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The Bernoulli Equation For steady, inviscid, incompressible flow the total energy remains constant along a stream

line as expressed through the Bernoulli Equation: p + 1/2 ρ v2 + γ h = constant along a streamline where p = static pressure (relative to the moving fluid) ρ = density γ = specific weight v = flow velocity g = acceleration of gravity h = elevation height Each term of this equation has the dimension force per unit area - psi, lb/ft2 or N/m2. (1)

The Head By dividing each term with the specific weight - γ = ρ g - equation (1) can be transformed to express the "head": p / γ + v2 / 2 g + h = constant along a streamline = H where H = the total head Each term of this equation has the dimension length - ft, m. The Total Head (2) states that the sum of
  

(2)

pressure head - p / γ velocity head - v2 / 2 g elevation head - h

is constant along a stream line. This constant can be called the total head - H.

The total head in a flow can be determined by measuring the stagnation pressure using a pitot tube. The Hydraulic Grade Line The Hydraulic Grade Line is a line representing the total head available to the fluid .p / γ . In a practical world the energy line decreases along the flow due to losses. The Piezometric Head The sum of pressure head . A turbine in the flow reduces the energy line and a pump or fan in the line increases the energy line.minus the velocity head and can be expressed as: HGL = p / γ + h where HGL = Hydraulic Grade Line The hydraulic grade line lies one velocity head below the the energy line.is called the piezometric head. (4) (3) . The Energy Line The Energy Line is a line that represent the total head available to the fluid and can be expressed as: EL = H = p / γ + v2 / 2 g + h = constant along a streamline where EL = Energy Line For a fluid flow without any losses due to friction (major losses) or components (minor losses) .h .and elevation head . The piezometric head in a flow can be measured through an flat opening parallel to the flow.the energy line would be at a constant level.