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Principles of Foundation Design for Engines·and Compressors

by W. K. Newcomb

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.1D3ersoll-Rand,

Painted Post, N. Y.

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Reprinted

(rom the Tranaactiona

o( the ASME

lor April, 1951, with permi.88ion of copyright owner

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Form 259
~'NTI(O tN U.S.A.

11 BROAD'll A Y

NEW YORK, N. Y. 10004

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. relOD&nc:ewill ~ producing excessive 'Vibration.. Mem. pring-supported maue. 2 shoWl the inertia forces in 110 typical single-cylinder engine or eompressorresulting from this acceleration and deceJere. • .j in pa~~ are to be undentood u i. Engines and Compressors B'I' W.30 in. have natural periods of 'fibration. . and there are \'&lious wellknown rules to follow. K.. There was • definite relation· between load and deflection which is typieaJ of elutic materials. ThiI inertia force F. ."dividual e:::p~on. which acts along the axis of piston or 'eroaahead &II shown in Fig. centrifugal forces and torque reactious are eometimes factors.NumbeR in parenth_ refer.LCTDI-1tOtES FIo -.tion. reaoDance will.houp &rOund characteristics and aubeoil eluticity have bren diaeuMed or mentioned in engineering literature (1. are involved. Also. their relationship to theprinciplel of foundation deaip baa not been emphasised adequately DOr thoroughly understood.r-~ D».. With 1500 Ib per sq ft load. MME. The deftectiona obtained . lnteNOll-Rand. found in reciprocating machines is explained.eed • • Reference (6) and other texts on en&inedynamic. Mechanical Encin-.hOnl and not thoee of at ASME HeadQus. The line BC therefore represents the load-deBection characteristics of this ground.. . and the deflection went to 0. quency near the natUral frequency' of the elastic system.cter of \he pound is DOt always recognized.. NO'R: St&~m~nta and O?m:oM !\dV"l'.. These forces are caused by acceleration and deceleration of the piston or other reciprocating parts. the machine aDd fonndation repre.l! die Society. only. FOBCJ:8 ACTING ON FOUHDA110N8 Alt. .. Aleo. The test was made with a transit and repeated l!everal times with the . the elastic chara. ~P~.are given and testa on foun4ation. C. Tbi. The elutic character of the ground is 11000 shown by a BOildeflection ten at another sits. Md. Y. N. since the frequency of the forces and danger of reeonance with . Company.L ENaUO:IIIL8..· and it therefore re6ec:U the obeervationa of a mechanice. and the deflection changed to 0. the frequency st which an elMtia BY&um unde to vibrate &iter beinl displseed from the equilibrium poeitlon and r-elea. Manuscript receiv.305 in. the deflection B. the nature of inertia force. A loading platform with 2 aq ft be&rln.mio rather than etatic load. With a static load. Foundationa for reciprocating machines differ from foundations for buildiDp or similar struotures since dyne. . T t I t ~~--~~~~----~--_'-----r----~--~ eoo ~--+--+-___'I---+--+-~fr. at the end of the paper. Fig. the Oil and Gu Power Coni_nee.3.s obeened to l!ettle when filled and rise to ita originllol positlon when emptied.n~".25 in. area . Esamples of this phenomenon. of their IUlt..a n is not always possible to obtain perfect balance in reciprocating machines and. It is written by a wiper and builder of reciprocating machines. ad othm)' from time to time. Then the load was removed quickly. having resonance are described.. H18 paper is an atumpt to rationalise foundatioD design./ Principles of Foundation Design for .. M a result. as a result.how. and the ground thelPrin. • . At top dead cienter (in a vertical machine).. or expert on soil mechanics. the bearing capacity of the eoil need be considered.25 «n. loaded cradually. Elaunple.' PAINTED POST. At bottom center they are maximum in the opposite direction. Contributed by the Oil end au Power Division and ~nted at.4.2.. near the natural frequency of the foundatioa. B. NEWCOMB. Fourier aeries' 1108 folloWl! . that foundation. 'lNO. one not in· the foundllotiOD business. If wch an elastic system is excited by periodic forces ha~g 110 fre. for reciprocating machine. if the frequency of unbalanced inertia or other Bating force i. D.l LoAD-DJ:J'LIICTIOK TJ:ST OJ' WilT SAlOl AlOI CuT SOIL Euntc CBABACDB OJ' GBQUHD Because of this elastic nature of the ground the foundation and subsoil form an elastic system consisting of a mass (foundation block and machine) supported by a spring (subsoil). Baltimore.enting the IDaS8. The load was applied quickly.00002s4 WRN·(coa 8 88 + + A Coe 28 ) + B cOs {8 +'CCOI (1) 20. the accelere.~~i----+--#--~ soo a I.. March • Natural (reQu~ney.tion and reeulting inertia force are maximum in the direction away from the crank. can be tre&ted . oUtlined./' - '-.. 2(0). which is very close to the original deflection.to the BibUocraph. 1950. I. these rules do not apply. WIlo8 0.lIottendant uceaaive vibration must govern foundation deaip. paper cIUcua •• the eJaatic character of the lJ'Ound aDd . of TKK AvzIUCAN 80csHT OP M~CA. Such elaatic syateJll. unbalanced periodic forces may exist. of good and bad foundation design are shown and a rational JIlethod for foundation desilD i. With· a dynamic load.. This load was maintained for 72 hr and no further deflection took place.rtens. June 12-16. curve AB. me results. The following examples Ihow tllls ebanu:teriatic: An oiHtorap tank wa. however.0. can be expreased mathematically &8 . IlmIooVCftOlf 10 are plotted in Fig. Paper No.l engineer rather thaD • chil engineer.occur producing excessive vibration. ~--+----+-::-+--+-I-+----I .

II«RS CIPPOSFJ) AT 90" ON ONE CRANI< CYUtaRS AT 120' ~ ~k~! I <> lco. C .'N~· I "". . 2 r.. when negative it acta toward the crankshaft. When K is positive..... ~1LDC1>t "... that is.. the secondary forces act in the same direction and add.." represents the "lI8condary" inertia force and is much smaller. 2(b).....1..0.. 0) that K is ma.. . When LIR . A .tU.. and higher orders..NXRS ~ TWO CRA~ AT go' .. cas 2. while the forces may be balanced. r"D . + 111\.. ~ wrnt ~ OO« TWO~ AT 180' IN LINE CYLINlERS .. The maxima . . With two cranks at 180 deg the primary force of one crank is opposed to the primary force of the other crank and completely balances it if the reciprocating weights of the two cylinders are the same.••.4).•. in.-u.'L TWO CYLII'ClERS ON ONE CRANK CYLIt-«RS TWO CY\... zoio . With 3 or more equally spaced cranks. The resultant primary force will then be zero. ... F':PRIIMRY WumA fO'ICE: IN LBS. There are also 6th.1....•.' NOOC I NIL . where K is plotted against crank angle. However.Q. [5] _ . N .. ......'l'IONFOllCJ:8 IN ClLUnt Dl'G-ROD MSCRANI8K _...0000284 WRN' coa I ..... but t. both primary and secondary forces are balanced. Secondary.. .T><>UT COUN~ F' wITH ZEJIO THREE CRA~ . 2(c).RRANGEMENTS c Equation (1) ~ also writ~n ._ ~SIIGI ..25402. but it is very small and is umaIly neglected.. rpm L .III!ANK . "cos 6.. I. couples can be produced by the forces acting along the axes of the dif"l'A1SL"E 1 "UNBAL.00409... . With two cranks at 90 deg.2f'w..&... F'b 17. SlXCn_KiERS :~ hml or ZDO .-t -. 18QO)...••. ~ ~I NIL ~ ~ F'wf"!1o!Ol/T 1VO 'Om! ...•••••••••••••• {2} K is called the inertia force (acceleration) factor and represents the terms in parentheses in Equation [1 J..0000284 WRNI K ..UTDIrd --_ .... ••••• c• . reaching a maximum negative value of -0.k-t .. I " .... However... and the 'primary and secondary forces then become Primary.••••• [3} W=RE~T1NG WEIGHT ONE: CYLINC[JI..L8S L : LENGTH OF CONNECTING ROO.'-WCED INERTIA FORCES AND COUPLES FOR DIFi'SRENTCRANK A.a _n: DIPII(SSIOII ..INOER CENTER 015 TANCE .. _OII"T'IJ' 01 OT (. then becomes negative. Values.. .~=' .. expressed as CRANK SINGLE CRAMI ARRANGEMENT$ FM:E5 PR"-'ARY ISECJ)I'£Wm F' wmo.()()()()284 WR4V{ cos O·+ ~ cos 28) •... ZDO ZDO . I J_H1 Las.0. =DOOQZII4 RWW II'£RTlA FORCE IN "=~F' II : CRAI'C< RAIl'JS.' . As the crank rotates. __ ...r 2" uKD . lb position of crank in degrees after top or outer dead center lV .....:r.speed.. .. .0.rT COUI<IPWTL COl.pey. B . -{).weight of reciprocating parts.750 at bottom dead center (8 .a.. represents the "primary" inertia force which has one complete cycle per revelation of the crankshaft as Ihown in F"IC. + .""wrrH CXIUOf'rVIWn.T07'" WI'TM CO. K decreases to zero.. Examination of Equation (1) or [2 J shows that the inertia force F varies directly with the reciprocating weight.0.3""0 WITH CCUWTt_. force F acts away from the crankshaft.. Since they vary sinusoidally.. TC)N TRANSACTIONS OF THE A8~E The prilllAry inertia force F' and I18condary inertia become .. r.' "....Ac::czu1Uo.~ F'_ ~.~ CYLltaRS ~ATleo' CRAN<S AT 110" . _ _. be dealt with individually.0000284 WRNI . AN]) I'M. 1NCi£5 Q • CY\." Equatio~.'_ . 2(d). The inertia force F is represented graphically in Fig.length of connecting rod... For foundation design we need only consider the primary and secondary forces. ""F"D IAlF"'owm«lUT IX>UNT.crank radius. cas c:tJQ.n . I)(GNXS n:JI' (LNT£]III: P[Jt """1'1.1 and COl 28 ..0. it has two coniplete cycles per revolution. [1 I. force 1'.. directly with the admke (or crank radius) and with the square of the ip88d. In eingle-crank machines both primary and l1800ndary inertia forces are unbalanced.. Here the inertia force F is..250 (when LIIl .if#:l)tj .by LIR ratio... A.... .... Fig. .._ ••• . OI'~ II(~TIOG 1.l.•••• ~ (7) B .. and the simplified approximate form of the inertiaforce equation is generally used.. INO<S "z~ Ns FlP.. A .-n. the secondaries ani balanced and primaries partly balanced. NI O!'PO!ED C'II.0Q0()1 . C ..3E I ± " .. . ! VII' The primary and secondary forces having different frequencies have different effects on vibration and must..1 \. . ZEJIO I" t=...0.. ""' • _"It\Q. Ib . 8th. (6) COKlRcr- r_ ._ . ~JiEV1 ... .""'f"ERWTS.. B.A$. are likewise very small aad .f'L£S PRIIMRY l_ . in. . ZDO I I +~ ... 61'O.ximum having a value of 1. o• . . .sF' ~ F" . The first term of the part of the equation in parentheses..of K for differeDt LIR ratios are found in most mechanical-engineering handboob.~ o.. Note at outer (jead eenter (6 .constants determined inertia force.. can be negleeted... the maximum values are used for foundation and vibration calculations.1. the inertia..occur when cos 8 .".N .... The next term is the fourth order with four cycles per revolution..... + CQ>S' •••••• l • (cas.. The second term..: .0000284 WRNI ~ C08 [41 26 ._r--. "A cos 28.

frequency of exciting force III Fig.liP'" \. . 1.. VIC. Flee amplitOOe.. llaoNANCZ IN FOUNDA.tion. 611howa typical resonance curves for the elastic system represented in Fig.: ...10 """. 1 I~ . forth about an axis slightly below the base 88 marked in Fig.JlO5.. e ::.TlONS ren. Flo. . resonance will occur and may cause uceaaiw vibn.800 Ib (seeoedary) at 354 rpm. viscous damping assumed The horizontal movement at top of the foundation is plotted '" .' 11 . 3 ahowa a gas-engine-driven compressor foundation having IftOD&DC8 within the operating speed range. w..ey of the foundation. w'.m.. k the speed-' decresses the -amplitude increases.J2' : -. the amplitude of the resulting vibration can be detetmined.. etc. 3..~'====-~~ __ ". If &be frequency of the exciting force is near the natural freqaen. at 236 rpm.. .z • 4 . 3 J'OUIIDATlOJr BATING lU:eoNANCJI IN QPI:JUTING Bpl:.na~ural frequency of foundation o. the amplitude of vibration at reeonance oecomes infinite. iazo . ~ extent the couples) tend to induce vibration. when and:the result W88 excessive vibration. Below 236 rpm the amplitude drops off tion or viscosity. In this particular machine the unbalanced force W88 in.. and damping are known... iVben Il The vibration peaking in this manner ill typical of an elastic 0. Note that at 354 rpm the .. SPBIN0-8l1PPOaTl:D MAY UI 10 . r .0Q45 in... .aIso the magnitude and frequency of the exciting force. The I'IG..4 Fig..~ .. J .V (1 ..coDUnon crank arrangements.. An engine or compressor foundation can be represented graphically as a spring-supported mess with 8. While adequate ~lftCNte yardace was used (four times that generally necessary far a ID&ChiDe of this type). 6 FOl1NDATlON IU:PBJ:8ENTJ:D All A....D l . B411are of t..~ 1-"""'o. 5..)I ISl TUT SHOWING RIISONAJrCII IN A FOl1NDATlON . bmdation is an elastic system. and 4800 II:!at 236 rpm.dJU the 10.& cylindeft1. is IJroporLonai LO tr. e . although the inertia force (which varies 88 the square of the speed) is 56 per cent • Damping ill the reduction in amplitude of vibration due to lrioleal than at 354 rpm.._ ub&aiIM'd wiUUolDe. . c -.. Vibra~ JDea!lurements showed that the fowSdation rocked back and 11 . ' .. dashpot to provide damping as shown in Fig. • • • 2 \".016 in.. r>.actu~ amplitude .z ~ o ~ ..I °0 ..DON - - ~ V 0CIfC f'N:E-"mCP SPEED . When the mass.. Ii VuaaA.-r-. spring characteristics..1)1 + (2 C W!UJ. it was not placed effectively.amplitude of vibration is . the natural frequency iI 472. I. ._. Q RAxo.. I I i\ '.. the resonant .1/". Here "amplitude ratio" is plotted against "frequency ratio" for different damping factors... the vibrations per minute occurring at 236 rpm. 5.. VIBBATION-RESOKAJrCJI Cuavu 1'Iv.. Viscous damping ia sesumed where the dampsharply.:a:i veiocrty (0).. As &here were tVo'o complete vibrations per revolutio» W&llIOft.. .35.a:. ...Note that Amplitude ratio..200 F /W in 191 teaChing a maximum of 0.damping factor..&88 would vibrate if it were not restrained eompres80r.r _ free amplitude. the amplitude with which the foundation This movement W88 caused by horizontal secondary forces in the m.:"'~'~/"'~.• . damping ia suwclent to JUSt prevent vibration.NEWCOMB-PRINCIPLES OF FOUNDATION DESIGN FOR ENGINES AND COMPRESSORS forces and couples due to unbalanced secondary forces.' ~ I~ 0. lIDce the Table 1 shows unbalanced speed.... theee perlodic forces (aDd to . 4. .. • Reference (7) and other texta on vibration • ayetem.

ion displacing little of the ground. with the second type...LIOOO~_.....' On the o~ iiis desirable that the conventional foundation have a fre~ ratio of 0.. of sise or shape or foundation or magnitude of deflection of the soil • The broken line in curve B is superimposed vibration about another on uis: . For shallow foundations the roeking natural frequency will be ver-y nearly the same &8 the vertical natural frequency.HI be small and on the safe side.& hr. the lower the soil bearing pressure. The horisontal "l1"'_II4CIIII•• (7. Note that the softer ground has the lower natural frequency. (a) the resiliently mo~ t.. The natural frequency in rocking is inftuenced by the dimensions of the foundation... g force so that the frequency ratio is 2 01" 3.. FOUNDATION • . ~ frequency is U8U&nyth& Mtne &8 the vertical natural fre-l queney. Reierence (4) cives additional information on natural frequency of foundations . a' be.&.. na. while empirical. in this part of the resonance curve.. it can be raised. curve A.. Fig. -nation of Fig.. reaching a maximum at o~tbe frequency ratio of 1 (for the smaller damping faoton"'. Tibrate in six different ways as shown in Fig. a foundation can have six degrees of freedom. the amplitude increases.. However.... raising the natural freq~ency of a foundation by extending the base. such as (2). which is unusually low and W&8 a result of the ~ed.sooance with the natural frequency of the ioundation.. This differ-ence may be the result. This improvement can be aceomlished by spreading the foundation or placing the foundation block on a mat. For high foundations (aI8o deep foundations) it will be mueh lower. p. ine and frequency and magnitude of the exciting force_illl::reased. The upper ends of the curves. 9 is an example of. depending on predominates or is near resonance. At this speed the periodic exciting fo~a. ..... by reducing the soil bearing pressure.' Curve A (same &8 Fic... amp-. FBIIQl7II!fOT OJ" Fomn>A. 3 had a damping fac 0..snc . Let us see how these resonance curves can be app1ied. the higher the natural frequency: This fact provides a means for controlling the natural frequency .. 1b OJ _ t.. the conventional concrete foundation poured the ground._-300. _ maximum value of primary .. Then.factors of soil e. or FOUNDATIONS..... 1£ the natural frequency of a proposed founda. This foundation is the same one shown in . but a reinforced mat.quency of inertia force F...." and the "magnitude" anf~cy" of the "exciting forces. That "Ji61i1ne is.less.hougn ot aer Linvestigators (3) find nonlinearity... 8.lOil because in a good foundation the frequency ratio II Note that the damping has little effect on the au ..ve a natural frequency well below the frequency of any ... 1) from 236 rpm." ...lIlC. i ..1--.. rubber. an average value (1) However. Thus it takes into account the fact that the cround acta like a spring having appreciable m&88. which means there is no Yib~WbeD the machine is standing still.L.two general types' of foundations. 8..0.&tude.aombined weight of foundation and machine. ~. or & co4' 2m of them.25 or less). The lower ends of -the curves where the soil bearingpreeeure is low" approach the natural frequency of the ground determined by vibrator teats... ah~th&t the actual performance agrees with vibration theory. The new natural frequency is 692 vibrations per min and is a big improVement over the original foundation. whichever is being considered. • . per . with or without piling.. was added to tie to another foundation on one side. and substantially reduced the amplitude &8 shown in curve B.082. is based on published data soils. 2 ft thick.. This change raised the resonant peak (w/w" ." "natural frequency.. The approximate natural frequency of a foundation can be determined from the static deflection as described later in Equation [10) or expressed in terma of soil-bearing pressure &II shown in Fig. approach the natural frequencies calculated from static detiection (1). ~ IICU.tural frequencies for two different soils are given._I3O()~.:. shows amplitude of the original foundation for compariSOD.... 7. t The shape of the r~"')n ance curves in thi~ ~e.. . ~unately.' Here the . 6. 8). Thus.>: ""~ FJl:ClLNCY ~ fOUC)t. IIOCMCO VUlaATll)lf .. in the actual foundation the moe " is generally either horizontal or vertical. ~ AD .. AFn:CTING NATUBAL FREQUENCY 01' . vary widely.. c.."erent types of foundations. At ~9 the amplitude falls off and approaches the free .TRANSACTIONS OF THE ASME "here.m characteristics j alt. •... the resilient foundstion-. 01" BeCOndary inertia force..5 or less to avoid excessive vibration.. as the speed of tie ..D.. 3... in cycles pel" min (cpm) . curve A.. . it is not necessary to know the damping factortfl..ph also shows how the natural frequency is affected by soil loading. Ib IV ../ 11&10. 6 shows the amplitude ratio is frequency ratio is zero. it may be of interest to point out _tiiBerences between them so as to emphasize the char~ of the latter. the foundation in Fig.uDdation supported on springs. ON FIo...... 100 \ "\ l5O.. where the soil bearing pressure is high. ~l:ecti.•t indicates substantially linear 50d.. The gra.TIOH- CltUS "" .. within limits..tion is too low.e. etc... 8 N4TUJLU.L-SOO.. The vibration me_Dts of this foundation areplotted in Fig.--.. to predict the oe of a foundation it is necessary to know only the "• .oo. and if neglected ..Fig.. "'nile this paper mab4r .TlON Two TrPIiI or SoIL _. cork 01" felt.... Sa: DICGUICS or FUICDOII • Fig. ~) cliie. To be effective.. 4). to 346 rpm.

." '/ / J " \ . 300 350 . ... especially the vertical natural frequency if driven to firm ground.. Curve C._ .... . 11. .. and Of COIIPBUIIO. 2000 Firm alay.. l1(a) shows the results of a vibration test where a foundation intended for firm ground was placed OD I . 4000 Hard clay. A common mistake in the design of engine and compressor foundation is to follow the soil bearing pressures allowed by building codes such as Table 2.'l'VJlALFuQ17l1lfCT BY ErnJrDIlfO F0111Q).... . Hero the natural frequency was too low. .. . . . . A comparison of typical shallow and higb foundstions shows that the natural frequency of the latter may be reduced to one half..I soil..•••• :. 8).... . vibratioDll ~r min J(UOKAlfc:8" EaQDQ FotTJuu . 10 :a. . land and clay..K . 11 I I_ 1/111~ Mel IIGIC: «lO !I'gJ)-""'" 440. . be uecI 4apeAdinc 011 frequency 01 fore. Ib per aq ft under building footings.a~~~--~~~~~--~ AlGI .. but an engine or compressor foundation on this soil and with this bearing load will have a TIle Nvieed foundation was satisfactory for all speeds up to natural frequency of 490 vibrations per min (from Fig.. aand.ftOX . 8000 Shaleand hardpan.loam.. _ The fact that high or deep foundations have a lower natural frequency' in rocking than shallow foundations has already been mentioned..ftOK Soft clay or wet sand..NEWCOMB-PRINCIPLES OF FOUNDATION DESIGN FOR ENGINES AND COMPRESSORS IDe the bue on the other aide.. cannot be overemphasized. .... . TABLE 2 EXAMPLES OF ALLOW ABLE BOIL BEARING SURES FOR STATIC LOADS PRES- ~I Lbper ~ f& Quicbaod ~r .. for instance.. preeent. .. tbe-. .. ill.ed if the foundation had been placed originally on an &dequaw mat.. ... When . . .. 110~ _ ~.Iluvi..static defiectioll. t1 ~\ •• . u_ ..SIIaZ)..188'~ ~ oc.. is considered suitable for 2000 B. .oKAlfc:8 - ". FOt7NDAftOK .mple of reeonance ill • compl't!88Or founda- The effect of soft and firm ground under identical foundatione • is shown in Fig.. producing reeonsnce and excessive vibration at 434 rpm.001 t dJllO I I'lo.. ....-I I .. . soft ground.. • • .. .D . In Fig. The block on which the machine rests can be relatively small.e lOiI bearinc p. There . ... A much higher natural frequency (beyond the range of the teat) was obtained and vibration was nil. A foundation I1lpported on piles should always be checked for natural irequency on the assumption that the earth may shrink away leaviDe the foundation supported on columns... .. I /' /' t---+---+-"I--+----l . . piles properly used will raise the natural frequency of the foundation.. . Fig. natural frequency. . . Fig. a low-speed machine.... • • .._... shows results expecit..MIll These soil bearing pressures are much too high for dynamic loads.. . ll(b). This can be done by determining the "static derlection" caused by a horizontal force equal to the tota. such as wet IIIUldand clay.. ..1 weight of the foundation and machine. Por dynamio loada ol>lya fraction 'of th.00. ... 100 rpm. . 9. . Fie. !. . the only requirement being that it is sufficiently strong and rigid to provide adequate support maintain proper alignment of the machine anI! tra8Iait. The deairability of low eoil loadings for 80ft ground. . ... IIG as to provide a lower soil bearing preuure and obtAiu • higher natural frequency. 16000 Roek.11 engines or compressors on high foundations • mat should be used to lower the soil loading and raise the natural frequency. . .. . lilt. ever. 20000 and hicher NO'nI: .. . . ... . .. which is 8uitableonly {or.a......"" - _.... Further improvement could be obtained by extend- I I I .. 10 aboWII an e:u. When neceaaary to insta... . When substantial horizontal inertia forces are enCOUD~red and piling is necessary.. . unless special precautions are taken.. ... It is the scope of this paper to diacuss the detailed use of pi_ &Ii this subject belongs to the foundation specialist. poor lOiI is encountered. vilxation forces to the mat..II & convenient relation between the static deflection and the D&tural frequency &8 followw ~Yond . fila - .. ..••••• • 1000 Soh clay. the use of batter piles is important to keep the natural frequency high. the engine and foundation were eXAct duplicates.a... piling is often desirabIP. .:10 ENCN: 3IUI) . lluatxo N.. How. but the ground was firm. 6000 Compact aand and cravel . ..

Proceedinp of the ASTM. 9 "Reduction or Ground Vibrations into Structures. I. pp... or hard clay. Second International Conference on Soil Mechanics.Philadelphia.--mean-square (rms) amplitude which is plot. by the manufacturer of the machine.JIC'l'IOJr AcaOWI&J)(JKENT8 . 5 "Balancinc 01 Oil Engines. London. shown in Fig. 8 "Theory or Elll8tio Engine Supports. The maximum allowable bearing pressure required to obtain the natural frequency. Traua.. 512-523. 63+645. 138. to Mr. The ideal foundation is ahallow (but sufficieutly rigid to maintain alignment) and is spread out to obtain a low soil bearing pressure and place a rMge The vibration tests described in thiII paper were made with the Type 761A vibration meter and Type 762B vibration ana1YJer made by the General Radio Company. 1'0. r--. item 1. R. i"" FIG.. 341-360. 6 "Dynamic Testa by Melllll of Induced Vibrations. I"- .hoWl &ioD. These instruments are inertia-operatedcrystal type and measure the root. F. 2 "GeophyaicaJ. Aeluming some allowable amplitude of vibration such Jl8 0. . 1937. P. S. p. pp. tioa. J." by R.312 TRANSACTIONS OF THE ASME natural frequency plotted apinat. Ward. It is good practice to refer the desip of aU IpeCiaI foundations to a foundation eXpert. 74. Rasmers for data on soil deflection. Trans. 7-10. . But the fo~dation:must be proportioned so 8. the procedure to follow . vol.. pp.414 times the rms amplitude. I1c 12. FUQv_cy . London. Crockett andR. R.. 309313. 2 Determine the character of the soil by borings. Many foundation problems can be solved by placing the foundation block on a mat. one fa~iar with BOil the foundation any machine having periodic dyruum~. WilBon.her way. The maximum amplitude from the mean position is 1. A. dynamic tests (2." by R. A. 1940. Tachebotariotf and E. 1940. P. En~d..gnitude and frequency of the unbalaDced forces and the character of the ground. B: Lippinoott Company. ratioa of thiII paper..s not to exceed the maximUm allowable BOilbearing pressure determined in item 2. -. 1948. pp. The test." by J. Bernhard. Inc.urD BAD FOVNDATION.TlON -. the total ID888 of the machine and foundation can be found. 160. ABME. K. Expressing it an"t.. Hammond." by J." by J[. Proceedinp of The Inatitution of Mechanical EOIineen. . To IDEAL FOUNDATION \:::. operation • . 1 Determine the magnitude anced forces. E. Y.002 in. and frequency of the unba1is generally supplied. 8. Pa. ASME. pp. Wall made with the foregoing vibration-measuring instruments and recorded with a Brush Develop. item 4.0.. vol. . 1942. aeeond ecfi.. 18." by G... pp." by W. vol. 13 IlhoWl! examples of good and bsd foundation design.. tion.. 37. E.lM£. lIWface in contact with the ground. B. New York.. part 2. LarkiD. A HoaSOJI'l'AL CoIaJlU8O. If the latter type must. c MaDufacturen' foundation drawings show foundations lluitstble (or firm BOils such as well-cemented ssnd and gravel.~ GooD . Crockett and R.uouas o. K. Mass. Inatitution of Civil EnKineen.. 6)..' ment Company oscillograph. In other cases piling can be 1I8ed effectively. Pick off the amplitude ratio from oFig. Also. 1947. Structural Paper no.828 times the rms amplitude. 6. Fig.. Kinneman for suggestions on WI8 of piling. Cambridge. etc. Hammond. Den H&rtoc. 6 Knowing the magnitude and frequency of the unbalanced force. vol. 7 "Meohanical Vibrations. be used be !lUre to provide a generous mat. W. 326-344. R.s .un» NA~ Dl:aIOMINO FOUNDATIONS The autbQr wishes to expreM his appreciation to members 'of the Ingersoll-Rand Company staff for assistance with the prep . r-.. ent illustrations. <. . the size of ~ is~. When iJofter ground is encountered.A. found in item 1can be developed from these data or an approximate value can be read directly from Fig.5.. INBTBmmN'l'IJ UUD TO MEASUBlII VIBIU. M. 61. Avoid high or deep foundations. p. E. r-.. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 "Desip of DiMel-Engine Foundationa. and to Mr. j . The frequency of the unbalanced (orces estabIiahes what the natural frequency of the foundation mUlSt be to avoid resonance and obtain II. The natural frequency should be at least twice the frequency of any substantial unbalanced force. or forces. atatic deftec:. 1920. K. 31-36. Bernhard.. determine the free amplitude. H. vol. McGraw-Hill Book Company. P. additional precautions JDUa be taken.. 10. 1939. while the tAltal over-all displacement (eometimes called double amplitude) is 2. r-. vol. 3. En&land. This oonstructiqn insures • high natural frequency which iI neceBIIa!'Y for vibtationles. 3 "Dynamic Principles of Machine Foundationa and Ground." by D.. pp. the frequency ratio should be less than 0.. 59. In designing ebould be: for an engine or cOmpressor. H. N. 10. vibration less install." by J. " "Resonance of Machine Foundations and the Soil Coefficients Which Affect It. 13 Ex. and. 12 lbILATloJr Ba'l'WlIiJ:N STATIC DII:n. mined by the me. deflection tests.ted in the diifer. RoeellJlweic Trans. if possible. and the free amplitude. Study of Soil Dynamice.. This information a Appendix .

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