of industry to this day. However. 13. Br due to hysteresis remains. the AC induction motor. Magnetic hysteresis is a lagging behind of magnetic ﬁeld strength as compared to magnetizing force. a small amount of residual magnetization. the silicon (a semiconductor) added to the alloy used in the laminations increases electrical resistance which decreases the magnitude of eddy currents. Though few AC motors today bear any resemblance to DC motors. converting it to mechanical work. Eddy currents are minimized by breaking the potential conductive loop into smaller less lossy segments. generated by solid state circuitry Figure 13. due to I2 R losses in the motor windings. (Figure 13.2 shows the family tree of the AC motors described in this chapter. Steinmetz contributed to solving these problems with his investigation of hysteresis losses in iron armatures. AC motors were constructed like DC motors. high reliability. Both rotor and stator cores of AC motors are composed of a stack of insulated laminations. Such has been the case with dieselelectric locomotives on a smaller scale for many years. Also. (Figure 13.4) The current loops look like shorted transformer secondary turns. However. The heat is an undesired byproduct of the conversion. in overcoming this residual magnetization before . Nikola Tesla envisioned an entirely new type of motor when he visualized a spinning turbine. a digital version of motor. but by a rotating magnetic ﬁeld.1 Hysteresis and Eddy Current Early designers of AC motors encountered problems traced to losses unique to alternating current magnetics. actually an AC motor. Hc the coercive force. is replacing the conventional brushed DC motor in many applications. Above one horsepower (750 W). Its ruggedness and simplicity (Figure 13. If a soft iron nail is temporarily magnetized by a solenoid. It must be removed from the motor and may adversely affect longevity. These problems were encountered when adapting DC motors to AC operation. AC motors also have some losses not encountered by DC motors: hysteresis and eddy currents. The brushless DC motor. motors were a problem with alternating current. these problems had to be solved before AC motors of any type could be properly designed before they were built. Cruise ships and other large vessels replace reduction geared drive shafts with large multimegawatt generators and motors. At the system level. The laminations are coated with insulating varnish before stacking and bolting into the ﬁnal form. Initially. the stepper motor. Some of the electric energy is lost to heat.13. again.1) make for long life. another form of energy. Yet small brushed AC motors. His new type of motor.1. persist in small appliances along with small Tesla induction motors. reducing the heat loss. and low maintenance. electric motors are not 100% efﬁcient. The thin isolated laminations break these loops. Thus.5) An alternating current has to expend energy. as compared to the static ﬁelds in DC motor motor ﬁeld coils. Charles P. Modern solid state electronic circuits drive brushless DC motors with AC waveforms generated from a DC source.3) a motor takes in electrical energy in terms of a potential difference and a current ﬂow. Alas. one would expect the nail to lose the magnetic ﬁeld once the solenoid is deenergized. (Figure 13.
AC MOTORS Synchros & resolvers Capacitor run Variable reluctance Synchronous condenser Hybrid . Permanent split capacitor Split phase Wound rotor Variable reluctance Synchronous reluctance Capacitor start Shaded pole PM rotor Squirrel cage Wound rotor PM Switched reluctance CHAPTER 13.410 Electric motor family tree Electric motor AC DC Asynchronous AC brushed Universal Synchronous Other DC motors Polyphase Sine wave Stepper Single phase Brushless Reluctance Figure 13.2: AC electric motor family diagram.
Hysteresis loss is encountered each time the polarity of the AC reverses.1. rolled to preferentially orient the grain or crystalline structure.13. has still lower losses. it was possible to design . it can magnetize the core back to zero. INTRODUCTION 411 Mechanical enegy Electrical energy Heat Figure 13. B Teslas BR HC H Aturns/m B H HC BR low hysteresis loss high loss Figure 13.3: Motor system level diagram. Silicon grain oriented steel. “Soft” iron alloys have lower losses than “hard” high carbon steel alloys. The loss is proportional to the area enclosed by the hysteresis loop on the BH curve.4: Eddy currents in iron cores. 4% silicon. Once Steinmetz’s Laws of hysteresis could predict iron core losses. solid core laminated core Figure 13.5: Hysteresis curves for low and high loss alloys. let alone in the opposite direction.
6: Synchronous motor running in step with alternator. they must be synchronized. A synchronous motor is similar to an alternator with a rotating ﬁeld. If more torque in the direction of rotation is applied to the rotor of one of the above rotating . Though.412 CHAPTER 13. This is due to power plant operators purposely maintaining the long term accuracy of the frequency of the AC distribution system. Above 10 Horsepower (10 kW) the higher efﬁciency and leading powerfactor make large synchronous motors useful in industry.2 Synchronous Motors Single phase synchronous motors are available in small sizes for applications requiring precise timing such as time keeping. conversely. use a motor as a generator. the alternators will be locked to each other. the synchronous motor is more complex. 13. That is. or an alternator driving a synchronous motor. if an external power source were connected. If it falls behind by a few cycles. and be in phase with each other. Large synchronous motors are a few percent more efﬁcient than the more common induction motors. it should be possible to use a generator as a motor. Today this is but a minor category of AC motors. Or. The procedure for synchronizing two alternators is to (1) open the switch. they will make up the lost cycles of AC so that clocks lose no time. The point is that in either case the rotors must run at the same nominal frequency. This knowledge of eddy current and hysteresis was ﬁrst applied to building AC commutator motors similar to their DC counterparts. requiring considerable torque to break one unit loose (out of synchronization) from the other. (4) close the switch before they drift out of phase. torque angle N S N S 1 S S N N 2 S S N N 3 Figure 13. The ﬁgure below shows small alternators with a permanent magnet rotating ﬁeld. This ﬁgure 13. (2) drive both alternators at the same rotational rate. the AC line operated variety has better long term accuracy−− over a period of months. AC MOTORS AC motors which performed as designed. Others invented new types of AC motors bearing little resemblance to their DC kin. (3) advance or retard the phase of one unit until both AC outputs are in phase. Since motors and generators are similar in construction. (clocks) and tape players. Once synchronized. it could be two motors.6 could either be two paralleled and synchronized alternators driven by a mechanical energy sources. This was akin to being able to design a bridge ahead of time that would not collapse once it was actually built. Though battery powered quartz regulated clocks are widely available.
2. α S N N 1 2 1 3 4 S S N S S N 2 N N N S N S 3 S 4 Figure 13. the rotor will exceed the maximum torque angle advancing or lagging so much that synchronization is lost. Torque is developed only when synchronization of the motor is maintained. However. If excessive torque or drag is applied. As the sine wave changes from negative to 0 VDC to positive. as the sine wave changes to positive in Figure 13. The process repeats for a new cycle of sine wave. In a similar manner the rotor south pole is repelled by the upper south coil and attracted to the lower north coil. it is not necessary to go through the elaborate synchronization procedure for alternators. If a load such as a brake is applied to one of the above units. By the time that the sine wave reaches a peak at (2).7: Sinewave drives synchronous motor. In the case of a small synchronous motor in place of the alternator Figure 13. This torque decreases as the sine wave decreases to 0 VDC at (3) with the torque at a minimum. the lower north coil pushes the north rotor pole. loading the rotor will cause the rotor to lag the positions shown by angle α. the above ﬁgure illustrates the rotor position for a noload condition (α=0o ). Once up to speed. like a motor. the torque holding the north pole of the rotor up is at a maximum. the synchronous motor will maintain synchronism with the AC power source and develop torque. This angle increases with loading until the maximum motor torque is reached at α=90o electrical. extracting energy from the AC line.13. Assuming that the motor is up to synchronous speed. Note. while attracting rotor north rotor pole. SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS 413 alternators. the synchronous motor is not self starting and must still be brought up to the approximate alternator electrical speed before it will lock (synchronize) to the generator rotational rate. Synchronization and torque are lost beyond this angle. At (4) the sinewave reaches a negative peak with holding torque again at a maximum. In actual practice. In a similar manner the rotor north pole is repelled by the upper north coil and attracted to the lower south coil. the angle of the rotor will advance (opposite of (3)) with respect to the magnetic ﬁeld in the stator coils while still synchronized and the rotor will deliver energy to the AC line like an alternator. the angle of the rotor will lag the stator ﬁeld as at (3). The rotor will also be advanced with respect to the rotor in the other alternator. while the upper south coil attracts that rotor north pole.6 right.7 (1). As the sine wave changes to negative between (3&4). the lower south coil pushes the south rotor pole. The current in the coils of a single phase synchronous motor pulsates while alternating .
Though the polarity of the coil alternates due to the appplied AC. the bottom south. The one coil style of construction is . it synchronizes to this alternation. A 2pole (pair of NS poles) alternator will generate a 60 Hz sine wave when rotated at 3600 rpm (revolutions per minute). AC MOTORS polarity. Figure 13. N S Figure 13. If the permanent magnet rotor speed is close to the frequency of this alternation.414 CHAPTER 13. Since the coil ﬁeld pulsates and does not rotate. Thus. Pole pieces route the south ﬂux from the bottom and outside of the coil to the top.8) is for illustration. This is a small induction motor similar to those in the next section. assume that the top is temporarily north. These 6souths are interleaved with 6north tabs bent up from the top of the steel pole piece of the coil. The rotation speed will be 1/6 of the electrical speed of the AC. Higher efﬁciency higher torque multipole stator synchronous motors actually have multiple poles in the rotor. or 600 rpm for a 12pole motor. A lower speed motor may be constructed by adding more pole pairs. Rather than wind 12coils for a 12pole motor. A similar 2pole permanent magnet synchronous motor will also rotate at 3600 rpm. The stator (Figure 13.9. Example: 60 Hz would rotate a 2pole motor at 3600 rpm. wind a single coil with twelve interdigitated steel poles pieces as shown in Figure 13. The 3600 rpm corresponds to 60 revolutions per second. A 4pole motor would rotate at 1800 rpm. it is necessary to bring the permanent magnet rotor up to speed with an auxiliary motor. The style of construction shown (Figure 13. a 12pole motor at 600 rpm. Rotor speed will be 1/6 of that experienced with a 2pole synchronous motor. a permanent magnet rotor bar will encounter 6pole pairs corresponding to 6cycles of AC in one physical rotation of the bar magnet.9: Onewinding 12pole synchronous motor.8: Addition of ﬁeld poles decreases speed. Construction is similar to the previous ﬁgure with a single coil.10) shows a 12pole Westclox synchronous clock motor.
13. It would rotate at 50/5 = 10 rotations per second or 600 rpm (10 s−1 x 60 s/minute. This 600 rpm motor drives reduction gears moving clock hands. At one time nonselfstarting motors without the induction motor cup were manufactured. SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS 415 Figure 13.com The rotor (Figure 13. Such motors are not self starting if started from a ﬁxed frequency power . how many poles would be required? A 10pole motor would have 5pairs of NS poles.clockHistory. The synchronous motor bar rotating within the pole tabs keeps accurate time.2. If the Westclox motor were to run at 600 rpm from a 50 Hz power source.clockHistory. A 3phase synchronous motor as shown in Figure 13.) Figure 13.12 generates an electrically rotating ﬁeld in the stator.11: Reprinted by permission of Westclox History at www.com economical for low torque motors.11) consists of a permanent magnet bar and a steel induction motor cup.10: Reprinted by permission of Westclox History at www. The induction motor cup outside of the bar magnet ﬁts outside and over the tabs for self starting.
These will be slip ring fed electromagnets in large industrial motors. where f is the power line frequency. but smoothly. 4pole synchronous motor Small multiphase synchronous motors (Figure 13. when the φ1 and φ2 sinewaves coincide. acting like an induction motor. S = f120/n where: S = rotor speed in rpm f = AC line frequency n = number of poles per phase The 3phase 4pole (per phase) synchronous motor (Figure 13. they can correct the AC line for a lagging power factor.12) will rotate at 1800 rpm with 60 Hz power or 1500 rpm with 50 Hz power. Large industrial synchronous motors are more efﬁcient than induction motors. Having a leading power factor. The number of poles is n. and will be square waves in all but the most demanding applications. AC MOTORS source such as 50 or 60 Hz as found in an industrial setting. True synchronous motors are driven by sine waveforms. φ1 φ2 φ1 φ2 φ3 N S S N S N φ3 Figure 13. Furthermore. the ﬁeld will be at a peak pointing between these poles. . Since the sine waves actually overlap. the rotor should point to the corresponding poles in turn. They are used when constant speed is required. 50 or 60 Hz for industrial power line operated motors. φ3. but an electromagnet. For example. For rotor speed in rpm.12) may be started by ramping the drive frequency from zero to the ﬁnal running frequency. the resultant ﬁeld will rotate. Two or three phase drive may be used by supplying the appropriate number of windings in the stator.416 CHAPTER 13. If the coils are energized one at a time in the sequence φ1. Only 3phase is shown above. The electromagnetic armature is only energized after the rotor is brought up to near synchronous speed. Such motors are known as brushless DC motors. Large industrial synchronous motors are self started by embedded squirrel cage conductors in the armature. The bar magnet rotor shown is only appropriate for small motors. not in steps. The multiphase drive signals are generated by electronic circuits. multiply by 60. The rotor with multiple magnet poles (below right) is used in any efﬁcient motor driving a substantial load. φ2.12: Three phase. The three phases of stator excitation add vectorially to produce a single resultant magnetic ﬁeld which rotates f/2n times per second. the rotor is not a permanent magnet as shown below for the multihorsepower (multikilowatt) motors used in industry.
If a motor is driven by sinewaves of current synchronous with the motor back emf. (as for a disk drive) a tachometer and phase locked loop may be included. inductosyn (magnetic encoder). we do not want the motor to alternately speed and slow as it moves audio tape past a tape playback head. Ripple torque. The position sensor could be as simple as as solid state magnetic ﬁeld sensors such as Hall effect devices providing commutation (armature current direction) timing to the drive electronics The position sensor could be a high resolution angular sensor such as a resolver.13: Electronic synchronous motor The block diagram (Figure 13. Would ripple torque be a problem for a fan motor? No. These motors have a position sensor integrated within the motor. reference frequency phase locked loop waveform gen & power drive φ1 φ2 φ3 motor torque output position sensor tachometer Figure 13. This is analogous to the mechanical situation. it is classiﬁed as a synchronous AC motor. which provides a low level signal with a frequency proportional to the speed of rotation of the motor.14) This tachometer signal. Though. (Figure 13. or an optical encoder. (Figure 13. Would ripple torque be a problem for a motor used in a tape player? Yes. which compares the tachometer frequency and phase to a stable reference frequency source such as a crystal oscillator.15) Note that there are no stator coils. The PM rotor may be rotated by hand but will encounter attraction to the pole pieces when near them.13) shows the drive electronics associated with a low voltage (12 VDC ) synchronous motor. SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS waveform gen & power drive φ1 φ2 φ3 motor torque output 417 hall effect Figure 13. or cogging is caused by magnetic attraction of the rotor poles to the stator pole pieces. A synchronous motor will generate a sinusoidal back emf if the stator . is fed back to a phase locked loop. This type of motor has higher ripple torque torque variation through a shaft revolution than a sine wave driven motor.2. we are primarily interested in synchronous motors in this section. This is not a problem for many applications. not even a motor. If constant and accurate speed of rotation is required. is known as a brushless DC motor. as provided by simple hall effect sensors. A motor driven by square waves of current.13.14: Phase locked loop controls synchronous motor speed. a pulse train proportional to motor speed. regardless of whether the drive waveforms are generated by electronic means.
16: Windings distributed in a belt produce a more sinusoidal ﬁeld. AC MOTORS N S Ripple torque mechanical analog Figure 13. . a b c d a b c d c’ b’ a’ ph1 ph2’ ph2 ph3’ ph3 ph1’ 3φ distributed winding c’ b’ a’ ph1’ ph1 Single phase belt Figure 13.418 CHAPTER 13.15: Motor ripple torque and mechanical analog.
Winding belts may take on an alternate concentric form as shown in Figure 13.[1] The largest experimental superconducting synchronous motor is capable of driving a naval destroyer class ship. the torque is constant throughout a revolution by the trigonometric identity: sin2 θ + cos2 θ = 1 The generation and synchronization of the drive waveform requires a more precise rotor position indication than provided by the hall effect sensors used in brushless DC motors. Pulse Width Modulator. Induction motors are mostly used in railway traction. In all these applications the electronic variable speed drive is essential.13. which mounts inside a drive wheel. Slots having fewer windings at the edge of the phase winding may share the space with other phases. or optical or magnetic encoder provides resolution of hundreds to thousands of parts (pulses) per revolution. The synchronous motor can also be smaller. especially if high energy permanent magnets are used in the rotor. makes it attractive for such applications.78. PWM Figure 13. The sine wave drive may actually be from a PWM. This arrangement cancels many of the stator ﬁeld odd harmonics. (Figure 13. Encoders provide a digital angular position indication in either serial or parallel format. a high efﬁciency method of approximating a sinewave with a digital waveform. For a 2phase motor. The advent of modern solid state electronics makes it possible to drive these motors at variable speed. . A resolver. a small synchronous motor.17) Each phase requires drive electronics for this wave form phaseshifted by the appropriate amount per phase. A resolver provides analog angular position signals in the form of signals proportional to the sine and cosine of shaft angle.2.16) across many slots instead of concentrated on one large pole (as drawn in most of our simpliﬁed illustrations). Synchronous motor efﬁciency is higher than that of induction motors. The high temperature superconducting version of this motor is one ﬁfth to one third the weight of a copper wound motor.17: PWM approximates a sinewave. driven by a sinewave. SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS 419 magnetic ﬁeld has a sinusoidal distribution. However. It will be more sinusoidal if pole windings are distributed in a belt (Figure 13.
Originally. Furthermore. the windage loss for a hydrogen ﬁlled unit is 7% of that encountered in air. Such a device is known as a synchronous condenser. by absorbing or supplying reactive power to the line. or it may be physically smaller for a given capacity. A synchronous condenser is operated in a borderline condition between a motor and a generator with no mechanical load to fulﬁll this function. the leading power factor can be adjusted by varying the ﬁeld excitation.420 CHAPTER 13.[3] 13. The efﬁciency of long power transmission lines may be increased by placing synchronous condensers along the line to compensate lagging currents caused by line inductance. large industrial synchronous motors came into wide use because of this ability to correct the lagging power factor of induction motors. There is no explosion hazard as long as the hydrogen concentration is maintained above 70%. it loses synchronization. If the rotor and stator of a conventional rotary synchronous motor are unrolled. As a result. the output shaft may be dispensed with and the unit easily enclosed in a gas tight shell. heat removal is ten times more efﬁcient. Any more.3 Synchronous condenser Synchronous motors load the power line with a leading power factor. Much less results in reduced torque. Thus. It is implemented with a fast microprocessor driving a pulse width modulator for the stator phases. Furthermore. the position of the rotor needs to be known accurately. This leading power factor can be exaggerated by removing the mechanical load and over exciting the ﬁeld of the synchronous motor. This type of control is known as vector phase control.[2] A larger version of the linear synchronous motor with a movable carriage containing high energy NdBFe permanent magnets is being developed to launch aircraft from naval aricraft carriers. This enhances power line voltage regulation. It can compensate either a leading or lagging power factor. the thermal conductivity of hydrogen is ten times that of air. To develop maximum torque. As a result the industrial grade electronic speed control used with induction motors is also applicable to large industrial synchronous motors. And the position of the rotor with respect to the stator ﬁeld needs to be calculated. Thus. This makes it possible to nearly cancel an arbitrary lagging power factor to unity by paralleling the lagging load with a synchronous motor. . This type of motor is applied to precise high speed linear positioning. a hydrogen ﬁlled synchronous condenser can be driven harder than an air cooled unit. More real power may be transmitted through a ﬁxed size line if the power factor is brought closer to unity by synchronous condensers absorbing reactive power. This is often usefull in cancelling out the more commonly encountered lagging power factor caused by induction motors and other inductive loads. a synchronous linear motor results. Since the density of hydrogen is 7% of that of air. Since a synchronous condenser does not supply a torque. the rotor needs to lag the stator ﬁeld direction by 90o . typically above 91%. AC MOTORS The variable speed drive must also reduce the drive voltage at low speed due to decreased inductive reactance at lower frequency. The stator of a synchronous motor is the same as that of the more popular induction motor. and controlled. The synchronous condenser may then be ﬁlled with hydrogen to aid cooling and reduce windage losses.
Such a synchronous condenser has a higher power density (smaller physically) than a switched capacitor bank.13.1 Synchronous reluctance If the rotating ﬁeld of a large synchronous motor with salient poles is deenergized.4 Reluctance motor The variable reluctance motor is based on the principle that an unrestrained piece of iron will move to complete a magnetic ﬂux path with minimum reluctance. Such a machine is said to have considerable additional transient ability to supply reactive power to troublesome loads like metal melting arc furnaces. Transient sags and dips of milliseconds duration are stabilized. 13. which must be cooled to the liquid nitrogen boiling point of 77o K (196o C).4. the magnetic analog of electrical resistance. is of no more use than air.19) 13. an iron core.18: Synchronous condenser improves power line voltage regulation. which increases generator excitation thereby restoring line voltage. The manufacturer describes it as being a “reactive power shock absorber”. (Figure 13. in the rotor. The capacity of a synchronous condenser can be increased by replacing the copper wound iron ﬁeld rotor with an ironless rotor of high temperature superconducting wire. This is due to variable reluctance throughout . The superconducting wire carries 160 times the current of comparable copper wire. approximate µr =1000. it will still develop 10 or 15% of synchronous torque. This supplements longer response times of quick acting voltage regulation and excitation of generating equipment. The ability to absorb or produce reactive power on a transient basis stabilizes the overall power grid against fault conditions.18) A capacitor bank does not have this ability. Generator Voltage 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 20% 40% 60% Line current 80% 100% sync w/o hronous cond syn ense chr r ono us con den ser Figure 13. An iron core would saturate at 2 Teslas in the rotor air gap. RELUCTANCE MOTOR 421 The ability of synchronous condensers to absorb or produce reactive power on a transient basis stabilizes the power grid against short circuits and other transient fault conditions. Thus. (Figure 13.4. while producing a ﬂux density of 3 Teslas or higher. The synchronous condenser aids voltage regulation by drawing leading current when the line voltage sags. or any other material with a relative permeability µr =1.
This motor is an inexpensive means of developing a moderate synchronous torque. one which only switches in one direction. Low power factor. corresponding to the stator slots.21) Wave drive (a) is simple. That is.19: Reluctance is a function of rotor position in a variable reluctance motor. (Figure 13. but requires a bipolar switch. More torque is provided by the bipolar drive (b). we can explain operation as if it were a stepper motor. φ3 S S φ3 N high reluctance N low reluctance Figure 13. This attracts the rotor to the clockwise rotating magnetic ﬁeld in 60o increments. However. a switched reluctance motor. (Figure 13. For smooth vibration free operation the 6step approximation of a sine wave (c) is desirable and easy to generate.20) of the stator phases moves the rotor from one position to the next. is ﬁtted to a multiphase stator.422 CHAPTER 13. 13. Such was the status of the variable reluctance motor for a century before the development of semiconductor power control. Sequential switching (Figure 13. low pullout torque. (Figure 13. the magnetic analog of electric resistance. AC MOTORS a rotor revolution. it is practical in small sizes. one at a time. in a wave drive pattern. and low efﬁciency are characteristics of the direct power line driven variable reluctance motor.4. a synchronous reluctance motor results. The synchronous torque is due to changes in reluctance of the magnetic path from the stator through the rotor as the slots align. Sine wave drive (d) may be generated by a pulse width modulator (PWM). It starts like an induction motor but runs with a small amount of synchronous torque. There is no practical application for a large synchronous reluctance motor. requiring only a single ended unipolar switch. or drawn from the power line. capable of synchronizing with the stator ﬁeld results. If slots are cut into the conductorless rotor of an induction motor.19) A switched reluctance motor is also known as a variable reluctance motor. Waveforms (a & b) are applicable to the stepper motor version of the variable reluctance motor.20) The other coil connections are successively pulled to ground. If one end of each 3phase winding of the switched reluctance motor is brought out via a common lead wire. the rotor will move to the lowest magnetic reluctance path. Various waveforms may drive variable reluctance motors. but without any conductors.2 Switched reluctance If an iron rotor with poles. The reluctance of the rotor to stator ﬂux path varies with the position of the rotor. When a stator coil pole pair is energized. The mangetic ﬂux seeks the path of least reluctance. The power driver must pull alternately high and low. This is an over simpliﬁed rotor and waveforms to illustrate operation. .
4.21: Variable reluctance motor drive waveforms: (a) unipolar wave drive.13. RELUCTANCE MOTOR 423 V+ φ3 φ2 φ2 φ3 φ1 φ2 φ3 φ1 φ1 φ1 φ2 φ3 Figure 13.20: Variable reluctance motor. (b) bipolar full step (c) sinewave (d) bipolar 6step. . oversimpliﬁed operation. φ1 φ2 φ3 φ1 φ2 φ3 (b) (a) φ1 φ2 φ3 φ1 φ2 φ3 (d) (c) Figure 13.
22: Electronic driven variable reluctance motor. However. If smooth rotation is the goal.23 This is the opposite of the high ripple torque desired in stepper motors. a variable reluctance motor is optimized for continuous high speed rotation with minimum ripple torque. minimizing ripple torque. Sequential switching of the ﬁeld coils creates a rotating magnetic ﬁeld which drags the irregularly shaped rotor around with it as it seeks out the lowest magnetic reluctance path. Electronic control solves this problem and makes it practical to drive the motor well above and below the power line frequency. However. covered in another section. there is an electronic driven version of the switched reluctance motor.23) resembles a brushless DC motor without a permanent magnet rotor. The relationship between torque and stator current is highly nonlinear– difﬁcult to control. Though difﬁcult to control.3 Electronic driven variable reluctance motor Variable reluctance motors are poor performers when direct power line driven. controls torque and speed. An electronic driven variable reluctance motor (Figure 13. This makes the motor simple and inexpensive. this motor is easy to spin. φ2 φ3 φ1 φ1 φ2 φ3 φ1 φ2 φ3 φ3 φ1 φ2 φ1 φ2 φ3 φ3 φ1 φ2 Figure 13. Rather than a stepper.22. and start is a variable reluctance stepper motor. an electronic feedback system. Variable reluctance motors or steppers actually use rotors like those in Figure 13. microprocessors and solid state power drive makes this motor an economical high performance solution in some high volume applications. Figure 13.424 CHAPTER 13. stop. This might eliminate a gear reduction drive. or derive this from monitoring the stator back EMF. A variable reluctance motor intended to move in discrete steps.4. This must be done precisely to minimize audible noise and ripple . It is necessary to measure the rotor position with a rotary position sensor like an optical or magnetic encoder. A variable reluctance motor driven by a servo. it is difﬁcult to control. While the variable reluctance motor is simple. 13. which is not nearly as simple as that for a brushless DC motor. A microprocessor performs complex calculations for switching the windings at the proper time with solid state devices. even more so than an induction motor. AC MOTORS Doubling the number of stator poles decreases the rotating speed and increases torque. this is offset by the cost of the electronic control.
• Low cost accurate speed control possible if volume is high enough.4.13. The strict drive requirements make this motor only practical for high volume applications like energy efﬁcient vacuum cleaner motors. using specialized design techniques. The simplicity of the motor compensates for the drive electronics cost. RELUCTANCE MOTOR 425 µprocessor control stator drive variable reluctance motor stator current rotor position Figure 13. • Adaptable to very high ambient temperature. no commutator. The efﬁciency of this electronic driven motor can be high. which is only justiﬁed for large manufacturing volumes. Advantages • Simple construction.no brushes. One such vacuum cleaner uses a compact high efﬁciency electronic driven 100. no Cu or Al in the rotor. Disadvantages • Current versus torque is highly nonlinear • Phase switching must be precise to minimize ripple torque • Phase current must be controlled to minimize ripple torque • Acoustic and electrical noise • Not applicable to low volumes due to complex control issues . simpliﬁes motor manufacture. For lowest ripple torque. winding current must be monitored and controlled. • High starting torque. commutator. or permanent magnets. • Cost effective compared to bushless DC motor in high volumes. But. no permanent magnets. torque. no rotor windings. or pump motors. fan motors.000 rpm fan motor. it requires considerable optimization. No brushes.23: Electronic driven variable reluctance motor. • High efﬁciency and reliability compared to conventional AC or DC motors.
The rotor moves in discrete steps as commanded. The rotor is a cylindrical solid. (Figure 13.5 Stepper motors A stepper motor is a “digital” version of the electric motor. the predecessor of the stepper motor was the servo motor. (Figure 13. The stepper motor drivers are less complex solid state switches.25) In other words. The servo ampliﬁer is a linear ampliﬁer with some difﬁcult to integrate discrete components. command stepper motor load command error servo motor load position sensor Figure 13.24) It is still the way to position heavy loads beyond the grasp of lower power steppers. 13. microprocessors readily interface to stepper motor driver circuits. Drive waveforms of bipolar (±) square waves of 224V are more common these days. Application wise. being either “on” or “off ”. moderate speed. or commutator. A stepper motor positions the readwrite heads in a ﬂoppy drive. good torque. However. simple drive electronics.426 CHAPTER 13. Thus. the default is the stepper due to low cost. the high speed and accuracy required of modern harddrive head positioning dictates the use of a linear servomotor (voice coil). Modern solid state driver electronics was a key to its success. As the windings are energized in sequence. Today this is a higher cost solution to high performance motion control applications. the rotor synchronizes with the consequent stator magnetic ﬁeld. DC can be switched to the motor so that it sees AC. When stopped but energized. Slosyn synchronous motors can run from AC line voltage like a singlephase permanentcapacitor induction motor.1 Characteristics Stepper motors are rugged and inexpensive because the rotor contains no winding slip rings. which may also have either salient poles or . AC MOTORS 13. They were once used for the same purpose in harddrives.24: Stepper motor vs servo motor. The expense and complexity of a servomotor is due to the additional system components: position sensor and error ampliﬁer. we treat stepper motors as a class of AC synchronous motor. Otherwise. rather than rotating continuously like a conventional motor. a stepper (short for stepper motor) holds its load steady with a holding torque. And. The capacitor generates a 90o second phase. The bipolar magnetic ﬁelds may also be generated from unipolar (one polarity) voltages applied to alternate ends of a center tapped winding.5. Wide spread acceptance of the stepper motor within the last two decades was driven by the ascendancy of digital electronics. a stepper motor controller is less complex and costly than a servo motor controller. and low cost. High acceleration or unusually high accuracy still requires a servo motor. With the direct line voltage. we have a 2phase drive. good accuracy. Thus. A considerable design effort is required to optimize the servo ampliﬁer gain vs phase response to the mechanical components.
number of poles. Drive electronics may halve the step angle by moving the rotor in halfsteps. They are truly small low power devices compared to other motors. There is less torque available for a running motor. when the drive waveforms are changed. Stepper motor coils are wound within a laminated stator. The step angle is related to motor construction details: number of coils. STEPPER MOTORS V+ V V V+ Vbipolar + 427 unipolar Figure 13. For example a 12pole stepper has 6pairs of poles.25: Unipolar drive of center tapped coil at (b).5. (Figure 13. emulates AC current in single coil at (a). decreasing to zero at some high speed. They have torque ratings to a thousand inoz (inchounces) or ten nm (newtonmeters) for a 4 kg size unit. they do not even approach a subfractional hp rated capability.75o .13. The maximum start frequency is the highest rate at which a stopped and unloaded stepper can be . torque pulsations. load torque. The torque available is a function of motor speed. There may also be multiple pole pairs per phase. Thus. ﬁne teeth. Torque maximum speed holding torque cutoff speed Speed Figure 13.26: Stepper speed characteristics. load inertia. and drive electronics as illustrated on the speed vs torque curve. except for can stack construction. Since stepper motors do not necessarily rotate continuously. a 4pole stepper motor may have two phases composed of inline pairs of poles spaced 90o apart. three pairs per phase. corresponding to 4 to 500 steps per revolution. This speed is frequently not attainable due to mechanical resonance of the motor load combination. A small “dime” size stepper has a torque of a hundredth of a newtonmeter or a few inchounces. holding stepper has a relatively high holding torque rating. If they do rotate continuously. Determine that the rotor is a permanent magnet by unpowered hand rotation showing detent torque. These phases are frequently split into pairs. More often than not the rotor is a permanent magnet. there is no horsepower rating. There may be as few as two winding phases or as many as ﬁve. Steppers cannot achieve the speeds on the speed torque curve instantaneously. Most steppers are a few inches in diameter with a fraction of a nm or a few inoz torque. the step angle.26) An energized. number of teeth. Stepper motors move one step at a time. It can be from 90o to 0.
The maximum torque at which a stepper can start and stop is the pullin torque.28. However. 13.2 Variable reluctance stepper A variable reluctance stepper motor relies upon magnetic ﬂux seeking the lowest reluctance path through a magnetic circuit. The variable reluctance stepper has s solid soft steel rotor with salient poles. φ3 V+ φ2 φ2 φ3 φ1 φ1 30o step φ3 15o step φ4 φ1 V+ φ2 φ1 φ4 φ2 φ3 Figure 13. The permanent magnet stepper has a cylindrical permanent magnet rotor. This means that an irregularly shaped soft magnetic rotor will move to complete a magnetic circuit.(Figure 13. This torque load on the stepper is due to frictional (brake) and inertial (ﬂywheel) loads on the motor shaft. yielding a 30o step angle. the step angle is given by: ΘS = 360o /NS ΘR = 360o /NR ΘST = ΘR . Any load will make this parameter unattainable.ΘS where: ΘS = stator angle. There are three types of stepper motors in order of increasing complexity: variable reluctance. the step rate may be decreased before stopping. the rotor moves less than the stator angle for each step. The hybrid stepper has soft steel teeth added to the permanent magnet rotor for a smaller step angle. ΘST = step . minimizing the length of any high reluctance air gap. the rotor four salient poles. NP = number rotor poles ΘR = Rotor angle. permanent magnet. The stator typically has three windings distributed between pole pairs .428 CHAPTER 13. The drive waveforms for the 3φ stepper can be seen in the “Reluctance motor” section. angle NS = number stator poles. The drive for a 4φ stepper is shown in Figure 13. When stopping a stepper motor.27) A deenergized stepper with no detent torque when hand rotated is identiﬁable as a variable reluctance type stepper. In practice. pullout torque is the maximum sustainable torque without losing steps. Sequentially switching the stator phases produces a rotating magnetic ﬁeld which the rotor follows.27: Three phase and four phase variable reluctance stepper motors.5. due to the lesser number of rotor poles. For a variable reluctance stepper motor. and hybrid. AC MOTORS started. the step rate is ramped up during starting from well below the maximum start frequency. Once the motor is up to speed.
In principle. Starting at rest with phase φ1 energized. However. the driver could be a relay or even a toggle switch for each phase. By reversing the sequence of pulses. (Figure 13. the φ2 stator ﬁeld attracts a different tooth in moving the rotor CCW. three pulses are required (φ2 . and number of steps are controlled by a stepper motor controller feeding a driver or ampliﬁer.. but it aligns with a CW by 30o stator tooth. Instead. etc. Note what does not happen! The dotted rotor tooth does not move to the next stator tooth. Thus. Both driver and controller may be combined into a single integrated circuit accepting a direction command and step pulse. In Figure 13. How far would the stepper rotate if the rotor and stator had the same number of teeth? Zero– no notation. and 8stator teeth. The shaft is frequently ﬁtted with a drive screw.5. it does not know the position of the carriage. calibrating the . the stator magnetic ﬁeld rotates clockwise. The direction. the direction of rotation is reversed above right. but a simple onoff switch capable of high enough current to energize the stepper. When the controller powersup. STEPPER MOTORS φ1 S 429 φ3 S Ν S Ν S φ2 Ν φ4 Ν φ1 V+ φ4 φ2 φ1 φ2 φ3 φ4 counterclockwise 15o step φ1 φ2 φ3 φ4 reverse step.30) This may move the heads of a ﬂoppy drive upon command by the ﬂoppy drive controller. it can drive the carriage toward the optical interrupter. The rotor tooth angle of 45o enters into the calculation by the above equation. the driver is either discrete transistor switches or an integrated circuit. the actual step angle is the difference between a stator angle of 45o and a rotor angle of 30o . clockwise φ3 Figure 13.28. we show the internal construction of a variable reluctance stepper motor in Figure 13.28: Stepping sequence for variable reluctance stepper. It outputs current to the proper phases in sequence. This could be combined into a single circuit board. 24pulses or steps move the rotor through 360o . φ3 . Disassemble a reluctance stepper to view the internal components. A screw drive. is much longer than our simpliﬁed illustration. The rotor moved CCW to the next rotor tooth at 45o . The controller could be a microprocessor or a specialized integrated circuit. With 3pulses per stator tooth. step rate. φ4 ) to align the “dotted” rotor tooth to the next CCW stator Tooth. In practice. The rotor has protruding poles so that they may be attracted to the rotating stator ﬁeld as it is switched. as used in a ﬂoppy disk drive is such an application. An actual motor. which is 45o . which is a smaller angle (15o ) than the stator angle of 30o .13. The driver is not a linear ampliﬁer. The rotor moves counterclockwise (CCW). Variable reluctance stepper motors are applied when only a moderate level of torque is required and a coarse step angle is adequate.29. moving from φ1 to φ2 . Otherwise.
optical interrupter stepper motor guide rails carriage knife edge Figure 13.430 CHAPTER 13. . AC MOTORS Figure 13.29: Variable reluctance stepper motor.30: Variable reluctance stepper drives lead screw.
most inexpensive stepper motor. Unipolar drive supplies a (+) and () alternating magnetic ﬂux to the coils developed from a pair of positive square waves applied to opposite ends of a center tapped coil. it is likely a permanent magnet stepper rather than a hybrid stepper (next subsection).13. (d) φ2 . say. Wave drive φ−1 φ−1 φ−1 φ−1 S N + − − N S N S N S S N φ−2 Wave drive a b + S N S c N S N − φ−2 + φ−2 + φ−2 − d Figure 13. STEPPER MOTORS 431 position at which the knife edge cuts the interrupter as “home”. 13.5 V. or half step. The stator usually has two windings. • The only type stepper with no detent torque in hand rotation of a deenergized motor shaft. • Large step angle • A lead screw is often mounted to the shaft for linear stepping motion. As long as the load torque does not exceed the motor torque.31: PM wave drive sequence (a) φ1 + . If the detent angle is large.. Summary: variable reluctance stepper motor • The rotor is a soft iron cylinder with salient (protruding) poles. The windings could be center tapped to allow for a unipolar driver circuit where the polarity of the magnetic ﬁeld is changed by switching a voltage from one end to the other of the winding. A pure permanent magnet stepper usually has a large step angle. . the controller will know the carriage position.5 V to 2. Bipolar drive is square waves alternating between (+) and () polarities. this is almost always square waves generated from DC by solid state electronics. (b) φ2 + . full step.5. In practice. +2. say 7. • This is the least complex.5o to 90o . The timing of the bipolar or unipolar wave is wave drive. A bipolar drive of alternating polarity is required to power windings without the center tap. The controller counts step pulses from this position. (c) φ1 .3 Permanent magnet stepper A permanent magnet stepper motor has a cylindrical permanent magnet rotor. Rotation of the shaft of a deenergized motor exhibits detent torque. Permanent magnet stepper motors require phased alternating currents applied to the two (or more) windings.5.
(+) φ2 points rotor north right.33) waveforms are unipolar because only one polarity is required.32: Waveforms: bipolar wave drive. (Figure 13. The (Figure 13. The motor requires alternating magnetic ﬁelds. but requires twice as many drivers. negative φ1 attracts rotor north down. This simpliﬁes the drive electronics.432 CHAPTER 13.32) are bipolar because both polarities . (Figure 13. () φ2 points rotor left.34: Stepper motor wiring diagrams. There are twice as many waveforms because a pair of (+) waves is required to produce an alternating magnetic ﬁeld by application to opposite ends of a center tapped coil. this does not produce as much torque as other drive techniques.34) φ2 φ2’ φ1 V+ φ2 V+ φ2’ φ1 φ2 V+ φ2’ φ1 φ2a φ2a’ φ2b’ φ2b’ φ1a φ1a’ φ1b φ1’ 2wire bipolar 6wire unipolar φ1’ 5wire unipolar φ1’ 8wire bipolar or unipolar φ1b’ Figure 13. However. motor coils must have center taps for unipolar drive. (+) and () drive the stepper. The 4wire motor can only be driven by bipolar waveforms. Permanent magnet stepper motors are manufactured with various leadwire conﬁgurations. The coil magnetic ﬁeld reverses because the polarity of the drive current reverses. φ1 φ2 φ1’ φ2’ V+ φ2 V+ φ2’ φ1 6wire φ1’ Figure 13. AC MOTORS Conceptually. The 6wire motor. the simplest drive is wave drive. The waveforms (Figure 13.31) The rotation sequence left to right is positive φ1 points rotor north pole up. φ1 + + a b c d φ2 φ2’ φ1 φ2 φ1’ Figure 13.33: Waveforms: unipolar wave drive. The wave drive waveforms below show that only one coil is energized at a time. While simple. These may be produced by either unipolar or bipolar waves. the most .
It may be wired for unipolar drive as for the 6wire or 5wire motor. The rotor aligns with the ﬁeld poles as for wave drive and between the poles as for full step drive. STEPPER MOTORS 433 common arrangement. This winding method is applicable to all but the 4wire arrangement above. as the common center tap interferes if both windings are energized simultaneously. Unipolar drive (not shown) would require a pair of unipolar waveforms for each of the above bipolar waveforms applied to the ends of a center tapped winding. The 5wire motor can only be driven by unipolar waves.13. Half step drive The step angle for a given stepper motor geometry is cut in half with half step drive. For example. followed by both windings energized. or in parallel for low voltage high current drive. Full step drive Full step drive provides more torque than wave drive because both coils are energized at the same time. bipolar drive. Though. less expensive driver circuit. but provides maximum ﬂexibility. it may be driven by bipolar waves if the center taps are ignored. The unipolar waveforms for half step drive are shown above. This corresponds to twice as many step pulses per revolution. This attracts the rotor poles midway between the two ﬁeld poles. yielding twice as many steps.35) φ−1 S φ−1 S φ−1 N S φ−1 + N + N S S − S N S − S − N − a N N + φ−1 0 + φ−2 0  N φ−2 b S φ−2 N S + b N + c S N N S d + a − − + − φ−2 + + φ−2 − c d Figure 13. (Figure 13. Unipolar drive uses a less complex.5.35 has the same step angle as wave drive.36) Half stepping provides greater resolution in positioning of the motor shaft. Half step drive is a combination of wave drive and full step drive with one winding energized. half stepping the motor moving the print head across the paper of an inkjet printer would double the dot density. . often a red and green enamelled wire. A pair of coils may be connected in series for high voltage bipolar low current drive. This method produces exact 1:1 turns ratios for center tapped windings. (Figure 13. The additional cost of bipolar drive is justiﬁed when more torque is required.35: Full step. is intended for unipolar drive because of the center taps. The 8wire conﬁguration is rare. A biﬁlar winding is produced by winding the coils with two wires in parallel. Full step bipolar drive as shown in Figure 13.
on a transient basis. 24pole canstack construction. with ﬁngers brought to the center. yet has 24poles in each of two phases.37: Permanent magnet stepper motor. N S north south ceramic permanent magnet rotor φ1 coil φ2 coil Figure 13.36: Half step. will have a north side and a south side. A phase winding is wrapped with a mild steel shell. AC MOTORS φ−1 S N S N φ−2 a S + − + N − S N S N S N S − N N S φ−2 + 0 + 0  − + b + − φ−2 + c N S + N S − φ−2 + d a b c d Half step Figure 13.37) only has two windings. This style of construction is known as can stack. It is desirable to increase the number of poles beyond that illustrated to produce a smaller step angle. By varying the currents to the windings sinusoidally many microsteps can be interpolated between the normal positions. Construction The contruction of a permanent magnet stepper motor is considerably different from the drawings above. Microstepping is possible with specialized controllers. It is also desirable to reduce the number of windings. or at least not increase the number of windings for ease of manufacture. Each side wraps around to the center . The permanent magnet stepper (Figure 13.434 φ−1 φ−1 φ−1 CHAPTER 13. One phase. bipolar drive.
4 Hybrid stepper motor The hybrid stepper motor combines features of both the variable reluctance stepper and the permanent magnet stepper to produce a smaller step angle.5. the rotor would jump 360o /24 = 15o . This can be viewed with magnet viewer ﬁlm or iron ﬁlings applied to a paper wrapping. If the polarity of the phase were reversed. which is not usefull.13. if we energize φ1 followed by φ2. We do not know which direction. See below for offset. These alternating northsouth ﬁngers will attract the permanent magnet rotor. Application of any of the above waveforms will rotate the permanent magnet rotor. Note that the rotor is a gray ferrite ceramic cylinder magnetized in the 24pole pattern shown. Summary: permanent magnet stepper motor • The rotor is a permanent magnet. This is key to making the rotor follow the switching of the ﬁelds between the two phases.38: (a) External view of can stack. STEPPER MOTORS 435 of the doughnut with twelve interdigitated ﬁngers for a total of 24 poles. • Often used in computer printers to advance paper. • Canstack construction provides numerous poles from a single coil with interleaved ﬁngers of soft iron. 13. it will rotate in a reproducible direction if the phases are alternated. often a ferrite sleeve magnetized with numerous poles.5o from φ1. However. (b) ﬁeld offset detail.5o because the φ2 is offset (rotated) by 7. • Large to moderate step angle. the rotor will move 7. The rotor is a cylindrical perma .38) Note the rotational offset between the two phase sections. φ−1 coil x’ x’ x 90° offset φ−1 coil PM rotor dust cover φ−2 coil φ−2 coil x Can stack permanent magnet stepper Figure 13. And.5. (Figure 13. Though. Canstack style construction of a PM stepper is distinctive and easy to identify by the stacked “cans”. the colors will be green for both north and south poles with the ﬁlm.
may align with the stator in 48 distinct positions. except for missing teeth in the space between the poles. Therefore.436 CHAPTER 13.40) . the rotor effectively has 96 interleaved poles of opposite polarity. φ2). This detail is only discernable on the schematic diagrams below. The center tap is achieved by a biﬁlar winding. The northsouth poles of a phase swap polarity when the phase drive current is reversed. but wired in series. The stator coils are wound on alternating poles with corresponding teeth. the rotor moves in 2×96=192 steps per revolution for the above stepper. AC MOTORS nent magnet. the stator main poles are divided into two phases (φ1. The stator teeth on the 8poles correspond to the 48rotor teeth. However. Features of hybrid stepper schematic (Figure 13. N S rotor pole detail N permanent magnet rotor. The quarter tooth stator offset in conjunction with drive current timing also deﬁnes direction of rotation. The above drawing is representative of an actual hybrid stepper motor. See rotor pole detail above. However.40) to illustrate details not obvious above. Though. we attempt to illustrate the quarter tooth rotation produced by the two stator phases offset by a quarter tooth. This rotor tooth offset is also shown below. Note that the 48teeth on one rotor section are offset by half a pitch from the other. This half tooth offset shows in the rotor pole detail above. These stator phases are offset from one another by onequarter of a tooth. Note the reduced number of coils and teeth in rotor and stator for simplicity. we provide a simpliﬁed pictorial and schematic representation (Figure 13. the teeth of the south pole are offset from the north teeth by half a tooth. a pair of wires wound physically in parallel. This offset allows for rotation in 1/96 th of a revolution steps by reversing the ﬁeld polarity of one phase. one pole of the rotor. there could be as many as ﬁve phases. Due to this offset. As if this were not complicated enough. the rotor may align with the stator in 96 distinct positions. There are typically two winding phases distributed between pole pairs. In other words.39: Hybrid stepper motor. say the south pole. Thus. The result is that the rotor moves in steps of a quarter of a tooth when the phases are alternately energized. 96pole 8pole stator S Figure 13. Bipolar drive is required for untapped windings. Two phase windings are common as shown above and below.39).30. This winding may be center tapped for unipolar drive. and the rotor half tooth offset. In the next two ﬁgures. magnetized along the axis with radial soft iron teeth (Figure 13. or Figure 13.
total rotation=1/4 tooth. • The top of the permanent magnet rotor is the south pole.5. • Enough torque applied to the shaft to overcome the holdin torque would move the rotor by one tooth. The alignment would be south stator top to north rotor bottom. Align (right to left): φ2 statorNright:rotortopS. φ2=on. • The bottom φ1’ stator teeth align south to rotor bottom north teeth. Polarity of φ1 and ¡phi2¿ drive determines direction of rotation. • (b) φ1=off. • The rotor northsouth teeth are offset by half a tooth.13. • (a) φ1=on=northtop. • If the φ1 stator is temporarily energized north top. rotation=0. direction unknown. reverse. Fields φ1. . • If the polarity of φ1 were reversed. Align (top to bottom): φ1 statorN:rotortopS. the rotor would move by onehalf tooth. Start position. north stator bottom to south rotor. Rotate 1/4 tooth.41) • Rotor top is permanent magnet south. φ2=off.40: Hybrid stepper motor schematic diagram. STEPPER MOTORS 1/4 tooth offset alignment stator North PM South PM North 437 N φ1 φ2′ 1/2 tooth offset alignment Stator South φ2 S φ1′ Figure 13. the bottom north. φ2’ statorS: rotorbottomN. the φ2 stator teeth are offset by onequarter tooth. off. • The top φ1 stator teeth align north to rotor top south teeth. φ2 are switchable: on. φ1’ statorS: rotorbottomN. • The φ2 stator teeth are not aligned with the rotor teeth when φ1 is energized. In fact. Hybrid stepper motor rotation (Figure 13. bottom north. south bottom. This will allow for rotation by that amount if φ1 is deenergized and φ2 energized.
Align (top to bottom): Total rotation 1tooth. 13. much less than the 7.438 N φ1 φ1 CHAPTER 13. Summary: hybrid stepper motor • The step angle is smaller than variable reluctance or permanent magnet steppers. corresponding to a few hundred steps per revolution. The step angle could be a fraction of a degree. φ1’ statorN:rotortopS. Align (left to right): Total rotation: 3/4 tooth. • The rotor is a permanent magnet with ﬁne teeth.6 Brushless DC motor Brushless DC motors were developed from conventional brushed DC motors with the availability of solid state power semiconductors. φ2=reverse(on). Rotate 1/4 tooth from last position. • The poles of one stator windings are offset by a quarter tooth for an even smaller step angle. • (c) φ1=reverse(on). So. The major . AC MOTORS off S φ1 off off φ2′ φ2 S φ2′ N φ2 off off φ2′ φ2 S φ1′ align top (a) off align right φ1′ (b) N φ1′ align bottom (c) Figure 13. Total rotation from start: 1/2 tooth.5o of permanent magnet steppers. North and south teeth are offset by half a tooth for a smaller step angle.41: Hybrid stepper motor rotation sequence. φ2=off. Align (bottom to top): φ1 statorS:rotorbottomN. An unpowered stepper motor with detent torque is either a permanent magnet stepper or a hybrid stepper. φ2=off (same as (a)). • Not shown: φ1=off. The hybrid stepper will have a small step angle. • Not shown: φ1=on. why do we discuss brushless DC motors in a chapter on AC motors? Brushless DC motors are similar to AC synchronous motors. • The stator windings are divided into no less than two phases. • The stator poles have matching ﬁne teeth of the same pitch as the rotor.
43) Stator Stator Rotor Rotor (a) (b) Figure 13. as compared to a rectangular.42: Cylindrical construction: (a) outside rotor. BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR 439 difference is that synchronous motors develop a sinusoidal back EMF. The most common cylindrical style is with the rotor on the inside. Brushless DC motors tend to be small– a few watts to tens of watts.42).6. above right. The style of construction is either cylindrical or pancake. The speed of a brushless DC motor is not ﬁxed unless driven by a phased locked loop slaved to a reference frequency. (b) inside rotor. Rotor Stator (a) (b) Stator Rotor Stator Figure 13. or trapezoidal. (Figures 13.43: Pancake motor construction: (a) single stator. sans the shaft. Synchronous motors are usually large multikilowatt size. (b) double stator. often with electromagnet rotors. However. This style motor is used in hard disk drives. Such is the case with brushless DC fan motors. High torque pancake motors may have stator coils on both sides of the rotor (Figure 13.43b). True synchronous motors are considered to be single speed. Lower torque applications like ﬂoppy disk drive motors sufﬁce with a stator coil on one side .42 and 13. the direction of the magnetic ﬂux is radial with respect to the rotational axis.13. This style of construction may be short and fat. a submultiple of the powerline frequency. The most usual construction. with permanent magnet rotors. It is also possible to put the rotor on the outside surrounding the stator. Both have stator created rotating magnetic ﬁelds producing torque in a magnetic rotor. cylindrical. can take on two forms (Figure 13. back EMF for brushless DC motors.
The rotor is a ﬂat ferrite ring magnetized with eight axially magnetized alternating poles. (Figure 13.44: Hall effect sensors commutate 3φ brushless DC motor. The voltages at the two outputs are complementary. V+ H1 A1 V+ V+ H1 V+ S N V+ NC H3 H2 H3 V+ H2 A2 A3 V+ Figure 13. synchro. This 3lead device may directly drive the power transistor feeding a phase winding.440 CHAPTER 13.44) A Hall effect sensor is a semiconductor device where the electron ﬂow is affected by a magnetic ﬁeld perpendicular to the direction of current ﬂow. Or. etc).45).. (Figure 13. Similar circuitry could drive the pancake ﬂoppy disk drive motor (Figure 13. This Hall signal is ampliﬁed so that the stator coils are driven with the proper current. AC MOTORS of the rotor.45) has 6stator poles and 8rotor poles. The direction of the magnetic ﬂux is axial. The Hall output may drive a comparator to provide for more stable drive to the power device. If the three stator phases were successively energized. it may drive a compound transistor stage if properly biased. Application of a magnetic ﬁeld to the sensor causes a small voltage change at the output. Again. magnetic encoder (resolver. Small inexpensive motors use Hall effect sensors. and digital circuitry. The 3φ pancake motor (Figure 13. and approximate the rotor poles.44 is commutated by a Hall effect device for each of the three stator phases. that is. Not shown here. It looks like a four terminal variable resistor network. parallel to the axis of rotation. a rotating magnetic ﬁeld would be generated. it would need a PLL to maintain constant speed. More modern Hall effect sensors may contain an integrated ampliﬁer. The stator poles are also mounted atop a steel plate. The commutation function may be performed by various shaft position sensors: optical encoder. or Hall effect magnetic sensors. The above cylindrical motor could drive a harddrive if it were equipped with a phased locked loop (PLL) to maintain constant speed. We do not show that the rotor is capped by a mild steel plate for mounting to the bearing in the middle of the stator. The permanent magnet rotor would follow as in the case of a synchronous motor. the Hall signals may be processed by combinatorial logic for more efﬁcient drive waveforms. A . The sensor must be mounted close to the permanent magnet rotor to sense its position. The ﬂat stator coils are trapezoidal to more closely ﬁt the coils. helping to close the magnetic circuit. The changing position of the permanent magnet rotor is sensed by the Hall device as the polarity of the passing rotor pole changes.43a). The simple cylindrical 3φ motor Figure 13. The 6stator coils comprise three winding phases. The steel plate also helps complete the magnetic circuit.
The goal of a brushless fan motor is to minimize the cost of manufacture. it may be called a 4φ motor.46) has these feature: S N S H2 N N S S N S H1 N N S 2φ brushless fan motor Figure 13.13.45: Brushless pancake motor two pole rotor would follow this ﬁeld at the same rotation rate as the rotating ﬁeld. our 8pole rotor will rotate at a submultiple of this rate due the the extra poles in the rotor. 2φ.46: Brushless fan motor. • The stator has 2phases distributed between 4poles • There are 4salient poles with no windings to eliminate zero torque points. Depending on how it is driven. • The rotor has 8poles superimposed to help eliminate zero torque points. . BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR φ−1 φ−2 φ−3 441 S N S N N S N S Stator Rotor φ−1′ Hall effect sensor Figure 13. • The fan housing is placed atop the rotor. • The rotor has four main drive poles. This is an incentive to move lower performance products from a 3φ to a 2φ conﬁguration. • The Hall effect sensors are spaced at 45o physical. which is placed over the stator.6. However. The brushless DC fan motor (Figure 13.
The addition of the four small salient poles with no windings superimposes a ripple torque upon the torque vs position curve.4. the easier the motor starting. Thus.47: Brushless DC motor 2φ pushpull drive. it is possible for a hypothetical 4pole motor to come to rest at a torque minima. Since the Hall sensor has two complementary outputs. If the rotor was a 2pole rotor. In Figure 13. the 2φ pushpull drive (also known as 4φ drive) uses two Hall effect sensors to drive four windings. 3. the Hall sensors would be placed 90o physical. The majority of the torque is due to the interaction of the inside stator 2φ coils with the 4pole section of the rotor.442 CHAPTER 13. As long as the torque minima does not drop to zero. The sensors are spaced 90o electrical apart. Nikola Tesla conceived the basic principals of the polyphase induction motor in 1883. This further removes the torque minima. Induction motors are favored due to their ruggedness and simplicity.7 Tesla polyphase induction motors Most AC motors are induction motors. Since we have a 4pole permanent magnet rotor. the result is that torque minima are partially removed. Moreover. The 8poles rotor section is only for improving motor starting. we should be able to start the motor. etc) if they are to be selfstarting. the 4pole section of the rotor must be on the bottom so that the Hall sensors will sense the proper commutation signals. This makes it possible to start the motor for all possible stopping positions. one sensor provides commutation for two opposing windings. where it cannot be started from rest. the sensors must be placed 45o physical to achieve the 90o electrical spacing. which is 90o physical for a single pole rotor. The 2φ stator requires that the Hall sensors be spaced apart by 90o electrical. When this ripple torque is added to normal energizedtorque curve.5. The addition of eight permanant magnet poles to the normal 4pole permanent magnet rotor superimposes a small second harmonic ripple torque upon the normal 4pole ripple torque. and had a half horsepower (400 watt) model by 1888.47. Note Hall spacing above. V+ A1 N V+ A2 S V+ V+ H1 A3 H1 H2 V+ V+ H2 A2 Figure 13. In fact. 13. Tesla sold the manufacturing rights to George .7 being common. 90% of industrial motors are induction motors. AC MOTORS You may recall that conventional DC motors cannot have an even number of armature poles (2. The more successful we are in removing the torque minima.
we mean that the stator windings induce a current ﬂow in the rotor conductors. this is two or three phases. The individual coils of a pair are connected in series and correspond to the opposite poles of an electromagnet. for larger motors less torque pulsation and higher efﬁciency results if the . like a transformer.7.000. The 2phase induction motor stator above has 2pairs of coils. TESLA POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS 443 Westinghouse for $65. However. The stator in Figure 13. In practice. we must emphasize that nearly all polyphase motors are threephase.48: Tesla polyphase induction motor. one coil corresponds to a Npole. By induction motor. driven by corresponding time shifted sine waves.48. known as an armature. Rotor Stator Figure 13. we mean that the stator contains multiple distinct windings per motor pole. the other to a Spole until the phase of AC changes polarity. While we include numerous illustrations of twophase motors for simplicity.1 Construction An induction motor is composed of a rotor. 13. By polyphase. one pair for each of the two phases of AC.13. Most large ( > 1 hp or 1 kW) industrial motors are polyphase induction motors. That is. The other pair of coils is oriented 90o in space to the ﬁrst pair. Large industrial motors are 3phase. and a stator containing windings connected to a polyphase energy source as shown in Figure 13. unlike a brushed DC commutator motor. as used on Tesla’s early induction motor.48 is wound with pairs of coils corresponding to the phases of electrical energy available.48 has salient. In Tesla’s time.7. This design is used to this day for subfractional horsepower motors (<50 watts). The stator in Figure 13. The simple 2phase induction motor below is similar to the 1/2 horsepower motor which Nikola Tesla introduced in 1888. This pair of coils is connected to AC shifted in time by 90o in the case of a 2phase motor. obvious protruding poles. the source of the two phases of AC was a 2phase alternator.
50.444 CHAPTER 13.50.50: Stator with (a) 2φ and (b) 3φ windings. which may also hold the end housings. the windings for both a twophase motor and a threephase motor have been installed in the stator slots. (Figure 13. Actual stator windings are more complex than the single windings per pole in Figure 13. then worked into the slots. In Figure 13. A stack of these is secured by end screws. Comparing the 2φ motor to Tesla’s 2φ motor with salient poles. the number of coils is the .49) Figure 13. The stator laminations are thin insulated rings with slots punched from sheets of electrical grade steel.49: Stator frame showing slots for windings. φ−3 φ−1 φ−2 (a) φ−1 (b) φ−2 Figure 13. The coils are wound on an external ﬁxture. Insulation wedged between the coil periphery and the slot protects against abrasion. AC MOTORS coils are embedded into slots cut into the stator laminations.
and remachining of the commutator.13. arcing. the phase belts overlap. there is no commutator. This current ﬂow creates an electromagnet whose polarity opposes the motion of the permanent magnet– Lenz’s Law. and consequent current ﬂow. The laminations are coated with insulating oxide or varnish to minimize eddy current losses. Both rotor and stator cores are composed of a stack of insulated laminations. The rotor consists of a shaft. The misalignment with the stator slots reduces torque pulsations. (a) (b) Figure 13. producing a more sinusoidal magnetic ﬁeld distribution across the pole. in the conductive disk. This is shown in the synchronous motor section. This group is called a phase belt. 13. This eliminates the brushes.7. (b) conductive cage removed from rotor. a pole winding. The slots at the edge of the pole may have fewer turns than the other slots. a steel laminated rotor.51). The theory of operation of induction motors is based on a rotating magnetic ﬁeld. and an embedded copper or aluminum squirrel cage. it will follow the motion of the magnet. As compared to a DC motor armature. TESLA POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS 445 same.2 Theory of operation A short explanation of operation is that the stator creates a rotating magnetic ﬁeld which drags the rotor around.7. graphite dust. . In actual large motors. One means of creating a rotating magnetic ﬁeld is to rotate a permanent magnet as shown in Figure 13. is divided into identical coils inserted into many smaller slots than above. The lines of ﬂux cutting the conductor will induce a voltage.51: Laminated rotor with (a) embedded squirrel cage. The polarity of the electromagnet is such that it pulls against the permanent magnet. If the moving magnetic lines of ﬂux cut a conductive disk. brush adjustment and replacement. with respsect to the shaft. The squirrel cage conductors may be skewed.16. See Figure 13. That is. twisted. The key to the popularity of the AC induction motor is simplicity as evidenced by the simple rotor (Figure 13. shown at (b) removed from the rotor. Edge slots may contain windings from two phases. The distributed coils of the phase belt cancel some of the odd harmonics. sparking. The disk follows with a little less speed than the permanent magnet.52. The alloy used in the laminations is selected for low hysteresis losses.
the trace moves up and left toward (b). the degree to which the disk falls behind the rotating magnet. This should not be surprising if you are familiar with oscilloscope Lissajous patterns. This point (0.707. the disk speed will always fall behind that of the rotating permanent magnet. it moves to (d). A rotating magnetic ﬁeld is created by two coils placed at right angles to each other.53. Figure 13. no electromagnet ﬁeld. AC MOTORS Figure 13. Between (a) and (b) the two waveforms are equal to 0. more torque will be developed as more lines of ﬂux cut the disk. The combination of 90o phased sine waves and right angle deﬂection. a one dimensional line would display. so that lines of ﬂux cut the disk induce a current. An analog automotive eddy current speedometer is based on the principle illustrated above. The torque developed by the disk is proportional to the number of ﬂux lines cutting the disk and the rate at which it cuts the disk. With maximum negative “X” and minimum “Y” deﬂection. With the disk restrained by a spring. and on back to (a). More slip corresponds to more ﬂux cutting the conductive disk. developing more torque. results in a two dimensional pattern– a circle. no induced current ﬂow.54 shows the two 90o phase shifted sine waves applied to oscilloscope deﬂection plates which are at right angles in space. slowing it. Torque is proportional to slip. the trace moves to (c). Then with minimum “X” and maximum negative “Y”. driven by currents which are 90o out of phase. disk and needle deﬂection is proportional to magnet rotation rate.707) falls on the radius of the circle between (a) and (b) The trace moves to (b) with minimum “X” and maximum “Y” deﬂection. a circular Lissajous is produced by driving the horizontal and vertical oscilloscope inputs with 90o out of phase sine waves. This circle is traced out by a counterclockwise rotating . If this were not the case. no torque. Starting at (a) with maximum “X” and minimum “Y” deﬂection.446 CHAPTER 13. create an electromagnetic ﬁeld in the disk. completing one cycle. 0. Thus. which follows the permanent magnet. there would be no ﬂux cutting the disk.707 Vpk at 45o .52: Rotating magnetic ﬁeld produces torque in conductive disk. If the disk were to spin at the same rate as the permanent magnet. In Figure 13. If a load is applied to the disk.
TESLA POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS 447 OSCILLOSCOPE b vertical Y V/div c a trigger DC GND AC a horiz’tl X a’ b c d a timebase d s/div DC GND AC Figure 13.54: Xaxis sine and Yaxis cosine trace circle. b a’ c a a’ a b c a d a’ b a d horizontal deflection verticall deflection c d a Figure 13.13.53: Out of phase (90o ) sine waves produce circular Lissajous pattern.7. .
56: Rotating magnetic ﬁeld from 90o phased sinewaves. φ−1 φ−1 φ−2 φ−1 φ−2 a φ−1 φ−2 a’ b φ−2 a a’ b c d φ−1 φ−1 φ−2 c d φ−2 Figure 13. back down left to origin at (c). The line is produced by equal deﬂections along both axes.1) at (d). and fed with corresponding 120o phased currents will also produce a rotating magnetic ﬁeld. .448 CHAPTER 13. AC MOTORS electron beam.1) at (b). y=x is a straight line. Figure 13. a similar pair of currents should be able to produce a circular rotating magnetic ﬁeld.down left to (1. If a pair of 90o out of phase sine waves produces a circular Lissajous.55shows why inphase sine waves will not produce a circular pattern.55: No circular motion from inphase waveforms. OSCILLOSCOPE vertical b V/div a trigger c timebase d s/div horiz’tl X DC GND AC Y DC GND AC a a’ b c d a Figure 13. Such is the case for a 2phase motor. and back up right to origin. Equal “X” and “Y” deﬂection moves the illuminated spot from the origin at (a) up to right (1. For reference. By analogy three windings placed 120o apart in space.
a multiple of 2 . φ2 maximum negative Motor speed The rotation rate of a stator rotating magnetic ﬁeld is related to the number of pole pairs per stator phase. progress from points (a) through (d). or 3000 rpm.there is but one pole pair per phase– the number we need.7. φ2 zero • (a’) φ1 70%. φ2 maximum • (c) φ1 maximum negative. it rotates at 50 rotations per second. φ1 φ2 φ1 φ2 φ3 φ3 full speed half speed Figure 13. TESLA POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS 449 As the 90o phased sinewaves.13. φ2 zero • (d) φ1 zero. are the synchronous speed of the motor. the synchronous speed is cut in half because the magnetic ﬁeld rotates 180o in space for 360o of electrical sine wave. However. Though the rotor of an induction motor never achieves this speed. The magnetic ﬁeld will rotate once per sine wave cycle. it certainly is an upper limit. For 50 Hz power. the ﬁeld rotates at 60 times per second or 3600 revolutions per minute (rpm). Figure 13. If we double the number of motor poles. The “full speed” Figure 13.57 has a total of six poles or three polepairs and three phases. φ2 70% • (b) φ1 zero. the magnetic ﬁeld rotates counterclockwise (ﬁgures ad) as follows: • (a) φ1 maximum.57: Doubling the stator poles halves the synchronous speed. In the case of 60 Hz power. The 3600 and 3000 rpm.56. Hz P = total number of poles per phase. The synchronous speed is given by: Ns = 120·f/P Ns = synchronous speed in rpm f = frequency of applied power.
This induced rotor current in turn creates a magnetic ﬁeld. As the rotor speeds up. f = stator power line frequency Slip at 100% torque is typically 5% or less in induction motors. no current induced in the rotor. The synchronous speed for 50 Hz power is: S = 120·50/4 = 1500 rpm The short explanation of the induction motor is that the rotating magnetic ﬁeld produced by the stator drags the rotor around with it.57 has four poles per phase (3phase). no bearing. Why is it so low? The stator magnetic ﬁeld rotates at 50 Hz. If the rotor were to run at synchronous speed. AC MOTORS Example: The “half speed” Figure 13. a loaded motor will slip in proportion to the mechanical load. or (Ns . It is the magnetic ﬂux cutting the rotor conductors as it slips which develops torque. fr = 0.05·50 = 2.N)/Ns where: Ns = synchronous speed. the slip between the rotor and the synchronous speed stator ﬁeld develops torque. no ﬂux will cut the rotor at all. at the synchronous speed. as is the frequency of the current. The locked . the rate at which stator ﬂux cuts the rotor is the difference between synchronous speed Ns and actual rotor speed N.450 CHAPTER 13. the rotor is at rest. The rotor speed is 5% less. the safe continuous torque rating. Thus for f = 50 Hz line frequency. The ratio of actual ﬂux cutting the rotor to synchronous speed is deﬁned as slip: s = (Ns . The rotating stator magnetic ﬁeld interacts with this rotor ﬁeld. The rotor ﬁeld attempts to align with the rotating stator ﬁeld. The rotating magnetic ﬁeld is only cutting the rotor at 2. no torque. However. If the rotor spins a little faster. or other losses.N). The 2. N = rotor speed The frequency of the current induced into the rotor conductors is only as high as the line frequency at motor start. Torque When power is ﬁrst applied to the motor. If there were no mechanical motor torque load. windage. The stator ﬁeld is cutting the rotor at the synchronous speed Ns . The Figure 13. there would be no stator ﬂux cutting the rotor. The longer more correct explanation is that the stator’s magnetic ﬁeld induces an alternating current into the rotor squirrel cage conductors which constitutes a transformer secondary. Thus. Rotor frequency is given by: fr = s·f where: s = slip. the line frequency. while the stator magnetic ﬁeld rotates at the synchronous speed Ns .58 graph shows that starting torque known as locked rotor torque (LRT) is higher than 100% of the full load torque (FLT). decreasing as the rotor approaches synchronous speed. The result is rotation of the squirrel cage rotor. the frequency of the induced current in the rotor fr = 0.5 Hz.5 Hz is the difference between the synchronous speed and the actual rotor speed. The current induced in the rotor shorted turns is maximum.5 Hz. the rotor would rotate at the synchronous speed.
This breakdown torque is due to the larger than normal 20% slip. Any motor torque load above the breakdown torque will stall the motor. For a running motor.7. While the motor torque and current may exceed 100% for a few seconds during starting.59) have been developed to better drive various type loads. Starting current known as locked rotor current (LRC) is 500% of full load current (FLC). any portion of the torque curve below 100% rated torque is normal. As the rotor gains 80% of synchronous speed. both torque and current will decrease substantially. The locked rotor torque (LRT) for various motor designs and sizes ranges from 60% to 350% of full load torque (FLT). As the rotor accelerates to within a few percent of synchronous speed.13. corresponding to the torque curves (Figure 13. Slip will be only a few percent during normal operation. This current draw can present a starting problem for large induction motors. B. and current will approach zero for a “no mechanical torque” load condition. This condition is analogous to an open secondary transformer. continuous operation above 100% can damage the motor. The current has decreased only slightly at this point. This is the lowest value of torque ever encountered by the starting motor. torque increases from 175% up to 300% of the full load torque. NEMA design classes Various standard classes (or designs) for motors. the safe running current. rotor torque is about 175% of FLT for the example motor graphed above.59) showing consideable variation from the torque curve above. The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) has speciﬁed motor classes A. C. The current is high because this is analogous to a shorted secondary on a transformer. The motor load determines the operating point on the torque curve. and D to meet these . slip.58: Torque and speed vs %Slip. but will decrease rapidly beyond this point. As the rotor starts to rotate the torque may decrease a bit for certain classes of motors to a value known as the pull up torque. Starting current or locked rotor current (LRC) can range from 500% to 1400% of full load current (FLC). The different designs are optimized for starting and running different types of loads. %Ns =%Synchronous Speed. There are several basic induction motor designs (Figure 13. The torque. TESLA POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS 500% %full load torque & current locked rotor current 400% 300% 200% 100% qu e 451 curre nt tor breakdown torque pullup torque full load torque/ current locked rotor torque 80 20 60 40 40 60 20 80 0 % slip 100 % Ns 100 0 Figure 13.
The high slip results in lower speed. without excessive starting current (LRT). AC MOTORS drive requirements. crushers. • Class E motors are a higher efﬁciency version of class B.59: Characteristics for NEMA designs.452 CHAPTER 13. Drop out torque and starting current (LRT)are higher. This motor is applied to hardstarting loads which need to be driven at constant speed like conveyors. and elevators. • Class F motors have much lower LRC. • Class D motors have the highest starting torque (LRT) coupled with low starting current due to high slip ( 5% to 13% at FLT). However. All motors. Similar International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) classes N and H correspond to NEMA B and C designs respectively. They drive constant easily started loads. Applications include punch presses. the motor excels at driving highly variable speed loads like those requiring an energy storage ﬂywheel. Efﬁciency and power factor are high.The power factor in large fully loaded high speed motors can be as favorable as 90% for large high speed motors. It typically drives pumps. and break down torque than class B. and reciprocating pumps and compressors. shears. 400% %full load torque 300% 200% 100% D C A B 100 0 80 20 60 40 40 60 20 80 0 % slip 100 % Ns Figure 13. LRT. • Class C (IEC Class H) has higher starting torque than class A and B at LRT = 200% of FLT. With a starting torque of LRT = 150% to 170% of FLT. it can start most loads. . Speed regulation is poor. except class D. fans. Power factor Induction motors present a lagging (inductive) power factor to the power line. • Class B (IEC Class N) motors are the default motor to use in most applications. operate at %5 slip or less at full load. This motor handles transient overloads as encountered in injection molding machines. and machine tools. • Class A starting torque is the same as class B.
while current associated with magnetizing remains ﬁxed. as low as 10% PF. This was a good concept for the notoriously inefﬁcient single phase motors for which it was intended. more current is consumed in generating torque.7. As the torque load is increased.3 Nola power factor corrector Frank Nola of NASA proposed a power factor corrector (PFC) as an energy saving device for single phase induction motors in the late 1970’s. rising as the rotor achieves speed. The power factor for small low speed motors can be as low as 50%.13. 1φ motors in particular. 13. and decreased a few more percent at 25% FLT. Efﬁciency for a lightly load or noloaded induction motor is poor because most of the current is involved with maintaining magnetizing ﬂux. Power factor (PF) varies considerably with the motor mechanical load (Figure 13. efﬁciency suffers only slightly down to 25% FLT. Thus the power line sees a reactive load. An unloaded motor is analogous to a transformer with no resistive load on the secondary. Efﬁciency is decreased a few percent at 50% FLT. This will increase power factor and efﬁciency. the power factor can be in the range of 10% to 25%. If a polyphase motor is loaded at less than 75% of rated torque where efﬁciency peaks. Efﬁciency at 75% FLT can be slightly higher than that at 100% FLT.60). and most all single phase motors. the voltage to a partially loaded motor may be reduced to decrease the energy required to maintain the magnetic ﬁeld. At starting. increasing the power factor. While there is nothing to be saved in a fully loaded motor. Thus.60 Induction motors are typically oversized to guarantee that their mechanical load can be started and driven under all operating conditions. Efﬁciency Large three phase motors are more efﬁcient than smaller 3phase motors. 100% efficience. The variation of efﬁciency with loading is shown in Figure 13. Efﬁciency only becomes poor below 25% FLT. TESLA POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS 453 At 3/4 full load the largest high speed motor power factor can be 92%. Little resistance is reﬂected from the secondary (rotor) to the primary (stator). .60: Induction motor power factor and efﬁciency. power factor 80% 60% 40% 20% 0 20 40 60 80 100 % load efficiency power factor Figure 13. though 90% is more common. As the rotor is loaded an increasing resistive component is reﬂected from rotor to stator. there is energy to be saved in partially loaded motors. Large induction motor efﬁciency can be as high as 95% at full load. It is based on the premise that a less than fully loaded induction motor is less efﬁcient and has a lower power factor than a fully loaded motor.7. The energy consumed in maintaining the stator magnetic ﬁeld is relatively ﬁxed with respect to load changes.
.454 CHAPTER 13. The potential energy savings in going from 100% FLT to 25% FLT is the difference in efﬁciency 95% .61) This corresponds to a few % of “negative” slip.61: Negative torque makes induction motor into generator. (Figure 13. It is failsafe. it might be economical as part of an electronic motor starter or speed Control.7. there is not much energy to be saved. AC MOTORS This concept is not very applicable to large 3phase motors. The Nola power factor corrector might be applicable to a 3phase motor which idles most of the time (below 25% FLT). Such an induction generator must be excited by a “live” source of 50 or 60 Hz power. a 95% efﬁcient motor is still 94% efﬁcient at 50% full load torque (FLT) and 90% efﬁcient at 25% FLT. This type of alternator appears to be unsuited as a standby power source. The payback period for the expensive electronic controller has been estimated to be unattractive for most applications. Moreover. This means that as we are rotating the motor faster than the synchronous speed. say 1% slip. 500% %full load torque & current 400% 300% 200% 100% 20 120 100 80 0 20 Motor mode 60 40 40 60 20 80 0 % slip 100 % Ns 100% 200% tor qu e qu e curre nt tor Generator mode 40 60 140 160 80 180 100 % slip 200 % Ns %full load torque & current 300% 400% curre nt 500% Figure 13. [7] 13. Since the rotor is cutting the stator magnetic ﬁeld in the opposite direction (leading). it has the advantage of not requiring an automatic power failure disconnect switch to protect repair crews. like a punch press. Though. the rotor is advancing 1% faster than the stator rotating magnetic ﬁeld. No power can be generated in the event of a power company power failure. It normally lags by 1% in a motor. Because of their high efﬁciency (90%+). This is not 5% of the full load wattage but 5% of the wattage at the reduced load.90% = 5%. the rotor induces a voltage into the stator feeding electrical energy back into the power line.4 Induction motor alternator An induction motor may function as an alternator if it is driven by a torque at greater than 100% of the synchronous speed. As an auxiliary power wind turbine generator.
TESLA POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS 455 Small remote (from the power grid) installations may be make selfexciting by placing capacitors in parallel with the stator phases. Induction generators are not widely used in conventional power plants. this allowable speed variation only amounts to about 1%. Whereas an induction motor presents a lagging power factor to the power line. The speed of a wind turbine is difﬁcult to control. An intermittent duty autotarnsformer may reduce the stator voltage for a fraction of a minute during the start interval. This current is allowed to ﬂow by the capacitors without dissipating power. a few hundred percent is more common. As the generator is brought up to full speed. it may be sized considerably smaller than a continuous duty unit. Starting larger motors can cause line voltage sag. 13. An induction alternator is better able to cope with these variations due to the inherent slip. This breaker accepts high overcurrent for the duration of starting. reversing the normal direction of the electric kilowatthour meter. a direct line connected induction generator is considered to be ﬁxedspeed in a wind turbine. Thus. An induction motor may be converted to a selfexcited generator by the addition of capacitors. This reduces starting current to. Voltage regulation is poor. the current ﬂow increases to supply a magnetizing current to the stator. Sometimes 3phase motors are purchased for use on single phase if threephase provisioning is anticipated.13. Any wind induced turbine speed in excess of synchronous speed will develop negative torque. say. Closure of the S contacts applies reduced voltage during the start interval. The only problem for either motor is starting. The power rating needs to be 50% larger than for a comparable single phase motor to make up for one unused winding. Single . Motorstart rated circuit breakers (analogous to slow blow fuses) should replace standard circuit breakers for starting motors of a few kilowatts. The load may be applied at this point. feeding power back into the power line. 200% of full load current. If the load is removed residual magnetism may generate a small amount of current ﬂow. affecting other loads. The speed of the steam turbine drive is steady and controllable as required by synchronous alternators.[6] Start up procedure is to bring the wind turbine up to speed in motor mode by application of normal power line voltage to the stator. See Doublyfed induction generator for a true variable speed alternator. The S contacts open and the R contacts close after starting.62. Synchronous alternators are also more efﬁcient. This stresses the gear train and mechanical components less than a synchronous genertor.7. Multiple generators or multiple windings on a common shaft may be switched to provide a high and low speed to accomodate variable wind conditions. followed by application of full line voltage as in Figure 13. Running 3phase motors on 1phase Threephase motors will run on single phase as readily as single phase motors. an induction alternator presents a leading power factor. and subject to wind speed variation by gusts. However. Motors over 50 kW use motor starters to reduce line current from several hundred to a few hundred percent of full load current. Since the autotransformer is only used for the short start interval.5 Motor starting and speed control Some induction motors can draw over 1000% of full load current during starting. though. Small motors of a few kilowatts or smaller can be started by direct connection to the power line.7.
[9] However.63 upon motor start. However. Hanrahan provides construction details.[9] . as shown in Figure 13. Three phase power may be tapped off from the three stator windings for powering other 3phase equipment. it may be left in circuit as a runcapacitor. the motor generates approximately standard 3φ. adjustment of these capacitors to equalize the currents as measured in the three phases results in the most efﬁcient machine. If it is small enough.62: Autotransformer induction motor starter. The capacitor supplies a synthetic phase approximately midway 90o between the 180o single phase power source terminals for starting. Moreover.65. The circuit in Figure 13. See Figure 13.456 φ3 T1 φ1 S T2 S φ2 S = start.63. a large start capacitor is required for about a second to quickly start the converter.63 for running a threephase motor on single phase is known as a static phase converter if the motor shaft is not loaded. φ1 R φsynthetic S φ1’ R return S = start. the motor acts as a 3phase generator. it may be started with a capacitor considerably smaller than a normal start capacitor. While running. [8] Since a static phase converter has no torque load. AC MOTORS R S R M1 S Figure 13. smaller runcapacitors result in better 3phase power output as in Figure 13.63: Starting a threephase motor on single phase. R= run optional run capacitor start capacitor φ1 φ1 φ2 M1 φsynthetic φ1’ synthetic 3φ φ3 standard 3φ Figure 13. The start switch is opened in Figure 13. Moreover. Matt Isserstedt shows a complete design for powering a home machine shop.64. Sometimes a smaller capacitor than the start capacitor is retained while running. R= run CHAPTER 13. phase is applied to a pair of windings simultanous with a start capacitor in series with the third winding.
Run capacitors = 1216µF/HP. Hanrahan [9] . Run capacitors = 1216 µF/HP.13. Adapted from Figure 7. Figure 13. Hanrahan [9] 220V single phase in L2 L3 3phase L2 out L1 run run 1 HP motor start L1 Start capacitor = 50100 µF/HP. TESLA POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS 457 L3 3phase L2 out L1 220V single phase in L2 L1 Run capacitor = 2530 µF per HP 1 HP motor Figure 13. Start capacitor = 50100µF/HP.64: Selfstarting static phase converter.65: More efﬁcient static phase converter. Run capacitor = 2530µF per HP.7. Adapted from Figure 1.
for example a 4pole and an 8pole winding corresponding to 1800 and 900 rpm synchronous speeds. the voltage to the motor needs to be decreased when frequency is decreased. However. The 22. This reduces the torque available to the load which reduces the speed. what would be the corresponding 4pole and 2pole synchronous speeds? Ns = 120f/P = 120*50/4 = 1500 rpm (4pole) Ns = 3000 rpm (2pole) Variable voltage The speed of small squirrel cage induction motors for applications such as driving fans. By changing the 50 or 60 Hz line frequency to higher or lower values.66: Multiple ﬁelds allow speed change. it may be rewired (or switched) from 4pole to 2pole as shown above for a 2phase motor. AC MOTORS Induction motors may contain multiple ﬁeld windings. When switching the above 60 Hz motor from 4 poles to 2 poles the synchronous speed increases from 1800 rpm to 3600 rpm.458 Multiple ﬁelds CHAPTER 13. In practice. However. our induction motor may run at multiple speeds. Energizing one ﬁeld or the other is less complex than rewiring the stator coils in Figure 13. φ1 φ1 4pole 2pole Figure 13. This may cause the stator magnetic circuit to saturate with disastrous results. may be changed by reducing the line voltage. If the ﬁeld is segmented with leads brought out. the drive frequency may be increased to increase the synchronous speed of the motor. If the motor is driven by 50 Hz. Thus. Only the wiring for one phase is shown above for clarity.66. decreasing the frequency of the current fed to the motor also decreases reactance XL which increases the stator current. (Figure 13. the voltage needs to be increased to overcome increasing reactance to keep . Conversely.67) Electronic speed control Modern solid state electronics increase the options for speed control. the synchronous speed of the motor may be changed.5o segments are switchable to 45o segments.
varying from the simple to complex: Summary: Speed control • Scaler Control Low cost method described above to control only voltage and frequency. Once electronics is applied to induction motor control. the percentage of “on” time corresponds to the instantaneous sine wave voltage.7.13.67: Variable voltage controls induction motor speed. The ﬂux and torque producing components of stator current are measured or estimated on a realtime basis to enhance the motor torquespeed curve. AC line speed Inverter. high or low. • Vector Control Also known as vector phase control. • Direct Torque Control An elaborate adaptive motor model allows more direct control of ﬂux and torque without feedback.68: Electronic variable speed drive. without feedback. Summary: Tesla polyphase induction motors • A polyphase induction motor consists of a polyphase winding embedded in a laminated stator and a conductive squirrel cage embedded in a laminated rotor. This is computation intensive.eps¡x1¿) approximates sinewaves to the motor with pulse width modulation outputs. . This method quickly responds to load changes. current up to a normal value and maintain torque. many control methods are available. The inverter (Figure¡ref¿02480. TESLA POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS 459 100% % torque 75% 50% 25% 100 0 80 20 motor torque 100% V reduced speed 50% V load to 60 40 rque 40 60 20 80 0 % slip 100 % Ns Figure 13. This is a chopped waveform which is either on or off. variable frequency & voltage M1 Figure 13.
high torque is produced while starting. This will increase efﬁciency and reduce maintenance. (Figure 13. Figure 13. Thus. However. • A static phase converter is three phase motor running on single phase having no shaft load.Note that this torque peak is much higher than the starting torque available with no rotor resistance (R0 ) Slip is proportional to rotor resistance. generating a 3phase output. if started. no power is applied to the slip rings. Rotor torque is developed as the rotor slips a little behind the rotating stator ﬁeld.8 Wound rotor induction motors A wound rotor induction motor has a stator like the squirrel cage induction motor. 13. . but also increases the starting torque. it is for large (10’s of kW) motors. and pullout torque is proportional to slip. The direction of linear travel is controlled by the sequence of the drive to the stator phases. AC MOTORS • Three phase currents ﬂowing within the stator create a rotating magnetic ﬁeld which induces a current.[4] [5] 13. Placing resistance in series with the rotor windings not only decreases start current. Their sole purpose is to allow resistance to be placed in series with the rotor windings while starting. the linear induction motor with the accompanying magnetic repulsion levitation system required for a smooth ride has been too costly for all but experimental installations. the linear induction motor is scheduled to replace steam driven catapult aircraft launch systems on the next generation of naval aircraft carrier. The linear induction motor has been proposed as a drive for high speed passenger trains. • Unlike single phase motors.6 Linear induction motor The wound stator and the squirrel cage rotor of an induction motor may be cut at the circumference and unrolled into a linear induction motor.460 CHAPTER 13. polyphase induction motors are selfstarting. • Motor starters minimize loading of the power line while providing a larger starting torque than required during running. CVNX1. in 2013. locked rotor torque (LRT). • Multiple ﬁeld windings can be rewired for multiple discrete motor speeds by changing the number of poles. However. and consequent magnetic ﬁeld in the rotor. While this is not a severe problem for small motors.70 shows that by increasing the rotor resistance from R0 to R1 to R2 .69) This resistance is shorted out once the motor is started to make the rotor look electrically like the squirrel cage counterpart. Line current reducing starters are only required for large motors.7. Up to this time. • Three phase motors will run on single phase. the breakdown torque peak is shifted left to zero speed. locked rotor current (LRC). but a rotor with insulated windings brought out via slip rings and brushes. Why put resistance in series with the rotor? Squirrel cage induction motors draw 500% to over 1000% of full load current (FLC) during starting.
8. . WOUND ROTOR INDUCTION MOTORS 461 φ1 φ2 M1 φ3 Stator Rotor Start resistance Figure 13.70: Breakdown torque peak is shifted to zero speed by increasing rotor resistance.69: Wound rotor induction motor.13. 400% 300% 200% 100% R2 breakdown torque R1 R0 %full load torque 100 0 80 20 60 40 40 60 20 80 0 % slip 100 % Ns Figure 13.
(See Induction motor alternator) This is a singlyfed induction generator. a squirrel cage rotor only exhibits pull out (peak) torque at 80% of its’ synchronous speed. A high starting resistance makes the high pull out torque available at zero speed. 400% 300% 200% 100% R3 speed reduction R0. This reduces rotor current and speed.71. Since there are connections to both the stator and rotor. The complication and maintenance associated with brushes and slip rings is a disadvantage of the wound rotor as compared to the simple squirrel cage rotor. A wound rotor induction motor may also act as a generator when driven above the synchronous speed. This motor is suited for starting high inertial loads. is not available at high speed. For comparison. A shorted rotor operates like a squirrel cage rotor.462 CHAPTER 13. 13. R2 1. the down shifted break down torque. See R2 curve at 90% Ns. But that resistance is shorted out by the time the rotor is started.8. The high starting torque available at zero speed. Since the speed of a wound rotor induction motor may be controlled over . 13.8. 3 = motor torque R1 R0 %full load torque rque load to 100 80 0 20 60 40 40 60 20 80 0 % slip 100 % Ns Figure 13. such a machine is known as a doublyfed induction generator (DFIG).71: Rotor resistance controls speed of wound rotor induction motor. This speed control technique is only usefull over a range of 50% to 100% of full speed. having electrical connections only to the stator windings. Resistors R0 R1 R2 R3 increase in value from zero. Heat generated during starting is mostly dissipated external to the motor in the starting resistance. 2. AC MOTORS The resistance decreases the torque available at full running speed. Speed control works well with variable speed loads like elevators and printing presses.1 Speed control Motor speed may be varied by putting variable resistance back into the rotor circuit.2 Doublyfed induction generator We previously described a squirrel cage induction motor acting like a generator if driven faster than the synchronous speed. Speed regulation is poor with respect to changing torque loads. Figure 13. A higher resistance at R3 reduces the speed further. The singlyfed induction generator only had a usable slip range of 1% when driven by troublesome wind torque.
we can also overspeed it by 50%.13. The stator appears to be supplying 130% of power to the line. Wound rotor induction motor qualities. . (Figure 13. In actual practice. • Excellent starting torque for high inertia loads. we can vary the speed of a doubly fed induction generator by ±50% from the synchronous speed.72: Rotor resistance allows overspeed of doublyfed induction generator.73) absorbing power from the rotor. we may expect the same of the doublyfed induction generator. If the generator overspeeds. ±30% is more practical.74) The borrowed power. That is. passes to the stator which is connected to the power line. the rotor resistance may be replaced by a converter (Figure 13. along with the larger shaft energy. Keep in mind that the rotor “borrows” 30%. a range of 50100% by inserting resistance in the rotor. which passes it on to the stator.8. (Figure 13. still allowing the stator to feed the power line with 60 Hz power. In actual practice. leaving the line with 100% for the theoretical lossless DFIG. Overspeed torqure Rotor Stator φ1 φ2 100% Torque energy Converter 70% φ1 Electric energy φ3 φ2 φ3 30% Electric energy Figure 13. resistance placed in the rotor circuit will absorb excess energy while the stator feeds constant 60 Hz to the power line. negative resistance inserted into the rotor circuit can make up the energy deﬁcit.72) In the case of underspeed. leaving. and feeding power into the power line instead of dissipating it.73: Converter recovers energy from rotor of doublyfed induction generator. WOUND ROTOR INDUCTION MOTORS 463 Overspeed torqure Rotor Stator φ1 φ2 100% Torque energy 70% Electric energy φ3 30% Waste heat Figure 13. Not only can we slow the rotor by 50%. The converter may “borrow” power from the line for the underspeed rotor. This improves the efﬁciency of the generator.
• The generator version of the wound rotor machine is known as a doublyfed induction generator.9 Singlephase induction motors A three phase motor may be run from a single phase power source.464 CHAPTER 13. • Speed is resistance variable over 50% to 100% full speed. It will only develop 2/3 of the 3φ power rating because one winding is not used. It may be hand started in either direction.75) However.76) . but does not start. (Figure 13. • Low starting current compared to squirrel cage induction motor. allowing it to function well under synchronous speed. AC MOTORS Underspeed torqure Rotor Stator φ1 φ2 100% Torque energy Converter 130% φ1 Electric energy φ3 φ2 φ3 30% Electric energy Figure 13. 13.74: Converter borrows energy from power line for rotor of doubly fed induction generator. coming up to speed in a few seconds. The single coil of a single phase induction motor does not produce a rotating magnetic ﬁeld. but a pulsating ﬁeld reaching maximum intensity at 0o and 180o electrical.75: 3φmotor runs from 1φ power. • Higher maintenance of brushes and slip rings compared to squirrel cage motor. (Figure 13. 1φ powered Figure 13. it will not selfstart. a variable speed machine. open nostart 1φ motor 3φ motor.
The sum of these two phasors is a phasor stationary in space. This type of motor suffers increased current magnitude and backward time shift as the motor comes up to speed. once the rotor is started. Thus. if the rotor is rotated forward at a bit less than the synchronous speed. An analogous situation exists in ﬁgure d. deriving 2phase power from single phase.9.9. At 45o and 45o (ﬁgure c) they are partially additive along the +x axis and cancel along the y axis. Little torque (see torque vs slip curve) other than a double freqency ripple is developed from the counter rotating phasor. Figure 13.10% slip with respect to the counter rotating magnetic ﬁeld phasor. no starting torque is developed. Less torque will be developed above or below 10% slip. This is called a permanentsplit capacitor motor in Figure 13.1 Permanentsplit capacitor motor One way to solve the single phase problem is to build a 2phase motor. 13. pulsating magnetic ﬁeld.77. typical of polyphase induction motors. the single phase coil will develop torque. fed with two phases of current displaced 90o in time. If the rotor is started in the reverse direction. However. with torque pulsations at full speed.76: Single phase stator produces a nonrotating. SINGLEPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS ∠90o 465 ∠180o ∠0o ∠90o a b c d e Figure 13. The solution is to keep the capacitor (impedance) small to minimize losses.76a) and 180o (ﬁgure e). but alternating polarity in time. The rotor will see 200% . The losses are less than for a shaded pole motor.13. Another view is that the single coil excited by a single phase current produces two counter rotating magnetic ﬁeld phasors. . When the phasors rotate to 90o and 90o they cancel in ﬁgure b. This requires a motor with two windings spaced apart 90o electrical. Single phase induction motors have a copper or aluminum squirrel cage embedded in a cylinder of steel laminations. Thus. it will develop a similar large torque as it nears the speed of the backward rotating phasor.77: Permanentsplit capacitor induction motor. coinciding twice per revolution at 0o (Figure 13. It will develop maximum torque at 10% slip with respect to the forward rotating phasor.
.79: Capacitorstart induction motor. though. The result is that more starting torque is available for heavy loads like air conditioning compressors. the smaller sizes use less complex to build concentrated windings with salient poles.466 CHAPTER 13. AC MOTORS This motor conﬁguration works well up to 1/4 horsepower (200watt). described elsewhere is this chapter.2 Capacitorstart induction motor In Figure 13. Moreover. 13. usually applied to smaller motors. the auxiliary winding may be many more turns of heavier wire than used in a resistance splitphase motor to mitigate excessive temperature rise. Though. Figure 13.78: Single phase induction motor with embedded stator coils. This type of motor can be adapted for use as a servo motor. This motor conﬁguration works so well that it is available in multihorsepower (multikilowatt) sizes. Single phase induction motors may have coils embedded into the stator as shown in Figure 13. The direction of the motor is easily reversed by switching the capacitor in series with the other winding.78 for larger size motors.79 a larger capacitor may be used to start a single phase induction motor via the auxiliary winding if it is switched out by a centrifugal switch once the motor is up to speed. Figure 13.9.
(Figure 13. the full magnetizing current is not required.5 Nola power factor corrrector Frank Nola of NASA proposed a power factor corrector for improving the efﬁciency of AC induction motors in the mid 1970’s.to ) series connected polarized electrolytic capacitors.3 Capacitorrun motor induction motor A variation of the capacitorstart motor (Figure 13. it can start a single phase induction motor. About 30o of phase difference may be obtained. the current will experience less phase shift than the main winding. 60 seconds off) like motor starting. but not as much as a two phase motor built from the same parts. At light load.81) With lower inductance and higher resistance. SINGLEPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS 467 13. 13. A motor starting capacitor may be a doubleanode nonpolar electrolytic capacitor which could be two + to + (or . It is based on the premise that induction motors are inefﬁcient at less than full load. A capacitor for motor running must not be of electrolytic construction. This inefﬁciency correlates with a low power factor. Figure 13. This coil produces a moderate starting torque.80) is to start the motor with a relatively large capacitor for high starting torque. It could be reduced by decreasing the applied voltage. This motor has more starting torque than a shaded pole motor (next section). The additional complexity of the capacitorrun motor is justiﬁed for larger size motors.4 Resistance splitphase motor induction motor If an auxiliary winding of much fewer turns of smaller wire is placed at 90o electrical to the main winding.9.9. The current density in the auxiliary winding is so high during starting that the consequent rapid temperature rise precludes frequent restarting or slow starting loads. but leave a smaller value capacitor in place after starting to improve running characteristics while not drawing excessive current. This ﬁxed current is a larger proportion of total motor current as motor load is decreased.9. 13. but a lower loss polymer type.80: Capacitorrun motor induction motor. improving .13.9. This simple (no capacitor) arrangement serves well for motors up to 1/3 horsepower (250 watts) driving easily started loads. The less than unity power factor is due to magnetizing current required by the stator. Such AC rated electrolytic capacitors have such high losses that they can only be used for intermittent duty (1 second on. which is disconnected by a centrifugal switch at 3/4 of synchronous speed.
as low as 104 VAC. The voltage cannot be reduced. There is no savings for a fully loaded motor since all the stator magnetizing current is required. 25% FLC or less. A nominal 117 VAC motor is designed to work at as high as 127 VAC. the greater the potential savings. for example.468 CHAPTER 13. And the more time it idles. The cost of a PFC cannot be recovered for a motor operating only a few hours per day. AC MOTORS IT VT IStart φ IRun φ ≅ 30ο VT IR IS I Run tar t IT IX IS tar t Figure 13. the motor will operate more efﬁciently without any addon device. the greater the possibility of paying for the controller in a few years operation. The higher the initial line voltage.81: Resistance splitphase motor induction motor. But there is potential savings from a less than fully loaded motor. as in a lumber saw. single phase induction motor is a candidate for a PFC. • The auxiliary winding of a permanentsplit capacitor motor has a capacitor in series with it during starting and running. and decreases motor voltage. if the power company delivers closer to 110 VAC. Though. [7] Summary: Singlephase induction motors • Singlephase induction motors are not selfstarting without an auxiliary stator winding driven by an out of phase current of near 90o . That means that it is not fully loaded when operated at greater than 104 VAC. or conveyor. Once started the auxiliary winding is optional. It should be easier to pay for it by a factor of three as compared to the more efﬁcient 3φmotor. • A capacitorstart induction motoronly has a capacitor in series with the auxiliary winding during starting. the power factor and efﬁciency. . It is safe for the power factor controller to lower the line voltage to 104110 VAC. Since singlephase motors are about 2 to 4 times as inefﬁcient as threephase motors. The power factor corrector senses power factor. punch press. there is potential energy savings for 1φ motors. Of course. it needs to operate a large number of hours per year. a 117 VAC refrigerator. Any substantially idle. thus restoring a higher power factor and decreasing losses.
(Figure 13. 13. (Figure 13. Otherwise. The servo loop is a means of controlling the motion of an object via the motor. mechanical. To reduce acceleration robbing inertial.10. the construction is typical of a two phase motor. shorting bars rotor (a) stator coils (b) Figure 13. This lagging ﬂux with the undamped main component.82) Typically 1/3 of the pole is enclosed by a bare copper strap. The low mass rotor can accelerate more rapidly than a squirrel cage rotor. then a smaller nonelectrolytic capacitor during running. produces a rotating ﬁeld with a small torque to start the rotor. and electrical components.83.84) The iron core is reinserted within the cup as a static (nonrotating) component to complete the magnetic circuit. .1 Other specialized motors Shaded pole induction motor An easy way to provide starting torque to a single phase motor is to embed a shorted turn in each pole at 30o to 60o to the main winding. or by switching motor coil taps as in Figure 13. Motor speed can be lowered by switching reactance in series to limit current and torque. These shading coils produce a time lagging damped ﬂux spaced 30o to 60o from the main ﬁeld.82: Shaded pole induction motor. (a) dual coil design. and other low torque applications. • The auxiliary winding of a resistance splitphase motor develops a phase difference versus the main winding during starting by virtue of the difference in resistance.10 13.2 2phase servo motor A servo motor is typically part of a feedback loop containing electronic.10. below 50 watts. the iron core is removed from the rotor leaving only a shaft mounted aluminum cup to rotate. 13.13.10. air circulators. Starting torque is so low that shaded pole motors are only manufactured in smaller sizes. (b) smaller single coil version. OTHER SPECIALIZED MOTORS 469 • A capacitorrun motor typically has a large nonpolarized electrolytic capacitor in series with the auxiliary winding for starting. Low cost and simplicity suit this motor to small fans. A requirement of many such systems is fast response.
10. Because of the low torque. The squirrel cage rotor is attached to the driving motor. hysteresis.3 Hysteresis motor If the low hysteresis Sisteel laminated rotor of an induction motor is replaced by a slotless windingless cylinder of hardened magnet steel. The resulting low torque synchronous motor develops constant torque from stall to synchronous speed. This variable sine wave is the output of an error ampliﬁer. The coils are excited with DC and attached to the mechanical load. and is only used for constant speed applications like clock drives. this is accomplished by a series capacitor in the power line winding.4 Eddy current clutch If the stator of an induction motor or a synchronous motor is mounted to rotate independently of the rotor. The drive motor is . φ−1 φ−2 rotor cup iron core φ−1 φ−2 rotor cup Figure 13. See synchro CT section for example. Aircraft control surfaces may be positioned by 400 Hz 2φ servo motors. AC MOTORS L1 Figure 13. 13. is greatly accentuated. phonograph turntables. an eddy current clutch results. In the above ﬁgure. One of the windings is driven by a 90o phase shifted waveform. the other is driven by an ampliﬁer.10. The other winding is driven by a variable amplitude sine wave to control motor speed.84: High acceleration 2φ AC servo motor. or lagging behind of rotor magnetization. 13.470 CHAPTER 13. and formerly. The phase of the waveform may invert (180o phase shift) to reverse the direction of the motor.83: Speed control of shaded pole motor. the hysteresis motor is only available in very small sizes. One phase is connected to the single phase line.
the higher the synchronizing torque for a pair of motors. The higher the resistance during starting. If drag is applied to one selsyn. However.13. During starting. which is an abbreviation for “self synchronous”. the synchronizing torque is absent. Instrumentation selsyns have no use for starting resistors. (Figure 13. However there is a substantial synchronizing torque. While multihorsepower (multikilowatt) selsyns exist.86) They are not intended to be self rotating. but the rotors still paralleled. resistance may be placed in series with the rotor windings to limit starting current. this will be felt when attempting to rotate the other shaft.87. the two rotors will remain synchronized during starting. (Figure 13. no starting torque is developed. Since the rotors are not shorted out nor resistor loaded. The rotors may be stationary. If these windings are connected to a common starting resistance. a single phase powered rotor is sufﬁcient as shown in Figure 13. If one rotor is moved through an angle θ.11. there is no starting torque. the rotor windings of a wound rotor induction motor are shorted out after starting. where two motors need to be synchronized during starting. the main appplication is small units of a few watts for instrumentation applications– remote position indication. used in under 50 watt low torque applications. • Hysteresis motors are a small low torque synchronous motor once used in clocks and phonographs. φ1 φ3 M1 φ2 Stator Rotor Start resistance Rotor Stator M2 φ2 φ3 φ1 Figure 13. This is a selsyn. manual rotation of one shaft will produce an unbalance in the rotor currents until the parallel unit’s shaft follows.85: Starting wound rotor induction motors from common resistors. The DC excitation is adjusted from zero to the desired ﬁnal value providing a continuously and smoothly variable torque. Once started. • The eddy current clutch provides an adjustable torque. If the starting resistors are removed.11 Selsyn (synchro) motors Normally. 13. Summary: Other specialized motors • The shaded pole induction motor. . and the rotors are shorted. Though we show three phase rotors above. SELSYN (SYNCHRO) MOTORS 471 started with no DC excitation to the clutch. the other selsyn shaft will move through an angle θ. Note that a common source of three phase power is applied to both stators.85) This is usefull for printing presses and draw bridges. The operation of the eddy current clutch is similar to an analog eddy current automotive speedometer. develops a second phase from shorted turns in the stator.
use single phase paralleled. The receiver shaft is electrically slaved to the transmitter shaft. and 26 Vac 400 Hz power. which are not externally energized. A synchro transmitter coupled to a weather vane indicates wind direction at a remote console.87: Synchros have single phase powered rotors.88) For example. the phases of the induced stator voltages will be identical for both. 115 Vac 400 Hz. also known as sychros. AC MOTORS φ3 φ1 M2 θ Rotor Stator φ2 Figure 13.11. Stator current will ﬂow developing torque. a synchro receiver has inertial damping built in. Synchros are available for use with 240 Vac 50 Hz. a synchro transmitter coupled to a radar antenna indicates antenna position on an indicator in a control room. and no current will ﬂow. A synchro torque transmitter may be substituted for a torque receiver. The single rotor winding of a torque transmitter or receiver is brough out by brushed slip rings. S3 M1 S1 R1 60 Hz R2 R1 S3 S1 M2 R1 TX R2 S1 S2 S3 S1 S2 S3 R1 RX R2 R2 TX S2 Stator Rotor Torque transmitter . (Figure 13.1 Transmitter . retaining the 3phase paralleled stators.87) Synchros function as rotary transformers. . (Figure 13.receiver Small instrumentation selsyns. 115 Vac 60 Hz. Synchro stators are wound with 3phase windings brought out to external terminals.86: Selsyns without starting resistance. 13.472 φ1 φ3 M1 φ2 Stator θ Rotor CHAPTER 13.RX RX Alternate abreviated symbols Figure 13. Synchro transmitters and receivers are electrically identical. the stator phase voltages will differ between transmitter and receiver. If the rotors of both the torque transmitter (TX) and torque receiver (RX) are at the same angle. AC energized rotors.TX S2 Rotor Stator Torque receiver . Either the transmitter or receiver shaft may be rotated to turn the opposite unit. Remote position sensing is the main synchro application. Should one rotor be displaced from the other. However.
. Reversing the S1S3 pair of stator leads between a TX and TDX subtracts angular positions. a synchro receiver displays the position of a radar antenna relative to a ship’s bow. displays antenna postion on an RX relative to true north.11. This stator electrical angle may be displayed by sending it to an RX. 13. The addition of a ship’s compass heading by a synchro differential transmitter.89: Torque differential transmitter (TDX). SELSYN (SYNCHRO) MOTORS 473 N W S transmitter receiver E Figure 13. S3 S3 S1 R3 TDX Torque Differential Transmitter R2 R1 R1 M2 R2 M3 S1 S3 S1 R1 M1 R2 S2 TX Torque Transmitter S2 ∠Μ3 = ∠Μ1 + ∠Μ2 S2 TR Torque Receiver Figure 13.89) A synchro differential transmitter adds a shaft angle input to an electrical angle input on the rotor inputs.13. (Figure 13.11.receiver A synchro differential transmitter (TDX) has both a three phase rotor and stator. regardless of ship’s heading.88: Synchro application: remote position indication.2 Differential transmitter . For example. outputting the sum on the stator outputs.
90) It is desired to display the antenna position with respect to true north. antennaN is: rx = tx + gy 30o = 30o + 0o Example.tx ∠rx = ∠tx + ∠gy gyrocompass . The angle output is a torque on the TDR shaft. .rx transmitter .474 CHAPTER 13. The difference between a TDX and a TDR is that the TDX is a torque transmitter and the TDR a torque receiver. antenna position relative to ship’s bow is 0o . antenna + gyro differential transmitter N W ∠tx ∠gy ∠rx E S receiver . an electrical angle input on the three stator connections. and an electrical angle output on the three rotor connections. (Figure 13. The TDX has a torque angle input on the shaft. antennaN = antenna + gyro rx = tx + gy For example. ship’s heading is 30o . We need to add the ships heading from a gyrocompass to the bowrelative antenna position to display antenna angle with respect to true north. ship’s heading is 30o . AC MOTORS A shipboard radar antenna coupled to a synchro transmitter encodes the antenna angle with respect to ship’s bow. The torque inputs in Figure 13. The torque output angular difference is TR. The TDR has electrical angle inputs on both the stator and rotor. antenna position relative to ship’s bow is 15o .90: Torque differential transmitter application: angular addition. antennaN is: 45o = 30o + 15o Addition vs subtraction For reference we show the wiring diagrams for subtraction and addition of shaft angles using both TDX’s (Torque Differential transmitter) and TDR’s (Torque Differential Receiver).gy Figure 13.91 are TX and TDX.
.13.11. R1 TX1 R2 S1 S2 S3 S1 S2 S3 TDR R1 R2 R3 S1 S2 S3 R1 TX2 R2 TDR subtraction: ∠TDR = ∠TX1 .93: TDR subtraction.∠TDX = ∠TR Figure 13.92: TDX Addition. R1 TX R2 S1 S2 S3 S1 S2 S3 TDX R1 R2 R3 S1 S2 S3 R1 TR R2 TDX addition: ∠TX + ∠TDX = ∠TR Figure 13.∠TX2 Figure 13.91: TDX subtraction. SELSYN (SYNCHRO) MOTORS 475 R1 TX R2 S1 S2 S3 S1 S2 S3 TDX R1 R2 R3 S1 S2 S3 R1 TR R2 TDX subtraction: ∠TX .
no CT. the CT neither transmits nor receives torque. or null. The servo motor.94 are TX1 and TX2 . Its rotor is wound with more turns than a transmitter or receiver to make it more sensitive at detecting a null as it is rotated. The servo system will cause the servo motor to drive the antenna to the commanded position. When the control transformer rotor detects a null at 90o to the axis of the stator ﬁeld. This corresponds to the servo system having driven the antenna coupled CT to match the angle commanded by the TX. There is no error between measured and commanded position. The torque output angular sum is TR. they can be controlled to some extent by varying the voltage to one phase with line voltage on the other phase.95. The servo motor may drive a reduction gear train and be large compared to the TX and CT synchros. typically. A servo (Figure 13.94: TDR addition. The torque inputs in Figure 13. any CT detected error drives the ampliﬁer which drives the motor until the error is minimized. control transformer. However. However. a 2phase motor. The torque output angular difference is TDR. Any rotor displacement produces an AC error voltage proportional to displacement. stops rotating. When it measures a minimum. R1 TX1 R2 S1 S2 S3 S1 S2 S3 TDR R1 R2 R3 S1 S2 S3 R1 TX2 R2 TDR addition: ∠TDR = ∠TX1 + ∠TX2 Figure 13.93 are TX1 and TX2 . It has three equally spaced stator windings like a TX. by a servo system. the servo has driven the antenna and control transformer rotor to the commanded position. the poor efﬁciency of AC servo motors limits them to smaller loads. The torque output angular sum is TDR.3 Control transformer A variation of the synchro transmitter is the control transformer. output to be ampliﬁed. The control transformer compares the shaft angle to the the stator magnetic ﬁeld angle.476 CHAPTER 13.11. the shaft of the TX is set to the desired position of the radar antenna. . AC MOTORS The torque inputs in Figure 13. 13. Heavy loads are more efﬁciently driven by large DC servo motors. The torque inputs in Figure 13.92 are TX and TDX. The CT (Control Transformer) rotor output is zero when it is oriented at a angle right angle to the stator magnetic ﬁeld vector. The CT compares the commanded to actual position and signals the servo ampliﬁer to drive the motor until that commanded angle is achieved. there is no rotor output.96) seeks to minimize the error between a commanded and measured variable due to negative feedback. However. In Figure 13. They are also difﬁcult to control since they are constant speed devices. sent by the TX stator. Unlike a TX or RX. It is simply a sensitive angular position detector.
11.95: Control transformer (CT) detects servo null. mechanical coupling 2φ servo motor φ1 M3 S3 S1 R1 S3 S1 M2 CT φ2 S2 R1 R2 R2 M1 TX S2 − + Figure 13.13.96: Servo uses CT to sense antenna position null . SELSYN (SYNCHRO) MOTORS 477 an ten na input angle W AC servo motor φ2 φ1 S1 S2 S3 R2 N S E CT R1 − + TX R1 R2 120 Vac Figure 13.
use of 400 Hz components for aircraft applications. 3phases. A resolver is used for polar to rectangular conversion. AC MOTORS Airborne applications use 400Hz components– TX. Y) are available on the resolver stator coils: X=V(cos( bearing)) Y=V(sin( bearing)) The Cartesian coordinates (X. torque receiver. accepts a torque input at its shaft for transmission on threephase electrical outputs. . (Figure 13. Summary: Selsyn (synchro) motors • A synchro.97) has two stator winding placed at 90o to each other. θ φ2 = sinθ φ1 φ1 = cosθ Figure 13. torque transmitter. Thus. There is also a linear version of the resolver known as an inductosyn. a blackbox within a radar encodes the distance to a target as a sine wave proportional voltage V. • An RX. Size and weight of the AC magnetic components is inversely proportional to frequency. are processed by a ScottT transformer into a pair of quadrature components. Therefore. TX transmits a torque form an input shaft to a remote RX output shaft. Y) may be plotted on a map display.478 CHAPTER 13.11. CT.98) It is possible to derive resolverlike quadrature angular components from a synchro transmitter by using a ScottT transformer. is a rotary transformer used to transmit shaft torque. A TX (torque transmitter) may be adapted for service as a resolver. saves size and weight. like moving control surfaces. See ScottT chapter 9 for details.4 Resolver A resolver (Figure 13. The three TX outputs. 13. The rotary version of the inductosyn has a ﬁner resolution than a resolver. also known as a selsyn. • A TX. with the bearing angle as a shaft angle. accepts a threephase electrical representation of an angular input for conversion to a torque output at its shaft.97: Resolver converts shaft angle to sine and cosine of angle. For example. The sine wave is fed to the rotor of a resolver. An angle input at the rotor shaft produces rectangular coordinates sinθ and cosθ proportional voltages on the stator windings. The bearing angle shaft is coupled to the resolver shaft. and a single rotor winding driven by alternating current. and servo motor. Convert to X and Y coordinates. The coordinates (X.
13.98: ScottT converts 3φ to 2φ enabling TX to perform resolver function. not present in . • A Resolver outputs a quadrature sinθ and cosine(theta) representation of the shaft angle input instead of a threephase output. The success or failure of a motor design was not known until after it was actually built at great expense and tested. He formulated the laws of magnetic hysteresis in ﬁnding a solution. The situation was so bad that motors could not be designed ahead of the actual construction. The singlephase AC version suffers a double line frequency torque pulsation. • The threephase output of a TX is converted to a resolver style output by a ScottT transformer. Hysteresis is a lagging behind of the magnetic ﬁeld strength as compared to the magnetizing force.6% Vsin(θ+120°) Y3 TX synchro ScottT transformer S2 V1 =Vsin(θ) Y2 ct R1 V1 =Vsin(θ) R2 V’2 = Vsin(θ+90°) =Vcos(θ) R4 V3 = M2 Vsin(θ+240°) Figure 13. The series motor operates well above the synchronous speed of a conventional AC motor. detects a null when the rotor is positioned at a right angle to the stator angle input. torque differential transmitter. A CT is typically a component of a servo– feedback system. Low hysteresis alloys and breaking the alloy into thin insulated laminations made it possible to accurately design AC commutator motors before building. AC commutator motors may be either singlephase or polyphase. like comparable DC motors. AC COMMUTATOR MOTORS 479 R3 Y1 S1 R1 R2 θ S3 V2 = 86. AC commutator motors. torque differential receiver. • A TDX.12. control transformer. have higher starting torque and higher speed than AC induction motors.13. sums an electrical angle input with a shaft angle input producing an electrical angle output • A TDR. This produces a loss not present in DC magnetics. sums two electrical angle inputs producing a shaft angle output • A CT.12 AC commutator motors Charles Proteus Steinmetz’s ﬁrst job after arriving in America was to investigate problems encountered in the design of the alternating current version of the brushed commutator motor.
12. vacuum cleaners. requiring 3000 to 10. Larger higher speed universal motors use a compensating winding. or larger. the offsetting effects result in a nearly constant speed from DC to 60 Hz. However commutator motors are not as maintenance free as induction motors. increasing the speed of the “series” motor. Since a commutator motor can operate at much higher speed than an induction motor. it can output more power than a similar size induction motor.99) field field Figure 13. AC MOTORS polyphase motor. (Figure 13. While such a motor will rotate. All but very small AC commutator motors employ compensating windings.100) A smaller motor air gap and fewer ﬁeld turns reduces lagging reactance in series with the armature improving the power factor. . which shares the arcing and sparking between commutator segments The lagging reactance and arcing brushes are only tolerable in very small uncompensated series AC motors operated at high speed. 13. Thus.000 rpm use universal motors. However. Very small universal motors may be uncompensated. such as drills. Series AC motors smaller than hand drills and kitchen mixers may be uncompensated. Small line operated appliances. 13.12. 13. the peaks of the sine waves saturate the magnetic path reducing total ﬂux below the DC value.2 Compensated series motor The arcing and sparking is mitigated by placing a compensating winding the stator in series with the armature positioned so that its magnetomotive force (mmf) cancels out the armature AC mmf. the lagging reactance of the ﬁeld coil will considerably reduce the ﬁeld current. Motors as large as those employed in a kitchen mixer.3 Universal motor It is possible to design small (under 300 watts) universal motors which run from either DC or AC. use compensated stator windings. operation is marginal. This results in considerable arcing and sparking at the brushes as the armature begins to turn. the development of solid state rectiﬁers and inexpensive permanent magnets is making the DC permanent magnet motor a viable alternative.480 CHAPTER 13. While starting.99: Uncompensated series AC motor. A motor will run slower on AC than DC due to the reactance encountered with AC.12. and mixers. (Figure 13. This is less of a problem as speed increases.1 Single phase series motor If a DC series motor equipped with a laminated ﬁeld is connected to AC. Though. armature windings connected to commutator segments shorted by the brushes look like shorted transformer turns to the ﬁeld. due to brush and commutator wear.
13.12.4 Repulsion motor A repulsion motor (Figure 13. This motor has superior commutation below synchronous speed. the high starting torque of the repulsion motor may be put to use. 13. Starting torque is 300% to 600% of the full speed value as compared to under 200% for a pure induction motor.12.100: Compensated series AC motor. giving the effect of a squirrel cage rotor . AC COMMUTATOR MOTORS 481 compensating winding field Figure 13. shorting brushes field compensating winding Figure 13.101) consists of a ﬁeld directly connected to the AC line voltage and a pair of shorted brushes offset by 15o to 25o from the ﬁeld axis. At near running speed.12. Speed can be conrolled by rotating the brushes with respect to the ﬁeld axis. Summary: AC commutator motors . The ﬁeld induces a current ﬂow into the shorted armature whose magnetic ﬁeld opposes that of the ﬁeld coils. 13. The brushes may also be lifted to prolong bush life. Low starting current produces high starting torque.5 Repulsion start induction motor When an induction motor drives a hard starting load like a compressor. a centrifugal switch shorts out all commutator segments.101: Repulsion AC motor. The induction motor rotor windings are brought out to commutator segments for starting by a pair of shorted brushes. inferior commutation above synchronous speed.
designnews.metalwebnews.. • The addition of a compensating winding yields the compensated series motor.com/energy.spacedaily. Navy Matters”.html?pubdate=04%2F11%2F2002 [6] “Operating 60 cycle motors www.com/news/energytech04zzn.com/cimtext.html [9] Jim Hanrahan“Building a Phase Converter”. EDN. May 2008.htm [5] Bill Schweber.beedall.asp?layout=article&articleid=CA151563&cfd=1 [4] “Future Aircraft Carrier . Most AC commutator motors are this type.com/article/CA207108. New Zealand at http://www.html 1995.htm [8] Matt Isserstedt“Building an AutoStart Rotary Three Phase Converter”. at .pdfopt txt Ship motor”.482 CHAPTER 13. www. at PA) Pittsburg.redrok. “Electronics poised to replace steampowered aircraft launch system”. • The AC line is directly connected to the stator of a repulsion motor with the commutator shorted by the brushes. (4/11/2002). [3] “Linear motor outperforms steampiston catapults”. AC MOTORS • The single phase series motor is an attempt to build a motor like a DC commutator motor.com/howto/phconv/phconv.com/index. M Photonics Ltd. but is not maintenance free. Christchurch. Box 13 076. Red Rock Energy [7] “Energy Saver systems for Induction motors”. www.pdf as generators”. Inc.html [2] “Linear motor applications guide”. This is known as a repulsion start induction motor.metalwebnews.CVF.edn.lmphotonics.com/howto/phaseconverter/phaseconverter.com/products/PDF/LMAppGuide. Design News.O. • It is possible to produce small appliance motors powered by either AC or DC. This is known as a universal motor.aerotech. Bibliography [1] “American Superconductor achieves full power of 5MW www. overcoming excessive commutator sparking. • Retractable shorted brushes may start a wound rotor induction motor. www.com/cvf32. http://navymatters. The resulting motor is only practical in the smallest sizes. At high speed this motor provides more power than a samesize induction motor. P. December http://www. (Aerotech. at http://www.
. . . . I came across a length of coaxial cable with the label “50 ohms” printed along its outer sheath. . . . . . . . . . .1) Now. unbroken lengths of wire.5 14. .7 14. . . . As such. . . . . . . . . . . Finitelength transmission lines . . . . due to its excellent ability to shield such signals from external interference. .4 14. . . . 483 484 486 493 499 502 522 529 14. . . . . Waveguides . . . . . .1 A 50ohm cable? Early in my explorations of electricity. . . . . . . Standing waves and resonance . . . the two conductors insulated from each other for the entire length of the cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Figure 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . I was mystiﬁed by the “50 ohms” label on this coaxial cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . How could two conductors. Nowhere was I able to measure 50 Ω of resistance on this cable. just as I would have expected from two insulated conductors. .1 14. . .2 14.Chapter 14 TRANSMISSION LINES Contents 14. . . . . . .8 A 50ohm cable? . . . . . . . . . Characteristic impedance . Measuring each of the two conductors’ resistances from one end of the cable to the other indicated nearly zero ohms of resistance: again. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . “Long” and “short” transmission lines . exactly what I would have expected from continuous. . . . . . I found it to be inﬁnite (opencircuit). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . This type of cabling is often used to conduct weak (lowamplitude) voltage signals. . . with a plastic insulating material separating the two. . insulated from each other by a relatively thick layer of plastic. . have 50 ohms of resistance between them? Measuring resistance between the outer and inner conductors with my ohmmeter. . . 483 . . . regardless of which points I connected my ohmmeter between.6 14. Circuits and the speed of light . . . . . coaxial cable is a twoconductor cable made of a single conductor surrounded by a braided wire jacket. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 14. . Impedance transformation . . . . . . the outer (braided) conductor completely surrounds the inner (single wire) conductor. . .
Continuous direct current (DC) – such as that used by my ohmmeter to check the cable’s resistance – shows the two conductors to be completely insulated from each other. What we would normally dismiss as being just a pair of wires becomes an important circuit element in the presence of transient and highfrequency AC signals. Practical applications of transmission line effects abound in radiofrequency (“RF”) communication circuitry. When expressing such properties.2 Circuits and the speed of light Suppose we had a simple onebattery. onelamp circuit controlled by a switch. the cable’s response to rapidlychanging voltages is such that it acts as a ﬁnite impedance. 14. in circuits involving high frequencies and/or extremely long cable lengths. When the switch is closed. TRANSMISSION LINES Inner conductor Outer conductor (wire braid) 50 Ω Insulation (polyethylene) Protective jacket (polyvinyl chloride) Figure 14. an incandescent lamp takes a short time for its ﬁlament to warm up and emit light after receiving an electric current of sufﬁcient magnitude to power it. However. When the switch is opened. the effects are very signiﬁcant. with nearly inﬁnite resistance between the two. including computer networks. and in lowfrequency circuits subject to voltage transients (“surges”) such as lightning strikes on power lines. the lamp immediately darkens: (Figure 14. However. or in continuous DC circuits. What I didn’t understand at the time was the cable’s response to shortduration voltage “pulses” and highfrequency AC signals. with characteristic properties all its own. This chapter explores transmission line behavior. the lamp immediately lights.2) Actually. and so we haven’t had to concern ourselves with them in our study of electric circuits thus far. drawing current proportional to an applied voltage.1: Coaxial cable contruction. we refer to the wire pair as a transmission line. so the effect is not RG 58 /U .484 CHAPTER 14. due to the effects of capacitance and inductance distributed along the length of the cable. Many transmission line effects do not appear in signiﬁcant measure in AC circuits of powerline frequency (50 or 60 Hz).
. it is theoretically possible.3) 186. Assuming no warmup time for the lamp ﬁlament. not the response time of the lamp ﬁlament. resulting in a much faster transfer of motion from the left end of the train (circuit) to the right end than . if the wires carrying power to the lamp were 186.2: Lamp appears to immediately respond to switch. what I’d like to focus on is the immediacy of the electric current itself. Figure 14. though. Although the construction and operation of superconducting wires 372.000 miles long? Since we know the effects of electricity do have a ﬁnite speed (albeit very fast). instant. One way of envisioning this is to imagine the electrons within a conductor as rail cars in a train: linked together with a small amount of “slack” or “play” in the couplings. However. When one rail car (electron) begins to move. When the switch is opened again. and so this “thought experiment” is valid. Although electrons move through wires very slowly. motion is transferred from car to car (from electron to electron) at a maximum velocity limited by the coupling slack. and no resistance along the 372. the lamp would light up approximately one second after the switch closure.2. Thus. the lamp will continue to receive power for one second of time after the switch opens. it pushes on the one ahead of it and pulls on the one behind it.000 mile length of both wires..000 miles in length would pose enormous practical problems. delaying the switch’s action on the lamp: (Figure 14.000 miles . Switch Lamp Battery . the overall effect of electrons pushing against each other happens at the speed of light (approximately 186.3: At the speed of light. What would happen. lamp responds after 1 second.14.000 miles per second!). CIRCUITS AND THE SPEED OF LIGHT 485 Switch Lamp Battery Figure 14.. a set of very long wires should introduce a time delay into the circuit. For all practical purposes. the effect of switch action is instant at the lamp’s location. then it will deenergize.. but not before the slack is relieved from the couplings.
14.4: Motion is transmitted sucessively from one car to next. and then the last car moves! Figure 14. • REVIEW: • In an electric circuit. TRANSMISSION LINES First car begins to move . . that we had a set of parallel wires of inﬁnite length.4) CHAPTER 14. The wave will travel as water molecules bump into each other.3 Characteristic impedance Suppose. What would happen when we close the switch? Being that there is no longer a load at the end of the wires. transferring wave motion along the water’s surface far faster than the water molecules themselves are actually traveling: (Figure 14.486 the actual speed of the cars (electrons): (Figure 14. .5) Likewise. wallshaped object is suddenly moved horizontally along the surface of water. is that of waves in water. then the second car moves . .6) . although electrons within the conductors do not travel anywhere near that velocity. this “coupling” speed would become noticeable to a human observer in the form of a short time delay between switch action and lamp action. perhaps more ﬁtting for the subject of transmission lines. the effects of electron motion travel approximately at the speed of light. Another analogy. In a very long circuit. electron motion “coupling” travels approximately at the speed of light. although the electrons themselves don’t move that quickly. so as to produce a wave ahead of it. Would there be no current at all? (Figure 14. though. . . Suppose a ﬂat. . with no lamp at the end. this circuit is open. .
.14.3... Figure 14. infinite length . CHARACTERISTIC IMPEDANCE 487 Object water surface water molecule wave wave wave Figure 14. Switch Battery . .5: Wave motion in water.6: Driving an inﬁnite transmission line..
like this: (Figures 14. (Figure 14. . No longer are the wires merely conductors of electrical current and carriers of voltage. 14. this pair of wires will draw current from the source so long as the switch is closed. the current drawn by a pair of parallel wires will not be inﬁnite. Thus. and this storage of energy results in an opposition to change in voltage.11. Voltage applied between two conductors creates an electric ﬁeld between those conductors. Energy is stored in this magnetic ﬁeld. According to the equation.488 CHAPTER 14. when the switch is closed.7: Equivalent circuit showing stray capacitance between conductors. preventing the current from ever reaching an inﬁnite magnitude: Because the electrons in the two wires transfer motion to and from each other at nearly the speed of light.” we cannot eliminate capacitance along the wires’ lengths.8) Remember that current through any conductor develops a magnetic ﬁeld of proportional magnitude.. and their distributed inductance will never allow unlimited charging current. 14. Energy is stored in this electric ﬁeld.13) The end result of these interactions is a constant current of limited magnitude through the battery source.. Figure 14. their distributed capacitance will never fully charge to the source voltage. but now constitute a circuit component in themselves. and in so doing drops voltage according to the inductance equation e = L(di/dt). behaving as a constant load. However..9) and this storage of energy results in an opposition to change in current. Any pair of conductors separated by an insulating medium creates capacitance between those conductors: (Figure 14. This voltage drop limits the voltage rateofchange across the distributed capacitance. which tells us that current will be drawn proportional to the voltage’s rate of change over time. (Figure 14.12. The reaction of a capacitance against changes in voltage is described by the equation i = C(de/dt).7) infinite length . Since the wires are inﬁnitely long. an instant rise in applied voltage (as produced by perfect switch closure) gives rise to an inﬁnite charging current. respectively.10. Switch Battery . Each wire develops a magnetic ﬁeld as it carries charging current for the capacitance between the wires. 14. the “wave front” of voltage and current change will propagate down the length of the wires at that same velocity. because there exists series impedance along the wires due to inductance. the capacitance between conductors will react against the sudden voltage increase by charging up and drawing current from the source. resulting in the distributed capacitance and inductance progressively charging to full voltage and current. TRANSMISSION LINES Despite being able to avoid wire resistance through the use of superconductors in this “thought experiment.. In other words.
3... Figure 14.8: Equivalent circuit showing stray capacitance and inductance. .14. infinite length . magnetic field Figure 14. ... ..... Figure 14..10: Uncharged transmission line. Switch Battery .9: Voltage charges capacitance.. current charges inductance.. CHARACTERISTIC IMPEDANCE 489 infinite length .. Switch electric field Battery .
+ + ..... Figure 14....11: Begin wave propagation. TRANSMISSION LINES Switch closes! .. + + + + . + + + + + + .490 CHAPTER 14.12: Continue wave propagation. .. Figure 14. .13: Propagate at speed of light.. .. Speed of light (approximately) Figure 14..
identical units of measurement must be used in both terms of the fraction. despite being comprised purely of inductance and capacitance (assuming superconducting wires with zero resistance). Z0 = Characteristic impedance of line d1 = Inside diameter of outer conductor d2 = Outside diameter of inner conductor k = Relative permittivity of insulation between conductors In both equations. If the insulating material is other than air (or a vacuum). No longer are the two wires merely a pair of conductors. CHARACTERISTIC IMPEDANCE 491 with unique characteristics. the transmission line’s response to applied voltage is resistive rather than reactive.3. The impedance (resistance) of this line in ohms is called the characteristic impedance. the characteristic impedance may be calculated as such: d r d Z0 = 276 log r k Where. both the characteristic impedance . Z0 = Characteristic impedance of line d = Distance between conductor centers r = Conductor radius k = Relative permittivity of insulation between conductors If the transmission line is coaxial in construction. but rather a transmission line. We can say this because there is no difference from the battery’s perspective between a resistor eternally dissipating energy and an inﬁnite transmission line eternally absorbing energy. For a parallelwire line with air insulation.14. As a constant load. the characteristic impedance follows a different equation: d1 d2 d Z0 = 138 log 1 d2 k Where. and it is ﬁxed by the geometry of the two conductors.
and the distributed inductance will increase (less cancellation of the two opposing magnetic ﬁelds). equating to a lesser impedance. It can be seen in either of the ﬁrst two equations that a transmission line’s characteristic impedance (Z0 ) increases as the conductor spacing increases. the characteristic impedance of a transmission line is equal to the square root of the ratio of the line’s inductance per unit length divided by the line’s capacitance per unit length: v = c 1 k Z0 = Where....Velocity factor = Where... L C Z0 = Characteristic impedance of line L = Inductance per unit length of line C = Capacitance per unit length of line . the distributed capacitance will decrease (greater spacing between capacitor “plates”). The ratio of a transmission line’s true propagation velocity and the speed of light in a vacuum is called the velocity factor of that line.... Velocity factor is purely a factor of the insulating material’s relative permittivity (otherwise known as its dielectric constant). Conversely...... v = Velocity of wave propagation c = Velocity of light in a vacuum k = Relative permittivity of insulation between conductors Characteristic impedance is also known as natural impedance.. TRANSMISSION LINES and the propagation velocity will be affected. bringing the two conductors closer together increases the parallel capacitance and decreases the series inductance. Both changes result in a larger current drawn for a given applied voltage. Barring any dissipative effects such as dielectric “leakage” and conductor resistance. which by deﬁnition is a greater impedance... deﬁned as the ratio of a material’s electric ﬁeld permittivity to that of a pure vacuum. If the conductors are moved away from each other. owing to distributed capacitance and inductance as the voltage and current “waves” propagate along its length at a propagation velocity equal to some large fraction of light speed. The velocity factor of any cable type – coaxial or otherwise – may be calculated quite simply by the following formula: ++++++++++++++++++++++ Velocity of wave propagation .. and it refers to the equivalent resistance of a transmission line if it were inﬁnitely long.492 CHAPTER 14. Less parallel capacitance and more series inductance results in a smaller current drawn by the line for any given amount of applied voltage....
since electrons cannot ﬂow where there is no continuing path. An older term for characteristic impedance. and would exist even if the dielectric were perfect (inﬁnite parallel resistance) and the wires superconducting (zero series resistance). The train does not come to a halt together. Values range between 0. Ohm’s Law relationship between current and voltage will hold true for a limited period of time. the characteristic impedance rating of a transmission line is important even when dealing with limited lengths. as the electrons successively ﬁnd no place to go. I actually would have been able to measure 50 Ω worth of resistance between the inner and outer conductors. the line will draw current from the DC source as though it were a constant resistance. If a transient voltage (a “surge”) is applied to the end of a transmission line. and so it measured as “open” (inﬁnite resistance). but rather in sequence from ﬁrst car to last: (Figure 14. causing the one behind it to come to a stop as soon as the ﬁrst coupling slack is taken up. • The characteristic impedance (Z0 ) of a transmission line is the resistance it would exhibit if it were inﬁnite in length. All transmission lines have some ﬁnite length. If that piece of 50 Ω “RG58/U” cable I measured with an ohmmeter years ago had been inﬁnitely long. Characteristic impedance is purely a function of the capacitance and inductance distributed along the line’s length. This abrupt cessation of current at the line’s end causes a “pileup” to occur along the length of the transmission line.4 Finitelength transmission lines A transmission line of inﬁnite length is an interesting abstraction. This simple.14) . This is entirely different from leakage resistance of the dielectric separating the two conductors. it will come to a stop. • Velocity factor is a fractional value relating a transmission line’s propagation speed to the speed of light in a vacuum. • When a voltage is suddenly applied to one end of a transmission line. If the end of a transmission line is opencircuited – that is.14. Nonetheless. and as such do not behave precisely the same as an inﬁnite line. and the metallic resistance of the wires themselves. 14.4.80 for typical twowire lines and coaxial cables. but physically impossible. which I like for its descriptive value. left unconnected – the current “wave” propagating down the line’s length will have to stop at the end. Imagine a train traveling down the track with slack between the rail car couplings: if the lead car suddenly crashes into an immovable barricade. but not indeﬁnitely.66 and 0. is surge impedance. it is equal to the reciprocal (1/x) of the square root of the relative permittivity of the cable’s insulation. • If a DC voltage is applied to one end of an inﬁnitely long transmission line. But it was not inﬁnite in length. FINITELENGTH TRANSMISSION LINES • REVIEW: 493 • A transmission line is a pair of parallel conductors exhibiting certain characteristics due to distributed capacitance and inductance along its length. both a voltage “wave” and a current “wave” propagate along the line at nearly light speed. For any cable type. and so on until the last rail car stops. the line will draw a current proportional to the surge voltage magnitude divided by the line’s surge impedance (I=E/Z). which causes the next rail car to stop as soon as the next coupling’s slack is taken up.
and so an ohmmeter measurement of the line never reveals the brief time period where the line actually behaves as a resistor. or 16. When this electron “pileup” propagates back to the battery.292 µs. .14: Reﬂected wave. For the current signal to reach the line’s end and “reﬂect” back to the source. and then the last car stops! Figure 14. A signal propagating from the sourceend of a transmission line to the loadend is called an incident wave. and may be used for the purpose of determining a cable’s length. . the roundtrip time is twice this ﬁgure.760 of a second (8. it is reﬂected back to the source. current at the battery ceases. Instruments designed for such purposes are called timedomain reﬂectometers (TDRs). Highspeed measurement instruments are able to detect this transit time from source to lineend and back to source again. The propagation of a signal from loadend to sourceend (such as what happened in this example with current encountering the end of an opencircuited transmission line) is called a reﬂected wave. . it takes only 1/122. The basic principle is identical to that of sonar rangeﬁnding: generating a sound pulse and measuring the time it takes for the echo to return. because voltage cannot exist between two electrically common points. All this happens very quickly for transmission lines of reasonable length. A similar phenomenon takes place if the end of a transmission line is shortcircuited: when the voltage wavefront reaches the end of the line.760 miles per second). This technique may also be used for determining the presence and location of a break in one or both of the cable’s conductors.146 microseconds) for a signal to travel from one end to the other. . For a milelong cable with a velocity factor of 0. . and the line acts as a simple open circuit. . .494 CHAPTER 14. When this reﬂected wave reaches . since a current will “reﬂect” off the wire break just as it will off the end of an opencircuited cable. TRANSMISSION LINES First car stops . then the second car stops . or 122.66 (signal propagation velocity is 66% of light speed.
A wave may be seen traveling down the rope’s length until it dissipates entirely due to friction: (Figure 14.4. this happens as quickly as the signal can propagate roundtrip down and up the transmission line at whatever velocity allowed by the dielectric material between the line’s conductors.15) wave wave wave Figure 14. never reﬂecting back to the source. FINITELENGTH TRANSMISSION LINES 495 the source. Again.14. the source sees the entire transmission line as a shortcircuit.15: Lossy transmission line. This is analogous to a long transmission line with internal loss: the signal steadily grows weaker as it propagates down the line’s length. if the far end of the rope is secured to a solid object at a point prior to the incident wave’s total . Take a length of rope by one end and “whip” it with a rapid upanddown motion of the wrist. However. A simple experiment illustrates the phenomenon of wave reﬂection in transmission lines.
For example.16: Reﬂected wave.16) wave wave wave wave Figure 14. if a 50 Ω resistor is connected at the end of the cable. Thus. Even if the signals are intended for information only. Usually. Reﬂections may be eliminated from the transmission line if the load’s impedance exactly equals the characteristic (“surge”) impedance of the line. This makes perfect sense if we return to our hypothetical. a 50 Ω coaxial cable that is either opencircuited or shortcircuited will reﬂect all of the incident energy back to the source. as are reﬂected waves. However. and not to power some signiﬁcant load device. since reﬂected energy is energy not delivered to the end device. and then be completely absorbed or dissipated by the load for maximum signaltonoise ratio. the purpose of a transmission line is to convey electrical energy from one point to another. there will be no reﬂected energy. A transmission line of 50 Ω characteristic impedance and inﬁnite length behaves exactly like a 50 Ω resistance as measured from one end. TRANSMISSION LINES dissipation. all signal energy being dissipated by the resistor. a second wave will be reﬂected back to your hand: (Figure 14. the ideal situation would be for all of the original signal energy to travel from the source to the load.17) If we cut this line to . (Figure 14.496 CHAPTER 14. inﬁnitelength transmission line example. “loss” along the length of a transmission line is undesirable.
4. then like an open (infinite resistance) Figure 14..17: Inﬁnite transmission line looks like resistor.18: One mile transmission. (Figure 14. it will be partial. but then behave like an open.19) However.18) or shorted. Switch Battery 1 mile open 50 Ω coaxial cable Velocity factor = 0. depending on what condition we leave the cut end of the line: open (Figure 14. 50 Ω coaxial cable Cable’s behavior from perspective of battery: Exactly like a 50 Ω resistor Figure 14. FINITELENGTH TRANSMISSION LINES 497 some ﬁnite length. it will behave as a 50 Ω resistor to a constant source of DC voltage for a brief time. the line will once again behave as a 50 Ω resistor. not just if the line is left unconnected (open) or jumpered (shorted). Reﬂected waves will also manifest if the terminating resistance isn’t precisely equal to the characteristic impedance of the transmission line. Though the energy reﬂection will not be total with a terminating impedance of slight mismatch.66 Cable’s behavior from perspective of battery: Like a 50 Ω resistor for 16. . In essence. if we terminate the line with a 50 Ω resistor.. indeﬁnitely: the same as if it were of inﬁnite length again: (Figure 14.292 µs. because a resistor has the ability to eternally dissipate energy in the same way a transmission line of inﬁnite length is able to eternally absorb energy.20) Switch Battery infinite length .14. This happens whether or not the terminating resistance is greater or less than the line’s characteristic impedance.or a shortcircuit. a terminating resistor matching the natural impedance of the transmission line makes the line “appear” inﬁnitely long from the perspective of the source.
19: Shorted transmission line. . then like a short (zero resistance) Figure 14.498 CHAPTER 14.292 µs.66 50 Ω Cable’s behavior from perspective of battery: Exactly like a 50 Ω resistor Figure 14. TRANSMISSION LINES Switch Battery 1 mile shorted 50 Ω coaxial cable Velocity factor = 0.66 Cable’s behavior from perspective of battery: Like a 50 Ω resistor for 16.20: Line terminated in characteristic impedance. Switch Battery 1 mile 50 Ω coaxial cable Velocity factor = 0.
then as whatever impedance the line is terminated with. like another pulse signal transmitted from the source. if the source impedance does not match the line. as it makes it appear that the source has transmitted another pulse. This includes the use of coaxial cables in instrument circuits. . After that time (a brief 16. an openended cable simply reads “open” when measured with an ohmmeter. This is due to the relatively short timespans in which reﬂections take place in the line.292 µs for the milelong coaxial cable of the last example).14. but will be reﬂected back toward the line end like another incident wave. “LONG” AND “SHORT” TRANSMISSION LINES 499 Rereﬂections of a reﬂected wave may also occur at the source end of a transmission line. as compared to the period of the waveforms or pulses of the signiﬁcant signals in the circuit. A reﬂected wave returning back to the source will be dissipated entirely if the source impedance matches the line’s. a signal “bounced” off the end of a transmission line. if the source’s internal impedance (Thevenin equivalent impedance) is not exactly equal to the line’s characteristic impedance. • A ﬁnitelength transmission line will appear to a DC voltage source as a constant resistance for some short time. This eliminates all signal reﬂections. Therefore. often employed to protect weak voltage signals from being corrupted by induced “noise” caused by stray electric and magnetic ﬁelds. of course. 14. As we saw in the last section. the source “sees” only the terminating impedance. This type of reﬂection may be particularly troublesome. whatever that may be. • REVIEW: • Characteristic impedance is also known as surge impedance. and “shorted” when its end is shortcircuited. at least partially.5. • A reﬂected wave may become rereﬂected off the sourceend of a transmission line if the source’s internal impedance does not match the line’s characteristic impedance.5 “Long” and “short” transmission lines In DC and lowfrequency AC circuits. This rereﬂected wave will appear. • A ﬁnitelength transmission line may be made to appear inﬁnite in length if terminated by a resistor of equal value to the line’s characteristic impedance. traveling from load to source. the characteristic impedance of parallel wires is usually ignored. is called a reﬂected wave. back to the source. A signal traveling on a transmission line from source to load is called an incident wave. • A transient (“surge”) signal applied to one end of an openended or shortcircuited transmission line will “reﬂect” off the far end of the line as a secondary wave. if a transmission line is connected to a DC voltage source. • Reﬂected waves will also appear in transmission lines terminated by resistors not precisely matching the characteristic impedance. it will behave as a resistor equal in value to the line’s characteristic impedance only for as long as it takes the incident pulse to reach the end of the line and return as a reﬂected pulse. due to the temporarily resistive behavior of any length transmission line.
500 CHAPTER 14.000 m/s). and the distance less by the same factor. If the velocity factor of the transmission line is less than 1.66 ms. then wavelength in meters). power lines would have to exceed 775 miles in length before the effects of propagation time became signiﬁcant. but will be less if the transmission line has a velocity factor less than 1. because linelength propagations occur within a very small fraction of the AC waveform’s period. Velocity of propagation is usually the speed of light when calculating signal wavelength in open air or in a vacuum. v f λ = Wavelength v = Velocity of propagation f = Frequency of signal The lowercase Greek letter “lambda” (λ) represents wavelength. because their propagation effects are much quicker than the periods of the conducted signals. An AC waveform with a frequency of 60 Hz completes one cycle in 16. we can say that voltage along all respective points on a lowfrequency. such short time delays introduced by a transmission line between when the AC source outputs a voltage peak and when the source “sees” that peak loaded by the terminating impedance (roundtrip time for the incident wave to reach the line’s end and reﬂect back to the source) are of little consequence.66). we can say that the transmission lines in question are electrically short. the actual phase difference between startofline and endofline signals is negligible. For all practical purposes. If a “long” line is considered to be one at least 1/4 wavelength in length. you can see why all connecting lines in the circuits discussed thusfar have been assumed “short. then wavelength in miles. Up until this chapter in the Lessons In Electric Circuits book series. But even if we used the coaxial cable’s velocity factor from the last example (0. TRANSMISSION LINES If the circuit in question handles lowfrequency AC power. To put this into perspective. At light speed (186. the distance is still a very long 2046 miles! Whatever distance we calculate for a given frequency is called the wavelength of the signal. A simple formula for calculating wavelength is as follows: λ= Where. Cables connecting an audio ampliﬁer to speakers would have to be over 4. we need to express the distance traveled by a voltage or current signal along a transmission line in relation to its source frequency. in whatever unit of length used in the velocity ﬁgure (if miles per second. In these cases.000 miles per second. Even though we know that signal magnitudes along the line’s length are not equal at any given time due to signal propagation at (nearly) the speed of light.” For a 60 Hz AC power system. this equates to a distance of 3100 miles that a voltage or current signal will propagate in that time. By contrast. if meters per second. all connecting lines were assumed to be electrically short.65 miles in length before line reﬂections would signiﬁcantly impact a 10 kHz . twoconductor line are equal and inphase with each other at any given point in time. the propagation velocity will be less than 186. an electrically long line is one where the propagation time is a large fraction or even a multiple of the signal period. A “long” line is generally considered to be one where the source’s signal waveform completes at least a quartercycle (90o of “rotation”) before the incident signal reaches line’s end.
Though the line acts as a resistor for a very brief period of time after the meter is connected (about 50 Ω for an RG58/U cable). The next section discusses the effects of “long” transmission lines. In this condition of perfect impedance matching. especially when line length happens to match speciﬁc fractions or multiples of signal wavelength. it immediately thereafter behaves as a simple “open circuit:” the impedance of the line’s open end. though. and using it to conduct a highfrequency AC signal could result in a vastly different assessment of that cable’s “shortness!” When a source is connected to a load via a “long” transmission line. line length only affects the amount of time delay from signal departure at the source to signal arrival at the load. the cable is considered “electrically short” and its impedance is irrelevant to circuit function. If we use a coaxial cable to conduct a DC voltage or current to a load. though. nearly any physical length of cable would be considered “short” from the standpoint of characteristic impedance and reﬂected waves. In this scenario. the source (connected to the other end) will only see 50 Ω of impedance. In other words. However. Consider a 100 MHz radio signal: its wavelength is a mere 9. When an electrical source is connected to a load via a “short” transmission line. the load’s impedance dominates the circuit. “LONG” AND “SHORT” TRANSMISSION LINES 501 audio signal! When dealing with radiofrequency systems. . this critical length shrinks to 1. Note how the electrical “shortness” of a cable is relative to the application: in a DC circuit where voltage and current values change slowly. and no component in the circuit is capable of measuring or responding quickly enough to “notice” a reﬂected wave. The most effective way to minimize the impact of transmission line length on circuit behavior is to match the line’s characteristic impedance to the load impedance. transmission line length is far from trivial. A transmission line carrying this signal would not have to be more than about 21/2 feet in length to be considered “long!” With a cable velocity factor of 0. and we only register the terminating (load) impedance. If the load impedance is equal to the line impedance. the line’s own characteristic impedance dominates over load impedance in determining circuit behavior.5. its own characteristics overshadowing the load’s.14. line impedance exclusively deﬁnes circuit behavior. Consider our hypothetical 50 Ω cable of inﬁnite length. because the line’s inﬁnite length prevents the signal from ever reaching the end where the load is connected. regardless of line length. Since the combined response time of an ohmmeter and the human being using it greatly exceeds the roundtrip propagation time up and down the cable. it is “electrically short” for this application. rendering the load completely irrelevant. its own characteristic impedance is of little consequence to the circuit’s behavior. We see this when testing a coaxial cable with an ohmmeter: the cable reads “open” from center conductor to outer conductor if the cable end is left unterminated. Taking the same length of cable. even at the full propagation velocity of light (186.66. when the line is short. surely the ultimate example of a “long” transmission line: no matter what kind of load we connect to one end of this line. perfect matching of line and load impedances is not always practical or possible. an electrically “long” line acts as the principal component in the circuit. and will have the exact same amount of current drawn from it.8202 feet. This is to say. This is increasingly true the longer the transmission line is.000 m/s). then any signal source connected to the other end of the line will “see” the exact same impedance. current drawn from the source is a function primarily of the line and not the load.62 feet. It is the extreme speed of the propagated signal that makes us unable to detect the cable’s 50 Ω transient impedance with an ohmmeter. With a source connected to one end of the cable and a load to the other.
502 • REVIEW: CHAPTER 14. The following illustration shows how a triangleshaped incident waveform turns into a mirrorimage reﬂection upon reaching the line’s unterminated end. stationary waveform is created along the line’s length: (Figure 14. If the incident signal is a continuous AC waveform. in fact. there are no reﬂected waves and thus no problems with line length. • A signal’s wavelength is the physical distance it will propagate in the timespan of one period. represents the only voltage along the line. the line is considered electrically long. The ultimate example of this is a transmission line of inﬁnite length: since the signal will never reach the load impedance. for simplicity’s sake. these reﬂections will mix with more of the oncoming incident waveform to produce stationary waveforms called standing waves. Wavelength is calculated by the formula λ=v/f. barring any resistive losses in the transmission line. Note the dots along the line length marking the “zero” points of the standing wave . for the excellent immunity to induced “noise” that it provides for signals. It oscillates in instantaneous magnitude. • In a circuit with a “long” line. the terminating (load) impedance dominates circuit behavior.6 Standing waves and resonance Whenever there is a mismatch of impedance between transmission line and load. “v” is the propagation velocity. when the propagation time is a large fraction or multiple of the signal’s period. • When the period of a transmitted voltage or current signal greatly exceeds the propagation time for a transmission line. 14. The incident wave is shown traveling from left to right. • When a transmission line is terminated by a load precisely matching its impedance. • A ruleofthumb for transmission line “shortness” is that the line must be at least 1/4 wavelength before it is considered “long. Conversely.22) This third. the line’s own characteristic impedance dominates circuit behavior. and “f ” is the signal frequency. TRANSMISSION LINES • Coaxial cabling is sometimes used in DC and lowfrequency AC circuits as well as in highfrequency circuits. The source effectively sees nothing but the load’s impedance. where “λ” is the wavelength. but does not propagate down the cable’s length like the incident or reﬂected waveforms causing it. we ﬁnd that a third.21) If we add the two waveforms together. the line is considered electrically short. being the representative sum of incident and reﬂected voltage waves. thick line rather than a pair of wires. while the reﬂected wave travels from right to left: (Figure 14. The transmission line in this illustrative sequence is shown as a single.” • In a circuit with a “short” line. “standing” wave. the source only “sees” the cable’s characteristic impedance. reﬂections will occur.
Unterminated line Incident wave Reflected wave Time Incident wave Reflected wave Figure 14. STANDING WAVES AND RESONANCE 503 Direction of propagation Source .21: Incident wave reﬂects off end of unterminated transmission line.6.14. ...
504 CHAPTER 14. Unterminated line Incident wave Reflected wave Time Incident wave Reflected wave Figure 14.22: The sum of the incident and reﬂected waves is a stationary wave... . TRANSMISSION LINES Direction of propagation Source .
the waves are vibrations of air molecules (sound) within the tube rather than vibrations of a solid object. the anchored end of a vibrating string must be a node. and tied down at the other (only one halfcycle of hand motion shown. while an open tube end must be an antinode. shaken at one end. STANDING WAVES AND RESONANCE 505 (where the incident and reﬂected waves cancel each other). with “nodes” of maximum and minimum vibration along their length. The major difference between a plucked string and a shaken string is that the plucked string supplies its own “correct” frequency of vibration to maximize the standingwave effect: (Figure 14. The effect is most pronounced when the free end is shaken at just the right frequency. moving downward): (Figure 14. this time. Note how there is more than one wavelength suitable for producing standing waves of . Consider a string or rope.23) Source . while the free end (if there is any) must be an antinode. By analogy..14. Unterminated line Time Figure 14. Standing waves are quite abundant in the physical world..24) Both the nodes (points of little or no vibration) and the antinodes (points of maximum vibration) remain ﬁxed along the length of the string or rope.26) A closed tube end must be a wave node. and how those points never change position: (Figure 14.25) Wind blowing across an openended tube also produces standing waves. Plucked strings exhibit the same “standing wave” behavior.6. Whether the standing wave terminates in a node (minimum amplitude) or an antinode (maximum amplitude) depends on whether the other end of the tube is open or closed: (Figure 14.23: The standing wave does not propgate along the transmission line.
25: Standing waves on a plucked string. Plucked string Figure 14. TRANSMISSION LINES Figure 14.24: Standing waves on a rope.506 CHAPTER 14. .
STANDING WAVES AND RESONANCE 507 Standing sound waves in openended tubes 1/4 wave 1/2 wave 3/4 wave 1 wave 5/4 waves 3/2 waves 7/4 waves 2 waves 9/4 waves 5/2 waves Figure 14.26: Standing sound waves in open ended tubes. .6.14.
Another way of saying this is that there are multiple resonant frequencies for any system supporting standing waves.66.27: Harmonics (overtones) in open ended pipes The actual frequencies (measured in Hertz) for any of these harmonics or overtones depends on the physical length of the tube and the waves’ propagation velocity. is a bit more complex than resonance of strings or of air in tubes. the type commonly used for cable television distribution – with a velocity factor of 0. This is true for all standingwave systems: standing waves will resonate with the system for any frequency (wavelength) correlating to the node/antinode points of the system. If this were a real 75 Ω cable – perhaps a type “RG59B/U” coaxial cable. they also exhibit resonance at frequencies determined by physical length and propagation velocity. TRANSMISSION LINES vibrating air within a tube that precisely match the tube’s end points. because we must consider both voltage waves and current waves. which is the speed of sound in air. All components have an impedance of 75 Ω: (Figure 14. Because transmission lines support standing waves. This complexity is made easier to understand by way of computer simulation. and force these waves to possess nodes and antinodes according to the type of termination impedance at the load end.27) 1/4 wave 1st harmonic 3/4 wave 3rd harmonic 5/4 waves 5th harmonic 7/4 waves 7th harmonic 9/4 waves 9th harmonic Fundamental 1/2 wave 1st harmonic 1 wave 2nd harmonic 3/2 waves 3rd harmonic 2 waves 4th harmonic 5/2 waves 5th harmonic 1st overtone 2nd overtone 3rd overtone 4th overtone Figure 14. let’s examine a perfectly matched source. and load. To begin. we’ll specify the transmission line (t1) with a 75 Ω characteristic impedance (z0=75) and a propagation delay of 1 microsecond (td=1u). Transmission line resonance. it would be about 648 feet long. All higher frequencies are integermultiples of the lowest (fundamental) frequency for the system. Since 1 µs is the period of a . though.28) Using SPICE to simulate the circuit.508 CHAPTER 14. transmission line. The sequential progression of harmonics from one resonant frequency to the next deﬁnes the overtone frequencies for the system: (Figure 14. This is a convenient method for expressing the physical length of a transmission line: the amount of time it takes a wave to propagate down its entire length.
30) We should deﬁnitely see some reﬂections on the line now as the frequency is swept from 1 mHz to 1 MHz: (Figure 14. I’ll choose to sweep the frequency of the AC source from (nearly) zero to that ﬁgure. both the supply voltage vm(1) and the line’s loadend voltage vm(3) remain steady at 1 volt.14.end Running this simulation and plotting the source impedance drop (as an indication of current). STANDING WAVES AND RESONANCE 509 1 Esource 0 Zsource 2 75 Ω Transmission line (75 Ω) 0 3 Rload 0 75 Ω Figure 14. the source voltage.ac lin 101 1m 1meg * Using ‘‘Nutmeg’’ program to plot analysis . let’s change the load impedance to 999 MΩ.5 volts: (Figure 14. while every other voltage registers a steady 0. and the load voltage. we see that the source voltage – shown as vm(1) (voltage magnitude between node 1 and the implied ground point of node 0) on the graphic plot – registers a steady 1 volt. to see how the system reacts when exposed to signals ranging from DC to 1 wavelength. (Figure 14. Here is the SPICE netlist for the circuit shown above: Transmission line v1 1 0 ac 1 sin rsource 1 2 75 t1 2 0 3 0 z0=75 td=1u rload 3 0 75 . there can be no standing waves. The other voltages dip and peak at different frequencies along the sweep range of 1 .28: Perfectly matched transmission line.end Here.6.ac lin 101 1m 1meg * Using ‘‘Nutmeg’’ program to plot analysis . the line’s sourceend voltage. 1 MHz signal.31) Transmission line v1 1 0 ac 1 sin rsource 1 2 75 t1 2 0 3 0 z0=75 td=1u rload 3 0 999meg . Now. and therefore no resonant “peaks” or “valleys” in the Bode plot.29) In a system where all impedances are perfectly matched. to simulate an openended transmission line.
1 Esource 0 Zsource 2 75 Ω Transmission line (75 Ω) 0 3 Rload 999 MΩ (open) 0 Figure 14. .510 CHAPTER 14. TRANSMISSION LINES Figure 14.30: Open ended transmission line.29: No resonances on a matched transmission line.
We will investigate each one with regard to voltage and current at different points of the circuit.32: At f=0: input: V=1. and full source voltage present at the sourceend of the transmission line (voltage measured between node 2 and node 0: vm(2)). At 0 Hz (actually 1 mHz). There is no circuit current. mHz to 1 MHz.6. 500 kHz.2)). the signal is practically DC. and the circuit behaves much as it would given a 1volt DC battery source. STANDING WAVES AND RESONANCE 511 Figure 14.14. (Figure 14. the line’s length is precisely right for .33) You might be wondering. There are ﬁve points of interest along the horizontal axis of the analysis: 0 Hz.31: Resonances on open transmission line. With a source frequency of 250 kHz. yet still full voltage at the loadend: (Figure 14. we see zero voltage and maximum current at the sourceend of the transmission line. 750 kHz. I=0. and 1 MHz. end: V=1. At 250 kHz. I=0. 250 kHz. how can this be? How can we get full source voltage at the line’s open end while there is zero voltage at its entrance? The answer is found in the paradox of the standing wave. as indicated by zero voltage drop across the source impedance (Zsource : vm(1.32) 0V=0A Zsource 75 Ω Esource 1V Transmission line (75 Ω) 1V Figure 14.
exactly onehalf of a standing wave rests on the transmission line.35) At 750 kHz.40) . The shortcircuit .2)). This is due to 3/4 of a wave poised along the transmission line. At 500 kHz. the source “sees” an open circuit at the point where it connects to the transmission line. there will be zero voltage (node) and maximum current (antinode).41).42). there can be no current. the loadend of an opencircuited transmission line is a current node (zero point) and a voltage antinode (maximum amplitude): (Figure 14. TRANSMISSION LINES 1 V = 13.38 and illustrations of what happens (Figure 14. At this point. (Figure 14.37) In a similar fashion. voltage antinode at open end. and here we see another point in the analysis where the source current drops off to nothing and the sourceend voltage of the transmission line rises again to full voltage: (Figure 14. With the line’s load end opencircuited.33 mA. and 1 MHz (Figure 14. I=13. end: V=1 I=0. the sourceend of the line experiences the same voltage and current amplitudes as the loadend: full voltage and zero current.33 mA Zsource Esource 250 kHz 75 Ω 0V Transmission line (75 Ω) 1V Figure 14. 1/4 wavelength to ﬁt from end to end. although the node and antinode assignments for voltage and current are reversed: at the shorted end of the line. the plot looks a lot like it was at 250 kHz: zero sourceend voltage (vm(2)) and maximum current (vm(1.34: Open end of transmission line shows current node. 250 kHz (Figure 14. What follows is the SPICE simulation (circuit Figure 14. a full standing wave exists on the transmission line.34) Zero E Zsource Esource 250 kHz 75 Ω Maximum E Maximum I Zero I Figure 14.36) When the supply frequency sweeps up to 1 MHz.43). Therefore.39 at resonances) at all the interesting frequencies: 0 Hz (Figure 14. 500 kHz (Figure 14. 750 kHz (Figure 14. resulting in the source “seeing” a shortcircuit where it connects to the transmission line. a shortcircuited transmission line generates standing waves.44). but there will be voltage.512 CHAPTER 14.33: At f=250 KHz: input: V=0. In essence. even though the other end of the line is opencircuited: (Figure 14.
14. .37: Double standing waves on full wave open transmission line.36: 1 1/2 standing waves on 3/4 wave open transmission line.35: Full standing wave on half wave open transmission line. Maximum E Maximum E Zero E Zero E Zsource Esource 1 MHz 75 Ω Maximum E Zero I Zero I Maximum I Maximum I Zero I Figure 14. STANDING WAVES AND RESONANCE 513 Maximum E Zsource Esource 500 kHz 75 Ω Zero E Maximum E Maximum I Zero I Zero I Figure 14. Zero E Zsource Esource 750 kHz 75 Ω Maximum E Zero E Maximum E Maximum I Zero I Maximum I Zero I Figure 14.6.
end Figure 14.38) 1 Esource 0 Zsource 2 75 Ω Transmission line (75 Ω) 0 3 Rload 0 1 µΩ (shorted) Figure 14. Transmission line v1 1 0 ac 1 sin rsource 1 2 75 t1 2 0 3 0 z0=75 td=1u rload 3 0 1u .514 CHAPTER 14. TRANSMISSION LINES jumper is simulated by a 1 µΩ load impedance: (Figure 14.38: Shorted transmission line.ac lin 101 1m 1meg * Using ‘‘Nutmeg’’ program to plot analysis . the energy reﬂection is total: 100% of the incident wave reaching the line’s end gets reﬂected back toward . an opencircuited line and a shortcircuited line.39: Resonances on shorted transmission line In both these circuit examples.
end: V=0. Maximum E Zsource Esource 250 kHz 75 Ω Zero E Maximum I Zero I Figure 14.6. I=13.42: Full wave standing wave pattern on half wave shorted transmission line.33 mA.40: At f=0 Hz: input: V=0. Zero E Zsource Esource 500 kHz 75 Ω Maximum E Zero E Maximum I Zero I Maximum I Figure 14.33 mA Zsource Esource 0 Hz 75 Ω 0V Transmission line (75 Ω) 0V Figure 14. STANDING WAVES AND RESONANCE 515 1 V = 13.14.33 mA.41: Half wave standing wave pattern on 1/4 wave shorted transmission line. . I=13.
44: Double standing waves on full wave shorted transmission line. Maximum E Maximum E Zero E Zero E Zero E Zsource Esource 1 MHz 75 Ω Maximum I Zero I Zero I Maximum I Maximum I Figure 14.516 CHAPTER 14. . TRANSMISSION LINES Maximum E Zero E Maximum E Zsource Esource 750 kHz 75 Ω Zero E Zero I Maximum I Zero I Maximum I Figure 14.43: 1 1/2 standing wavepattern on 3/4 wave shorted transmission line.
Figure 14. as it should. this time printing numerical results rather than plotting them.6. Transmission line v1 1 0 ac 1 sin rsource 1 2 75 t1 2 0 3 0 z0=75 td=1u rload 3 0 100 .14. Figure 14. STANDING WAVES AND RESONANCE 517 the source.48. Figure 14.2) v(1) v(2) v(3) . 250 kHz. both the line input voltage (v(2)) and the voltage dropped across the source’s 75 Ω impedance (v(1. however. Figure 14. Figure 14. The load voltage.46) 1 Esource 0 Zsource 2 75 Ω Transmission line (75 Ω) 0 3 Rload 0 100 Ω Figure 14. because at .49.50).end If we run another SPICE analysis. and 1 MHz.2).end At all frequencies.ac lin 5 1m 1meg .print ac v(1. 500 kHz.45: Transmission line terminated in a mismatch Transmission line v1 1 0 ac 1 sin rsource 1 2 75 t1 2 0 3 0 z0=75 td=1u rload 3 0 100 .45) Examine the results of the corresponding SPICE analysis to see the effects of impedance mismatch at different source frequencies: (Figure 14.5714 volts. At odd harmonics of the fundamental frequency (250 kHz. remains steady at 1 volt. but at a lesser voltage: 0. as will be the difference between minimum and maximum values of voltage and current along the line. we can discover exactly what is happening at all the interesting frequencies: (DC.47. the reﬂections will be less intense. 750 kHz. Figure 14.ac lin 101 1m 1meg * Using ‘‘Nutmeg’’ program to plot analysis . also remains steady. v(1).50) we see differing levels of voltage at each end of the transmission line. Suppose we were to terminate our example line with a 100 Ω resistor instead of a 75 Ω resistor. indicating current drawn from the source) vary with frequency. However. the source voltage.47.48 and 750 kHz. the transmission line is terminated in some impedance other than an open or a short. (Figure 14. If. Figure 14. v(3).
518
CHAPTER 14. TRANSMISSION LINES
Figure 14.46: Weak resonances on a mismatched transmission line
freq 1.000E03 2.500E+05 5.000E+05 7.500E+05 1.000E+06
v(1,2) 4.286E01 5.714E01 4.286E01 5.714E01 4.286E01
v(1) 1.000E+00 1.000E+00 1.000E+00 1.000E+00 1.000E+00
v(2) 5.714E01 4.286E01 5.714E01 4.286E01 5.714E01
v(3) 5.714E01 5.714E01 5.714E01 5.714E01 5.714E01
0.4286 V = 5.715 mA Zsource Esource 0 Hz Transmission line 75 Ω (75 Ω) 0.5714 V 0.5714 V 100 Ω
Figure 14.47: At f=0 Hz: input: V=0.57.14, I=5.715 mA; end: V=0.5714, I=5.715 mA.
14.6. STANDING WAVES AND RESONANCE
519
0.5714 V = 7.619 mA Zsource Esource 250 kHz Transmission line 75 Ω (75 Ω) 0.4286 V 0.5714 V 100 Ω
Figure 14.48: At f=250 KHz: input: V=0.4286, I=7.619 mA; end: V=0.5714, I=7.619 mA.
0.4286 V = 5.715 mA Zsource Esource 500 kHz Transmission line 75 Ω (75 Ω) 0.5714 V 0.5714 V 100 Ω
Figure 14.49: At f=500 KHz: input: V=0.5714, I=5.715 mA; end: V=5.714, I=5.715 mA.
0.5714 V = 7.619 mA Zsource Esource 750 kHz Transmission line 75 Ω (75 Ω) 0.4286 V 0.5714 V 100 Ω
Figure 14.50: At f=750 KHz: input: V=0.4286, I=7.619 mA; end: V=0.5714, I=7.619 mA.
0.4286 V = 5.715 mA Zsource Esource 1 MHz Transmission line 75 Ω (75 Ω) 0.5714 V 0.5714 V 100 Ω
Figure 14.51: At f=1 MHz: input: V=0.5714, I=5.715 mA; end: V=0.5714, I=0.5715 mA.
520
CHAPTER 14. TRANSMISSION LINES
those frequencies the standing waves terminate at one end in a node and at the other end in an antinode. Unlike the opencircuited and shortcircuited transmission line examples, the maximum and minimum voltage levels along this transmission line do not reach the same extreme values of 0% and 100% source voltage, but we still have points of “minimum” and “maximum” voltage. (Figure 14.46) The same holds true for current: if the line’s terminating impedance is mismatched to the line’s characteristic impedance, we will have points of minimum and maximum current at certain ﬁxed locations on the line, corresponding to the standing current wave’s nodes and antinodes, respectively. One way of expressing the severity of standing waves is as a ratio of maximum amplitude (antinode) to minimum amplitude (node), for voltage or for current. When a line is terminated by an open or a short, this standing wave ratio, or SWR is valued at inﬁnity, since the minimum amplitude will be zero, and any ﬁnite value divided by zero results in an inﬁnite (actually, “undeﬁned”) quotient. In this example, with a 75 Ω line terminated by a 100 Ω impedance, the SWR will be ﬁnite: 1.333, calculated by taking the maximum line voltage at either 250 kHz or 750 kHz (0.5714 volts) and dividing by the minimum line voltage (0.4286 volts). Standing wave ratio may also be calculated by taking the line’s terminating impedance and the line’s characteristic impedance, and dividing the larger of the two values by the smaller. In this example, the terminating impedance of 100 Ω divided by the characteristic impedance of 75 Ω yields a quotient of exactly 1.333, matching the previous calculation very closely.
SWR =
Emaximum Eminimum
=
Imaximum Iminimum
SWR =
Zload Z0
or
Z0 Zload
which ever is greater
A perfectly terminated transmission line will have an SWR of 1, since voltage at any location along the line’s length will be the same, and likewise for current. Again, this is usually considered ideal, not only because reﬂected waves constitute energy not delivered to the load, but because the high values of voltage and current created by the antinodes of standing waves may overstress the transmission line’s insulation (high voltage) and conductors (high current), respectively. Also, a transmission line with a high SWR tends to act as an antenna, radiating electromagnetic energy away from the line, rather than channeling all of it to the load. This is usually undesirable, as the radiated energy may “couple” with nearby conductors, producing signal interference. An interesting footnote to this point is that antenna structures – which typically resemble open or shortcircuited transmission lines – are often designed to operate at high standing wave ratios, for the very reason of maximizing signal radiation and reception. The following photograph (Figure 14.52) shows a set of transmission lines at a junction point in a radio transmitter system. The large, copper tubes with ceramic insulator caps at the ends are rigid coaxial transmission lines of 50 Ω characteristic impedance. These lines carry RF power from the radio transmitter circuit to a small, wooden shelter at the base of an
14.6. STANDING WAVES AND RESONANCE
521
antenna structure, and from that shelter on to other shelters with other antenna structures:
Figure 14.52: Flexible coaxial cables connected to rigid lines. Flexible coaxial cable connected to the rigid lines (also of 50 Ω characteristic impedance) conduct the RF power to capacitive and inductive “phasing” networks inside the shelter. The white, plastic tube joining two of the rigid lines together carries “ﬁlling” gas from one sealed line to the other. The lines are gasﬁlled to avoid collecting moisture inside them, which would be a deﬁnite problem for a coaxial line. Note the ﬂat, copper “straps” used as jumper wires to connect the conductors of the ﬂexible coaxial cables to the conductors of the rigid lines. Why ﬂat straps of copper and not round wires? Because of the skin effect, which renders most of the crosssectional area of a round conductor useless at radio frequencies. Like many transmission lines, these are operated at low SWR conditions. As we will see in the next section, though, the phenomenon of standing waves in transmission lines is not always undesirable, as it may be exploited to perform a useful function: impedance transformation. • REVIEW: • Standing waves are waves of voltage and current which do not propagate (i.e. they are stationary), but are the result of interference between incident and reﬂected waves along a transmission line. • A node is a point on a standing wave of minimum amplitude. • An antinode is a point on a standing wave of maximum amplitude. • Standing waves can only exist in a transmission line when the terminating impedance does not match the line’s characteristic impedance. In a perfectly terminated line, there are no reﬂected waves, and therefore no standing waves at all. • At certain frequencies, the nodes and antinodes of standing waves will correlate with the ends of a transmission line, resulting in resonance.
522
CHAPTER 14. TRANSMISSION LINES
• The lowestfrequency resonant point on a transmission line is where the line is one quarterwavelength long. Resonant points exist at every harmonic (integermultiple) frequency of the fundamental (quarterwavelength). • Standing wave ratio, or SWR, is the ratio of maximum standing wave amplitude to minimum standing wave amplitude. It may also be calculated by dividing termination impedance by characteristic impedance, or vice versa, which ever yields the greatest quotient. A line with no standing waves (perfectly matched: Zload to Z0 ) has an SWR equal to 1. • Transmission lines may be damaged by the high maximum amplitudes of standing waves. Voltage antinodes may break down insulation between conductors, and current antinodes may overheat conductors.
14.7
Impedance transformation
Standing waves at the resonant frequency points of an open or shortcircuited transmission line produce unusual effects. When the signal frequency is such that exactly 1/2 wave or some multiple thereof matches the line’s length, the source “sees” the load impedance as it is. The following pair of illustrations shows an opencircuited line operating at 1/2 (Figure 14.53) and 1 wavelength (Figure 14.54) frequencies:
Maximum E Zsource Esource 500 kHz 75 Ω
Zero E
Maximum E
Maximum I Zero I Zero I
Figure 14.53: Source sees open, same as end of half wavelength line. In either case, the line has voltage antinodes at both ends, and current nodes at both ends. That is to say, there is maximum voltage and minimum current at either end of the line, which corresponds to the condition of an open circuit. The fact that this condition exists at both ends of the line tells us that the line faithfully reproduces its terminating impedance at the source end, so that the source “sees” an open circuit where it connects to the transmission line, just as if it were directly opencircuited. The same is true if the transmission line is terminated by a short: at signal frequencies corresponding to 1/2 wavelength (Figure 14.55) or some multiple (Figure 14.56) thereof, the source “sees” a short circuit, with minimum voltage and maximum current present at the connection points between source and transmission line:
14.7. IMPEDANCE TRANSFORMATION
523
Maximum E Maximum E Zero E Zero E Zsource Esource 1 MHz 75 Ω Maximum E
Zero I Zero I Maximum I Maximum I
Zero I
Figure 14.54: Source sees open, same as end of full wavelength (2x half wavelength line).
Zero E Zsource Esource 500 kHz 75 Ω
Maximum E
Zero E
Maximum I Zero I
Maximum I
Figure 14.55: Source sees short, same as end of half wave length line.
Maximum E Maximum E Zero E Zero E Zero E Zsource Esource 1 MHz 75 Ω
Maximum I Zero I Zero I Maximum I
Maximum I
Figure 14.56: Source sees short, same as end of full wavelength line (2x half wavelength).
524
CHAPTER 14. TRANSMISSION LINES
However, if the signal frequency is such that the line resonates at 1/4 wavelength or some multiple thereof, the source will “see” the exact opposite of the termination impedance. That is, if the line is opencircuited, the source will “see” a shortcircuit at the point where it connects to the line; and if the line is shortcircuited, the source will “see” an open circuit: (Figure 14.57) Line opencircuited; source “sees” a short circuit: at quarter wavelength line (Figure 14.57), at threequarter wavelength line (Figure 14.58)
Zero E Zsource Esource 250 kHz 75 Ω Maximum E
Maximum I Zero I
Figure 14.57: Source sees short, reﬂected from open at end of quarter wavelength line.
Zero E Zsource Esource 750 kHz 75 Ω
Maximum E Zero E Maximum E
Maximum I Zero I Maximum I Zero I
Figure 14.58: Source sees short, reﬂected from open at end of threequarter wavelength line. Line shortcircuited; source “sees” an open circuit: at quarter wavelength line (Figure 14.59), at threequarter wavelength line (Figure 14.60) At these frequencies, the transmission line is actually functioning as an impedance transformer, transforming an inﬁnite impedance into zero impedance, or vice versa. Of course, this only occurs at resonant points resulting in a standing wave of 1/4 cycle (the line’s fundamental, resonant frequency) or some odd multiple (3/4, 5/4, 7/4, 9/4 . . .), but if the signal frequency is known and unchanging, this phenomenon may be used to match otherwise unmatched impedances to each other. Take for instance the example circuit from the last section where a 75 Ω source connects to
14.7. IMPEDANCE TRANSFORMATION
525
Maximum E Zsource Esource 250 kHz 75 Ω
Zero E
Maximum I Zero I
Figure 14.59: Source sees open, reﬂected from short at end of quarter wavelength line.
Maximum E Zero E Maximum E Zsource Esource 750 kHz 75 Ω Zero E
Zero I Maximum I Zero I
Maximum I
Figure 14.60: Source sees open, reﬂected from short at end of threequarter wavelength line.
526
CHAPTER 14. TRANSMISSION LINES
a 75 Ω transmission line, terminating in a 100 Ω load impedance. From the numerical ﬁgures obtained via SPICE, let’s determine what impedance the source “sees” at its end of the transmission line at the line’s resonant frequencies: quarter wavelength (Figure 14.61), halfwave length (Figure 14.62), threequarter wavelength (Figure 14.63) full wavelength (Figure 14.64)
0.5714 V = 7.619 mA Zsource Esource 250 kHz
Fundamental frequency (1st harmonic)
Transmission line 75 Ω (75 Ω) 0.4286 V 0.5714 V 1/4 λ Source "sees" 0.4286 V = 56.25 Ω 7.619 mA
100 Ω
Figure 14.61: Source sees 56.25 Ω reﬂected from 100 Ω load at end of quarter wavelength line.
0.4286 V = 5.715 mA Zsource Esource 500 kHz
2nd harmonic
Transmission line 75 Ω (75 Ω) 0.5714 V 0.5714 V 1/2 λ 0.5714 V = 100 Ω Source "sees" 5.715 mA
100 Ω
Figure 14.62: Source sees 100 Ω reﬂected from 100 Ω load at end of half wavelength line.
14.7. IMPEDANCE TRANSFORMATION
527
0.5714 V = 7.619 mA Zsource Esource 750 kHz
3rd harmonic
Transmission line 75 Ω (75 Ω) 0.4286 V 0.5714 V 3/4 λ Source "sees" 0.4286 V = 56.25 Ω 7.619 mA
100 Ω
Figure 14.63: Source sees 56.25 Ω reﬂected from 100 Ω load at end of threequarter wavelength line (same as quarter wavelength).
0.4286 V = 5.715 mA Zsource Esource 1 MHz
4th harmonic
Transmission line 75 Ω (75 Ω) 0.5714 V 0.5714 V 1λ 0.5714 V = 100 Ω Source "sees" 5.715 mA
100 Ω
Figure 14.64: Source sees 56.25 Ω reﬂected from 100 Ω load at end of fullwavelength line (same as halfwavelength). A simple equation relates line impedance (Z0 ), load impedance (Zload ), and input impedance (Zinput ) for an unmatched transmission line operating at an odd harmonic of its fundamental frequency:
Z0 =
Zinput Zload
One practical application of this principle would be to match a 300 Ω load to a 75 Ω signal source at a frequency of 50 MHz. All we need to do is calculate the proper transmission line impedance (Z0 ), and length so that exactly 1/4 of a wave will “stand” on the line at a frequency of 50 MHz. First, calculating the line impedance: taking the 75 Ω we desire the source to “see” at the sourceend of the transmission line, and multiplying by the 300 Ω load resistance, we obtain a ﬁgure of 22,500. Taking the square root of 22,500 yields 150 Ω for a characteristic line
528
CHAPTER 14. TRANSMISSION LINES
impedance. Now, to calculate the necessary line length: assuming that our cable has a velocity factor of 0.85, and using a speedoflight ﬁgure of 186,000 miles per second, the velocity of propagation will be 158,100 miles per second. Taking this velocity and dividing by the signal frequency gives us a wavelength of 0.003162 miles, or 16.695 feet. Since we only need onequarter of this length for the cable to support a quarterwave, the requisite cable length is 4.1738 feet. Here is a schematic diagram for the circuit, showing node numbers for the SPICE analysis we’re about to run: (Figure 14.65)
1 Esource 50 MHz 0
Zsource 2 75 Ω Transmission line Z0 = 150 Ω 0 150 = (75)(300)
3 Zload 0 300 Ω
Figure 14.65: Quarter wave section of 150 Ω transmission line matches 75 Ω source to 300 Ω load. We can specify the cable length in SPICE in terms of time delay from beginning to end. Since the frequency is 50 MHz, the signal period will be the reciprocal of that, or 20 nanoseconds (20 ns). Onequarter of that time (5 ns) will be the time delay of a transmission line onequarter wavelength long: Transmission line v1 1 0 ac 1 sin rsource 1 2 75 t1 2 0 3 0 z0=150 td=5n rload 3 0 300 .ac lin 1 50meg 50meg .print ac v(1,2) v(1) v(2) v(3) .end freq 5.000E+07 v(1,2) 5.000E01 v(1) 1.000E+00 v(2) 5.000E01 v(3) 1.000E+00
At a frequency of 50 MHz, our 1volt signal source drops half of its voltage across the series 75 Ω impedance (v(1,2)) and the other half of its voltage across the input terminals of the transmission line (v(2)). This means the source “thinks” it is powering a 75 Ω load. The actual load impedance, however, receives a full 1 volt, as indicated by the 1.000 ﬁgure at v(3). With 0.5 volt dropped across 75 Ω, the source is dissipating 3.333 mW of power: the same as dissipated by 1 volt across the 300 Ω load, indicating a perfect match of impedance, according to the Maximum Power Transfer Theorem. The 1/4wavelength, 150 Ω, transmission line segment has successfully matched the 300 Ω load to the 75 Ω source.
Once again. For any other signal frequency to receive the same beneﬁt of matched impedances. (Figure 14.25 volts across the 75 Ω load.33 µW. Strangely enough.end freq 5. This 0. WAVEGUIDES 529 Bear in mind. The tube wall provides distributed inductance. 14.500E01 Here. indicating that the load “appears” as a 300 Ω impedance from the source’s perspective where it connects to the transmission line. • When operated at a frequency corresponding to a standing wave of 1/4wavelength along the transmission line. that this only works for 50 MHz and its oddnumbered harmonics.2) v(1) v(2) v(3) .000E01 v(1) 1.5 volt drop across the source’s 300 Ω internal impedance yields a power ﬁgure of 833. twowinding transformer: Transmission line v1 1 0 ac 1 sin rsource 1 2 300 t1 2 0 3 0 z0=150 td=5n rload 3 0 75 .000E01 v(3) 2. of course.2)) and the line’s input (v(2)). the line’s characteristic impedance necessary for impedance transformation must be equal to the square root of the product of the source’s impedance and the load’s impedance. metal tube. the 150 Ω line would have to lengthened or shortened accordingly so that it was exactly 1/4 wavelength long. demonstrating how this phenomenon of impedance transformation is fundamentally different in principle from that of a conventional. This technique of impedance matching is often used to match the differing impedance values of transmission line and antenna in radio transmitter systems. the exact same line can also match a 75 Ω load to a 300 Ω source. The use of an impedance “transformer” 1/4 wavelength in length provides impedance matching using the shortest conductor length possible. because the transmitter’s frequency is generally wellknown and unchanging. while the empty space between the tube walls provide distributed capacitance: Figure 14.8.14. we see the 1volt source voltage equally split between the 300 Ω source impedance (v(1.8 Waveguides A waveguide is a special form of transmission line consisting of a hollow.67 .ac lin 1 50meg 50meg . the impedance values of source and load have been matched by the transmission line segment.print ac v(1. as indicated by voltage ﬁgure v(3).000E+00 v(2) 5. the same as the 0.66) • REVIEW: • A transmission line with standing waves may be used to match different impedance values if operated at the correct frequency(ies).2) 5.000E+07 v(1.
530 CHAPTER 14. Waveguide Waveguide Wave propagation Figure 14..67: Wave guides conduct microwave energy at lower loss than coaxial cables. TRANSMISSION LINES 1/4 λ Radio Transmitter .66: Quarter wave 150 Ω transmission line section matches 75 Ω line to 300 Ω antenna. Z0 = 75 Ω . Z0 = 150 Ω Dipole antenna 300 Ω Impedance "transformer" Figure 14... ..
both electric and magnetic ﬁelds are perpendicular (transverse) to the direction of wave travel. all transmission lines function as conduits of electromagnetic energy when transporting pulses or highfrequency waves. waveguides are considerably simpler than twoconductor cables – especially coaxial cables – in their manufacture and maintenance. At microwave signal frequencies (between 100 MHz and 300 GHz). waveguides are useless as electrical transmission lines. (Figure 14. However. the waveguide itself acting as nothing more than a “director” of the energy rather than as a signal conductor in the normal sense of the word. and it is the dominant mode of wave propagation where the crosssectional dimensions of the transmission line are small compared to the wavelength of the signal. directing the waves as the banks of a river direct a tidal wave. Along the length of a normal transmission line. In a sense. because waveguides are singleconductor elements. Below such frequencies.68) TEM mode Magnetic field Wave propagation Electric field Magnetic field Both field planes perpendicular (transverse) to direction of signal propagation.68: Twin lead transmission line propagation: TEM mode. Moisture is not as severe a problem in waveguides as it is within coaxial cables. All electromagnetic waves consist of electric and magnetic ﬁelds propagating in the same direction of travel. or of the consistency of the dielectric material. This mode of wave propagation can exist only where there are two conductors. When functioning as transmission lines. but perpendicular to each other. though. This is known as the principal mode. since the only dielectric in a waveguide is air.14. or TEM (Transverse Electric and Magnetic) mode. either. the propagation of electrical energy down a waveguide is of a very different nature than the propagation of electrical energy down a twoconductor transmission line.8. Lines small enough in crosssectional dimension to maintain TEM mode signal propagation .” Waveguides may be thought of as conduits for electromagnetic energy. where the wavelength approaches the crosssectional dimensions of the waveguide. With only a single conductor (the waveguide’s “shell”). and so waveguides are often spared the necessity of gas “ﬁlling. Figure 14. twoconductor transmission lines of any substantial length operating in standard TEM mode become impractical. there are no concerns with proper conductortoconductor spacing. WAVEGUIDES 531 Waveguides are practical only for signals of extremely high frequency.
a deadended waveguide may also res . 1/4λ in physical length). though. which is nothing more than two openended stub wires of appropriate length. It is at these high frequencies that waveguides become practical. Sometimes these coupling elements take the form of a dipole. and suffer from large. similar in principle to a “whip” antenna.70) In some cases.69: Waveguide (TE) transverse electric and (TM) transverse magnetic modes. and a full discussion of this is subject well beyond the scope of this book. especially when terminated by a shortcircuit or an opencircuit. the coupler is a single stub (a halfdipole.69) Magnetic field Magnetic field Electric field TE mode Electric field Wave propagation TM mode Magnetic flux lines appear as continuous loops Electric flux lines appear with beginning and end points Figure 14. at these short wavelengths there exist other modes of propagation that are not as “lossy. TRANSMISSION LINES for microwave signals tend to have low voltage ratings. (Figure 14. but still be perpendicular to the other ﬁeld. Signals are typically introduced to and extracted from waveguides by means of small antennalike coupling devices inserted into the waveguide.532 CHAPTER 14. such as a class of vacuum tube devices called inductive output tubes (the socalled klystron tube falls into this category). Whichever ﬁeld remains transverse to the direction of travel determines whether the wave propagates in TE mode (Transverse Electric) or TM (Transverse Magnetic) mode. The other ﬁeld will “loop” longitudinally to the direction of travel. Fortunately. parasitic power losses due to conductor “skin” and dielectric effects. Other times.” if a conductive tube is used rather than two parallel conductors. When an electromagnetic wave propagates down a hollow tube. only one of the ﬁelds – either electric or magnetic – will actually be transverse to the wave’s direction of travel.71 below) Just as transmission lines are able to function as resonant elements in a circuit. a “cavity” formed of conductive material may intercept electromagnetic energy from a modulated beam of electrons. having no contact with the beam itself: (Figure 14. or a short loop of wire terminated on the inside surface of the waveguide: (Figure 14. Many variations of each mode exist for a given waveguide.
The inductive output tube (IOT) coaxial output cable RF signal input electron beam toroidal cavity RF power output DC supply Figure 14. WAVEGUIDES 533 Waveguide Waveguide Coupling "stub" Coaxial cable Coupling loop Coaxial cable Figure 14.71: Klystron inductive output tube.8.70: Stub and loop coupling to waveguide.14. .
72) Figure 14. dust. it functions as a unidirectional antenna.534 CHAPTER 14. Inductive output tubes use toroidshaped cavity resonators to maximize the power transfer efﬁciency between the electron beam and the output cable. A few more tincan antennae may be seen in the background. . Although this can is of cardboard (paper) construction. being nonconductive. one of them a “Pringles” potato chip can. “Real” waveguide antennae use similar barriers to physically enclose the tube. TRANSMISSION LINES onate at particular frequencies. screws. To this end. A cavity’s resonant frequency may be altered by changing its physical dimensions.4 GHz signal in an “802. The following photograph shows a homemade waveguide formed from a tin can. and other physical contaminants from entering the waveguide. its metallic inner lining provides the necessary conductivity to function as a waveguide. Some of the cans in the background still have their plastic lids in place.11b” computer communication network.72: Cantenna illustrates stub coupling to waveguide. cavities with movable plates. and other mechanical elements for tuning are manufactured to provide coarse resonant frequency adjustment. The plastic. the device is called a cavity resonator. where the signal wavelength approaches the crosssectional dimensions of the waveguide. If a resonant cavity is made open on one end. The coupling element is a quarterwave stub: nothing more than a piece of solid copper wire about 11/4 inches in length extending from the center of a coaxial cable connector penetrating the side of the can: (Figure 14. They are practical only for signals of extremely high frequency. does not interfere with the RF signal. yet allow electromagnetic energy to pass unimpeded. • REVIEW: • Waveguides are metal tubes functioning as “conduits” for carrying electromagnetic waves. When used as such. used as an antenna for a 2. but functions as a physical barrier to prevent rain. snow.
twoconductor transmission line is of the TEM (Transverse Electric and Magnetic) mode.14. TEM mode is only possible with two conductors and cannot exist in a waveguide. depending on which ﬁeld (electric or magnetic) is perpendicular (transverse) to the direction of wave travel. . or TM (Transverse Magnetic). Wave travel along a standard. where both ﬁelds are oriented perpendicular to the direction of travel. WAVEGUIDES 535 • Wave propagation through a waveguide may be classiﬁed into two broad categories: TE (Transverse Electric).8. • A deadended waveguide serving as a resonant element in a microwave circuit is called a cavity resonator. sending or receiving RF energy to/from the direction of the open end. • A cavity resonator with an open end functions as a unidirectional antenna.
TRANSMISSION LINES .536 CHAPTER 14.
My request to review the draft for the next edition of their book was met with disinterest on their part. paving the way for a rewarding career and fascinating hobby. Even though the particular text I was using had been in print and in popular use for a couple of years. there were plenty of texts in print. highquality information into the hands of my students. Their selﬂess assistance played a key role in my own studies. that adage is true. they claimed my complaint was the ﬁrst they’d ever heard. Sure. and those that were still being printed were quite expensive. Contacting the publisher proved to be an exercise in futility. Over the years. but the really good books seemed a bit too heavy on the math and the less intimidating books omitted a lot of information I felt was important. Some of the best books were out of print. but a secondary goal was to make the book as affordable as possible. Finding a suitable alternative was more difﬁcult than I had imagined. My primary goal was to put readable. The goal was to copyright the text – so as to protect my authorship – but expressly allow anyone to distribute and/or modify the text to suit their own needs with a minimum of legal encumbrance. Worse yet were the many incorrect answers in the back of the book to selected problems.Appendix A1 ABOUT THIS BOOK A1. More than that.1 Purpose They say that necessity is the mother of invention. I decided to make it “open” following the same development model used in the making of free software (most notably the various UNIX utilities released by the Free Software Foundation. I decided to make the book freely available. So. . and I resolved to ﬁnd an alternative text. My students were daily frustrated with the many typographical errors and obscure explanations in this book. I had experienced the beneﬁt of receiving free instruction and encouragement in my pursuit of learning electronics from many people. It was out of frustration that I compiled Lessons in Electric Circuits from notes and ideas I had been collecting for years. whose fame is growing even as I write). At least in the case of this book. This willful and formal revoking of 537 . . I was forced to use a substandard textbook during my ﬁrst year of teaching. As an industrial electronics instructor. Adding insult to injury was the $100+ price. and the Linux operating system. including several teachers of mine in elementary and high school. having spent much time at home struggling to comprehend the material within. If only I could extend the gift of their help by giving to other people what they gave to me .
rather than to allow the student to learn on their own through a truly exploratory process. The GPL. ﬁre. less speciﬁc copyleft Licenses began appearing within the free software community. is . but anyone has the freedom to change it. feel free to use this as a reference manual. as I had been with errorridden textbooks from major publishers. ABOUT THIS BOOK standard distribution limitations under copyright is whimsically termed copyleft. is intended to copyleft works of computer software. I guaranteed that no instructor would be limited by a text insufﬁcient for their needs. and although its introductory language is broad enough to cover works of text. editing it as you feel necessary if you come across a useful piece of information. The ﬁrst such License I applied to my work was the GPL – General Public License – of the Free Software Foundation (GNU). Anyone can “copyleft” their creative work simply by appending a notice to that effect on their work. labwork is the traditionally accepted venue for this type of learning. It must be mentioned that although I strive to maintain technical accuracy in all of this book’s content.2 The use of SPICE One of the best ways to learn how things work is to follow the inductive approach: to observe speciﬁc instances of things working and derive general conclusions from those observations. however. When other. explosion. The next chapter covers this process in more detail. For the beginning student of electronics. if you pass it on to someone else. and when things go wrong there’s no one to ask for help. Electricity maims and kills without provocation. etc. but only with circuits powered by small batteries where there is no risk of electric shock. A1. The inductive approach. and deserves the utmost respect.538 APPENDIX A1. learn what you can from this book. leveraging my efforts to suit variant and individual requirements. In “copylefting” this text. Having taught myself most of the electronics that I know. For the instructor or electronics professional. its wording is not as clear as it could be for that application. although in many cases labs are designed by educators to reinforce principles previously learned through lecture or textbook reading. or DSL) as the ofﬁcial notice for my project. and anyone else whose modiﬁcations are contained in your version). In science education. and you must ensure that whoever you give the text to is aware of their freedom to similarly share and edit the text. then apply those principles to speciﬁc instances that the student may or may not be able to explore by themselves. the original author. I appreciate the sense of frustration students may have in teaching themselves from books. as useful as it is. you will be giving them something better than what you received. adding or editing to your heart’s content. covering the ﬁne legal points in great detail. The only “catch” is this: if you plan to distribute your modiﬁed version of this text. I’m sure this book in its initial form will not satisfy everyone. Most textbooks seem to approach the task of education from a deductive perspective: tell the student how things are supposed to work. not everyone has the means or opportunity to set up a laboratory in their own homes. the subject matter is broad and harbors many potential dangers. but several Licenses already exist. I chose one of them (the Design Science License. I strongly encourage experimentation on the part of the reader. Highpower electric circuits should be left to the care of trained professionals! The Design Science License clearly states that neither I nor any contributors to this book bear any liability for what is done with its contents. Although electronic components are typically inexpensive. Then. you must give credit where credit is due (to me.
current. they should be able to understand how to use it themselves. a virtue complementing the charitable philosophy of this book very nicely. and a host of others too numerous to mention. I discovered this when I started to learn a computer program called SPICE. the reader can immediately see for themselves that what the author describes is indeed true. Another advantage to including computer analyses in a textbook is the empirical veriﬁcation it adds to the concepts presented. Without demonstrations. The following is a list of various free computer software used to make this book. Authors. However. • SPICE circuit simulation program – too many contributors to mention. I made a discovery: SPICE could be used within a textbook to present circuit simulations to allow students to “observe”the phenomena for themselves. and hopefully in a gentle enough way that it doesn’t create confusion. Demonstrations also serve to clarify the meaning of the text with concrete examples. In learning how to use this powerful tool. With demonstrations.3 Acknowledgements First. computer simulation is an excellent alternative. Furthermore. however. This way. .A1. There may be more ﬂashy (graphic) circuit simulation programs in existence. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 539 hard to ﬁnd in the pages of a book. SPICE is introduced early in volume I (DC) of this book series. frequency. a chapter in the Reference volume (volume V) contains an overview of SPICE with many example circuits. like all human beings. • Nutmeg postprocessor program for SPICE – Wayne Christopher. in seeing SPICE used over and over again. etc. Richard Stallman. but SPICE is free. I also wish to thank those whose opensource software development efforts have made this endeavor all the more affordable and pleasurable. textbooks don’t have to be this way. are liable to err and/or communicate poorly. • Vim text editor – Bram Moolenaar and others. • TEX text processing system – Donald Knuth and others. is that it is only as good as the authority in which it is placed and the accuracy of interpretation through which it is understood. trusting that what has been written is indeed accurate. It is a textbased piece of software intended to model circuits and provide analyses of voltage. providing a perfectly safe means of experimentation on their own computers with circuit simulations of their own design. The problem with faith. A1. the reader is left to take the author’s statements on faith. • Xcircuit drafting program – Tim Edwards. the readers could learn the concepts inductively (by interpreting SPICE’s output) as well as deductively (by interpreting my explanations). of course. whose patience during those many and long evenings (and weekends!) of typing has been extraordinary. I wish to thank my wife. Although nothing is quite as good as building real circuits to gain knowledge in electronics.3. For those wishing to learn more. and the respective programmers: • GNU/Linux Operating System – Linus Torvalds.
many thanks to my parents and those teachers of mine who saw in me a desire to learn about electricity. Constantin Zeldovich. Tony Kuphaldt.) Appreciation is also extended to Robert L.com)) for providing encouragement. April 2002 “A candle loses nothing of its light when lighting another” Kahlil Gibran . Thanks to Michael Stutz for drafting his Design Science License. and who kindled that ﬂame into a passion for discovery and intellectual adventure.andamooka. Bernard Grob’s second edition of Introduction to Electronics I. ABOUT THIS BOOK • Texinfo document formatting system – Free Software Foundation. and a wider audience for the online version of this book. constructive criticism. Thanks also to David Sweet (website: (http://www. Thanks to the staff of the Bellingham Antique Radio Museum. Boylestad.lightandmatter. A • LTEX document formatting system – Leslie Lamport and others. and to Richard Stallman for pioneering the concept of copyleft. I honor you by helping others as you have helped me. Washington for a very informative tour of their expanded (50 kW) facilities as well as their vintage transmitter equipment. (Free for personal and academic use. • Gimp image manipulation program – too many contributors to mention. Other important texts in my electronics studies include the 1939 edition of The “Radio” Handbook. and to make the ﬁrst effort in contributing to its form and content. who were generous enough to let me terrorize their establishment with my camera and ﬂash unit. I wish to speciﬁcally thank Jeffrey Elkner and all those at Yorktown High School for being willing to host my book as part of their Open Book Project.org)) and Ben Crowell (website: (http://www. Similar thanks to Jim Swartos and KARI radio in Blaine. • Winscope signal analysis software – Dr. and Forrest Mims’ original Engineer’s Notebook. whose ﬁrst edition of Introductory Circuit Analysis taught me more about electric circuits than any other book. Last but certainly not least.540 APPENDIX A1.
If you wish to modify this book in any way. 541 . except as specifically described below. information concerning how you may be contacted. In addition.1 How to contribute to this book As a copylefted work. read or otherwise interpret and/or execute the Work is unrestricted. The only “catch” is that credit must be given where credit is due. All rights to the Work are reserved by the Author. the Design Science License: Permission is granted to modify or sample from a copy of the Work.see Section 7 (‘‘NO WARRANTY’’) below. perform. producing a derivative work. this book is open to revision and expansion by any interested parties.Appendix A2 CONTRIBUTOR LIST A2. talk about it. because the Work comes WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY . Your right to operate. This is a copyrighted work: it is not in the public domain! If you wish to cite portions of this book in a work of your own. you do so at your own risk. distribute and modify copies of the Work. you must follow the same guidelines as for any other copyrighted work. Here is a sample from the Design Science License: The Work is copyright the Author. you must document the nature of those modiﬁcations in the “Credits” section along with your name. This License describes the terms and conditions under which the Author permits you to copy. and ideally. just as you would any copyrighted material under copyright law. Again. you may refer to the Work. and to distribute the derivative work under the terms described in the section for distribution above. and (as dictated by ‘‘fair use’’) quote from it. however.
org . in any way. (c) Appropriate authorship credit is given: for the differences between the Work and the new derivative work. so that its name or title can not be confused with the Work. Minor contributions (typo corrections. Major contributions are listed by individual name with some detail on the nature of the contribution(s). just smaller in the sense of less text changed. it is recommended that you submit any revisions or expansions to the original author (Tony R. and resources to make this a better book! A2. Any and all contributions are gratefully accepted.2 Credits All entries arranged in alphabetical order of surname.” it is in no way inferior to the effort or value of a “major” contribution. I am indebted to all those who have given freely of their own knowledge.1 Tony R. but we would all stand to beneﬁt from your contributions if your ideas were incorporated into the online “master copy” where all the world can see it. some error corrections. welcome to modify this book directly by editing your own personal copy. authorship is attributed to you.tux. or with a version of the Work.2. Kuphaldt • Date(s) of contribution(s): 1996 to present • Nature of contribution: Original author.) are listed by name only for reasons of brevity. derivative work is published under the terms of this License. time. of course. date. while the material sampled or used from the Work remains attributed to the original Author. Kuphaldt). Please understand that when I classify a contribution as “minor. You are. • Contact at: liec0@lycos. • Contact at: jstarck@yhslug.2 Jason Starck • Date(s) of contribution(s): MayJune 2000 • Nature of contribution: HTML formatting. Given the complexities and security issues surrounding the maintenance of ﬁles comprising this book. (b) The derivative work is given a new name. A2.2. etc.542 APPENDIX A2.com A2. etc. CONTRIBUTOR LIST provided that the following terms are met: (a) The new. contact info. appropriate notice must be included with the new work indicating the nature and the dates of any modifications of the Work made by you.
describing how you contributed to the book. pdf. • Nature of contribution: Mini table of contents.pdf. added to. 10. • Nature of contribution: Chapter 13: AC motors. ps. Added ﬂoating captioned LaTeX ﬁgures for more booklike appearance of . Ch12. ScottT and LVDT subsections inserted. CREDITS 543 A2. Ch10.2.2.net . 02/2009. • Contact at: dcrunkilton(at)att(dot)net A2. all chapters except appedicies. chapter 13 • Contact at: bill(at)billsclockworks(dot)com A2. added to Air core transformers subsections chapter 9. html. 8.A2. See Devel/tutorial. 04/2005. 06/2006.6 Your name here • Date(s) of contribution(s): Month and year of contribution • Nature of contribution: Insert text here. • Nature of contribution: Chapters: all.4 Bill Stoddard. • Contact at: kzierhut(at)haascnc. 01/2006.clockHistory. www. 09/2005.2.“Running 3phase motors on 1phase”. gnuplot Fourier plots chapters 6.5 Kurt Zierhut • Date(s) of contribution(s): June 2011 • Nature of contribution: Construction of 3phase distributed motor windings.3 Dennis Crunkilton • Date(s) of contribution(s): April 2005 to present • Nature of contribution: SpiceNutmeg plots. latex. Added DoublyFed Induction Generator subsection. 01/2006. CH 13.com. • Nature of contribution: Chapter 13: AC motors.billsclockworks.2.com A2.2. • Nature of contribution: Broke “Special transformers and applications” section into subsections. 9.com • Date(s) of contribution(s): June 2005 • Nature of contribution: Granted permission to reprint synchronous westclox motor jpg’s. minor change. Incremented edition number to 6 for major format change.html. • Contact at: my email@provider. Reprinted by permission of Westclox History at www. 7.
Chapter 3: REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE “Voltage and current” section./ which only allow the passage of current in one direction. 02209. • Colin Creitz (May 2007) Chapters: several. (January 2005).eps. Chapter 5: REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R.eps 3phase transformer images. s/Alterantor/Alternator. • The students of Bellingham Technical College’s Instrumentation program. and C” section.eps. CONTRIBUTOR LIST A2.2. • Jeff DeFreitas (March 2006)Improve appearance: replace ”/” and ”/” various chapters.eps. (Across voltage across the resistor/ Voltage across the resistor).Typographical error correction in “ Parallel R. (02083. change Vic to Vir above resistor in image) (January 2005). • Duane Damiano (February 2003) Pointed out magnetic polarity error in DC generator illustration. 02053.544 APPENDIX A2. s/will be drive it/will drive it/. s/750 kiloWatt/750 Watt.eps. 02515. s/phase shift makes complicates/phase shift complicates/. (January 2005). images: 12008.) .eps.com (June 2005) Typographical error correction in Volumes 1.eps. • Sean Donner (January 2005) Typographical error correction in “Series resistorinductor circuits” section. More on the “skin effect” section.eps. 02516.eps opendelta image. (corrected for the skin effect/corrected for the skin effect). 02074. Chapter 7: MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS. s/because we can to use/because we can use/.18/(Figure 8. 02258.5. s/capcitive/capacitive.eps.Typographical error correction in “Other waveshapes” section. • Ed Beroset (May 2002) Suggested better ways to illustrate the meaning of the preﬁx “poly” in chapter 10. (s/visaversa/vice versa/). s/in an open ended/in open ended/. (If we were restrict ourselves /If we were to restrict ourselves). s/it’s/its.2. text: s/(Figure 8. L.eps.eps. Correction of 02210. Corrections numerous chapters. Chapter 4: REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE (calculate the phase angle of the inductor’s reactive opposition / calculate the phase angle of the capacitor’s reactive opposition). various chapters. • Kieran Clancy (August 2006) Ch 4. • anonymous (September 2007) Typo correction in Basic AC chapter. L. 02062.3. 02257. AND C. • Bart Anderson (January 2004) Corrected conceptual and safety errors regarding Tesla coils. s/positive negative/positive or negative. 02068.18). s/dividing it my the/dividing it by the/. 02516. s/over 50 Kw use/over 50 kW use/.¡/itemi¿ • Michiel van Bolhuis (April 2007). 02263.Typographical error correction in “AC capacitor circuits” section. 02056.eps.7 Typo corrections and other “minor” contributions • lineallaboutcircuits.eps.eps. (which only allow passage current in one direction. • Richard Cooper (December 2005) Clariﬁcation of 02206.eps.
com (July 2007) Ch 1.com (April 2007) Transformer voltage regulation example error. clariﬁed text. 3plcs Ch 1.eps “Mutual inductance and basic operation” section. • earsintraining@allaboutcircuits. / from others within mixedfrequency signals. s/as a the/as the/.com (Sept 2007) Ch 1 .” • Puddy Tat@allaboutcircuits. (from others in within mixedfrequency signals.). • Mark D. ¨ • Elmo Mantynen (August 2006) Numerous corrections in chapters: Resonance.Typographical error correction in “What is a ﬁlter?” section. • machan@allaboutcircuits. • Dave@allaboutcircuits. • jut@allaboutcircuits. (dropping most of the voltage gets across series resistor / dropping most of the voltage across series resistor) • Brendan Finley (March 2007) Suggested content change in Transformers chapter. • Joseph Teichman (June 2002) Suggestion and technical help regarding use of PNG images instead of JPEG.eps.A2. s/Vary/Very/ . image: 12081. Zarella (April 2002) Suggested an improved explanation for the “average” value of a waveform.com (Aug 2007) Ch . “AC Phase” image 02022. • Steven Jones (November 2006) Suggested content addition in Power factor chapter.com (April 2007) Resonance. Parallel. added graph to “Calculating factor correction” section. • Don Stalkowski (June 2002) Technical help with PostScripttoPDF ﬁle format conversion. • recca02@allaboutcircuits. s/100/180 trigonometric sin function table.eps. image: 12105.com (Oct 2007) Ch 1 . Polyphase AC Circuits. • Bob Schmid (April 20027) Suggested we add Inductosyn. CREDITS 545 (January 2005).2.png not displayed in html. added to Ch12“AC metering”.3 . • Jim Palmer (May 2002) Typo correction on complex number math. Power Factor. missing formula.com (May 2007) Pointed out error in Form Factor deﬁnition and calculation. • Harvey Lew (February 2003) Typo correction in Basic AC chapter: word “circuit” should have been “circle”. Chapter 8: FILTERS. AC Motors. s/eight white/seven white/ . • rrgibbs@allaboutcircuits. . changed image 02305. • John Symonds (March 2002) Suggested an improved explanation of the unit “Hertz.
• ShaunManners@allaboutcircuits.com (Nov 2007) Ch 13 . • katterjohn@allaboutcircuits. • Unregistered@allaboutcircuits. image 02419. • UnregisteredF034@allaboutcircuits. numerous missing links.com (January 2010) Ch 13. • mike@allaboutcircuits. • The Electrician@allaboutcircuits. • zyne@allaboutcircuits. • Timothy Kingman (Feb 2008) Changed default roman font to newcent. • stacymckenna@allaboutcircuits.png 2nd row 1st column s/480/480m/.com (Feb 2008) Ch 1 . Corrected error concerning Tesla’s sale of AC induction motor. Change one million to to $65. s/Overspeed/Underspeed 02514. s/voltage lags currrent in an inductor/voltage lags current in a capacitor/ caption for 02073. s/useable/usable/. image 02046. s/the put the/to put the/ . sign of angle: s/36.com (August 2010) Ch 4 . image 12067.87/ • Skﬁr@allaboutcircuits.png 02420. • skﬁr@allaboutcircuits. Clariﬁcation: average responding metermovement is a d’Arsonval movement. s/formlated/formulated/ • Dave@allaboutcircuits. s/Series capacitor inductor/Series capacitor/.com (Feb 2008) Ch 2. s/proviced/provided/ . • whanes@allaboutcircuits.png • peter o@allaboutcircuits.000.com (August 2010) Ch 5.com (August 2010) Ch 4 .com (Feb 2011) Ch 13 . s/that its/that it is/.png 02420. • Dennis Crunkilton (Feb 2009) Ch 13 . s/ciruits/circuits/ . ¡backslash¿} to } in <tabular>.com (Feb 2011) Ch 4 .png. Clariﬁcation of light load as refering to less current.png • Unregistered Guest@allaboutcircuits.com (Feb 2009) Ch 2 . • Unregistered Guest@allaboutcircuits.87/36.com (April 2009) Ch 2 . s/prodces/produces/ s/the series resonant circuit looks inductive/the parallel resonant circuit looks inuctive/ . • Unregistered Guest@allaboutcircuits.546 APPENDIX A2.png moved single phase motors for polyphase to singnle phase tree.com (august 2010) Ch 6. CONTRIBUTOR LIST • Devin Bayer (September 2007) Correction to sml2html.com (August 2010) Ch 14 . s/by/be in ”More on AC polaity” section. • Imranullah Syed (Feb 2008) Suggested centering of uncaptioned schematics.com (Feb 2011) Ch 6 .com (November 2009) Ch 1.com (Feb 2008) Ch 9 . Error in the sign of value in sine table. • D Crunkilton (September 2010) Ch 13 .sed.
latex header ﬁle updated link to openbookproject.latex .2. CREDITS • Dcrunkilton (May 2011) Ch 13 .net/electricCircuits . s/corrrector/corrector/ 547 • Dcrunkilton (June 2011) hi.A2.
CONTRIBUTOR LIST .548 APPENDIX A2.
549 . so that anyone can copy and distribute the work or properly attributed derivative works. modify and distribute the work (the “reproductive. A3.” “adaptative. including the rights to copy. this Design Science License was written and deployed as a strategy for promoting the progress of science and art through reform of the environment. “Work” shall mean such an aforementioned work. distributed. A3. Deﬁnitions “License” shall mean this Design Science License. The License also applies to the output of the Work. and modiﬁed. in any medium.1 0. being an embodiment of the Work in some tangible medium. only if said output constitutes a “derivative work” of the licensed Work as deﬁned by copyright law. Whereas “design science” is a strategy for the development of artifacts as a way to reform the environment (not people) and subsequently improve the universal standard of living. The License applies to any work which contains a notice placed by the work’s copyright holder stating that it is published under the terms of this Design Science License. Preamble Copyright law gives certain exclusive rights to the author of a work.2 1. “Object Form” shall mean an executable or performable form of the Work. The intent of this license is to be a general “copyleft” that can be applied to any kind of work that has protection under copyright. while all copies remain under the same terms and conditions as the original. The idea of “copyleft” is to willfully revoke the exclusivity of those rights under certain terms and conditions.Appendix A3 DESIGN SCIENCE LICENSE Copyright c 19992000 Michael Stutz stutz@dsl.org Verbatim copying of this document is permitted.” and “distribution” rights). This license states those certain conditions under which a work published under its terms may be copied.
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130. 288 Boosting. 106 Analysis. 119 Bandelimination ﬁlter. 138 Antiresonance. 83 Capacitive coupling. 119 Alternating current. 83. 144 Arithmetic. 59. transformer connection. Wheatstone. 387. generator. unit. 83 Can stack. symbol for magnetic ﬂux density. 30 Analysis. 434 Capacitance. 78 Antinode. 219 Ampliﬁer. 332 Antenna. 1 Alternator. 166 Angle. symbol for wavelength. coaxial. 16 Amplitude. parallel. spectrum. RMS. 12 Amplitude. twisted pair. 246 C. 403 Bridge. 190 Boosting. 61. 288 Bucking. Wien. 188 Capacitive reactance. 200 Autotransformer. 162 Analysis. vector. with complex numbers. 390 Bridge. 120 Analysis. symbol for susceptance. 1 AC circuit analysis. peaktopeak. 202 Bandpass ﬁlter. 154 Cable. 110. 408 addaphase. 505 Antiresonance. AC voltage sources. 61. 332 400 Hz AC power. 12 Amplitude. 101 Analysis. 270 Absolute value. 42 Artifact. 202 Bandstop ﬁlter. symmetrical. 85. 462 Ammeter. 417. 2. peak. 500 ω. 175 Atomic clock. 3 Brushless DC motor. time domain. frequency domain. mechanical. 145 Biﬁlar winding. 391 Brush. magnetic. 154 Calculus. vector. 83 Cable. AC motor. 14 Amplitude. 246 Average amplitude. 378 Attenuation. induction. average. 84 553 . Fourier. stepper motor. symbol for capacitance. 435 Bode plot. AC voltage sources. 454. AC. shielded. 202 Bandwidth. 294 Alternator. 438 Bucking. measurement. 455 Admittance. 376 Bridge. transformer connection. aircraft. 483 Cable. 37 Angular velocity. 371 B. 433. 166 Analysis. 265 Amplitude. 14.Index λ. 120 AC motor. 153. stepper motor. 24. 85. 166 Analyzer. 391 Bridge. AC circuit. series. 246 Bridge circuit. 37 AC. MaxwellWien. seriesparallel. 199 Bandreject ﬁlter. 120 Analysis. 119 B. vector. 12 Amplitude. 367 Ampturn. resonant circuit. 262 Ampliﬁer. 166. symbol for angular velocity.
376 CT. 241 Doubly fed induction generator. 351 Complex number arithmetic. 491 choke. 76 EKG. 260 Color (musical). 9 Eddy current. 124 Equalizer. transformer heat rating. 237 Complex number. 96 Electromagnetic induction. 369 Crystal. 372 CT. Tesla. signal. 61. 378 Coaxial cable. 306 Current. 166 Dot convention. 16. 470 Eddy current loss. 119 Conservation of Energy. radian. 188 CPS. 257. 75. 157 Commonmode voltage. 387 Dielectric “loss”. 23. 417 Energy. multiplier. 153. 405 INDEX e. 234 Control transformer. phase. 156 Class. 2 Electromagnetic wave. 189 Equalizer. 221 Coil. swinging. 28. unit. symbol for voltage. synchro. line. music. null. 417 Encoder.554 Capacitor. crest. 121 Electrocardiograph. 65. symbol for instantaneous voltage. variable. 195 Capacitor. 17 Crossover network. transformer. 462 Duty cycle. primary. 409. kinetic. 369 Celsius. Law of. 21. 24 Direct current. decoupling. AC measurement. 402 Cathode Ray Tube. unit. 483 Coil. 81. 445 Eddy current clutch. symbol for frequency. 166 Domain. 221 Coil. 189 CRT. 224 f. 273 Detector. optical. 169. 367 Dipole antenna. form. 347 Farad. 445 Effective resistance. 61 Delta conﬁguration. 168. time. 219 Domain. 42 Conductance. 59. 8 D’Arsonval meter movement. 9 Electrolytic capacitor. secondary. 213 Chord. 1 Distortion. 16 Exciting current. atomic. 492 Dielectric heating. 257. magnetic. 165 Equivalent. frequency. 96 Diode. unit. 195 Degree vs. 9 Electric ﬁeld. 88 ECG. 220. 142. 476 Core loss. 387 . 269 Eddy current speedometer. 8 Centigrade. 376 Coupling. 196 Cycle. graphic. 83 Capacitor. 193. 96 Dielectric constant. 306 Cutoff frequency. 306 Derivative. control transformer. synchro. 372 Current. 17 Factor. 16 Decoupling capacitor. 17 Factor. 142 Counter. 8 Characteristic impedance. 278 Clock. 367 DC. 83 Fast Fourier Transform. potential. 124 Energy. AC to DC. 371 Encoder. inductor current. 85 Factor. 24 Electrostatic meter movement. 476 Current transformer. 83 E. 8 Crest. 12 Crest factor. power. 369 Capacitor. calculus. 164. 1 DC equivalent. 57.
resonant. 59 Hertz. 454. fundamental. 4 Inductive coupling. 458. 462 Graphic equalizer. symbol for instantaneous voltage. 156. 189 Filter “selectivity”. 275 Instantaneous value. 460 Induction. 343 Headphones. 271 Induction alternator. electric. 460 Induction motor. 119 Impedance matching. transformer. 8 Highpass ﬁlter. 6 Fundamental frequency. 57. 271 555 i. 57. 442 Induction motor. 332. 2phase. calculus. 239 . 38 I. induction. 59 Inductosyn. 453 Induction motor power factor corrector. 229. 162 Frequency. 454. 59 Inductance. 75 Henry. 196 Hot conductor. 75 Inductive reactance.INDEX Ferrite. 61 Inductor. 171 Function. 65. 32 Halfwave rectiﬁcation. 450 Induction motor. odd. 371 Isolation transformer. 202 Filter. 196 Filter. 294 Generator. 190 Filter. power factor. 449 Induction motor torque. single phase. polyphase. 458 Induction motor starting. 250 FFT. characteristic. 81. Lissajous. 273 Ironvane meter movement. 318. trigonometry. 193. lowpass. 2 Induction. 135. imaginary operator. 462 Induction motor. 17 Fourier analysis. 318 Harmonics and waveform symmetry. 467 Induction motor slip. wound rotor. 318 Harmonics. 344 Harmonic. 202 Filter. 96 Heating. 493 Inductance. 88 i. 374 Frequency. 188 Inductive heating. dielectric. 164. 452 Induction motor. 81 Integral. mutual. bandpass. 464 Induction motor. 181. 162 Fourier Transform. 87. 3. sine. 253 Impedance. bandreject. 23. 38 Impedance. leakage. 202 Filter. 374 Frequency meter. inductive. 165 Ground. 59 Imaginary number. speed control. 449. 388 Heating. 8. 435 Hyperbolic function. 508 G. NEMA designs. triplen. 199 Filter. cutoff. 156. 153. even vs. 169 Hall effect. 508 Fullwave rectiﬁcation. 462 Induction generator. 508 Harmonic sequence. 16. 442 Induction motor. 455 Induction motor synchronous speed. 27. 121 Figure. 156. 196 Frequency. 204 Form factor. repulsion start. 401 Inrush current. 462 Induction motor efﬁciency. 286 Hybrid stepper motor. symbol for conductance. 491 Incident wave. unit. highpass. magnetic. 202 Filter. 59. notch. 481 Induction motor. bandstop. 227. bandelimination. 101. 23. as sensitive null detector. symbol for current. symbol for instantaneous current. 450 Induction motor speed. 454. electromagnetic. 121 Field. 451 Induction motor. 43 Hysteresis. 387 Field. linear. 383 Harmonic. 119 Generator. 378 Filter. 205 Filter. 76 Ferroresonant transformer. 252. 181. 83 i. 64.
467 Motor. 267. 458. 360 Mho. 480 Motor. 453 Motor. 421 Motor. induction. repulsion. 19. 119 Microwaves. wound rotor. servo. 59 Lagging phase shift. 227. 21. 4 Natural impedance. induction. 492 Negative sequence. 469 Motor. 59. 450 Motor. power factor. transformer. 59. power factor. DC. synchronous. 466 Motor. 378 Litz wire. 421 Motor. 465 Motor. 435 motor. 384 Joule’s Law. shaded pole. 467 Motor. 449. 190 LVDT. 451 Motor. 453. 219 Magnetomotive force. 391 Meter movement. synchronous. 417 Magnetic ﬁeld. 481 Motor. 470 Motor. 101 L. 481 Motor. 59. 49. induction. 271 Lenz’s Law. 367 Meter. 19. 269 Leading phase shift. AC series. 219 Magnetostriction. induction. 101 Kirchhoff ’s Voltage Law. 277 Magnitude. polyphase system. stepper. 101 Keyboard. 234 Multiplier. repulsion start induction. 19. slip. reluctance. 302 Magnetizing current. 253 MaxwellWien bridge circuit. AC. 458 Motor. 531 MMF. power factor corrector. 83. 344 NEMA induction motor designs. 412 Motor. AC. nonlinear. AC servo. 24 Lowpass ﬁlter. variable reluctance. 480 Motor. stepper. brushless. 21. 408 Motor. hysteresis. 267 Lissajous ﬁgure. AC. 360 Leakage inductance. 83. 221 Mutual induction. 385 Loop antenna. speed control. symbol for inductance. rotating. 469 Motor. AC commutator. hybrid. 237 j. induction. 306 Linear induction motor. 428 motor. induction. permanentsplit capacitor. vector. switched reluctance. 479 Motor. AC. 445 Line. induction. 417. NEMA designs. 450 Motor. 476 Motor. 412 Motor. 38 Joule. 451 . 360 Laminated iron core. permanent magnet. speed. 467 Motor. universal. 431 Motor. 302. 532 KVL. 265 Magnetic encoder. synchronous speed. imaginary operator. 300 Motor. 452 Motor. 37 INDEX Motor. torque. 49 KCL. capacitorrun. 101 Klystron tube. 462 Motor. capacitorstart. 23. stepper. 460 Motor. 397 M. 369 Mutual inductance. piano. unit. 121 Magnetic ﬁeld.556 Isolation. efﬁciency. induction. variable reluctance. 302 Motor. variable reluctance. 438 Motor. 421 Motor/generator set. induction. 421 Motor. 219 Modulus. 460 linear variable differential transformer. splitphase. 221 Magnetic ampliﬁer. 229. 455 Motor. induction. 12 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem. AC. 10 Kirchhoff ’s Current Law. 75 Load. compensated series motor. 19. starting. 49. 449 Motor. stepper. symbol for mutual inductance. induction. 480 Motor.
88. 10 Ohm’s Law. 195 PT. angular measurement. 58. 202 Null detector. 344 Potential transformer. 76 Q. 291 Positive sequence. symbol for instantaneous power. 28. apparent. 9 PMMC. transformer. 296 Phase shift. 378 Q. 85 Radio. 277 Nola power factor corrector. negative. unit. 256. AC. 387 Number. 318. vs. transformer. 360 Power factor. 59 Power. 64. 78 Radio wave. 121 Period. 431 Permittivity. alternator. resonant circuit. “crossover”. 385 Power triangle. 352 Quality factor. 289. 352 Parallel analysis. 352 Primary coil. 49. 272 Pendulum. 378 Overtone. symbol for true power. rectangular. 19. induction motor. 64 Ohm. AC bridge. 352 Power. 417 Oscillation. 195 Peak. true. 232 557 . 387 Null meter. 20 Phase shift. 145 Q. 367 Polar notation. 531 Printed circuit board. 37 Polarity. 385 Power quality meter. 256. 38 Number. 156. 376 Pitch (musical). 353 Power. 76 Quartz crystal. 153 Norton’s Theorem.INDEX Network. 30 Phase. 12 Peaking transformer. vector. 10 Piezoelectricity. real. 387 Null detector. 294 Polyphase induction motor. 87. imaginary. 106 Parallel circuit rules. 119 Radian. 270 Power factor. antinode. 37 Notation. 37 Notch ﬁlter. 23. 44. 168. 296 Phase sequence. 387. 8 Permanent magnet moving coil. 286 Pole. 12 Peaktopeak. 101 Ohm’s Law . 41 Q. 352 Power. 124 Oscillator. quality factor. 101 Parallel LC resonance. 467 Nonsinusoidal. 27. 385 Nonsinusoidal. 9. 135 Oscilloscope. 351 Number. symbol for resistance. 351 Octave. 10 Nonlinear components. 508 p. symbol for reactive power. 396 Powdered iron core. 119 Optical encoder. 286 Node. 128 PCB. symbol for quality factor. polar. 452 Power quality. 23 Ratio. 189 Neutral conductor. 376 R. relative. 372 Potentiometer. 4 Principal mode. 38 Number. complex. reactive. scalar. 82 P. 367 Permanent magnet stepper motor. 61. 442 Polyphase. 239 Piano. 53. 20 Phase rotation. 505 Noise. 453. 372 Pythagorean Theorem. 492 Phase. 253 Notation. 21. transformer. 221 Primary transformer coil. 347 Power factor meter.
302 Rules. 154 SHM. 371 RootMeanSquare. 10. 531 Sound waves. 131 Seriesparallel analysis. 473 Selsyn. 144. 493 Reﬂectometer. 472 Sequence. 10. 126 Resultant vector. 351 ScottT transformer. 471 Selsyn. 204 Resonant frequency formula. 51 SPICE simulation. 371 Rotating magnetic ﬁeld. 169 Rectiﬁer. 126. 120 Servo motor. 344 Sequence. 76 Resistor. 520 Standing waves.558 Reactance. 142. synchro. 52 RF: Radio Frequency. parallel. series LC. AC. timedomain. 84 Reactance. 398 S. 421 Repulsion motor. 4 Selectivity. 125 Sine function. 154 Shielded cable. measurement. 219 Reluctance motor. frequency. 166. 352 Saturable reactor. 168 Reﬂected wave. seriesparallel. 283. 168 Simple Harmonic Motion. 158 Standard. 502 Star conﬁguration. 83.induction motor. 376 Standing wave ratio. 27. 37 Rectiﬁcation. shunt. 59. 374 Resonance. 38 Rectangular notation. inductive. 478 SCR. 77 Resistance. 385 Spectrum. 265. 119 Siliconcontrolled rectiﬁer. halfwave. 372 Resolver. 125 Siemens. 294. 181 Scalar number. 398. 16. 505 Resonance. AC. 136 Resonance. parallel LC. 78. multiplier. 77 Resistance. 521. 481 Resistance. 492 Reluctance. induction motor. effective. transformer and inductor. 306 INDEX . symbol for apparent power. parallel circuits. 481 Repulsion start induction motor. 6 Singlephase. 131 Resonance. 119 Reactance. 484 Ripple torque. 119 Resistance. 417 Resolver. mechanical. 271 Resonant ﬁlter. 6 Sine wave. 77. 126 Resonant frequency meter. 126 Resonance. 9 Spectrum analyzer. 369. harmonic. 101 Series LC resonance. series circuits. receiver. 462 Speedometer. 445 SPICE. capacitive. 16. phase. 101 RVDT. DC. 101 Series circuit rules. siliconcontrolled. 398. unit. 221 Secondary transformer coil. 367 Rectiﬁer. 205 Selfinductance. 494 Relative permittivity. 128 Resonance. fullwave. 74. 168 Secondary coil. 287 Square wave. 376 Resonate. eddy current. 478 Resonance. 110. 260. 101 Rules. differential transmitter. 417 RMS. 153 Skin effect. 171 Rectiﬁcation. 476 Shield grounding. 372 Resistor. 10 Sawtooth wave . 472 Selsyn. 219 Selsyn. 61 Real number. 296 Series analysis. 288 Sinusoidal. 385 Speed control. 262 Sawtooth wave. 458 Speed control. transmitter. 128 Splitphase.
420 Synchronous motor. 237 Transformer ratio. 213 Switch. mho. 269 Transformer core. Pythagorean. 435 Stepper motor. 352 Unit. 4 Transformer core. Fourier. 435 stepper motor. 16 Tube. 291 Theorem. voltamp. can stack. 449 Tank circuit. Celsius. 404 Twisted pair cable. Hertz. 270 Transformer inrush current. 253 Threephase. differential capacitance. 478 Synchro.INDEX static phase converter. 119 Unit. transmitter. 185. peaking. 412 Synchronous speed. primary and secondary. 268. 157 Timedomain reﬂectometer. 57. ohm. 81 VAR. Maximum Power Transfer. 8 Unit. 272 Transformer. ampturn. 250 Tap switch. 41 Theorem. 83 Unit. Thevenin’s. siemens. 473 Synchro. 232 Transformer. 352 . 275 Transformer isolation. 352 Unit. 302. 472 Synchronous condenser. 431 Stepper motor. joule. 384 Unit. CPS. voltampreactive. 343 TrueRMS meter. 456 Stepper motor. 224 559 Transformer coils. 243 Tuner circuit. 426 Stepper motor. 8 Unit. 476 Synchro. 232 Transformer. 125. 119 Unit. induction motor. 472 Synchro. 332. 434 Stepper motor. stepup. 396 Transductor. differential transmitter. variable reluctance. 10 Triangle wave . 483 Triangle wave. 260 Tesla. Nikola. hybrid. tap. 219 Unit. ferroresonant. 8 Unit. 291 Threewire DC system. 289. 421. 119 Unit. 480 v. 265 Transformer. variable. 253 Theorem. 4. permanent magnet. radio. powdered iron. 185. 119 swinging choke. 168 Transmission line. 135. 250 Transformer. 59 Unit. instantaneous. vacuum. ScottT. 207 TwinT circuit. henry. farad. 245 Switched reluctance motor. 260. 352 Universal AC motor. control transformer. ScottT. 289 Timbre. 408. 494 TM mode. 59. 265 Transform. receiver. Norton’s. 243 Value. unit. 421 SWR. 532 TEM mode. symbol for instantaneous voltage. 531 Tesla Coil. laminated. unit. resolver. 232 Transformer. 162 Transformer. Superposition. 397 Transistor. 433. 442 Theorem. 154 Unit. 532 Transducer. 253 Theorem. biﬁlar winding. 428 Superposition Theorem. 291 Surge impedance. 253 Thevenin’s Theorem. 520 Synchro. 244. 478 transformer. 181 Triangle. 352 Vacuum tube. 353 Triplen harmonics. power. 471 Synchro. Centigrade. 8 Unit. 245 TE mode. watt. stepdown. 83 VA. 398 Synchro (selsyn). 493 Susceptance.
158 Wave. 37 Velocity factor. 65. 10. 37 Vector magnitude. 225 Wire. 10. 428 Variable transformer. 119 Zero sequence. 351 Vector amplitude.” AC. phase. 500 Weston meter movement. sine. 181 Wave. 64. 16 Wheatstone bridge. 237 Voltage. 244. 119 Z. 268 Voltamp. 352 Voltage “polarity. Litz . 460 INDEX X. 318 Waveform. 306 Y. 391 Winding. 87. square. 397 Variac. primary. 28. 377 Y conﬁguration. secondary. triangle. 491 Vibrating reed frequency meter. 37 Vector length. 225 Winding. electromagnetic. absolute value. 367 Wagner earth. 294. 119 Xtal. commonmode. 84. symbol for reactance. 88. 24 Wave. 181 Waveform symmetry and harmonics. 421 Variable reluctance stepper motor. 421. 37 Vector modulus. 344 . 306 Voltmeter. 286 Voltage regulation. 352 Voltampreactive. unit. 153 Waveform. 87. 53. 10. sinusoidal. 30 Vector sum. symbol for admittance. 248 Voltage. 37 Vector phase shift.560 Variable capacitor. 44. 374 Voltamp. 402 Variable reluctance motor. 352 Wave. symbol for impedance. nonsinusoidal. 52 Vector. 376 Wien bridge circuit. 181. 75 Wound rotor induction motor. 61. 306 Voltage. 6 Wave. unit. transmission line. sawtooth. 247 Vector. line. 529 Wavelength. 64. 153 Waveguide. 30 Vector angle. unit. 393 Watt.
INDEX . 561 .