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Environment and Urbanization 2006; 18; 547 DOI: 10.1177/0956247806070979 The online version of this article can be found at: http://eau.sagepub.com
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1177/0956247806070979 www. VI. Vol 18(2): 547–562. and how payment should be made. 2009 547 .sagepublications. VII. II.com Downloaded from http://eau. IV. we produce Book Notes of publications in English. The Book Notes in this issue are grouped under the following headings: I. Book Notes also includes short descriptions of newsletters and journals. Priority is given to items produced by research groups and NGOs in Africa. Spanish.com by on January 29. X.sagepub. V. IX.BOOK NOTES Book Notes gives short descriptions of recently published books. Asia and Latin America. III. DOI: 10. French or Portuguese. papers and reports on all subjects relevant to the environment and development. Send us a copy of any publication you would like included. Enclose price details for those ordering from abroad. DEMOGRAPHY ENVIRONMENT FICTION FINANCE GENDER GOVERNANCE LIVELIHOODS POVERTY URBAN WATER AND SANITATION Environment & Urbanization Copyright © 2006 International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED). VIII.
com by on January 29. Colombia. Economy. Many nations have more than one-ﬁfth of their population living in urban centres with fewer than 50.999 inhabitants. One-quarter of the world’s population (and half its urban population) lives in urban centres with fewer than half a million inhabitants. the excessive subsidies to electricity and water must be reduced. living conditions and other aspects of human development? And third. 20.000–199.000. and a better conserved environment. 2009 .5–1. ISBN 1 84369 623 1. The 16 chapters cover three broad sets of questions. Some nations have more than half their national populations living in urban centres with fewer than half a million inhabitants – for example. and water and common pool resources? The final chapter discusses “lessons and policies” for each of these themes. 200. Tables in this report show the proportion of national populations living in rural areas and in urban centres in the following population size categories: under 20. 2006. with less poverty and better health and education. And fourth.000 and 199. “This is not a pessimistic book. 147 in Indonesia (1990) and 100 in Turkey (2000). Asia and Latin America.999 inhabitants can also be very numerous – for instance. any negative effects on economic growth and growing population can be neutralized by the introduction of clean technologies. in the sense of ﬁnding insuperable difﬁculties lying ahead. only the people and the government of India can decide” (page 14). Oxford and New York. there are more than 750 in China (according to 1990 census data). Peru. the importance of addressing atmospheric and chemical pollution as a result of production and transport – and.000 inhabitants. Asia and Latin America David Satterthwaite.999 inhabitants have considerable importance in many relatively urbanized large-population nations – for instance. Third is the challenge presented by water. some based in universities in the UK and the USA. Venezuela. Hertfordshire SG1 4TP. This paper examines the proportion of national populations living in “large villages” and in urban centres in different population size categories. Population. Urban centres with between 200. Venezuela.5 billion by 2050. This can also be downloaded at no charge from: www. there is no implementable strategy for the country that is backed by the necessary political commitment. PO Box 119. South Korea and Argentina. 2–4. Four policy issues are highlighted as being of overarching importance. energy production and use. so there is an urgent need for higher quality services for reproductive health and family planning. Published by IIED. some based in research institutes in India. Malaysia. drawing from this. mortality and urbanization and. 2005. UK. Human Development and the Environment Tim Dyson. Malaysia and Turkey. Several hundred million more live in these same regions in “large villages” that have urban characteristics and that could be classiﬁed as urban centres. what are the impacts of population growth on food production. 548 Downloaded from http://eau. Many others have more than 10 per cent of their population living in urban centres with between 50. Argentina. Guatemala. 50. This book examines how population growth will affect India’s future development and discusses how it can manage this last phase of its demographic transition. Published by Oxford University Press. For large-population nations. Iran. how does population growth affect economic growth and other aspects of development – for instance. Second. ISBN 019 928382 6.999.99 million. London and available from Earthprint Ltd. education. more than 600 in India (2001). regulate the use of groundwater and regulate or price water for irrigation and domestic use.999. These “small urban centres” and “large villages” are likely to absorb a large part of the growth in the world’s population up to 2025 and beyond. Robert Cassen and Leela Visaria (editors). 0.pdf. Large-population nations can have many urban centres in this size I. what is happening to India’s population in terms of fertility.99 million. India’s population has trebled since Independence in 1947 and it seems headed for a total of at least 1. the urban environment.5 billion people living in these “small urban centres” worldwide. nearly three-quarters live in Africa. It draws on 14 authors. together with supporting measures. And many more have more than one-third – for instance. more than 300 in Brazil (2000). Asia and Latin America.iied. The Demographic Importance of Small Urban Centres and Large Villages in Africa. Saudi Arabia.000 and 199.999. Theme: Urban Change–3. First. Human Settlements Discussion Paper Series. that the country will beneﬁt from slower population growth.E N V I R O N M E N T & U R B A N I Z AT I O N Vol 18 No 2 October 2006 Outside the Large Cities. even where there is agreement on the need to control pollution.5 billion people. Of the 1. Even with 1.000 and 499.earthprint. they comprise more than 10 per cent of the national population in Chile. 30 pages. First. Whether it does or not. for the most part. 414 pages.sagepub. India can become a more prosperous country. website: www.000– 499. Stevenage.000–49.org/pubs/pdf/ full/10537IIED. drawing on recent census data for some 70 nations in Africa. urban centres of between 50. DEMOGRAPHY Twenty-First Century India. Chile and Brazil. Urban centres of this size category also contain signiﬁcant proportions of the population in most high-income nations.com. what can be said about likely future trends? Second. and 5 million plus.
Brazil has 70 (2000). most rural specialists choose not to recognize the importance of small urban centres within “rural development”. the author discusses the processes through which the global rules of trade and engagement are made and enforced. It combines statistical information.95. the environmental crisis and deep injustice of the current order are not really about individual choices or consumer culture. or about science. and a growing human and social crisis of poverty and inequality.com by on January 29. suggests that the crises are the result of human decisions. visuals and clear explanations showing step by step how a particular historical path of colonialism. Chapter 1 describes these twin crises in greater detail. in order to prevent irreparable damage to our environment.co. The author thinks that it is wrong to allow people to believe that they are personally responsible for the global ecological crisis. they contain a sizeable part of all economic activities and include almost all the service centres and local government centres for rural populations and for agriculture. website: zedbooks. 280 pages. II. NAFTA. through colonialism. But he also suggests that the changed rules. IMF.sagepub. and most urban specialists fail to recognize the importance of prosperous agriculture and a prosperous agricultural population for urban development. economic. rivers. This book explains the double bind in which humanity now ﬁnds itself – an environmental crisis that is escalating year on year. The author also highlights the issue of increased conﬂict within and across nations. social or political importance within almost all nations. It is in the end a political problem that demands a political solution. 2006. technology or planning. The author argues that the troubles discussed in the ﬁrst chapter are not just the result of decisions by a few politicians or even a few greedy corporate executives. And these institutions cannot be established without collective struggle.BOOK NOTES category – for example. although explicitly cast as protections for the fragilities of nature. These statistics highlight the demographic importance of small urban centres and large villages in virtually all nations. It draws attention to fast-depleting natural resources alongside increased consumption. both within the United States and globally. rather pessimistically. this surrender to the dictates of the free market massively compromises the welfare of countries. – which he argues. 2009 . Aimed at a concerned. the near-surrendering of our fate as a society to the market. London. ENVIRONMENT Unsustainable: A Primer for Global Environmental and Social Justice Patrick Hossay. and how the market is completely ignoring the physical realities that threaten our existence. Chapter 2 examines the causes of the crises. communities and ecosystems around the world. Most small urban centres exhibit a mix of urban and rural characteristics. such urban centres also have considerable economic. Collectively. the author goes on to describe the attempts that were made to change the rules. air and forests. capitalist development and industrial growth has brought us to this state. in its description of a fertile resistance movement that is organizing itself worldwide. and presents evidence of environmental racism in the United States. In Chapter 6. India has 100 (2001). The underlying message of this chapter is that democratically accountable public institutions can and must serve as the counterbalance to powerful corporate inﬂuence. he argues that the distribution of power in society is far from even. He presents evidence from a web of international institutions – the World Bank. is making sure that this global corporate takeover is complete and that any barriers to corporate access and control are eradicated. deep-set and long-established practices that have evolved over several centuries and that deﬁne our everyday lives. really protect the status quo. Chapters 4 and 5 describe. It points to the global inequity in income and private consumption across nations. While acknowledging that each of us as individuals in one way or another takes part in reinforcing these rules. Applied globally. While we would like to think that we have in place policies that protect us and ensure the defence of our oceans. and that it is affecting some countries more adversely than others. price £17. The final chapter provides a ray of hope. to the current corporate globalization. Published by and available from Zed Books. Indonesia has 25 (1990) and the Philippines has 24 (2000). they are about power. However. Mexico has 26 (2001). It argues that global warming is becoming more severe. He traces the historical roots of the current set of global rules sequentially. the truth is that none of these is protected with the same vigour with which we protect the interests of powerful corporations. including both budding social activists and young people studying the environment and international development. Recognition of the demographic. In the third chapter. ISBN 1 84277 657 6. social and political importance of small urban centres might help to shift such biases. from the industrial revolution. the principles of capitalism and free trade. He 549 Downloaded from http://eau. as a result of increased competition for natural resources. Rather. The book demonstrates how these twin crises share the same historical roots.uk. In many nations. He argues that at its base. China has 125 (1990). the US hegemony in global trade agreements. popular audience. WTO etc. as countries such as China and India catch up with the consumption patterns of wealthier countries.
which it was able to repay because of good repayment records from the enterprises to which it on-lent. London. the Orangi Pilot Project (OPP) is probably best known for the work of the OPP–Research and Training Institute. and then in the present. This short description does not do justice to the subtlety of the story. to provide credit to family enterprises within Orangi (a large informal settlement in Karachi whose current population is around 1.com by on January 29. Dr Ziauddin Ahmed Road. Published by Harper Collins. the tension between the ﬁsherman who works with Piya and his wife who sees his ﬁshing and his desire to teach their son his trade as backward. and through the work and attitudes of this researcher. The book begins by discussing the origins of microfinance. Published by and available from Sama Editorial and Publishing Services. The aim of this trust was to provide credit to existing microenterprises at market interest rates. Piya. This is followed by a description of the early history of Orangi Pilot Project (from 1980). Piya also encounters a local ﬁsherman who has much detailed knowledge of the dolphins. as he reads the manuscript left by his uncle. as a translator. The Pakistan NGO. It then discusses how NGOs have sought to develop microﬁnance. One learns of the history of the settlement. when he came to stay with them as a school boy. The first is the contemporary story of a US researcher of Indian parentage. and it is viewed in particular at two points in time through the eyes of Kanai. Orangi Charitable Trust developed this microﬁnance programme in a culture where loan defaults were very common. through the people who ﬁgure in more than one of them. their subsequent development of settlements there. who wrote it while becoming involved in trying to support the occupation. some international funding helped cover overhead costs – especially as the programme grew in scale and scope. as he returns to visit his aunt. followed by their forceful eviction (with many of them murdered) to retain the land as a tiger reserve (for IV. The third story concerns the occupation of a large island within the sundabans by thousands of landless families. the reader learns of how an understanding of these dolphins developed historically.sagepub. Three stories are woven together.2 million). forming and supporting a strong women’s welfare group. and she herself has struggled to get an education and become a qualiﬁed nurse. Imperial Court. 2004. Some of the tensions of development are explored through this – for instance. and its support for communitymanaged sanitation and other programmes to support better schools and better quality building in informal settlements (see the paper in this issue by Arif Hasan). One learns of the aunt’s drive to improve conditions on the island. loan defaults were a problem. channels and sandbanks. 403 pages. She wants him at school. It takes place in the sundabans. who wants him to review a manuscript that her (now deceased) headmaster husband has left. Karachi 75530. 155 pages. 2005. III. Most of its funding came from loans from Pakistan banks. This novel is about the collision between environmental protection on the periphery of Kolkata/ Calcutta and development – especially the search for land by landless or dispossessed groups. Up to 2004 in Orangi. 4th ﬂoor. one gets a sympathetic portrayal of someone committed to preserving the dolphins’ habitat. the couple’s nephew: ﬁrst in the past. and to draw Kanai into helping with her work. FINANCE The Microcredit Programme of OPP–Orangi Charitable Trust Aquila Ismail. And the author suggests ways in which we can work for such changes. Pakistan. The second story centres on the development of a settlement on an island within the sundabans. Kanai tells the story. both in the local savings groups that traditionally provided credit and in the nineteenth and early twentieth century attempts to set up ﬁnancial services with social functions. 550 Downloaded from http://eau. ISBN 0 00 714178 5. 2009 . Initially. One of the key characters in this ﬁght is the mother of the ﬁsherman who works with Piya. Piya the researcher also comes to stay. PO Box 12447. the engagement with the characters and the way in which these three stories seamlessly intertwine. but the proportion of defaults fell. and through this story. and to train NGOs and communitybased organizations to initiate comparable programmes. but without requiring any collateral (personal guarantees from two neighbours were necessary instead).E N V I R O N M E N T & U R B A N I Z AT I O N this book argues that only a fundamental restructuring of the way we do business will save us from environmental and human catastrophe. Vol 18 No 2 October 2006 which considerable foreign funding had been received). which also develops into a hospital. who is looking to document the freshwater dolphins that live in the sundabans. and how the Orangi Charitable Trust developed from it in 1987. This book describes the work of another part of OPP – the small loan programmes run by the OPP–Orangi Charitable Trust. and the role of a particular couple – the man is the headmaster of the local school. Later. and the woman is the founder and head of an NGO. the vast area of water and mangroves where the “hungry tide” brings a constantly shifting pattern of land and water. FICTION The Hungry Tide Amitav Ghosh.
the situation of elderly people has been affected by HIV/AIDS. Lesotho. How has urbanization and the above processes inﬂuenced the way women and men relate to each other in their everyday life? How do they view gender-speciﬁc rules and practices? How are relations of power. Despite the legal pluralism.sagepub. Finally. 293 pages. women and men in the recently urbanized areas of Southern Africa develop. Boys and girls in child-headed households have taken on caring responsibilities that are normally the role of adults. which has claimed the lives of many young people. credit to manufacturers and service enterprises. Another chapter looks at measures taken to increase microﬁnance to women – again with examples of loans given.661 had been repaid in full. Such arrangements sometimes increase young women’s workload and may expose them to sexual harassment or abuse. GENDER Gender. and gender and intergenerational boundaries have been crossed. gendered and generational inheritance and property rights are a recurring theme in many of the chapters. orphan. economic and demographic transformations experienced in Southern Africa over recent decades. Second. Living arrangements have changed.se/english/ research/default. drawing on and supported by the Orangi Charitable Trust. the loanee had died or was incapacitated. and also gives one or two-page proﬁles of many of these partners.) To adapt to urban conditions and establish a decent and sustainable life. the HIV/AIDS pandemic and changing socioeconomic and household demographic structures have made the struggle more difﬁcult than ever before. 2009 . access and control over resources worked out? How do these relations affect generational and intergenerational support? How are gender. grandmother. Roma. Third. despite their social status as elders. The caring role remains gendered. This book includes separate chapters on credit to traders. and social. women are still expected to carry on in a care-giving role. generational culture. and legal underpinnings on the meaning and use of resources and living spaces adapted to urban environments? This book. The ﬁnal chapter describes the large number of partner institutions all over Pakistan who now provide microﬁnance. several chapters in this book reveal young people’s desire for an independent living space. Using gender.gu.and child-headed households are new phenomena. Published by the Institute for Southern African Studies. what is was used for and how it was repaid. Generation and Urban Living Conditions in Southern Africa Faustin Kalabamu. addresses some of these issues.946 loans had been given. when orphans were integrated within extended families. women (especially married women) continue to be considered as minors. Fourth. several chapters highlight the struggle for space. Families try to conform to cultural norms that require separate living spaces according to gender and generation. First. and most of the repayments on outstanding loans were being made on time. National University of Lesotho. published under the Gender Research on Urbanization Planning Housing and Everyday Life (GRUPHEL) Programme within the Institute for Southern African Studies (ISAS) at the National University of Lesotho. Growing poverty. And the legal system and state institutions often fail to protect orphans’ rights over deceased parents’ property. http://www. a number of issues have emerged. it emerges that elderly women in various cities in the region have become providers and caregivers to their grandchildren and relatives affected by HIV/AIDS (including their own children). or they had lost their capital through a ﬁre). Unlike in the past. and are excluded from property ownership and inheritance. social 551 Downloaded from http://eau. see the website of Global Gender Studies at Goteborg University. negotiate and renegotiate new relationships and spaces between genders and generations at household and community levels. and the signiﬁcance of housing in the lives of V. cultural. generation and concepts of social justice as the basis and tools for analyzing the research data.BOOK NOTES 6. and those who were “absconders”. and some profiles of speciﬁc loans with details of who took the loan. Matseliso Mapetla and Ann Schlyter (editors).html. many orphans now constitute independent households. Each chapter gives details of the kinds and numbers of loans provided. partly due to HIV/AIDS. a proportion that could repay (for instance. They have forced the elderly and young people to take up unexpected roles and responsibilities. Instead of being cared for. They adopt livelihood strategies that turn out to be gendered and in accordance with the differing ages of the children. The trust also keeps careful records of why bad debts occurred – and these include a proportion that repaid most of loan. (For more details of the work programme of which this is part. the 12 papers in this volume address how the GRUPHEL themes relate to the everyday living experiences of respondents.com by on January 29. From intersectional analyses of their urban living conditions.and child-headed households have become a common phenomenon in most countries within the region.cggs. 2005. Young women have been more active than young men in their efforts to access independent housing. often with severely constrained resources. 5. They rely on social networks within and outside their neighbourhood to bypass the ofﬁcial waiting list. and credit to community and private schools (to help upgrade their facilities – sometimes also supported by a grant).
uk.com by on January 29.org. bureaucratic processes and the application of rigid constraints more appropriate to other forms of aid can hinder speed and efﬁciency. This is not uncontroversial. funding and implementing community or locally identiﬁed and managed small-scale and pro-poor projects. given that spatial communities are often heterogeneous and identities often ﬂuid.sagepub. However. A house empowers people to bargain within extended families. which is believed to allow better targeting. the book demonstrates how. and a guarantee for security of care in old age. governments. managing and assessing the impact of local funds. through a series of case studies. This book is about an alternative approach. ISBN 1 85339 597 8. to avoid conﬂicts between elderly women and daughters-in-law grounded in the division of roles and authority. website: www. Funds are disbursed closer to where they are needed. VI. local funds can deliver development within the context of a rights-based • • • • • • 552 Downloaded from http://eau. disbursement can be slowed down where procedures are bureaucratic and laborious. In many ways.uk. They are supposed to be driven by local demand. This can be problematic in practice.95. with private sector involvement being particularly difﬁcult. Space in homes is also used as a means of separation. These represent an administrative vehicle for selecting. usually through grants. and are used to channel small amounts of money to a large number of local and micro-level projects. Invariably. donors and development agencies have often failed to make signiﬁcant improvements in the lives of poor people and enhance their capacity to help themselves. Rugby. They are deemed to be swift and ﬂexible. Starting from a critical engagement with theories of decentralization and a review of social funds.org. and the chapter on polygamous families in Zambia describes the dramatic struggle for space between wives living in one house. Europe and Latin America.95. GOVERNANCE Funding Local Governance: Small Grants for Democracy and Development Jo Beall. UK. . as demand often comes from intermediary groups and the most disadvantaged groups are often ill-equipped to get their voices heard. as a response to perceived problems of aid ineffectiveness. e-mail: orders@itpubs. This book takes a critical look at the assumptions behind local funds being used as an aid instrument. and draws some critical lessons from their design and management. although lack of prestige from small and localized projects can be off-putting. The contributing authors give voice to some of the everyday heroines and heroes who struggle for a dignified life. that promote democracy and governance [understood as state society relations] alongside issues of development [understood as improvements in people’s well-being]” (page 4). The management of local funds is devolved from donor agencies to other organizations that are responsible for oversight and day-to-day management. US$ 27. Asia. they are externally funded. increase participation and leverage resources locally. it also considers the implications of these funds for a policy environment that seeks to promote both social well-being and democracy. Some partnerships evolve more easily than others. However. 208 pages. The second section looks at the experience of local funds in practice. seeks to situate the local funds phenomenon within a broader discussion of development policy and practice as it has evolved over recent decades. they require co-financing. Despite their good intentions. . The book concludes with a look at the future of local funds.itdgpublishing. Ownership of housing is a central strategy for urban life. Local funds are a mechanism for aid delivery that has gained increasing currency in recent years. and hopefully they provide some insights and guidance for those who want to act in order to support the development of a more egalitarian Southern Africa. particularly those “. They point to deep changes in human relations. Published by and available from ITDG Publishing. especially elderly women. at their most innovative. However. this helps donors shed high transaction costs. The author concludes by identifying the following characteristics of local funds: • They are a means through which small resources are targeted directly towards disadvantaged groups or local communities very quickly. price: £15. The ﬁnal part of the book focuses on issues of implementation and the day-to-day challenges of designing. The ﬁrst section. on local funds and the policy environment. Vol 18 No 2 October 2006 approach and as a critical component of democratic decentralization. They are supposed to stimulate partnerships for development.E N V I R O N M E N T & U R B A N I Z AT I O N the many low-income households in the region. Although local funds offer grant funding as opposed to loans. Reviewing experiences from Africa. 2009 . and this requirement has the potential to exclude the very poorest. The book is divided into three sections. 2005. it explores the value of funding local initiatives that are designed not only to support development activities but also to promote local democracy. match funding is not always easy to ﬁnd.
John Samuel. rickshaw producers to rickshaw owners and those who use rickshaws. 2006.com. Patpargang.6 per cent in the Rajya Sabha [upper house]). the urban vision should not be just for cities that are world class in their ﬁnancial prowess or physical façade but also foremost in their ability to meet global standards of human rights. including the disabled. education and health and infrastructure (including reviews on changes in proportion of funds allocated to these). Delhi 110054 India. Struggle and Claims A study by Lokayan. rickshaw owners. the performance of high courts and district courts. 152 pages. e-mail: lokayan@vsnl. Delhi 110 092. demonstrating the problems and negative attitudes that rickshaw owners. covering the Supreme Court and the high courts. Chapter 1 outlines the wide range of people who make up the numbers of rickshaw drivers.sagepub. For urban local governance. the victims of the industrial accident in Bhopal in 1983. and municipal governments in urban areas. from a rights perspective and in light of the Indian government’s commitment to the Millennium Development Goals. includes an assessment of judgements of relevance to disadvantaged groups. For more details. This 2006 report reviews the four key institutions of governance in India: parliament.com. website: http://education. VII. There is a worry that this is too loaded towards heavy infrastructure investment and reform processes that primarily beneﬁt private sector interests and with too little attention to the urban poor. LIVELIHOODS The Saga of Rickshaw: Identity. The coalition and individual partners also produce a range of publications. and the criminalization of politics (one-quarter of the members of parliament have criminal records and over half of those with the most serious criminal records were concentrated in certain states – this review is also broken down by political party and by state). Lokayan Action Group. malnutrition and extreme poverty in many states.1 per cent of members in the Lok Sabha [lower house] and 10. This is a report by Social Watch India. India. which comprises a coalition of Indian NGOs and other civil society organizations committed to making democratic processes work better through monitoring and evaluating the functioning of key institutions of government. The review of parliament includes gender issues (currently women make up only 8. edited by Rajendra Ravi. Jagadananda and Yogesh Kumar. in English. and a look at activity mapping to see the extent to which functions that should have been transferred to local government have been. The report notes the slowing down of improvements in infant and child mortality rates. see http://www. There are social watch processes underway in 13 states in India – and they monitor such aspects of government as the budgetary process. as long as they are still needed and used.com/lokayan. As the report notes. This chapter 553 Downloaded from http://eau. Attempts to regularize rickshaws has traditionally involved bribery and corruption. ISBN 81 7758 610 6. Marati and Hindi. Published by Pearson Longman. from rickshaw drivers to mechanics. The researchers investigated the entire rickshaw business in the national capital region of India (Delhi). with positive examples in some states and worrying incidents against women and dalit candidates in others). 13 Alipur Road. 2009 . The review of local government focuses on the formation and performance of gram panchayats at village level. only one in four is registered. urban and rural governance. vsnl. drivers and users are beset with. there is a particular interest in the likely impacts of two policies: the Urban Infrastructure Development Scheme and the National Urban Renewal Mission – the latter being a “reforms-driven. and the provision of services such as healthcare and water. the executive and local government (with separate sections on rural and urban governance). the judiciary. fast track” fund for India’s largest cities. primary and secondary education. and also the trafﬁc police and ofﬁcials from the municipal bodies who want to rid the streets of Delhi of rickshaws.000 rickshaws. The foreword outlines the pressures of modernization and globalization that should be forcing out traditional forms of transport. are not ridding the streets of rickshaws. Delhi and available from Pearson Education. 2006. but which. The review of public policy looks in detail at agriculture. child labourers and those affected by mega-projects. There is also criticism of the World Bank-led privatization of the drinking water supply in Delhi. The review of the judiciary. This book presents the ﬁndings of the Action Research Programme on Rickshaws and Rickshaw pullers 2000–2002. Among the issues reviewed are the extent to which women and representatives from dalits and other disadvantaged groups are getting the seats reserved for them (the picture is mixed.socialwatchindia.BOOK NOTES Social Watch India: Citizens Report on Governance and Development 2006 Amitabh Behar. which seems to involve both high public investment and higher tariffs and with the private company being guaranteed payment even when it fails to deliver the service. their place in society and what needs to be done to protect the livelihoods of those within the rickshaw business. mechanics and users of rickshaws.com by on January 29. The report lists the conditions laid down in the National Urban Renewal Mission with regard to mandatory and optional urban local body and state reforms. forest and land policy. 482 FIE. which has led to the current situation where of 400.
and what they are likely to earn. legal rules are • • • • The book’s ﬁnal chapter provides an overview of human rights documents. Also available in bookshops. and to develop new strategies for reducing poverty. Motorized transport has reached maximum capacity on the current roads. the impact of international human rights initiatives on the extent and causes of child labour and school attendance in India. as rickshaw technology has remained static for many years. begin to position international poverty law as a legitimate ﬁeld for transnational. as rickshaws still are and will remain an important. relying on human rights discourse and United Nations. while largely. Background rules of property (now including intellectual property). Vol 18 No 2 October 2006 deeply implicated in maintaining and strengthening status quo power and wealth inequalities.co. Building on the theoretical framework set forth in these chapters.E N V I R O N M E N T & U R B A N I Z AT I O N examines how rickshaw drivers live. Chapter 2 presents the increasingly negative impact that the regularization of road trafﬁc is having on rickshaw livelihoods. or those dominating the increasingly globalized economy. While law and development discourse has dealt with international poverty.zedbooks. while simultaneously cautioning that a rights model must be supplemented by other moral and political approaches. This chapter also outlines the opportunities for improved production and technical development of rickshaws. also. with tax rebates offered to users. and how police and other ofﬁcials are unpicking their ability to ply their trade. This chapter suggests that a more effective organization of rickshaw drivers could assist in breaking down some of these barriers. the next ﬁve chapters explore speciﬁc international human rights initiatives that address a particular aspect of poverty within distinct local and methodological contexts. the framing of the right to food (RTF) within the UN development documents. space should be made available for rickshaw mechanics and a sociallevel propaganda programme should be developed to popularize the rickshaw. linkages between international human rights undertakings and the developing interpretation of the new 1996 South African constitution. The ﬁrst chapters in this book are revisions of papers originally presented at the Comparative Research Programme on Poverty (CROP) Law and Poverty Workshop IV. and connects IPL to this textual framework. in Onati. non-polluting form of public transport that needs to be accommodated within the current system. which would be shortsighted. the authors suggest that a department of non-motorized vehicles be created. legal capacity and tort law partially create and perpetuate wealth imbalances within and between nations. 272 pages. The contributors to this book. but rickshaws are not necessarily going to be part of this. such as the rickshaw. assets and power. Rickshaws should be considered an integral part of the public transport system. International Labour Organization and World Trade Organization initiatives as their primary legal sources. locally and globally. 2006. and the role of transnational corporations (TNCs) in bridging the gaps between economic growth and human development through corporate codes of conduct. in May 2001. The report also recommends the development of a government policy for the technological development of rickshaws. they nevertheless open up a constructive prospect of speciﬁc arenas in which the development of international poverty law can contribute to addressing poverty reduction. These chapters stress the importance of the human rights discourse in constructing the foundation for IPL. a rickshaw cooperative society should be formed for temporary drivers and basic necessities should be arranged. Published by and available from Zed Books. Thus.uk. It looks at a number of international human rights instruments. including theorizing some human rights as “global public goods”. UK. price: £18. and positions 554 Downloaded from http://eau.sagepub. including: • international intellectual property (IP) law as applied to biological products and processes. the barriers to proper registration and the unequal power struggle that exists between rickshaw drivers and owners. POVERTY International Poverty Law: An Emerging Discourse Lucy Williams (editor). Furthermore. resulting in substantial poverty worldwide. ISBN 1 84277 685 1. Recommendations presented in the final chapter include making more road space available to rickshaw drivers. Spain. Legal rules significantly affect the distribution of income. website: www. London. and their impact on undermining food security. as is the case with other forms of transport.95. whether one is considering current economic structures within nation-states. family. In order to prioritize alternative forms of transport. A new integrated transport policy is to be prepared. This book seeks to understand and expose these legal structures that perpetuate poverty. their level of education. VIII. multidisciplinary legal research and dialogue. While critiquing both legal theory and current policy. despite political support for their plight from some quarters. those earlier imposed by colonizers on colonized states. advocates of poverty reduction customarily operate within a nation-state context. The ﬁrst three chapters provide a framework within which to position the theoretical development of International Poverty Law (IPL). although not exclusively. 2009 .com by on January 29. contract. These chapters grapple with a range of subjects.
in most cases one area was prioritized while others were of secondary concern. The papers were written to explore the integration of income generation and employment. with Pakistan. IX. 2006. in her conclusion. ISBN 1 84407 381 5. 8–12 Camden High Street. The countries proﬁled in the ﬁrst section are Mozambique. Kenya and Zimbabwe: in all three cases. USA. e-mail: earthinfo@earthscan. and Per Ljung headed the World Bank’s central unit for policy development and research in urban development. with subsequent benefits for the quality of shelter and neighbourhoods.earthscan. Goran Tannerfeldt had a central role in developing the urban policy of the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida) from the mid-1990s to the present. working in international agencies.co. ISBN 1853396370.95. the backlog in infrastructure deﬁciencies. but with an emphasis on the fact that it is not urbanization but rather. price: £19. This book presents the case for a stronger focus on urban issues by local and national governments and international agencies – and it justiﬁes its provocative title by explaining how urban development can be the engine of economic. This book seeks to begin that process. India and Bangladesh all providing examples of NGO interventions that have sought to support improved employment. and interventions concerning more stable tenure and income-generation together with neighbourhood improvements described in the thrid. The Africa section includes studies from South Africa. The ﬁrst comprises “Countries emerging from war”. Chapter 2 describes the scale and nature of urban poverty – including issues of health. London NW1 0JH.BOOK NOTES them within the varying conceptions of poverty (subsistence. basic needs. The studies are broadly located within the livelihood approach. the lack of secure tenure (and the difﬁculties in addressing this). It also has sections on environment and health. The ﬁrst describes urban trends and discusses what underpins these – including the association between urbanization and economic development and rural–urban linkages. safety and livelihoods. In the USA.sagepub. Chapter 3 is on “Cities and towns facing problems”. This is one of the most accessible discussions of urban development. “If IPL does not challenge the background legal rules of markets that bear signiﬁcant responsibility for causing and perpetuating gross inequality. 2006. With the understanding that effective poverty reduction is multi-dimensional. website: www. on AIDS. Sterling. price £15. Income generation is more strongly represented in studies from Asia. URBAN More Urban. social and cultural development with beneﬁts for both rural and urban populations. Angola and the Sudan. Both authors have many decades of experience. Also available in bookshops.co. and the cases were selected because they sought such integration.com by on January 29. The editor of the book. An Introduction to Urban Development and Management Goran Tannerfeldt and Per Ljung. and on urban challenges in the transition economies of Eastern Europe and Central Asia – also on obstacles to addressing urban problems. Published by and available from Earthscan Publications. the book is organized into ﬁve chapters. while the second and third sections comprise studies from more politically stable countries in Africa and Asia. Less Poor.uk. inadequate or poorly conceived or implemented policies that are the root causes of these problems. However.uk.99. it will ultimately fail to address poverty reduction” (page 12). poor municipalities. with interventions concerning infrastructure improvements as a major area of activity described in the ﬁrst two studies. ultimately poverty cannot be eradicated or even seriously challenged without changes in market-structuring rules (both national and international). with income generation being an area where activities have been attempted but with less emphasis. including weak local governance. shelter improvements are a major entry point. this volume is a collection of papers examining such approaches within NGO projects and programmes. UK. 2009 . available from Earthscan Publications. Confronting the Crisis in Urban Poverty: Making Integrated Approaches Work Stuart Coupe. and recommends speciﬁc steps to ensure the indivisibility and direct applicability of international human rights norms. After an initial short summary and conclusions section. The studies are grouped into three sections. Shelter improvements have been used as a means through which stronger local organizations can be consolidated. as is evident from the studies. the studies compare the intervention areas with another similar locality. acknowledges that while advocacy for incremental change is an essential component of legal representation for the poor. Lucy Stevens and Diana Mitlin (editors).com. infrastructure and services and organizational capacity building. distorted land and housing markets and inappropriate regulatory frameworks. and the difﬁculties that slum dwellers face in getting housing finance and basic services. relative deprivation). 555 Downloaded from http://eau. with its deﬁnition of multiple assets. Published by Intermediate Technology Publications and available from www. To assist with the elaboration of speciﬁc outcomes that emerge from the NGO intervention. diagrams and photos. VA 20166-2012.developmentbookshop. It discusses the size of “slum” populations in selected cities. 22883 Quicksilver Drive. 256 pages. 190 pages. and the text is illustrated throughout with many graphs.
co. slums and the Millennium Development Goals. enhance service delivery (including the use of community-based alternatives) and create a functioning housing ﬁnance service. Saudi Arabia). e-mail: earthinfo@earthscan. hunger. This includes sections on: the social and health costs of living in a slum. Durham. including trends in the growth of slum populations. VA 20166–2012. There are also sections on conﬂict and disaster in cities (including an essay on New Orleans and hurricane Katrina) and urban insecurity. USA.sagepub. For the City Yet to Come. they have neglected urban poverty. It then discusses different aspects of urban management. It also discusses what governments and international agencies should do to address the problem of slums. which countries are starting to stabilize or reverse slum growth rates. Books Fulﬁllment. 905 W. it is divided into four parts. The result is an urban crisis. ISBN 0 8223 3445 3.co. It also gives a global overview of slums. This chapter also discusses how to improve municipal ﬁnances.uk. land management. slums and environmental degradation. providing secure tenure. website: www.uk.edu/contactus/howtoorder. and various diseases including diarrhoea. Part IV is an assessment of slum upgrading and prevention policies in different nations. 556 Downloaded from http://eau. The four cities that are examined are Pikine (Senegal). Governments must undertake fundamental policy reforms. This discusses which nations have had a rapid. age pyramids for slum and non-slum populations in Brazil and South Africa. This book documents and analyzes shifting forms of social collaboration between individuals within a changing society. price: £18. Also available in bookshops. and the shortcomings of the MDG on slum populations in Vol 18 No 2 October 2006 relation to housing rights. This has sections on governance at local and national level. with sections on air pollution.E N V I R O N M E N T & U R B A N I Z AT I O N Chapter 4 is on managing urban growth. and tenure issues. Changing African Life in Four Cities AbdouMaliq Simone. This section ends with a summary of measures needed to meet the Millennium Development Goals in urban areas. and which countries are at risk or off-track (in relation to meeting the Millennium Development Goals). unresponsive financial systems. The book ends with the comment: “National governments and donors have for too long ignored the challenges of rapid urban growth. and environmental management and protecting cultural heritage. There is also an annex with a series of tables containing urban statistics. overcrowding. As it states at the outset. 22883 Quicksilver Drive. A full understanding of these issues – the purpose of this book – is the ﬁrst step towards the ultimate goal. an urban world without poverty” (page 163). Suite 18B. USA. There is also a section discussing environmental problems in cities. Concerted and well-targeted efforts are now required.95. Sterling. civil society and accountability. trafﬁc deaths and the inadequacies of solid waste management systems. infant and child mortality. inappropriate legal and regulatory frameworks. Part III discusses how inadequate housing and lack of basic services threaten the health. The chapter ends with a two-page checklist of key areas in pro-poor urban development. including inclusive city development strategies. 2009 . Main St. education and employment opportunities of slum dwellers. 297 pages. Part II provides a more detailed discussion of the state of the world’s slums – looking at issues of housing durability. womenheaded households in cities.. and the impact this has had on the development of African cities. 8–12 Camden High Street. There are also short essays on Mumbai’s quest for world city status. NC 27701. illustrated by aerial photos showing one of the affected areas before and after the eviction. slums and inadequate infrastructure are largely the result of failed policies.95. UK. and regional overviews for Africa. which highlights the countries where slum policies are effective and where pro-poor reforms on slum upgrading are being implemented. Published by Duke University Press. bad governance. Winterveld (South Africa). State of the World Cities 2006/2007: The Millennium Development Goals and Urban Sustainability UN–Habitat. and development cooperation must increase and be more effective. 2004. political and socioeconomic context for the emergence of these shifting forms. In the USA. acute respiratory infections and HIV/AIDS. Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean. sustained decline in slum growth rates and/or low slum prevalence. There is also a section reviewing national trends in slum populations. and includes a short essay by Peter Hall on why some cities ﬂourish while others languish and a case study of China’s rising cities. deficiencies in safe water supply and provision for sanitation.com by on January 29. 204 pages. North Carolina. London NW1 0JH. price: US$ 23. transparency and corruption. and lays out a powerful rationale for supporting urban development and how it can be realized.shtml or through Duke University Press. Published by and available from Earthscan Publications. Durham.earthscan. This can be ordered at http://dukeupress. and their importance in the remaking of a broad range of African cities. Chapter 5 examines the role of development cooperation. The 2006/2007 edition of the State of the World’s Cities focuses mainly on cities. This includes an essay on the massive evictions in Harare in 2005. It provides an historical. urban transport. Following a ﬁve-page overview. Part I reviews urban trends. 2006. Douala (Cameroon) and Jidda (Jeddah. corruption and lack of political will. ISBN 1 84407 378 5. Most low-income nations are offtrack. available from Earthscan Publications.
and how important these are for the urbanizing forces in Africa. From the mid-1990s. activities that are not open – the unspoken yet present political force within community life. the signs speak more loudly of the global entrancement of desire than they do of politics. looking at new forms of urban governance and how these can or cannot be assimilated by more traditional approaches. New York. Chapter 6 examines how African cities are shaped through macroeconomics and approaches of municipal administration. In the Senegalese city of Pikine. national or language groups. 557 Downloaded from http://eau. In Douala. 2009 . draws on the connections between countries both within and outside Africa. The final theme. and where the foreigner wanders around in an ignorance that he or she has no sure way to measure. symbolism and mythology constitute the story of a city. with residents referring to the “quarters” where individuals come from rather than the city as a whole.50. with a million a year visiting Tibet to enjoy its exotic architecture. if they can be heard. the dismantling of the public sector and the breakdown of traditional hierarchies between men. But Lhasa became again a city where. and to stem dissent by increasing infrastructure expansion. The new policy aimed to integrate the local economy rapidly with that of inland China. . how cities are administered and the colonial legacy. and the different social groupings. the culture once reviled in China as being feudal and barbaric became a tourist attraction for wealthier Chinese. recount the story of Tibet’s complex transition from tradition to modernity and its painful history of foreign encounters and political experiment. whether women. 2006. . i.” There is a sense that African inﬂuences are rooted in rural life even where experience would demonstrate the contrary. the ever-increasing importance of the informal sector in the face of globalization. as presented by the exiled Tibetan elites. the spectral and movement. This book juxtaposes contemporary accounts of Lhasa from local and exiled Tibetans. and their impact on how individuals live in the city. popular memory. The four main themes are the informal. In Winterveld. South Africa. 244 pages. women and their children is examined. everything seemed clear. This demands that individuals take on a range of different identities and networks. Besides the ancient Buddhist temples and former picnic gardens of the Tibetan capital.edu.e. It presents the case that there is individual denial of urbanization. the Sufi model of the zawwiyah (lodge) is used as an example of how networks are built and how these influence the development of the city. for example. the study examines the “invisible”. magic or “healers” within the city. USA. local Tibetans and the Chinese ofﬁcials.columbia.sagepub. The book starts with an overview of the controversies surrounding Tibet’s history. maintaining a sense of place while at the same time reach(ing) a larger world. the harsh rectangular structures and the geometric blueglass tower blocks that speak of the anxieties of successive regimes intent upon “improving” on the past. the invisible. all around. The ﬁnal chapter draws the conclusion that there are numerous dichotomies within the African city: attempting to maintain social cohesion while creating new realities in order to survive. For example. Chapter 5 looks at the history of urbanization in Africa. The policy depended. and a GDP increase of around 12 per cent per year. much of the old city of Lhasa was torn down to make way for new developments. Lhasa: Streets with Memories Robert Barnett. “spectral” refers to the role of witchcraft. Published by and available from Columbia University Press. Following these case studies. Also available in bookshops. as before. “. customs and religious traditions. It considers how rural institutional structures are brought into the city. In the later chapters. “movement”. the author notes: “In the days of open protest. youth. All this has led to a rapid surge in Chinese migration into urban areas. and the four cities are used to examine the role that the imagination plays. before delving deeper to explain the complexities that lie beneath the unitary and often contesting views of the city. but included encouraging Chinese migrants to open private shops and businesses in Tibet in the name of “deepening reform”. on central government subsidies. website: www. The narrative reveals how historical layering. foreign observers and Chinese migrants in the city with architectural observations by the author to describe Lhasa and its current status as both an ancient city and a modern Chinese provincial capital. the book describes the urban sprawl. ISBN 0 231 13680 3. At the same time. more audibly than the inhabitants” (page xix). and how the imposing of. the buildings and the streets. interwoven with his own recollections of unrest and resistance.BOOK NOTES The book concentrates on social relationships and how these affect the development of the city. Cameroon.com by on January 29. It is a city in which the memories and stories that belong to each street and house still speak. the author presents a narrative of the change in the ofﬁcial Chinese policy on Tibet after 1987 that has had much the greatest impact on the city. price: US$ 24. and discusses labour markets and how they have been organized. urban wealth and consumer satisfaction. The ownership and use of land and the issue of shelter are also examined in order to demonstrate how individuals use the resources available to them. structural adjustment programmes impact on these. The author’s excavation of the city’s past.
private sector or NGO) working in partnership with groups of households.earthscan. NGOs and community organizations. Published by and available from Earthscan Publications. 8–12 Camden High Street. available from Earthscan Publications. controls on religion are not obvious to casual observers. Local government reforms were often important in allowing more possibilities for this. it was the result of what local grassroots organizations or local NGOs (or partnerships between these) did. and then what they negotiated. the “uneducated” and the elderly. UK.com by on January 29. The smallness of an urban centre can make more informal accountability measures work better – for instance.uk. 288 pages. Local governments in small urban centres may be more willing to accept partnerships with community organizations and local NGOs – in part because sophisticated engineer-dominated agencies are not the decision makers. Chapter 2 documents how a large part of the world’s population lacking adequate provision for water and sanitation lives in small urban centres or large villages that have urban characteristics. Examples include condominial water supplies and sewers in many urban areas in Brazil. This includes “component sharing”. But many small urban centres have some advantages over large cities. this was a result of changes within local government (or national agencies that support local governments) but more often. the author writes. Looking to its streets and stone. Although. price: £25. by themselves. ISBN 184407305X. 2009 . as local utilities provide water mains and/or sewer connections to groups of households and these groups have responsibility for funding and installing the infrastructure that connects them to the water mains and sewers. This book offers a powerful and lyrical exploration of a city long idealized. This book also has many examples of ways in which lower-income households get better provision for water X. Water and Sanitation in the World’s Cities 2006 United Nations Human Settlements Programme. and the work of the Orangi Pilot Project–Research and Training Institute in small urban centres in Pakistan (see the paper in this issue by Arif Hasan. The local organizations that developed them are often called on for advice in other urban centres. The book serves not only as a manual for thinking about contemporary Tibet but also for questioning our way of thinking about foreign places. was an overview of deﬁciencies in provision worldwide and measures to address these in all urban centres. Much of the growth in the world’s population over the next 10 to 15 years is likely to be in these centres – and the Millennium Development Goal target of halving the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation between 1990 and 2015 will not be met unless there are significant improvements in the effectiveness of government and international donor programmes in these centres. website: www.00. e-mail: earthinfo@earthscan. the Tibetan language and tradition are increasingly associated with the countryside. Chapter 1 serves both as an introduction and a summary. fewer economies of scale for infrastructure and management and less capacity to pay.sagepub. local water utilities. but they rarely produced any change. WATER AND SANITATION Meeting Development Goals in Small Urban Centres.uk. The ﬁrst. the poor. Sometimes. Some local precedents inﬂuenced national policy. published in 2003. Many innovations set precedents that then encouraged action and investment in other urban centres – as they were much visited by staff from local governments. “. the author presents a searching portrait of Lhasa. Sterling. Vol 18 No 2 October 2006 conﬂictive relationships between citizens and the state and a more manageable scale of work. which is based on a background paper prepared for this UN report). USA. This book also discusses the potential for action in such urban centres. such as less 558 Downloaded from http://eau. VA 20166-2012. disregarded or misunderstood by outsiders. It is often assumed that it is more difﬁcult to support good provision for water and sanitation in small urban centres than in large cities – because of weaker local governments. with different ofﬁces or departments of government more willing to work with each other and to share information. Also available in bookshops.co. easier contacts between local politicians and civil servants and those who are unserved or ill-served. its history and its illegibility. London NW1 0JH. .E N V I R O N M E N T & U R B A N I Z AT I O N The author goes on to describe how religion. 22883 Quicksilver Drive. . 2006. those who work in government bodies and those who study in schools know that they are not supposed to visit a monastery or practice any form of religion” if they are Tibetan Buddhists (page xxix). Most of the innovations that beneﬁted low-income groups described in this book arose from a change in the relationship between local government and the urban poor – from hostility or indifference to engagement. This is the second Earthscan book on Water and Sanitation in the World’s Cities. In the USA. this second report focuses on small urban centres. This book presents many examples of innovations in small urban centres that reduced unit costs – for example through ofﬁcial water and sanitation agencies (whether government. Where such component sharing is still too expensive or not possible – for instance in low-income informal settlements with high levels of room renting – communitymanaged provision of shared taps or of public toilets with washing facilities may be the most appropriate response – and the book has various examples of partnerships between water providers and community organizations.co.
and Cairo. 2006. price (including postage and packing) £12 in UK and £20 in OECD countries. This is based on a combination of information collected expressly for this project and research done in different countries of the developing world by other authors. Published by and available from the Development Planning Unit. The book is structured in three parts. Section II (Taking Action) uses the socially constructed water cycle to highlight the speciﬁc issues that arise in the provision of water and sanitation services in the context of the peri-urban interface. . Chennai. 2009 . ISBN 1 874502 60 9. a conceptual and practical tool for those involved directly or indirectly in the long-term planning and daily management of basic service provision in the metropolitan regions of developing countries.” They do not. Tanzania. This book is less positive about the current role of international agencies. politicians. . paying particular attention to the actors involved in the process and their roles.sagepub. For governments. they argue. UCL. This is a challenge made more urgent.ucl. but also for the way in which they can complement investments in “big” water and sanitation infrastructure – and reduce the cost of this infrastructure. it can also be downloaded at no charge from www. The research project included a series of local and international workshops (in three regions of the world).uk/ dpu/pui. Most pay little attention to water and sanitation in urban areas. technical aspects of designing and building infrastructure” but seek instead “. keeping down the need for loans also means keeping down the debt burden. Housing ﬁnance programmes that support households and communities fund improved provision in existing homes. academics.uk. or programmes through which urban poor households get land on which they can build new homes with water and sanitation infrastructure. or fund them to obtain (and build) new better quality housing also support better provision for water and sanitation.com by on January 29. 125 pages. international funding agencies should applaud interventions that need little external funding. some of whose presentations are made available on the project’s website. They aim to offer “. focus on the more “. and it may not deliver results quickly – for instance. Dar es Salaam. 9 Endsleigh Gardens. A Framework for Understanding and Action in Metropolitan Regions Adriana Allen. London WC1H 0ED. This makes it difﬁcult for them to fund a multiplicity of lowcost interventions. by the rapid pace that is a feature of peri-urban change. they need to allow those lacking provision to develop their own responses. Mexico City. low-cost innovations in small urban centres can be staff intensive in relation to the funding disbursed. most of which are informal and not registered by formal policies and institutions. Egypt). Using the results from primary research carried out by five partner institutions in their respective metropolitan regions (Caracas. and many have reduced their support to this.ac. UK. India. through “slum” and “squatter” upgrading programmes and secure tenure programmes. fax: +44 20 76791112. But all the bilateral agencies and the multilateral development banks are under extreme pressure from the governments that fund them to spend their budgets or increase their loan portfolios. . as well as of the specificities surrounding peri-urban growth and change in metropolitan regions. because this means greater possibilities for increasing the scale of the interventions and greater possibilities for sustaining the initiative’s effectiveness. Venezuela. Section III 559 Downloaded from http://eau. . to provide guidance to better comprehend the institutional and governance challenges of improving access to these basic services for poor peri-urban households and small-scale enterprises. Governance of Water and Sanitation Services for the Peri-urban Poor. In theory. and peri-urban poor women and men.ac. This book and an accompanying 12-page summary booklet (also downloadable from the website above) are two of several outputs from a three-year collaborative research project coordinated from London by the Development Planning Unit. however. UCL. Julio D Dávila and Pascale Hofmann. staff from national and international non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Section I (Understanding the Issues) presents some background information on the basic concepts and deﬁnitions that support the research. These programmes are important not only for the tens of millions of urban households that have obtained much improved provision for water and sanitation. For these agencies. e-mail: dpu@ucl. and the crucial environmental functions played by these areas. This section also examines the challenges faced by peri-urban dwellers. the authors of the book argue that policies designed to guarantee peri-urban access to these services require a better understanding of this diversity. tend to leave out poor periurban users. service providers and regulators to improve access to water and sanitation for the poor and to enhance the management of the natural resource base. who are instead served by a very diverse range of means. while keeping down their staff costs.BOOK NOTES and sanitation that are not “water and sanitation” initiatives – for instance. . from urban professionals and practitioners to engineers. such as municipal utilities and formal private companies.” At the core of the research project lies the observation that policies and practices by formal-sector suppliers of these services. . strengths and weaknesses. and build consensus and negotiate with different official agencies. supporting innovative. The contents of the book are the result of consultation and discussion with a broad range of people from more than 20 countries. the obvious fragmentation of government responsibilities for planning and supplying basic services to peri-urban areas.
277 pages.g. as well as shorter-term political shifts (e. which address the problems and illustrate some of the principles outlined earlier in the book. ISBN 1 4039 4879 8. ranging from petitions and denunciations to rallies. . including the increased involvement of the private sector and the shift in perception from that of seeing water as a public good to one that must be paid for at a realistic supplydriven price. website: www. On the one hand.com by on January 29. and examining Mexican water policy in light of the confrontations that have underpinned its evolution since the late nineteenth century. terraces and island cities. Following a brief introduction. where Mexico City is located. 2005. The chapter examines the protagonists of these events. up to the present day. UK. The Business of Water and Sustainable Development Jonathon Chenoweth and Juliet Bird (editors).sagepub. and the links to the development of citizenship. Sheffield. 560 Downloaded from http://eau. and their spatial distribution indicates a higher prevalence in more peripheral areas. .g. from preColumbian times to the present.” On the other hand. they are also linked to long-term socio-historical processes (e. The colonial period saw a continuation of pre-Hispanic systems. their opponents. including a wide range of waterworks involving dams.com/home. the formal granting of universal rights to essential water supplies and related services to every Mexican-born person enshrined in the revolutionary 1917 Constitution was an unprecedented historical achievement in the struggle over the territory of citizenship in the country. It illustrates how and why the struggles over water are linked to struggles for citizenship. Change and conﬂict continued to characterize the basin’s water system through independence (1821) and revolution (1910–1917). the instruments employed. that these occurrences cannot be explained simply in terms of natural cycles and the techno–administrative delays in rapidly developing areas. 2009 . An overarching claim is that the water conﬂicts are not just symptoms of physical–natural and techno–administrative problems.E N V I R O N M E N T & U R B A N I Z AT I O N (Learning from Experience) summarizes a number of initiatives from around the world. The discussions in Sections I and II are supported by evidence from the ﬁve case studies examined as part of the project. causeways. Published by and available from Greenleaf Publishing Ltd. 2006. The events are found to follow a seasonal pattern. The last two chapters focus explicitly on water and citizenship. however. but have important social dimensions. and the speciﬁc features of events to gain access to water services. The second chapter examines the social origins of water stress in the Basin of Mexico. The environmental and ecological shifts that accompanied the changes in the basin’s waterscape during this period were transformative. as his analysis makes clear.com. drawing on reports of about 2. including protection from floods. Even before colonial times. the first chapter explores the relationship between the physical and social aspects of water in and around Mexico City. aqueducts. despite confrontations over the control of water as the Spaniards wrestled control of the water systems from the Indians. as well as with the occasional use of case study material from Section III and other sources.greenleaf-publishing. and considers: the evolution of power conﬁgurations related to water control. the development of citizenship). irrigation systems. £55. The fourth chapter examines the water conﬂicts of recent decades. Some challenges have persisted for centuries. setting out the broad outlines of the arguments explored in the rest of the book. Despite unprecedented progress in water science and technology. and linked to the break up of the Indian economic and social systems. The more detailed analysis shows. the dismantling of the “benefactor” state). Published by Palgrave Macmillan. in Mexico as elsewhere. changes in the basin continue to undermine long-term sustainability. Power and Citizenship: Social Struggles in the Basin of Mexico J E Castro.000 occurrences of water conﬂict. as well as fuelling conﬂicts over access to existing water-related resources. the power structures that have emerged to help control water. price: £40. the numerous struggles over water and how it should be controlled – including the recent debates over treating water as an economic good and giving private actors more control – continue to place water at the centre of citizenship debates. ISBN 1 874719 30 6. This book examines the social history of water-related conﬂicts in the Basin of Mexico. threats and direct action. New York. This can be ordered from http://www. emphasizing specific links between the control and management of water and the formation of citizenship rights in Mexico. This book brings together the ideas of a range of theorists and practitioners attempting to ﬁnd ways of reaching the Millennium Development Goals in the context of the recent changes in approach to water and sanitation provision. initially provoking acts of sabotage and eventually transforming the physical and social dynamics in radical ways. related to precipitation. as the author points out: “. to improve the quality of service delivery and to contest control over water resources and infrastructure. the delivery of water Vol 18 No 2 October 2006 supply.palgrave. and the disposal of wastewater. Water. canals. 232 pages. Rather. the changing role of water experts. the basin had been subject to signiﬁcant human modiﬁcations. The third chapter also takes an historical perspective.
Key ﬁndings show that information must be effectively gathered and shared in order to keep costs to a minimum. including assessing the range of options available for flexible contracts.com by on January 29. Parts IV and V feature case studies in rural and urban environments. not just the afﬂuent or political elite. US$ 10 (elsewhere). including the discussion of demand-side information. 2006. respectively.BOOK NOTES Part I looks at the general theory of improving water supply under these new paradigms. particularly for the urban poor. 37 pages. IIED Human Settlements Programme Discussion Paper Series – Theme: Water The IIED Human Settlements Programme has brought out a series of discussion papers on the theme of water and the urban poor. The ﬁfth section looks at ways of improving the mechanisms for inclusivity. including case studies of a desalination plant for a remote island community. 32 pages. Sections II and III cover the reasons why a debate between public and private delivery systems can be unhelpful for equitable delivery.sagepub. Theme: Water–3. US$ 6 (Europe). price: US$ 5 (UK).pdf. Stevenage. and the involvement of industry in improving sustainability (chlorine industry in Guatemala). this can be downloaded at no charge from www. in order to maximize the use of local knowledge and to develop systems that are appropriate for the local social environment. Published by IIED. US$ 10 (elsewhere). The second part discusses the impact of privatization and how this can best be used. and corruption. Human Settlements Discussion Paper Series. This paper starts by assessing the Millennium Development Goals and access to water and sanitation. The urban case studies in Part V stress the importance of effective structures for water supply management.org/ pubs/pdf/full/10529IIED. UK. 2009 . US$ 20 (USA). plus postage and packing. Herts SG1 4TP. it is clear that the involvement of local communities and organizations is crucial. and Sections VI and VII examine two potential threats to this. printed copies are available from Earthprint Ltd. 2006. UK. The paper draws the conclusion that the concerns surrounding governance for private sector participation in water services are similar to those for public sector management of water services. Human Settlements Discussion Paper Series. Governance and Getting the Private Sector to Provide Better Water and Sanitation Services to the Urban Poor Gordon McGranahan and David Satterthwaite. This third paper in the series continues the theme of water delivery to the urban poor. A further contribution finds that the relationship between ownership and performance of water utilities is inconclusive: this finding reflects the range of opinions and options offered by the diversity of the writers of this section. US$ 6 (Europe). London. with many disadvantages compared to piped water delivery. website: www. Published by IIED. underestimating the true scale of the problem of access to water and sanitation. providers of a crucial service to a signiﬁcant minority of the urban poor. PO Box 119. plus postage and packing. the use of ecological sanitation.com. and the importance of looking beyond conventional economics in awarding contracts. price: US$ 5 (UK). which examine access to water for the urban poor from local water and sanitation companies and local vendors. website: www. over and above the existence of plentiful supplies of water. water pricing policy and the balancing act between cost implications and sustainability of supply and the importance of effective risk management. US$ 20 (USA). a metering strategy to promote sustainability. concentrating on informal water vendors. This paper notes that the debate raging between private sector and public sector delivery service systems ignores the fact that governance issues are central to efﬁcient and equitable access to water. While recognizing that much water vending does not offer an ideal solution. The rural section looks speciﬁcally at the importance of local knowledge for project planning. Theme: Water–2. while still allowing for crucial investments for both improved water supply and resource sustainability. PO Box 119. ISBN 1 84369 565 0.pdf. water vendors are indispensable 561 Downloaded from http://eau. stating that the ofﬁcial statistics are often misleading. In these case studies. this can be downloaded at no charge from www. inclusive and integrated approach that creates opportunities for all members of civil society to take part. ISBN 1 84369 564 2.iied. and the importance of social as well as technical systems for sustainable development. and that effective governance is equally necessary for both approaches. Informal Water Vendors and the Urban Poor Marianne Kjellen and Gordon McGranahan. 3 and 4. London. and also issues of governance.org/ pubs/pdf/full/10528IIED.iied.earthprint. Stevenage. This book note reviews discussion papers 2. printed copies are available from Earthprint Ltd. This section shows the effective use of both high and appropriate low technologies for the resolution of the water crisis. namely the General Agreement on Trade in Services. Part III examines alternative technologies for improving water and sanitation service delivery. Section IV discusses the difference between the business-as-usual bureaucratic approach to governance and the more effective transparent.earthprint.com. Herts SG1 4TP.
sagepub.com. All too often. Theme: Water–4. which includes those operating water and sewerage utilities. printed copies are available from Earthprint Ltd. ISBN 1 84369 565 0. 2006. UK. price: US$ 5 (UK). This paper examines the contribution that local water and sanitation companies make in delivering services Vol 18 No 2 October 2006 to the urban poor.iied.E N V I R O N M E N T & U R B A N I Z AT I O N as long as water delivery systems fail to provide adequate supplies to the urban poor. failing to recognize the importance and prevalence of local water and sanitation companies. including a review of existing laws and regulations. US$ 6 (Europe). independent networks. 562 Downloaded from http://eau. efﬁciently and equitably. US$ 20 (USA). in order to improve their ability to deliver services equitably and efﬁciently.org/ pubs/pdf/full/10530IIED. the debate on private sector participation has centred on international companies.earthprint. Herts SG1 4TP. website: www. This paper examines how water vendors operate and whether this approach can be improved in order to deliver water services more effectively. Stevenage. 2009 . Human Settlements Discussion Paper Series. and the provision of water tankers and suction trucks for sewage disposal.com by on January 29.pdf. 32 pages. Local Water and Sanitation Companies and the Urban Poor Gordon McGranahan and David Lloyd Owen. US$ 10 (elsewhere). PO Box 119. this can be downloaded at no charge from www. local/national and micro/informal private sector water and sanitation service providers. London. plus postage and packing. The paper concludes that more consideration should be given to local companies. and goes on to outline the range of different local water and sanitation companies currently operating. This paper assesses the differences between multinational. Published by IIED.