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Line Types: In an engineering drawing, every line has a definite meaning.

Various types of lines are used to represent different parts or portions of an object.

Lettering in Drawing: Lettering plays a major role in engineering drawing. It indicates details like dimensioning, name of the drawing, etc. The use of instruments for lettering is not advised, as it will consume more time. Free hand lettering should be used instead.

Rules and Features: Lettering in drawing must be of standard height. The standard heights of letters used are 3.5mm, 5mm, 7mm and 10mm. Generally, the height to width ratio of letters and numerals are approximately 5:3. The height to width ratio of the letters M and W are approximately 5:4. Different sizes of letters are used for different purposes: Main Title Sub-title Others - 7 or 10mm - 5 or 7mm - 3.5 or 5mm.

1986. shape and position of the object as per the Dimensioning Code 11669 . Legibility Uniformity Similarity Single stroke letters are the simplest form of letters and are generally used in engineering Inclined Lettering: Inclined lettering has letters inclined at 75° to the horizontal and as for vertical lettering both uppercase and lowercase letters are used. Dimensioning Methods: Dimensioning is used to describe a drawing in terms of details such as the size. Both uppercase or large and lowercase or small letters are used. 90 ( to the horizontal. lines and symbols is known as dimensioning. Expressing these details in terms of numerical values. Vertical Lettering: Vertical lettering is upright.e.Features: The essential features of lettering used in engineering drawing are: •= •= •= drawing. General Rules of Dimensioning: . i.

15 10 a. 15 10 Front view Side view 5. Dimension lines should not cross extension lines. The overall dimensions should be placed outside the smaller dimensions. It should not be repeated at another place. 35 12 m m 10 20 30 12 m m 10 m m 10 m m 2. Dimension lines are to be drawn maintaining a gap of 12 mm from the object line and a gap of 10 mm between adjacent dimension lines. All the information should be written horizontally. 15 DEEP Correct 10 . 15 15 Correct Incorrect 3. 30 10 10 30 Correct Incorrect . 10.15 DEEP Incorrect 4. . A given dimension should be indicated only once.1.

Unnecessary indication of dimension 25 50 100 25 8. When an overall dimension is given.5 Correct Incorrect . The symbol ( is used before the dimension. Avoid indicating dimensions inside a drawing. one of the smaller dimensions should not be given unless it is needed for reference. b. 30 30 10 10 10 10 10 Correct Incorrect 6. except when it is obvious. 15 15 R 7. The larger dimensions should be placed outside the smaller ones such that the extension lines do not cross the dimension lines. not its radius. 20 20 10 Incorrect 10 Correct 9. Always indicate the diameter of a circle.5. 30 10 10 10 30 10 Correct Incorrect 7. No dimensions other than those that are necessary need be given.

R5 5 Correct Incorrect 11. 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 Correct Incorrect 12. Extension lines should not cross each other or dimension lines unless this can be done without making the drawing more complicated. Avoid dimensioning of hidden lines if possible. The radius of an arc should always be indicated with the abbreviation R placed before the dimension. Always show the angles outside the space representing an object.10. 10 Correct Incorrect 10 13. 0 45 45 0 .

In the aligned system.14. all dimensions must be upright and readable when the drawing is viewed in its normal upright position. finished surfaces. 10 10 10 10 30 60 90 15. 20 15 15 . or datum’s as applicable to a drawing. In the unidirectional system of dimensioning. Dimensions should be given from the centre lines. The centre line should never be used as a dimension line. 20 17. 50 50 Correct Incorrect 16. the dimensions must be readable when the drawing is viewed in its normal upright position or from its right hand side.

The numerical values are placed at the centres of the dimension lines. the dimensions are indicated in the vertical / upright position so that they can be read easily when the drawing is viewed in its upright position. 20 26 65 50 F F . In a drawing of a part with circular ends.18. 15 15 20 35 20 35 Correct Incorrect 20. 60 0 POINT OF INTERSECTION Unidirectional Method: In this system. the centre-to-centre dimension is given instead of an overall dimension. Intersecting construction lines and projection lines shall extend slightly beyond their point of intersection. they should appear on a continuous line. R 10 20 19. When a number of dimensions are indicated on one side of a drawing.

the method used is called chain dimensioning. the vertical dimensions can be read easily from the right side of the sheet. Similarly. the dimensions are indicated so as to be perpendicular to the dimension lines. the horizontal dimensions can be read conveniently when the drawing is viewed normally. In other words. F 20 F 50 26 65 Dimensioning Arrangements Chain Dimensioning: When successive dimensions are arranged in a straight line. 30 20 5 20 20 30 .Aligned Dimensioning: In this system.

Parallel Dimensioning: When a number of dimensions are indicated from a common datum. 16 20 22 40 62 100 32 85 74 18 40 0 . 20 45 65 85 105 125 145 Progressive Dimensioning: In this method. the system is known as parallel dimensioning. The dimensions are indicated progressively from the datum. a dot and a zero sign indicate the datum line.

The arrowhead may be open.Co-ordinate Dimensioning: The method of dimensioning shown in the figure is known as co-ordinate dimensioning. For simplicity. The length to width ratio of an arrowhead should be limited to 3:1. the same dimensions can be shown separately in a tabular form as shown in the figure. O pen ar ow r C l ed ar ow os r C l ed and Fil os led ar ow r 20 02 0 0 . Sample: 1 0 0 Y 1 3 02 0 0 Sample: 2 140 20 0 180 200 X 0 20 5 4 2 1 2 3 4 5 160 20 0 15 25 0 X 20 20 60 60 100 Y 20 160 60 120 90 f 20 20 10 15 25 Arrows: Drawing an arrowhead terminates dimension lines. closed or closed and filled.