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Heat Engines and Refrigerators
569
Work into Heat and Heat into Work
DEMO: Purchase from www.APDF.com
FICiURE
to remove the watermark
Turning work into heat is easy. Take two rocks out of the ocean and rub them together vigorously until both are warmer. This is a mechanical interaction in which work increases the thermal energy of the rocks, or W + LlEtb. Then toss both back into the ocean, where they return to their initial temperature as thermal energy is transferred as heat from the slightly warmer rocks to the colder water (LlEtb + Qc). FICiURE 19.3 is the energytransfer diagram for this process.
NOTE ~ Energytransfer
19.3 Work can be transformed into heat with 100% efficiency.
Hot reservoir
TH
diagrams show the "work pipe" entering or leaving the
system from the side. <II The conversion of work into heat is 100% efficient. That is, all of the energy supplied to the system as work W is transferred into the ocean as heat Qc. This perfect transformation of work into heat can continue as long as there is motion. (It was this continual production of heat energy in the boring of cannons that Count Rumford recognized as being in conflict with the caloric theory.) But the reversetransforming heat into workisn't so easy. FICiURE 19.4 shows an isothermal process in which the temperature remains constant because the heat energy from the flame is used to do the work of lifting the mass. Mtb = 0 in an isothermal expansion, so the first law is W,= Q (19.4)
Cold reservoir
Tc
FICiURE 19.4 An isothermal process transforms heat into work, but only as a onetime event.
The energy that is transferred into the gas as heat is transformed with 100% efficiency into work done by the gas as it lifts the mass. So why did we just say that transforming heat into work isn't as easy as transforming work into heat? There's a difference. In Figure 19.3, where we transformed work into heat, the system returned to its initial state. We can repeat the process over and over, continuing to transform work into heat as long as there is motion. But Figure 19.4 is a onetime process. The gas does work once as it lifts the piston, but then the gas is no longer in its iuitial state. We cannot repeat the process. Extracting more and more work from the device of Figure 19.4 requires lifting the piston higher and higher until, ultimately, it reaches the end of the cylinder. To be practical, a device that transforms heat into work must return to its initial state at the end of the process and be ready for continued use. You want your car engine to turn over and over as long as there is fuel. Perhaps Figure 19.4 is just a bad idea for turning heat into work. Perhaps some other device can tum heat into work continuously. Interestingly, no one has ever invented a "perfect engine" that transforms heat into work with 100% efficiency and returns to its initial state so that it can continue to do work as long as there is fuel. Of course, that such a device has not been invented is not a proof that it can't be done. We'll provide a proof shortly, but for now we'll make the hypothesis that the process of FlCiURE 19.5 is somehow forbidden. Notice the asymmetry between Figures 19.3 and 19.5. The perfect transformation of work into heat is permitted, but the perfect transformation of heat into work is forhidden. This asymmetry parallels the asymmetry of the two processes in Figure 19.2. In fact, we'll soon see that the "perfect engine" of Figure 19.5 is forbidden for exactly the same reason: the second law of thermodynaruics.
The gas does work by lifting the piston. Afterward, the gas is no longer in its initial state.
Flame
FICiURE 19.5 There are no perfect engines that turn heat into work with 100% efficiency.
19.2 Heat Engines and Refrigerators
The steam generator at your local electric power plant works by boiling water to produce highpressure steam that spins a turbine (which then spins a generator to produce electricity). That is, the steam pressure is doing work. The steam is then condensed to liquid water and pumped back to the boiler to start the process again. There are two crucial ideas here. First, the device works in a cycle, with the water returning to its
570
CHAPTER
19 . Heat Engines and Refrigerators initial conditions once a cycle. Second, heat is transferred to the water in the boiler, but heat is transferred out of the water in the condenser. Car engines and steam generators are examples of what we call heat engines. A heat engine is any closedcycle device that extracts heat QH from a hot reservoir, does useful work, and exhausts heat Qc to a cold reservoir. A closedcycle device is one that periodically returns to its initial conditions, repeating the same process over and over. That is, all state variables (pressure, temperature, thermal energy, and so on) return to their initial values once every cycle. Consequently, a heat engine can continue to do useful work for as long as it is attached to the reservoirs. FIGURE 19.6 is the energytransfer diagram of a heat engine. Unlike the forbidden ''perfect engine" of Figure 19.5, a heat engine is connected to both a hot reservoir and a cold reservoir. You can think of a heat engine as "siphoning off' some of the heat that moves from the hot reservoir to the cold reservoir and transforming that heat into worksome heat, but not all. Because the temperature and thermal energy of a heat engine return to their initial values at the end of each cycle, there is no net change in Eth: (any heat engine, over one full cycle) (19.5)
The steam turbine in a modern power plant is an enormous device. Expanding steam does work by spinning the turbine.
The energytransfer of a heat engine.
FIGURE 19.6
diagram
1. Heat energy QR is transferred from the hot reservoir (typically burning fuel) to the system. Hot reservoir QH Heat
B!R
Consequently, the first law of thermodynamics for a full cycle of a heat engine is (~Eth)not = Q  W, = O. Let's define Wout to be the useful work done by the heat engine pe r cycle. The net heat transfer per cycle is Qnot = QH  Q6 hence the first law applied to a heat engine is Wout
=
t
••
2. Part of the
energy is used
Qnet = QH  Qc
(work per cycle done by a heat engine)
(19.6)
to do useful work Woo,"
engine
~W""
This is just energy conservation. The energy transferred into the engine (QH) and energy transferred out of the engine (Qc and Wout) have to balance. The energytransfer diagram of Figure 19.6 is a pictorial representation of Equation 19.6.
NOTE ~ Equations 19.5 and 19.6 apply ouly to afull cycle of the heat engine. They are not valid for any of the individual processes that make up a cycle. ...
COldre~:~ 3. The remaining energy Qc = QH  Wout is exhausted to the cold reservoir (cooling
water or the air) as waste heat.
For practical reasons, we would like an engine to do the maximum amount of work with the minimum amount of fuel. We can measure the performance of a heat engine in terms of its thermal efficiency 71(lowercase Greek eta), defined as Wout QH what you get what you had to pay
71==
(19.7)
Using Equation 19.6 for Wout, we can also write the thermal efficiency as (19.8)
is the fraction of heat energy that is transformed into useful
FIGURE 19.7
1)
work.
illustrates the idea of thermal efficiency. Aperfect heat engine would have 'T/perlect = 1. That is, it would be 100% efficient at converting heat from the hot reservoir (the burning fuel) into work. You can see from Equation 19.8 that a perfect engine would have no exhaust (Qc = 0) and would not need a cold reservoir. Figure 19.5 has already suggested that there are no perfect heat engines, that an engine with 71 = 1 is impossible. A heat engine must exhaust waste heat to a cold reservoir. It is energy that was extracted from the hot reservoir but not transformed to useful work. Practical heat engines, such as car engines and steam generators, have thermal efficiencies in the range 71"" 0.10.5. This is not large. Can a clever designer do better, or is this some kind of physical limitation?
FIGURE 19.7
19.2 . Heat Engines and Refrigerators
511
STOP TO THINK 19.'
TH
100J
~I~Tc
. .~
TH
Rank in order, from largest to smallest, the work
TH
WOllt
performed by these four heat engines.
TH
200 J
90J
,~
(c)
~
160J
I~(b)
~I~Tc
~t;
(d)
r;
(a)
A HeatEngine
Example
To illustrate how these ideas actually work, FIGURE '9.8 shows a simple engine that converts heat into the work of lifting mass M. The gas does work on the environment while lifting the mass during step (b) (W, is positive, W is negative). A steadily increasing force from the environment, perhaps due to a piston rod, does work on the gas during the compression of step (e) (W is positive, W, is negative).
FIGURE 19.8 (a)
A simple heat engine transforms heat into work.
(b)
Heat is transferred into the gas :from the burning fuel.
The gas does work by lifting the mass in an isobaric
expansion.
(e) The piston is locked and the mass is removed. The heat is turned off.
(d) The gas cools back to
room temperature at
constant volume.
Then the piston is unlocked.
(e) A steadily increasing external force steadily raises the pressure in an isothermal compression until the pressure has been
restored to its initial value.
Gas
f
out
heating and expansion Constantvolume cooling Isothermal compression
Isobaric
The net effect of this multistep process is to convert some of the fuel's energy into the useful work of lifting the mass. There has been no net change in the gas, which has returned to its initial pressure, volume, and temperature at the end of step (e). We can start the whole process over again and continue lifting masses (doing work) as long as we have fuel. FIGURE 19.9 shows the heatengine process on a pV diagram. It is a closed cycle because the gas returns to its initial conditions. No work is done during the isochoric process, and, as you can see from the areas under the curve, the work done by the gas to lift the mass is greater than the work the environment must do on the gas to recompress it. Thus this heat engine, by burning fuel, does net work per cycle: Wnet = Woo  Wext = (W,)H2 + (W,h ....lNotice that the cyclical process of Figure 19.9 involves two cooling processes in which heat is transferred from the gas to the environment. Heat energy is transferred
FIGURE 19.9 The closedcycle pV diagram for the heat engine of Figure 19.8. p
\,/
Isotherm
The mass is lifted in QH
\.xt.
Qc
. ~./..
1.;
an i~baric
expansion.
~/Mass
removed
Qc The gas
undergoes
constant./ :3 ~ _ volu~e An external force cOmpresses the cooling. ,",ga:::sc:b:::a=cko_to=it:::s_.:ciru:::·.::tia1=c",on:::di=·.::tio=n"s,. _V
572
CHAPTER
19 . Heat Engines and Refrigerators
from hotter objects to colder objects, so the system must be connected to a cold reservoir with Tc < Tg" during these two processes. A key to understanding heat engines is that they require both a heat source (burning fuel) and a heat sink (cooling water, the air, or something at a lower temperature than the system).
EXAMPLE 19.1
Analyzing a heat engine I
Analyze the heat engine of FIGURE 19.10 to determine (a) the net work done per cycle, (h) the engine's thermal efficiency, and (c) the engine's power output if it runs at 600 rpm. Assume the gas is monatomic.
FIGURE 19.10 p(kPa)
Process 3 ..... 1: The gas returns to its initial state with volume V,. The work done by the gas during an isothermal process is
(W,)31 =
nRTln(t,)
(0.0160 mol)(S.31 l/moIK) (300 K) 441
The heat engine of Example 19.1.
= =
In(~)
'/ ,
200
300
100
o +,rrr.rV o 200 400 600
MODEL
.
3 
K isotherm
W. is negative because the environment does work on the gas to compress it. An isothermal process has l1Eth = 0 and hence, from the first law,
Q is negative because the gas must be cooled as it is compressed to keep the temperature constant. (em')
a. The net work done by the engine during one cycle is WOll' (W,)'2 =
+
(W,)"
+
(W,)31
=
361
The gas follows a closed cycle consisting of three distinct processes, each of which was studied in Chapters 16 and 17. For each of the three we need to determine the work done and the heat transferred. To begin, we can use the initial conditions at state 1 and the idealgas law to determine the number of moles of gas:
SOLVE
As a consistency check, notice that the net heat transfer is
p, V, (200 X 10' Pa)(2.0 X 104 m3) n = RT, = (S.31 l/moIK) (300 K) = 0.0160 mol Process 1 ..... 2: The work done by the gas in the isobaric expansion is
(W,)'2 = p!1V = =
Equation 19.6 told us that a heat engine must have WOll' Q~" = and we see that it does. b. The efficiency depends not on the net heat transfer but on the heat QH transferred into the engine from the flame. Heat is transferred in during process 1 ..... 2, where Q is positive, and out during processes 2 ..... 3 and 3 ..... 1, where Q is negative. Thus
QH
=
Q'2 = 2001
(200 X 103 Pa)(6.0
 2.0) X 104 m3
Qc =
IQ231 + IQ311
=
1641
SOl
We can use the idealgas law at constant pressure to find T2 = (V2/V,)T, = 3T, = 900 K. The heat transfer during a constantpressure process is Q'2 = nCp!1T
= =
Notice that QH  Qc = 361 = Wou" In this heat engine, 200 1 of heat from the hot reservoir does 36 1 of useful work. Thus the thermal efficiency is 11 =
Q;;
Wou'
=
361 200 J = O.IS or IS%
(0.0160 mol)(20.S 2001
l/moIK) (900 K  300 K)
This heat engine is far from being a perfect engine! c. An engine running at 600 rpm goes through 10 cycles per second. The power output is the work done per second: pout = (work per cycle) X (cycles per second)
=
ASSESS
where we used Cp = ~R for a monatomic ideal gas. Process 2 + 3: No work is done in an isochoric process, so (W,ln = O. The temperature drops back to 300 K, so the heat transfer is Q23 = nCv!1T
= =
3601/s = 360W
(0.0160 mol)(12.5 1201
l/moIK) (300 K  900 K)
where we used Cv = ~R.
Although we didn't need Q""" verifying that Q"", = WOll' was a check of selfconsistency. Heatengine analysis requires many calculations and offers many opportunities to get signs wrong. However, there are a sufficient number of selfconsistency checks so that you can almost always spot calculational errors if you checkfor them.
19.2 . Heat Engines and Refrigerators
513
Let's think about this example a bit more before going on. We've said that a heat engine operates between a hot reservoir and a cold reservoir. Figure 19.10 doesn't explicitly show the reservoirs. Nonetheless, we know that heat is transferred from a hotter object to a colder object. Heat QH is transferred into the system during process I + 2 as the gas warms from 300 K to 900 K. For this to be true, the hotreservoir temperature TH must be "'900 K. Likewise, heat Qc is transferred from the system to the cold reservoir as the temperature drops from 900 K to 300 K in process 2 + 3. For this to be true, the coldreservoir temperature Tc must be "'"300 K. So we really don't know what the reservoirs are or their exact temperatures, but we can say with certainty that the hotreservoir temperature TH must exceed the highest temperature reached by the system and the coldreservoir temperature Tc must be less than the coldest system temperature.
Refrigerators
Your house or apartment has a refrigerator. Very likely it has an air conditioner. The purpose of these devices is to make air that is cooler than its environment even colder. The first does so by blowing hot air out into a warm room, the second by blowing it out to the hot outdoors. You've probably felt the hot air exhausted by an air conditioner compressor or coming out from beneath the refrigerator. At first glance, a refrigerator or air conditioner may seem to violate the second law of thermodynamics. After all, doesn't the second law forbid heat from being transferred from a colder object to a hotter object? Not quite: The second law says that heat is not spontaneously transferred from a colder to a hotter object. A refrigerator or air conditioner requires electric power to operate. They do cause heat to be transferred from cold to hot, but the transfer is "assisted" rather than spontaneous. A refrigerator is any closedcycle device that uses external work Win to remove heat Qc from a cold reservoir and exhaust heat QH to a hot reservoir. FIGURE19.11 is the energytransfer diagram of a refrigerator. The cold reservoir is the air inside the refrigerator or the air inside your house on a summer day. To keep the air cold, in the face of inevitable "heat leaks," the refrigerator or air conditioner compressor continuously removes heat from the cold reservoir and exhausts heat into the room or outdoors. You can think of a refrigerator as "pumping heat uphill," much as a water pump lifts water uphill. Because a refrigerator, like a heat engine, is a cyclical device, f).Eth = O.Conservation of energy requires (19.9) To move energy from a colder to a hotter reservoir, a refrigerator must exhaust more heat to the outside than it removes from the inside. This has significant implications for whether or not you can cool a room by leaving the refrigerator door open. The thermal efficiency of a heat engine was defined as "what you get (useful work Wont)" versus "what you had to pay (fuel to supply QH)." By analogy, we define the coefficient of performance K of a refrigerator to be K = Qc = what you get what you had to pay (19.10)
FIGURE 19.11 The energytransfer diagram of a refrigerator. The amount of heat exhausted to the hot reservoir is larger than the amount of heat extracted from the cold reservoir.
This air conditioner transfers heat energy from the cool indoors to the hot exterior.
Win
~(~'"
What you get, in this case, is the removal of heat from the cold reservoir. But you have to pay the electric company for the work needed to run the refrigerator. A better refrigerator will require less work to remove a given amount of heat, thus having a larger coefficient of performance. A perfect refrigerator would require no work (Win = 0) and would have Kpenoc' = 00. But if Figure 19.11 had no work input, it would look like Figure 19.2c. That device was forbidden by the second law of thermodynamics because, with no work input, heat would move spontaneously from cold to hot.
(~IOc .t.. .
'.
Cold reservoir
Tc
External work is used to remove heat from a cold reservoir and exhaust heat to a hot reservoir.
574
CHAPTER
19 . Heat Engines and Refrigerators
We noted in Chapter 18 that the second law of thermodynamics can be stated several different but equivalent ways. We can now give a third statement: Second law. informal statement coefficient of performance K = 00. #3 There are no perfect refrigerators with
Any real refrigerator or air conditioner must use work to move energy from the cold reservoir to the hot reservoir, hence K < 00.
No Perfect Heat Engines
We hypothesized above that there are no perfect heat enginesthat is, no heat engines like the one shown in Figure 19.5 with Qc = 0 and 11 = 1. Now we're ready to prove this hypothesis. FIGURE 19.12 shows a hot reservoir at temperature TH and a cold reservoir at temperature Te. An ordinary refrigerator, one that obeys all the laws of physics, is operating between these two reservoirs.
FIGURE 19.12 A perfect engine driving an ordinary refrigerator would be able to violate the second law of thermodynamics. Perfect engine
Refrigerator
Cold reservoir
Perfect engine
+
Refrigerator
Heat transfer from cold to hot with no outside assistance
Suppose we had a perfect heat engine, one that takes in heat QH from the hightemperature reservoir and transforms that energy entirely into work Wout• If we had such a heat engine, we could use its output to provide the work input to the refrigerator. The two devices combined have no connection to the external world. That is, there's no net input or net output of work. If we built a box around the heat engine and refrigerator, so that you couldn't see what was inside, the only thing you would observe is heat being transferred with no outside assistance from the cold reservoir to the hot reservoir. But a spontaneous or unassisted transfer of heat from a colder to a hotter object is exactly what the second law of thermodynaruics forbids. Consequently, our assumption of a perfect heat engine must be wrong. Hence another statement of the second law of thermodynaruics is: Second law. informal statement efficiency 11 = 1. #4 There are no perfect heat engines with
Any real heat engine must exhaust waste heat Qc to a cold reservoir.
Unanswered
Questions
We noted that this chapter would be an exercise in logical deduction. By using only energy conservation and the fact that heat is not spontaneously transferred from cold to hot, we've been able to deduce that • Heat engines and refrigerators exist. • They must use a closedcycle process, with (~Eth)net = O. • There are no perfect heat engines. A heat engine must exhaust heat to a cold reservoir. • There are no perfect refrigerators. A refrigerator must use external work.
19.3 . IdealGas Heat Engines
515
This is a good start, but it leaves some unanswered questions. For example, • Witb good design, can we make a heat engine whose thermal efficiency 11 approaches I? Or is there an upper limit lImax tbat cannot be exceeded? • If 11 has a maximum value, what is it? • Likewise, is tbere an upper limit Kmax for tbe coefficient of performance of a refrigerator? If so, what is it? There is, indeed, an upper limit to 11 tbat no heat engine can exceed and an upper limit to K that no refrigerator can exceed. We'll be able to establish an actual value for lImax and find tbat, for many practical engines, 11m"" is distressingly low.
STOPTO THINK 19.2 It's a hot day and your air conditioner is broken. Your roommate says, "Let's open tbe refrigerator door and cool this place off." Will this work?
a. Yes.
b. No.
c. It might, but it will depend on how hot tbe room is.
19.3 IdealGas Heat Engines
We will focus on heat engines that use a gas as tbe working substance. The gasoline or diesel engine in your car is an engine tbat alternately compresses and expands a gaseous fuelair mixture. Engines such as steam generators tbat rely on phase changes will be deferred to more advanced courses. A gas heat engine can be represented by a closedcycle trajectory in the pV diagram, such as tbe one shown in FIGURE 19.13a. This observation leads to an important geometric interpretation of the work done by the system during one full cycle. You learned in Section 19.1 that tbe work done by tbe system is tbe area under tbe curve of a p V trajectory. As FIGURE I 9.13b shows, tbe work done during a full cycle is tbe work Wexpand done by tbe system as it expands to Vmax plus tbe work Wcompress done by tbe system as it is compressed back to Vmin' That is,
Wont
=
Wexp",d

I W,ompre" I =
area inside tbeclosed curve
(19.11)
FIGURE 19.13 The work W within the curve. (a) p
cs~'· 0'\
OUI
done by the system during one full cycle is the area enclosed
(b) As the gas expands, the work Wcxpand done by the gas is positive. As the gas is compressed, the work Wcompre .. done by p p The net work done by the gas is the area enclosed within the curve.
p
+ ~ i
v
i
'
i
.
Wcompress
.
I
I
v
W~porut>O
I
<!
a
Q
v
v
You can see that the net work done by a gas heat engine during one full cycle is the area enclosed by the p V curve for the cycle. A thermodyoamic cycle with a larger enclosed area does more work than one with a smaller enclosed area. Notice tbat tbe gas must go around tbe pV trajectory in a clockwise direction for Wou, to be positive. We'll see later tbat a refrigerator uses a counterclockwise (ccw) cycle.
IdealGas
Summary
We've learned a lot about ideal gases in the last three chapters. All gas processes obey tbe idealgas law pV = nRT and the first law of tbermodynamics ss; = Q  w,.
576
CHAPTER
19 . Heat Engines and Refrigerators
Table 19.1 summarizes the results for specific gas processes. This table shows w" the work done by the system, so the signs are opposite those in Chapter 17.
TABLE 19.1
Summary of idealgas processes Gas law p/r.
=
Process Isochoric Isobaric Isothermal Adiabatic
WorkW, 0 p!!.V nRTln(V,IV,) pVln(V,IV,) (p,V,  p;V,)/(l nCy!!.T area under curve ")I)
HeatQ nCy!!.T nCp!!.T Q= 0 W,
Thermal !!'Efh=Q
energy
p,IT,
Vir. = V,IT, p;V, = p,V,
PiV? = PrY?
!!'Efh=QW, !!'Efh = 0 !!'Efh= W,
1jV?l = TrV?l Any p;V/r. = p,V,lT,
!!.Eth = nCy!!.T
There is one entry in this table that you haven't seen before. The expression
TABLE 19.2
Properties diatomic gases Monatomic
of monatomic
and
w:
s
= PrVr  PtYi
Diatomic ~nRT ~R ~R
1 "]I
(work in an adiabatic process)
(19.12)
Efh Cy Cp
")I
~nRT ~R ~R
i = 1.67
3=
1.40
for the work done in an adiabatic process follows from writing W, =  ss; = nCvilT, which you learned in Chapter 17, then using sr = il(pV)lnR and the definition of "]I. The proof will be left for a homework problem. You learned in Chapter 18 that the thermal energy of an ideal gas depends only on its temperature. Table 19.2 lists the thermal energy, molar specific heats, and specific heat ratio "]I = CplCv for monatomic and diatomic gases.
A Strategy for HeatEngine
B.12,B.13
Problems
PhYsics
Activ
The engine of Exarnple 19.1 was not a realistic heat engine, but it did illustrate the kinds of reasoning and computations involved in the analysis of a heat engine. A basic strategy for analyzing a heat engine follows.
MODEL
Identify each process in the cycle. Draw the p V diagram of the cycle.
VISUALIZE SOLVE
There are several steps in the mathematical analysis.
• Use the idealgas law to complete your knowledge of n, p, V, and T at one point in the cycle. • Use the idealgas law and equations for specific gas processes to determine p, V, and T at the beginning and end of each process. • Calculate Q, W" and ss; for each process. • Find WOllt by adding W, for each process in the cycle. If the geometry is simple, you can confirm this value by finding the area enclosed within the p V curve. • Add just the positive values of Q to find QH' • Verify that (ilEth)net = O.This is a selfconsistency check to verify that you haven't made any mistakes. • Calculate the thermal efficiency 'T/ and any other quantities you need to complete the solution.
ASSESS
Is (ilEth)net = O? Do all the signs of W, and Q make sense? Does 'T/ have a reasonable value? Have you answered the question?
19.3 . IdealGas Heat Engines
511
EXAMPLE 19.2
Analyzing a heat engine II
Process 2 ..... 3 is an isochoric process, so (W,h, = 0 and !J.E'}3 = Q23 = nCv!J.T
A heat engine with a diatomic gas as the working substance uses the closed cycle shown in FIGURE 19.14. How much work does this engine do per cycle, and what is its thermal efficiency? The pV diagram for the heat engine of Example 19.2.
FIGURE 19.14 p(atm)
= 15.19
X 10' J Now !J.V is nega
Notice that !J.T is negative. Process 3 ..... 4 is an isobaric compression. tive, so (W,)34 and Q34 = nCp!J.T = 7.09
=
\\0'
4 ,
............
p!J.V = 2.03
X 10' J X 10' J
Then!J.Eth = Q34  (W,)34 = 5.06 X 10' J. Process 4 + 1 is another constantvolume process, so again (W,)4' = 0 and !J.E4, = Q4' = nCv!J.T
3
= 5.06 X 10' J
L.._r.V(m')

/
300 K isotherm
The results of all four processes are shown in Table 19.3. The net results for Woot, Qoot, and (!J.Eth)not are found by summing the columns. As expected, Woot = Qoot and (!J.Eth)not = o.
TABLE 19.3
MODEL
Processes 1 ..... 2 and 3 ..... 4 are isobaric. Processes 2 ..... 3 and 4 ..... 1 are isochoric. The p V diagram has already been drawn.
Energy transfers in Example 19.2. All energies X 10' J W, 6.08 0 2.03 0 4.05
VISUALIZE
Process I ..... 2 2 ..... 3 3 ..... 4 4 ..... I Net
Q
21.27 15.19 7.09 5.06 4.05
!J.Eth
15.19 15.19 5.06 5.06 0
SOLVE We know the pressure, volume, and temperature at state 4. The nmnber of moles of gas in the heat engine is
n=
P4V4
= (101,300 Pa)(1.0m
(8.31 J/molK)
3
)
= 40.6 mol
RT4
(300 K)
piT = constant during an isochoric process and V IT = constant during an isobaric process. These allow us to find that T, = T3 = 900 K and T2 = 2700 K. This completes our knowledge of the state variables at all four comers of the diagram. Process 1 ____. is an isobaric expansion, so 2 (W,)'2 = p!J.V = (3.0 X 101,300 Pa)(2.0 m") = 6.08 X 10' J where we converted the pressure to pascals. The heat transfer during an isobaric expansion is Q'2 = nCp!J.T = (40.6 mol)(29.1
=
The work done during one cycle is WOllt = 4.05 X 10' J. Heat enters the system from the hot reservoir during processes 1 ..... 2 and 4 ..... I, where Q is positive. Summing these gives QH = 26.33 X 10' J. Thus the thermal efficiency of this engine is
,., =
Q; =
Woot
4.05 X 10' J 26.33 X 10' J = 0.15 = 15%
J/molK)
(1800 K)
21.27 X 10' J
where Cp = :)R for a diatomic gas. Then, using the first law,
!J.E'2 = Q'2 (W,)'2 =
ASSESS The verification that Woot = Qoot and (!J.Eth)not = 0 gives us great confidence that we didn't make any calculational errors. This engine may not seem very efficient, but n is quite typical of many real engines.
15.19 X 10' J
We noted in Example 19.1 that a heat engine's hotreservoir temperature TH must exceed the highest temperature reached by the system and the coldreservoir temperature Tc must be less than the coldest system temperature. Although we don't know what the reservoirs are in Example 19.2, we can be sure that TH > 2700 Kand Tc < 300 K.
Inap
TO THINK 19.3
J What is the thermal efficiency of this heat engine?
p(Pa) 40,000
a. 0.10 b.0.50 c. 0.25 d.4 e. Can't tell without knowing Qc.
20,000
O+,,v
o
(m")
0.1
0.2
578
CHAPTER
19 . Heat Engines and Refrigerators
The Brayton Cycle
The heat engines of Examples 19.1 and 19.2 have been educational but not realistic. As an example of a more realistic heat engine we'll look at the thermodynamic cycle known as the Brayton cycle. It is a reasonable model of a gas turbine engine. Gas turbines are used for electric power generation and as the basis for j et engines in aircraft and rockets. The Otto cycle, which describes the gasoline internal combustion engine, and the Diesel cycle, which, not surprisingly, describes the diesel engine, will be the subject of homework problems. FIGURE 19.15a is a schematic look at a gas turbine engine, and FIGURE 19.15b is the corresponding p Y diagram. To begin the Brayton cycle, air at an initial pressure p, is rapidly compressed in a compressor. This is an adiabatic process, with Q = 0, because there is no time for heat to be exchanged with the surroundings. Recall that an adiabatic compression raises the temperature of a gas by doing work on it, not by heating it, so the air leaving the compressor is very hot. The hot gas flows into a combustion chamber. Fuel is continuously admitted to the combustion chamber where it mixes with the hot gas and is ignited, transferring heat to the gas at constant pressure and raising the gas temperature yet further. The highpressure gas then expands, spinning a turbine that does some form of useful work. This adiabatic expansion, with Q = 0, drops the temperature and pressure of the gas. The pressure at the end of the expansion through the turbine is back to Pi but the gas is still quite hot. The gas completes the cycle by flowing through a device called a heat exchanger that transfers heat energy to a cooling fluid. Large power plants are often sited on rivers or oceans in order to use the water for the cooling fluid in the heat exchanger. This thermodynamic cycle, called a Brayton cycle, has two adiabatic processesthe compression and the expansion through the turbineplus a constantpressure heating and a constantpressure cooling. There's no heat transfer during the adiabatic processes. The hotreservoir temperature must be TH "" T3 for heat to be transferred into the gas during process 2 + 3. Similarly, the heat exchanger will remove heat from the gas only if Tc "" T,. The thermal efficiency of any heat engine is lI=Wou'=I_Qc
A jet engine uses a modified Braytoncycle.
FIGURE 19.15 A gas turbine engine follows a Brayton cycle.
(b) p(.tm)
Combustion
p
2§QH h
m::~~~
Cooling 4 (m')
QH
QH
Pmin Adiabatic
compression 1 tQc L,',V
v....
Heat is transferred into the gas only during process 2 + 3. This is an isobaric process, so QH = nCpf).T = nCp(T3 _ T2). Similarly, heat is transferred out only during the isobaric process 4 + 1. We have to be careful with signs. Q4' is negative because the temperature decreases, but Qc was defined as the amount of heat exchanged with the cold reservoir, a positive quantity. Thus (19.13) With these expressions for QH and Qc, the thermal efficiency is
lIBmytDn
= 1 _ 
T4 _ T,
T3 _ T2
(19.14)
This expression isn't useful unless we compute all four temperatures. Fortunately, we can cast Equation 19.14 into a more useful form. You learned in Chapter 17 that p Y' = constant during an adiabatic process, where "Y = CplCv is the specific heat ratio. If we use Y = nRTlp from the idealgas law, Y' = (nR)yT'p yo (nR)Y is a constant, so we can write pY' = constant as p(1')T'
=
constant
(19.15)
19.4 . IdealGas Refrigerators
519
Equation 19.15 is a pressuretemperature relationship for an adiabatic process. Because (T')"Y = T, we can simplify Equation 19.15 by raising both sides to the power VI'. Doing so gives (19.16) during an adiabatic process. Process 1 + 2 is an adiabatic process; hence
p/,y)/YT, =
PP
y)/YT
2
(19.17)
Isolating T, gives (19.18) If we define the pressure ratio
Tp as Tp
= Pm'/Pmio' then T, and T2 are related by
(19.19) The algebra of getting to Equation 19.19 was a bit tricky, but the final result is fairly simple. Process 3 + 4 is also an adiabatic process. The same reasoning leads to (19.20) If we substitute these expressions for 7JB=I=I1T4 T3T2 r (1y)/y
p
T,
and

T4 into
Equation 19.14, the efficiency is 2=1_~
T~'Y)/Y(T3 T3T2 T2)
T,
T(1y)/YT
p
3
T(1y)/YT
p
_
T3T2
FIGURE 19.16 The efficiency of a Brayton cycle as a function of the pressure ratio Tp. The efficiency
'1lBrayton
Remarkably, all the temperatures cancel and we're left with an expression that depends ouly on the pressure ratio. Noting that (1  1') is negative, we can make one final change and write 7JB= 1 1
T(y')/y
p
first grows quickly
rp =
as the pressure ratio is increased, reaching
70% 60%
= 50% at levels off.
10, then
(19.21)
50% 40% 30% 20% 10%
L
FIGURE 19.16 is a graph of the efficiency of the Brayton cycle as a function of the pressure ratio, assuming I' = 1.40 for a diatomic gas such as air. In Example 19.2 we found the thermal efficiency 7J = Wou/QHby explicitly computing Wout nd QH' Here, by contrast, we've determined the thermal efficiency of the a Brayton cycle by using the relationship between the initial and final temperatures during an adiabatic process. The price we pay for this simplified analysis is that we didn't find an expression for the work done by a heat engine following the Brayton cycle. To calculate the work, which you can do as a homework problem, there's no avoiding the stepbystep analysis of the problemsolving strategy.
0+0J...._rlrO"'152"'02'53'O
Tp
Any increase in efficiency beyond = 50% has to be weighed against the higher costs of a better compressor higher pressure that can achieve a much ratio.
19.4 IdealGas Refrigerators
Suppose we were to operate a Brayton heat engine backward, going ccw in the pV diagram. FIGURE 19.178, on the next page, (which you should compare to Figure 19.15a) shows a device for doing this. FIGURE 19.17b is its P V diagram, and FIGURE 19.17< is the energytransfer diagram. Starting from point 4, the gas is adiabatically compressed to increase its temperature and pressure. It then flows through a hightemperature heat exchanger where the gas cools at constant pressure from temperature T3 to T2. The gas then expands adiabatically, leaving it significantly colder at T, than it started at T4• It
580
CHAPTER
19 . Heat Engines and Refrigerators
FIGURE 19.17 A refrigerator that extracts heat from the cold reservoir and exhausts heat to the hot reservoir.
(b) p
completes the cycle by flowing through a lowtemperature heat exchanger, where it warms back to its starting temperature. Suppose that the lowtemperature heat exchanger is a closed container of air surrounding a pipe through which the engine's cold gas is flowing. The heatexchange process I + 4 cools the air in the container as it warms the gas flowing through the pipe. If you were to place eggs and milk inside this closed container, you would call it a refrigerator! Going around a closed p V cycle in a ccw direction reverses the sign of W for each process in the cycle. Consequently, the area inside the curve of Figure 19.17b is Win' the work done on the system. Here work is used to extract heat Qc from the cold reservoir and exhaust a larger amount of heat QH = Qe + Win to the hot reservoir. But where, in this situation, are the energy reservoirs? Understanding a refrigerator is a little harder than understanding a heat engine. The key is to remember that heat is always transferred from a hotter object to a colder object. In particular, • The gas in a refrigerator can extract heat Qefrom the cold reservoir temperature is lower than the coldreservoir temperature Te. Heat transferred from the cold reservoir into the colder gas. • The gas in a refrigerator can exhaust heat QH to the hot reservoir temperature is higher than the hotreservoir temperature TH• Heat transferred from the warmer gas into the hot reservoir. only if the gas energy is then only if the gas energy is then
QH High T heat exchanger cools gas.
2 ..
b
/
Adiabatic compression
These two requirements place severe constraints on the thermodynamics of a refrigerator. Because there is no reservoir colder than Te, the gas cannot reach a temperature lower than Te by heat exchange. The gas in a refrigerator must use an adiabatic expansion (Q = 0) to lower the temperature below Te. Likewise, a gas refrigerator requires an adiabatic compression to raise the gas temperature above TH• The reversed Brayton cycle of Figure 19.17b does, indeed, have two adiabatic processes. The adiabatic expansion lowers the temperature to Tj, then heat Qe is transferred from the cold reservoir to the gas during process 1 + 4. Consequently, the coldreservoir temperature must be Te ;;;:T4• Contrast this with the same cycle run clockwise (cw) as a heat engine, where we saw that the cold reservoir must be Te:5 t; Similar reasouing applies on the hot side. In order for heat QH to be transferred into the hot reservoir during process 3 + 2, the hotreservoir temperature must be TH :5 T2• This requirement of the hightemperature reservoir differs distinctly from the Brayton heat engine, which required TH ;;;: T3• FIGURE19.18 compares a Braytoncycle heat engine to a Braytoncycle refrigerator.
FIGURE 19.18 A Braytoncycle
comparison of a Braytoncycle heat engine to a Braytoncycle refrigerator.
heat engine toward THO heat engine T3 and Tc::S; T1" Braytoncycle refrigerator
p The:gas is warming
f \,
A Braytoncycle requires
TH ~
~"
2\\'~TH""T3
.~
These cooling coils are the refrigerator's hightemperature heat exchanger. Heat energy is being transferred from hot gas inside the coils to the cooler room air.
Tc""T,/
L,rv
The gas is cooling toward Teo The gas is warming toward
l~
Tc.
1904 . IdealGas Refrigerators
581
The important pointa point we will return to in the next sectionis that a Brayton refrigerator is not simply a Brayton heat engine running backward. To make a Brayton refrigerator you must both reverse the cycle and change the hot and cold reservoirs. Some heat engines cannot be converted to refrigerators under any circumstances. We'll leave it as a homework problem to show that the heat engine of Example 19.2, if run backward, is a total loser. Its energytransfer diagram, shown in FIGURE 19.19, shows work being done to transfer energy "downhill" even faster than it would move spontaneously from hot to cold! ...
NOTE ~
FIGURE 19.19 This is the energytransfer diagram if the heat engine of Example 19.2 is run backward.
Cold reservoir
Tc
EXAMPLE 19.3
Analyzing a refrigerator
Solving for T, gives T, = ( P4)0.40
A refrigerator using helium gas operates on a reversed Brayton cycle with a pressure ratio of 5.0. Prior to compression, the gas occupies 100 em' at a pressure of 150 kPa and a temperature of 23°C. Its volume at the end of the expansion is 80 em", What are the refrigerator's coefficient of performance and its power input if it operates at 60 cycles per second? The Brayton cycle has two adiabatic processes and two isobaric processes. The work per cycle needed to run the refrigerator is WID = QH  Qc; hence we can determine both the coefficient of performance and the power requirements from QH and Qc. Heat energy is transferred only during the two isobaric processes.
MODEL VISUALIZE FIGURE 19.20 shows the pV cycle. We know from the pressure ratio of 5.0 that the maximum pressure is 750 kPa. Neither V2 nor V, is known. FIGURE 19.20 A
p;
T4 =
(I5
(
)0.40
(250K)
=
476K = 203°C
The same analysis applied to the 2 ..... I adiabatic expansion gives T2 =
p,) (P'l
0.40
T, =
5
I) 0.40
(200 K) = 381 K = 108°C
Now we can use Cp = ~R = 20.8 J/molK for a monatomic gas to compute the heat transfers:
QH = Q'21 = nCp(T,
I
 T2)
=
(0.00722 mol) (20.8 J/molK)(95 K) = 14.3 J
Braytoncycle
refrigerator.
Qc =
=
IQ'41
=
nCp(T4  T,)
(0.00722 mol) (20.8 J/molK)(50 K) = 7.5 J
Thus the work input to the refrigerator is *in = QH  Qc = 6.8 J. During each cycle, 6.8 J of work are done on the gas to extract 7.5 J of heat from the cold reservoir. Then 14.3 J of heat are exhausted into the hot reservoir. The refrigerator's coefficient of performance is K = Qc = 7.5 J = 1.1 Wm 6.8 J The power input needed to run the refrigerator is
Ptn
To calculate heat we're going to need the temperatures the four comers of the cycle. First, we can use the conditions state 4 to find the number of moles of helium:
SOLVE n=
=
at of
J cycles J 6.8 cycle X 60 = 410; = 410W s
P4 V4 = 0.00722 mol RT4
Process I ..... 4 is isobaric; hence temperatnre T, is T, =
,,_;:T4
V,
=
(0.80)(250 K) = 200 K = 73°C
With Eqnation 19.16 we fonnd that the qnantity p(1>v>T remains constant dnring an adiabatic process. Helium is a monatomic gas with y = ~,so(1  ')1)/')1 = ~ = 0040. For the adiabatic compression 4 ..... 3,
ASSESS These are fairly realistic values for a kitchen refrigerator. You pay your electric company for providing the work *in that operates the refrigerator. The cold reservoir is the freezer compartment. The cold temperature Tc must be higher than T4 (Tc> 23°C) in order for heat to be transferred from the cold reservoir to the gas. A typical freezer temperature is 15°C, so this condition is satisfied. The hot reservoir is the air in the room. The back and underside of a refrigerator have heatexchanger coils where the hot gas, after compression, transfers heat to the air. The hot temperature TH must be less than T2 (TH < 108°C) in order for heat to be transferredjmm the gas to the air. An air temperatnre = 25°C under a refrigerator satisfies this condition.
1904 . IdealGas Refrigerators
581
The important pointa point we will return to in the next sectionis that a Brayton refrigerator is not simply a Brayton heat engine running backward. To make a Brayton refrigerator you must both reverse the cycle and change the hot and cold reservoirs. Some heat engines cannot be converted to refrigerators under any circumstances. We'll leave it as a homework problem to show that the heat engine of Example 19.2, if run backward, is a total loser. Its energytransfer diagram, shown in FIGURE 19.19, shows work being done to transfer energy "downhill" even faster than it would move spontaneously from hot to cold! ...
NOTE ~
FIGURE 19.19 This is the energytransfer diagram if the heat engine of Example 19.2 is run backward.
Cold reservoir
Tc
EXAMPLE 19.3
Analyzing a refrigerator
Solving for T, gives T, = ( P4)0.40
A refrigerator using helium gas operates on a reversed Brayton cycle with a pressure ratio of 5.0. Prior to compression, the gas occupies 100 em' at a pressure of 150 kPa and a temperature of 23°C. Its volume at the end of the expansion is 80 em", What are the refrigerator's coefficient of performance and its power input if it operates at 60 cycles per second? The Brayton cycle has two adiabatic processes and two isobaric processes. The work per cycle needed to run the refrigerator is WID = QH  Qc; hence we can determine both the coefficient of performance and the power requirements from QH and Qc. Heat energy is transferred only during the two isobaric processes.
MODEL VISUALIZE FIGURE 19.20 shows the pV cycle. We know from the pressure ratio of 5.0 that the maximum pressure is 750 kPa. Neither V2 nor V, is known. FIGURE 19.20 A
p;
T4 =
(I5
(
)0.40
(250K)
=
476K = 203°C
The same analysis applied to the 2 ..... I adiabatic expansion gives T2 =
p,) (P'l
0.40
T, =
5
I) 0.40
(200 K) = 381 K = 108°C
Now we can use Cp = ~R = 20.8 J/molK for a monatomic gas to compute the heat transfers:
QH = Q'21 = nCp(T,
I
 T2)
=
(0.00722 mol) (20.8 J/molK)(95 K) = 14.3 J
Braytoncycle
refrigerator.
Qc =
=
IQ'41
=
nCp(T4  T,)
(0.00722 mol) (20.8 J/molK)(50 K) = 7.5 J
Thus the work input to the refrigerator is *in = QH  Qc = 6.8 J. During each cycle, 6.8 J of work are done on the gas to extract 7.5 J of heat from the cold reservoir. Then 14.3 J of heat are exhausted into the hot reservoir. The refrigerator's coefficient of performance is K = Qc = 7.5 J = 1.1 Wm 6.8 J The power input needed to run the refrigerator is
Ptn
To calculate heat we're going to need the temperatures the four comers of the cycle. First, we can use the conditions state 4 to find the number of moles of helium:
SOLVE n=
=
at of
J cycles J 6.8 cycle X 60 = 410; = 410W s
P4 V4 = 0.00722 mol RT4
Process I ..... 4 is isobaric; hence temperatnre T, is T, =
,,_;:T4
V,
=
(0.80)(250 K) = 200 K = 73°C
With Eqnation 19.16 we fonnd that the qnantity p(1>v>T remains constant dnring an adiabatic process. Helium is a monatomic gas with y = ~,so(1  ')1)/')1 = ~ = 0040. For the adiabatic compression 4 ..... 3,
ASSESS These are fairly realistic values for a kitchen refrigerator. You pay your electric company for providing the work *in that operates the refrigerator. The cold reservoir is the freezer compartment. The cold temperature Tc must be higher than T4 (Tc> 23°C) in order for heat to be transferred from the cold reservoir to the gas. A typical freezer temperature is 15°C, so this condition is satisfied. The hot reservoir is the air in the room. The back and underside of a refrigerator have heatexchanger coils where the hot gas, after compression, transfers heat to the air. The hot temperature TH must be less than T2 (TH < 108°C) in order for heat to be transferredjmm the gas to the air. An air temperatnre = 25°C under a refrigerator satisfies this condition.
19.5 . The Limits of Efficiency
583
Suppose we have a perfectly reversible heat engine and a perfectly reversible refrigerator (the same device running backward) operating between a hot reservoir at temperature TH and a cold reservoir at temperature Te. Because the work Win needed to operate the refrigerator is exactly the same as the useful work WOllt done by the heat engine, we can use the heat engine, as shown in FIGURE 19.2Ib, to drive the refrigerator. The heat Qe the engine exhausts to the cold reservoir is exactly the same as the heat Qe the refrigerator extracts from the cold reservoir. Similarly, the heat QH the engine extracts from the hot reservoir matches the heat QH the refrigerator exhausts to the hot reservoir. Consequently, there is no net heat transfer in either direction. The refrigerator exactly replaces all the heat energy that had been transferred out of the hot reservoir by the heat engine. You may want to compare the reasoning used here with the reasoning we used with Figure 19.12. There we tried to use the output of a "perfect" heat engine to run a refrigerator but did not succeed.
A Perfedly
Reversible
Engine Has Maximum
Efficiency
Now we've arrived at the critical step in the reasoning. Suppose I claim to have a heat engine that can operate between temperatures TH and Te with more efficiency than a perfectly reversible engine. FIGURE 19.22 shows the output of this heat engine operating the same perfectly reversible refrigerator that we used in Figure 19.21b.
FIGURE 19.22 A heat engine more efficient than a perfectly reversible engine could be used to violate the second law of thermodynamics.
Superefficient
heat engine
+
Perfectly reversible
refrigerator
Heat transfer from cold to hot
Recall that the thermal efficiency and the work of a heat engine are
11 =
Q;
Wout
and
If the new heat engine is more efficient than the perfectly reversible engine it replaces, it needs less heat QH from the hot reservoir to perform the same work WOllt' If QH is less while Wout is the same, then Qe must also be less. That is, the new heat engine exhausts less heat to the cold reservoir than does the perfectly reversible heat engine. When this new heat engine drives the perfectly reversible refrigerator, the heat it exhausts to the cold reservoir is less than the heat extracted from the cold reservoir by the refrigerator. Similarly, this engine extracts less heat from the hot reservoir than the refrigerator exhausts. Thus the net result of using this superefficient heat engine to operate a perfectly reversible refrigerator is that heat is transferred from the cold reservoir to the hot reservoir without outside assistance. But this can't happen. It would violate the second law of thermodynamics. Hence we have to conclude that no heat engine operating between reservoirs at temperatures TH and Te can be more efficient than a perfectly reversible engine. This very important conclusion is another version of the second law:
584
CHAPTER
19 . Heat Engines and Refrigerators
Second law, informal statement #5 No heat engine operating between reservoirs at temperatures TH and Tc can be more efficient than a perfectly reversible engine operating between these temperatures. The answer to our question "Is there a maximum 'TI that cannot be exceeded?" is a clear "Yes!" The maximum possible efficiency 'TIm", is that of a perfectly reversible engine. Because the perfectly reversible engine is an idealization, any real engine will have an efficiency less than 'TImox. A similar argument shows that no refrigerator can be more efficient than a perfectly reversible refrigerator. If we had such a refrigerator, and if we ran it with the output of a perfectly reversible heat engine, we could transfer heat from cold to hot with no outside assistance. Thus:
Second law, informal statement #6 No refrigerator operating between reservoirs at temperatures TH and Tc can have a coefficient of performance larger than that of a perfectly reversible refrigerator operating between these temperatures.
Conditions
for a Perfectly Reversible
Engine
This argument tells us that 'TIm", and Km", exist, but it doesn't tell us what they are. Our final task will be to "design" and analyze a perfectly reversible engine. Under what conditions is an engine reversible? An engine transfers energy by both mechanical and thermal interactions. Mechanical interactions are pushes and pulls. The environment does work on the system, transferring energy into the system by pushing in on a piston. The system transfers energy back to the environment by pushing out on the piston. The energy transferred by a moving piston is perfectly reversible, returning the system to its initial state, with no change of temperature or pressure, only if the motion is frictionless. The slightest bit of friction will prevent the mechanical transfer of energy from being perfectly reversible. The circumstances under which heat transfer can be completely reversed aren't quite so obvious. After all, Chapter 18 emphasized the irreversible nature of heat transfer. If objects A and B are in thermal contact, with TA > TB, then heat energy is transferred from A to B. But the second law ofthermodynarnics prohibits a heat transfer from B back to A. Heat transfer through a temperature difference is an irreversible process. But suppose TA = TB. With no temperature difference, any heat that is transferred from A to B can, at a later time, be transferred from B back to A. This transfer wouldn't violate the second law, which prohibits ouly heat transfer from a colder object to a hotter object. Now you might object, and rightly so, that heat can't move from A to B if they are at the same temperature because heat, by definition, is the energy transferred between two objects at different temperatures. This is true, so let's consider a limiting case in which TA = TB + dT. The temperature difference is infinitesimal. Heat is transferred from A to B, but very slowly! If you later try to make the heat move from B back to A, the second law will prevent you from doing so with perfect precision. But because the temperature difference is infinitesimal, you'll be missing only an infinitesimal amount dQ of heat. You can transfer heat reversibly in the limit dT + 0, but you must be prepared to spend an infinite amount of time doing so. Thus the thermal transfer of energy is reversible if the heat is transferred infinitely slowly in an isothermal process. This is an idealization, but so are completely frictionless processes. Nonetheless, we can now say that a perfectly reversible engine must use only two types of processes: 1. Frictionless mechanical interactions with no heat transfer (Q = 0), and 2. Thermal interactions in which heat is transferred in an isothermal process (Mtb= 0).
19.6 . The Carnal Cycle
585
Any engine that uses only these two types of processes is called a Carnot engine. A Carnot engine is a perfectly reversible engine; thus it has the maximum possible thermal efficiency 'ljmax and, if operated as a refrigerator, the maximum possible coefficient of performance Km",.
19.6 The Carnot Cycle
No real engine is perfectly reversible, so a Carnot engine is an idealization. Nonetheless, an analysis of the Carnot engine will allow us to establish a maximum possible thermal efficiency that no real heat engine can exceed. The definition of a Carnot engine does not specify whether the engine's working substance is a gas or a liquid. It makes no difference. Our argument that a perfectly reversible engine is the most efficient possible heat engine depended only on the engine's reversibility. It did not depend on any details of how the engine is constructed or what it uses for a working substance. Consequently, any Carnot engine operating between T H and T c must have exactly the same efficiency as any other Carnot engine operating between the same two energy reservoirs. If we can determine the thermal efficiency of one Carnot engine, we'll know the efficiency of all Carnot engines. Because liquids and phase changes are complicated, we'll analyze a Carnot engine that uses an ideal gas.
Physjcs
Activ
8.14
The Carnot Cycle
The Carnot cycle is an idealgas cycle that consists of the two adiabatic processes (Q = 0) and two isothermal processes (~Eth = 0) shown in FIGURE 19.23. These are the two types of processes allowed in a perfectly reversible gas engine. As a Carnot cycle operates, 1. The gas is isothermally compressed while in thermal contact with the cold reservoir at temperature Tc. Heat energy Qc = I Qd is removed from the gas as it is compressed in order to keep the temperature constant. The compression must take place extremely slowly because there can be only an infinitesimal temperature difference between the gas and the reservoir. 2. The gas is adiabatically compressed while thermally isolated from the environment. This compression increases the gas temperature until it matches temperature TH of the hot reservoir. No heat is transferred during this process. 3. After reaching maximum compression, the gas expands isothermally at temperature TH• Heat QH = Q34 is transferred from the hot reservoir into the gas as it expands in order to keep the temperature constant. 4. Finally, the gas expands adiabatically, with Q = 0, until the temperature decreases back to Tc Work is done in all four processes of the Carnot cycle, but heat is transferred only during the two isothermal processes. The thermal efficiency of any heat engine is 'lj=Wout=I_Qc
FIGURE 19.23
The Carnot cycle is perfectly
reversible. P 3
Lv
QH
QH
We can determine 'ljCarnot y finding the heat transfer in the two isothermal processes. b Process 1 + 2: Table 19.1 gives us the heat transfer in an isothermal process at temperature Tc= (19.22)
586
CHAPTER
19 . Heat Engines and Refrigerators
VI > V2, so the logarithm on the right is positive. Q12 is negative because heat is transferred out of the system, but Qc is simply the amount of heat transferred to the cold reservoir: (19.23) Process 3 + 4: Similarly, the heat transferred in the isothermal expansion at temperature THis (19.24) Thus the thermal efficiency of the Carnot cycle is
'Ionnot
Qc Tc In(V"V2) = I  QH = I  TH In(V4IV ) 3
(19.25)
We can simplify this expression. During the two adiabatic processes,
TCV2,1 = THV3,1
and
(19.26)
An algebraic rearrangement gives
C V2 _ V3(TH)" 'l) Tc
and
(19.27)
from which it follows that VI
V2
V4
V3
(19.28)
Consequently, the two logarithms in Equation 19.25 cancel and we're left with the result that the thermal efficiency of a Carnot engine operating between a hot reservoir at temperature TH and a cold reservoir at temperature Tc is 1 Tc TH
71Camot
=
(Carnot thermal efficiency)
(19.29)
This remarkably simple result, an efficiency that depends only on the ratio of the temperatures of the hot and cold reservoirs, is Carnot's legacy to thermodynamics.
NOTE ~
Temperatures TH and Tc are absolute temperatures.
...
EXAMPLE 19.4
A Carnot engine
A Carnot engine is cooled by water at Tc = lOoC. What temperatnre must be maintained in the hot reservoir of the engine to have a thermal efficiency of 70%? The efficiency of a Carnot engine depends only on the temperatures of the hot and cold reservoirs.
MODEL SOLVE The thermal efficiency ranged to give 'IC=ot =
TH = 1ASSESS
Tc
'1)carnot
=
943 K = 670°C
A "real" engine would need a higher temperature than this to provide 70% efficiency because no real engine will match the Carnot efficiency.
I  TclTH can be rear
EXAMPLE 19.5
A real engine
The heat engine of Example 19.2 had a highest temperature of 2700 K, a lowest temperature of 300 K, and a thermal efficiency of 15%. What is the efficiency of a Carnot engine operating between these two temperatnres?
SOLVE
lIc=ot
=
I
T,;:
Tc
=
300 K I  2700 K = 0.89 = 89%
ASSESS
The thermodynantic cycle used in the example doesn't come anywhere close to the Carnot efficiency.
The Carnot efficiency is
19.6 . The Carnot Cycle
581
The Maximum
Efficiency
In Section 19.2 we tried to invent a perfect engine with 'T/ = 1 and Qc = O.We found
that we could not do so without violating the second law, so no engine can have
'T/ = 1. However, that example didn't rule out an engine with 'T/ = 0.9999. Further
analysis has now shown that no heat engine operating between energy reservoirs at temperatures TH and Tc can be more efficient than a perfectly reversible engine operating between these temperatures. We've now reached the endpoint of this line of reasoning by establishing an exact result for the thermal efficiency of a perfectly reversible engine, the Carnot engine. We can summarize our conclusions: Second law, informal statement #7 No heat engine operating between energy reservoirs at temperatures TH and Tc can exceed the Camot efficiency
'T/c"",o,=ITc TH
As Example 19.5 showed, real engines usually fall well short of the Carnot limit. We also found that no refrigerator can exceed the coefficient of performance of a perfectly reversible refrigerator. We'll leave the proof as a homework problem, but an analysis very similar to that above shows that the coefficient of performance of a Carnot refrigerator is
K Tc TH  Tc
Camot 
(Carnot coefficient of performance)
(19.30)
Thus we can state: Second law.. informal statement #8 No refrigerator operating between energy reservoirs at temperatures TH and Tc can exceed the Carnot coefficient of performance K
Camot

____!s_
TH Tc
EXAMPLE 19.6
Brayton versus Carnot
The Braytoncycle refrigerator of Example 19.3 had coefficient of performance K = 1.1. Compare this to the limit set by the second law of thermodynamics. Example 19.3 found that the reservoir temperatures had to be Te ;" 250 K and TH :5 381 K. A Carnot refrigerator operating between 250 K and 381 K has
SOLVE
Te 250K KeMoot = TH  Te = 381 K  250 K = 1.9 This is the minimum value of KeMoot• It will be even higher if Te > 250 K or TH < 381 K. The coefficient of performance of the reasonably realistic refrigerator of Example 19.3 is less than 60% of the limiting value.
ASSESS
Statements #7 and #8 of the second law are a major result of this chapter, one with profound implications. The efficiency limit of a heat engine is set by the temperatures of the hot and cold reservoirs. High efficiency requires TdTH« 1 and thus TH» Tc. However, practical realities often prevent TH from being significantly larger than Tc, in which case the engine cannot possibly have a large efficiency. This limit on the efficiency of heat engines is a consequence of the second law of thermodynamics.
588
CHA PTER
19 . Heat Engines and Refrigerators
EXAMPLE
19.7
Generating eledricity
An electric power plant boils water to produce highpressure steam at 400°C. The highpressure steam spins a turbine as it expands, then the turbine spins the generator. The steam is then condensed back to water in an oceancooled heat exchanger at 25°C. What is the maximum possible efficiency with which heat energy can be converted to electric energy?
MODEL
The maximum possible efficiency is that of a Carnot engine operating between these temperatures.
SOLVE The Camot efficiency depends on absolute temperatures, so we must use TH = 400°C = 673 K and Tc = 25°C = 298 K. Then
ASSESS This is an upper limit. Real coal, oil, gas, and nuclearheated steam generators actually operate at = 35% thermal efficiency. (The heat source has nothing to do with the efficiency. All it does is boil water.) Thus, as in the photo at the beginning of this chapter, electric power plants convert only about onethird of the fuel energy to electric energy while exhausting about twothirds of the energy to the environment as waste heat. Not much can be done to alter the lowtemperature limit. The hightemperature limit is determined by the maximum temperature and pressure the boiler and turbine can withstand. The efficiency of electricity generation is far less than most people imagine, but it is an unavoidable consequence of the second law of thermodynamics.
298 1I_ = 1  673 = 0.56 = 56%
A limit on the efficiency of heat engines was not expected. We are used to thinking in terms of energy conservation, so it comes as no surprise that we cannot make an engine with 7J > 1. But the limits arising from the second law were not anticipated, nor are they obvious. Nonetheless, they are a very real fact of life and a very real constraint on any practical device. No one has ever invented a machine that exceeds the secondlaw limits, and we have seen that the maximum efficiency for realistic engines is surprisingly low.
I
STOP TO THINK
11.5
I Could this heat engine be built?
a. Yes.
b. No.
c. It's impossible to tell without knowing what kind of cycle it uses.
Cold reservoir
Tc
=
300 K
Summary
589
SUMMARY
The goal of Chapter 19 has been to study the physical principles that govern the operation of heat engines and refrigerators.
General Principles
Heat Engines
Devices that transform heat into work. They require two energy reservoirs at different temperatures.
Refrigerators
TH
"~in
O_
Cold reservoir
Devices that use work to transfer heat from a colder object to a hotter object.
Energy QH~QC+W,.
~TH
~::~:!v~ir. ···················()·~··t
Work must be done totransferenergy~m from cold to hot. Heat energy is extracted from the cold reservoir. _ Qc Tc
Hot reservoir
Cyclical pnx:es (AEm>_= 0
Useful work done ........ Wout = QH  Qc
Cyclical process (.1E,,)~ ~ 0
•••••••••••.••.. Unused energy is , Qc exhausted as waste heat. Tc
t f~
Cold reservoir
Thermal efficiency W=t 11== what you get what you pay
Secondlaw liruit:
Coefficient of performance K = Qe = what you get
Secondlaw liruit:
QH
Win
what you pay
Important
Concepts
An energy reservoir is a part of the environment so large in compatison to the system that its temperature doesn't change as the system extracts heat energy from or exhausts heat energy to the reservoir. All heat engines and refrigerators operate between two energy reservoirs at different temperatures THand Te.
A perfectly reversible engine (a Carnot engine) can be operated as either a heat engine or a refrigerator between the same two energy reservoirs by reversing the cycle and with no other changes. • A Carnot heat engioe has the maximum possible thermal efficiency of any heat engine operatiog between TH and Te: Te
'1)carnot=l~
• A Carnot refrigerator has the maximum possible coefficient of performance of any refrigerator operatiog between TH and Te: K
Carner
P3

 ___!i_ TH  Tc
The work W, done by the system has the opposite sign to the work done on the system.
p
The Camot cycle for a gas engine consists of two isothermal processes and two adiabatic processes.
~"
W, = area under p V curve
1
R
! '
L_++V T~
Adiabats
LV
Applications
To analyze a heat engine or refrigerator: MOnEL Identify each process in the cycle. VISUALIZE Draw the p V diagram of the cycle. SOLVE There are several steps: • Deterruine p, V, and T at the beginuing and end of each process. • Calculate LlEth, W" and Q for each process. • Determine
~n
ASSESS Verify (LlEth)not = O. Check signs.
or
Wout,
QH' and Qc.
• Calculate 11 WnulQH or K = Qe/Win. =
590
CHAPTER
19 . Heat Engines and Refrigerators
Terms and Notation
thermodynamics energy reservoir energytransfer diagram heat engine closedcycle device thermal efficiency. 71 waste heat refrigerator coefficient of performance, K heat exchanger pressure ratio, rp perfectly reversible engine Carnot engine Carnot cycle
r;:;;:l L:..J
For homework assigned on MasteringPhysics, go to www.masteringphysics.com Problem difficulty is labeled as I (straightforward) to III (challenging).
Problems labeled chapters.
integrate significant material from earlier
CONCEPTUAL
1. In going from i to fin each of the three processes of FIGURE Q19.1, is work done by the system (W < 0, W, > 0), is work done on the system (W > 0, W, < 0), or is no net work done?
(a) p (b) p
QUESTIONS
3. Rank in order, from largest to smallest, the thermal efficiencies 711 to 714 of the four heat engines in FIGURE Q19.3. Explain.
Hot reservoir Hot reservoir
FIGURE Q19.1
2. Rank in order, from largest to smallest, the amount of work (W,)1 to (W,). done by the gas in each of the cycles shown in FIGURE Q19.l. Explain.
l~Jl~ lL. ~, J.~ .~ l2:_. '~l'~ J.~ .~
IT
4J 2
IT
40J
Cold reservoir
Cold reservoir
(e)
p
Hot reservoir
Hot reservoir
IT
6J
4
IT
6J
Cold reservoir
Cold reservoir
FIGURE Q19.3
4. Could you have a heat engine with 71 > I? Explain. 5. FIGURE Q19.5 shows the p V diagram of a heat engine. During which stage or stages is (a) heat added to the gas, (b) heat removed from the gas, (c) work done on the gas, and (d) work done by the gas?
p p,
,~
Stage 3
/ISOtherrn
FIGURE Q19.5
L_,,v
v,
v,
6. FIGURE Q19.6 shows the thermodynamic cycles of two heat engines. Which heat engine has the larger thermal efficiency? Or are they the same? Explain.
FIGURE Q19.2
Exercises and Problems
591
p p,
p
p,
0
L_,,v
Engine 1
p,
p,
v
Engine 2
9. Do the energytransfer diagrams in FIGURE Q19.9 represent possible refrigerators? If not, what is wrong?
(8)~
.. _i] t
20 . Cold reservoir
p~OO'(b)~Dt [OOK K
IOJ 30J J 300K
v,
v,
L_,,v
v,
v,
~ 10
FIGURE Q19.6
7. A heat engine satisfies W=, = Qn'" Why is there no t.E", term in this relationship? 8. Do the energytransfer diagrams in FIGURE Q19.8 represent possible heat engines? If not, what is wrong?
,,' '_J "
FIGURE Q19.9 Cold reservoir
(8JH]otrescrvOir
~
(bJ]Hotre'",,"Oir
SJ
~
=9.,
tO~'
. Cold reservoir 300K
.==!
20Jr1
10
J 300K
11"
~~
Coldreservoir
I)"
~~
Coldreservoir
4J
"'~~
FIGURE Q19.8
~.~
Cold reservoir
10. It gets pretty hot in your apartment. In browsing the Internet, you find a company selling small ''room air conditioners." You place the air conditioner on the floor, plug it in, andthe advertisement saysit will lower the room temperature up to lOaF. Should you order one? Explain. 11. The first and second laws of thermodynamics are sometimes stated as "You can't win" and "You can't even break even." Do these sayings accurately characterize the laws of thennodynamics as applied to heat engines? Why or why not?
EXERCISES
Exercises
Section 19.1 lOrning Heat into Work
AND
PROBLEMS
Section 19.2 Heat Engines and Refrigerators I.) A heat engine with a thermal efficiency of 40% does 100 J of work per cycle. How much heat is (a) extracted from the hot reservoir and (b) exhausted to the cold reservoir per cycle? II A heat engine does 20 J of work per cycle while exhausting 30 J of waste heat. What is the engine's thermal efficiency? II A heat engine extracts 55 kJ of heat from the hot reservoir each cycle and exhausts 40 kJ of heat. What are (a) the thermal efficiency and (b) the work done per cycle? II A refrigerator requires 20 J of work and exhausts 50 J of heat per cycle. What is the refrigerator's coefficient of performance? I 50 J of work are done per cycle on a refrigerator with a coefficient of performance of 4.0. How much heat is (a) extracted from the cold reservoir and (b) exhausted to the hot reservoir per cycle? II The power output of a car engine runuing at 2400 rpm is 500 kW. How much (a) work is done and (b) heat is exhausted per cycle if the engine's thermal efficiency is 20%? Give your answers in kJ.
2. 3.
7. II A 32 %efficient electric power plant produces 900 MW of electric power and discharges waste heat into 20°C ocean water. Suppose the waste heat could be used to heat homes during the winter instead of being discharged into the ocean. A typical American house requires an average 20 kW for heating. How many homes could be heated with the waste heat of this one power plant? 8. I 1.0 L of20°C water is placed in a refrigerator. The refrigerator's motor must supply an extra 8.0 W power to chill the water to 5°C in 1.0 hr. What is the refrigerator's coefficient of performance? Section 19.3 IdealGas Section 19.4 IdealGas Heat Engines Refrigerators
p
4. 5.
6.
9. II The cycle of FIGURE EX19.9 consists of four processes. Make a chart with rows labeled A to D and columns labeled t.Efh, W" and Q. Fill each box in the chart with +, , or 0 to indicate whether the quantity increases. decreases, or stays the same during that process.
~IsOtberm AWAdiabat
D
L_v FIGURE EX19.9
592
CHAPTER
19·
Heat Engines and Refrigerators Section 19.5 The Limits or Efficiency Section 19.6 The Carnot Cycle
10. II The cycle of FIGUREEXI9.IO consists of three processes. Make a chart with rows labeled AC and columns labeled LlE th , W" and Q. Fill each box in the chart with +, , or 0 to indicate whether the quantity increases, decreases, or stays the same during that process.
P
19. I Which, if any, of the heat engines in FIGURE EX19.19 violate (a) the first law of thermodynamics or (b) the second law ofthermodynamics? Explain.
L_v
FIGUREEXI9.1 0
11. I How much work is done per cycle by a gas following the p V trajectory of FIGURE EXI9.11?
w_rea~~'
Cold reservoir
(b)~HO,reservOir
l~
~~4J
,D__
Cold reservoir
Tc
= 300 K
Tc
=
300 K
(0) ~Ho,reservorr
~
t
t~lOJ
Tc
= 300 K
U_
FIGUREEX19.11
FIGUREEX19.12
FIGUREEX19.19
Cold reservoir
12. II A gas following the p V trajectory of FIGURE EXI9.12 does 60 J of work per cycle. What is p_? 13. I What are (a) Wout and Qc and (b) the thermal efficiency for the heat engine shown in FIGURE EXI9.13?
:v~
o o
100 200
20. I Which, if any, of the refrigerators in FIGURE EX19.20 violate (a) the first law of thermodynamics or (b) the second law ofthermodynamics? Explain.
:lktQ~901
p(kPa)
Refrigerator
V (cnr')
o
Q ~ 25 J
o
100
V (em') 200
Cold reservoir
Tc
=
300 K
Cold reservoir
FIGUREEXI9.13
FIGUREEX19.14
14. I What are (a) W=,and QHand (b) the thermal efficiency for the heat engine shown in FIGURE EXI9.1C? 15. II How mnch heat is exhansted to the cold reservoir by the heat engine shown in FIGURE EXI9.15?
;Lf
2251 100
a )
p(kPa)
FIGUREEX19.20
Cold reservoir
Tc=300K
30014
::: L~·180J
a
o
o
300
600
V (crrr')
t;;
o
200 400
V (em')
600
FIGUREEX19.15
FIGUREEX19.16
16. II What are (a) the thermal efficiency and (b) the heat extracted from the hot reservoir for the heat engine shown in FIGURE EXI9.16? 17. I At what pressure ratio would a heat engine operating with a Brayton cycle have an efficiency of 60%? Assume that the gas is diatomic. 18. II A heat engine nses a diatomic gas in a Brayton cycle. What is the engine's thermal efficiency if the gas volume is halved during the compression?
21. I At what coldreservoir temperature (in "C) would a Carnot engine with a hotreservoir temperature of 427°C have an efficiency of 6O%? 22. II a. A heat engine does 200 J of work per cycle while exhausting 600 J of heat to the cold reservoir. What is the engine's thermal efficiency? b. A Carnot engine with a hotreservoir temperature of 4OQ°C has the same thermal efficiency. What is the coldreservoir temperature in °C? 23. II A heat engine does 10 J of work and exhausts 15 J of waste heat dnring each cycle. a. What is the engine's thermal efficiency? b. If the coldreservoir temperature is 20°C, what is the minimum possible temperature in °C of the hot reservoir?
Exercises and Problems 24. II A Carnot engine operating between energy reservoirs at temperatnres 300 K and 500 K produces a power output of 1000 W. What are (a) the thermal efficiency of this engine, (b) the rate of heat input, in W, and (c) the rate of heat output, in W? 25. I A Carnot engine whose hotreservoir temperature is 400°C has a thermal efficiency of 40%. By how many degrees should the temperature of the cold reservoir be decreased to raise the engine's efficiency to 60%? 26. II A heat engine operating between energy reservoirs at 20°C and 600°C has 30% of the maximum possible efficiency. How much energy must this engine extract from the hot reservoir to do 1000 J of work? 27. I A Carnot refrigerator operating between  20°C and + 20°C extracts heat from the cold reservoir at the rate 200 J/s. What are (a) the coefficient of performance of this refrigerator, (b) the rate at which work is done on the refrigerator, and (c) the rate at which heat is exhausted to the hot side? 28. II A heat engine operating between a hot reservoir at 500°C and a cold reservoir at O°C is 60% as efficient as a Carnot engine. If this heat engine and the Carnot engine do the same amount of work, what is the ratio QH/(QH)cmoo'? 29. II The coefficient of performance of a refrigerator is 5.0. The compressor uses 10 J of energy per cycle. a. How much heat energy is exhausted per cycle? b. If the hotreservoir temperature is 27°C, what is the lowest possible temperature in °C of the cold reservoir? 30. II A Carnot refrigerator with a coldreservoir temperature of 13°C has a coefficient of performance of 5.0. To increase the coefficient of performance to 10, should the hotreservoir temperature be increased or decreased, and by how much? Explain.
593
38. II There has long been an interest in using the vast quantities of thermal energy in the oceans to run heat engines. A heat engine needs a temperatnre difference, a hot side and a cold side. Conveniently, the ocean surface waters are warmer than the deep ocean waters. Suppose you build a floating power plant in the tropics where the surface water temperatnre is = 30°C. This would be the hot reservoir of the engine. For the cold reservoir, water would be pumped up from the ocean bottom where it is always = 5°C. What is the maximum possible efficiency of such a power plant? 39. II The ideal gas in a Camotengine extracts 1000 J of heat energy during the isothermal expansion at 300°C. How much heat energy is exhausted during the isothermal compression at 50°C? 40. I The hotreservoir temperature of a Carnot engine with 25% efficiency is 80°C higher than the coldreservoir temperature. What are the reservoir temperatures, in °C? 41. II A Carnot heat engine takes 98 cycles to lift a 10 kg mass a height of 10 m. The engine exhausts 15 J of heat per cycle to a cold reservoir at O°C. What is the temperatnre of the hot reservoir? 42. II The heat exhausted to the cold reservoir of a Carnot engine is twothirds the heat extracted from the hot reservoir. What is the temperature ratio Tc/T H? 43. II FICiURE P19.43 shows a Carnot heat engine driving a Carnot refrigerator. a. Determine Q" Q2' Q" and Q •. b. Is Q, greater than, less than, or equal to Q, ? c. Do these two devices, when operated together in this way, violate the second law?
Problems 31. II The engine that powers a crane bums fuel at a flame temperature of 2000°C. It is cooled by 20°C air. The crane lifts a 2000 kg steel girder 30 m upward. How much heat energy is transferred to the engine by burning fuel if the engine is 40% as efficient as a Carnot engine? 32. III 100 mLofwater at 15°C is placed in the freezer compartment of a refrigerator with a coefficient of performance of 4.0. How much heat energy is exhausted into the room as the water is changed to ice at 15°C? 33. II Prove that the work done in an adiabatic process i ..... f is W, = (p,V,  p,V,)/(1  1'). 34. II The hot reservoir of a heat engine is steam at 100°C while the cold reservoir is ice atO°C. In 1.0 hr of operation, 10 kg of steam condenses and 55 kg of ice melts. What is the power output of the heat engine? 35. II Prove that the coefficient of performance of a Carnot refrigeratorisKCamot = Tc/(TH  Tel. 36. II A Carnot heat engine with thermal efficiency ~ is run backward as a Carnot refrigerator. What is the refrigerator's coefficient of performance? 37. II An ideal refrigerator utilizes a Carnot cycle operating between O°C and 25°C. To tnrn 10 kg of liquid water at O°C into 10 kg of ice at O°C, (a) how much heat is exhausted into the room and (b) how much energy must be supplied to the refrigerator?
FICiURE P19.43
44. III A heat engine running backward is called a refrigerator if its purpose is to extract heat from a cold reservoir. The same engine running backward is called a heat pump if its purpose is to exhaust warm air into the hot reservoir. Heat pumps are widely used for home heating. You can think of a heat pump as a refrigerator that is cooling the already cold outdoors and, with its exhaust heat QH' warming the indoors. Perhaps this seems a little silly, but consider the following. Electricity can be directly used to heat a home by passing an electric current through a heating coil. This is a direct, 100% conversion of work to heat. That is,15 kW of electric power (generated by doing work at the rate 15 kIls at the power plant) produces heat energy inside the home at a rate of 15 kI/s. Suppose that the neighbor's home has a heat pump with a coefficient of performance of 5.0, a realistic value. a. How much electric power (in kW) does the heat pump use to deliver 15 kIls of heat energy to the house? b. An average price for electricity is about 40 MJ per dollar. A furnace or heat pump will run typically 200 hours per month during the winter. What does one month's heating cost in the home with a 15 kW electric heater and in the home of the neighbor who uses an equivalent heat pump?
594
CHAPTER
19 . Heat Engines and Refrigerators some design planshighly secret, of course, because they're not patentedand now he needs some investors to provide money for a prototype. A working prototype will lead to a patent. As an initial investor, you'll receive a fraction of all future royalties. Time is of the essence because a rival inventor is working on the same idea. He needs $10,000 from you right away. You could make millions if it works out. Will you invest? If so, explain why. If not, why not? Either way, your explanation should be based on scientific principles. Sketches and diagrams are a reasonable part of an explanation. 51. II An air conditioner removes 5.0 X 10' Ilmin of heat from a house and exhausts 8.0 X 10' Ilmin to the hot outdoors. a. How much power does the air conditioner's compressor require? b. What is the air conditioner's coefficient of performance? 52. II A heat engine using 1.0 mol of a monatomic gas follows the cycle shown in FIGURE PI9.52. 3750 I of heat energy is transferred to the gas during process I ..... 2. a. Determine W" Q, and !1Eth for each of the four processes in this cycle. Display your results in a table. b. What is the thermal efficiency of this heat engine?
p(kPa)
p(atm)
45. II You and your roommates need a new refrigerator. At the appliance store, the salesman shows you the DreamFridge. According to its sticker, the DreamFridge uses a mere 100 W of power to remove 100 kJ of heat per minute from the 2°C interior. According to the fine print on the sticker, this claim is true in a 22°C kitchen. Should you buy? Explain. 46. II Three engineering students submit their solutions to a design problem in which they were asked to design an engine that operates between temperatores 300 K and 500 K. The heatinputloutput and work done by their designs are shown in the following table: Student 2501 2 3 2501 2501 1401 1701 1601 1101 901 901
47.
48.
49.
50.
Critique their designs. Are they acceptable or not? Is one better than the others? Explain. III A typical coalfired power plant burns 300 metric tons of coal every hour to generate 750 MW of electricity. I metric ton = 1000 kg. The density of coal is 1500 kg/rrr' and its heat of combustion is 28 MIlkg. Assume that all heat is transferred from the fuel to the boiler and that all the work done in spinning the turbine is transformed into electric energy. a. Suppose the coal is piled up in a 10m X 10m room. How tall must the pile be to operate the plant for one day? b. What is the power plant's thermal efficiency? II A nuclear power plant generates 2000 MW of heat energy from nuclear reactions in the reactor's core. This energy is used to boil water and produce highpressure steam at 300°C. The steam spins a torbine, which produces 700 MW of electric power, then the steam is condensed and the water is cooled to 30°C before starting the cycle again. a. What is the maximum possible thermal efficiency of the power plant? b. What is the plant's actual efficiency? c. Cooling water from a river flows through the condenser (the lowtemperatore heat exchanger) at the rate of 1.2 X 10' Llhr (=30 million gallons per hour). If the river water enters the condenser at 18°C, what is its exit temperatore? II The electric output of a power plant is 750 MW. Cooling water flows through the power plant at the rate 1.0 X 10' Llhr. The cooling water enters the plant at 16°C and exits at 27°C. What is the power plant's thermal efficiency? II a. A large nuclear power plant has a power output of 1000 MW. In other words, it generates electric energy at the rate 1000 MIls. How much energy does this power plant supply in one day? b. The oceans are vast. How much energy could be extracted from I knr' of water if its temperatore were decreased by 1°C? For simplicity, assume fresh water. c. A friend of yours who is an inventor comes to you with an idea. He has done the calculations that you just did in parts a and b, and he's concluded that a few cubic kilometers of ocean water could meet most of the energy needs of the United States. This is an insignificant fraction of the U.S. coastal waters. In addition, the oceans are constantly being reheated by the sun, so energy obtained from the ocean is essentially solar energy. He has sketched out
s
l.
:::
o
FIGURE P19.52
b2
1~3 010203040 P19.53
v (cm'')
FIGURE
53. II A heat engine using a diatomic gas follows the cycle shown in FIGURE PI9.53. Its temperature at point I is 20°C. a. Determine W" Q, and !1E", for each of the three processes in this cycle. Display your results in a table. b. What is the thermal efficiency of this heat engine? c. What is the power output of the engine if it runs at 500 rpm? 54. II FIGURE PI 9.54 shows the cycle for a heat engine that uses a gas having ")I = 1.25. The initial temperature is T, = 300 K, and this engine operates at 20 cycles per second. a. What is the power output of the engine? b. What is the engine's thermal efficiency?
p(atm) p
(kPa)
2\13
Isotherm
~l
FIGURE P19.55
FIGURE
P19.54
55. II A heat engine using a monatomic gas follows the cycle shown in FIGURE PI 9.55. a. Find W" Q, and !1E", for each process in the cycle. Display your results in a table. b. What is the thermal efficiency of this heat engine?
Exercises and Problems 56. II A heat engine uses a diatomic gas that follows the pV cycle in
FIGURE PI9.56.
595
a. Determine the pressure, volume, and temperature at point 2. b. Determine l1Efh, W" and Q for each of the three processes. Put your results in a table for easy reading. c. How much work does this engine do per cycle and what is its thermal efficiency?
p
(kPa) 2
p (kPa\ 400
400 K isotherm
61. III The heat engine shown in FIGURE P19.61 nses 0.020 mol of a diatomic gas as the working substance. a. Determine T1, T2, and T3• b. Make a table that shows f.Efh, W" and Q for each of the three processes. c. What is the engine's thermal efficiency?
P
(kPa)
500 400 300 200 100 Adiabat
.
2SJ3
/
1
O+~~V(cm') o 1000 V_ FIGURE P19.61
400
2'~
100 Adiab~
3 __
100 O+~~~~V(cm') o 2000 4000 FIGURE P19.56
O+~~~~V(cm') o 2000 4000 FIGURE P19.57
57. II A heat engine uses a diatomic gas that follows the p V cycle in
FIGURE PI9.57.
a. Determine the pressure, volume, and temperature at point 1. b. Determine llEfh, W" and Q for each of the three processes. Put your results in a table for easy reading. c. How much work does this engine do per cycle and what is its thermal efficiency? 58. II A Braytoncycle heat engine follows the cycle shown in FIGURE PI9.58. The heat input from the burning fuel is 2.0 MJ per cycle. Determine the engine's thermal efficiency by explicitly computing the work done per cycle. Compare your answer with the efficiency that you can determine from Equation 19.21.
p(atm)
10
f\
v(m')
2.0MJ
p
(atm)
2~therm
_~4 ~+T,, ~_300_K_~
o
FIGURE P19.58
1~3 O+~~V(cm') o 1000 Vmu FIGURE P19.59
62. III A heat engine using 2.0 g of helium gas is initially at STP. The gas goes through the following closed cycle: • Isothermal compression until the volume is halved. • Isobaric expansion until the volume is restored to its initial value. • Isochoric cooling until the pressure is restored to its initial value. How much work does this engine do per cycle and what is its thermal efficiency? 63. II A heat engine with 0.20 mol of a monatomic ideal gas initially fills a 2000 crrr' cylinder at 600 K. The gas goes through the following closed cycle: • Isothermal expansion to 4000 em", • Isochoric cooling to 300 K. • Isothermal compression to 2000 crrr', • Isochoric heating to 600 K. How much work does this engine do per cycle and what is its thermal efficiency? 64. II FIGURE P19.64 is the p V diagram of Example 19.2, but now the device is operated in reverse. a. During which processes is heat transferred into the gas? b. Is this QH' heat extracted from a hot reservoir, or Qc, heat extracted from a cold reservoir? Explain. c. Determine the values of QH FIGURE P19.64 and Qc. Hint: The calculations have been done in Example 19.2 and do not need to be repeated. Instead, you need to determine which processes now contribute to QH and which to Qc. d. Is the area inside the cnrve Win or Woo,?What is its value? e. Show that Figure 19.19 is the energytransfer diagram of this device. f. The device is now being operated in a ccw cycle. Is it a refrigerator? Explain. In Problems 65 through 68 you are given the equation(s) used to solve a problem. For each of these, you are to a. Write a realistic problem for which this is the correct equation(s). b. Finish the solution of the problem. 65. 0.80 = 1  (O°C 66. 4.0 = QcIW in QH = 100J 67. 0.20 = 1  QCIQH WOO, = QH  Qc = 20 J 68. 400 kJ = !(p~x  100 kPa)(3.0 m"  1.0 nr')
59. II A heat engine using 120 mg of helium as the working substance follows the cycle shown in FIGURE PI9.59. a. Determine the pressure, temperature, and volume of the gas at points 1,2, and 3. b. What is the engine's thermal efficiency? c. What is the maximum possible efficiency of a heat engine that operates between Tmax and Tmin ? 60. II The heat engine shown in p (kPa) FIGURE P19.60 uses 2.0 mol of a 600 monatomic gas as the working snbstance. 400 a. Determine T1, T2, and T3• b. Make a table that shows 200 f.Efh, W" and Q for each of the three processes. c. What is the engine's therO+~~V(m') 0.025 0.050 o mal efficiency?
FIGURE P19.60
+ 273)/(TH +
273)
596
CHAPTER
19 . Heat Engines and Refrigerators had been stored in the gasoline. The fuel bums so quickly that the piston doesn't have time to move, so the heating is an isochoric process. The hot, highpressure gas then pushes the piston outward during the power stroke. Finally, an exhaust value opens to allow the gas temperature and pressure to drop back to their initial values before starting the cycle over again. a. Analyze the Otto cycle and show that the work done per cycle is nR Wout = 1 _ "y (T2  T,
Challenge Problems
69. FIGURE CP19.fi9 shows a heat engine going through one cycle. The gas is diatomic. The masses are such that when the pin is removed, in steps 3 and 6, the piston does not move. a. Draw the p V diagram for this heat engine. b. How much work is done per cycle? c. What is this engine's thermal efficiency?
Locking pin
+
T4  T3)
b. Use the adiabatic connection between T, and T2 and also between T3 and T4 to show that the thermal efficiency of the Otto cycle is 11 = 1  rC,') 1
LStart..
2 Heatto 3 atm.
3. Removepin. Continue heating
to lOOcm3.
where r = V max/V min is the engine's compression ratio. c. Graph 11versus r out to r = 30 for a diatomic gas.
4. Insert pin.
Remove mass.
p(alm)
Pmax
Ignition
FIGURE CP19.71 6. Remove pin.
Continue cooling
V",;"
5. Cool to 1.0 attn.
7.
Insert pin.
Add mass. Start again.
FIGURE CP19.fi9
to50cm3.
70. FIGURE CP19.70 shows two insulated compartments separated by a thin wall. The left side contains 0.060 mol of helium at an initial temperature of 600 K and the right side contains 0.030 mol of helium at an initial temperature of 300 K. The compartment on the right is attached to a vertical cylinder, above which the air pressure is 1.0 atm. A IOemdiameter, 2.0 kg piston can slide without friction up and down the cylinder. Neither the cylinder diameter nor the volumes of the compartments are known. a. What is the final temperature? b. How much heat is transferred from the left side to the right side? c. How high is the piston lifted due to this heat transfer? d. What fraction of the heat is converted into work?
72. FIGURE CPI9.72 shows the Diesel cycle. It is similar to the Otto cycle (see Problem CPI9.7I), but there are two important differences. First, the fuel is not admitted until the air is fully compressed at point 2. Because of the high temperature at the end of an adiabatic compression, the fuel begins to bum spontaneously. (There are no spark plugs in a diesel engine!) Second, combustion takes place more slowly, with fuel continuing to be injected. This makes the ignition stage a constantpressure process. The cycle shown, for one cylinder of a diesel engine, has a displacement Vrnax  Vrnin of 1000 crrr' and a compression ratio r = V~/V min = 21. These are typical values for a diesel truck. The engine operates with intake air ("y = 1.40) at 25°C and 1.0 atm pressure. The quantity of fuel injected into the cylinder has a heat of combustion of 1000 J. a. Find p, V, and T at each of the four comers of the cycle. Display your results in a table. b. What is the net work done by the cylinder during one full cycle? c. What is the thermal efficiency of this engine? d. What is the power output in kW and horsepower (l hp = 746 W) of an eightcylinder diesel engine running at 2400 rpm?
p(alm)
FIGURE CP19.70
71. The gasoline engine in your car can be modeled as the Otto cycle shown in FIGURE CPI9.71. A fuelair mixture is sprayed into the cylinder at point 1, where the piston is at its farthest distance from the spark plug. This mixture is compressed as the piston moves toward the spark plug during the adiabatic compression stroke. The spark plug fires at point 2, releasing heat energy that
FIGURE CP19.72
Exercises and Problems
597
STOP
TO THINK
ANSWERS
Stop to Think 19.1: Wd
> W. =
Wb
> W,.
WOOl = QH  Qc.
Stop to Think 19.2: b. Energy conservation requires QH = Qc + Wm. The refrigerator will exhaust more heat out the back than it removes from the front. A refrigerator with an open door will heat the room rather than cool it Stop to Think 19.3: c. WOOl = area inside triangle = 1000 J. '1 = Ww,lQH = (1000 J)/(40oo J) = 0.25.
Stop to Think 19.4: To conserve energy, the heat QH exhausted to the hot reservoir needs to be QH = Qc + W = 40 J + 10 J = 50 J. The numbers shown here, with Qc = QH + WOOl' would be appropriate to a heat engine, not a refrigerator.
OUI
Stop to Think 19.5: b. The efficiency of this engine would be '1 = Woo,lQH = 0.6. That exceeds the Carnot efficiency '1C=oI = I T C/TH = 0.5, so it is not possible.
SUMMARY
Thermodynamics
Part IVhad two important goals: first, to learn how energy is transformed; second, to establish a micro/macro connection in which we can understand the macroscopic properties of solids, liquids, and gases in terms of the microscopic motions of atoms and molecules. We have been quite successful. You have learned that: • Temperature is a measure of the thermal energy of the molecules in a system, and the average energy per molecule is simply ~kBT per degree of freedom. • The pressure of a gas is due to collisions of the molecules with the walls of the container. • Heat is the energy transferred between two systems that have different temperatures. The mechanism of heat transfer is molecular collisions at the boundary between the two systems. • Work, heat, and thermal energy can be transformed into each other in accord with the first law of thermodynamics, J1E th ~ W + Q. This is a statement that energy is conserved. • Practical devices for turning heat into work, called heat engines, are limited in their efficiency by the second law of thermodynamics, The knowledge structure of thermodynamics below summarizes the basic laws, diagramming our energy model and presenting our model of a heat engine in pictorial form, Thermodynamics, more than most topics in physics, can seem very "equation oriented." It's undeniable that there are more equations than we used in earlier parts of this text and more things to remember. But focusing on the equations is seeing only the trees, not the forest. A better strategy is to focus on the ideas embedded in the knowledge structure. You can find the necessary equations if you know how the ideas are connected, but memorizing all the equations won't help if you don't know which are relevant to different situations.
KNOWLEDGE ESSENTIAL BASIC
STRUCTURE CONCEPTS
IV
Thermodynamics
Work, heat, and thermal energy. How is energy converted from one form to another? How are macroscopic properties related to microscopic behavior? First law of thermodynamics Second law of thermodynamics Energy is conserved, J1E th ~ W + Q. Heat is not spontaneously transferred from a colder object to a hotter object.
GOALS
GENERAL
PRINCIPLES
GAS LAWS AND PROCESSES
Idealgas law pV ~ nRT ~ NkBT V ~ constant and W ~ 0 T ~ constant and J1E th
~
• Isochoric process • Isothermal process
Isobaric process 0 Adiabatic process
p ~ constant Q~0
Energy Transfonnation
Work on Environment Work by system
Heat Engines
Wout = area inside p V curve
system ................... r,.fIIIII'
~ QH  Qc
"I ~
w>o
Energy
in
system
Thermal energy Em
w<o
Energy out
Q.;
=
Tc 1 ~
Woot
+
Other state variables p, V, T, n,M, ..
l1max = 71Camot
Q Heat to system
>0
Firstlaw: AEth
= W+Q
Q
<0
Heatout of system
~L
...J ........
Work Requires volume change Gas: W ~  fPdV ~  (area under p V curve)
Thermal
Energy
Heat Requires temperature difference Q ~ McJ1T or nCJ1T Q ~ ± ML for phase changes
Eth ~ ~NkBT per degree of freedom
598
ONE STEP BEYOND
Order Out of Chaos
The second law predicts that systems will run down, that order will evolve toward disorder and randomness, and that complexity will give way to simplicity. But just look around you! • Plants grow from simple seeds to complex entities. • Singlecell fertilized eggs grow into complex adult organisms. • Electric current passing through a "soup" of simple random molecules produces such complex chemicals as amino acids. • Over the last billion or so years life has evolved from simple unicellular organisms to very complex forms. • Knowledge and information seem to grow every year, not to fade away. Everywhere we look, it seems, the second law is being violated. How can this be? There is an important qualification in the second law of thermodynamics: It applies only to isolated systems, systems that do not exchange energy with their environment. The situation is entirely different if energy is transferred into or out of the system, and we cannot predict what will happen to the entropy of a nonisolated system. The popularscience literature is full of arguments and predictions that make incorrect use of the second law by trying to apply it to systems that are not isolated. Systems that become more ordered as time passes, and in which the entropy decreases, are called selforganizing systems. All the examples listed above are selforganizing systems. One of the major characteristics of selforganizing systems is a substantial flow of energy through the system. For example, plants and animals take in energy from the sun or chemical energy from food, make use of that energy, and then give waste heat back to the environment via evaporation, decay, and other means. It is this energy flow that allows the systems to maintain, or even increase, a high degree of order and a very low entropy. Butand this is the important pointthe entropy of the entire system, including the earth and the sun, undergoes a significant increase so as to let selected subsystems decrease their entropy and become more ordered. The second law is not violated at all, but you must apply the second law to the combined systems that are interacting and not just to a single subsystem. The snowflake in the photo is a beautiful example. As water freezes, the random motion of water molecules is transformed into a highly ordered crystal. The entropy of
A snowflake is a highly ordered arrangement of water molecules. The creation of a snowflake decreases the entropy of the water, but the second law of thermodynamics is not violated because the water molecules are not an isolated system.
the water molecules certainly decreases, but water doesn't freeze as an isolated system. For it to freeze, heat energy must be transferred from the water to the surrounding air. The entropy of the air increases by more than the entropy of the water decreases. Thus the total entropy of the water + air system increases when a snowflake is formed, just as the second law predicts. Selforganization is closely related to nonlinear mechanics, chaos, and the geometry of fractals. It has important applications in fields ranging from ecology to computer science to aeronautical engineering. For example, the airflow across a wing gives rise to largescale turbulenceeddies and whirlpoolsin the wake behind an airplane. Their formation affects the aerodynamics of the plane and can also create hazards for following aircraft. Whirlpools are ordered, largescale macroscopic structures with low entropy, but they are produced from disordered, random collisions of the air molecules. Selforganizing systems are a very active field of research in both science and engineering. The 1977 Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to the Belgian scientist Ilya Prigogine for his studies of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, the basic science underlying selforganizing systems. Prigogine and others have shown how energy flow through a system can, when the conditions are right, "bring order out of chaos."
599
Waves and Optics
This Doppler weather radar dome in Oklahoma uses reflected radio waves both to create a visual image of a storm and to measure wind speeds and directions. Knowing wind patterns is crucial for predicting whether a storm will spawn tornadoes or other severe weather. You can see a Doppler radar imageofa hurricane on page 624 in Chapter 20.
OVERVIEW Beyond the Particle Model
Parts IIV of this text have been primarily about the physics of particles. You've seen that macroscopic systems ranging from balls and rockets to a gas of molecules can be thought of as particles or as systems of particles. A particle is one of the two fundamental models of classical physics. The other, to which we now tum our attention, is a wave. Waves are ubiquitous in nature. Familiar examples of waves include • • • • • Undulating ripples on a pond. The swaying ground of an earthquake. A vibrating guitar string. The sweet sound of a flute. The colors of the rainbow.
The physics of waves is the subject of Part V, the next stage of our journey. Despite the great diversity of types and sources of waves, a single, elegant physical theory is capable of describing them all. Our exploration of wave phenomena will call upon sound waves, light waves, and vibrating strings for examples, but our goal is to emphasize the unity and coherence of the ideas that are common to all types of waves. A wave, in contrast with a particle, is diffuse, spread out, not to be found at a single point in space. We will start with waves traveling outward through some medium, like the spreading ripples after a pebble hits a pool of water. These are called traveling waves. An investigation of what happens when waves travel through each other will lead us to standing waves, which are essential for understanding both musical instruments and lasers, and to the phenomenon of interference, one of the most important defining characteristics of waves. Three chapters will be devoted to light and optics, perhaps the most important application of waves. Although light is an electromagnetic wave, your understanding of these chapters depends on nothing more than the "waviness" of light. You can study these chapters either before or after your study of electricity and magnetism in Part VI. The electromagnetic aspects oflight waves will be taken up in Chapter 35. Particularly surprising will be the experimental evidence that the fundamental particles of matterelectrons and protonsexhibit characteristics of waves. We'll find that the comfortable waveparticle dichotomy of classical physics, with its distinct wave and particle models, needs to be replaced with a waveparticle duality in which electrons, atoms, and even light itself turn out to be strange wave/particle hybrids. This breakdown of the distinction between waves and particles undermines the Newtonian worldview, but at the same time it provides us with a richer and deeper understanding of nature. In fact, these discoveries about the limitations of the particle and wave models ultimately led to the development of quantum physics at the beginning of the 20th century. Part V will conclude with an initial look at the wave properties of matter and the connection between atoms and light. We will then return to this important topic in Part VII.
601
fIf] Tra
This surfer is "catching a wave:' At the same time, he is seeing light waves and hearing sound waves.
ling Waves
~ Looking Ahead The goal of Chapter 20 is to learn the basic properties of traveling waves. In this chapter you will learn to: • Use the wave model and understand how it differs from the particle model. Understand how a wave travels through a medium. Recognize the properties of sinusoidal waves. Understand the important characteristics of sound and light waves. Use the Doppler effect to find the speed of wave sources and observers.
You may not realize it. but you are surrounded by waves. The "waviness" of a water
• • • •
wave is readily apparent, from the ripples on a pond to ocean waves large enough to surf. It's less apparent that sound and light are also waves because their wave properties are discovered only by careful observations and experiments. We will even find, when we get to the microscopic scale of electrons and atoms, that matter exhibits wavelike behavior. Our overarching goal in Part V is to understand the properties and characteristics that are common to waves of all types. In other words, we want to find the "essence of waviness" that all waves possess. In this chapter we start with the idea of a traveling wave. When your friend speaks to you, a sound wave travels through the air to your ear. Light waves travel from the sun to the earth. A sudden fracture in the earth's crust sends out a shock wave that is felt far away as an earthquake. To understand phenomena such as these we need both new models and new mathematics.
20.1 The Wave Model
The particle model of Parts IIV focused on those aspects of motion that are common to many systems. Balls, cars, and rockets obviously differ from one another, but the general features of their motions are well described by treating them as particles. In Part V we will explore the basic properties of waves with a wave model, emphasizing those aspects of wave behavior common to all waves. Although water waves, sound waves, and light waves are clearly different, the wave model will allow us to understand many of their important features.
<III Looking Back The material in this chapter depends on the concept of simple harmonic motion. Please review: • Sections 14.1 and 14.2 The properties of simple harmonic motion.
602
20.1 . TheWaveModel The wave model is built around the idea of a traveling wave, which is an organized disturbance traveling with a welldefined wave speed. We'll begin our study of traveling waves by looking at two distinct wave motions. Two types of traveling waves
A transverse wave
Up/down
603
Motion of wave at speed v ____..
t
A transversewave is a wave in which the displacementis perpendicular to the direction in which the wave travels. For example, a wave travels along a string in a horizontal direction
while the pacticlesthat make up the string oscillatevertically.Electromagneticwaves are also transverse waves because the electromagneticfields oscillateperpendicular to the direction in which the wave travels.
A longitudinal wave
....
Push/pull
Motion of wave at speed v ____..
In a longitudinalwave, the pacticlesin the medium move parallel to the directionin which the wave travels. Here we see a chain of masses connectedby springs. If you give the first mass in
the chain a sharppush, a disturbancetravels down the chain by compressingand expandingthe springs. Soundwaves in gases and liquids are the most well known examplesoflongitudinal waves. An oscillatingloudspeakercone compressesand expands the air much like the springs in this figure.
Other waves, such as water waves, have characteristics of both transverse and longitudinal waves. The surface of the water moves up and down vertically, but individual water molecules actually move both perpendicular and parallel to the direction of the wave. We will not analyze these more complex waves in this text. We can also classify waves on the basis of what is "waving": 1. Mechanical waves travel only within a material medium, such as air or water. Two familiar mechanical waves are sound waves and water waves. 2. Electromagnetic waves, from radio waves to visible light to x rays, are a selfsustaining oscillation of the electromagnetic field. Electromagnetic waves require no material medium and can travel through a vacuum. 3. Matter waves are the basis for quantum physics. One of the most significant discoveries of the 20th century was that material particles, such as electrons and atoms, have wavelike characteristics. Chapter 2S will introduce matter waves. The medium of a mechanical wave is the substance through or along which the wave moves. For example, the medium of a water wave is the water, the medium of a sound wave is the air, and the medium of a wave on a stretched string is the string. A medium must be elastic. That is, a restoring force of some sort brings the medium back to equilibrium after it has been displaced or disturbed. The tension in a stretched string pulls the string back straight after you pluck it. Gravity restores the level surface of a lake after the wave generated by a boat has passed by. As a wave passes through a medium, the atoms of the mediumwe'll simply call them the particles of the mediumare displaced from equilibrium. This is a
The boat's wake is a wave moving across the surface of the lake.
604
CHAPTER
20 . TravelingWaves
FIGURE 20.1 Ripples on a pond are a traveling wave.
disturbance of the medium. The water ripples of FIGURE 20.1 are water's surface. A pulse traveling down a string is a disturbance, boat and the sonic boom created by a jet traveling faster than the disturbance of a wave is an organized motion of the particles contrast to the random molecular motions of thermal energy.
a disturbance of the as are the wake of a speed of sound. The in the medium, in
Wave Speed
A wave disturbance is created by a source. The source of a wave might be a rock thrown into water, your hand plucking a stretched string, or an oscillating loudspeaker cone pushing on the air. Once created, the disturbance travels outward through the medium at the wave speed v. This is the speed with which a ripple moves across the water or a pulse travels down a string. as a whole does not move! The ripples on the pond (the disturbance) move outward from the splash of the rock, but there is no outward flow of water from the splash. Likewise, the particles of a string oscillate up and down but do not move in the direction of a pulse traveling along the string. A wave transfers energy, but it does not transfer any material or substance outward from the source. <III As an example, we'll prove in Section 20.3 that the wave speed on a string stretched with tension T, is
= NOTE ~ The disturbance propagates through the medium, but the medium
The water is the medium.
7
vstring
V;
{T,
(wave speed on a stretched string)
(20.1)
where ILis the string's masstolength ratio: (20.2) also called the linear density. The SI unit of linear density is kg/m. A fat string has a larger value of ILthan a skinny string made of the same material. Similarly, a steel wire has a larger value of ILthan a plastic string of the same diameter. We'll assume that strings are uniform, meaning the linear density is the same everywhere along the length of the string.
NOTE ~ The subscript s on the symbol T, for the string's tension distinguishes it from the symbol T for the period of oscillation. <III
This sequence of photographs shows a wave pulse traveling along a spring.
Equation 20.1 is the wave speed, not the wave velocity, so Vstnng always has a positive value. Every point on a wave travels with this speed. You can increase the wave speed either by increasing the string's tension (make it tighter) or by decreasing the string's linear density (make it skinnier). We'll examine the implications for stringed musical instruments in Chapter 21.
EXAMPLE 20.1
The speed of a wave pulse
FIGURE 20.2
A wave pulse traveling on a string.
A 2.0mlong string with a mass of 4.0 g is tied to a wall at one end, stretched horizontally to a pnlley 1.5 m away, then tied to a physics book of mass M that hangs from the string. Experiments find that a wave pulse travels along the stretched string at 40 mls. What is the mass of the book? The wave pulse is a traveling wave on a stretched string. The hanging book is in static equilibrium.
MODEL VISUALIZE FIGURE20.2
is a pictotial representation.
20.2 . OneDimensionalWaves
605
SOLVE
The book is in static equilibrium; hence
(F~t)y = T,  Mg = 0
from which we find
M=
ASSESS
Thus the tension in the string is T, = Mg. The linear density of the string is p. = 0.0040 kg/2.0 m = 0.0020 kg/m. The length of the string between the wall and the pulley is not relevant. Squaring both sides of Equation 20.1 gives
v2 = ~ f.'
g=
p.v2
(0.0020 kg/m)(40 m/s)2 9.8m/s2
=
0.33 kg
=
330g
Mg
f.'
To be precise, 330 g is the comhined mass of the book and the short length of the stringthat hangs from the pulley.Notice that the string mass was given in gramstypical in string problemsbut we calculated f.' in kg/m.
The wave speed on a string is a property of the stringits tension and linear density. In general, the wave speed is a property of the medium. The wave speed depends on the restoring forces within the medium but not at all on the shape or size of the pulse, how the pulse was generated, or how far it has traveled.
PhYSICS
Activ
10.2
Inop
TO THINK '0.1 Which of the following actions would make a pulse travel faster along a stretched string? More than one answer may be correct. If so, give all that are correct.
I
a. b. c. d. e. f. g.
Move your hand up and down more quickly as you generate the pulse. Move your hand up and down a larger distance as you generate the pulse. Use a heavier string of the same length, under the same tension. Use a lighter string of the same length, under the same tension. Stretch the string tighter to increase the tension. Loosen the string to decrease the tension. Put more force into the wave.
20.2 OneDimensional Waves
To understand waves we must deal with functions of two variables. Until now, we have been concerned with quantities that depend only on time, such as x(t) or v(t). Functions of the one variable t are all right for a particle because a particle is only in one place at a time, but a wave is not localized. It is spread out through space at each instant of time. To describe a wave mathematically requires a function that specifies not ouly an instant of time (when) but also a point in space (where). Rather than leaping into mathematics, we will start by thinking about waves graphically. Consider the wave pulse shown moving along a stretched string in FIGURE 20.3. (We will consider somewhat artificial triangular and squareshaped pulses in this section to make clear where the edges of the pulse are.) The graph shows the string's displacement ay at a particular instant of time t, as a function of position x along the string. This is a "snapshot" of the wave, much like what you might make with a camera whose shutter is opened briefly at t,. A graph that shows the wave's displacement as a function of position at a single instant of time is called a snapshot graph. For a wave on a string, a snapshot graph is literally a picture of the wave at this instant. FIGURE 20.4 on the next page shows a sequence of snapshot graphs as the wave of Figure 20.3 continues to move. These are like successive frames from a movie. Notice that the wave pulse moves forward distance ax = vat during the time interval at. That is, the wave moves with constant speed.
FIGURE 20.3 A snapshot graph of a wave pulse on a string. This is a wave pulse traveling
:~:~)~
Tr~ling edge Le~dingedge
=rr=r=
fly
This is a graph of the string's displacement as a function of position a\ time fl"
606
CHAPTER
20 . Traveling Waves
FIGURE 20.4 A sequence of snapshot graphs shows the wave in motion. The wave moves horizontally,
I!. but a string particle moves Y only vertically. i ~ave at
nme r,
I
~
./i\.1.1 ...J
: ,11
x
1I!.X~VI!.I
12i,Y
",/fI\,++I:
x
: lli4X=V4t
I
_"___x
fly I,
The wave moves without changing shape.
:
I I I
b
A snapshot graph tells only half the story. It tells us where the wave is and how it varies with position, but only at one instant of time. It gives us no information about how the wave changes with time. As a different way of portraying the wave, suppose we follow the dot marked on the string in Figure 20.4 and produce a graph showing how the displacement of this dot changes with time. The result, shown in FIGURE20.5, is a displacementversustime graph at a single position in space. A graph that shows the wave's displacement as a function of time at a single position in space is called a history graph. It tells the history of that particnlar point in the medium. You might think we have made a mistake; the graph of Figure 20.5 is reversed compared to Figure 20.4. It is not a mistake, but it requires careful thought to see why. As the wave moves toward the dot, the steep leading edge causes the dot to rise quickly. On the displacementversustime graph, earlier times (smaller values of t) are to the left and later times (larger t) to the right. Thus the leading edge of the wave is on the left side of the Figure 20.5 history graph. As you move to the right on Figure 20.5 you see the slowly falling trailing edge of the wave as it moves past the dot at later times. The snapshot graph of Figure 20.3 and the history graph of Figure 20.5 portray complementary information. The snapshot graph tells us how things look throughout all of space, but at only one instant of time. The history graph tells us how things look at all times, but at only one position in space. We need them both to have the full story of the wave. An alternative representation of the wave is the series of graphs in FIGURE20.6, where we can get a clearer sense of the wave moving forward. But graphs like these are essentially impossible to draw by hand, so it is necessary to move back and forth between snapshot graphs and history graphs.
FIGURE 20.5 A history graph for the dot on the string in Figure 20.4.
fly
FIGURE 20.6 An alternative look at a traveling wave.
The string's displacement as a
function of time at position
Xl
I. / Leading edge
+
\ Trailing edge Later timesrrrstimes
Earlier times
EXAMPLE 20.2
Finding a history graph from a snapshot graph
MODEL This is a wave traveling at constant moves 2.0 m to the right every second.
speed. The pulse
FIGURE20.7 is a snapshot graph at t ~ 0 s of a wave moving to the right at a speed of 2.0 mls. Draw a history graph for the position x = 8.0m. FIGURE 20.7
A snapshot graph at
Snapshot
1~
0
s.
I!.y(mm)
graph
at 1 ~ 0 s
The snapshot graph of Figure 20.7 shows the wave at all points on the xaxis at t = 0 s. You can see that nothing is happening at x = 8.0 m at this instant of time because the wave has not yet reached x = 8.0 m. In fact, at 1 = 0 s the leading edge of the wave is still 4.0 m away from x = 8.0 m. Because the wave is traveling at 2.0 mis, it will take 2.0 s for the leading edge to reach x = 8.0 m. Thus the history graph for x = 8.0 m will be zero until 1 = 2.0 s. The first part of the wave causes a downward displacement of the medium, so immediately after t = 2.0 s the displacement at x = 8.0 m will be negative. The negative portion of the
VISUALIZE
20.2 . OneDimensionalWaves
607
wave pulse is 2.0 m wide and takes 1.0 s to pass z = 8.0 m, so the midpoint of the pulse reaches z = 8.0 m at t = 3.0 s. The positive portion takes another 1.0 s to go past, so the trailing edge of the pulse arrives at t = 4.0 s. Youcould also note that the trailing edge was initially 8.0 maway from x = 8.0 m and needed 4.0 s to travel that distance at 2.0 m1s. The displacement at x = 8.0 m returns to zero at t = 4.0 s and remains zero for all later times. This information is all portrayed on the history graph of FICiURE 20.8.
FICiURE
20.8
The corresponding
history graph at x
=
=
8.0 m.
ay (nnn)
History graph at x
8.0 m
I STOP TO THINK 20.2 I The graph at the right is the history
graph at x = 4.0 m of a wave traveling to the right at a speed of 2.0 mls. Which is the history graph of this wave at x = am?
The wave atx
=
4.0 m
aiJiJ
o
2 4
4
ay(cm)
Ll
6
4 6
I(s) 10 12
I(S)
6
(a)
8
10
12
lj Ll
0
2 4
ay(cm)
I(S)
lj
6
8
10
12
0
2
4
Ll
6 8
(e)
I(S) 10 12
Ll
8 10
I(S) 12
(b)
(d)
Longitudinal Waves
For a wave on a string, a transverse wave, the snapshot graph is literally a picture of the wave. Not so for a longitudinal wave, where the particles in the medium are displaced parallel to the direction in which the wave is traveling. Thus the displacement is ax rather than ay, and a snapshot graph is a graph of ax versus x. FICiURE 20.9a is a snapshot graph of a longitudinal wave, such as a sound wave. It's purposefully drawn to have the same shape as the string wave in Example 20.2. Without practice, it's not clear what this graph tells us about the particles in the medium.
FICiURE 20.9
Visualizing a longitudinal
wave.
(a)
ax (em)
Equilibrimnt t\\i\t/lIlttt
(b)
I I I I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
1.
Draw a series of equally spaced vertical lines to represent
the equilibrium positions of particles before the wave arrives. the particles from the graph to displace to the right or left.
I =Os
I
I I I
I
I
I
I I I I I I lei I
I I I ••••• I I I I
I I I I I I ••••• I
I I I I I I I
I I I lei I I I I
I I I I I I lei. I
I I I •• I I I I
I I I I I I I
I I • I
I I • I I I I
I I lei I I I I
2. Use information in the medium
1,= Is,
I
3. The wave propagates
to the right at 1.0 cmfs .
I I ••• I
t3=2s,
I
To help you find out, FICiURE 20.9b provides a tool for visualizing longitudinal waves. In the second row, we've used information from the graph to displace the particles in the medium to the right or to the left of their equilibrium positions. For example, the particle at x = 1.0 em has been displaced 0.5 em to the right because the snapshot graph shows ax = 0.5 em at x = 1.0 em. We now have a picture of the longitudinal wave pulse at 11 = a s. You can see that the medium is compressed to higher density at the center of the pulse and, to compensate, expanded to lower density at the leading and trailing edges. Two more lines show the medium at 12 = 1 sand 13 = 2 s so that you can see the wave propagating through the medium at 1.0 cmls.
608
CHAPTER
20 . Traveling Waves
The Displacement
A traveling wave causes the particles of the medium to be displaced from their equilibrium positions. Because one of our goals is to develop a mathematical representation to describe all types of waves, we'll use the generic symbol D to stand for the displacement of a wave of any type. But what do we mean by a "particle" in the medium? And what about electromagnetic waves, for which there is no medium? For a string, where the atoms stay fixed relative to each other, you can think of either the atoms themselves or very small segments of the string as being the particles of the medium. D is then the perpendicular displacement ~y of a point on the string. For a sound wave, D is the longitudinal displacement ~x of a small volume of fluid. For any other mechanical wave, D is the appropriate displacement. Even electromagnetic waves can be described within the same mathematical representation if D is interpreted as a yetundefined electromagnetic field strength, a "displacement" in a more abstract sense as an electromagnetic wave passes through a region of space. Because the displacement of a particle in the medium depends both on where the particle is (position x) and on when you observe it (time t), D must be a function of the two variables x and t. That is,
D(x, t) = the displacement at time t of a particle at position x
You've probably seen or participated in 'the wave" at a sporting event. The wave moves around the stadium, but the people (the medium) simply undergo small displacements from their equilibrium positions.
The values of both variableswhere evaluate the displacement D.
and whenmust
be specified before you can
20.3 Sinusoidal Waves
10.1
Physics
Activ
A sinusoidal wave moving along the xaxis.
FIGURE 20.10
A wave source that oscillates with simple harmonic motion (SHM) generates a sinusoidal wave. For example, a loudspeaker cone that oscillates in SHM radiates a sinusoidal sound wave. The sinusoidal electromagnetic waves broadcast by television and PM radio stations are generated by electrons oscillating back and forth in the antenna wire with SHM. The frequency f of the wave is the frequency of the oscillating source. FIGURE20.1 0 shows a sinusoidal wave moving through a medium. The source of the wave, which is undergoing vertical SHM, is located at x = O. Notice how the wave crests move with steady speed toward larger values of x at later times t. FIGURE20.11. is a history graph for a sinusoidal wave, showing the displacement of the medium at one point in space. Each particle in the medium undergoes simple harmonic motion with frequency f, so this graph of SHM is identical to the graphs you leamed to work with in Chapter 14. The period of the wave, shown on the graph, is the time interval for one cycle of the motion. The period is related to the wave frequency f by
times
T=f
exactly as in simple harmonic motion.
FIGURE 20.11 (a) A
1
(20.3)
History and snapshot graphs for a sinusoidal wave. (b l A snapshot graph at one instant of time ~ _~.,/crest ~ Wave v speed
history graph at one point in space
A A
~~'f\f\f\f\
VVVV\
A t A
V'\JV\.jX
Trough
f\
f\
f\'
20.3 . Sinusoidal Waves
609
Displacement versus time is only half the story. FIGURE 20.11 b shows a snapshot graph for the same wave at one instant in time. Here we see the wave stretched out in space, moving to the right with speed v. The amplitude A of the wave is the maximum value of the displacement. The crests of the wave have displacement D"e" = A and the troughs have displacement Dtrough = A. An important characteristic of a sinusoidal wave is that it is periodic in space as well as in time. As you move from left to right along the "frozen" wave in the snapshot graph of Figure 20.11 b, the disturbance repeats itself over and over. The distance spanned by one cycle of the motion is called the wavelength of the wave. Wavelength is symbolized by A (lowercase Greek lambda) and, because it is a length, it is measured in units of meters. The wavelength is shown in Figure 20.11b as the distance between two crests, but it could equally well be the distance between two troughs.
NOTE ~ Wavelength is the spatial analog of period. The period T is the time in which the disturbance at a single point in space repeats itself. The wavelength A is the distance in which the disturbance at one instant of time repeats itself. ...
FIGURE 20.12 A series of snapshot graphs at time increments of onequarter of the period T. This crest is moving to the right. A
The Fundamental
Relationship
for Sinusoidal Waves
There is an important relationship between the wavelength and the period of a wave. FIGURE 20.12 shows this relationship through five snapshot graphs of a sinusoidal wave at time increments of onequarter of the period T. One full period has elapsed between the first graph and the last, which you can see by observing the motion at a fixed point on the xaxis. Each point in the medium has undergone exactly one complete oscillation. The critical observation is that the wave crest marked by an arrow has moved one full wavelength between the first graph and the last. That is, during a time interval of exactly one period T, each crest of a sinusoidal wave travels forward a distance of exactly one wavelength A. Because speed is distance divided by time, the wave speed must be
v==
t ~ 0 0+ht,+rlh+,tx A A t ~ ~T 0+1t+tt+x
(m)
(m)
distance time
A
T
(20.4)
A
A
Because
I=
liT, it is customary to write Equation 20.4 in the form v
=
AI
(20.S)
A A
Although Equation 20.S has no special name, it is the fundamental relationship for periodic waves. When using it, keep in mind the physical meaning that a wave moves forward a distance of one wavelength during a time interval of one period.
NOTE ~ Wavelength and period are defined only for periodic waves, so Equations 20.4 and 20.S apply only to periodic waves. A wave pnlse has a wave speed, but it doesn't have a wavelength or a period. Hence Equations 20.4 and 20.S cannot be applied to wave pulses. ...
A
A
Because the wave speed is a property of the medium while the wave frequency is a property of the source, it is often usefnl to write Equation 20.S as A=
11 = I
property of the medium property of the source
(20.6)
A
During a time interval of exactly
one period, the crest has moved
The wavelength is a consequence of a wave of frequency medium in which the wave speed is v.
I
traveling through a
forward exactly one wavelength.
610
CHAPTER
20 . Traveling Waves
STOP TO THINK 20.3
What is the frequency of this traveling wave? a. 0.1 Hz b.0.2Hz c.2Hz d.5Hz e. 10 Hz f. 500 Hz
D
1't1,/.,t+,_+_
x (m)
The Mathematics
of Sinusoidal Waves
A sinusoidal wave is "frozen" at t ~ O.
FIGURE 20.13 D A Snapshot graph at
Section 20.2 introduced the idea of a function D(x, t) that gives the displacement of a particle in the medium at position x and time I. It's relatively straightforward to deduce the displacement function for a sinusoidal wave. FIGURE 20.13 shows a snapshot graph at I = 0 of a sinusoidal wave. The sinusoidal function that describes the displacement of this wave is D(x,
1=
t~0
0)
=
ASin(27T~
+
.po)
(20.7)
A
where the notation D(x, I = 0) means that we've frozen the time at t = 0 to make the displacement a function of only x. The term.po is a phase constant that characterizes the initial conditions. (We'll return to the phase constant momentarily.) The function of Equation 20.7 is periodic with period A. We can see this by writing D(x
+
A)
=
ASin(27T (x:
A)
+
.po)
=
ASin(27T~
+ .po +
27Trad)
= ASin(27T~
+
.po)
= D(x)
where we used the fact that sin(a + 27Trad) = sina. In other words, the disturbance created by the wave at x + A is exactly the same as the disturbance at x. We can now set the wave in motion by replacing x in Equation 20.7 with x  vr, To see why this works, recall that the wave moves distance vr during time t. In other words, whatever displacement the wave has at position x at time t, the wave must have had that same displacement at position x  vt at the earlier time t = O. Mathematically, this idea can be captured by writing D(x, I)
=
D(x  vI, I
=
0)
(20.8)
Make sure you understand how this statement describes a wave moving in the positive xdirection at speed v. This is what we were looking for. D(x, I) is the general function describing the traveling wave. It's found by taking the function that describes the wave at I = Othe function of Equation 20.7and replacing x with x  vI. Thus the displacement equation of a sinusoidal wave traveling in the positive xdirection at speed v is D(x, I)
=
ASin(27T x ~ vI
+
.po)
=
ASin(27T(~

f) + .po)
(20.9)
In the last step we used v = At = AfT to write vl A = liT. The function of Equation 20.9 is not only periodic in space with period A, it is also periodic in time with period T. That is, D(x, I + T) = D(x, I).
20.3 . Sinusoidal Waves
611
It will be useful to introduce two new quantities. First, recall from simple harmonic motion the angular frequency
W
= 27Tf=
T
27T
(20.10)
The units of w are rad/s, although many textbooks use simply s 1. You can see that w is 27Ttimes the reciprocal of the period in time. This suggests that we define an analogous quantity, called the wave number k, that is 27Ttimes the reciprocal of the period in space: k = 27T A The units of k arerad/m, although many textbooks use simply m ", The wave number k is not a spring constant, even though it uses the same symbol. This is a most unfortunate use of symbols, but every major textbook and professional tradition uses the same symbol k for these two very different meanings, so we have little choice but to follow along. ...
NOTE ~
(20.11)
We can use the fundamental relationship v = ),j" find an analogous relationship to between w and k: 27T W v=),j"==k 27T which is usually written
w = vk
W
k
(20.12)
(20.13)
FICiURE 20.14 Interpreting the equation of a sinusoidal traveling wave.
Equation 20.13 contains no new information. It is a variation of Equation 20.5, but one that is convenient when working with k and w. If we use the definitions of Equations 20.10 and 20.11, Equation 20.9 for the displacement can be written D(x,
t) = Asin(kx
 cot
+ <Po)
AV V V V \
If xis fixed, D(x" t) = Asin(kx,  wt + </J,;J gives a sinusoidal history graph at one point in space, Xl" It repeats every T s.
A
p
.___I__. D
History graph at
x,
f\f\f\f\
(sinusnidal wave traveling in the positive xdirection)
(20.14)
A sinusoidal wave traveling in the negative xdirection is A sin(kx + cot + <Po). Equation 20.14 is graphed versus x and tin FICiURE 20.14. Just as it did for simple harmonic motion, the phase constant <Po characterizes the initial conditions. At (x, t) = (0 m, 0 s) Equation 20.14 becomes D(O m, 0 s)
=
Asin<po
or
. _l[D(Om,OS)] <Po = sin A
(20.15)
Different values of <Po describe different initial conditions for the wave.
If tis fixed, D(x, t,) = Asin(kx  wt, + </J,;J gives a sinusoidal snapshot graph at one instant of time, t," It repeats every A ID.
EXAMPLE
20.3
Analyzing a sinusoidal wave
SOLVE
A siousoidal wave with an amplitude of 1.00 em and a frequency of 100 Hz travels at 200 mls in the positive zdirection, At t = 0 s, the poiot x = 1.00 m is on a crest of the wave. a. Determine the values of A, v, A, k, f, w, T, and r/>o for this wave. b. Write the equation for the wave's displacement as it travels. c. Draw a snapshot graph of the wave at t = 0 s.
VISUALIZE
a. There are several numerical values associated with a sinusoidal traveling wave, but they are not all independent. From the problem statement itself we learn that A = 1.00cm
v=
200m/s
f=
100Hz
We can then find: A = vlf= 2.00m
1f
The snapshot graph will be sionsoidal, bnt we mnst do some numerical analysis before we know how to draw it.
k = 21f/A =
rad/m or 3.14 rad/m
Continued
612
CHAPTER
20 . Traveling Waves
OJ
=
21T/ = 628 rad/s
T = IIf = 0.0100 s = 10.0 ms The phase constant is determined by the initial conditions. We know that a wave crest, with displacement D = A, is passing Xo = 1.00 m alto = 0 s. Equation 20.14 at Xo and 10 is D(xo, 10) = A = Asin(k(1.00 m) This equation is trne only if sin(k(1.oo m) reqnires k(1.oo m)
"'0
+ "'0) + "'0)
=
Notice that we included units with A, k, OJ, and c. We know that x = 1.00 m is a wave crest at I = 0 s and that the wavelength is A = 2.00 m. Because the origin is Al2 away from the crest at x = 1.00 m, we expect to fmd a wave trough at x = O. This is confirmed by calculating D(O m, 0 s) = (1.00 em) sine 1T12 rad) = 1.00 cm. FIGURE 20.15 is a snapshot graph that portrays this information.
"'0'
1, which
FIGURE 20.15 A snapshot graph at I = sinusoidal wave of Example 20.3. D(em)
0
s of the
+
"'0
=
1T Z rad
Att=Os
v
____.
=
200mls
Solving for the phase constant gives
"'0
=
1T Zrad
1T  (1T rad/m) (1.00 m) = Zrad
b. With the information gleaned from part a, the wave's displacementis D(x, I) = 1.00 cm X sin[(3.14 rad/m)x  (628 rad/s)1  1T12 rad]
Wave Motion on a String
The displacement equation, Equation 20.14, allows us to learn more about wave motion on a string. As a wave travels along the xaxis, the points on the string oscillate back and forth in the ydirection. The displacement D of a point on the string is simply that point's ycoordinate, so Equation 20.14 for a string wave is y(x, t) = A sin(kx  cat + <Po) (20.16)
The velocity of a particle on the stringwhich is not the same as the velocity of the wave along the stringis the time derivative of Equation 20.16:
Vy =
dy dt
=
wAcos(kx
 cot
+ <Po)
(20.17)
FIGURE 20.16 A snapshot graph of a wave on a string with vectors showing the velocity of the string at various points.
The maximum velocity of a small segment of the string is Vrn ax = wA. This is the same result we found for simple harmonic motion because the motion of the string particles is simple harmonic motion. FIGURE 20.16 shows velocity vectors of the particles at different points on a sinusoidal wave.
NOTE ~ Creating a wave of larger amplitude increases the speed of particles in the medium, but it does not change the speed of the wave through the medium. <II
The velocity of the wave
+
f9'
At a turning point, the particlehas
zero velocity.
The velocity of a
Pursuing this line of thought, we can derive an expression for the wave speed along the string. FIGURE 20.17 shows a small segment of the string with length ~x « A right at a crest of the wave. You can see that the string's tension exerts a downward force on this piece of the string, pulling it back to equilibrium. Newton's second law for this small segment of string is (20.18) where we used the string's linear density ILto write the mass as m
=
A particle's velocity is maximumat zero
displacement.
IL~X.
20.3 . Sinusoidal Waves
613
From simple harmonic motion, we know that this point of maximum displacement is also the point of maximum acceleration. The acceleration of a point on the string is the time derivative of Equation 20.17:
ay = 
FIGURE 20.17 A small segment of string at the crest of a wave. A small segment of the string at the crest
dv; dt
=
of the wave. Because of the curvature of
w2Asin(kx

wt
+ <Po)
(20.19)
the string. the tension forces exert a net
downward force on this segment.
Thus the acceleration at the crest of the wave is ay = w2A. But the angular frequency w with which the particles of the string oscillate is related to the wave's speed v along the string by Equation 20.13, w = vk. Thus (20.20) A large wave speed causes the particles of the string to oscillate more quickly and thus to have a larger acceleration. You can see from Figure 20.17 that the ycomponent of the tension is T, sinO, where o is the angle of the string at x = ~ax. 0 is a negative angle because it is below the xaxis. This segment of string is pulled from both ends, so (Fne,)y = 2T,sinO The angle 0 is very small because ax« tion (sinu = tanu if u « 1) to write (20.21)
~,
!4x
0
14x
A, so we can use the smallangle approxima(20.22)
where tanO is the slope of the string at x = ~ax. At this specific instant, with the crest of the wave at x string is
y = Acos(kx)
=
0, the equation of the
The slope of the string at x = ~ax is the derivative evaluated at that point: tanO
=
dyl ~.~
=
kAsin(kx)I"dx12
=
_kASin(kaX) 2 approximation
Now ax« A, so kaxl2 = ",axlA «1. (sinu = u if u« 1) of the slope is tanO = _kA(k~X)
Thus the smallangle
= _ e~ax
(20.23)
If we substitute this expression for tan 0 into Equation 20.22, we find that the net force on this little piece of string is (20.24) Now we can use Equation 20.20 for ay and Equation 20.24 for (Fne,)y in Newton's second law. With these substitutions, Equation 20.18 becomes (Fne,)y The term k2Aax
=
eAT,ax
=
(lLaX)ay
=
v2eAlLaX
(20.25)
cancels, and we're left with v
=
Jf;
(20.26)
This was the result that we stated, without proof, in Equation 20.1. Although we've derived Equation 20.26 with the assumption of a sinusoidal wave, the wave speed does not depend on the shape of the wave. Thus any wave on a stretched string will have this wave speed.
614
CHAPTER
20 . TravelingWaves
EXAMPLE 20.4 Generating a sinusoidal wave A very long string with /L = 2.0 glm is stretched along the xaxis with a tension of 5.0 N. At x = 0 m it is tied to a 100 Hz simple harmonic oscillator that vihrates perpendicular to the string with an amplitude of 2.0 mm. The oscillator is at its maximum positive displacement at I = 0 s.
therefore the angular frequency is w = 27Tf = 2007T rad/s. We still need k = 27T/A, but we do not know the wavelength. However, we have enough information to determine the wave speed, and we can then use either A = vlf or k = wlv. The speed is
a. Write the displacement equation for the traveling wave on the string. b. Atl = 5.0 ms, what is the string's displacementat a point 2.7 m from the oscillator? The oscillator generates a sinusoidal traveling wave on a string. The displacement of the wave has to match the displacement of the oscillator at x = 0 m.
MODEL SOLVE
v=l;=
D(x, I) = (2.0 mm) X
5.0N = 50mls 0.OO20kg/m
=
Using v, we find A = 0.50 m and k Thus the wave's displacementis
27T/A = 47T rad/m.
sin[27T«2.0m1)x  (100 SI)/)
+ 7T/2 rad]
a. The equation for the displacementis
D(x, I) = Asin(kx  tot
+ </>0)
with A, k, w, and </>0 be determined. The wave amplitude is to the same as the amplitude of the oscillator that generates the wave, so A = 2.0 mm. The oscillator has its maximum displacement yo~ = A = 2.0 mm at I = 0 s, thus D(Om,Os)
=
where x is in m and I in s. Notice that we have separatedout the 27T. his step is not essential, but for some problems it makes T subsequentsteps easier. b. The wave's displacement at I = 5.0 ms = 0.0050 sis
D(x, I = 5.0 ms) = (2.0 mm) sine47TX  7T+ 7T/2 rad)
=
Asin(</>o)
=A
(2.0mm)sin(47Tx  7T/2rad)
At x
=
2.7 m (calculator set to radians!), the displacementis
D(2.7 m, 5.0 ms) = 1.6 mm
This reqnires the phase constant to be </>0 7T/2 rad. The = wave's frequency is f = 100 Hz, the frequency of the source;
20.4 Waves in Two and Three Dimensions
The wave fronts of a circular or spherical wave.
FIGURE 20.18 (a)
Theyarespacedonewavelengthpart. a
Wave
fronts are the crests of the wave.
t···\.
Suppose you were to take a photograph of ripples spreading on a pond. If you mark the location of the crests on the photo, your picture would look like FIGURE20.180. The lines that locate the crests are called wave fronts. and they are spaced precisely one wavelength apart. The diagram shows only a single instant of time, but you can imagine a movie in which you would see the wave fronts moving outward from the source at speed v. A wave like this is called a circular wave. It is a twodimensional wave that spreads across a surface. Although the wave fronts are circles, you would hardly notice the curvature if you observed a small section of the wave front very, very far away from the source. The wave fronts would appear to be parallel lines, still spaced one wavelength apart and traveling at speed v. A good example is an ocean wave reaching a beach. Ocean waves are generated by storms and wind far out at sea, hundreds or thousands of miles away. By the time they reach the beach where you are working on your tan, the crests appear to be straight lines. An aerial view of the ocean would show a wave diagram like
FIGURE20.18b.
v ......... The circular wave fronts move outward from the source at speed v.
(b)
:~~~:::i=ea~
Veryfarawayfrom
fronts appear to be straigbt lines.
H+{:v
A
A
A
v
Many waves of interest, such as sound waves or light waves, move in three dimensions. For example, loudspeakers and lightbulbs emit spherical waves. That is, the crests of the wave form a series of concentric spherical shells separated by the wavelength A. In essence, the waves are threedimensional ripples. It will still be useful to draw wavefront diagrams such as Figure 20.18, but now the circles are slices through the spherical shells locating the wave crests. If you observe a spherical wave very, very far from its source, the small piece of the wave front that you can see is a little patch on the surface of a very large sphere. If the radius of the sphere is sufficiently large, you will not notice the curvature and this little patch of the wave front appears to be a plane. FIGURE 20.19 illustrates the idea of a plane wave.
20.4 . Waves in Two and Three Dimensions To visualize a plane wave, imagine standing on the xaxis facing a sound wave as it comes toward you from a very distant loudspeaker. Sound is a longitudinal wave, so the particles of medium oscillate toward you and away from you. If you were to locate all of the particles that, at one instant of time, were at their maximum displacement toward you, they would all be located in a plane perpendicular to the travel direction. This is one of the wave fronts in Figure 20.19, and all the particles in this plane are doing exactly the same thing at that instant of time. This plane is moving toward you at speed v. There is another plane one wavelength behind it where the molecules are also at maximum displacement, yet another two wavelengths behind the first, and so on. Because a plane wave's displacement depends on x but not on y or z, the displacement function D(x, t) describes a plane wave just as readily as it does a onedimensional wave. Once you specify a value for x, the displacement is the same at every point in the yzplane that slices the xaxis at that value (i.e., one of the planes shown in Figure 20.19).
NOTE ~ There are no perfect plane waves in nature, but many waves of practical interest can be modeled as plane waves. <II
FIGURE 20.1 9 A
615
plane wave.
Very far from the source, small segments of spherical wave fronts appear to be planes. The
wave is cresting at every point in these planes .
•......................
x
We can describe a circular wave or a spherical wave by changing the mathematical description from D(x, t) to D(r, t), where r is the distance measured outward from the source. Then the displacement of the medium will be the same at every point on a spherical surface. In particular, a sinusoidal spherical wave with wave number k and angular frequency w is written D(r, t)
=
A(r) sin(kr  cot + </>0)
(20.27)
Other than the change of x to r, the only difference is that the amplitude is now a function of r. A onedimensional wave propagates with no change in the wave amplitude. But circn1ar and spherical waves spread out to fill larger and larger volumes of space. To conserve energy, an issue we'll look at later in the chapter, the wave's amplitude has to decrease with increasing distance r. This is why sound and light decrease in intensity as you get farther from the source. We don't need to specify exactly how the amplitude decreases with distance, but you shonld be aware that it does.
phase and phase Difference
The quantity (lex  cot + </>0) is called the phase of the wave, denoted </>. The phase of a wave will be an important concept in Chapters 21 and 22, where we will explore the consequences of adding various waves together. For now, we can note that the wave fronts seen in Figures 20.18 and 20.19 are "surfaces of constant phase." To see this, use the phase to write the displacement as simply D(x, t) = A sino, Because each point on a wave front has the same displacement, the phase must be the same at every point. It will be useful to know the phase difference /l</> between two different points on a sinusoidal wave. FIGURE 20.20 shows two points on a sinusoidal wave at time t. The phase difference between these point is
The phase difference between two points on a wave.
FIGURE 20.20 D
/l</>
=
=
</>2  </>,
= (lex2
=

tot
=
+ </>0) /lx 27TT
(lex,  oat
+ </>0)
(20.28) +~~~f\~.rx ~1P'··\ l x2 I : fI
The phase of the wave at this point is "'I ~ !:xl  wI + "'0·
I I
k(X2  x,)
k/lx
That is, the phase difference between two points on a wave depends on only the ratio of their separation Ax to the wavelength A. For example, two points on a wave separated by /lx = ~ have a phase difference /l</> = 7T rad. A An important consequence of Equation 20.28 is that the phase difference between two adjacent wave fronts is t1q. = 21Trad. This follows from the fact that two adjacent wave fronts are separated by /lx = A. This is an important idea. Moving from one crest of the wave to the next corresponds to changing the distance by A and changing the phase by 27T rad.
:
./
The phase of the wave at this point is "', ~ !:x,  wI + "'0·
I I
~:
The phase difference
between these points is IJ.", ~
21T¥.
616
CHAPTER
20 . Traveling Waves
EXAMPLE 20.5
The phase difference between two points on a sound wave
In this case, ~x = 60.0 em = 0.600 m. The wavelength is v 343 mls A =  = = 3.43 m f 100Hz and thus
~'" =
A 100 Hz sound wave travels with a wave speed of 343 mls. a. What is the phase difference between two points 60.0 em apart along the direction the wave is traveling? b. How far apart are two points whose phase differs by 90°? Treat the wave as a plane wave traveling in the positive xdirection.
MODEL SOLVE
2" 0.600 m = 0.350" rad = 63.00 3.43 m
a. The phase difference between two points is
b. A phase difference ~'" = 90° is ,,/2 rad. This will be the phase difference between two points when ~xl A = or when ~x = ,\/4. Here, with A = 3.43 m, ~x = 85.8 em.
t
ASSESS
The phase difference increases as ~x increases, expect the answer to part b to be larger than 60 em.
so we
STOP TO THINK 20.4
What is the phase difference between the crest of a wave and the
adjacent trough? a. 27T rad d. 7T12 rad b. 0 rad e. 7T rad c. 7T/4 rad f. 37T rad
20.5 Sound and Light
Although there are many kinds of waves in nature, two are especially significant for us as humans. These are sound waves and light waves, the basis of hearing and seeing.
Sound Waves
sound wave in a fluid is a sequence of compressions and rarefactions that travels outward with speed V.~d' The variation in density and the amount of motion have been greatly exaggerated.
FIGURE 20.21 A
Loudspeaker
a~:ag30
oo~
:Ii (I
!.._L.. /
Rarefaction
... 0<) ao
a It oOOao a~12<1'JI
Compression
°
a~QG
O::ll;a. CIoj)QOU: °0
D . V
~
I)
.p.!
Q:~ DQo"o
alii
=:..rs;;a
i.:i,!:a
0 •• •
0
.:I
tJQQg~
a:aQ
es ".
a
sound
We usually think of sound waves traveling in air, but sound can travel through any gas, through liquids, and even through solids. FIGURE 20.21 shows a loudspeaker cone vihrating back and forth in a fluid such as air or water. Each time the cone moves forward, it collides with the molecules and pushes them closer together. A half cycle later, as the cone moves backward, the fluid has room to expand and the density decreases a little. These regions of higher and lower density (and thus higher and lower pressure) are called compressions and rarefadions. This periodic sequence of compressions and rarefactions travels outward from the loudspeaker as a longitudinal sound wave. A similar type of sound wave is produced if you hit the end of a metal rod with a hammer, sending a compression pulse through the metal.
~ Sound waves in gases and liquids are always longitudinal waves, but sound waves in solids can be either longitudinal or transverse. For a transverse wave to propagate, a plane of molecules oscillating perpendicular to the direction of motion has to be able to "drag" the neighboring planes of atoms along with it. Neighboring planes slip in a gas or liquid, so these media won't support a transverse wave. (Think how much easier it is to slide your hand sideways in water than to push against the water.) But the stronger molecular bonds in a solid do support transverse sound waves, sometimes called shear waves. Their speed differs from the speed oflongitudinal sound waves. We'll assume that all sound waves are longitudinal waves unless otherwise noted. <II NOTE
••
Molecules
!
Individual molecules oscillate back and forth with displacement D. As they do so, the compressions propagate forward at speed vsound' Because compressions are regions of higher pressure, a sound wave can be thought of as a pressure wave.
10.3
phYsics
Activ
20.5 . Sound and Light The speed of sound waves depends on the properties of the medium. A thermodynamic analysis of the compressions and expansions shows that the wave speed in a gas depends on the temperature and on the molecular mass of the gas. For air at room temperature (20°C), v,onnd = 343 mls (sound speed in air at 20°C)
TABLE 20.1
611
The speed of sound
Medium
Air (O°C) Air (20°C)
Speed (m/s) 331 343 970 1170 1480 6000 6420
The speed of sound is a little lower at lower temperatures and a little higher at higher temperatures. Liquids and solids are less compressible than air, and that makes the speed of sound in those media higher than in air. Table 20.1 gives the speed of sound in several substances. A speed of 343 mls is high, but not extraordinarily so. A distance as small as 100 m is enough to notice a slight delay between when you see something, such as a person hammering a nail, and when you hear it. The time required for sound to travel 1 km is t = (1000 m)/(343 mls) = 3 s. You may have learned to estimate the distance to a bolt of lightuing by timing the number of seconds between when you see the flash and when you hear the thunder. Because sound takes 3 s to travel 1 km, the time divided by 3 gives the distance in kilometers. Or, in English uuits, the time divided by 5 gives the distance in miles. Your ears are able to detect sinusoidal sound waves with frequencies between about 20 Hz and about 20,000 Hz, or 20 kHz. Low frequencies are perceived as "low pitch" bass notes, while high frequencies are heard as "high pitch" treble notes. Your highfrequency range of hearing can deteriorate either with age or as a result of exposure to loud sounds that damage the ear. Sound waves exist at frequencies well above 20 kHz, even though humans can't hear them. These are called ultrasonic frequencies. Oscillators vibrating at frequencies of many MHz generate the ultrasouic waves used in ultrasound medical imaging. A 3 MHz frequency traveling through water (which is basically what your body is) at a sound speed of 1480 mls has a wavelength of about 0.5 mm. It is this very small wavelength that allows ultrasound to image very small objects. We'll see why when we study diffraction in Chapter 22.
Helium (O°C) Ethyl alcohol Water Granite
Aluminum
This ultrasound image is an example of using highfrequency sound waves to "see" within the human body.
EXAMPLE 20.6 Sound wavelengths What are the wavelengths of sound waves at the limits of human hearing and at the midrange frequency of 500 Hz? Notes sung by human voices are near 500 Hz, as are notes played by striking keys near the center of a piano keyboard. MODEL SOLVE
f=
20,000 Hz
A = = 0.017m = !.7cm 20,000 Hz
343 m/s
ASSESS
Assume a room temperature of 20°C.
We can use the fundamental relationship A = vlf to find the wavelengthsfor sounds of various frequencies:
f=
20Hz 500Hz
A==17m 20Hz
343 m/s
f=
A = = 0.69m 500Hz
343 m/s
The wavelength of a 20 kHz note is a small!. 7 cm while, at the other extreme, a 20 Hz note has a huge wavelength of 17m! This is because a wave moves forward one wavelength during a time interval of one period, and a wave traveling at 343 m/s can move 17 m during the to s period of a 20 Hz note. The 69 cm wavelength of a 500 Hz note is more of a "human scale." You might note that most musical instruments are a meter or a little less in size. This is not a coincidence. You will see in the next chapter how the wavelength produced by a musical instrument is related to its size.
Electromagnetic
Waves
A light wave is an electromagnetic wave, an oscillation of the electromagnetic field. Other electromagnetic waves, such as radio waves, microwaves, and ultraviolet light, have the same physical characteristics as light waves even though we cannot sense them with our eyes. It is easy to demonstrate that light will pass unaffected through a container from which all the air has been removed, and light reaches us from distant stars through the vacuum of interstellar space. Such observations raise interesting but difficult questions. If light can travel through a region in which there is no matter, then what is the medium of a light wave? What is it that is waving?
618
CHAPTER
20 . Traveling Waves
It took scientists over 50 years, most of the 19th century, to answer this question. We will examine the answers in more detail in Part VI after we introduce the ideas of electric and magnetic fields. For now we can say that light waves are a "selfsustaining oscillation of the electromagnetic field." That is, the displacement D is an electric or magnetic field. Being selfsustaining means that electromagnetic waves require no material medium in order to travel; hence electromagnetic waves are not mechanical waves. Fortunately, we can learn about the wave properties of light without having to understand electromagnetic fields. In fact, the discovery that light propagates as a wave was made 60 years before it was realized that light is an electromagnetic wave. We, too, will be able to learn much about the wave nature of light without having to know just what it is that is waving. It was predicted theoretically in the late 19th century, and has been subsequently confirmed experimentally with outstanding precision, that all electromagnetic waves travel through vacuum with the same speed, called the speed of light. The value of the speed of light is
Vlight
=
C
= 299,792,458 mls
(electromagnetic wave speed in vacuum)
where the special symbol c is used to designate the speed of light. (This is the c in Einstein's famous formula E = mc2.) Now this is really movingabout one million times faster than the speed of sound in air! At this speed, light could circle the earth 7.5 times in a mere one secondif there were a way to make it go in circles.
NOTE ~
c
=
3.00 X 108 mls is the appropriate value to use in calculations ....
The wavelengths of light are extremely small. You will learn in Chapter 22 how these wavelengths are determined, but for now we will note that visible light is an electromagnetic wave with a wavelength (in air) in the range of roughly 400 nm (400 X 109 m) to 700 nm (700 X 109 m). Each wavelength is perceived as a different color, with the longer wavelengths seen as orange or red light and the shorter wavelengths seen as blue or violet light. A prism is able to spread the different wavelengths apart, from which we learn that "white light" is all the colors, or wavelengths, combined. The spread of colors seen with a prism, or seen in a rainbow, is called the visible spectrum. If the wavelengths of light are unbelievably small, the oscillation frequencies are unbelievably large. The frequency for a 600 nm wavelength oflight (orange) is
f
= ~ = 3.00 X 10 mls = 5.00 X 1014 Hz
8
A
600X109m
White light passing through a prism is spread out into a band of colors called the visible spectrum.
The frequencies of light waves are roughly a factor of a trillion (1012) higher than sound frequencies. Electromagnetic waves exist at many frequencies other than the rather limited range that our eyes detect. One of the major technological advances of the 20th century was leaming to generate and detect electromagnetic waves at many frequencies, ranging from lowfrequency radio waves to the extraordinarily high frequencies of x rays. FIGURE 20.22 shows that the visible spectrum is a small slice of the much broader electromagnetic spectrum.
FIGURE 20.22
The electromagnetic spectrum from 106 Hz to 1018 Hz.
Increasing frequency (Hz) ________. 106 108
1010
AM radio FM radiorrV
300 +
Microwaves 0.03 3X
Infrared
Ultraviolet 3X
X rays
3X
104
3 X 106 Visible light
108
1010
Increasing wavelength (m)
700 run
600 run
500 run
400 run
20.5 . Sound and Light
619
EXAMPLE 20.7 Traveling at the speed of light A satellite exploring Jupiter transmits data to the earth as a radio wave with a frequency of 200 MHz. What is the wavelength of the electromagnetic wave, and how long does it take the signal to travel 800 million kilometers from Jupiter to the earth? SOLVE Radio waves are sinusoidal electromagnetic waves traveling with speed c. Thus
A=
£ f
=
3.00 X 10 mls 2.00 X 108 Hz
8
=
1.5 m 8.0 X 10" m is
The time needed to travel 800 X 10' km
=
!J.t = !J.x = 8.0 X 10" m = 2700 s = 45 min c 3.00 X 108 mls
The Index of Refraction
light waves travel with speed c in a vacuum, but they slow down as they pass through transparent materials such as water or glass or even, to a very slight extent, air. The slowdown is a consequence of interactions between the electromagnetic field of the wave and the electrons in the material. The speed of light in a material is characterized by the material's index of refraction n, defined as speed of light in a vacuum c n = speed of light in the material = ; (20.29)
TABLE 20.2
The index of refraction of a material is always greater than I because v < c. A vacuum has n = 1 exactly. Table 20.2 shows the index of refraction for several materials. You can see that liquids and solids have larger indices of refraction than gases. An accurate value for the index of refraction of air is relevant only in very precise measurements. We will assume nair = 1.00 in this text. <II
NOTE ~
Typical indices of refraction
Material
Vacuum Air
Index of refraction I exactly 1.0003
1.33
If the speed of a light wave changes as it enters into a transparent material, such as glass, what happens to the light's frequency and wavelength? Because v = Af, either A or i or both have to change when v changes. As an analogy, think of a sound wave in the air as it impinges on the surface of a pool of water. As the air oscillates back and forth, it periodically pushes on the surface of the water. These pushes generate the compressions of the sound wave that continues on into the water. Because each push of the air causes one compression of the water, the frequency of the sound wave in the water must be exactly the same as the frequency of the sound wave in the air. In other words, the frequency of a wave is the frequency of the source. It does not change as the wave moves from one medium to another. The same is true for electromagnetic waves; the frequency does not change as the wave moves from one material to another. FIGURE 20.23 shows a light wave passing through a transparent material with index of refraction n. As the wave travels through vacuum it has wavelength Avao and frequency ivao such that Avaoivao = c. In the material, Am,timat = v = cln. The frequency does not change as the wave enters ifm't = ivoc), so the wavelength must. The wavelength in the material is A
mat
Water Glass Diamond
1.50 2.42
FIGURE 20.23 Light passing through a transparent material with index of refraction n. A transparent material in which light travels slower, at speed v =
Vacuumn
=
1
\.....,
Indexn
c1n
n
=
1
====
v
c
c nfvac
Avoc n
fmat
nfmat
(20.30)
The wavelength in the transparent material is less than the wavelength in vacuum. This makes sense. Suppose a marching band is marching at one step per second at a speed of 1 mls. Suddenly they slow their speed to ~ mls but maintain their march at one step per second. The only way to go slower while marching at the same pace is to take smaller steps. When a light wave enters a material, the only way it can go slower while oscillating at the same frequency is to have a smaller wavelength.
The wavelength inside the material decreases, but the frequency doesn't change.
,
620
CHAPTER
20 . Traveling Waves
EXAMPLE
20.8
Light traveling through glass
b. The wavelength inside the glass is A1
~
Orange light with a wavelength of 600 nm is incident upon a 1.00mmthick glass microscope slide. a. What is the light speed in the glass? b. How many wavelengths of the light are inside the slide?
SOLVE
grass
nglass
A", ~ 600 mn ~ 400 mn ~ 400 X 107 m 1.50 .
a. From Table 20.2 we see that the index of refraction of glass is n glass ~ 1.50. Thus the speed of light in glass is
N wavelengths span a distance d ~ NA, so the number of wavelengths in d ~ 1.00 mm is N ~ t1_ ~ 1.00 X 10 m ~ 2500 A 4.00 X 10 7 m The fact that 2500 wavelengths how small the wavelengths oflight are.
ASSESS 3
vglass
__ c__ 3.00 X 108 mls _ 200 108 mI n.. 1.50 . X s
fit within I mm shows
STOP TO THINK 21.5 I A light wave travels through three transparent materials of equal thickness. Rank in order, from largest to smallest, the indices of refraction n.; nb, and nco
t
20.6 Power, Intensity, and Decibels
A traveling wave transfers energy from one point to another. The sound wave from a loudspeaker sets your eardrum into motion. Light waves from the sun warm the earth. The power of a wave is the rate, in joules per second, at which the wave transfers energy. As you learned in Chapter 11, power is measured in watts. A loudspeaker might emit 2 W of power, meaning that energy in the form of sound waves is radiated at the rate of 2 joules per second. A lightbulb might emit 5 W, or 5 Ils, of visible light. (In fact, this is about right for a socalled 100 watt bulb, with the other 95 W of power being emitted as heat, or infrared radiation, rather than as visible light.) Imagine doing two experiments with a lightbulb that emits 5 W of visible light. In the first, you hang the bulb in the center of a room and allow the light to illuminate the walls. In the second experiment, you use mirrors and lenses to "capture" the bulb's light and focus it onto a small spot on one wall. This is what a computer projector does. The energy emitted by the bulb is the same in both cases, but, as you know, the light is much brighter when focused onto a small area. We would say that the focused light is more intense than the diffuse light that goes in all directions. Similarly, a loudspeaker that beams its sound forward into a small area produces a louder sound in that area than a speaker of equal power that radiates the sound in all directions. Quantities such as brightness and loudness depend not only on the rate of energy transfer, or power, but also on the area that receives that power. FIGURE 20.24 shows a wave impinging on a surface of area a. The surface is perpendicular to the direction in which the wave is traveling. This might be a real, physical surface, such as your eardrum or a photovoltaic cell, but it could equally well be a mathematical surface in space that the wave passes right through. If the wave has power P, we define the intensity I of the wave to be
I=;
Energy from the sun is a practical and efficient way to heat water, as these solar panels are doing.
FIGURE
20.24 Plane waves of power P impinge on area a with intensity I ~ Pia.
The wave intensity at this surface is I = PIa.
Plane waves
ofpowerP
P
=
powertoarea ratio
.
(20.31)
Area
a
The SI units of intensity are W 1m2• Because intensity is a powertoarea ratio, a wave focused into a small area will have a larger intensity than a wave of equal power that is spread out over a large area.
20.6 . Power, Intensity, and Decibels
621
EXAMPLE
20.9
The intensity of a laser beam
A heliumneon laser, the kind that provides the familiar red light of classroom demonstrations and supermarket checkout scanners, emits 1.0 mW of light power into a 1.0mmdiameterlaser beam. What is the intensity of the laser beam?
MODEL SOLVE
The laser beam is a light wave.
The light waves of the laser beam pass through a mathematical surface that is a circle of diameter 1.0 mm. The intensity of the laser beam is 1= l'_ = _I'_ = O.OOIOW = 13ooW/m2 a 11'72 11'(0.00050 m)?
This is roughly the intensity of sunlight at noon on a summer day. The difference between the sun and a small laser is not their intensities, which are about the same, but their powers. The laser has a small power of I m W. It can produce a very intense wave only because the area through which the wave passes is very small. The sun, by contrast, radiates a total power P,oo = 4 X 1026 W. This immense power is spread through all of space, producing an intensity of 1400 W/m2 at a distance of 1.5 X 10" m, the radius of the earth's orbit.
ASSESS
If a source of spherical waves radiates uniformly in all directions, then, as shows, the power at distance r is spread uniformly over the surface of a sphere of radius r. The surface area of a sphere is a = 411'r2, so the intensity of a uniform spherical wave is
FIGURE 20.25
FIGURE 20.25
A
source emitting uniform
spherical waves.
(intensity of a uniform spherical source)
(20.32)
The inversesquare dependence of r is really just a statement of energy conservation. The source emits energy at the rate P joules per second. The energy is spread over a larger and larger area as the wave moves outward. Consequently, the energy per unit area must decrease in proportion to the surface area of a sphere. If the intensity at distance rl is II = P,ourc.t411'r? and the intensity at ri is 12 = P"","",411'rl, then you can see that the intensity ratio is (20.33) You can use Equation 20.33 to compare the intensities at two distances from a source without needing to know the power of the source.
NOTE ~ Wave intensities are strongly affected by reflections and absorption. Equations 20.32 and 20.33 apply to situations such as the light from a star or the sound from a firework exploding high in the air. Indoor sound does not obey a simple inversesquare law because of the many reflecting surfaces. ... The energy from the source is spread uniformly over a spherical surface of area 4'1Tr2. Intensity distance
'2
12 at
For a sinusoidal wave, each particle in the medium oscillates back and forth in simple harmonic motion. You learned in Chapter 14 that a particle in SHM with amplitude A has energy E = ~kA2, where k is the spring constant of the medium, not the wave number. It is this oscillatory energy of the medium that is transferred, particle to particle, as the wave moves through the medium. Because a wave's intensity is proportional to the rate at which energy is transferred through the medium, and because the oscillatory energy in the medium is proportional to the square of the amplitude, we can infer that for any wave 1= cA2 (20.34)
where c is a proportionality constant that depends on the type of wave. That is, the intensity of a wave is proportional to the square of its amplitude. If you double the amplitude of a wave, you increase its intensity by a factor of 4. Human hearing spans an extremely wide range of intensities, from the threshold of hearing at = 1 X 1012 W/m2 (at midrange frequencies) to the threshold of pain at = 10 W 1m2• If we want to make a scale of loudness, it's convenient and logical to
622
CHAPTER
20 . Traveling Waves
place the zero of our scale at the threshold of hearing. To do so, we define the sound intensity level, expressed in decibels (dB), as {:J = (10 dB) 10glO(f) (20.35)
where /0 = 1.0 X 1012 W 1m2• The symbol {:J is the Greek letter beta. Notice that {:J is computed as a baseLO logarithm, not a natural logarithm. The decibel is named after Alexander Graham Bell, inventor of the telephone. Sound intensity level is actually dimensionless because it's formed from the ratio of two intensities, so decibels are just a name to remind us that we're dealing with an intensity level rather than a true intensity. Right at the threshold of hearing, where I = /0, the sound intensity level is
TABLE 20.3
Sound intensity levels of common sounds Sound Threshold of hearing Person breathing, at 3 m A whisper, at 1 m P(dB) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130
{:J = (10 dB) 10glO(~) = (10 dB) 10glO(1) = 0 dB Note that 0 dB doesn't mean no sound; it means that, for most people, no sound is heard. Dogs have more sensitive hearing than humans, and most dogs can easily perceive a 0 dB sound. The sound intensity level at the pain threshold is {:J = (IOdB)log10
10W/m2 ( 1O12W/m2 ) = (10dB)loglO(1013) = l30dB
Quiet room Outdoors, no traffic Quiet restaurant Normal conversation, at I ill Busy traffic Vacuum cleaner, for user Niagara Falls, at viewpoint Jackhammer, at 2 m Stereo, at maximum volume Rock concert Threshold of pain
The major point to notice is that the sound intensity level increases by 10 dB each time the actual intensity increases by a/actor of 10. For example, the sound intensity level increases from 70 dB to 80 dB when the sound intensity increases from 105 W/m2 to lOoW/m2. Perception experiments find that sound is perceived as "twice as loud" when the intensity increases by a factor of 10. In terms of decibels, we can say that the loudness of a sound doubles with each increase in the sound intensity level by 10 dB. Table 20.3 gives the sound intensity levels for a number of sounds. Although 130 dB is the threshold of pain, quieter sounds can damage your hearing. A fairly short exposure to 120 dB can cause damage to the hair cells in the ear, but lengthy exposure to sound intensity levels of over 85 dB can produce damage as well.
EXAMPLE 20.10
Blender noise
The blender making a smoothie produces a sound intensity level of 83 dB. What is the intensity of the sound? What will the sound intensity level be if a second blender is tumedon?
SOLVE We can solve Equation 20.35 for the sound intensity, finding 1= 10 X 10~f10dB. Here we used the fact that 10 raised to a power is an "antilogarithm." In this case,
1= (1.0 X 1O12W/m2)
X
10,·3 = 2.0 X lOoW/m2 the intensity to I =
A second blender doubles the sound power and thus raises 4.0 X 100 W/m2• The new sound intensity level is
fJ
ASSESS
=
4.0 X 1O0W/m2) (10 dB) 10glO( 1.0 X 10 12 W/m2
=
86 dB by 3 dB.
In general, doubling the actual sound intensity increases the decibellevel
I
STOP TO THINK 20.1 Four trumpet players are playing the same note. If three of them suddenly stop, the sound intensity level decreases by
I
a.40dB
b. 12 dB
c.6dB
d.4dB
20.7 . The Doppler Effect
623
20.7 The Doppler Effect
Our final topic for this chapter is an interesting effect that occurs when you are in motion relative to a wave source. It is called the Doppler effect. You've likely noticed that the pitch of an ambulance's siren drops as it goes past you. A higher pitch suddenly becomes a lower pitch. Why? FIGURE 20.26a shows a source of sound waves moving away from Pablo and toward Nancy at a steady speed v,. The subscript s indicates that this is the speed of the source, not the speed of the waves. The source is emitting sound waves of frequency fo as it travels. The figure is a motion diagram showing the position of the source at times t = 0, T, 2T, and 3T, where T = 1/fo is the period of the waves.
FIGURE 20.26 A motion diagram showing the wave fronts emitted to the right at speed v,. (8) Motion of the source
physjcs
Activ
10.8,10.9
by a source as it moves
Pablo
1=.0
VS'
The dots are the positions of the source at t ~ 0, T, 2T, and 3T. The source emits frequency fo. \
____."""""'_l 2
j
kM I I I I I I I I
Nancy
Pablo sees the source
v,
Narrey sees the source
receding at speed
(b) Snapshot at time
approaching at speed
3 wavelengths
VS'
3T
span distance d.
Pablo detects frequency f_.
Crest
a was emitted
/
Point
3 is just emitting a wave front at t = 3T.
at t
=
O.
Crest 1 was emitted at t
=
T.
The wave front is a circle of radius 3.\0 centered on point O.
The wave front is a circle of radius 2Ao centered on point 1.
Crest 2 was emitted at t = 2T. The wave front is a circle of radius Ao centered on point 2.
Nancy measures the frequency of the wave emitted by the approaching source to be f+. At the same time, Pablo measures the frequency of the wave emitted by the receding source to be [.: Our task is to relate [; and [: to the source frequency fo and speed v,. After a wave crest leaves the source, its motion is governed by the properties of the medium. That is, the motion of the source cannot affect a wave that has already been emitted. Thus each circular wave front in FIGURE 20.26b is centered on the point from which it was emitted. The wave crest from point 3 was emitted just as this figure was made, but it hasn't yet had time to travel any distance. The wave crests are bunched up in the direction the source is moving, stretched out behind it The distance between one crest and the next is one wavelength, so the wavelength A+ Nancy measures is less than the wavelength Ao = vlfo that would be emitted if the source were at rest. Similarly, A_ behind the source is larger than Ao. These crests move through the medium at the wave speed v. Consequently, the frequency f ; = vI A+ detected by the observer whom the source is approaching is higher
624
CHAPTER
20 . Traveling Waves
than the frequency 10 emitted by the source. Similarly, 1 = vl L detected behind the source is lower than frequency 10. This change of frequency when a source moves relative to an observer is called the Doppler effed. The wavelength detected by Nancy is A+ = d13, where d is the difference between how far the wave has moved and how far the source has moved at time t = 3T. These distances are ~xwovo = vt ~x'm"ce
Doppler weather radar uses the Doppler shift of reflected radar signals to measure wind speeds and thus better gauge the severity of a storm.
= =
3vT 3v,T (20.36)
v,t
=
Thus the wavelength of the wave emitted by an approaching source is A+
=
3=
d
~xw'"  ~x'"=, 3
=
3vT  3v,T 3
=
(v  v,)T
(20.37)
You can see that our arbitrary choice of three periods was not relevant because the 3 cancels. The frequency detected in Nancy's direction is
1+ =

v A+
=
v (v  v,)T
=
fo
v (v  v,)
(20.38)
where 10 = liT is the frequency of the source and is the frequency you would detect if the source were at rest. We'll find it convenient to write the detected frequency as
f  ____ii_
+
1  v,/v
(Doppler effect for an approaching source) (20.39) (Doppler effect for a receding source)
1 = ____ii_
1 + v,/v
Proof of the second version, for the frequency 1 of a receding source, will be left for a homework problem. You can see that 1+ > 10 in front of the source, because the denominator is less than 1, and 1 < 10 behind the source.
EXAMPLE
20.11
How fast are the police traveling?
A police siren has a frequency of 550 Hz as the police car approaches you, 450 Hz after it has passed you and is receding. How fast are the police traveling? The temperature is 20°C.
MODEL The siren's frequency is altered by the Doppler effect. The frequency the car approaches and f as it moves away. SOLVE
is f+ as
To find v" we rewrite Equations 20.39 as fo = (1 + v.tvlffo = (1  v.tvlf+
We subtract the second equation from the first, giving
This is easily solved to give [;  [: v, = v
t, + f
= 
100 Hz
1000 Hz
343 mls = 34.3 mls
ASSESS
If you now solve for the siren frequency when at rest, you will find fo = 495 Hz. Surprisingly, the atrest frequency is not halfway between f and f+.
20.7 . The Doppler Effect
NOTE ~ The frequency of an approaching source is shifted upward, from fo to f+, but the frequency does not change as the source gets closer. It's often said that the frequency rises as a source approaches, but you can see that is not the case. What does rise is the intensity, or loudness, of the sound. Interestingly, a sound of constant frequency but increasing loudness is often perceived to be increasing in pitch. You might perceive that the pitch of an approaching ambulance is rising, but measurements would show that the frequency remains constant as the intensity increases. <III
625
A Stationary
Source and a Moving Observer
Suppose the police car in Example 20.11 is at rest while you drive toward it at 34.3 m/s. You might think that this is equivalent to having the police car move toward you at 34.3 mIs, but it isn't. Mechanical waves move through a medium, and the Doppler effect depends not just on how the source and the observer move with respect to each other but also how they move with respect to the medium. We'll omit the proof, but it's not hard to show that the frequencies heard by an observer moving at speed Vo relative to a stationary source emitting frequency fo are f+
=
(1
+ vJv)fo
(observer approaching a source) (observer receding from a source)
[: = (1  vJv)fo
(20.40)
A quick calculation shows that the frequency of the police siren as you approach it at 34.3 m/s is 545 Hz, not the 550 Hz you heard as it approached you at 34.3 m/s.
The Doppler Effect for Light Waves
The Doppler effect is observed for all types of waves, not just sound waves. If a source of light waves is receding from you, the wavelength A _ that you detect is longer than the wavelength AD emitted by the source. Although the reason for the Doppler shift for light is the same as for sound waves, there is one fundamental difference. We derived Equation 20.39 for the Dopplershifted frequencies by measuring the wave speed v relative to the medium. For electromagnetic waves in empty space, there is no medium. Consequently, we need to tum to Einstein's theory of relativity to determine the frequency of light waves from a moving source. The result, which we state without proof, is L= (Doppler effect for the light of a receding source) 1  vic AD 1 + vic (Doppler effect for the light of an approaching source) Here v, is the speed of the source relative to the observer. The light waves from a receding source are shifted to longer wavelengths (A_ > AD). Because the longest visible wavelengths are perceived as the color red, the light from a receding source is red shifted. That is not to say that the light is red, simply that its wavelength is shifted toward the red end of the spectrum. If AD= 470 nm (blue) light emitted by a rapidly receding source is detected at L = 520 nm (green), we would say that the light has been red shifted. Similarly, light from an approaching source is blue shifted. meaning that the detected wavelengths are shorter than the emitted wavelengths (A+ < AD) and thus are shifted toward the blue end of the spectrum.
(20.41)
626
CHAPTER
20 . TravelingWaves
EXAMPLE 20.12
Measuring the velocity of a galaxy
SOLVE
Hydrogen atoms in the laboratory emit red light with wavelength 656 nm. In the light from a distant galaxy, this "spectral line" is observed at 691 nm. What is the speed of this galaxy relative to the earth?
MODEL The observed wavelength is longer than the wavelength emitted by atoms at rest with respect to the observer (i.e., red shifted), so we are looking at light emitted from a galaxy that is receding from us.
Squaring the expressionfor A_ in Equation 20.41 and solving for v, give
(L/A")2
Vs
I
= (A_/Ao)2
= =
+
1c
(691 nm/656 nm)2  I (691 nm/656 nm)?
+
1c
0.052c = 1.56 X 107 mls
ASSESS
The galaxy is moving away from the earth at about 5% of the speed of light!
FIGURE 20.27 A Hubble Space Telescope picture of a quasar.
In the 1920s, an analysis of the red shifts of many galaxies led the astronomer Edwin Hubble to the conclusion that the galaxies of the universe are all moving apart from each other. Extrapolating backward in time must bring us to a point when all the matter of the universeand even space itself, according to the theory of relativitybegan rushing out of a primordial fireball. Many observations and measurements since have given support to the idea that the universe began in a Big Bang about 14 billion years ago. As an example, FIGURE 20.27 is a Hubble Space Telescope picture of a quasar, short for quasistellar object. Quasars are extraordinarily powerful sources oflight and radio waves. The light reaching us from quasars is highly red shifted, corresponding in some cases to objects that are moving away from us at greater than 90% of the speed of light. Astronomers have determined that some quasars are 10 to 12 billion light years away from the earth, hence the light we see was emitted when the universe was only about 25% of its present age. Today, the red shifts of distant quasars and supernovae (exploding stars) are being used to refine our understanding of the structure and evolution of the universe.
STOP TO THINK 20.7 Amy and Zack are both listening to the source of sound waves that is moving to the right. Compare the frequencies each hears.
a. fAmy b. fAmy c. fAmy
> f"Z=k < f"Z=k
=
f"Z=k
~s~~ fa Zack
Summary
621
SUMMARY
The goal of Chapter 20 has been to learn the basic properties of traveling waves.
General Principles
The Wave Model
This model is based on the idea of a traveling wave, which is an orgauized disturbance traveling at a welldefmed wave speed v. • In transverse waves the displacement is perpendicular to the direction in which the wave travels. • In longitudinal waves the particles of the medium move parallel to the direction in which the wave travels. Three basic types of waves: • Mechanical waves travel through a material medium such as water or air. • Electromagnetic waves require no material medium and can travel through a vacuum. • Matter waves describe the wavelike characteristics of atonticlevel particles. For mechanical waves, the speed of the wave is a property of the medium. Speed does not depend on the size or shape of the wave.
_y
A wave transfers energy, but no material or substance is transferred outward from the source.
Important
Concepts
Sinusoidal waves are periodic in both time (period 1) and space (wavelength A): D(x, t) = Asin[27T(xIA
=
The displacement D of a wave is a function of both position (where) and time (when). • A snapshot graph shows the wave's displacement as a function of position at a single instant of time. • A history graph shows the wave's displacement as a function of time at a single point in space.
D
 tiT)
+ <l>ol
Asin(k;x  tot
+
<1>0)
IG
where A is the amplitude, k = 27TI A is the wave number, w = 27Tf = 27TIT is the angular frequency, and <1>0 is the phase constant that describes initial conditions.
For a transverse wave on a stting, the snapshot graph is a picture of the wave. The displacement of a longitudinal wave is parallel to the motion; thus the snapshot graph of a longitudinal sound wave is not a picture of the wave.
A
AW'
o
x
Onedimensional waves
Two and threedimensional waves
The fnndamental relationship for any sinusoidal wave is v =
At
Applications
• String (transverse): v = • Sonnd (longitudinal):
VT;;;.
v = 343 mls in 20°C air
The Doppler effect occurs when a wave source and detector are moving with respect to each other: the frequency detected differs from the frequency fo entitted. Approaching
[; =
• Light (transverse): v = cln, where c = 3.00 X 10' mls is the speed of light in a vacuum and n is the material's index of refraction.
source
Observer
[;
approaching
=
a source
___fo_
1 v.lv Observer
(I
+ volv)fo
Receding source The wave intensity is the powertoarea The sound intensity level is fJ = (10 dB) 10glQ(l/1,0 X 1O12W/m2) ratio: I = Pia For a circular or spherical wave: I = P~=/47Tr2.
receding from a source f = (I  volv)fo
f
=
___fo_
1+ v.lv
The Doppler effect for light uses a result derived from the theory of relativity.
628
CHAPTER
20 . Traveling Waves
Terms and Notation
wave model traveling wave transverse wave longitudinal wave mechanical waves electromagnetic waves matter waves medium disturbance wave speed, v linear density, /L snapshot graph history graph sinusoidal wave amplitude, A wavelength, A wave number, k wave front circular wave spherical wave plane wave phase, '" compression rarefaction electromagnetic spectrum index of refraction, n intensity, I sound intensity level, f3 decibels Doppler effect red shifted blue shifted
~
I
MP
I For homework
assigned on MasteringPhysics, go to www.masteringphysics.com
Problems labeled chapters.
integrate significant material from earlier
Problem difficultyis labeled as I (straightlorward) to
III (challenging).
CONCEPTUAL
I. The three wave pulses in FIGURE Q20.1 travel along the same stretched string. Rank in order, from largest to smallest, their wave speeds Va, ~, and VC. Explain.
QUESTIONS
5. What are the amplitude, wavelength, frequency, and phase constant of the traveling wave in FIGURE Q20.5?
D(em) D
+24m/s
+1 mls
2
4
FIGURE
Q20.1
Snapshot graph at t FIGURE
=
0s FIGURE
2. A wave pulse travels along a stretched string at a speed of 200 cm/s. What will be the speed if: a. The string's tension is doubled? b. The string's mass is quadrupled (but its length is unchanged)? c. The string's length is quadrupled (but its mass is unchanged)? Note: Each part is independent and refers to changes made to the original string. 3. FIGURE Q20.3 is a history D(mm) graph showing the displacement as a function of time at one point on a string. Did the displacement at this point reach its maximum of 2 mm 0.00 0.04 0.08 before or after the interval of time when the displacement FIGURE Q20.3
Q20.5
Q20.6 wave at
:j /::".,
D
6. FIGURE Q20.6 is a snapshot graph of a sinusoidal t = 1.0 s. What is the phase constant of this wave? 7. FIGURE Q20.7 shows the wave fronts of a circular wave. What is the phase difference between (a) points A and B, (b) points C and D, and (c) points E and F?
FIGURE
Q20.7
4.
was a constant I mm? FIGURE Q20.4 shows a snapshot graph and a history graph for a wave pulse on a stretched string. They describe the same wave from two perspectives. a. In which direction is the wave traveling? Explain. b. What is the speed of this wave?
Snapshot at t
=
0.01
S
D
History at x
=
2 em
(']7 1
2 FIGURE
x (em)
Q20.4
8. Rank in order, from largest to smallest, the wavelengths A" Ab, and A, for sound waves having frequencies f. = 100 Hz, J. = 1000 Hz, and I; = 10,000 Hz. Explain. 9. A sound wave with wavelength Ao and frequency fo moves into a new medium in which the speed of sound is v, = 2vo. What are the new wavelength A, and frequency f,? Explain. 10. Sound wave A delivers 2 J of energy in 2 s. Sound wave B delivers 10 J of energy in 5 s. Sound wave C delivers 2 mJ of energy in I ms. Rank in order, from largest to smallest, the sound powersPA, PH' and Pc of these three sound waves. Explain. II. One physics professor talking produces a sound intensity level of 52 dB. It's a frightening idea, but what would be the sound intensity level of 100 physics professors talking simultaneously?
Exercises and Problems 12. You are standing at x = 0 m, listening to a sonnd that is emitted at frequency fo. The graph of FIGURE Q20.12 shows the frequency you hear during a 4second interval. Which of the following describes the sound source? Explain your choice.
629
f
'~".,
o
1
13. You are standing at x = 0 m, listening to five identical sound sources. At 1 = 0 s, all five are at x = 343 m and moving as shown in FIGURE Q2D.13.The sound from all five will reach your ear at 1 = 1 s. Rank in order, from highest to lowest, the five frequencies f.to t; you hear at 1 = 1 s. Explain.
2 3 4
a. It moves from left to right FIGUREQ2D.12 and passes you at 1 = 2 s. b. It moves from right to left and passes yon at 1 = 2 s. c. It moves toward you but doesn't reach you. It then reverses direction att = 2 s. d. It moves away from you until 1 = 2 s. It then reverses direction and moves toward you but doesn't reach you.
a~ b~ cV 50 m/s. speeding up ~ 50 m/s. steady speed ~ d
e
50 mis, speeding up 50 mis, steady speed At rest
FIGUREQ2D.13
EXERCISES
Exerdses
Section 20.1 The Wave Model
AND
PROBLEMS
~x(cm)
1. I The wave speed on a string under tension is 200 mfs. What is the speed if the tension is doubled? 2. I The wave speed on a string is 150 mfs when the tension is 75 N. What tension will give a speed of 180 m/s? 3. II A 2.0mIong string is under 20 N of tension. A pulse travels the length of the string in 50 ms. What is the mass of the string? Section 20.2 OneDimensional Waves
8. II FIGUREEnD.8 is the snapshot graph at 1 = 0 s of a longitudinal wave. Draw the corresponding picture of the particle positions, as was
0.:
+l,LD~+~x
10
(em)
done in Figure 20.9. Let the FIGUREEX2D.8 equilibrium spacing between the particles be 1.0 cm. 9. II FIGUREEX2D.9is a picture at I = 0 s of the particles in a medium as a longitudinal wave is passing through. The equilibrium spacing between the particles is 1.0 cm. Draw the snapshot graphD(x,1 = 0 s) of this wave att = 0 s.
4. II Draw the history graph D(x = 5.0 m, I) at x = 5.0 m for the wave shown in FIGURE EnD.C. FIGUREEX20.9
D(em) ....... 1.0m/s ~1'~~~+~~~.x(m) I 1234567
I I I graph D(cm)
• ••• • • • ••••
Section 20.3 Sinusoidal Waves
67
t
Snapshot
of a wave at t
=
0s
Snapshot graph of a wave at
= 2s
FIGUREEX20.4 5. II Draw the wave shown 6. II Draw the wave shown
D(cm)
FIGUREEX20.5
history graph D(x = 0 m, I) at x = 0 m for the in FIGURE EnO.5. snapshot graph D(x, I = 1.0 s) at 1 = 1.0 s for the in FIGURE EnD.6.
D(cm)
10. I A wave has angular frequency 30 rad/s and wavelength 2.0 m. What are its (a) wave number and (b) wave speed? 11. I A wave travels with speed 200 mfs. Its wave number is 1.5 rad/m. What are its (a) wavelength and (b) frequency? 12. I The displacement of a wave traveling in the positive xdirection is D(x, I) = (3.5 em) sin(2.7x  124/), where x is in m and 1 is in s. What are the (a) frequency, (b) wavelength, and (c) speed of this wave? 13. I The displacement of a wave traveling in the negative ydirection is D(y, I) = (5.2 em) sin(5.5y + 721), where y is in m and 1 is in s. What are the (a) frequency, (b) wavelength, and (c) speed of this wave? 14. I What are the amplitude, frequency, and wavelength of the wave in FIGURE EnD.14?
D(cm)
l~t(S) 2~1 1 2 3 4"J History graph of a wave at x = a m Wave moving to the right at 1.0 mls
21 123456 I History graph of a wave at x = 2 m Wave moving to the left at 1.0 mls
FIGUREEX20.6
FIGUREEX2D.7
History graph at x = a m Wave traveling left at 2.0 mls
7.11 Draw the snapshot graph D(x, I = Os) of this wave att = Os for the wave shown in FIGURE EX20.7.
FIGUREEX2D.14
630
CHAPTER
20 . Traveling Waves 26. I A light wave has a 670 urn wavelength in air. Its wavelength in a transparent solid is 420 urn. a. What is the speed of light in this solid? b. What is the light's frequency in the solid? 27. II Cell phone conversations are transmitted by highfrequency radio waves. Suppose the signal has wavelength 35 cm while traveling through air. What are the (a) frequency and (b) wavelength as the signal travels through 3mmthick window glass into your room? Section 20.6 Power, Intensity, and Decibels
Section 20.4 Waves in Two and Three Dimensions 15. I A circular wave travels outward from the origin. At one instant of time, the phase at r, = 20 cm is 0 rad and the phase at r2 = 80 cm is 3". rad. What is the wavelength of the wave? 16. I A spherical wave with a wavelength of 2.0 m is emitted from the origin. At one instant of time, the phase at r = 4.0 m is rr rad. At that instant, what is the phase atr = 3.5 m and atr = 4.5 m? 17. I A loudspeaker at the origin emits sound waves on a day when the speed of sound is 340 mls. A crest of the wave simultaneously passes listeners at the (x, y) coordinates (40 m, 0 m) and (0 m, 30 m). What are the lowest two possible frequencies of the sound? 18. I A sound source is located somewhere along the xaxis, Experiments show that the same wave front simultaneously reaches listeners at z = 7.0mandx = +3.0m. a. What is the zcoordinate of the source? b. A third listener is positioned along the positive yaxis. What is her ycoordinate if the same wave front reaches her at the same instant it does the first two listeners?
Section 20.5 Sound and Light 19. II A hammer taps on the end of a 4.0mIong metal bar at room temperature. A microphone at the other end of the bar picks up two pulses of sound, one that travels through the metal and one that travels through the air. The pulses are separated in time by 11.0 ms. What is the speed of sound in this metal? 20. II a. What is the wavelength of a 2.0 MHz ultrasound wave traveling through aluminum? b. What frequency of electromagnetic wave would have the same wavelength as the ultrasound wave of part a? 21. I a. At 20°C, what is the frequency of a sound wave in air with a wavelength of 20 cm? b. What is the frequency of an electromagnetic wave with a wavelength of 20 cm? c. What would be the wavelength of a sound wave in water with the same frequency as the electromagnetic wave of partb? 22. I a. What is the frequeucy of blue light that has a wavelength of 450 urn? b. What is the frequeucy of red light that has a wavelength of 650 urn? c. What is the index of refraction of a material in which the redlight waveleugth is 450 urn? 23. II a. Telephoue signals are often transmitted over long distances by microwaves. What is the frequency of microwave radiation with a wavelength of 3.0 cm? b. Microwave signals are beamed between two mountaintops 50 km apart. How long does it take a signal to travel from oue mountaintop to the other? 24. I a. An FM radio statiou broadcasts at a frequency of 101.3 MHz. What is the wavelength? b. What is the frequeucy of a sound source that produces the same wavelength in 20°C air? 25. II a. How long does it take light to travel through a 3.0mmthick piece of window glass? b. Through what thickness of water could light travel in the same amount of time?
28. II A sound wave with intensity 2.0 X 103 W 1m2 is perceived to be modestly loud. Your eardrum is 6.0 mm in diameter. How much energy will be transferred to your eardrum while listening to this sound for 1.0 min? 29. II The intensity of electromagnetic waves from the sun is 1.4 kW/m2 just above the earth's atmosphere. Eighty percent of this reaches the surface at noon on a clear summer day. Suppose you think of your back as a 30 cm X 50 cm rectangle. How many joules of solar energy fallon your back as you work on your tan for 1.0 hr? 30. I The sound intensity from a jack hammer breaking concrete is 2.0 W/m2 at a distance of 2.0 mfrom the point of impact. This is sufficiently loud to cause permanent hearing damage if the operator doesn't wear ear protection. What is the sound intensity for a person watching from 50 m away? 31. II A concert loudspeaker suspended high above the ground emits 35 W of sound power. A small microphone with a 1.0 cm2 area is 50 m from the speaker. a. What is the sound intensity at the position of the microphone? b. How much sound energy impinges on the microphone each second? 32. I The sun emits electromagnetic waves with a power of 4.0 X 10" W. Determine the intensity of electromagnetic waves from the sun just outside the atmospheres of Venus, the earth, and Mars. 33. I What are the sound intensity levels for sound waves of intensity (a) 5.0 X 108 W/m2 and (b) 5.0 X 102 W/m2? 34. I What are the intensities of sound waves with sound intensity levels (a) 36 dB and (b) 96 dB? 35. II A loudspeaker on a tall pole broadcasts sound waves equally in all directions. If the sound output is 5.0 W, at what distance from the loudspeaker is the sound intensity level 90 dB? Section 20.7 The Doppler Effect 36. I An opera singer in a convertible sings a note at 600 Hz while cruising down the highway at 90 kmlhr. What is the frequency heard by a. A person standing beside the road in front of the car? b. A person on the ground behind the car? 37. I A friend of yours is loudly singing a single note at 400 Hz while racing toward you at 25.0 mls on a day when the speed of sound is 340 m/s. a. What frequency do you hear? b. What frequency does your friend hear if you suddenly start singing at 400 Hz?
Exercises and Problems 38. I A whistle you use to call your huutiug dog has a frequency of 21 kHz, but your dog is ignoring it. You suspect the whistle may not be working, but you can't hear sounds above 20 kHz. To test it, you ask a friend to blow the whistle, then you hop on your bicycle. In which direction should you ride (toward or away from your friend) and at what minimum speed to know if the whistle is working? 39. I A mother hawk screeches as she dives at you. You recall from biology that female hawks screech at 800 Hz, but you hear the screech at 900 Hz. How fast is the hawk approaching?
631
45. II String 1 in FIGURE P20.45 4.0m has linear density 2.0 glm String 1 String 2 and string 2 has linear density 4.0 g/m. A student sends L, L, pulses in both directions by quickly pulling up on the FIGURE P20.45 knot, then releasing it. What should the string lengths L, and L2 be if the pulses are to reach the ends of the strings simultaneously? 46. II Ships measure the distance IJ.t (s)
~
Problems 40. II The displacement of a traveling wave is if
to the ocean bottom with sonar. A pulse of sound waves is aimed at the ocean bottom, then sensitive microphones listen for the echo. The graph
8:2~
I em D(x,l) = { Ocm
Ix if Ix 
311 s 1 311
>
1
where x is in m and t in s. a. Draw displacementversusposition graphs at 1 s intervals from 1 = 0 s to 1 = 3 s. Use an xaxis that goes from 2 to 12 m. Stack the four graphs vertically. b. Determine the wave speed from the graphs. Explain how you did so. c. Determine the wave speed from the equation for Dt x, I). Does it agree with your answer to part b? 41. II FIGURE P20.41 is a history graph at z = 0 m of a wave traveling in the positive xdirection at 4.0 m/s. a. What is the wavelength? b. What is the phase constant of the wave? c. Write the displacement equation for this wave.
D(mm)
47.
48.
History graph at x = 0 m Wave traveling right at 4.0 m/s FIGURE P20.41
Snapshot
graph at t = 0 s
FIGURE P20.42
49.
42. II FIGURE PlO.42 is a snapshot graph at 1 = 0 s of a 5.0 Hz wave traveling to the left. a. What is the wave speed? b. What is the phase constant of the wave? c. Write the displacement equation for this wave. 43. II An ultrasound unit sends a 2.4 MHz sound wave into a 25ernlong tube filled with an unknown liquid. A small microphone right next to the ultrasonic generator detects both the transmitted wave and the sound wave that has reflected off the far end of the tube. The two sound pulses are 4.4 divisions apart on an oscilloscope for which the horizontal time sweep is set to 100 ~s/division. What is the speed of sound in the liquid? 44. II A wave travels along a string at a speed of 280 mls. What will be the speed if the string is replaced by one made of the same material and under the same tension but having twice the radius?
50.
51.
shows the delay time as a func0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 x (kID) tion of the ship's position as it crosses 60 km of ocean. Draw FIGURE P20.46 a graph of the ocean bottom. Let the ocean surface define y = 0 and ocean bottom have negative values of y. This way your graph will be a picture of the ocean bottom. The speed of sound in ocean water varies slightly with temperature, but you can use 1500 mls as an average value. II Oil explorers set off explosives to make loud sounds, then listen for the echoes from underground oil deposits. Geologists suspect that there is oil under 500mdeep Lake Physics. It's known that Lake Physics is carved out of a granite basin. Explorers detect a weak echo 0.94 s after exploding dynamite at the lake surface. If it's really oil, how deep will they have to drill into the granite to reach it? II One cue your hearing system uses to localize a sound (i.e., to tell where a sound is coming from) is the slight difference in the arrival times of the sound at your ears. Your ears are spaced approximately 20 cm apart. Consider a sound source 5.0 m from the center of your head along a line 45° to your right. What is the difference in arrival times? Give your answer in microseconds. Hint: You are looking for the difference between two numbers that are nearly the same. What does this near equality imply about the necessary precision during intermediate stages of the calculation? II A heliumneon laser beam has a wavelength in air of 633 nm. I! takes 1.38 ns for the light to travel through 30 em of an unknown liquid. What is the wavelength of the laser beam in the liquid? II A 256 Hz sound wave in 20°C air propagates into the water of a swimming pool. What are the watertoair ratios of the wave's frequency, wave speed, and wave length? II Earthquakes are essentially sound waves traveling through the earth. They are called seismic waves. Because the earth is solid, it can support both longitudinal and transverse seismic waves. These travel at different speeds. The speed of longitudinal waves, called P waves, is 8000 m/s. Transverse waves, called S waves, travel at a slower 4500 mls. A seismograph records the two waves from a distant earthquake. If the S wave arrives 2.0 min after the P wave, how far away was the earthquake? You can assume that the waves travel in straight lines, although actual seismic waves follow more complex routes.
632
CHA PTER
20 . Traveling Waves
52. II A sound wave is described by D(y, I) = (0.0200 rnrn) X sin[(8.96 rad/m)y + (3140 rad/s)1 + 7r/4 rad], where y is in m and tis in s. a. In what direction is this wave traveling? b. Along which axis is the air oscillating? c. What are the wavelength, the wave speed, and the period of oscillation? d. Draw a displacementversustime graph D(y = 1.00 m, I) at y = 1.00 m from 1 = 0 s to 1 = 4.00 ms. 53. II A wave on a string is described by D(x, t) = (3.0 em) X sin[27r(x/(2.4 m) + 1/(0.20 s) + I»), whcrc.cis inm and r is in s. a. In what direction is this wave traveling? b. What are the wave speed, the frequency, and the wave number? c. At 1 = 0.50 s, what is the displacement of the string at x = 0.20m? 54. II A wave on a string is described by Di x, I) = (2.00 em) X sin[(l2.57 rad/m)x  (638 rad/sjr], where x is in m and 1 is in s. The linear density of the string is 5.00 g/m. What are a. The string tension? b. The maximum displacement of a point on the string? c. The maximum speed of a point on the string? 55. II Write the displacement equation for a sinusoidal wave that is traveling in the negative ydirection with wavelength 50 em, speed 4.0 mis, and amplitnde 5.0 cm. Assume </>0 = O. 56. II Write the displacement equation for a sinusoidal wave that is traveling in the positive zdirection with frequency 200 Hz, speed 400 m/s, amplitnde 0.010 rnrn, and phase constant 7r/2 rad. 57. II Show that D(x, t + T) = D(x, t) for a sinusoidal traveling wave. This shows that the wave is periodic with period T. 58. II A spherical sound source at the origin emits a sound wave with frequency 13,100 Hz and wave speed 346 mls. What is the phase difference in degrees and in rad between the two points with (x, y, z) coordinates (1.00 cm, 3.00 em, 2.00 em) and (1.00 em, 1.50 em, 2.50 cm)? 59. II A string with linear density 2.0 g/m is stretched along the positive zaxis with tension 20 N. One end of the string, at x = 0 m, is tied to a hook that oscillates up and down at a frequency of 100 Hz with a maximum displacement of 1.0 rnrn. At 1 = 0 s, the hook is at its lowest point. a. What are the wave speed on the string and the wavelength? b. What are the amplitnde and phase constant of the wave? c. Write the equation for the displacement D(x, t) of the travelingwave. d. What is the string's displacement at x = 0.50 m and 1 = 15ms? 60. II FIGURE P20.60 shows a snapshot graph of a wave traveling to the right along a string at 45 mls. At this instant, what is the velocity of points I, 2, and 3 on the string?
Vparticle(cmlS)
D~(cm)
_45, x
10
3

lOfty
o
246810
x(cm)
20 30 FIGURE P20.61
30 em FIGURE P20.60
61. II FIGURE P20.61 is a snapshot graph of the instantaneous velocity Vp,,"d, of the particles on a string. The wave is moving to the left at 50 cm/s. Draw a snapshot graph of the string's displacement at this instant of time. 62. II A string that is under 50.0 N of tension has linear density 5.0 g/m. A sinusoidal wave with amplitude 3.0 em and wavelength 2.0 m travels along the string. What is the maximum speed of a particle on the string? 63. II A sinusoidal wave travels along a stretched string. A particle on the string has a maximum speed of 2.0 mls and a maximum acceleration of 200 mls2• What are the frequency and amplitude of the wave? 64. II a. A 100 W lightbulb produces 5.0 W of visible light. (The other 95 W are dissipated as heat and infrared radiation.) What is the light intensity on a wall 2.0 m away from the lightbulb? b. A krypton laser produces a cylindrical red laser beam 2.0 rnrn in diameter with 5.0 W of power. What is the light intensity on a wall 2.0 m away from the laser? 65. II An AM radio station broadcasts with a power of 25 kW at a frequency of 920 kHz. Estimate the intensity of the radio wave at a point 10 km from the broadcast antenna. 66. II Lasers can be used to drill or cut material. One such laser generates a series of highintensity pulses rather than a continuous beam of light. Each pulse contains 500 mJ of energy and lasts IOns. The laser fires 10 such pulses per second. a. What is the peak power of the laser light? The peak power is the power output during one of the 10 ns pulses. b. What is the average power output of the laser? The average power is the total energy delivered per second. c. Alens focuses the laser beam to a I O/Lmdiameter circle on the target. During a pulse, what is the light intensity on the target? d. The intensity of sunlight at midday is about 1100 W/m2• What is the ratio of the laser intensity on the target to the intensity of the midday sun? 67. II The sound intensity 50 m from a wailing tornado siren is 0.IOW/m2. a. What is the intensity at 1000 m? b. The weakest intensity likely to be heard over background noise is = I I'W /m2• Estimate the maximum distance at which the siren can be heard. 68. II The sound intensity level 5.0 m from a large power saw is 100 dB. At what distance will the sound be a more tolerable 80 dB? 69. II Two loudspeakers on elevated platforms are at opposite ends of a field. Each broadcasts equally in all directions. The sound intensity level at a point halfway between the loudspeakers is 75.0 dB. What is the sound intensity level at a point onequarter of the way from one speaker to the other along the line joining them? 70. II A mad doctor believes that baldness can be cured by warming the scalp with sound waves. His patients sit underneath the BaldoMatic loudspeakers, where their heads are bathed with 93 dB of soothing 800 Hz sound waves. Suppose we model a bald head as a 16cmdiameter hemisphere. If 0.10 J of sound energy is considered an appropriate "dose," how many minutes should each therapy session last? 71. II A bat locates insects by emitting ultrasonic "chirps" and then listening for echoes from the bugs. Suppose a bat chirp has a frequency of25 kHz. How fast would the bat have to fly, and in what direction, for you to just barely be able to hear the chirp at 20 kHz?
Exercises and Problems
633
72. II A physics professor demonstrates the Doppler effect by tying a 600 Hz sound generator to a l.Omlong rope and whirling it around her head in a horizontal circle at 100 rpm. What are the highest and lowest frequencies heard by a student in the classroom? 73. II Show that the Doppler frequency f of a receding source is f = fo/(1 + v,lv). 74. II A starship approaches its home planet at a speed of O.le. When it is 54 X 106 km away, it uses its green laser beam (A = 540 nm) to signal its approach. a. How long does the signal take to travel to the home planet? b. At what wavelength is the signal detected on the home planet? 75. II You are cruising to Jupiter at the posted speed limit of O.le when suddenly a daredevil passes you, going in the same direction, at O.3e. At what wavelength does your rocket cruiser's light detector "see" his red taillights? Is this wavelength nltraviolet, visible, or infrared? Use 650 nm for the wavelength of red light. 76. II Wavelengths of light from a distant galaxy are found to be 0.5% longer than the corresponding wavelengths measured in a terrestrial laboratory. Is the galaxy approaching or receding from the earth? At what speed? 77. II You have just been pulled over for running a red light, and the police officer has informed you that the fine will be $250. In desperation, you suddenly recall an idea that your physics professor recently discussed in class. In your calmest voice, you tell the officer that the laws of physics prevented you from knowing that the light was red. In fact, as you drove toward it, the light was Doppler shifted to where it appeared green to you. "OK," says the officer, ''Then I'll ticket you for speeding. The fine is $1 for every 1 kmlhr over the posted speed limit of 50 kmIhr." How big is your fine? Use 650 nm as the wavelength of red light and 540 nm as the wavelength of green light.
79. One way to monitor global warming is to measure the average temperature of the ocean. Researchers are doing this by measuring the time it takes sound pulses to travel underwater over large distances. At a depth of 1000 m, where ocean temperatures hold steady near 4°C, the average sound speed is 1480 m/s. It's known from laboratory measurements that the sound speed increases 4.0 mls for every 1.0°C increase in temperature. In one experiment, where sounds generated near California are detected in the South Pacific, the sound waves travel 8000 km. If the smallest time change that can be reliably detected is l.0 s, what is the smallest change in average temperature that can be measured? 80. A wire is made by welding 1.00 m 1.00 m together two metals having dif ~22~5~0~N;;_~~~~~~22:5~0:N ferent densities. FIGURE CP20.80 1', ~ 9.00 g/m 1', ~ 25.0 glm shows a 2.00mIong section of FIGURE CP20.80 wire centered on the junction, but the wire extends much farther in both directions. The wire is placed under 2250 N tension, then a 1500 Hz wave with an amplitude of 3.00 mm is sent down the wire. How many wavelengths (complete cycles) of the wave are in this 2.00mIong section of the wire? 81. A rope of mass m and length L hangs from a ceiling. a. Show that the wave speed on the rope a distance y above the lowerendisv = Vgy. b. Show that the time for a pulse to travel the length of the string is l1t = 2"'1!Lig. 82. Some modem optical devices Index of are made with glass whose refraction n index of refraction changes with distance from the front surface. FIGURE CP20.82 shows the index of refraction as a function of the distance into a slab of glass of thickness L. The index of refraction increases linearly from R, at the front surface to R2 at the
l.
"
1 00
L
Challenge Problems
78. FIGURE CP20.78 shows two masses hanging from a steel wire. The mass of the wire is 60.0 g. A wave pulse travels along the wire from point I to point 2 in 24.0 ms. What is massm?
Distance
FIGURE CP20.82
FIGURE CP20.78
rear surface. a. Find an expression for the time light takes to travel through this piece of glass. b. Evaluate your expression for a l.Ocmthick piece of glass for which n, = l.50 and n2 = l.6O.
STOP TO THINK ANSWERS
I
Stop to Think 20.1: d and e. The wave speed depends on properties of the medium, not on how you generate the wave. For a string, v= Increasing the tension or decreasing the linear density (lighter string) will increase the wave speed.
vr;;;..
Stop to Think 20.4: e. A crest and an adjacent trough are separated by A12. This is a phase difference of 1r rad. Stop to Think 20.S: n, > n. > R •• A = Av.Jn, so a shorter wavelength corresponds to a larger index of refraction. Stop to Think 20.6: c. Any factorof2 change in intensity changes
Stop to Think 20.2: b. The wave is traveling to the right at 2.0 mis, so each point on the wave passes x = 0 m, the point of interest, 2.0 s before reaching x = 4.0 m. The graph has the same shape, but everything happens 2.0 s earlier. Stop to Think 20.3: d. The wavelengththe crestsis seen to be 10 m. The frequency (10m) = 5 Hz. is distance between two f = vi): = (50 m/s)1
the sound intensity level by 3 dB. One trumpet is the original number, so the intensity has decreased by two factors of 2. Stop to Think 20.7: c. Zack hears a higher frequency as he and the source approach. Amy is moving with the source, so fAmy = fo.
*
Ell Sup
This swirl of colors is due to a thin layer of oil. Oil is clear; the colors arise from the interference of light waves reflected by the oil.
~ Looking Ahead
The goal of Chapter 21 is to understand and use the idea of superposition. In this chapter you will learn to: • • • Apply the principle of superposition. Understand how standing waves are generated. Calculate the allowed wavelengths and frequencies of standing waves. Understand how waves cause constructive and destructive interference. Calculate the beat frequency between two nearly equal frequencies.
•
What do the colors of an oil film or a soap bubble have in common witb tbe sound of a trombone? Surprisingly, tbe properties of botb are due to the combination of two traveling waves. The combination of two or more waves is called a superposition of waves. In this chapter we will explore how waves are superimposed and learn tbat superposition is important to applications ranging from musical instruments to lasers. This chapter also lays tbe groundwork for our study of lightwave optics in Chapter 22.
•
21.1 The Principle of Superposition
on the next page shows two baseball players, Alan and Bill, at batting practice. Unfortunately, someone has turned tbe pitching machines so tbat pitching machine A throws baseballs toward Bill while machine B throws toward Alan. If two baseballs are launched at tbe same time, and with the same speed, tbey collide at the crossing point and bounce away. Two particles cannot occupy tbe same point of space at tbe same time. But waves, unlike particles, can pass directly through each otber. In FIGURE 21.lb Alan and Bill are listening to tbe stereo system in tbe locker room after practice. Because botb hear the music quite well, without distortion or missing sound, the sound wave that travels from loudspeaker A toward Bill must pass through tbe wave traveling from loudspeaker B toward Alan. What happens to the medium at a point where two waves are present simultaneously?
FIGURE21.1.
<III Looking Back The material in this chapter depends on many properties of traveling waves that were introduced in Chapter 20. please review: • Sections 20.220.4 The fundamental properties of traveling waves. Section 20.5 light waves. Sound waves and
•
634
(a)
~~ "
ing
:O
,," /,~
21.1 . The Principle of Superposition
635
(b) A Loudspeakers B
FIGURE 21.1 Unlike particles, two waves can pass directly through each other.
~ ~
f 0)
Alan Bill
p/ JJ'
"
''t\..._
"
The balls collide and bounce apart. Two particles cannot occupy the same p~int of space at the same time.
jXt~~~
Bill FIGURE 21.2 The superposition of two waves on a string as they pass through each other.
~ ~
~
Alan
If wave I displaces a particle in the medium by D, and wave 2 simultaneously displaces it by D2, the net displacement of the particle is simply D, + D2• This is a very important idea because it tells us how to combine waves. It is known as the principle of superposition. Principle of superposition When two or more waves are simultaneously present at a single point in space, the displacement of the medium at that point is the sum of the displacements due to each individual wave. When different objects are laid on top of each other, they are said to be superimposed. But through some quirk in the English language, the result of superimposing objects is called a superposition, without the syllable "im." When one wave is "placed" on top of another wave, we have a superposition of waves. Mathematically, the net displacement of a particle in the medium is
Dnet =
.
1m/s
1m/s ..,.._
~6r'2t.r+rr+I' 7 : (:; o 4
Two waves approach each other.
AI
024
t=ls
~,f~'~,r,+~x(m)
o, + D2 + ...
= ~Di
(21.1)
where D, is the displacement that would be caused by wave i alone. We will make the simplifying assumption that the displacements of the individual waves are along the same line so that we can add displacements as scalars rather than vectors. To use the principle of superposition you must know the displacement caused by each wave if traveling alone. Then you go through the medium point by point and add the displacements due to each wave at that point to find the net displacement at that point. The outcome will be different at each and every point in the medium because the displacements are different at each point. To illustrate, AGURE 21.2 shows snapshot graphs taken I s apart of two waves traveling at the same speed (I mls) in opposite directions along a string. The principle of superposition comes into play wherever the waves overlap. The solid line is the sum at each point of the two displacements at that point. This is the displacement that you would actually observe as the two waves pass through each other.
, o
2)3
rftJ
4
4
,t:(:;
7
t=
5
The net displacement is the pointbypoint summation of the individual waves.
..,,~~L__,_f_,'I,,....x
o
=*,
2
3s (m)
1m/s ..,.._
o
,
2
I
4
/\
.
1m/s
t
= 4s
x(m)
Both waves emerge unchanged.
STOP TO THINK 21.1 Two pulses on a string approach each other at speeds of I mls. What is the shape of the string at t = 6 s?
..,., ....L.f;'?_,..,._I_"ml.,.,
_s..,., _.,.,
_.,., ill
_1r7:)""S..,._,...,"'""'T"'
U M ~ U
x (m)
o
2
4
6
8
t=
W
Approaching
waves at
0s
,
6
6~
ill 12 (a)
,
14
x(m)
,
6
~
,
ill (b) 12 14
x(m)
I. , \
ill 12 (e)
,
14
x(m)
,
6
0
ill (d)
,
14
x(m)
12
636
CHAPTER
21 . Superposition
21.2 Standing Waves
A vibrating string is an example of a standing wave.
FIGURE 21.3 FIGURE21.3 is a timelapse photograph of a standing wave on a vibrating string. It's not obvious from the photograph, but a standing wave is actually the superposition of two waves. To understand this, let's begin by thinking about two sinusoidal waves traveling in opposite directions through a medium. For example, suppose you point two loudspeakers at each other or shake both ends of a very long string. Throughout this section, we will assume that the two waves have the same frequency, the same wavelength, and the same amplitude. In other words, they're identical waves except that one travels to the right and the other to the left. What happens as these two waves pass through each other? FIGURE 21.4a shows nine snapshot graphs, at intervals of kT, of the two waves. The dots identify two of the crests to help you see that the red wave is traveling to the right and the green wave to the left. At each point, the net displacement of the medium is found by adding the red displacement and the green displacement. The resulting blue wave is the superposition of the two traveling waves. Figure 21.4a is rather complicated, so FIGURE21.4b shows just the blue superposition of the two waves. This is the wave you would actually observe. Interestingly, the blue dot shows that the blue wave is moving neither right nor left. This is a wave, but it is not a traveling wave. The wave in Figure 21.4b is called a standing wave because the crests and troughs "stand in place" as the wave oscillates.
FIGURE 21.4 (a)
The superposition of two sinusoidal waves traveling in opposite directions.
The green wave is traveling to the left.
The red wave is
(b)
The superposition of the red and
green waves is a standing wave.
traveling to the right.
t~O~
t~~T/\JV
t ~ ~T 
t ~ ~T _
Antinode
Node
r>:»>:>
Nodes and Antinodes
FIGURE21.5 has collapsed the nine graphs of Figure 21.4b into a single graphical representation of a standing wave. Compare this to the Figure 21.3 photograph of a vibrating string and you can see that the vibrating string is a standing wave. A striking
21.2 . Standing Waves feature of a standingwave pattern is the existence of nodes. points that never move! The nodes are spaced Al2 apart. Halfway between the nodes are the points where the particles in the medium oscillate with maximum displacement. These points of maximum amplitude are called antinodes. and you can see that they are also spaced Al2 apart. It seems surprising and counterintuitive that some particles in the medium have no motion at all. To understand how this happens, look carefully at the two traveling waves in Figure 21.4a. You will see that the nodes occur at points where at every instant of time the displacements of the two traveling waves have equal maguitudes but opposite signs. Thus the superposition of the displacements at these points is always zero. The antinodes correspond to points where the two displacements have equal magnitudes and the same sign at all times. Two waves I and 2 are said to be in phase at a point where D, is always equal to D2• The superposition at that point yields a wave whose amplitude is twice that of the individual waves. This is called a point of constructive interference. The antinodes of a standing wave are points of constructive interference between the two traveling waves. In contrast, two waves are said to be out of phase at points where D, is always equal to  D2• Their superposition gives a wave with zero amplitudeno wave at all! This is a point of destructive interference. The nodes of a standing wave are points of destructive interference. We will defer the main discussion of constructive and destructive interference until later in this chapter, but you'll then recognize that you're seeing constructive and destructive interference at the antinodes and nodes of a standing wave. In Chapter 20 you learned that the intensity of a wave is proportional to the square of the amplitude: I ocA2. You can see in FIGURE 21.6 that the points of maximum intensity occur where the standing wave oscillates with the largest amplitude (i.e., the antinodes) and that the intensity is zero at the nodes. If this is a sound wave, the loudness is maximum at the antinodes and zero at the nodes. The key idea is that the intensity is maximum at points of constructive interference and zero (if the waves have equal amplitudes) at points of destructive interference.
FIGURE
631
21.5 Standing waves are often represented as they would be seen in a timelapse photograph. D
/1/
Antinodes
o
~A
A
~A
2A
The nodes and antinodes are spaced A12 apart.
FIGURE 21.6 The intensity of a standing wave is maximum at the anti nodes, zero at the nodes.
The Mathematics
of Standing Waves
A sinusoidal wave traveling to the right along the xaxis with angular frequency w = 27ff, wave number k = 27f1A, and amplitude a is
Va
= asin(kx
 wt)
(21.2)
An equivalent wave traveling to the left is
Dr.
= a sin(kx
+ wt)
(21.3)
We previously used the symbol A for the wave amplitude, but here we will use a lowercase a to represent the amplitude of each individual wave and reserve A for the amplitude of the net wave. According to the principle of superposition, the net displacement of the medium when both waves are present is the sum of Va and Dr.: D(x, t)
=
Va + Dr.
=
asin(kx  wt)
+ asin(kx + wt)
(21.4)
We can simplify Equation 21.4 by using the trigonometric identity sin(a ± [3) Doing so gives D(x, t)
= =
sinacos[3 ± cosasin[3
a(sinkxcoswt
 coskxsinwt)
+ a(sinkxcoswt + coskxsinwt)
= (2asinkx) coswt
(21.5)
It is useful to write Equation 21.5 as D(x, t) = A(x)coswt (21.6)
This photograph shows the Tacoma Narrows suspension bridge on the day in 1940 when it experienced a catastrophic standingwave oscillation that led to its collapse. Aerodynamic forces caused the amplitude of a particular resonant mode of the bridge to increase dramatically until the bridge failed. In this photo, the red line shows the original line of the deck of the bridge. You can clearly see the large amplitude of the oscillation and the node at the center of the span.
638
CHAPTER
21 . Superposition
where the amplitude function A(x) is defined as
A(x) = 2asinkx
(21.7)
21.7 The net displacement resulting from two counterpropagating sinusoidal waves.
FIGURE
When I ~ 0, cos wI
D
~
I.
2a
~
.•.. ···Thus the outer curve is the · ,... amplitude functionA(x).
The amplitude reaches a maximum value Am ax = 2a at points where sinkx = 1. The displacement D(x, t) given by Equation 21.6 is neither a function of x  vt nor a function of x + vt; hence it is not a traveling wave. Instead, the cos cot term in Equation 21.6 describes a medium in which each point oscillates in simple harmonic motion with frequency f = w/27r. The function A (x) = 2asinkx gives the amplitude of the oscillation for a particle at position x. FIGURE 21.7 graphs Equation 21.6 at several different instants of time. Notice that the graphs are identical to those of Figure 21.5, showing us that Equation 21.6 is the mathematical description of a standing wave. You can see that the amplitude of oscillation, given by A(x), varies from point to point in the medium. The nodes of the standing wave are the points at which the amplitude is zero. They are located at positions x for which
A(x)
=
2asinkx
=
0
(21.8)
o
2a The oscillation amplitude
changes with position.
m = 0, 1, 2, 3, ...
(21.9)
Thus the position
Xm
of the mth node is
Xm
=
m2_
A
m = 0,1,2,3, ...
(21.10)
where m is an integer. You can see that the spacing between two adjacent nodes is A/2, in agreement with Figure 21.6. The nodes are not spaced by A, as you might have expected.
EXAMPLE 21.1
Node spacing on a string
SOLVE
a. The speed of the waves on the string is
A very long string has a linear density of 5.0 glm and is stretched with a tension of 8.0 N. 100 Hz waves with amplitudes of 2.0 mm are generated at the ends of the string. a. What is the node spacing along the resulting standing wave? b. What is the maximum displacement of the string? Two counterpropagating a standing wave.
MODEL
VISUALIZE
v~l;~
c::c:::c::c
8.0N
0.0050kg/m
~
40 mls
and thus the wavelength is
v 40 mls A ~  ~ ~ 0.40 m ~ 40 cm f 100 Hz
waves of equal frequency create
The standing wave will look like Figure 21.5.
Thus the spacing between adjacent nodes is Al2 ~ 20 cm. b. The maximum displacement, at the antinodes, is A= ~ 2a ~ 4.0mm
21.3 Transverse Standing Waves
10.4,10.6
Activ P"TSICS
~~L.lNE
Wiggling both ends of a very long string is not a practical way to generate standing waves. Instead, as in the photograph in Figure 21.3, standing waves are usually seen on a string that is fixed at both ends. To understand why this condition causes standing waves, we need to examine what happens when a traveling wave encounters a discontinuity. FIGURE 21.So page shows a discontinuity between a string with a larger linear density and one with a smaller linear density. The tension is the same in both strings, so the wave speed is slower on the left, faster on the right. Whenever a wave encounters a discontinuity, some of the wave's energy is transmitted forward and some is reflected.
21.3 . Transverse Standing Waves
639
FIGURE 21.8 (a)
A wave reflects when it encounters
Discontinuity where the
a discontinuity
(b)
or a boundary.
Discontinuity where the (e) Boundary
wave speed increases
wave speed decreases
~ ~
~
Mter: ...
~
! String with slower
String with faster
I
~
Th;\eflected pulse is inverted.
~___r
...... V,
L
wave speed
wave speed
The reflected pulse is inverted and its amplitude is unchanged. FIGURE 21.9 A strobe photo of a pulse traveling along a ropelike spring.
light waves exhibit an analogous behavior when they encounter a piece of glass. Most of the light wave's energy is transmitted through the glass, which is why glass is transparent, but a small amount of energy is reflected. That is how you see your reflection dimly in a storefront window. In FIGURE 21.8b, an incident wave encounters a discontinuity at which the wave speed decreases. In this case, the reflected pulse is inverted. A positive displacement of the incident wave becomes a negative displacement of the reflected wave. Because sinCe/> 'IT) = sine/>, we say that the reflected wave has aphase change of tt upon + reflection. This aspect of reflection will be important later in the chapter when we look at the interference oflight waves. The wave in FIGURE 21.8< reflects from a boundary. You can think of this as Figure 21.8b in the limit that the string on the right becomes infinitely massive. Thus the reflection in Figure 21.8c looks like that of Figure 21.8b with one exception: Because there is no transmitted wave, all the wave's energy is reflected. Hence the amplitude of a wave reflected from a boundary is unchanged. FIGURE 21.9 is a sequence of strobe photos in which you see a pulse on a ropelike spring reflecting from a boundary at the right of the photo. The reflected pulse is inverted but otherwise unchanged.
Standing Waves on a String
FIGURE21.10 shows a string of length L tied atx = 0 and x = L. If you wiggle the string in the middle, sinusoidal waves travel outward in both directions and soon reach the boundaries. Because the speed of a reflected wave does not change, the wavelength and frequency of a reflected sinusoidal wave are unchanged. Consequently, reflections at the ends of the string cause two waves of equal amplitude and wavelength to travel in opposite directions along the string. As we've just seen, these are the conditions that cause a standing wave! To connect the mathematical analysis of standing waves in Section 21.2 with the physical reality of a string tied down at the ends, we need to impose boundary conditions. A boundary condition is a mathematical statement of any constraint that must be obeyed at the boundary or edge of a medium. Because the string is tied down at the ends, the displacements at x = 0 and x = L must be zero at all times. Thus the standingwave boundary conditions are D(x = 0, t) = 0 and D(x = L, t) = O. Stated another way, we require nodes at both ends of the string. We found that the displacement of a standing wave is D(x, t) = (2asinkx) coswt. This equation already satisfies the boundary condition D(x = 0, t) = O. That is, the origin has already been located at a node. The second boundary condition, at x = L, requires D(x = L, t) = O. This condition will be met at all times if FIGURE 21.10
boundaries the string.
Reflections at the two cause a standing wave on
2asinkL
=
0
(boundary condition atx
=
L)
(21.11)
Equation 21.11 will be true if sinkL = 0, which in turn requires
kL
=
A=
2'lTL
mit
m
=
1,2,3,4,
...
(21.12)
kL must be a multiple of mtt, but m = 0 is excluded because L can't be zero.
640
CHAPTER
21 . Superposition
For a string of fixed length L, the only quantity in Equation 21.12 that can vary is A. That is, the boundary condition can be satisfied only if the wavelength has one of the values A
=
2L
m
m
m = 1,2,3,4,
...
(21.13)
A standing wave can exist on the string only if its wavelength is one of the values given by Equation 21.13. The mth possible wavelength Am = 2L1m is just the right size so that its mth node is located at the end of the string (at x = L).
~ Other wavelengths, which would be perfectly acceptable wavelengths for a traveling wave, cannot exist as a standing wave of length L because they cannot meet the boundary conditions requiring a node at each end of the string. <III NOTE
21.11 The first four normal modes for standing waves on a string of length L. FIGURE
If standing waves are possible only for certain wavelengths, then only a few specific oscillation frequencies are allowed. Because AI = v for a sinusoidal wave, the oscillation frequency corresponding to wavelength Am is
1m
=
v Am
V
V =
=
2L1m
m 2L
m = 1,2,3,4,
...
(21.14)
The lowest allowed frequency (fundamental frequency) (21.15)
which corresponds to wavelength Al = 2L, is called the fundamental frequency of the string. The allowed frequencies can be written in terms of the fundamental frequencyas
m = 1,2,3,4,
...
(21.16)
The allowed standingwave frequencies are all integer multiples of the fundamental frequency. The higherfrequency standing waves are called harmonics. with the m = 2 wave at frequency 12 called the second harmonic, the m = 3 wave called the third harmonic, and so on. FIGURE 21.11 graphs the first four possible standing waves on a string of fixed length L. These possible standing waves are called the normal modes of the string. Each mode, numbered by the integer m, has a unique wavelength and frequency. Keep in mind that these drawings simply show the envelope, or outer edge, of the oscillations. The string is continuously oscillating at all positions between these edges, as we showed in more detail in Figure 21.5. There are three things to note about the normal modes of a string. 1. m is the number of antinodes on the standing wave, not the number of nodes. You can tell a string's mode of oscillation by counting the number of antinodes. 2. Thefundamental mode, with m = 1, has Al = 2L, not Al = L. Only half of a wavelength is contained between the boundaries, a direct consequence of the fact that the spacing between nodes is AI2. 3. The frequencies of the normal modes form a series: 11> 2/1> 3/1> 4/1> .... The fundamental frequency 11 can be found as the difference between the frequencies of any two adjacent modes. That is, 11 = IV = Im+l  1m.
FIGURE 21.12 is a timeexposure photograph of the m = 4 standing wave on a string. The nodes and antinodes are quite distinct. The string vibrates four times faster for the m = 4 mode than for the fundamental m = 1 mode.
FIGURE 21.12 Timeexposure photograph of the m ~ 4 standingwave mode on a stretched string.
21.3 . Transverse Standing Waves
641
EXAMPLE 21.2
A standing wave on a string
A 2.50mlong string vibrates as a 100 Hz standing wave with nodes 1.00 m and 1.50 m from one end of the string and at no points in between these two. Which harmonic is this, and what is the string's fundamental frequency?
MODEL
SOLVE If there are no nodes between the two at 1.0 m and 1.5 m, then the node spacing is Al2 = 0.50 m. The number of 0.50mwide segments that fit into a 2.50 m length is five, so this is the m = 5 mode and 100 Hz is the fifth harmonic. The harmonic frequencies are t; = mf,; hence the fundamentalfrequency is
The nodes of a standing wave are spaced Al2aparl. The standing wave looks like Figure 21.5.
VISUALIZE
J5 100 Hz f'=S=5=20Hz
STOP TO THINKll.l A standing wave on a string vibrates as shown at tbe right. Suppose tbe string tension is quadrupled while the frequency and the lengtb of tbe string are held constant. Which standingwave pattern is produced?
}:=><={
Original
standing wave
}======{
(a)
}:=><={
(b)
Joooo[
(c)
Standing Electromagnetic
Waves
A laser contains a standing light wave between two parallel mirrors.
FIGURE 21.13 Laser cavity
A vibrating string is only one example of a transverse standing wave. Anotber transverse wave is an electromagnetic wave. Standing electromagnetic waves can be established between two parallel mirrors that reflect light back and fortb. The mirrors are boundaries, analogous to tbe boundaries at tbe ends of a string. In fact, this is exactly how a laser operates. The two facing mirrors in FIGURE21.13 form what is called a laser cavity. Because tbe mirrors act like the points to which a string is tied, tbe light wave must have a node at tbe surface of each mirror. One of tbe mirrors is only partially reflective, to allow some light to escape and form tbe laser beam, but this doesn't affect tbe boundary condition. Because tbe boundary conditions are tbe same, Equations 21.13 and 21.14 for Am and 1m apply to a laser just as tbey do to a vibrating string. The primary difference is tbe size of tbe wavelengtb. A typical laser cavity has a length L = 30 cm, and visible light has a wavelengtb A = 600 nm. The standing light wave in a laser cavity has a mode number m tbat is approxin1ately m = 2L = 2 X 0.30 m A 6.00 X 107m
= 1 000000
1~1r:
\ Standing light Full reflector
wave
\
beam
Partial reflector
'
,
In otber words, tbe standing light wave inside a laser cavity has approximately
one
million antinodes! This is a consequence of tbe very short wavelengtb of light.
EXAMPLE 21.3
The standing light wave inside a laser
SOLVE
a. We can use Am = 2L1m to find that m (the mode) is
2L 2 X 0.310372 m m = Am = 6.329924 X 107m = 980,650
Heliumneon lasers emit the red laser light commonly used in classroom demonstrations and supermarket checkout scanners. A heliumneon laser operates at a wavelength of precisely 632.9924 nm when the spacing between the mirrors is 310.372mm. a. In which mode does this laser operate? b. What is the next longest wavelength that could form a standing wave in this laser cavity?
MODEL
There are 980,650 antinodes in the standing light wave. b. The next longest wavelengththat can fit in this laser cavity will have one fewer node. It will be the m = 980,649 mode and its wavelength will be
A = 2L = 2(0.310372 m) = 632.9930 nm
m ASSESS 980,649
The light wave forms a standing wave between the two The standing wave looks like Figure 21.13.
mirrors.
VISUALIZE
The wavelength increases by a mere 0.0006 nm when the mode number is decreased by 1.
642
CHAPTER
21 . Superposition
Microwaves, with a wavelength of a few centimeters, can also set up standing waves. This is not always good. If the microwaves in a microwave oven form a standing wave, there are nodes where the electromagnetic field intensity is always zero. These nodes cause cold spots where the food does not heat. Although designers of microwave ovens try to prevent standing waves, ovens usually do have cold spots spaced AI2 apart at nodes in the microwave field. A turntable in a microwave oven keeps the food moving so that no part of your dinner remains at a node.
EXAMPLE
21.4
Cold spots in a microwave oven
Cold spots in a microwave oven are found to be 6.0 em apart. What is the frequency of the microwaves? A standing wave is created by microwaves reflecting from the walls.
MODEL
SOLVE The cold spots Nodes are spaced Al2 radiation must be A = is the speed of light, v
are nodes in the microwave standing wave. apart, so the wavelength of the microwave 12cm = 0.12m. The speed of microwaves = c, so the frequency is
=
f=
A
c
=
3.00 X 10'mls 0.12m
2.5 X 109Hz = 2.5GHz
21.4 Standing Sound Waves and Musical Acoustics
A long, narrow column of air, such as the air in a tube or pipe, can support a longitudinal standing sound wave. Longitudinal waves are somewhat trickier than string waves because a graphshowing displacement parallel to the tubeis not a picture of the wave. To illustrate the ideas, FIGURE 21.14 is a series of three graphs and pictures that show the m = 2 standing wave inside a column of air closed at both ends. We call this a closedclosed tube. The air at the closed ends cannot oscillate because the air molecules are pressed up against the wall, unable to move; hence a closed end of a column of air must be a displacement node. Thus the boundary conditionsnodes at the endsare the same as for a standing wave on a string.
FIGURE 21.14 This time sequence of graphs and pictures illustrates the m = 2 standing sound wave in a closedclosed tube of air.
ax
ax
~~x
L
t=
T12
. . .. . . ..
\....__".....\....___,....J
Positive
I
/Maximum
pressure
~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~
. . . . . . ·~ . . . . . . ·~ . ·~
Uniform pressure No displacement
I
/Maximum
pressure
I
/Minimum
pressure
Negative
\. Displacemeit
nodes. These ...:'
displacement displacement
molecules aren't moving.
Although the graph looks familiar, it is now a graph of longitudinal displacement. At t = 0, positive displacements in the left half and negative displacements in the right half cause all the air molecules to converge at the center of the tube. The density and pressure rise at the center and fall at the endsa compression and rarefaction in the terminology of Chapter 20. A half cycle later, the molecules have rushed to the
21.4 . Standing Sound Waves and Musical Acoustics ends of the tube. Now the pressure is maximum at the ends, minimum in the center. Try to visualize the air molecules sloshing back and forth this way. FIGURE 21.15 combines these illustrations into single picture showing where the molecules are oscillating (antinodes) and where they're not (nodes). A graph of the displacement looks just like the m = 2 graph of a standing wave on a string. Because the boundary conditions are the same, the possible wavelengths and frequencies of standing waves in a closedclosed tube are the same as for a string of the same length. It is often useful to think of sound as a pressure wave rather than a displacement wave, and the bottom graph in Figure 21.15 shows the m = 2 pressure standing wave in a closedclosed tube. Notice that the pressure is oscillating around Palmo", its equilibrium value. The nodes and antinodes of the pressure wave are interchanged with those of the displacement wave, and a careful study of Figure 21.14 reveals why. The gas molecules are alternately pushed up against the ends of the tube, then pulled away, causing the pressure at the closed ends to oscillate with maximum amplitudean antinode.
643
FIGURE 21.15 The m = 2 longitudinal standing wave can be represented as a displacement wave or as a pressure wave. The closed end is a displacement node and a pressure antinode . /....... Air molecules undergo longitudinal , oscillations. This is a displacement .... ... antinode and a pressure node.
ax
~
L
°K=><=>i
I1x
X
N
NAN
EXAMPLE 21.5
Singing in the shower
The dis~lacement
and pressure
nodes
A shower stall is 2.45 m (8 ft) tall. For what frequencies less than 500 Hz are there standing sound waves in the shower stall? MODEL The shower stall, to a first approximation, is a column of air 2.45 m long. It is closed a1 the ends by the ceiling and floor.Assume a 20°C speed of sound.
VISUALIZE
A standing sound wave will have nodes at the ceiling and the floor.The m mode will look like Figure 21.15 rotated 90°.
SOLVE
=
2
~<;'
A NAN
:
The pressure is oscillating around atmospheric pressure Patrnos'
The fundamental frequency for a standing sound wave in this air column is
f, =
2L = 2(2.45 m) = 70 Hz
v
343 mls
The possible standingwave frequencies are integer multiples of the fundamental frequency.These are 70 Hz, 140Hz, 210Hz, 280 Hz, 350 Hz, 420 Hz, and 490 Hz.
ASSESS The many possible standing waves in a shower cause the sound to resonate, which helps explain why somepeople like to sing in the shower.Our approximationof the shower stall as a onedimensionaltube is actually a bit too simplistic.A threedimensional analysis would find additional modes, making the "sound spectrum" even richer.
Air columns closed at both ends are of limited interest unless, as in Example 21.5, you are inside the column. Columns of air that emit sound are open at one or both ends. Many musical instruments fit this description. For example, a flute is a tube of air open at both ends. The flutist blows across one end to create a standing wave inside the tube, and a note of that frequency is emitted from both ends of the flute. (The blown end of a flute is open on the side, rather than across the tube. That is necessary for practical reasons of how flutes are played, but from a physics perspective this is the "end" of the tube because it opens the tube to the atmosphere.) A trumpet, however, is open at the bell end but is closed by the player's lips at the other end. You saw earlier that a wave is partially transmitted and partially reflected at a discontinuity. When a sound wave traveling through a tube of air reaches an open end, some of the wave's energy is transmitted out of the tube to become the sound that you hear and some portion of the wave is reflected back into the tube. These reflections, analogous to the reflection of a string wave from a boundary, allow standing sound waves to exist in a tube of air that is open at one or both ends. Not surprisingly, the boundary condition at the open end of a column of air is not the same as the boundary condition at a closed end. The air pressure at the open end of a tube is constrained to match the atmospheric pressure of the surrounding air. Consequently, the open end of a tube must be a pressure node. Because pressure nodes and
644
CHAPTER
21 . Superposition
antinodes are interchanged with those of the displacement wave, an open end of an air column is required to be a displacement antinode. (A careful analysis shows that the antinode is actually just outside the open end, but for our purposes we'll assume the antinode is exactly at the open end.) FIGURE 21.16 shows displacement and pressure graphs of the first three standingwave modes of a tube closed at both ends (a closedclosed tube), a tube open at both ends (an openopen tube), and a tube open at one end but closed at the other (an openclosed tube), all with the same length L. Notice the pressure and displacement boundary conditions. The standing wave in the openopen tube looks like the closedclosed tube except that the positions of the nodes and antinodes are interchanged. In both cases there are m halfwavelength segments between the ends; thus the wavelengths and frequencies of an openopen tube and a closedclosed tube are the same as those of a string tied at both ends:
FIGURE 21.16 The first three standing sound wave modes in columns of air with different boundary conditions. (a) Closedclosed L (b) Openopen L (c) Openclosed
~~:?<::2:
DispJa!ement
m~
I
Displ.:tement
m~
I
~~~
eee~~
m=2
m=
m=2
m=3
3
m=
3
m~5
A {
m
=
2L
m
=
m = I, 2, 3, 4, ...
1m= m;L
mil
(openopen or closedclosed tube)
(21.17)
The openclosed tube is different. The fundamental mode has only onequarter of a wavelength in a tube of length L; hence the m = I wavelength is Al = 4L. This is twice the Al wavelength of an openopen or a closedclosed tube. Consequently, the fundamental frequency of an openclosed tube is half that of an openopen or a closedclosed tube of the same length. It will be left as a homework problem for you to show that the possible wavelengths and frequencies of an openclosed tube of lengthL are A
m
=
4L m
=
m = 1,3, S, 7, ...
{
Im=m;L
mil
(openclosed tube)
(21.18)
Notice that m in Equation 21.18 takes on only odd values.
21.4 . Standing Sound Waves and Musical Acoustics
645
EXAMPLE
21.6
The length of an organ pipe
Ao organ pipe open at both ends sounds its second harmonic at a frequency of 523 Hz. (Musically, this is the note one octave above middle C.) What is the length of the pipe from the sounding hole to the end?
MODEL Ao organ pipe, similar to a flute, has a sounding hole where compressed air is blown across the edge of the pipe. This is one end of an openopen tnbe, with the other end at the true "end" of the pipe. Assume a roomtemperatnre (20°C) speed of sound. SOLVE The second harmonic frequency
is the m = 2 mode, which for an openopen
tube has
Thus the length of the organ pipe is v 343 mls L =  = = O.656m = 65.6cm 12 523 Hz
ASSESS
This is a typical length for an organ pipe.
STOP TO THINK 21.3 An openopen tube of air supports standing waves at frequencies of 300 Hz and 400 Hz and at no frequencies between these two. The second harmonic of this tube has frequency
a. 100Hz
b. 200Hz
c. 400Hz
d. 600Hz
e. 800Hz
Musical Instruments
An important application of standing waves is to musical instruments. Think about stringed musical instruments, such as the guitar, the piano, and the violin. These instruments all have strings fixed at the ends and tightened to create tension. A disturbance generated on the string by plucking, striking, or bowing it creates a standing wave on the string. The fundamental frequency of a vibrating string is
physjcs
Activ
10.5
where T, is the tension in the string and IL is its linear density. The fundamental frequency is the musical note you hear when the string is sounded. Increasing the tension in the string raises the fundamental frequency, a fact known to anyone who has ever tuned a stringed instrument.
NOTE ~
v is the wave speed on the string, not the speed of sound in air. ...
For instruments like the guitar or the violin, the strings are all the same length and under approximately the same tension. Were that not the case, the neck of the instrument would tend to twist toward the side of higher tension. The strings have different frequencies because they differ in linear density. The lowerpitched strings are "fat" while the higherpitched strings are "skinny." This difference changes the frequency by changing the wave speed. Small adjustments are then made in the tension to bring each string to the exact desired frequency. Once the instrument is tuned, you play it by using your fingertips to alter the effective length of the string. As you shorten the string's length, the frequency and pitch go up.
646
CHAPTER
21 . Superposition
The strings on a harp vibrate as standing waves. Their frequencies determine the notes that you hear.
A piano covers a much wider range of frequencies than a guitar or violin. This range cannot be produced by changing only the linear densities of the strings. The high end would have strings too thin to use without breaking, and the low end would have solid rods rather than flexible wires! So a piano is tuned through a combination of changing the linear density and the length of the strings. The bass note strings are not only fatter, they are also longer. With a wind instrument, blowing into the mouthpiece creates a standing sound wave inside a tube of air. The player changes the notes by using her fingers to cover holes or open valves, changing the length of the tube and thus its frequency. As we noted about the flute, the fact that the holes are on the side makes very little difference. The first open hole becomes an antinode because the air is free to oscillate in and out of the opening. According to Equations 21.17 and 21.18, a wind instrument's frequency depends on the speed of sound inside the instrument. But the speed of sound depends on the temperature of the air. When a wind player first blows into the instrument, the air inside starts to rise in temperature. This increases the sound speed, which in tum raises the instrument's frequency for each note until the air temperature reaches a steady state. Consequently, wind players must "warm up" before tuning their instrument. For strings, the speed in Equation 21.17 is the wave speed on the string as determined by the tension, not the sound speed in air. Many wind instruments have a "buzzer" at one end of the tube, such as a vibrating reed on a saxophone or vibrating lips on a trombone. Buzzers generate a continuous range of frequencies rather than single notes, which is why they sound like a "squawk" if you play on just the mouthpiece without the rest of the instrument. When a buzzer is connected to the body of the instrument, most of those frequencies cause no response of the air molecules. But the frequency from the buzzer that matches the fundamental frequency of the instrument causes the buildup of a largeamplitude response at just that frequencya standingwave resonance. This is the energy input that generates and sustains the musical note.
EXAMPLE 21.7 The notes on a clarinet A clarinet is 66.0 cm long. The speed of sound in warm air is 350 m/s. What are the frequencies of the lowest note on a clarinet and of the next highest harmonic? MODEL A clarinet is an openclosed tube because the player's lips and the reed seal the tube at the upper end. SOLVE The lowest frequency is the fundamental frequency.For an openclosed tube, the fundamental frequency is
I, =
v 350 mls 4L = 4(0.660 m) = 133 Hz
=
An openclosed tube has only odd harmonics. The next highest harmonic is m frequency 13 = 3/, = 399 Hz.
3, with
Except in unusual situations, a vibrating string plays ouly the musical note corresponding to the fundamental frequency f,. Thus stringed instruments must use several strings to obtain a reasonable range of notes. In contrast, wind instruments can sound at the second or third harmonic of the tube of air (/2 or f3)' These higher frequencies are sounded by overblowing (flutes, brass instruments) or with special register keys that open small holes in the side of the instrument to encourage the formation of an antinode at that point (clarinets, saxophones). The controlled use of these higher harmonics gives wind instruments a wide range of notes.
21.5 . Interference in One Dimension
641
21.5 Interference in One Dimension
One of the most basic characteristics of waves is the ability of two waves to combine into a single wave whose displacement is given by the principle of superposition. The pattern resulting from the superposition of two waves is often called interference. A standing wave is the interference pattern produced when two waves of equal frequency travel in opposite directions. In this section we will look at the interference of two waves traveling in the same direction.
FIGURE 21.17
Two overlapped
light waves
waves travel along the xaxis.
(b) Two overlapped sound waves
(a) Two overlapped
~"
Laser
.........
'... ,'
Partially .i>: silvered
,... ,
x,
Xl
mirror
~))/Speaker 2 Speaker 1
,
/ /
"
'
:;<./ ~
,
Point of detection
FIGURE 21.178 shows two light waves impinging on a partially silvered mirror. Such a mirror partially transmits and partially reflects each wave, causing two overlapped light waves to travel along the xaxis to the right of the mirror. Or consider the two loudspeakers in FIGURE 21.17b. The sound wave from loudspeaker 2 passes just to the side of loudspeaker I; hence two overlapped sound waves travel to the right along the xaxis. We want to find out what happens when two overlapped waves travel in the same direction along the same axis. Figure 21.17b shows a point on the xaxis where the overlapped waves are detected, either by your ear or by a microphone. This point is distance Xl from loudspeaker I and distance X2 from loudspeaker 2. (yVewill use loudspeakers and sound waves for most of our examples, but our analysis is valid for any wave.) What is the amplitude of the combined waves at this point? Throughout this section, we will assume that the waves are sinusoidal, have the same frequency and amplitude, and travel to the right along the xaxis. Thus we can write the displacements of the two waves as
Waves from three sources having phase constants <1>0 = 0 rad, <1>0 = 1£12 rad, and <1>0 = 1£rad.
FIGURE 21.18 (8) Snapshot D graph at
t
=
0 for <1>0
=
0 rad
When
~~
a "'
R
/
t ./
this crest was emitted, a quarter cycle ago, the speaker
cone was all the way forward.
/"",\+v /""'\
X
'../,\
VA
Now this speaker cone, at x = 0, is centered and moving backward.
=
D,
(Xl'
t) = asin(kxl  oat  oat
+ +
<P1O) = asin<pl <P20) = asin<p2
(b) Snapshot graph at t
0 for <1>0
=
1£12 rad
D2(X2, t) = asin(kx2
(21.19)
This speaker cone is
all the way forward.
D /
where <PI and <P2 are the phases of the waves. Both waves have the same wave number k = 27T/'\ and the same angular frequency ta = 27Tt The phase constants <P1O and <P20 are characteristics of the sources, not the medium. FIGURE21.18 shows snapshot graphs at t = 0 of waves emitted by three sources with phase constants <Po = 0 rad, <Po = 7T/2 rad, and <Po = 7T rad. You can see that the phase constant tells us what the source is doing at t = O. For example, a loudspeaker at its center position and moving backward at t = 0 has <Po = 0 rad. Looking back at Figure 21.17b, you can see that loudspeaker I has phase constant <P 10 = 0 rad and loudspeaker 2 has <P20 = 7T rad.
NOTE ~ We will often consider identical sources, by which we mean that <P20 = <P1O' ...
af
(c) Snapshot
O+vO
graph at
t
=
0 for <1>0
=
11"
rad
This speaker cone is centered
D and moving forward.
/ a~/"",\+v
/""'0...
648
CHAPTER
21
. Superposition
FIGURE 21.19 Constructive and destructive interference of two waves traveling along the xaxis. (a) Constructive interference
These two waves are in phase.
Their crests are aligned.
, .../wave,,2 ...
I
x
"
,
I
,... Wavel
\
/'
\
/
''''
I
I
Wave 2
I
D
I
r+
~
.,:
+2:h
(b) Destructive
~
I
2af\T\T'
interference
A+ Ax
Their superposition produces a traveling wave moving to the right with amplitude 2a. This is
maximum constructive interference.
~)\,~.~,,,,;,\:,
The crests of one wave are aligned
~ Wave 2 Wavel
These two waves are out of phase.
Let's examine overlapped waves graphically before diving into the mathematics. shows two important situations. In part a, the crests of the two waves are aligned as they travel along the xaxis. In part b, the crests of one wave align with the troughs of the other wave. The graphs and the wave fronts are slightly displaced from each other so that you can see what each wave is doing, but the physical situation is one in which the waves are traveling on top of each other. Recall, from Chapter 20, that the wave fronts shown in the middle panel locate the crests of the waves. The two waves of FIGURE 21.190 have the same displacement at every point: D, (x) = D2(x). Consequently, they must have the same phase. That is, </>, = </>2 or, more precisely, </>, = </>2 ± 271'm,where m is an integer. Two waves that are aligned crest to crest and trough to trough are said to be in phase. Waves that are in phase march along "in step" with each other. When we combine two inphase waves, using the principle of superposition, the net displacement at each point is twice the displacement of each individual wave. The superposition of two waves to create a traveling wave with an amplitude larger than either individual wave is called constructive interference. When the waves are exactly in phase, giving A = 2a, we have maximum constructive interference. In FIGURE21.19b, where the crests of one wave align with the troughs of the other, the waves march along "out of step" with D, (x) =  D2 (x) at every point. Two waves that are aligned crest to trough are said to be 1800 out of phase or, more generally, just out of phase. A superposition of two waves to create a wave with an amplitude smaller than either individual wave is called destructive interference. In this case, because D, =  D2, the net displacement is zero at every point along the axis. The combination of two waves that cancel each other to give no wave is called perfect destructive interference.
FIGURE 21.19
Perfect destructive interference occurs only if the two waves have equal wavelengths and amplitudes, as we're assuming. Two waves of unequal amplitudes can interfere destructively, but the cancellation won't be perfect. <II
NOTE ~
+~t_x
.;
D
I
The phase Difference
To understand interference, we need to focus on the phases of the two waves, which are
~
</>,
= kx,  oat
+ </>10
(21.20)
The difference between the two phases </>, and </>2' called the phase difference tl</>, is
tl</>
=
</>2  </>,

=
(kx2  tot
+ </>20) 
(kx,  cot
+ </>10)
(21.21)
2a
= k(X2
x,)
+ (</>20  </>10)
Their superposition produces a wave with zero amplitude. This is perfect destructive interference.
You can see that there are two contributions to the phase difference. tlx = X2  x" the distance between the two sources, is called pathlength difference. It is the extra distance traveled by wave 2 on the way to the point where the two waves are combined. tl</>o = </>20  </>10 is the inherent phase difference between the sources. The condition of being in phase, where crests are aligned with crests and troughs with troughs, is tl</> = 0,271',471',or any integer multiple of 271'.Thus the condition for maximum constructive interference is Maximum constructive interference: (21.22)
m = 0, 1, 2, 3, ...
For identical sources, which have tl</>o = Orad, maximum constructive interference occurs when tlx = m): That is, two identical sources produce maximum construe
21.5 . Interference in One Dimension
649
tive interference when the pathlength difference is an integer number of wavelengths. FIGURE 21.20 shows two identical sources (i.e., the two loudspeakers are doing the same thing at the same time), so Il</>o = 0 rad. The pathlength difference Ilx is the extra distance traveled by the wave from loudspeaker 2 before it combines with loudspeaker I. In this case, Ilx = A. Because a wave moves forward exactly one wavelength during one period, loudspeaker I emits a crest exactly as a crest of wave 2 passes by. The two waves are "in step," with Il</>= 27r rad, so the two waves interfere constructively to produce a wave of amplitude 2a. Perfect destructive interference, where the crests of one wave are aligned with the troughs of the other, occurs when two waves are out of phase, meaning that Il</>= tr, 37r, 57r, or any odd multiple of tr. Thus the condition for perfect destructive interferenceis Perfect destructive interference: (21.23)
m = 0, 1,2,3,
FIGURE 21.20
wavelength Speaker 2
Two identical sources one apart.
~
\ Identical
a"" ~ 0
~peAU ~....::.
sources
This crest is emitted as a crest from speaker 2 passes by.
aFA
Pathlength difference
c(J))V V
=
The two waves are in phase (6,cf>
...
2'1T rad)
and interfere constructively.
For identical sources, which have Il</>o = 0 rad, perfect destructive interference occurs when Ilx = (m + That is, two identical sources produce perfect destructive interference when the pathlength difference is a halfinteger number of wavelengths. Two waves can be out of phase because the sources are located at different positions, because the sources themselves are out of phase, or because of a combination of these two. FIGURE 21.21 illustrates these ideas by showing three different ways in which two waves interfere destructively. Each of these three arrangements creates waves with Il</>= tr rad.
DA.
FIGURE 21.21 (8)
Destructive
interference
three ways.
(b) Identical sources are separated by half a (c) The sources are both separated and
The sources are out of phase.
wavelength.
partially out of phase.
2~
2~
"'~""",~
ax ~ ~A
'''~'''',~
ax ~ ~A
NOTE ~ Don't confuse the phase difference of the waves (Il</» with the phase difference of the sources (Il</>o). It is Il</>, the phase difference of the waves, that governs interference. ...
EXAMPLE 21.8
Interference between two sound waves
You are standing in front of two sidebyside loudspeakers playing sounds of the same frequency. Initially there is almost no sound at all. Then one of the speakers is moved slowly away from you. The sound intensity increases as the separation between the speakers increases, reaching a maximum when the speakers are 0.75 m apart. Then, as the speaker continues to move, the sound starts to decrease. What is the distance between the speakers when the sound intensity is again a ntinimum?
MODEL The changing sound intensity is due to the interference of two overlapped sound waves. VISUALIZE
Moving one speaker relative to the other changes the phase difference between the waves. implies that the two sound Initially the loudspeakers are shown in FIGURE 21.21a with the speakers themselves are
Continued
SOLVE A ntinimum sound intensity waves are interfering destructively. side by side, so the situation is as Llx = 0 and Ll</>o 7r rad. That is, =
650
CHAPTER
21 . Superposition
out of phase. but it does increases the ence, causing
Moving one of the speakers does not change I:J.cpo, change the pathlength difference I:J.x and thus overall phase difference I:J.CP. Constructive interfermaximum intensity, is reached when
FIGURE 21.22
Two outofphase sources generate waves that are in phase if the sources are one halfwavelength apart.
,~
where we used m = 1 because constructive interference. The occurs is I:J.x = Al2. This is the Because I:J.x = 0.75 ID is A = 1.50 ID. The next point m = 1, occurs when this is the first separation giving speaker separation at which this situation shown in FIGURE21.22. Al2, the sound's wavelength is of destructive interference, with
~x
~~
=
tA
phase.
:
I
The sources are separated by half a wavelength.
As a result, the
waves are in
Thus the distance between the speakers when the sound intensity is again a minimum is I:J.x = A = 1.50m
A separation of A gives constructive interference for two identical speakers (I:J.cpo = 0). Here the phase difference of 7r rad between the speakers (one is pushing forward as the other pulls back) gives destructive interference at this separation.
ASSESS
STOP TO THINK 21.4 Two loudspeakers emit waves with A = 2.0 m. Speaker 2 is 1.0 m iu front of speaker 1. What, if anything, can be done to cause constructive interference between the two waves?
l~
a. b. c. d. e. f.
Move speaker 1 forward (to the right) 1.0 m. Move speaker 1forward (to the right) 0.5 m. Move speaker 1backward (to the left) 0.5 m. Move speaker 1backward (to the left) 1.0 m. Nothing. The situation shown already causes constructive interference. Constructive iuterference is not possible for any placement of the speakers.
~~ l.Orn
A=2.0rn
21.6 The Mathematics of Interference
Let's look more closely at the superposition of two waves. As two waves of equal amplitude and frequency travel together along the xaxis, the net displacement of the medium is
D = DI
+ D2
= asiu(kxl = asiutPI
 oat
+
tPlO)
+ asin(kx2
 oat
+
tPw)
+ asintP2
(21.24)
where the phases tPI and tP2 were defined iu Equation 21.20. A useful trigonometric identity is since
+
sinf:l
=
2cos[~(a
 f:l)] sin[~(a
+ f:l)]
(21.25)
This identity is certainly not obvious, although it is easily proven by working backward from the right side. We can use this identity to write the net displacement of Equation 21.24 as t:.tP] sm(kx . D = [ 2acosT ovg tot
+
(tPO)avg)
(21.26)
where t:.tP = tP2  tPI is the phase difference between the two waves, exactly as in Equation 21.21. Xovg = (Xl + x2)12 is the average distance to the two sources and (tPO)avg = (tPlO + tPw)12 is the average phase constant of the sources.
21.6 . The Mathematics
of Interference
651
The sine term shows that the superposition of the two waves is still a traveling wave. An observer would see a sinusoidal wave moving along the xaxis with the same wavelength and frequency as the original waves. But how big is this wave compared to the two original waves? They each had amplitude a, but the amplitude of their superposition is
A = 12aCOs(L\2~)1
(21.27)
FIGURE 21.23 The interference of two waves for three different values of the phase difference. For
where we have used an absolute value sign because amplitudes must be positive. Depending upon the phase difference of the two waves, the amplitude of their superposition can be anywhere from zero (perfect destructive interference) to 2a (maximum constructive interference). The amplitude has its maximum value A = 2a if cos(L\~I2) = ± 1. This occurs when (maximum amplitude A = 2a) where m is an integer. Similarly, the amplitude is zero if cos(L\~I2) occurs when (minimum amplitude A = 0) (21.28)
=
!1CP = 40°.
the interference
is constructive
0, which
~~,
(21.29)
Equations 21.28 and 21.29 are identical to the conditions of Equations 21.22 and 21.23 for constructive and destructive interference. We initially found these conditions by considering the alignment of the crests and troughs. Now we have confirmed them with an algebraic addition of the waves. It is entirely possible, of course, that the two waves are neither exactly in phase nor exactly out of phase. Equation 21.27 allows us to calculate the amplitude of the superposition for any value of the phase difference. As an example, FIGURE 21.23 shows the calculated interference of two waves that differ in phase by 400, by 900, and by 1600•
:~,
For !1CP = 160 the interference but not perfect destructive.
0 •
is destructive
EXAMPLE
21.9
More interference of sound waves
Two loudspeakers emit 500 Hz sound waves with an amplitude of 0.10 mm. Speaker 2 is 1.00 m behind speaker 1, and the phase difference between the speakers is 900• What is the amplitude of the sound wave at a point 2.00 m in front of speaker 1?
MODEL The amplitude is determined by the interference of the two waves. Assume that the speed of sound has a roomtemperature (20°C) value of 343 m/s. SOLVE
A=
11 = f
343 mls = 0.686m 500Hz
Distances Xl = 2.0 m and X2 = 3.0 m are measured from the speakers, so the pathlength difference is Llx = 1.00 m. We're given that the inherent phase difference between the speakers is Llr/>o = Tr/2 rad. Thus the phase difference at the observation point is
The amplitude of the sound wave is A = 12a cos (Llr/>/2)
Llr/>
=
I
2Tr Llx A
+ Llr/>o
=
2Tr 1.00 m 0.686m
+~
2
rad = 10.73 rad
and the amplitude of the wave at this point is A = 2acos
wherea = 0.10 mm and the phase difference between the waves is
I
2 (Llr/»I
=
(0.200mm)cos
(10.73) 2
=
0.121 mm
ASSESS
The sound's wavelength is
The interference is constructive because A than maximum constructive interference.
> a, but
less
Application: ThinFilm Optical Coatings
The shimmering colors of soap bubbles and oil slicks, as seen in the photo at the beginning of the chapter, are due to the interference of light waves. In fact, the idea of lightwave interference in one dimension has an important application in the optics industry, namely the use of thinfilm optical coatings. These films, less than l jzm (106 m) thick, are placed on glass surfaces, such as lenses, to control reflections
652
CHAPTER
21 . Superposition
FIGURE 21.24 The two reflections, one from the coating and one from the glass, interfere.
Air
1.
Incident wave
approaches the first surface.
Thin film lndexn
~
2. Part of the wave reflects back with a phase shift of 'IT rad, part
~~
3.
continues on into the film.
A Part of the transmitted wave :reflects at the second surface,
part continues on into the glass.
~~
4. The two reflected
Af
~
waves are overlapped and interfere.
,________L__.
from the glass. Antireflection coatings on the lenses in cameras, microscopes, and other optical equipment are examples of thinfilm coatings. FIGURE 21.24 shows a light wave of wavelength A approaching a piece of glass that has been coated with a transparent film whose index of refraction is n. The thickness d of this film is greatly exaggerated in the figure. The airfilm boundary is a discontinuity at which the wave speed suddenly decreases, and you saw earlier, in Figure 21.8, that a discontinuity causes a reflection. Most of the light is transmitted into the film, but a little bit is reflected. Furthermore, you saw in Figure 21.8 that the wave reflected from a discontinuity at which the speed decreases is inverted with respect to the incident wave. For a sinusoidal wave, which we're now assuming, the inversion is represented mathematically as a phase shift of tt rad. The speed of a light wave decreases when it enters a material with a larger index of refraction. Thus a light wave that reflects from a boundary at which the index of refraction increases has a phase shift of 1T rad. There is no phase shift for the reflection from a boundary at which the index of refraction decreases. The reflection in Figure 21.24 is from a boundary between air (n"" = 1.00) and a transparent film with nfilm > n"", so the reflected wave is inverted due to the phase shift of tr rad. When the transmitted wave reaches the glass, most of it continues on into the glass but a portion is reflected back to the left. We'll assume that the index of refraction of the glass is larger than that of the film, ng),,, > nfilm, so this reflection also has a phase shift of tr rad. This second reflection, after traveling back through the film, passes back into the air. There are now two equalfrequency waves traveling to the left, and these waves will interfere. If the two reflected waves are in phase, they will interfere constructively to cause a strong reflection. If the two reflected waves are out of phase, they will interfere destructively to cause a weak reflection or, if their amplitudes are equal, no reflection at all. This suggests practical uses for thinfilm optical coatings. The reflections from glass surfaces, even if weak, are often undesirable. For example, reflections degrade the performance of optical equipment. These reflections can be eliminated by coating the glass with a film whose thickness is chosen to cause destructive interference of the two reflected waves. This is an antireflection coating. The amplitude of the reflected light depends on the phase difference between the two reflected waves. This phase difference is !1tP = tP2  tP) = (kx2 !1x = 27r !1tPo Af
+ tP20 + tt rad)
 (kx)
+ tPlO+ tt rad)
(21.30)
where we explicitly included the reflection phase shift of each wave. In this case, because both waves had a phase shift of tr rad, the reflection phase shifts cancel. The wavelength Af is the wavelength in the film because that's where the pathlength difference !1x occurs. You learned in Chapter 20 that the wavelength in a transparent material with index of refraction n is Af = sln, where the unsubscripted A is the wavelength in vacuum or air. That is, A is the wavelength that we measure on "our" side of the airfilm boundary. The pathlength difference between the two waves is !1x = 2d because wave 2 travels through the film twice before rejoining wave 1. The two waves have a common originthe initial division of the incident wave at the front surface of the filmso the inherent phase difference is !1tPo = O.Thus the phase difference of the two reflected waves is 2d 2nd !1tP = 27r= 27rAln
A
(21.31)
=
The interference is constructive, causing a strong reflection, when!1tP Constructive interference occurs for wavelengths
Antireflection coatings use the interference of light waves to nearly eliminate reflections from glass surfaces.
m . 27r rad.
Ac
2nd
= ;;;
m = 1,2,3,
...
(constructive interference)
(21.32)
21.7 . Interference in Two and Three Dimensions You will notice that m starts with 1, rather than 0, in order to give meaningful results. Destructive interference, with minimum reflection, requires tlcf> = (m 27T rad. This occurs for wavelengths
653
D.
m = 1,2,3,
...
(destructive interference)
(21.33)
We've used m rather than m tion for constructive interference.
t
+t
so that m can start with 1 to match the condiis satisstrongly near Ac. is nearly
NOTE ~ The exact condition for constructive or destructive interference fied for ouly a few discrete wavelengths A. Nonetheless, reflections are enhanced (nearly constructive interference) for a range of wavelengths Likewise, there is a range of wavelengths near AD for which the reflection canceled .....
EXAMPLE 21.10
Designing an antirefledion coating
Magnesium fluoride (MgF2) is used as an antireflection coating on lenses. The index of refraction of MgF2is 1.39. What is the thinnest film of MgF2that works as an antireflection coating at A = 510 nm, near the center of the visible spectrum?
MODEL Reflection is minimized if the two reflected waves interfere destructively.
SOLVE The film thicknesses that cause destructive interference at wavelength A are
d=
(m 
!)~
2 2n
The thinnest film has m
=
1. Its thickness is 510nm
d =  = = 92nm 4n 4(1.39)
A
The film thickness is significantlyless than the wavelength of visiblelight! ASSESS The reflected light is completely eliminated (perfect destructive interference) only if the two reflected waves have equal amplitudes. In practice, they don't. Nonetheless, the reflection is reduced from = 4% of the incident intensity for "bare glass" to well under 1%. Furthermore, the intensity of reflected light is much reduced across most of the visible spectrum (400700 nm), even though the phase difference deviates more and more from 11' rad as the wavelength moves away from 510 nm. It is the increasing reflection at the ends of the visible spectrnm (A = 400 nm and A = 700 nm), where!!.cf>eviates sigd nificantly from 11' rad, that gives a reddishpurple tinge to the lenses on cameras and binoculars. Homework problems will let you explore situations where only one of the two reflections has a reflection phase shift of 11' rad.
21.7 Interference in Two and Three Dimensions
Ripples on a lake move in two dimensions. The glow from a lightbulb spreads outward as a spherical wave. A circular or spherical wave can be written D(r, I)
=
asin(kr  cot
+ cf>o)
(21.34)
FIGURE 21.25 A
where r is the distance measured outward from the source. Equation 21.34 is our familiar wave equation with the onedimensional coordinate x replaced by a more general radial coordinate r. Strictly speaking, the amplitude a of a circular or spherical wave diminishes as r increases. However, we will assume that a remains essentially constant over the region in which we study the wave. FIGURE 21.25 shows the wavefront diagram for a circular or spherical wave. Recall that the wave fronts represent the crests of the wave and are spaced by the wavelength A. What happens when two circular or spherical waves overlap? For example, imagine two paddles oscillating up and down on the surface of a pond. We will assume that the two paddles oscillate with the same frequency and amplitude and that they are in phase. FIGURE21.26 on the next page shows the wave fronts of the two waves. The ripples overlap as they travel, and, as was the case in one dimension, this causes interference. Constructive interference with A = 2a occurs where two crests align or two troughs align. Several locations of constructive interference are marked in Figure 21.26. Intersecting wave fronts are points where two crests are aligned. It's a bit harder to visualize,
circular or spherical wave. A.
Troughs are halfway between wave fronts.
The wave fronts are crests, t"parated by
"""
1
r
This graph sho~s the displacement of the medium.
654
CHAPTER
21 . Superposition
The overlapping ripple patterns of two sources. A few points of constructive and destructive interference are noted.
FIGURE 21.26 1\\'0 inphase sources emit circular or spherical waves.
but two troughs are aligned when a midpoint between two wave fronts is overlapped with another midpoint between two wave fronts. Destructive interference with A = 0 occurs where the crest of one wave aligns with a trough of the other wave. Several points of destructive interference are also indicated in Figure 21.26. A picture on a page is static, but the wave fronts are in motion. Try to imagine the wave fronts of Figure 21.26 expanding outward as new circular rings are born at the sources. The waves will move forward half a wavelength during half a period, causing the crests in Figure 21.26 to be replaced by troughs while the troughs become crests. The important point to recognize is that the motion of the waves does not affect the points of constructive and destructive interference. Points in the figure where two crests overlap will become points where two troughs overlap, but this overlap is still constructive interference. Similarly, points in the figure where a crest and a trough overlap will become a point where a trough and a crest overlapstill destructive interference. The mathematical description of interference in two or three dimensions is very similar to that of onedimensional interference. The net displacement of a particle in the medium is D = D,
+ D2
= asin(krj
 oat
+
<P1O)
+ asin(kr2
 oat
+
<P20)
(21.35)
• Points of constructive interference. A crest is aligned with a crest, or a trough with a trough . • Points of destructive interference. A crest is aligned with a trough of
another wave.
The only difference between Equation 21.35 and the earlier onedimensional Equation 21.24 is that the linear coordinates Xj and X2 have been changed to radial coordinates rj and r2' Thus our conclusions are unchanged. The superposition of the two waves yields a wave traveling outward with amplitude A = 12acos(~:)1 where the phase difference, with x replaced by r, is now ~<P = 27TT
~r
(21.36)
+ ~<Po
(21.37)
The term 27T(~rIA) is the phase difference that arises when the waves travel different distances from the sources to the point at which they combine. ~r itself is the pathlength difference. As before, ~<Po is any inherent phase difference of the sources themselves. Maximum constructive interference with A = 2a occurs, just as in one dimension, at those points where cos(~<pI2) = ± 1. Similarly, perfect destructive interference occurs at points where cos(~<p12) = O. The conditions for constructive and destructive interference are Maximum constructive interference:
Two overlapping water waves create an interference pattern.
~<P = 27TT
~r
+ ~<Po = m + ~<Po =
. 27T
m = 0,1,2,
Perfect destructive interference: ~<P
=
...
(21.38)
27T~
(m
+ ~). 27T
For two identical sources (i.e., sources that oscillate in phase with ~<Po = 0), the conditions for constructive and destructive interference are simple: Constructive: Destructive:
~r (m + ~)A
=
~r = m):
(identical sources)
(21.39)
21.7 . Interference in Two and Three Dimensions
655
The waves from two identical sources interfere constructively at points where the pathlength difference is an integer number of wavelengths because, for tbese values of flr, crests are aligned with crests and troughs with troughs. The waves interfere destructively where the pathlength difference is a halfinteger number of wavelengths because, for these values of flr, crests are aligned with troughs. These two statements are tbe essence of interference.
NOTE ~ Equation 21.39 applies only if tbe sources are in phase. If tbe sources are
FIGURE 21.27 The pathlength difference I1r determines whether the interference at a particular point is constructive or destructive. • At A, !l.rA = A, so this is a point of constructive interference.
not in phase, you must use tbe more general Equation 21.38 to locate tbe points of constructive and destructive interference. <III Wave fronts are spaced exactly one wavelengtb apart; hence we can measure tbe distances r, and r2 simply by counting tbe rings in tbe wavefront pattern. In FIGURE21.27, which is based on Figure 21.26, point A is distance = 3A from tbe first source and rz = 2A from tbe second. The patblengtb difference is flrA = lA, tbe condition for the maximum constructive interference of identical sources. Point B has flrB = ! so it is a point of perfect destructive interference. A,
r,
NOTE ~ Interference is determined by flr, the pathlength difference, by r, or r2' <III
rather tban
I
STOP TO THINK21.'
J The
interference at point C in Figure 21.27 is b. Constructive, but less tban maximum. d. Destructive, but not perfect.
• At B, !l.rB = ~A, so this is a point of destructive interference.
a. Maximum constructive. c. Perfect destructive. e. There is no interference at point C.
We can now locate tbe points of maximum constructive interference, for which
flr = rnA, by drawing a line tbrough all tbe points at which flr = 0, anotber line
tbrough all tbe points at which flr = A, and so on. These lines, shown in red in FIGURE21.28, are called antinodallines. They are analogous to tbe antinodes of a standing wave, hence tbe name. An antinode is a point of maximum constructive interference; for circular waves, oscillation at maximum amplitude occurs along a continuous line. Similarly, destructive interference occurs along lines called nodal lines. The displacement is always zero along tbese lines, just as it is at a node in a standingwave pattern.
FIGURE 21.28 The points of constructive and nodal lines.
and destructive
interference
fall along antinodal

Antinodallines, constructive interferen oscillation with maximum amplitude. Intensity is at its maximum value. Nodal lines, destructive interference, no oscillation. Intensity is zero,

656
CHAPTER
21 . Superposition
A ProblemSolving
The information instead of lems. This strategy
Strategy for Interference
is the basis of a strategy well to interference equally
Problems
interference probif you use
in this section applies
for solving
ar.
in one dimension
ax
~~~~~~t~';:~~ Interference
MODEL
of two waves
such as assuming waves are circular and
Make simplifying
assumptions,
of equal amplitude.
VISUALIZE
Draw a picture interfere.
showing
the sources dimensions.
of the waves Identify difference
and the point where
the waves sources.
SOLVE
Give relevant
the distances
from the sources
to the point.
Note any phase
acpo between ar
=
rl
and
r2
the two
The interference
depends
the source phase difference Constructive: Destructive: For identical
acp acp
sources
=
27TT
27T ~
acpo. ar
on the pathlength
difference
r2 
rl
and
+ acpo
=
m 27T
=
+ acpo
=
=
(m
m = 0, 1,2, ...
+ ~) ·27T
is maximum constructive if
ar
(acpo
0), the interference
= mA, perfect Check
destructive
if
ar
= (m
+ DA.
ASSESS
that your result has the correct
units, is reasonable,
and answers
the question.
EXAMPLE 21.11
Twodimensional interference between two loudspeakers
It's not r, and r2 that matter, but the difference !!.r between them. From the geometry of the figure we can calculate that
SOLVE
Two loudspeakers in a plane are 2.0 m apart and in phase with each other. Both emit 700 Hz sound waves into a room where the speed of sound is 341 mls.Alistener stands 5.0 min front of the loudspeakers and 2.0 ill to one side of the center. Is the interference at this point maximum constructive, perfect destructive, or in between? How will the situation differ if the loudspeakers are out of phase?
MOOEL The two speakers are sources of inphase, circular waves. The overlap of these waves causes interference. VISUALIZE FIGURE 21.29 shows the loudspeakers and defines the distances r, and r2 to the point of observation. The figure includes dimensions and notes that !!.cf>o = 0 rad.
r, =
r2
v' (5.0 = v' (5.0
m)2 m)?
+ +
(1.0 m)2 = 5.10 m (3.0 m)? = 5.83 m
Thus the pathlength difference is !!.r = r2  r, = 0.73 m. The wavelength of the sound waves is v 341 m/s A =  = = 0.487 m f 700Hz In terms of wavelengths, 1.50, or the pathlength difference is !!.r/ A =
Pictorial representation of the interference between two loudspeakers.
FIGURE 21.29
!!.r = ~A 2 Because the sources are in phase (!!.cf>o = 0), this is the condition for destructive interference. If the sources were out of phase (!!.cf>o = 1r rad), then the phase difference of the waves at the listener would be
::~Itl<P,; = Orltd.
!!.cf>
=
!!.r 21rA
+
!!.cf>o = 21r
(3) 2
+
1r rad = 41r rad
This is an integer multiple of 21r rad, so in this case the interference would be constructive.
ASSESS
Both the pathlength difference and any inherent phase difference of the sources must be considered when evaluating interference.
21.7 . Interference in Two and Three Dimensions
651
Picturing Interference
A contour map is a useful way to visualize an interference pattern. FICiURE21.30a shows the superposition of the waves from two identical sources (a</>o = 0) emitting waves with A = I m. The sources, indicated with black dots, are located two wavelengths apart at y = ± I m. Positive displacements are shown in red, with the deepest red representing the maximum displacement of the wave at this instant in time. These are the points where the crests of the individual waves interfere constructively to give D = 2a. Negative displacements are blue, with the darkest blue being the most negative displacement of the wave. These are also points of constructive interference, with two troughs overlapping to give D = 2a.
21.30 A contour map of the interference pattern of two sources. The graph on the right side of each figure shows the wave intensity along a vertical line at x = 4 m. y(m) 4 (b) Two outofphase sources y(m) 4
FICiURE
(a) Two identical sources
o
o
2
2
4
Intensity atx=4m • Crest • Zero • Trough 0 • Crest • x(m) Zero • Trough
4
o
To understand this figure, try to visualize the waves expanding outward from the center. The redblueredbluered· .. pattern of crests and troughs moves outward along the antinodallines as a traveling wave of amplitude A = 2a. Nothing ever happens along the nodal lines, where the amplitude is always zero. Suppose you were to observe the intensity of the wave as it crosses the vertical line at x = 4 m on the right edge of the figure. If, for example, these are sound waves, you could listen to (or measure with a microphone) the sound intensity as you walk from (x, y) = (4 m, 4 m) at the bottom of the figure to (x, y) = (4 m, 4 m) at the top. The intensity is zero as you cross the nodal lines at y "" ± I m (ar = ! The intenA). sity is maximum at the antinodallines at y = 0 (ar = 0) and y "" ± 2.5 m (ar = A), where a wave of maximum amplitude streams out from the sources. The intensity is shown in the rather unusual graph on the right side of Figure 21.30a. It is unusual in the sense that the intensity, the quantity of interest, is graphed to the left. The peaks are the points of constructive interference, where you would measure maximum amplitude. The zeros are points of destructive interference, where the intensity is zero. FICiURE 21.30b is a contour map of the interference pattern produced by the same two sources but with the sources themselves now out of phase (a</>o = tr rad). We'll leave the investigation of this figure to you, but notice that the nodal and antinodallines are reversed from those of Figure 21.30a.
658
CHAPTER
21 . Superposition
EXAMPLE 21.12
n.e intensity of two interfering loudspeakers
FIGURE 21.31
interference
Pictorial representation of the between two loudspeakers. IO.Om
Two loudspeakers in a plane are 6.0 m apart and in phase. They emit equalamplitnde sound waves with a wavelength of 1.0 m. Each speaker alone creates sound with intensity 10, An observer at point A is 10m in front of the plane containing the two loudspeakers and centered between them. A second observer at point B is 10 m directly in front of one of the speakers. In terms of 10, what is the intensity IA at point A and the intensity 18 at point B?
MODEL
A = 1.0m
The two speakers are sources of inphase overlap of these waves causes interference.
waves. The
VISUALIZE FIGURE 21.31 shows the two loudspeakers and the two points of observation. Distances r, and r2 are defined for point B.
Let the amplitnde of the wave from each speaker be a. The intensity of a wave is proportional to the square of the amplitude, so the intensity of each speaker alone is 10 = ca2, where c is an unknown proportionality constant. Point A is a point of constructive interference because the speakers are in phase (I:l.</>o 0) and = the pathlength difference is I:l.r = O. The amplitude at this point is given by Equation 21.36:
SOLVE
A = 1.0m The phase difference of the waves at this point is I:l.</> 21f I:l.r = 21f 1.662 m = 10.44 rad = A LOrn Consequently, the amplitude at B is A8 = 12acos(I:l.:)I
AA = l2acos(1:l. </» I = 2acos(0) 2 Consequently, the intensity at this point is IA = cAl
= 2a
= l2acos(5.22rad)I
= 0.972a
= c(2a)2 = 4ca2 = 4/0
Thus the intensity at this point is 18 = cAo' = c(0.972a)2
ASSESS
The intensity at A is four times that of either speaker played alone. At point B, the pathlength difference is I:l.r =
= 0.95ca2 = 0.95/0
v' (10.0
m)'
+
(6.0 m)?  10.0 m = 1.662 m
Although B is directly in front of one of the speakers, superposition of the two waves results in an intensity that is less than it would be if this speaker played alone.
ISTOP TO THINK 21.1 I These two loudspeakers
are in phase. They emit equalamplitude sound waves with a wavelength of 1.0 m. At the point indicated, is the interference maximum constructive, perfect destructive, or something in between?
21.8 Beats
10.7
p~~L.lNE
Activ
"1S!CS
Thus far we have looked at the superposition of sources having the same wavelength and frequency. We can also use the principle of superposition to investigate a phenomenon that is easily demonstrated with two sources of slightly different frequency. If you listen to two sounds with very different frequencies, such as a high note and a low note, you hear two distinct tones. But if the frequency difference is very small, just one or two hertz, then you hear a single tone whose intensity is modulated once or twice every second. That is, the sound goes up and down in volume, loud, soft, loud, soft, ... , making a distinctive sound pattern called beats.
21.8 . Beats
659
Consider two sinusoidal waves traveling along the xaxis with angular frequencies
"" = 27ff, and "'2 = 27ff2' The two waves are
D, = asin(k,x
D2
=

"',I + <P1O)
<P20)
asin(k2x  "'21 +
(21.40)
where the subscripts I and 2 indicate that the frequencies, wave numbers, and phase constants of the two waves may be different. To simplify the analysis, let's make several assumptions: 1. 2. 3. 4. The two waves have the same amplitude a, A detector, such as your ear, is located at the origin (x = 0), The two sources are in phase (<p '0 = <P20) , and The source phases happen to be <P1O = <P20 = tt rad.
None of these assumptions is essential to the outcome. All could be otherwise and we would still come to basically the same conclusion, but the mathematics would be far messier. Making these assumptions allows us to emphasize the physics with the least amount of mathematics. With these assumptions, the two waves as they reach the detector at x = 0 are D, D2
= =
asin( "',I asin( "'21
+ rr ) + rr )
= =
asin",,1 asin"'21
(21.41)
where we've used the trigonometric identity sine tr  0) = sinO. The principle of superposition tells us that the net displacement of the medium at the detector is the sum of the displacements of the individual waves. Thus D
=
D,
+ D2 =
a(sin",,1
+
sin"'21)
(21.42)
Earlier, for interference, we used the trigonometric identity sino
+
sin,8 = 2COS[~(lI'  ,8+in[~(lI'
+ ,8)]
We can use this identity again to write Equation 21.42 as D
=
2acos[~(""
 "'2)1] sin[~("',
+ "'2)1]
(21.43)
=
[2acOS("'modl)]sin("'avgt)
where "'avg = i("" + "'2) is the average angular frequency and "'mod = i(""  "'2) is called the modulation frequency. We are interested in the situation when the two frequencies are very nearly equal: "" = "'2' In that case, "'avghardly differs from either ca or "'2 while "'modis very near tobut not exactlyzero. When "'modis very small, the term cOS("'modt)oscillates very slowly. We have grouped it with the 2a term because, together, they provide a slowly changing "amplitude" for the rapid oscillation at frequency "'avg. FIGURE 21.32 is a history graph of the wave at the detector (x = 0). It shows the oscillation of the air against your eardrum at frequency favg = "'avi27f = i(f, + f2)' This oscillation determines the note you hear; it differs little from the two notes at frequencies f, and j,. We are especially interested in the timedependent amplitude, shown as a dashed line, that is given by the term 2acoS("'modl). This periodically varying amplitude is called a modulation of the wave, which is where "'modgets its name. As the amplitude rises and falls, the sound alternates as loud, soft, loud, soft, and so on. But that is exactly what you hear when you listen to beats! The alternating loud and soft sounds arise from the two waves being alternately in phase and out of phase, causing constructive and then destructive interference.
FIGURE 21.32 Beats are caused by the superposition of two waves of nearly identical frequency. The medium oscillates D 2a rapidly at fre\uency ......
favg.
I
2a
Loud Soft~OUd Soft Loud Soft Loud
The amplitude is slowly modulated as 2acos(wmod t).
660
CHAPTER
21 . Superposition
Imagine two people walking side by side at just slightly different paces. Initially both of their right feet hit the ground together, but after a while they get out of step. A little bit later they are back in step and the process alternates. The sound waves are doing the same. Initially the crests of each wave, of amplitude a, arrive together at your ear and the net displacement is doubled to 2a. But after a while the two waves, being of slightly different frequency, get out of step and a crest of one arrives with a trough of the other. When this happens, the two waves cancel each other to give a net displacement of zero. This process alternates over and over, loud and soft. Notice, from the figure, that the sound intensity rises and falls twice during one cycle of the modulation envelope. Each "loudsoftloud" is one beat, so the beat frequency tbea" which is the number of beats per second, is twice the modulation frequency tmod = wmoi27r. From the above definition of Wmod, beat frequency is the Wmod I(Wl W2) tbe,' = 2tmod= 2~ = 2· 2 27r  27r = tl  t2 (21.44)
where, to keep tbe" from being negative, we will always let tl be the larger of the two frequencies. The beat frequency is simply the difference between the two individual frequencies.
EXAMPLE 21.13 Listening to beats One flutist plays a note of 510Hz while a second plays a note of 512 Hz. What frequency do you hear? What is the beat frequency? SOLVE
You hear a note with frequency frequency is Jb~t=/l/2=2Hz
loY,
=
511 Hz. The beat
ASSESS If a 510 Hz note and a 512 Hz note were played separately, yon wonld not be able to perceive the slight difference in frequency. But when the two notes are played together, the obvious beats tell you that the frequencies are slightly different. Musicians learn to make constant minor adjustments in their tuning as they play in order to eliminate beats between themselves and other players.
You (and they) would hear two beats per second.
FIGURE
21.33
beats.
A graphical example of
The visual beat frequency is j"", = 2 r;r inch.
27 lines per inch
Beats aren't limited to sound waves. FIGURE 21.33 shows a graphical example of beats. Two "fences" of slightly different frequencies are superimposed on each other. The difference in the two frequencies is two lines per inch. You can confirm, with a ruler, that the figure has two "beats" per inch, in agreement with Equation 21.44. Beats are important in many other situations. For example, you have probably seen movies where rotating wheels seem to tum slowly backward. Why is this? Suppose the movie camera is shooting at 30 frames per second but the wheel is rotating 32 times per second. The combination of the two produces a "beat" of 2 Hz, meaning that the wheel appears to rotate only twice per second. The same is true if the wheel is rotating 28 times per second, but in this case, where the wheel frequency slightly lags the camera frequency, it appears to rotate backward twice per second!
25 lines per inch
STOP TO THINK 21.7 You hear three beats per second when two sound tones are generated. The frequency of one tone is 610 Hz. The frequency of the other is
a.604Hz d. 616 Hz
b. 607Hz e. Either a or d.
c. 613 Hz f. Either b or c.
Summary
661
SUMMARY
n.e goal of Chapter 21 has been to understand and use the idea of superposition.
General Principles
Principle
of
Superposition
The displacement of a medium when more than one wave is present is the sum of the displacements due to each individual wave.
Important
Concepts
Interference
In general, the superposition of two or more waves into a single wave is called interference. Maximum constructive interference occurs where crests are aligned with crests and troughs with troughs. These waves are in phase. The maximum displacement is A = Za. Perfect destructive interference occurs where crests are aligned with troughs. These waves are out of phase. The amplitude is A = O. Interference depends on the phase difference !!.CP between the two waves.
m=l
Antinodes
Standing waves are due to the superposition of two traveling waves moving in opposite directions.
@
Nodes ~Node spacing is ~A.
The amplitude at position z is A(x) = 2asinla where a is the amplitude of each wave. The boundary conditions determine which standingwave frequencies and wavelengths are allowed. The allowed standing waves are modes of the system.
<=>
Standing waves
Constructive:
!!.CP
=
27TT
!!.r
+ !!.CPo + !!.CPo
= m . 27T
Destructive: !!.CP = 27T~
=
Ob
(m
+ ~l
·27T
!!.r is the pathlength difference of the two waves, and !!.CPo is any phase difference between the sources. For identical sources (in phase, !!.CPo = 0):
Interference is constructive if the pathlength difference !!.r = mk, Interference is destructive if the pathlength difference!!'r
=
000
on a string
(m + 4)A.
The amplitude at a point where the phase difference is!!.cp is A = 12acos(!!.:l
I.
Applications
Boundary conditions Strings, electromagnetic waves, and sound waves in closedclosed tubes must have nodes at both ends: A
m
Beats (IoudsoftIoudsoft modulations of intensity) occur when two waves of slightly different frequency are superimposed.
D
2L =m
where m = 1, 2, 3, .... The frequencies and wavelengths are the same for a sound wave in an openopen tube, which has antinodes at both ends. A sound wave in an openclosed tube must have a node at the closed end but an antinode at the open end. This leads to
Am=;;:;
wherem
=
4L
Im=m4L
v
The beat frequency between waves of frequencies
I, and 12 is
= mI,
Ibe" = I,  12
1,3,5,7, ....
662
CHAPTER
21 . Superposition
Terms and Notation
principle of superposition standing wave node antinode amplitude function, A(x) boundary condition fundamental frequency, 1, harmonic nonnalmode interference in phase constructive interference out of phase destructive interference phase difference, !:J.CP pathlength difference, !:J. x or !:J.r thinfilm optical coating antinodalline nodal line beats modulation beat frequency, J.~t
r:;:l
~
For homework assigned on MasteringPhysics, www.masteringphysics.com
go to
Problems labeled chapters.
integrate significant
material from earlier
Problem difficulty is labeled as I (streightforwerd)
to III (challenging).
CONCEPTUAL
1. FIGURE Q21.1 shows a standing wave oscillating on a string at frequency fo. a. Whatmode(mvalue)isthis? b. How many antinodes will there be if the frequency is doubledt02Io?
QUESTIONS
6. In music, two notes are said to be an octave apart when one note is exactly twice the frequency of the other. Suppose you have a guitar string playing frequency 10. To increase the frequency by an octave, to 210' by what factor would you have to (a) increase the tension or (b) decrease the length?
FIGURE
Q21.1
2. If you take snapshots of a standing wave on a string, there are certain instants when the string is totally flat. What has happened to the energy of the wave at those instants? 3. FIGURE Q21.3 shows the displacement of a standing sound wave in a 32cmlong horizontal tube of air open at both ends. a. What mode (mvalue) is this? b. Are the air molecules moving horizontally or vertically? Explain. c. At what distances from the left end of the tube do the molecules oscillate with maximum amplitude? d. At what distances from the left end of the tube does the air pressnre oscillate with maximum amplitude?
FIGURE
Q21.8
FIGURE
Q21.9
FIGURE
Q21.3
4. An organ pipe is tuned to exactly 384 Hz when the room temperatnre is 20°C. If the room temperature later increases to 22°C, does the pipe's frequency increase, decrease, or stay the same? Explain. 5. If you ponr liquid into a tall, narrow glass, you may hear sound with a steadily rising pitch. What is the sonrce of the sound? And why does the pitch rise as the glass fills?
7. A flute filled with helium will, until the helium escapes, play notes at a much higher pitch than normal. Why? 8. FIGURE Q21.8 is a snapshot graph of two plane waves passing through a region of space. Each wave has a 2.0 mm amplitude and the same wavelength. What is the net displacement of the medium at points a, b, and c? 9. FIGURE Q21.9 shows the circular waves emitted by two inphase sources. Are points a, b, and c points of maximum constructive interference or perfect destructive interference? Explain. 10. A trumpet player hears 3 beats per second when she plays a note and simultaneously sounds a 440 Hz tuning fork. After pulling her tuning valve out to slightly increase the length of her trumpet, she hears 5 beats per second against the tuning fork. Was her initial frequency 437 Hz or 443 Hz? Explain.
Exercises and Problems
663
EXERCISES
Exerdses
Section 21.1 The Principle of Superposition
AND
PROBLEMS
D
(em) at
t
=
as
3
I. I FIGUREEnI.1 is a snapshot graph at I = 0 s of two waves approaching each other at 1.0 mls. Draw six snapshot graphs, stacked vertically, showing the string at I s intervals from I = I s tOI = 6s.
D(cm)att=Os
FIGUREEX21.5 6. I A 2.0mIong string is fixed at both ends and tightened until the wave speed is 40 m/s. What is the frequency of the standing wave shown in FIGURE EX2I.6?
FIGUREEX21.1
FIGUREEX21.2
60 em
2. I FIGUREEnI.2 is a snapshot graph at I = 0 s of two waves approaching each other at 1.0 mls. Draw six snapshot graphs, stacked vertically, showing the string at 1 s intervals from 1=lstol=6s. 3. I FIGUREEnI.3 is a snapshot graph at I = 0 s of two waves approaching each other at 1.0 mls. Draw four snapshot graphs, stacked vertically, showing the string at I = 2, 4, 6, and 8 s.
D(cm)att=Os
FIGUREEX21.6
FIGUREEX21.7
FIGUREEX21.3 4. II FIGUREEnI.4a approaching each a. At what time taken? b. Draw a history to r = 6s.
(a)
D(cm)att=Os
is a snapshot graph at I = 0 s of two waves other at 1.0 m/s. was the snapshot graph in FIGUREEX21.cb graph of the string at x = 5.0 m from I = 0 s
(b)
D(cm)
x(m) 10
:J
0
0
4 6
x(m) 10
FIGUREEX21.4 Section 21.2 Standing Section 21.3 Transverse Waves Standing Waves
7. I FIGURE EnI.7 shows a standing wave oscillating at 100 Hz on a string. What is the wave speed? 8. II FIGURE EX21.8shows a standing wave that is oscillating at frequency fo. a. How many antinodes will FIGUREEX21.8 there be if the frequency is doubled to 2fo? Explain. b. If the tension in the string is increased by a factor of four, for what frequency, in terms of fo, will the string continue to oscillate as a standing wave with three antinodes? 9. II Standing waves on a 1.0mIong string that is fixed at both ends are seen at successive frequencies of 24 Hz and 36 Hz. a. What are the fundamental frequency and the wave speed? b. Draw the standingwave pattern when the string oscillates at 36Hz. 10. II a. What are the three longest wavelengths for standing waves on a 240cmlong string that is fixed at both ends? b. If the frequency of the secondlongest wavelength is 50 Hz, what is the frequency of the thirdlongest wavelength? 11. II A 121cmlong, 4.0 g string oscillates in its m = 3 mode with a frequency of 180 Hz and a maximum amplitude of 5.0 mm. What are (a) the wavelength and (b) the tension in the string? 12. I A heavy piece of hanging sculpture is suspended by a 90cmlong, 5.0 g steel wire. When the wind blows hard, the wire hums at its fundamental frequency of 80 Hz. What is the mass of the sculpture? 13. I A carbon dioxide laser is an infrared laser. A CO2 laser with a cavity length of 53.00 em oscillates in the m = 100,000 mode. What are the wavelength and frequency of the laser beam? Section 21.4 Standing Sound Waves and Musical Acoustics
5. I FIGUREEnI.5 is a snapshot graph at I = 0 s of two waves moving to the right at 1.0 mls. The string is fixed at x = 8.0 m. Draw four snapshot graphs, stacked vertically, showing the string at r = 2,4,6, and 8 s.
14. I What are the three longest wavelengths for standing sound waves in a 121cmIong tube that is (a) open at both ends and (b) open at one end, closed at the other?
664
CHAPTER
21 . Superposition
15. I FIGURE EX21.15 shows a standing sound wave in an 80cm10ng tube. The tube is filled with an unknown gas. What is the speed 16.
t= 500Hz
80 em
Molecule /
17.
18.
19.
of sound in this gas? FIGURE EX21.15 II The fundamental frequency of an openopen tube is 1500 Hz when the tube is filled with O°C helium. What is its frequency when filled with O°C air? I The lowest pedal note on a large pipe organ has a fundamental frequency of 16.4 Hz. This extreme bass note, four octaves below middle C, is more felt as a rumble than heard with the ears. What is the length of pipe between the sounding hole and the open end? I The lowest note on a grand piano has a frequency of 27.5 Hz. The entire string is 2.00 m long and has a mass of 400 g. The vibrating section of the string is 1.90 m long. What tension is needed to tune this string properly? II A violin string is 30 cm long. It sounds the musical note A (440 Hz) when played without fingering. How far from the end of the string should you place your finger to play the note C(523Hz)? in One Dimension of Interference
FIGURE EX21.25
FIGURE EX21.26
Section 21.5 Interference
Section 21.6 The Mathematics
20. II Two loudspeakers emit sound waves along the xaxis. The sound has maximum intensity when the speakers are 20 em apart. The sound intensity decreases as the distance between the speakers is increased, reaching zero at a separation of 60 em, a. What is the wavelength of the sound? b. If the distance between the speakers continues to increase, at what separation will the sound intensity again be a maximum? 21. II Two loudspeakers in a 20°C room emit 686 Hz sound waves along the xaxis. a. If the speakers are in phase, what is the smallest distance between the speakers for which the interference of the sound waves is perfectly destructive? b. If the speakers are out of phase, what is the smallest distance between the speakers for which the interference of the sound waves is maximum constructive? 22. II Two inphase loudspeakers separated by distance demit 170 Hz sound waves along the xaxis. As you walk along the axis, away from the speakers, you don't hear anything even though both speakers are on. What are three possible values for d? Assume a sound speed of 340 m/s. 23. I What is the thinnest film of MgF2 (n = 1.39) on glass that produces a strong reflection for orange light with a wavelength of600nm? 24. II A very thin oil film (n = 1.25) floats on water (n = 1.33). What is the thinnest film that produces a strong reflection for green light with a wavelength of 500 run? Section 21.7 Interference in Two and Three Dimensions
26. II FIGURE EX21.26 shows the circular wave fronts emitted by two wave sources. a. Are these sources in phase or out of phase? Explain. b. Make a table with rows labeled P, Q, and R and columns labeled r" r2' t.r, and C/O. Fill in the table for points P, Q, and R, giving the distances as multiples of A and indicating, with a C or a D, whether the interference at that point is constructive or destructive. 27. II Two inphase speakers 2.0 m apart in a plane are emitting 1800 Hz sound waves into a room where the speed of sound is 340 m/s. Is the point 4.0 m in front of one of the speakers, perpendicular to the plane of the speakers, a point of maximum constructive interference, perfect destructive interference, or something in between? 28. II Two outofphase radio antennas at x = 0:300 m on the xaxis are emitting 3.0 MHz radio waves. Is the point (x, y) = (300 m, 800 m) a point of maximum constructive interference, perfect destructive interference, or something in between? Section 21.S Beats 29. I Two strings are adjusted to vibrate at exactly 200 Hz. Then the tension in one string is increased slightly. Afterward, three beats per second are heard when the strings vibrate at the same time. What is the new frequency of the string that was tightened? 30. I A flute player hears four beats per second when she compares her note to a 523 Hz tuning fork (the note C). She can match the frequency of the tuning fork by pulling out the "tuning j oint" to lengthen her flute slightly. What was her initial frequency? 31. I Two lasers with very nearly the same wavelength can generate a beat frequency if both laser beams illuminate a photodetector with a very fast response. In an experiment, one laser's wavelength has been stabilized at 780.54510 run. The second laser starts with a longer wavelength that is slowly decreased until the beat frequency between the two lasers is 98.5 MHz. What is the second laser's wavelength?
Problems
32. II Two waves on a string travel in opposite directions at 100 m/s. FIGURE P21.32 shows a snapshot graph of the string at I = 0 s, when the two waves are overlapped, and a snapshot graph of the lefttraveling wave at I = 0.050 s. Draw a D (em) Overlapped waves snapshot graph of the lOOmis att=Os righttraveling wave H~""\""'++4!'+~~~x(m) at r = 0.050 s.
1 FIGURE P21.32 2 2\ 4 10 12 14
Lefttraveling wave at t =
25. II FIGURE EX21.25 shows the circular wave fronts emitted by two wave sources. a. Are these sources in phase or out of phase? Explain. b. Make a table with rows labeled P, Q, and R and columns labeled r" r» t.r, and C/O. Fill in the table for points P, Q, and R, giving the distances as multiples of A and indicating, with a C or a D, whether the interference at that point is constructive or destructive.
0.050
s
Exercises and Problems 33. II A 2.0mlong string vibrates at its secondharmonic frequency with a maximum amplitude of 2.0 cm. One end of the string is at x = 0 em. Find the oscillation amplitude at x = 10,20, 30, 40, and 50 em. 34. II A string vibrates at its thirdharmonic frequency. The amplitude at a point 30 cm from one end is half the maximum amplitude. How long is the string? 35. II A string oflength L vibrates at its fundamental frequency. The amplitude at a point ~L from one end is 2.0 em. What is the amplitude of each of the traveling waves that form this standing wave? 36. II Two sinusoidal waves with equal wavelengths travel along a string in opposite directions at 3.0 mls. The time between two successive instants when the antinodes are at maximum height is 0.25 s. What is the wavelength? 37. II A particularly beautiful note reaching your ear from a rare Stradivarius violin has a wavelength of 39.1 cm. The room is slightly wann, so the speed of sound is 344 m/s. If the string's linear density is 0.600 glm and the tension is 150 N, how long is the vibrating section of the violin string? 38. II A violinist places her finger so that the vibrating section of a 1.0 glm string has a length of 30 cm, then she draws her bow across it. A listener nearby in a 20°C room hears a note with a wavelength of 40 ern. What is the tension in the string? 39. II A guitar string with a linear density of 2.0 glm is stretched between supports that are 60 cm apart. The string is observed to form a standing wave with three antinodes when driven at a frequency of 420 Hz. What are (a) the frequency of the fifth harmonic of this string and (b) the tension in the string? 40. II When mass M is tied to the bottom of a long, thin wire suspended from the ceiling, the wire's secondharmonic frequency is 200 Hz. Adding an additional 1.0 kg to the hanging mass increases the secondharmonic frequency to 245 Hz. What is M? 41. II Astronauts visiting Planet X have a 2.5mlong string whose mass is 5.0 g. They tie the string to a support, stretch it horizontally over a pulley 2.0 m away, and hang a 1.0 kg mass on the free end. Then the astronauts begin to excite standing waves on the string. Their data show that standing waves exist at frequencies of 64 Hz and 80 Hz, but at no frequencies in between. What is the value of g, the freefall acceleration on Planet X? 42. II A 75 g bungee cord has an equilibrium length of 1.20 m. The cord is stretched to a length of 1.80 m, then vibrated at 20 Hz. This produces a standing wave with two antinodes. What is the spring constant of the bungee cord? 43. II A 22cmlong, 1.0mmdiameter copper wire is joined smoothly to a 60cmlong, 1.0mmdiameter aluminum wire. The resulting wire is stretched with 20 N of tension between fixed supports 82 cm apart. The densities of copper and aluminum are 8920 kg/rrr' and 2700 kg/nr', respectively. a. What is the lowestfrequency standing wave for which there is a node at the junction between the two metals? b. At that frequency, how many antinodes are on the aluminum wire? 44. II In a laboratory experiment, one end of a horizontal string is tied to a support while the other end passes over a frictionless pulley and is tied to a 1.5 kg sphere. Students determine the frequencies of standing waves on the horizontal segment of the string, then they raise a beaker of water until the hanging 1.5 kg sphere is completely submerged. The frequency of the fifth harmonic with the sphere submerged exactly matches the frequency of the third harmonic before the sphere was submerged. What is the diameter of the sphere?
665
45. II What is the fundamental
FIGURE P2U5?
frequency
of the steel wire in
75 g steel
/
wire
4.0 kg bar \ 45" FIGURE P21.45
2.0m
8.0 kg
46. II The two strings in FIGURE P11.46 are of equal length and are being driven at equal frequencies. The linear density of the left string is 2.0 g/m. What is the linear density of the right string?
FIGURE Pll.46
47. II The microwave generator in FIGURE P11.47 can produce microwaves at any frequency between 10 GHz and 20 GHz. The microwaves are aimed,
FIGURE Pll.47
through a small hole, into a "microwave cavity" that consists of a 10cmlong cylinder with reflective ends. a. Which frequencies will create standing waves in the microwave cavity? b. For which of these frequencies is the cavity midpoint an antinode? 48. II An openopen organ pipe is 78.0 cm long. An openclosed pipe has a fundamental frequency equal to the third harmonic of the openopen pipe. How long is the openclosed pipe? 49. II A narrow column of 20°C air is found to have standing waves at frequencies of 390 Hz, 520 Hz, and 650 Hz and at no frequencies in between these. The behavior of the tube at frequencies less than 390 Hz or greater than 650 Hz is not known. a. Is this an openopen tube or an openclosed tube? Explain. b. How long is the tube? c. Draw a displacement graph of the 520 Hz standing wave in the tube. d. The air in the tube is replaced with carbon dioxide, which has a sound speed of 280 mls. What are the new frequencies of these three modes? 50. II In 1866, the German scientist Adolph Kundt developed a technique for accurately measuring the speed of sound in various gases. A long glass tube, known today as a Kundt's tube, has a vibrating piston at one end and is closed at the other. Very finely ground particles of cork are sprinkled in the bottom of the tube before the piston is inserted. As the vibrating piston is slowly moved forward, there are a few positions that cause the cork particles to collect in small, regularly spaced piles along the bottom.
FIGURE P21.50 shows an Piston Glass Piles of cork
experiment in which the tube is filled with pure oxygen and the piston is driven at 400 Hz. What is the speed of sound in oxygen?
FIGURE P21.50
666
CHAPTER
21 . Superposition 58. II Analyze the standing sound waves in an openclosed tube to show that the possible wavelengths and frequencies are given by Equation 21.18. 59. II Two inphase loudspeakers emit identical 1000 Hz sound waves along the xaxis. What distance should one speaker be placed behind the other for the sound to have an amplitude 1.5 times that of each speaker alone? 60. II Two loudspeakers emit sound waves of the same frequency along the xaxis. The amplitude of each wave is a. The sound intensity is minimum when speaker 2 is 10 em behind speaker 1. The intensity increases as speaker 2 is moved forward and first reaches maximum, with amplitude 2a, when it is 30 cm in front of speaker 1. What is a. The wavelength of the sound? b. The phase difference between the two loudspeakers? c. The amplitude of the sound (as a multiple of a) if the speakers are placed side by side? 61. III Two loudspeakers emit sound waves along the xaxis. A listener in front of both speakers hears a maximum sound intensity when speaker 2 is at the origin and speaker 1 is at x = 0.50 m. If speaker I is slowly moved forward, the sound intensity decreases and then increases, reaching another maximum when speaker 1 is atx = 0.90m. a. What is the frequency of the sound? Assume v,oornl 340mls. = b. What is the phase difference between the speakers? 62. II Two loudspeakers emit sound waves along the xaxis. Speaker 2 is 2.0 m behind speaker I. Both loudspeakers are connected to the same signal generator, which is oscillating at 340 Hz, but the wire to speaker I passes through a box that delays the signal by 1.47 ms. Is the interference along the xaxis maximum constructive interference, perfect destructive interference, or something in between? Assume V~und = 340 mls. 63. II A sheet of glass is coated with a 500nmthick layer of oil (n = 1.42). a. For what visible wavelengths of light do the reflected waves interfere constructively? b. For what visible wavelengths of light do the reflected waves interfere destructively? c. What is the color of reflected light? What is the color of transmitted light? 64. II Example 21.10 showed that a 92nmthick coating of MgF2 (n = 1.39) on glass acts as an antireflection coating for light with a wavelength of 510 nm. Without the coating, the intensity of reflected light is 10 = ca2, where a is the amplitude of the reflected light wave and c is an unknown proportionality constant. a. Let IA be the intensity of light reflected from the coated glass at wavelength A. Find an expression for the ratio IAllo as a function of the wavelength A. This ratio is the reflection intensity from the coated glass relative to the reflection intensity from uncoated glass. A ratio less than 1 indicates that the coating is reducing the reflection intensity. Hint: The amplitude of the superposition of two waves depends on the phase difference between the waves. Although not entirely accurate, assume that both reflected waves have amplitude a. b. Evaluate IAllo at A = 400, 450, 500, 550, 600, 650, and 700 nm. This spans the range of visible light. c. Draw a graph of hllo versus A.
40 em 51. II A 40cmlong tube has a 4Ocmlong insert that can be pulled in and out. A vibrating tuning fork is held 4~Oem= next to the tube. As the insert is slowly pulled out, the sound from the tuning fork creates standing FIGURE P2!.51 waves in the tube when the total length L is 42.5 em, 56.7 cm, and 70.9 cm. What is the frequency of the tuning fork? Assume v,mmd = 343 mls. 52. II A 1.0mtall vertical tube is filled with 20°C water. A tuning fork vibrating at 580 Hz is held just over the top of the tube as the water is slowly drained from the bottom. At what water heights, measured from the bottom of the tube, will there be a standing wave in the tube above the water? 53. II A 50cmIong wire with a mass of 1.0 g and a tension of 440 N passes across the open end of an openclosed tube of air. The wire, which is fixed at both ends, is bowed at the center so as to vibrate at its fundamental frequency and generate a sound wave. Then the tube length is adjusted until the fundamental frequency of the tube is heard. What is the length of the tube? Assume v"""'" = 340 mls. 54. II A 25cmIong wire with a linear density of 20 glm passes across the open end of an 85cmIong openclosed tube of air. If the wire, which is fixed at both ends, vibrates at its fundamental frequency, the sound wave it generates excites the second vibrational mode of the tube of air. What is the tension in the wire? Assume v"""", = 340 mls. 55. II A vertical tube, open at both ends, is lowered into a tank of water until it is partially filled. The top portion of the tube, above the water, is filled with a gas that, because it is denser than air, remains in the tube. A 50.0cmIong, 1.00 g horizontal wire is stretched just above the top of the tube with 440 N of tension. Bowing the wire at its center causes the wire to vibrate at its fundamental frequency. The water level in the tube is adjusted until the sound from the vibrating wire sets up a standing sound wave in the gas. The water is then lowered another 30.5 cm until the next standing sound wave is detected. Use this information to determine the speed of sound in the gas. 56. II A longitudinal standing wave can be created in a long, thin aluntinum rod by stroking the rod with very dry fingers. This is often done as a physics demonstration, creating a highpitched, very annoying whine. From a wave perspective, the standing wave is eqnivalent to a sound standing wave in an openopen tube. In particular, both ends of the rod are antinodes. What is the fundamental frequency of a 2.0mIong aluminum rod?
~=L
Aluminummd
+f
FIGURE P2!.56

+r
57. II An old mining tunnel disappears intu a hillside. You would like to know how long the tunnel is, but it's too dangerous to go inside. Recalling your recent physics class, you decide to try setting up standingwave resonances inside the tunnel. Using your subsonic amplifier and loudspeaker, you find resonances at 4.5 Hz and 6.3 Hz, and at no frequencies between these. It's rather chilly inside the tunnel, so you estimate the sound speed to be 335 m/s. Based on your measurements, how far is it to the end of the tunnel?
Exercises and Problems 65. II A manufacturing firm has hired your company, Acoustical Consulting, to help with a problem. Their employees are complaining about the annoying hum from a piece of machinery. Using a frequency meter, you quickly determine that the machine emits a rather loud sound at 1200 Hz. After investigating, you tell the owner that you cannot solve the problem entirely, but you can at least improve the situation by eliminating reflections of this sound from the walls. You propose to do this by installing mesh screens in front of the walls. A portion of the sound will reflect from the mesh; the rest will pass through the mesh and reflect from the wall. How far should the mesh be placed in front of the wall for this scheme to work? 66. II A soap bubble is essentially a very thin film of water (n = 1.33) surrounded by air. The colors that you see in soap bubbles are produced by interference, much like the colors of dichroic glass. a. Derive an expression for the wavelengths Ac for which constructive interference causes a strong reflection from a soap bubble of thickness d. Hint: Think about the reflection phase shifts at both boundaries. b. What visible wavelengths of light are strongly reflected from a 390mnthick soap bubble? What color would such a soap bubble appear to be? 67. III Two radio antennas are separated by 2.0 m. Both broadcast identical 750 MHz waves. If you walk around the antennas in a circle of radius 10 m, how many maxima will you detect? 68. II You are standing 2.5 m directly in front of one of the two loudspeakers shown in Fl(oUREP21.68. They are 3.0 m apart and both are playing a 686 Hz tone in phase. As you begin to walk directly away from the speaker, at what distances from the speaker do you hear a minimum sound intensity? The room temperature is 20°C.
661
~))
2.5m
3.0m
Walk
71. II Your firm has been hired to design a system that allows airplane pilots to make instrument landings in rain or fog. You've decided to place two radio transmitters 50 m apart on either side of the runway. These two transmitters will broadcast the same frequency, but out of phase with each other. This will cause a nodal line to extend straight off the end of the runway (see Figure 21.30b). As long as the airplane's receiver is silent, the pilot knows she's directly in line with the runway. If she drifts to one side or the other, the radio will pick up a signal and sound a warning beep. To have sufficient accuracy, the first intensity maxima need to be 60 m on either side of the nodal line at a distance of 3.0 km. What frequency should you specify for the transmitters? 72. II Two radio antennas are 100 m apart along a northsouth line. They broadcast identical radio waves at a frequency of 3.0 MHz. Your job is to monitor the signal strength with a handheld receiver. To get to your first measuring point, you walk 800 m east from the midpoint between the antennas, then 600 m north. a. What is the phase difference between the waves at this point? b. Is the interference at this point maximum constructive, perfect destructive, or somewhere in between? Explain. c. If you now begin to walk farther north, does the signal strength increase, decrease, or stay the same? Explain. 73. II The three identical loudspeakers in FIGURE P21.73 playa 170 Hz tone in a room where the speed of sound is 340 m/s. You are standing 4.0 m in 3.0 m front of the middle speaker. At this point, the amplitude of the wave from each speaker is a. a. What is the amplitude at this 3.0m point? b. How far must speaker 2 be moved to the left to produce a maximum amplitude at the point where you 4.0m are standing? c. When the amplitude is maxiFIGURE P21.73 mum, by what factor is the sound intensity greater than the sound intensity from a single speaker? 74. I Piano tuners tune pianos by listening to the beats between the harmonics of two different strings. When properly tuned, the note A should have a frequency of 440 Hz and the note E should be at 659 Hz. a. What is the frequency difference between the third harmonic of the A and the second harmonic of the E? b. A tuner first tunes the A string very precisely by matching it to a 440 Hz tuning fork. She then strikes the A and E strings simultaneously and listens for beats between the harmonics. What beat frequency indicates that the E string is properly tuned? c. The tuner starts with the tension in the E string a little low, then tightens it. What is the frequency of the E string when she hears four beats per second? 75. II A flutist assembles her flute in a room where the speed of sound is 342 m/s. When she plays the note A, it is in perfect tune with a 440 Hz tuning fork. After a few minutes, the air inside her flute has warmed to where the speed of sound is 346 mls. a. How many beats per second will she hear if she now plays the note A as the tuning fork is sounded? b. How far does she need to extend the "tuning joint" of her flute to be in tune with the tuning fork?
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FIGURE P21.68
69. II Two loudspeakers in a plane, 5.0 apart, are playing the same frequency. If you stand 12.0 m in front of the plane of the speakers, centered between them, you hear a sound of maximum intensity. As you walk parallel to the plane of the speakers, staying 12.0 m in front of them, you first hear a minimum of sound intensity when you are directly in front of one of the speakers. a. What is the frequency of the sound? Assume a sound speed of340mls. b. If you stay 12.0 m directly in front of one of the speakers, for what other frequencies between 100 Hz and 1000 Hz is there a minimmn sound intensity at this point? 70. II Two inphase loudspeakers are located at (x, y) coordinates (3.0 m, +2.0 m) and (3.0 m, 2.0 m). They emit identical sound waves with a 2.0 m wavelength and amplitude a. Determine the amplitude of the sound at the five positions on the yaxis (x = 0) with y = 0.0 m, 0.5 m, 1.0 m, 1.5 m, and 2.0 m.
668
CHAPTER
21 . Superposition 81. A steel wire is used to stretch a spring. An oscillating magnetic field drives the steel wire back and forth. A standing wave with three antinodes is created when the spring is stretched 8.0 cm. What stretch of the spring produces a standing wave with two antinodes?
76. II Two loudspeakers face each other from opposite walls of a room. Both are playing exactly the same frequency, thus setting up a standing wave with distance A12 between antinodes. Assume that A is much less than the room width, so there are many antinodes. a. Yvette starts at one speaker and runs toward the other at speed Vy. As the does so, she hears a loudsoftIoud modulation of the sound intensity. From your perspective, as you sit at rest in the room, Yvette is running through the nodes and antinodes of the standing wave. Find an expression for the number of sound maxima she hears per second. b. From Yvette's perspective, the two sound waves are Doppler shifted. They're not the same frequency, so they don't create a standing wave. Instead, she hears a loudsoftIoud modulation of the sound intensity because of beats. Find an expression for the beat frequency that Yvette hears. c. Are your answers to parts a and b the same or different? Should they be the same or different? 77. II Two loudspeakers emit 400 Hz notes. One speaker sits on the ground. The other speaker is in the back of a pickup truck. You hear eight beats per second as the truck drives away from you. What is the truck's speed?
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FICiURE CP21.81 Spring
Steel wire
Pull
82. Ultrasound has many medical applications, one of which is to monitor fetal heartbeats by reflecting ultrasound off a fetus in the womb. a. Consider an object moving at speed Vo toward an atrest source that is emitting sound waves of frequency 10' Show that the reflected wave (i.e., the echo) that returns to the source has a Dopplershifted frequency
V (v
fecho
=

+
Vo
Vol fo
Challenge Problems
78. a. The frequency of a standing wave on a string is I when the string's tension is T. If the tension is changed by the small amount !1T, without changing the length, show that the frequency changes by an amount !11 such that !11 I!1T 2T
I
b. Two identical strings vibrate at 500 Hz when stretched with the same tension. What percentage increase in the tension of one of the strings will cause five beats per second when both strings vibrate simultaneously? 79. A 280 Hz sound wave is
directed into one end of a trombone slide and a microphone is VlfV>10 ::: placed at the other end to record the intensity of sound waves that are transmitted through the tube. The straight Fl(oURE CP21.79 sides of the slide are 80 cm in length and 10 em apart with a semicircular bend at the end. For what slide extensions s will the microphone detect a maximum of sound intensity? 80. As the captain of the scientific team sent to Planet Physics, one of your tasks is to measure g. You have a long, thin wire labeled 1.00 glm and a 1.25 kg weight. You have your accurate space cadet chronometer but, unfortunately, you seem to have forgotten a meter stick. Undeterred, you first find the midpoint of the wire by folding it in half. You then attach one end of the wire to the wall of your laboratory, stretch it horizontally to pass over a pulley at the midpoint of the wire, then tie the 1.25 kg weight to the end hanging over the pulley. By vibrating the wire, and measuring time with your chronometer, you find that the wire's second harmonic frequency is 100 Hz. Next, with the 1.25 kg weight still tied to one end of the wire, you attach the other end to the ceiling to make a pendulum. You find that the pendulum reqnires 314 s to complete 100 oscillations. Pulling out your trusty calculator, you get to work. What value of g will you report back to headquarters?
;J,
l==8~0~e~m~~~; 80em ..... .....
1::::!~~==~0 ~
where v is the speed of sound in the medium. b. Suppose the object's speed is much less than the wave speed: Vo « v. Then I~ho = 10' and a microphone that is sensitive to these frequencies will detect a beat frequency if it listens to 10 and I~o simultaneously. Use the binomial approximation and other appropriate approximations to show that the beat frequency is Ib~t= (2vo/v)/o. c. The reflection of 2.40 MHz ultrasound waves from the surface of a fetus's beating heart is combined with the 2.40 MHz wave to produce a beat frequency that reaches a maximum of 65 Hz. What is the maximum speed of the surface of the heart? The speed of ultrasound waves within the body is 1540 mls. d. Suppose the surface of the heart moves in simple harmonic motion at 90 beats/min. What is the amplitude in mm of the heartbeat? 83. A water wave is called a deepwater wave if the water's depth is more than onequarter of the wavelength. Unlike the waves we've considered in this chapter, the speed of a deepwater wave depends on its wavelength:
v=
{iA yz:;;:
Longer wavelengths travel faster. Let's apply this to standing waves. Consider a diving pool that is 5.0 m deep and 10.0 m wide. Standing water waves can set up across the width of the pool. Because water sloshes up and down at the sides of the pool, the boundary conditions reqnire antinodes at z = 0 and x = L. Thus a standing water wave resembles a standing sound wave in an openopen tube. a. What are the wavelengths of the first three standingwave modes for water in the pool? Do they satisfy the condition for being deepwater waves? Draw a graph of each. b. What are the wave speeds for each of these waves? c. Derive a general expression for the frequencies t; of the possible standing waves. Your expression should be in terms of m, g, andL. d. What are the oscillation periods of the first three standingwave modes?
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