WIND ENERGY Wind Energ. (in press) Published online in Wiley Interscience ( DOI: 10.


Research Article

Minimizing Regulation Costs in Multi-area Systems with Uncertain Wind Power Forecasts
Elin Lindgren* and Lennart Söder, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden

Key words: frequency control; multi-area modeling; optimization; regulating market

In a power system where there are many fast and/or large changes in generation or consumption, e.g. in a system with large amounts of wind power, it is more complicated to handle the frequency control efficiently. Minimizing regulation costs for the system operator in such a system requires the possibility to simulate the frequency control in the time range from minutes to a few hours. In this paper, it is shown how the frequency control during normal operation can be optimized using a multi-area model, without exceeding frequency limits or transmission capacity. The model has also been expanded to include uncertainties in wind power forecasts, which may lead to an increase of the regulating costs.The optimization model is applied to numerical examples to show the impact of wind power on costs for regulating power and to show the value of better wind speed forecasts. No load forecast errors are taken into account. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Received 14 November 2006; Revised 2 April 2007; Accepted 7 May 2007

Power frequency control is necessary to ensure both quality and security in a power system. To avoid frequency deviations, the generation and the consumption must be equal. The frequency decreases when the consumption exceeds the generation and vice versa, and the consumption varies all the time. Different practices for frequency control are described in Arnott et al.1 In the Nordic power system, for instance, the frequency control is handled in two steps: primary control and secondary control.2 Primary control is purchased on longterm contracts, and when an imbalance occurs, the generation automatically starts to change in a few seconds. How much each generator changes its generation during the primary control is defined by the gain, measured in MW/Hz. Afterward, the frequency is stable, but not at the nominal value. Secondary control is, in the Nordic system, handled by taking in regulating bids in the electricity market. Each bid is normally put not later than 30 min before each hour. It includes a price and a volume, and must be possible to activate within 10 min from acceptance.3 All Nordic bids are collected in one list for all participating countries. Bids are typically accepted according to the cost, but transmission limits (within or between countries) must also be considered, which can have an impact on the desired location of the change in generation. When necessary, secondary control is handled by accepting a bid of regulating power. The change in the generation forces the primary control reserves to go back to their initial state and the frequency is then stable at the nominal level again. In many other systems, the secondary control is instead handled automatically by automatic generation control (AGC). With AGC, the change in power production is divided between all generators available for sec* Correspondence to: E. Lindgren, Electric Power Systems, KTH, Teknikringen 33, SE-100 44, Stockholm, Sweden. E-mail:

Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Consequently. and most of the regulating power is located in the north.5 In this paper. The optimization is applied to numerical examples. which is assumed to be connected with transmission lines of limited transmission capacity. The optimal solution is achieved by making the best possible decisions on bid acceptance: when to accept a bid. The example system consists of a multi-area model. but also on the system and its transmission capacities. Installing large amounts of wind power in that system will change the situation. if the wind power varies in the same way as the load. In situations where the capacity limits are reached. Lindgren and L. A pay-asbid approach with different up. The added wind power will probably cause more regulation. and the variations can then be large within an hour. without exceeding frequency limits or transmission capacity. wind power plants are normally used at the maximum possible level using all the energy in the wind and not keeping reserves. where a simplified model of wind power uncertainties was included. and the wind power is assumed to be located in several areas. forecast necessary regulation for the next hour or to examine the effects from a single regulation. Both price and location can affect the decision. Power System Modeling The transmission system operator (TSO) in a deregulated electricity market needs to be able to simulate the frequency control in order to. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons. An earlier version of this model was described in Lindgren and Söder. Optimizing the frequency control means minimizing the regulation costs. but in some cases. giving the system operator the possibility to reschedule the production in the system to achieve a more economic operation. When the secondary control is handled automatically. One such method is described in Bakken et al. it is also possible to use less regulating power.and down-regulating prices is applied. the frequency control can include tertiary control working as the Nordic secondary control. but there may be problems installing large amounts of wind power for several reasons. These questions are discussed in Axelsson et al. since most of the wind power plants are located in the south. Ltd. The existing methods for simulation can roughly be divided either into very detailed dynamic simulations. for instance. a method for power system modeling is necessary.4. which can be useful examining the impact on frequency control from fast variations in the wind power production. also considering uncertain load and wind speed forecasts. but without considering. used for studies of transients in the time range of milliseconds or into economic models where the description of the power system is very simplified and the data is based on hourly averages. The power generation within an hour in a hydrothermal power system is relatively easy to predict and schedule. for instance. It is more difficult to handle the frequency control when there are large amounts of wind power installed in the system. for instance. it is necessary to balance the wind variation in the same area as the wind power plants are located. this may sometimes be a problem. Also. The generated wind power will fluctuate as the wind speed changes. instead of only balancing the load variations. In Sweden. there is a lack of methods in the time range of minutes and a few hours. the problems of regulating power and reserves will be discussed.1002/we .7 using repeated load flow calculations every 5 min to make decisions about activation of regulating bids.5 and Magnusson et al.E. transmission limits and overload when deciding which bid to use. This paper shows how the frequency control can be optimized using a multi-area model. since both the variations of wind power production and load must be balanced. To create a model of the frequency control. Wind Energ (in press) DOI: 10. to compare regulation costs for different situations and show the impact of wind power on costs for regulating power.8 showing how the frequency control can be modeled.6 where possible wind power variations in Sweden are studied. which bid and what volume. Wind Power Impact Wind power is one of the most efficient renewable energy sources. The additional amount of regulating power required when large amounts of wind power are installed depends on the variation of wind power. Söder ondary control instead of choosing one bid at the time. with and without wind power.

since keeping the transmission limits are important when decisions on bid activation are made. when the load is increasing and the new scheduled generation will start at the change of hour (see Figure 2) (C. putting all reactances of the area lines equal.Minimizing Regulation Costs in Multi-area Systems Simulation Method The simulation consists of several steps (see Figure 1) which will be described in detail below. and is then assumed to be active until it is deactivated or until end of hour. This is repeated until a given tolerance is reached. and the corresponding costs. but typically every hour.9 Some data are more relevant on area basis. To distribute the flows in the power system in an appropriate way. Thus. too much information can be lost if all calculations are made on an area basis.9 different levels of node aggregation were examined. Ltd. In some other systems. Another possibility. is to start with the area system. a common issue can be large differences in inter-area trading which requires extensive ramping on both sides. which only change if a bid available in one synchronous system is accepted for use in the other synchronous system. which is done once before the optimization begins. Bäck. This means that the reactances of the node lines are used to determine a matrix for the node system showing the relation between the net production and the transmission. e.. and if a more expensive bid is necessary to avoid overload in the system. The final result is a successive comparison between production plans and actual production. personal communication. the matrix can be reduced to reflect the area system instead. It is also a challenge to determine when it is optimal to activate the regulating power to minimize the cost.g. This is not done in every time step. but in this paper all data used in the optimization formulation are on area basis. but they are all meant to be used in dynamic simulations. e. and then modifying them while trying to get a load flow in the area system corresponding to the node system. which is repeated as the wind power forecasts are updated. the outcome of the previous time steps is evaluated. When new wind power forecasts are available. where two synchronous systems are connected through HVDC links. In Lindgren and Söder. instead of accepting bids close to a change of hour. On the other hand. Several methods to aggregate nodes are described in Machowski et al. When a new hour starts. First of all comes the multi-area modeling. This is though not a large question in the Nordic system since the common regulating bid list causes accepted changes of inter-area transmission.1002/we . This may cause up-regulation at the end of the hour.3 Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons. Thereafter comes the optimization. A bid can only be accepted once. The multi-area modeling approach is presented in Lindgren and Söder. which also can be combined with the procedure above. The following formulation reflects the situation in the Nordic system. the numbers of constraints in the optimization problem and the calculation time. but this also has a cost. but it can also be necessary to use down-regulation in some areas to avoid exceeding of transmission limits. An important aspect when transferring the node system to the area system is to ensure that the transmission between areas is as close as possible to the transmission from a load flow of the node system. which means they are too detailed to be used here. a DC load flow11 is used to simplify the calculations.g. Optimization Problem Formulation A challenging problem for the Nordic TSOs is how to manage the frequency control at the end of an hour. These links are here modeled as loads. with the standard approach to accept the bids in price order. it is a challenging task to create an accurate multi-area model from a power system consisting of numerous nodes. a new bid list is available. concerning how to accept regulating bids/how to handle the frequency control. 2006). transmission limits are usually set between areas and not for each line between the nodes. Wind Energ (in press) DOI: 10. combining nodes and areas. Thereafter. as shown in the upper part of the flowchart in Figure 1.10 for instance. Another assumption in this model (real situation in Sweden) is that the TSO also has the possibility to move the scheduled production up to 15 min. Multi-area Model A multi-area model is used to reduce the amount of necessary input. in the morning.

1002/we . This is formulated as a Linear Programming problem (LP-problem).E. Lindgren and L. which is implemented in and solved by the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS). Flowchart for the simulation The optimization problem is formulated to capture these conditions. and the calculation will in this paper be done for 3 h starting at 05:30 and ending at 08:30. A list of bids is available for up-regulation or downregulation for each hour. Wind Energ (in press) DOI: 10. Söder Figure 1. Ltd.12 Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons.

The objective function is then min z = b∈ h B t ∈ . overload of area connections and bid usage.h∈H T ∑ ch ctch Pnt (Thfinal − t ) + w2 n∈N t∈ T ∑G nt + w3 ∑ ( fit+ + w4 fit− ) + w5 ∑ (ul+t + ul−t ) n∈N t∈ T l∈L t∈ T start + w6 ∑ ybt n∈ B t∈ T (1) Constraints on Generation The change of net generation Pnt in area n at time t is defined as the sum of accepted bids plus change of scheduled production plus changed wind power production minus load change. Objective The main objective of the optimization is to minimize the cost of all regulations for the TSO.1 50. but the total volume must here be the same. It is necessary to have these weights since the values of.9 05:30 06:00 06:30 07:00 07:30 08:00 08:30 Figure 2. Ltd. The net generation is then Pnt = b∈ n B h B ∑ stop start ch wind Vb ybt −t act − ybt −t act + Pnt + Pnt − Dnt b b ( ) (2) ∀n ∈ N .1002/we . frequency deviations or transmission limits are of very different sizes. but the objective function is also used to penalize deviations from the nominal frequency. t ∈T : Pnt > 0 (3) Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons. The applied weights are commented in the numerical example. keep the transmission lower than the capacity of the area lines. The terms are weighted to control the impact of each term. for instance. The same activation time is used for stopping accepted bids. Frequency measured a typical morning The constraints will keep the frequency within its limits. Decisions concerning this is taken by the TSO when this is more economic than acceptance of regulating bids: plan Pnt = t + tch s = t −tch ∑ ch Pns plan ∀n ∈ N . control the primary (and secondary) reserves and distribute the flows in the system with a DC load flow.0 49. A bid is assumed to be accepted at act time t but the activation time of the power gives that the power is available at t + tb .h∈H T ∑ stop start act cb Vb ( ybt − ybt )(Thfinal − t − tb ) + w1 n∈N t ∈ ch . t ∈T h The scheduled change in generation can be moved up to tch time steps earlier or later (this rule is used in Sweden). Wind Energ (in press) DOI: 10.Minimizing Regulation Costs in Multi-area Systems 50.

the elements mln of the matrix M resulting from the multiarea modeling is used. Ltd. Lindgren and L. t ∈T (9) To obtain flows corresponding to a DC load flow. t + tch} (5) (6) The change in generation to or from the primary reserve Gnt in area n at time t changes in proportion to the gain dn in area n as Gnt = d n m∈N m∈N ∑G ∑d mt ∀n ∈ N . The change in the flow in line l at time t is given by Flt = n∈N ∑m ln ( Pnt + Gnt ) ∀l ∈ L. . . .1 Hz. t + tch} (4) For all other areas and time steps. all scheduled production changes are assumed to be positive. n) ∈ L . but the changes of the plan may only exceed zero up to tch time steps from the scheduled time. t ∈T m (7) Constraints on Flow The flow in one direction is defined as being equal to the negative flow in the other direction: Fmnt = − Fmnt ∀( m. min max −ul − ul−t ≤ Fltot ≤ ul + ul+t t ∀l ∈ L . s ∈T plan ch Pns = 0 ∀n ∈ N . Thus. t ∈T (10) and the total flow in line l at time t is given by Fltot = Flt + t s∈ :s ≤t T ∑ Fls (11) The transmission between the areas is penalized if exceeding the capacity of the lines.1002/we . normally in the interval 50 ± 0. The frequency at time t in synchronous system i differs from the previous frequency at time t − 1 with the total change in net generation at time t divided by the total gain of the system i: Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons. t ∈T : Pnt > 0 s ∉{ t − tch . t ∈T (8) The sum of the changes in generation in area n and the change in transmission to and from area n at time t must be equal to zero.E. it is necessary to set the change of schedule to zero: plan ch Pns = 0 ∀n ∈ N . t ∈T : Pnt = 0. . . Wind Energ (in press) DOI: 10. the frequency varies in the system. Söder Here. . . t ∈T : Pnt > 0 s ∈{ t − tch . i = 2 ∑ stop start Vb ybt −t act − ybt −t act b b ( ) ∀l ∈ LDC . as all losses are neglected: m∈L ∪ L * ∑ Fnmt = Pnt + Gnt ∀n ∈ N . t ∈T (12) The transmission between the synchronous systems is only changed if bids are activated in the UCTE system: Flt = − B b∈ n n∈N t . t ∈T (13) Constraints on Frequency Since there is no AGC in the system and the secondary control is handled manually. . which gives plan ch 0 ≤ Pns ≤ Pnt plan ∀n ∈ N .

fit+ ≤ fdev ∀i ∈ I . h ∈ H −1 Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons. t ∉T h . h ∈ H (28) (29) (30) Wind Energ (in press) DOI: 10. Ltd.5 if 50% stop of bid b is accepted at time t and ybt equals 0. t ∈T : ≥ Thfinal − tb . t ∈T (15) (16) The time deviation is the time difference between a clock driven by the nominal frequency and a clock driven by the actual frequency. t ∈T A bid can only be activated up to 100% of the available volume (this is the rule in Sweden). stop ybt = 0 ∀b ∈Bh . and the same is valid for deactivation: t∈ T ∑y t∈ T start bt stop bt ≤ 1 ∀b ∈B ≤ 1 ∀b ∈B (21) (22) ∑y ∑ All activated bids must also be stopped. t ∈T : t < T ∀b ∈B (23) (24) s∈ :s ≤t T s∈ T ∑y start bs stop ≥ ∑ ybs s∈ T A bid can only be accepted the hour it is available and a bid cannot be accepted closer to the end of an hour than the activation time since it is impossible to activate the bid within the hour. It is defined by an integral and is here calculated as dit = The time deviation must stay within its limits: − dmax ≤ dit ≤ dmax ∀i ∈ I . .Minimizing Regulation Costs in Multi-area Systems fit = fit −1 + The frequency must stay within its limits: n∈N n∈N ∑P ∑d nt ∀t ∈T (14) nt f0 − fit− ≤ fit ≤ f0 + fit+ 0 ≤ fit− . h ∈ H start act ybt = 0 ∀b ∈Bh . but not before they have been accepted: s∈ :s ≤t T ∑ start ybs ≥ stop ybs ∀b ∈B .1002/we y stop bt act = 0 ∀b ∈Bh . ybt equals 0. h ∈ H stop act ybt = 0 ∀b ∈Bh . t ∈T (19) (20) 0≤y stop bt ≤ 1 ∀b ∈B . t ∈T : t > Thfinal − tb . Bids and time steps not available are set to zero: start ybt = 0 ∀b ∈Bh . t ∈T h : h ∈ H start act ybt = 0 ∀b ∈Bh . which gives start 0 ≤ ybt ≤ 1 ∀b ∈B . h ∈ H −1 (25) (26) (27) Corresponding constraints are necessary for stopping bids. t ∈T (18) tstep f0 s∈ :s ≤t T ∑ ( fis − f0 ) (17) Constraints on Bids star The bid acceptance is determined from positive variables between 0 and 1.3 if 30% of bid b is stopped at time t. at change of hour or earlier. t ∈T : t > Thfinal − tb . t ∈T : ≥ Thfinal − tb . For example. t ∈T ∀i ∈ I .

The gain is assumed to be constant in all time steps.E. Bäck. . . as shown in Figure 3. personal communication) and consists of bids located in all areas of Sweden. Map with areas shown schematically Case Study The model has been applied to the Nordic system. For the wind power. modeled as nine areas connected with 11 lines. At the same time. w3 = 105. The load increases linearly in every time step and the scheduled production increase at change of hour (see Figure 4). starting at 05:30 and ending at 08:30. but it can be moved up to 15 min. Concerning applied weights they have been selected to w1 = w2 = w6 = 1. 2 and 3 represent Sweden. the actual wind power production for the previous time steps is supposed to be known. areas 7 and 8 represent Denmark and area 9 represents the northern part of Germany. w4 = 10 and w5 = 102. persistence forecasts are used which can be updated every hour. Changing these weights less than a factor of 10 will only have a small impact on the costs. Wind Energ (in press) DOI: 10. Areas 1. 36. Ltd.1002/we . Söder Figure 3. The bid list used in the simulations is taken from 23 February 2005 (C. The optimization is made for 3 h divided into 36 time steps indexed t = 1.6 where a synthetic wind power database is created from historical weather data from 56 sites all over Sweden to determine the impact of integration of 4000 MW wind power in Sweden. areas 4 and 5 represent Norway. area 6 represents Finland. The wind power data used are taken from Magnusson et al. 4000 MW of wind power is assumed in Sweden Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons. which is further investigated in Axelsson et al. .5 In this paper. . Lindgren and L..

Case 2: Planning with Perfect Forecast The other type of simulation is to use a perfect forecast of the wind power production. Case 3: Without Wind Power Finally. For these cases. which for the simulations described here has been transferred to 5 min data by linear interpolation.92 Hz and below 50. this production plan is used while rerunning the simulation using the actual wind power production. giving the frequency limits 49.9 and 50.1 Hz.1002/we . To have some margins for unexpected wind power changes. Here. determining the impact of the prediction error of the wind power and the actual cost of wind power. a case without varying wind power was run. Results The perfect forecasts resulted in a cost reduction by approximately 50% for bids and changes of schedule compared to when the persistence forecasts were used (see Table I). especially between 06:45 and 07:15.9 and 50. the margins kept in Case 1 were not enough to be able to stay within the frequency limits in Case 2. In about 20% of the wind power situations. but here no extra margin is kept. no costs have been calculated. the cost for using bids is only about 7% of the total regCopyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons. and the frequency must stay between 49. Wind Energ (in press) DOI: 10. giving 283 mornings (10 years including leap days). It is quite similar to the case with persistence forecasts.1 Hz. As shown in Table I. since keeping the margin in Case 1 at change of hour is costly. the plan is done to get a frequency above 49.Minimizing Regulation Costs in Multi-area Systems 20 000 MW 18 000 16 000 14 000 05:30 06:00 06:30 07:00 time 07:30 Load Scheduled production 08:00 08:30 Figure 4. meaning it reduces the power imbalance in the system. the limits of the frequency have increased. one case using the shaded loop illustrated in Figure 1 and one case not using it. The database consists of hourly wind power production data from 10 years. The explanation to the lower average cost in Case 2 compared to Case 3 can be a result of the smoothing effect of a continuously changing wind power source compared to the large steps in the planned production. This is combined with rescheduling. resulting in a plan when to move scheduled production changes and activate regulating bids. the wind power data of February were selected from the database. Case 1: Planning with Persistence Forecast In the first case. As the bid list was from February. In the second step. determining the optimal plan.12 Hz. The typical morning in these examples has up-regulation before the large increase of production at 07:00. The same result appears in the case without wind power.1 Hz. two cases were run. the frequency limits are 49. Thereafter. and sometimes is also some necessary down-regulation afterward. but that the wind power also sometimes requires additional regulations. For each day. and not using the possibility to update the forecast. to determine the value of a perfect forecast of the wind power production. It is realistic that the wind power sometimes is a part of the ‘frequency control’. due to infeasible solutions. This case is run for comparison.9 and 50. Ltd. the optimization is run with a persistence wind power forecast. Load and scheduled production but there is no uncertain wind power outside Sweden. There are no load forecast errors.

400 Case 3 32.500 Case 2 39. they hope to make an additional profit on an increased regulated volume with higher prices. . There is also a higher demand for primary reserves.E. . . To summarize. Concerning numerical results it though has to be noted that there is no load uncertainty and the costs depend on the bid list. t . The optimization model was here also expanded to handle several synchronous systems connected with HVDC lines. . it could also be interesting to compare the actual volumes used from the regulating list with the actual rescheduled. and with more uncertain parameters than the wind power production. .1002/we Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons. . Lindgren and L. another aspect of the question comes from those who have the opportunity to leave bids on the regulating market. the model can be used for more complex studies. The optimization is applied to three numerical cases to show how the regulation costs to compensate for uncertainties in the wind power forecasts can be calculated. .000 470. Average costs in SEK Case 1 Cost for bids Cost for re-scheduling Total cost 68. Acknowledgements The contribution of knowledge from Christer Bäck at Svenska Kraftnät and the EU-WILMAR-project (Wind Power Integration in a Liberalized Electricity Market) and the financial support from the Swedish Energy Agency (STEM) are highly appreciated.300 959. to keep margins and to plan for regulations which may not be necessary. . . L} L* LDC T = {1 . This may be correct. As expected. n . s. Applied to more critical cases. Ltd. m < n area lines (m. With increasing amounts of wind power in the system. n). . Discussion and Conclusions This paper shows how the frequency control can be optimized using a multi-area model.200 469. n). to compensate the wind power changes after the planning. there are larger volumes used from the primary power in Case 1. However. Söder Table I. 2} N = {1 .700 ulating cost. . T} synchronous systems areas areas in synchronous system i area lines (m. . closer to overload of the transmission lines. As shown in the previous section. m. the value of good forecasts is high and should be investigated more. m} Ni L = {1 . the costs for cases with uncertain forecasts are doubled. From this point of view. .700 438. It is also important for future studies to analyze which margins must be kept to handle situations like those who could not be solved here. to be able to handle the final corrections of the generation. m > n HVDC lines time steps Wind Energ (in press) DOI: 10. since these costs have not been available. but it is possible that the costs for changes of schedule have been modeled inaccurately.200 891. Appendix: Nomenclature Sets I = {1. .200 430.

h . H} Th Tch B = {1 . 0 otherwise 1 if bid b is stopped at time t. B} Bh Bn hours time steps in hour h time steps available for changes of scheduled production bids bids available in hour h bids located in area n Parameters Dnt plan Pnt wind Pnt F0 Vb cb ctch act tb dn ulmin ulmax Thfinal w1 − w6 load change in area n at time t [MW] scheduled change in production in area n at time t [MW] change in difference from forecasted wind power production in area n at time t [MW] total transmission in line l at time t = 0 [MW] available volume of bid b [MW] price per volume for bid b [MW] price per volume to move scheduled production to time t [SEK] activation time for bid b [no of time steps] gain in area n [MW/Hz] min transmission limit between area i and j [MW] max transmission limit between area i and j [MW] the last time step in hour h weights used in the objective function Constants f0 fdev dmax tstep tch nominal frequency [Hz] maximal deviation from nominal frequency [Hz] maximal time deviation [s] length of each time step [s] maximal time change for scheduled production [no. . . . . . .Minimizing Regulation Costs in Multi-area Systems H = {1 .1002/we Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons. 0 otherwise time deviation in synchronous system i at time t [s] overload in line l at time t [MW] overload in line l at time t [MW] coefficient for relation between line l and area n min frequency limit [Hz] max frequency limit [Hz] total cost [SEK] Wind Energ (in press) DOI: 10. b . . the net generation in area n at time t except changes of primary reserves [MW] change of scheduled plan in area n at time t [MW] change in activated primary reserve in area n at time t [MW] frequency in synchronous system i at time t [Hz] change in transmission in line l at time t [MW] total transmission in line l at time t [MW] 1 if bid b is accepted at time t. of time steps] Variables Pnt ch Pnt Gnt fit ft Fltot t start ybt stop ybt dit ul−t ul+t mn fit− fit+ z sum of activated bids minus change in load in area n at time t. Ltd. . .e. i.

Power system modeling for multi-area regulating market simulation. 12. Ingelsson B. Russia. PhD Dissertation. Belgium. 6. Murray R. 1996. 2004. 3. Power M. Avtal om balansansvar m. John Wiley & Sons: New York. Canada. Quality and Security of Electric Power Delivery Systems. Fifth International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power and Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Farms. Söder References 1. 8. Santorini. Frequency control practices in market environments. (Accessed 27 March 2007) 4. Axelsson U. Effektvariationer av vindkraft.1002/we . Scotland. Elforsk rapport 04:34.pdf. 5. Bakken B. August 2005. Walther B. Nord M. Lindstrom K.m. CIGRE/IEEE PES International Symposium. Arnott I. VTT publications 554. Singh N. General Algebraic Modeling System. April 3325/BAavtal2007. Chown G. Espoo. Power System Dynamics and Stability. Ltd. Bialek Söder L. Wood A. GAMS. Petterteig A. Krieg R. 8–10 October 2003. 2. June 2005. Elforsk rapport 05:19. Lindgren E. Messing L. Morfill R. Wind power impact on costs for regulating power in multi-area markets. Magnusson M. 9. Power Generation Operation and Control (2nd edn). Haugan E. 11. Wollenberg B. (Accessed 21 April 2006) Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons. Machowski J. Bulk Power System Dynamics and Control IV—Re-structuring. Wind Energ (in press) DOI: 10. Energimyndigheten. Bumby J. med balansreglering (in Swedish). 7. 15th Power Systems Computation Conference. 2003. Petersburg.svk.E. Neimane V. Gjerde O. Bose A. 24–28 August 1998. 4000 MW wind power in Sweden. Lindgren and L. 2004 (in Swedish). Montreal. Lindgren E. Energimyndigheten. Frequency control under de-regulated conditions. 1997. [Online]. St. Available: http://www. Glasgow. 10. Holttinen H. Bergström H. The impact of large scale wind power production on the nordic electricity system. 2005. Liège. Hermansson H. Stepwise power flow—a new tool to analyse capacity shortage and reserve requirements. PowerTech’2005. Available: http://www.gams. Finland. Söder L. Greece. John Wiley & Sons: New York. [Online].

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