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# Mt s dng bi tp sng c-sng m

I,C s l thuyt vt l.
+,sng c l s lan truyn dao ng c trong mi trng vt cht theo thi gian
+,phn loi sng c: -sng dc: truyn c trong mi trng rn lng kh
-sng ngang ch truyn trong mi trng rn ( mt cht lng l mt trng hp c bit)
+,tc truyn sng : tc truyn pha dao ng ,truyn nng lng,ph thuc c tnh mi
trng,v
rn
>v
lng
>v
kh
.
+, bc sng: l khong cch 2 im gn nht dao ng cng pha
L qung ng m sng i c trong 1 chu k
f
v
vT = =
+,nng lng sng: khi sng truyn th n s truyn nng lng
-khi sng truyn theo 1 ng thng th nng lng khng i => A cng khng i
-khi sng truyn trn mt phng th nng lng sng t l nghch vi khong cch.
1
2
2
1
R
R
E
E
=
-khi sng truyn trong khng gian th nng lng sng t l nghch vi bnh phng khong
cch:

1
2
2
1
R
R
E
E
=
+, tng t cho bin sng :
-khi truyn trn ng thng: A
1
=A
2

-khi sng truyn trn mt phng :
1
2
2
1
R
R
A
A
=
-khi sng truyn trong khng gian:
1
2
2
1
R
R
A
A
=
+,khi quan st c n nh sng: S=(n-1)
T n t ). 1 ( = A
+ lch pha:

d 2
= A
-khi t k 2 = A =>d=K => 2 dao ng cng pha.
-khi t ).
2
1
( ). 1 2 ( + = => + = A k d k => 2 dao ng ngc pha
-khi
2
).
2
1
(
2
). 1 2 (
t
+ = => + = A k d k => 2 dao ng vung pha
+giao thoa sng: cc bn nn thuc phng trnh sng 3 dng cng pha,ngc pha,vung pha
c thm sch gio khoa.
+qu tch cc im cc i cc tiu:
-cng pha=> trung tm l cc i.
-ngc pha=> trung tm l cc tiu.
Cc phng php gii nhanh bi tp c bn:
Dng 1: tm s im dao ng cc i ,cc tiu trn on AB.
Cch 1: p dng d
2
-d
1
= ?
V d
2
+d
1
=AB
p dng 0<d
2
<AB

Cch 2: cch nhanh hn:
da vo tnh cht qu tch cc im cc i cc tiu
-A,B cng pha=>x
C
=
2
k

X
CT
=
4 2

+
k

-A,B ngc pha th x cc i cc tiu ngc li vi cng pha
V hnh => -AB/2<x<AB/2
Dng 2 : tm cc i cc tiu trn cc on bt k.
+, xc nh tnh cht ca ngun l dao ng cng pha hay ngc pha
iu kin c cc i cc tiu, xc nh trung tm
+,khong cch 2 ng cc i lin tip l
2

Khong cch 2 ng cc tiu lin tip l
2

Khong cch cc i cc tiu lin tip l
4

Dng ny c 2 phng php lm:
phng php 1 da vo tnh cht ca hypebol lm s gii thiu phn di.
Phng php 2 da vo tnh cht ca hiu ng truyn :
cc iu kin ca hiu ng truyn Amax, Amin trong cc trng hp cng pha ngc pha
vung pha cn phi thuc.
a vo trong on=> kt qu.
Dng 3:tm s im dao ng cng pha hay ngc pha vi ngun hoc 1 im cho trc
-vit phng trnh ti M
Xc nh pha ti ngun ( ti trung im 2 ngun ci ny ph thuc vo bi tp cho)
Ly hiu pha cho n cng ngun, ngc pha, vung pha
D
2
-d
1
=? =>K => v hnh xc nh

Dng 4: tm bin dao ng tng hp v pha ban u
+,Cng bin :
trong sch gio khoa c dng ny da vo pt tng hp sng m thi.
+khc bin : a v tng hp dao ng
Tm A da vo nh l cosin
Cn tm pha dao ng ly hiu
Dng 5: tm s im dao ng vi bin Ao cho trc
+Cng bin : A=Ao
Gii phng trnh lng gic ri a v dng 1
Ch : n k ng trn lng gic mi lm c dng bi ny.
+khc bin : da vo tng hp dao ng nh dng 4 khc bin .
Dng 6: tnh cht sng c:
-hai ngun AB cng pha:u
A
=u
B

-hai ngun AB ngc pha: u
A
=-u
B

- hai ngun AB vung pha: A u u B A = +
2 2

Dng 7: bi ton qung ng thi gian trong sng c hc.
n k li 2 phng php trc thi gian v ng trn lng gic tm c t ,s
Ch cng thc:
s
v
t =
Bi ton v sng dng:
)
2
2
cos( .
2
sin . 2
t

t
e

t
+ =
l
t
d
a u
M

Khi M l bng sng =>
b
x k d d = + =
4
). 1 2 (
1 2

Khi M l nt sng=>
n
x
k
d d = =
2
1 2

Ch : khi M cch B m B li l nt =>

td a
A
M
2 sin . 2
=

Khi M cch B m B li l bng =>

td a
A
M
2 cos . 2
=
iu kin trn dy c sng dng l
+, hai u c nh
2
k
l =
K=bng=> nt=k+1 ( v hnh ra nh nhanh hn thuc cng thc nha)
+,mt u c nh 1 u t do:
4 2

+ =
k
l
K=bng=nt
Cc dng bi tp v sng m:
Kin thc c s:
-sng m l s lan truyn cc dao ng m trong mi trng rn lng kh
-tai ngi ch c th nghe c cc m c tn s t 16Hz n 20000Hz
f>20kHz=> siu m thanh
f<16 Hz=> h m
-sng m ch truyn c trong cc mi trng rn lng kh khng truyn c trong chn
khng
-sng m khng truyn c qua cc cht nh bng len xp
- tc truyn m gim theo th t:
kh ln r
v v v = =
Ph thuc vo : mi trng truyn m, nhit , D ring mi trng.
-cc c trng sinh l ca m:
+c trng sinh l: cao , to, m sc.
+,c trng vt l: tn s v bin
Ch : +, to l mt c trng m ph thuc vo tn s m
+ to ph thuc vo tn s m v mc cng m
- Cng m l nng lng c sng m truyn qua mt n v din tch t vung
gc vi phng truyn sng trong 1 n v thi gian

) / (
4
2
2
m W
R
P
S
P
I
t
= =

Chn m f=100Hz lm m chun ,Io=10
-12
N/m
2
cng m chun.
Ta lun c :
2
) (
A
B
B
A
R
R
I
I
=
- Mc cng m l i lng dng so snh to ca 1 m vi 1 m chun
Nh cng thc nhanh sau:
2
) lg( . 10 lg . 10
A
B
B
A
B A
R
R
I
I
L L = =
II, C s l thuyt ton hc v hypebol v ng dng vo gii bi ton vt l
Kin thc c bn v hypelbol:
Phng trnh chnh tc: 1
2
2
2
2
=
b
y
a
x
(ch ng c ln vi phng trnh elip du cng th kh
)
a MF MF 2
2 1
=
AB=2c
C
2
=a
2
+b
2

Dng tm s im cc i cc tiu trn on bt k dng c phng php ny ngoi ta cn c
cc bi ton giao nhau gia pt (H) vi cc ng thng cho trc trong cc bi tp s c.
II,Bi tp ng dng
Bi tp hng dn khoa ly t thi th ln 1 ca anh Nguyn Vn Khnh v mt s bi trong
kh ca khoa v bi tp ngoi.
Bi 1: Trn mt nc c 2 ngun sng ging ht nhau A v B cch nhau mt khong AB = 24
cm. Cc sng c cng bc sng = 2,5 cm. Hai im M v N trn mt nc cng cch u
trung im ca on AB mt on 16 cm v cng cch u 2 ngun sng v A v B. S im
trn on MN dao ng cng pha vi 2 ngun l
A. 7. B. 8. C. 6. D. 9.

A R = 4cm O B

Hng dn
Phng trnh sng ti M do sng ti A truyn n l:
u
AM
= 3cos(40tt +
6
t
-
1
2 d t

)
Phng trnh sng ti M do sng ti B truyn n l:
u
BM
= 4cos(40tt +
2
3
t
-
2
2 d t

)
Phng trnh sng tng qut tng hp ti M l:
u
M
= u
AM
+ u
BM
= 3cos(40tt +
6
t
-
1
2 d t

) + 4cos(40tt +
2
3
t
-
2
2 d t

)
Bin sng tng hp ti M l: (p dng cng thc dao ng iu ha)
A =
2 2
2 1
2 2 2
3 4 2.3.4. os( ( ))
3 6
d d
c
t t t t

+ +
=
2 2
2 1
2
3 4 2.3.4. os( ( ))
2
c d d
t t

+ +
Bin sng tng hp ti M bng 5 khi:
2 1
2
os( ( ))
2
c d d
t t

= 0
Khi :
2 1
2
( )
2
d d
t t

2 1
2 (
2
d d t
t

) =
2
k
t
t
Do : d
2
d
1
= k
2

;
M - 8 s d
2
d
1
s 8 - 8 s k
2

s 8 - 8 s k s 8
Tng t ti hai im M v N hai u bn knh l im dao ng vi bin bng 5cm
Nn s im dao ng vi bin 5cm l: n = 17x2 2 = 32
Bi 2: mt nc c hai ngun sng c A v B cch nhau 15 cm, dao ng iu ha cng tn
s, cng pha theo phng vung gc vi mt nc. im M nm trn AB, cch trung im O l

1,5 cm, l im gn O nht lun dao ng vi bin cc i. Trn ng trn tm O, ng
knh 20cm, nm mt nc c s im lun dao ng vi bin cc i l
A. 18. B. 16. C. 32. D. 17.

Hng dn

Sng ti M c bin cc i khi d
2
d
1
= k
Ta c d
1
= 15/2 + 1,5 = 9cm; d
2
= 15/2 1,5 = 6cm
Khi d
2
d
1
= 3.
Vi im M gn O nht chn k = 1. Khi ta c: = 3
S im dao ng vi bin cc i trn on AB l:
- S
1
S
2
s d
2
d
1
s S
1
S
2

Hay -15 s k s 15 -5 s k s 5
Vy s im dao ng vi bin cc i trn ng trn tm O bn knh 20cm l
n = 10x2 2 = 18 cc i ( y t A v B l hai cc i do ch c 8 ng cc i ct ng
trn ti 2 im, 2 cc i ti A v B tip xc vi ng trn)
Bi 3: Hai mi nhn S
1
, S
2
cch nhau 9cm, gn u mt cu rung c tn s f = 100Hz c t
cho chm nh vo mt mt cht lng. Vn tc truyn sng trn mt cht lng l v = 0,8 m/s. G
nh cho cn rung th 2 im S
1
,

S
2
dao ng theo phng thng ng vi phng trnh dng: u =
acos2ft. im M trn mt cht lng cch u v dao ng cng pha S
1
, S
2
gn S
1
S
2
nht c
phng trnh dao ng.

Hng dn

Phng trnh sng tng qut tng hp ti M l:
u
M
= 2acos(t
2 1
d d

)cos(20tt - t
2 1
d d

+
)
d
1

d
2

A S
1
O

S
2
B

Vi M cch u S
1
, S
2
nn d
1
= d
2
. Khi d
2
d
1
= 0 cos(t
2 1
d d

) = 1 A = 2a
M dao ng cng pha vi S
1
, S
2
th: t
2 1
d d

+
= 2kt
suy ra:
2 1
2 d d k + =
1 2
2
d d
k

+
= v d
1
= d
2
= k

Gi x l khong cch t M n AB: d
1
= d
2
=
2
2
2
AB
x
| |
+
|
\ .
=k
Suy ra
( )
2
2
2
AB
x k
| |
=
|
\ .
=
2
0,64 9 k ; ( = v/f = 0,8 cm)
Biu thc trong cn c ngha khi
2
0,64 9 k > 0 k > 3,75
Vi x = 0 v khong cch l nh nht nn ta chn k = 4;
Khi
1 2
2 8
d d
k

+
= =
Vy phng trnh sng ti M l:
u
M
= 2acos(200tt - 8t) = u
M
= 2acos(200tt)
Bi 4: Hai ngun sng kt hp trn mt nc cch nhau mt on S
1
S
2
= 9 pht ra dao ng
u=cos(et). Trn on S
1
S
2
, s im c bin cc i cng pha vi nhau v ngc pha vi
ngun (khng k hai ngun) l:
A. 8. B. 9 C. 17. D. 16.

Hng dn
Phng trnh sng tng qut tng hp ti M l:
u
M
= 2cos(t
2 1
d d

)cos(20tt - t
2 1
d d

+
)
S
1
O S
2
x
d
1

Vi d
1
+ d
2
= S
1
S
2
= 9
Khi : Phng trnh sng tng qut tng hp ti M l:
u
M
= 2cos(t
2 1
d d

## )cos(20tt - 9t) = 2cos(t

2 1
d d

)cos(20tt - t) = -
2cos(t
2 1
d d

)cos(20tt)
Vy sng ti M ngc pha vi ngun khi cos(t
2 1
d d

) = 1
t
2 1
d d

= k2t d
1
- d
2
= 2k
Vi - S
1
S
2
s d
1
- d
2
s S
1
S
2
-9 s 2k

s 9 4,5 s k

s 4,5
Suy ra k = 0; 1, 2; 3; 4. C 9 gi tr (c 9 cc i) Chn p n B
Bi 5 Trn mt nc c hai ngun kt hp S
1
, S
2
cch nhau 6 2 cm dao ng theo phng trnh
t a u t 20 cos = (mm). Bit tc truyn sng trn mt nc l 0,4 m/s v bin sng khng i
trong qu trnh truyn. im gn nht ngc pha vi cc ngun nm trn ng trung trc ca
S
1
S
2
cch S
1
S
2
mt on: A. 6 cm. B. 2 cm. C. 3 2 cm
D. 18 cm.

Hng dn
Gi M l im dao ng ngc pha vi ngun
Phng trnh sng tng hp ti M l: u
M
= 2acos(t
2 1
d d

)cos(20tt - t
2 1
d d

+
)
M dao ng ngc pha vi S
1
, S
2
th: t
2 1
d d

+
= (2k + 1)t suy ra: ( )
2 1
2 1 d d k + = +
Vi d
1
= d
2
ta c:
( )
2 1
2 1
2
d d k

= = +

Gi x l khong cch t M n AB: d
1
= d
2
=
2
2
1 2
2
S S
x
| |
+
|
\ .
=
( ) 2 1
2
k

+
Suy ra
2 2
1 2
(2 1)
2 2
S S
x k

| | | |
= +
| |
\ . \ .
=
2
4(2 1) 18 k + ; Vi = v/f = 4cm
Biu thc trong cn c ngha khi
2
4(2 1) 18 k + > 0 k > 0,56
Vi x = 0 v khong cch l nh nht nn ta chn k = 1 suy ra x = 3 2 cm; Chn p n
C

Bi 6: Trn mt nc c 2 ngun sng ging ht nhau A v B cch nhau mt khong AB =
24cm. Cc sng c cng bc sng = 2,5 cm. Hai im M v N trn mt nc cng cch u
trung im ca on AB mt on 16 cm v cng cch u 2 ngun sng v A v B. S im
trn on MN dao ng cng pha vi 2 ngun l: A. 7. B. 8.
C. 6. D. 9.

Hng dn
Gi M l im dao ng cng pha vi ngun
Phng trnh sng tng hp ti M l: u
M
= 2acos(t
2 1
d d

)cos(20tt - t
2 1
d d

+
)
M dao ng ngc pha vi S
1
th: t
2 1
d d

+
= 2kt suy ra:
2 1
2 d d k + =
Vi d
1
= d
2
ta c:

2 1
d d k = = ; Gi x l khong cch t M n AB: d
1
= d
2
=
2
2
2
AB
x
| |
+
|
\ .
=k
Suy ra ( )
2
2
2
AB
x k
| |
=
|
\ .
=
2
6, 25 144 k ;
Vi 0 s x s 16 4,8 s k s 8 k = 5, 6, 7, 8.

Vy trn on MN c 2x4 = 8 im dao ng cng pha vi hai ngun Chn
p n B
Bi 7: Ngun m ti O c cng sut khng i. Trn cng ng thng qua O c ba im A, B,
C cng nm v mt pha ca O v theo th t xa c khong cch ti ngun tng dn. Mc cng
m ti B km mc cng m ti A l a (dB), mc cng m ti B hn mc cng
m ti C l 3a (dB). Bit OA =
2
3
OB. Tnh t s
OC
OA

A.
81
16
B.
9
4
C.
27
8
D.
32
27

Hng dn :

Cng thc lin h cng m v cng sut ngun pht :
2
P
I
4d
=
Ta cn tnh :
C
A
d OC
OA d
=

- Mc cng m ti B km mc cng m ti A l a (dB)
a
A B A A 10
A B
0 0 B B
I I I I a
L L a 10lg 10lg a lg 10
I I I 10 I
= = = = . (1)
- Mc cng m ti B hn mc cng m ti C l 3a (dB)
3a
C B B B 10
B C
0 0 C C
I I I I 3a
L L 3a 10lg 10lg 3a lg 10
I I I 10 I
= = = = . (2)
- Theo gi thit :
B
A
d 2 3
OA OB
3 d 2
= = .
- T (1)
2
a a a
A B 10 10 10
B A
I d 9
: 10 10 10
I d 4
| |
= = =
|
\ .
.

- T (1) v (2) suy ra :
2
a 3a 2a 2a
C A B A 10 10 5 5
B C C A
d I I I
. 10 .10 10 10
I I I d
| |
= = =
|
\ .

2
2
a a
C 5 10
A
d 9 81
10 10
d 4 16
| |
| |
= = = =
| |
\ .
\ .
.
Bi 8: Trn b mt cht lng c hai ngun kt hp AB cch nhau 40cm dao ng cng pha. Bit
sng do mi ngun pht ra c tn s f=10(Hz), vn tc truyn sng 2(m/s). Gi M l mt im
nm trn ng vung gc vi AB ti A dao ng vi bin cc i. on AM c gi tr
ln nht l :
A. 20cm B. 30cm C. 40cm D.50cm
Hng dn:
Ta c
200
20( )
10
v
cm
f
= = = . Do M l mt cc i giao thoa
nn on AM c gi tr ln nht th M phi nm trn vn cc
i bc 1 nh hnh v v tha mn :
2 1
1.20 20( ) d d k cm = = =
(1).
( do ly k=+1)
Mt khc, do tam gic AMB l tam gic vung ti A nn ta c :
2 2 2 2
2 1
( ) ( ) 40 (2) AM d AB AM d = = + = + .Thay (2) vo (1) ta
c:

2 2
1 1 1
40 20 30( ) d d d cm + = = p n B
Bi 9: Giao thoa sng nc vi hai ngun ging ht nhau A, B cch nhau 20cm c tn s 50Hz.
Tc truyn sng trn mt nc l 1,5m/s. Trn mt nc xt ng trn tm A, bn knh AB.
im trn ng trn dao ng vi bin cc i cch ng thng qua A, B mt on gn
nht l
A. 18,67mm B. 17,96mm C. 19,97mm D. 15,34mm
Hng dn:
Bc sng = v/f = 0,03m = 3 cm
Xt im N trn AB dao ng vi bin
cc i AN = d
1
; BN = d
2
(cm)
d
1
d
2
= k = 3k
A
B
M
K=0
d1
d2
K=1
d
1
M
-
-
B
-
A
d
2

d
1
+ d
2
= AB = 20 cm
d
1
= 10 +1,5k
0 d
1
= 10 +1,5k 20
- 6 k 6
Trn ng trn c 26 im dao ng vi bin cc i
im gn ng thng AB nht ng vi k = 6. im M thuc cc i th 6
d
1
d
2
= 6 = 18 cm; d
2
= d
1
18 = 20 18 = 2cm
Xt tam gic AMB; h MH = h vung gc vi AB. t HB = x
h
2
= d
1
2
AH
2
= 20
2
(20 x)
2

h
2
= d
2
2
BH
2
= 2
2
x
2

20
2
(20 x)
2
= 2
2
x
2
x = 0,1 cm = 1mm
h = mm x d 97 , 19 399 1 20
2 2 2
2
= = = . Chn p n C
Cch khc:
v
3
f
cm = = ; AM = AB = 20cm
AM - BM = kBM = 20 - 3k
AB AB
k 6,7 < < ~

k
max
= 6BM
min
= 2cm
AAMB cn: AM = AB = 200mm; BM = 20mm.
Khong cch t M n AB l ng cao MH ca AAMB:
h =
( )( )( ) p p a p b p c
a b c
2
; p 21cm
a 2

+ +
= =
2 21.1.1.19
h 1, 997cm 19, 97mm
20
= ~ =
Bi 10: Ti mt im trn mt phng cht lng c mt ngun dao ng to ra sng n nh trn
mt cht lng. Coi mi trng tuyt i n hi. M v N l 2 im trn mt cht lng, cch
ngun ln lt l R
1
v R
2
. Bit bin dao ng ca phn t ti M gp 4 ln ti N. T s
2
1
R
R
bng
A. 1/4 B. 1/16 C. 1/2 D. 1/8
Hng dn:

Nng lng sng c t l vi bnh phng bin , ti mt im trn mt phng cht lng c mt
ngun
dao ng to ra sng n nh trn mt cht lng th nng lng sng truyn i s c phn b
u cho ng trn (tm ti ngun sng) Cng sut t ngun truyn n cho 1 n
v di vng trn tm O bn knh R l
R
E
t 2
0

Suy ra
1
2
0
0
2
2
2
2
R
R
R
R
R
E
R
E
A
A
E
E
M
N
N
M
N
M
N
M
= = = =
t
t

Vy
16
1
16 4
2
1 2
2
2
1
2
= = = =
R
R
A
A
R
R
N
M

Bi 11: Cng sut m thanh cc i ca mt my nghe nhc gia nh l 10W. Cho rng c truyn
trn khong cch 1m, nng lng m b gim 5% so vi ln u do s hp th ca mi trng
truyn m. Bit
I
0
= 10
-12
W/m
2
. Nu m to ht c th mc cng m khong cch 6m l:
A. 102 dB B. 107 dB C. 98 dB D. 89 dB
Hng dn:
Cng m pht i t ngun im c xc nh l:
2
d 4
P
S
P
I
t
= =
Nng lng m gim nn cng sut gim theo quan h: P = E/t, c 1m th gim 5% hay
( ) ( )
6
0 6
6
0
6
0
1
0
1 0
95 , 0 . P P 95 , 0
E
E
95 , 0
E
E
05 , 0
E
E E
= = = =

Vy mc cng m ti v tr cch ngun m 6m l:
( )
dB 102
I . d 4
95 , 0 . P
log 10 L
0
2
6
0
=
t
=

Bi 12:
Mt si dy n hi cng ngang, ang c sng dng n nh. Trn dy, A l mt im
nt, B l im bng gn A nht vi AB = 18 cm, M l mt im trn dy cch B mt khong 12
cm. Bit rng trong mt chu k sng, khong thi gian m ln vn tc dao ng ca phn t
B nh hn vn tc cc i ca phn t M l 0,1s. Tc truyn sng trn dy l:
A. 3,2 m/s. B. 5,6 m/s. C. 4,8 m/s. D. 2,4 m/s.
Hng dn:
N
M
B

M

A

+ A l nt; B l im bng gn A nht Khong cch:
AB =
4

## = 18cm, = 4.18 = 72cm

+ Bin sng dng ti mt im M bt k trn dy:
2
2 | sin |
M
M
d
A a
t

=
(Vi d
M
l khong cch t B n M; a l bin ca sng ti v sng phn x)
Vi d
M
= MB = 12cm =
6

2 .12
2 | sin |
72
M
A a
t
= = 2a. sin
3
t
= 2a.
3
2
= a 3
+. Tc cc i ti M: v
Mmax
= A
M
. e = a 3 e
+. Tc ca phn t ti B (bng sng) khi c li x
B
= A
M
l: v
B
= e x
B
= a 3 e = v
Mmax

* Phn t ti bng sng: Cng ra bin tc cng gimThi gian m ln vn tc dao ng
ca phn t B nh hn vn tc cc i ca phn t M (ng vi lc phn t ca bng sng qua v
tr c li M ra bin v tr v M)
+ Cos =
3
2
a
a
=
3
2
=
6
t

+ Trong 1 chu k: Thi gian m ln vn tc dao ng ca phn t B
nh hn vn tc cc i ca phn t M l
4 t

e
A = = 4.
.
6.2
T t
t
=
3
T
= 0,1sT = 3.0,1 = 0,3s
* Tc truyn sng c: v =
T

=
72
0, 3
= 240 cm/s = 2,4m/s
* Lu : M trong on AB hay M ngoi on AB u ng.
p n D.
Bi 13 ( ca 1 bn hi khoa v ca anh Nguyn Vn Khnh) :
Hai im M, N cng nm trn mt phng truyn sng cch nhau x = /3, sng c bin A,
chu k T. Ti thi im t
1
= 0, c u
M
= +3cm v u
N
= -3cm. thi im t
2
lin sau c u
M
= +A,
bit sng truyn t N n M. Bin sng A v thi im t
2
l
A. cm 3 2 v
12
11T
B. cm 2 3 v
12
11T
C. cm 3 2 v
12
22T
D.
cm 2 3 v
12
22T

Hng dn:
3 a
2a
M Bin 0

Ta c lch pha gia M v N l:
3
2 2 t

t
= = A
x

6
t
o = ,
T hnh v, ta c th xc nh bin
sng l: A =
3 2
cos
=
o
M
u
(cm)
thi im t
1
, li ca im M l :
u
M
= +3cm, ang gim. n thi im t
2

lin sau , li ti M l : u
M
= +A.
Ta c
=

/
1 2
A
= = A t t t vi
T
t
=
t
o t
2
;
6
11
2
/
= = = A
12
11
2
.
6
11
1 2
T T
t t t = = = A
t
t
Vy:
12
11
1 2
T
t t t = A =
Bi 14 : sng (A, B cng pha so vi S v AB = 100m). im M l trung im AB v cch S 70
m c mc cng m 40dB. Bit vn tc m trong khng kh l 340m/s v cho rng mi
trng khng hp th m (cng m chun I
o
= 10
-12
W/m
2
). Nng lng ca sng m trong
khng gian gii hn bi hai mt cu tm S qua A v B l
A. J 9 , 207 B. 207,9 mJ C. 20,7mJ D. 2,07J
Hng dn:
Sng truyn trong khng gian. Nng lng sng t l nghch vi bnh phng khong cch.
Nng lng sng bng g? y cho mc cng m ti im M l trung im AB, ngha
l s xc nh c cng m ti M. Cn c suy ra cng m ti A v B. Cng m ti
A v B t l nghch vi bnh phng khong cch n v l W/m
2
Nng lng sng ti cc
mt cu tm (S, SA) v (S, SB). Ly hiu th c nng lng trong vng gii hn.
Theo gi thit:

+ =
=
2
2
AB
r r
AB
r r
M B
M A
. Cng m ti 1 im l nng lng i qua mt n v din
tch tnh
trong 1 n v thi gian. T gi thit suy ra cng sut ngun S l P=
2
4 .
M M
r I t
Nng lng trong hnh cu tm (S, SA) v (S, SB) l: :
J r r
v
r I
v
r
P
v
r
P
A B
M M B A

t t
9 , 207 ) 100 (
340
75 . 4 . 10
) (
4 .
W W W . W ; . W
2 8 2
A B B A
= = = = = =

t
A
M
M
2

M
1

u(cm)
N
A
3
-3
o
A
-A

Bi 15: Sng dng xut hin trn dy vi tn s f = 5 Hz. Gi th t cc im thuc dy ln lt
l O, M, N, P sao cho O l im nt sng, P l im bng sng nm gn O nht( M, N thuc
on OP). Khong thi gian gia 2 ln lin tip gi tr li ca im P bng bin dao ng
ca im M v N ln lt l 1/20 s v 1/15 s. Bit khong cch gia 2 im M, N l 0,2cm. Bc
sng ca si dy l:
A 3 B 4,8 C.1,2 D.4,8
Hng dn:
+ Thi gia i t li c ln bng bin ti M(tm gi lido M) l 1/20 ==> Thi gian i t
lido M v VTCB ht

+ L lun Tng t ta c N cch nt

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