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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I feel deeply indedted to Mr. Sam Sir, NBCC trainer who delivered valuable lesson on Networking, his indepth knowledge about the subject helped me understand the subject in better way. His method of teaching the minute details helped me a lot to acquire the insight into the subject. I am also grateful to Mr. Aman Sir, trainer for giving best knowledge about Networking the way he instilled knowledge of the subject was undoubtly praise worthy and valuable. I am also thankful to NBCC company as a whole that is doing yeoman’s service by teaching the learner avreast with the computer , networking and hardware knowledge that is the need of the day. Last but not the least, I thank all my classmates at NBCC for extending kind operation. co-

Pankaj Sharma

List of Figures

Figure No.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Name of Figure
Computer network Local Area Nework LAN Classification Campus Area Network Metropolitan Area Network To find location of a computer using FQDN Tree structure Structure of domain forest and domain tree Multi-Master Mode Parent child relationship model Direct Sharing Scenario ICS scenario Scenario of win proxy server NAT Server VPN server

Page No.
6 9 9 10 11 24 25 36 37 40 43 44 45 46 48

16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 105 27 28 29

LAN routing Static routing Architecture of router Variable Subnet Mask Scenario of Telnet Scenario of Static Routing Routing table Routing table of covered networks Routing loops OSPF Scenario VLAN Operation VTP Configuration VTP Pruning IEEE 802.11 Standard

52 53 60 75 76 81 86 86 87 99

110 111 114

1 2 3 Name of table Difference between Workgroup & Domain Comparison between IPv4 and IPv6 Address Classes Category and Speed of UTP cables Colour Coding for straight Cable Colour Coding for Crossover cable Colour Coding for Rollover Cable Operating Systems Difference between Workgroup and Domain Page No. 7 12 13 17 18 19 20 21 34 56 62 63 71 72 74 86 90 91 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Exchange Server with different operating systems Router interfaces and connectors Router Ports Default address mask in binary & dotted decimals Decimal and Binary values of subnet mask Subnet mask. valid hosts. broadcast address Routing table Difference between RIPV1 & RIPV2 Difference between IGRP and RIP .List of tables Table No.

No.1 Models of Networking 3.5 DNS SERVER 3.1 Ethernet Cabling 3.5.3.1.3 NETWORKING MEDIA 3.1 Types of Operating Systems 3. 1 1.2 MAC Addressing 3.6.1 2 3 3.1 PARTS OF DNS SYSTEM 3.2 Categories of network 3.1 Working of DHCP Server 3.4 OPERATING SYSTEM 3.2 IP ADDRESSES and MAC Addresses 3.1 IPAddressClasses 3.2.1 Topic INTRODUCTION Company Profile LITERATURE RIEVIEW NETWORKING Introduction to networking Page No.6 DHCP SERVER 3.1.5.2 InstallationStepsofDHCPServer 3.2 DNS Zone 3.7 ACTIVE DIRECTORY .6.2.CONTENTS Sr.4. 1 1 5 6 6 6 8 12 12 15 15 17 20 20 22 23 26 28 29 31 33 3.

1 Router Architecture and its Key Component 3.2 ICS (Internet Connection Sharing) 3.11.9.9.2 Router Interfaces & Ports 3.3 Exchange Version Requirements for Exchange Server VPN components Types of VPN 34 40 42 42 43 45 45 47 48 49 51 51 56 56 56 57 57 58 60 60 62 63 65 66 70 3.2 3.11.12 Open System Interconnection (OSI) Model 3.3 Modes of Router 3.1 3.11 EXCHANGE SERVER 3.13.5 Managing Configuration 3.13.1ActiveDirectoryServices 3.8.11.7.8.10 ROUTING 3.1 Elements of Exchange Server 3.4 Configuring Password 3.10.13 ROUTERS 3.2 3.13.4 NAT (Network Address Translation) 3.2 3.1 Direct Sharing 3.13.1 Types of Routing 3.8.13.12.8.3.3 Win Proxy Server 3.7.8 CHILD DOMAIN INTERNET SHAREING 3.1 Description of Different Layers 3.14 SUBNETTING .9 VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORK (VPN) 3.

6 OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) 3.3 Wireless Security 4 5 CONCLUSION REFRENCES .1 Wireless LAN 3.1.3.1 3.3 R IP (Routing Information Protocol) 3.18 VLAN (Virtual LAN) Vlan Trunking Protocol (VTP) 79 79 84 88 91 93 95 100 100 103 108 113 113 114 115 117 Wi-Fi (WIRELESS FIDELITY) 3.2 3.14.1 TYPES OF ROUTING 3.1 SWITCH 3.4 IGRP ( Interior Gateway Protocol) 3.1 To Access the Device Remotely 3.1 3.1.16.14.17.16.17.18.18.1.2 Routing Protocol Basics 3.15.18.1.15 TELNET Advantages of subnetting 70 73 75 75 3.2 Wireless Standards 3.1.1.2 Commands to assign IP addresses to the interfaces 76 3.17 LAN SWITCHING 3.17.16 ROUTING 3.2 Types of Subnetting 3.15.5 EIGRP(Enhanced Interior Routing Protocol) 3.

NBCC has also received "Excellent" rating from MoUD for each of the Fiscal years from 2004 to 2010 and Ministry of Heavy Industries & Public Enterprises has awarded us with an "Excellence Award". In addition. AUTHORISED CAPITAL The authorized. including design and execution of (i) civil and structural works for power . PERFORMANCE RECOGNITION On October 14.1. 30 crore of fully paid-up bonus shares to the existing share holder s as on 30-09-2011. 120 crore. we were awarded an "Appreciation Shield" for quality and timely completion of NSEZ Noida Project by the Ministry of Commerce & Industry and the Development Commissioner. MoUD grants us "Excellent" rating if all the targets set out in the MoU with MoUD for the respective Fiscal year are acheived. the Government granted NBCCSchedule "A" PSU status. AN ISO COMPANY ISO 9001:2008 Certification has been awarded to NBCC for its Project Management and Consultancy Divisions. ISO 9001:2008 certification issued by Bureau of Indian Standards is valid up to March 2014. AREAS OF OPERATION NBCC is one of the few public sector companies engaged in the business of (i) project management consultancy services for civil construction projects ("PMC") (ii) civil infrastructure for power sector and (iii) real estate development. issued and paid-up equity share capital is Rs. water supply systems. NSEZ. 2008. NBCC's PMC business segment includes providing management and consultancy services for a range of civil construction projects including residential and commercial complexes. hospitals. The projects undertaken by our Company are spread across 23 states and 1 union territory in India. NBCC has also have also undertaken projects overseas. border fencing as well as infrastructure projects such as roads. NBCC is headquartered in New Delhi and in addition has 10 regional / zonal offices across India. INTRODUCTION THE COMPANY YEAR OF INCORPORATION NBCC was incorporated in November 1960 as a wholly owned Government of India undertakingunder the erstwhile Ministry of Works. infrastructure works for security personnel. educational institutions. for one of our PMC projects. which is now known as the Ministry of Urban Development ("MoUD"). This includes Rs. Housing & Supply ("MoWHS"). NBCC has also been awarded ISO 9001:2008 from the Bureau of Indian Standards in respect of our consultancy and project management division. storm water systems and water storage solutions. NBCC's civil Infrastructure for power sector segment includes providing engineering and construction services for power projects. in 2011. redevelopment of buildings and colonies. Further.

Haryana Urban Infrastructure Development Board. include road works at Agartala. border fencing as well as infrastructure projects such as roads. Sulur. As of September 30.240. IIT Kharagpur. Jodhpur. tools. Ministry of External Affairs. ESIC Mandi. salaries. construction of defence campus at Jaipur.Maldives Friendship Faculty of Hospitality & Tourism Studies. hospitals. IIT Roorkee. ESIC Medical College & Hospital Works. educational institutions. include Indo Bangladesh Border Fencing Works at Meghalaya. Chennai.projects (ii) Cooling towers (iii) Chimneys. infrastructure works for security personnel. Tripura. solutions. based on the total contract value. Ahemdabad. such as corporate office buildings and shopping malls. NBCC has implemented Enterprise Resource Planning ("ERP") system in some business processes related to accounting. 2011 Number of Projects Contract Value (in million) Outstanding Contract Value / Order Book (in million) PMC Projects Ongoing Projects 130 162. IT security management is also utilized for the continuous upkeep of security products . network management etc.40* 23. Nagar. ESIC. storm water systems and water storage solutions. PROJECT MANAGEMENT CONSULTANCYFOR CIVIL CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS ("PMC") Our PMC business segment includes providing management and consultancy services for a range of civil construction projects including residential and commercial complexes. SVNIT.24 79. Ministry of Defence. namely. NSG. HRM system and e-Bidding system. COMPUTERIZATION AND TRANSPARENCY NBCC makes extensive use of information and communication technologies for the execution and management of its projects. ESIC Hospital. Mizoram & Assam.52 Forthcoming Projects 59 23.764. CISF. The online computer maintenance services ensures accurate management of the organizations hardware and software complaints electronically. We presently have one overseas PMC Ongoing Project at Male. CBI headquarters at New Delhi. Our key completed projects during the period April 01. amongst others. IIT Patna.K.786. minimum problem rectification time. K. cluster servers. (i) residential projects. such as apartments and townships and (ii) commercial projects. Ambala. Maldives for construction of India . Some of our clients in this segment are or have been. Extension of campus of MDU university and IIT Roorkee. BSF). Ministry of Finance. 2006 tillSeptember 30. water supply systems. Our key domestic PMC Ongoing Projects based on the total outstanding contract value. Ministry of Commerce and Industry. Bihta. . redevelopment of buildings and colonies. better reports management and optimal performance. Ministry of Corporate Affairs. MoUD. NBCC's team has access to domain controller and additional domain controller. 2011. Parel (Mumbai). ESIC. including hardware management. In addition. complaint tracking. IT security management. NBCC's real estate development segment focuses on principally two types of projects.40* * There are 3 projects for which the contract value is yet to be determined. NBCC also hascentralised its database and has begun digitising its records and has business continuity servers to protect the electronic data and ensure maximum uptime.786. products. Ministry of Home Affairs (including Security forces like CRPF.

. (iii) Kadappa. Gurgaon. 2012. such as apartments and townships and (ii) commercial projects. Uttar Pradesh. of Developable Projects Area Projects Area Residential Commercial Total Nil 8 8 1. 2012. Ghaziabad (Uttar Pradesh) and at BhikajiCama Place. Kochi.729 Saleable Area 4.Koderma Thermal Power Project at Jharkhand. (i) residential projects. As ofJanuary 15. some of our key real estate development Ongoing Projects include residential complex at "NBCC Heights" at Sector-89. Cuttack. NBCC Vibgyor Towers at Rajarhat.624 6 6 12 5. and commercial complex at "NBCC Centre" at Okhla. Further. MAHAGENCO Limited and Karnataka Power Corporation Limited.139.Sukias Lane at Kolkata and Hemanta Basu Sarani Complex at Kolkata. Further.076. include construction of civil. include cooling tower.65 1. Phase-I.908 7. as of January 15. Bihar and 220M/275M Twin Steel Flue with RCC Chimney Elevator at (i) Dadri. West Bengal.732. 2012: Type of Real Estate Development Completed Projects Ongoing Projects Saleable Area 3. Uttar Pradesh RajyaVidyutUtpadan Nigam Limited. including design and execution of (i) civil and structural works for power projects (ii) Cooling towers (iii) Chimneys. namely.686 CIVIL INFRASTRUCTURE FOR POWER SECTOR Our civil Infrastructure for power sector segment includes providing engineering and construction services for power projects. such as corporate office buildings and shopping malls. Agartala. structural and architectural works for 2x250 MW at Korba. of Developable No.649. Patna.624 66. our key On-going PMC Projects. As on January 15.882 1. our completed commercial projects include commercial complex at Vadodara. Kolkata.878. Patna.602. Haryana.076.101 6.633 4. (ii) Mejia. Civil Works in Uttar Pradesh. Patna. The following table represents details for types of real estate projects.918 Acre. Our Company has undertaken real estate projects which are spread across 10 states in India. APGENCO Limited. Baghpat. BHEL.983 Leasable Area 147. Our completed key projects. our Land Reserves aggregate approximately 127. Khekra (Phase-I).410.724. Site levelling work at Barh. . Chattisgarh. Some of our clients in this segment include NTPC Limited. 2011based on the total contract value. during the period April 01. 2006 till September 30. residential-cum-commercial complex at Bahadurpur.879. based on the total outstanding contract value. Andhra Pradesh. New Delhi.Rihand Main Plant . Our Land Reserves are located in Delhi.585 290.560 3. of Developable Area Projects Area 0 66. Kolkata.821 2. chimney at Farakka Super Thermal Power Project.353 No.053 407. PragatiVihar and PushpVihar in New Delhi.555. Gurgaon.65 4 3 7 3. Uttar Pradesh. West Bengal.REAL ESTATE DEVELOPMENT Our real estate development segment focuses on principally two types of projects. Alwar and Lucknow.786 438.323. Uttar Pradesh.Phase-I.403 239.963 Forthcoming Projects Leasable No.

49 . Thermal Power Project at West Bengal. Rihand Super Thermal Power Project. Uttar Pradesh.199. Mauda and Vindhyachal Super Thermal Projectat Maharashtra & Madhya Pradesh respectively. As of September 30.875.Durgapur. Barh Super Thermal Power Project. 2011 Number of projects Contract Value(` in million) Outstanding Contract Value / Order Book(` in million) Civil Infrastructure for power projects (Ongoing Projects) 14 7. Patna.43 3.

with a great focus on active participation through smart lab plus . All the organizations are using multiple computers within their departments to perform their day to day work. MAN. The courses in AIT comprises lecture and theory session. Computer Networking has bound the world in a very small area with it wide networking processes like LAN. LITERATURE RIEVIEW Computer Networking is a very vast project in the present developing era of electronics and communication. Now a days. .that focuses on audio visual and learning with handson training and equips students with an in depth domain knowledge that is technical.to face the multi-faceted challenges of corporate world.2. computers are used in a wider range. Computer network allows the user to share data . share folders and files with other users connected in a network. WAN. it also equips students with soft skills .

1 Models of Networking Model means the connectivity of two computers. printers. faxes etc. Cable/media Fig 1: computer network 3. data and resources.1. We have many types of networking models.. NETWORKING 3.1 Introduction to networking Networking is a practice of linking of two or more computing devices such as PCs.3. with each other Connection between two devices is through physical media or logical media to share information. (i) (ii) Client – Server Model Peer to Peer Model (Workgroup Model) . Networks are made with the hardware and software.

but a server cannot share the resources on clients. In Peer to Perr networking client use operating system like Window 98. On the point of view of administrator it’s very easy to control the network because we combine with the server also at security point of view.(iii) Domain Model (i) Client –Server Model In a Client server model we have one server and many clients. A Client can share the resources of server. (ii) Peer to Peer Model (Workgroup Model) In Peer to Peer networking model all computers are in equal status. Window 2000. (iii) Domain Model It is a mixture of client server and peer-to-peer model. Window XP. that is we cannot manage centralization. administration secutity. In this clients can share their resources as peer-to-peer but with the permission of the server as in client server model therefore it is commonly used model because in this security is more as we can put restriction on both server and clients. Difference between Workgroup & Domain Table 1 Workgroup Domain . It is very useful because it uses user level security in which users have to remember only one password to share the resources. Window Vista.

Users accounts are created in each PC and are called as Local Users. upto 10 computers.1 Local Area Network (LAN) . can be used. This model is recommended for large networks. 3. low grade OS like 2000/2003 Server can be used. 6. This model is recommended for small networks. All the 2. 3. 4. Campus Area Network (CAN). 3. 1. 5. There is no centralized administrated separately. In this model. There is a centralized dedicated server computers are in equal status. 2. in this model high grade OS like WIN 5.2. Computer network are divided into four categories includes: Local Area Network (LAN). WIN 98 etc.2 Categories of network Networks can be categorized as per geographical area to be covered by the network. 6.1.1. Users accounts are created on the server side and are called Domain Users. 2000/XP professional.1. computer called domain controller which controls all other computers called clients. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN). 3. There is centralized administration and each PC can be administrated and managed from the server. 4. It is a server based networking model. It is a peer to peer networking model. There is no client and no server.

Devices used in LAN are : HUB and switch. server and printer are interconnected with the help of the network device. office or college. LAN is restricted to a small area such as home.2 shows how all work stations.3 shows LAN classification. Token Ring and Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI). LANS are classified into Ethernet. As per techniques used for data sharing. Figure 1.Figure 3. Fig 2: Local Area Network Types of LAN In LANs. . data can be transferred using techniques like token passing.LAN is a computer network that is used to connect computers and work station to share data and resources such as printers or faxes. Token Bus. Media for LAN is UTP cables.

Figure 3. . b). library and computer laboratories. b). 3. The main feature of CAN is that all of the computers which are connected together have some relationship to each other e.4 shows a CAN network. Network performance degrades as the number of users exceeds. It will help to interconnect academic departments. different buildings in a campus can be connected using different CAN. c). easy to install and configure. CAN is larger than LAN but smaller than WAN.g. It can cover many buildings in an area. Provides communication in smaller networks. many users can share data or network elements at the same time which results in fast work.2. Disadvantages of LAN a).2 Campus Area Network (CAN) Campus Area Network is a computer network made up of two or more LANs within a limited area. limited number of computers are connected in a LAN.1. LAN cannot cover large area.Fig 3: LAN classification Advantages of LAN a).

MAN can also be formed by connecting remote LANs through telephone lines or radio links.2.3 Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) MAN is the interconnection of networks in a city. The best example of MAN is cable T. MAN supports data and voice transmission.Fig 4: Campus Area Network Devices used in CAN are : HUB.V network in a city. Layer-3 switch.And the media used for CAN is Unshielded twisted pair of cables and Fiber Optics Cable. 3.1. It act as a high speed network to allow sharing resources with in a city. MAN is not owned by a single organization. Switch. Access Point . .

multicasting and unicasting.Fig 5 : Metropolitan Area Network 3.1. It also enables communication between the organization and rest world.2 IP ADDRESSES and MAC Addresses It is also called as logical addresses. There are two versions of IP addresses: IPv4 IPv6 Table 2 Comparison between IPv4 and IPv6 IPv4 It is 32 bit long. . IPv4 is in decimal form. IPv4 is divided into 5 classes: A to E. IPv6 doesn’t it support performs broadcasting. IP is a 32 bit long and it is divided into 4 octets and dot (. WAN helps an organization to establish network between all its departments and offices located in the same or different cities. Devices used in WAN is only Router 3. satellite link or leased line.2. microwave. IPv6 is in hexadecimal form. - IPv6 It is 128 bit long. telephone system. It is divided into 4 octets. Most of the WANs use leased lines for internet access as they provide faster data transfer. multicasting and unicasting. It connects computer networks through public networks like.) is used to separate one octet from another.4 Wide Area Network (WAN) WAN covers a wide geographical area which include multiple computers or LANs. Ipv4 performs broadcasting. It is represented in the form of decimals. Ipv6 doesn’t support classes. It is divided into 16 octets.

Class D and Class E. Class B consists of 16-bit network ID and 16-bit of host ID.1 IP Address Classes IP address is a 32 bit address. Network address and host address as shown in figure 3. Class B. TCP /IP address contains two addresses embedded within one IP address.3. Class C. And Class C consists of 24-bit of network ID and 8-bit of host ID.2. It is divided into various classes namely Class A. TCP/IP defines Class D for experimental purpose. Address Classes .1 NETWORK ADDRESS 0 bits HOST ADDRESS 31 bits Class A consists of 8-bit network ID and 24-bit host ID.

Table 3: Address Classes Addres s Class Class A 0 1to 127 255.214 Starting Bits Range of First Mask Value (first-byte) Octet Valid Hosts Class B 10 128 to 191 255.0 256*256-2=65.255.0.255.255.0 256-2 Class D 1110 224 to 239 Reserved for multicasting Class E ` 1111 240 to 255 Reserved development for research and .534 Class C 110 192 to 223 255.0.0.777.0 256*256*256-2= 16.

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These static IP addresses are semi-permanent IP addresses which remain allocated to a specific device for longer time e.0.2 How to Configure IP Address in window 2003 • • • • • • • • Right click on My Network Places.2. The DHCP grants IP address to the computer on lease basis.3.now fill the IP address e.1 How to Assign IP Address to Computer An IP address assigned to a computer may either be permanent address or address that is assigned to a computer on a time lease or for temporary basis.1.properties right click on working LAN card.1 Tick on –Use the following DNS server address Fill the preferred DNS server – 10. Static IP Addresses Static IP addresses are assigned to the device on the network whose existence in the network remains for a longer duration. Dynamic IP Addresses Dynamic IP addresses are assigned to the devices that require temporary connectivity to the network or non-permanent devices such as portable computer. Hence.properties select internet protocol (TCP/IP) -properties Tick on.2.g. 3.1.Use the following IP addresses .0.g 10. The most common protocol used for assigning Dynamic IP address is DHCP also called Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.0.1 Ok Close Now check the connectivity of computer with itself with command . the address granted to computers is divided into two categories Dynamic IP addresses and Static addresses. Server.0.

3 NETWORKING MEDIA To do networking we need to use some type of media. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (iv) Coaxial Cable Fiber optic cable Twisted Pair of Cables Micro.wave Satellite . Every NIC card has a unique MAC address assigned by IEEE.2 MAC Addressing MAC address is a hardware address that is embedded in the NIC card.0. It is made up of numbers from 0-9 or a letter from A-F. It is also known as hardware address or physical address. The MAC address operates at the data link layer of the OSI model. MAC address is a 12 digit hexadecimal number (48 bit address). MAC address can be written in any one of the formats: ► MM:MM:MM:SS:SS:SS ► MM:MM:MM:SS:SS:SS T o identify the MAC address in window: • • • • Click Start →Run Enter cmd in the Open text book Type ipconfig /all Press Enter The 12 digit MAC address will be shown as say 00:11:11:EA:8D:F6 3.0. There are many types of media.Start-run-cmd-ping 10. MAC address is used to identify the nodes at lower levels of OSI model.1 3.2.

hence yield greater distances. These cables are expensive and provide high propagation factor. ARCnet uses RG-62 coaxial cable. Fiber Optical Cable Fiber optic cable consists of a very fine fiber made from two types of glass. Here signal is transmitted in the form of light. There are two types of twisted pair of cables: . It has an impedance of 93 Ω and has a comparatively lesser attenuation. which are twisted with each other to avoid EMI (Electro Magnetic Induction). Twisted Pair Cable There are two wires. However they have a slightly higher value of attenuation value and hence have limited distance covering capacity. Where as Broad Band Cables carries multiple frequencies. Single mode fiber optics is used for networks spanning longer distance. Fiber Optics has lower propagation factor than coaxial cable. one for the inner core and the other for the outer layer. It is so called because it carries single frequency. It is a costly but more secure transmission media.these cables are easy to terminate. Its speed is 10 Mbps and impedance is 50 Ω. Connector used for Coaxial cable is BNC(British Novel Connector) connector. Different varieties of fiber optics is used depending on the size of the network. Connector used for Twisted Pair of Cable is (Registered Jack) RJ-45 and RJ-11. It is basically of two types: (i) (ii) Base Band Cable (RG – 59) Broad Band Cable (RG – 58) We used Base Band signal cable in Networking of Computers.Coaxial Cable Coaxial cable consists of an insulated copper conductor surrounded by a tube shaped copper braid outer copper tune and the inner conductor have the same axis of curvature hence it called coaxial cable.

There are different categories of UTP cables: Categories of UTP Cables Table 4: Category and Speed of UTP cables Category Speed CAT-1 CAT-2 CAT-3 CAT-4 CAT-5 CAT-6 CAT-7 56 Kbps 4 Mbps 10 Mbps 16-20 Mbps 100 Mbps 1Gbps 1Gbps 3. • UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) In this type of wire no shielded cover is there for extra protection from noise.3. This protection is used to protect signal from external noise.• STP (Shielded Twisted Pair): In this an extra wire which is called shielded wire is wrapped over the inner cover which holds copper in pairs.1 • • • Ethernet Cabling Straight cable Crossover cable Rolled cable There are three types of Ethernet cables: .

3.3.2 Crossover Cable It is used when we have to connect: • • PC to PC Hub to Hub .1 Straight cable It is used when we have to connect • • • • PC TO Switch PC to Hub Hub to Router Switch to Router Colour Coding for straight Cable TABLE 5 568A (one end) Green/white Green Orange/white Blue Blue/white Orange Brown/white Brown (other end) Green/white Green Orange/white Blue Blue/white Orange Brown/white Brown (one end) Orange/white Orange Green/white Blue Blue/white Green Brown/white Brown 568B (other end) Orange/white Orange Green/white Blue Blue/white Green Brown/white Brown 3.1.3.1.

but Rollover cable can be used to connect a host to a router console serial communication (com) port. There are two methods for manufacturing Rollover cables: .• • • • Switch to switch Router to Router PC to Router Hub to Switch Colour Coding for Crossover cable Table 6 Colour Coding for Crossover cable (one end) Orange/white Orange Green/white Blue Blue/white Green Brown/white Brown (other end) Green/white Green Orange/white Blue Blue/white Green Brown/white Brown 3.3 Rollover Cable Rollover cable isn’t used to connect any Ethernet connections together.1. NOTE: Straight cable and Cross cables are used for data transfer but Rollover cables are not used for data transfer.3.

1 Types of Operating Systems (i) DOS (Desktop Operating System) Table 8: Operating Systems DOS NOS (ii) NOS (Network Operating System) 1. It is used for large networks. 1. It is a network operating system. 2.Table 7 Colour Coding for Rollover Cable 568A (one end) Green/white Green Orange/white Blue Blue/white Orange Brown/white Brown (other end) Brown Brown/white Orange Blue/white Blue Orange/white Green Green/white (one end) Orange/white Orange Green/white Blue Blue/white Green Brown/white Brown 568B (other end) Brown Brown/white Green Blue/white Blue Green/white Orange Orange/white 3. . It is a desktop operating system. It is used in small networks.4 OPERATING SYSTEM 3. 2.4.

Manage your server-a role management administrative tools that allow an administrator to choose what functionality the server should provide. In this OS Win NT. 3. MS-DOS. 4. there is more security. Improvement to Group Policy handling and Administration. Improvement to Active Directory. According to Microsoft. Win 2000. there are servers and clients. Novell and MAC comes. 3. Improved security and command line tools which are part of Microsoft initiative to bring a complete command shell to the next version of window. 5. 2008. . An update version Window Server 2003 R2 was released manufacturing on 6th dec. In this OS. GUI package Win 3.1. In this OS. Win 2003. 2005. it is considered by Microsoft to be the corner stone of its window server system line of business server products. In this OS. Win ME comes. its successor window 2008 was released on 4 th feb.4. Improved disk management. 5. Win 95. allowing the Backup of open files. Features of Window 2003 (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) A significant improved version of Internet Information Service (IIS) Increased default security over previous version due to the built in firewall and having most services disabled by default.3. window server 2003 is more scalable and deliver better performance than its predecessor window 2000. including the ability to Backup from shadows of files. Win 98.1 Introduction to Window 2003 Server Window server 2003 (also referred to as WIN 2k3) is a server operating system produced by Microsoft. Provides a Backup system to restore lost files. UNIX. LINUX. In this OS. In this OS. Introduced in 24th April 2003 as the successor to window 2000 server.1. all computers are clients. 4. there is less security.

provide LDAP (Light Weight Directory Access Protocol) services. serve streaming media. act as an X.509 certificate server.5 DNS SERVER DNS stands for domain name system. Edition of Window 2003 Window server 2003 comes in a number of editions. In general. 3.e. DNS system is a standard technology for managing the names of websites and other internet domains.com to an IP address. DNS is use for name reservation i. User identify only user friendly name and all computers and technologies identify IP address and MAC address DNS is use to solve this problem because DNS is used to convert host name FQDN (fully qualified domain name) to IP address and IP address to host name .(ix) Support for a hard based “Watch Dog Timer”. DNS is the resolution mechanism used by Window Server 2003 clients to find other computers and services running on those computers for computers in a window 2003 network infrastructure to talk to one another. DNS techniques allows you to type names into your web browser like computer networking. all variant of window server 2003 have the ability to share files and printers. act as application server and host message queue. which can restart the server if the operating system does not suspend with in a certain amount of time. provide email services. about computer and allow your computer to automatically find that address on internet. to convert IP address to host name and host name to IP address or the function of DNS is to resolve host name such as www. and to perform other server-oriented functions. authenticate users. each targeted towards a particular size and type of business.yahoo.Host name alone do not communicate globally but communicate locally. but if domain name is added along with it then the host name can communicate globally. . Removed Features • The ability of creating server disk automated system recovery (ASR) is used instead . one of the key ingredients is the DNS server .

1. and so on.3 FQD FQDN means fully qualified domain name which represents a hostname appended to the parent name space in hierarchy.1 PARTS OF DNS SYSTEM (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Host name Domain name FQDN Namespace DNS server 3. yahoo.g.5. NetBIOS is actually an application layer protocol that can use the transport services of TCP/ IP when used in routed network.1 HOST NAME Host name is a computer name and is also called is NetBIOS (network basic Input/ output system) name.3. A NetBIOS name is 16byte addresses that identify a NetBIOS resource on the network.5.5. Left most .2 DOMAIN NAME Domain name is used to identifies the internet site one can identifies the location without having to remember the IP address of every location e.1. top─ level domain.com or gmail.com 3. Also in fully qualified domain name different levels of namespace are visualize as in fig below this hierarchy is visualized─ the root level namespace.5. in use throughout the internet today.1. 3.

Fig 6:To find location of a computer using FQDN FQDN is a unique name in the computer on the network.portion of the FQDN is the host portion of the name.0.1.lab2. A host name is alias we give to an IP address.com=20. The domain namespace include the root domain.1 3.center. hierarchical division of DNS names.4 Domain Namespace DNS operates in what is known as DNS namespace. The DNS namespace is an organized. the top level domain of the organization and organize these domain in a hierarchical tree structure. . We can identify host id and location of a computer as in fig above. The FQDN for this is Pc1. Suppose we want to find location of pc1 with IP address 20.floor2.0.com But this address is very lengthy to locate pc1 so to simplify this we use “c name” technique as: Pc1. which is in lab2.0.5.center. Domain namespace enable users to easily locate the network services and resources. 2nd floor in the organization center.row3.1.0.

H. K. C. DNS server is used to convert host name FQDN into IP address and IP address into host name FQDN. Fig 7: Tree structure or Domain Namespace 3. This root domain is designated with a dot (. I. G.5 DNS server Any computer providing domain namespace is a DNS server. D. they are A. To store the name-to-IP-addresses mappings so crucial to network communication. There is one root domain.5.2 shows the tree structure or domain namespace.). Fig 6. which acts as the starting point of the fully qualified domain names. J.Namespace works on the hierarchical tree structure of root domain. name server uses zone files. E. . F.1. There are total 13 root domain working in the internet. B. L and M.

1 Resource record stored in a zone file Each record stored in a zone file has a specific purpose. Some of the records set the behavior of the name server.2. (ii) SOA (Start of Authority): This resource record indicates the name of origin for the zone contains the name of the server that is the primary source for information about the zone. If the domains represents logical division of the DNS namespace.5.2 DNS Zone Zone is the part of DNS database that contain record of domain or multiple domain. (i) NS (Name Server): These specify the name servers that are authoritative for a given portion of DNS namespace. and this zone files exist on hard drive of server. It is also used to store other properties such as version information and timings that affect zone renewal or expiration. . In other words information about records of the resources within DNS domain is stored in a zone files. The information in an SOA record affect how often transfer of the zone are done between servers authoritative for the zone. These records are essential when DNS servers are performing iterative queries to perform name resolution.3.5. others have the job of resolving a host name or service into an IP table. zones represents the physical separation of the DNS namespace. Zone files are divided into one of two basic types: • • Forward lookup zone: Provides host-name-to-IP-address resolution Reverse lookup zone: Provides IP-address-to-host-name resolution 3.

but to an existing A record in the zone.5.e do not fill its host name steps to change SOA and NS records • Right click on SOA records → properties . 3.com) new host→ enter host name for global level (i. For example.abc.com is probably not named www. but a CNAME record exist resolution of www to an IP address all the same. click on add button enter another host name.2.2 Steps to Install and configure DNS server • • • • • Start → control panel→ add and remove program Add remove window components Select networking services and click on detail button Check box of DNS server Ok and finish 3. The CNAME record actually points not to an IP address.(iii) CNAME (Canonical Name): CNAME can be used to assign multiple names of a single IP address.com)→ next Tick Allow both secure and non secure updates and secure dynamic updated next→ next now click on created zone (abc. the server hosting the site www.e by entering www) fill IP address of the web server .3 Creating a Forward Lookup Zone • • • • • • • • • • • Statically fill the IP address Start →administrator tools DNS→ right click on forward lookup zone New zone→ next Select primary zone→ next Enter zone name (abc.5.2. a blank host with same IP i.

g ping www.abc.chd.abc. (iv) c:>ipconfig /all This command display FQDN.com command is used to check the path .4 Some DNS Commands (i) c:>tracert www. a data packet follow from one router to another router. MAC address.com 3.2.5.3 • • • • • • • • Creating a Reverse Lookup Zone Right click on reverse lookup zone New zone→ next→ select primary zone→ next fill →Network ID→ next→ next Select allow both non secure and non secure dynamic updates Finish Right click on created reverse zone→ new pointer enter host IP number e. (ii) c:>nslookup command display the domain name with IP (works only when reverse lookup zone is set up).abc. IP address.com→ apply→ ok right click on NS records click on add button→ enter FQDN→ www.com)→ responsible person host master.50) enter FQDN (www.0. (iv) c:>ipconfig /flushdns .2.abc.g (www.yahoo.com resolve→ ok→ apply→ ok Now go to start menu → ping abc.g (50.com On Client Side → To access DNS server fill IP address of server then use ping command e.5.com) 3.• • • • • Fill primary server e.0.

6 DHCP SERVER DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) is a protocol that allocates IP address to computer on a network. DHCP server supplies all the necessary networking param-eters. and can make the administration of several scopes on window 2003 DHCP server more DHCP Scope . Further DHCP will frequently configure clients with optional values.6. if one is present. Two things are always handed out as a part of DHCP configuration: IP address and subnet mask. DNS server address.This command flush or clear all the information in the cache that is retrieved from DNS server. (vi) c:>ip config /register register any DNS name 3. (v) c:>ipconfig /displaydns Display the current contents or entries in the cache. and the address of a Window Internet Naming Server. 3. such as a default gateway. A group of IP address within a scope is called as DHCP scope. DHCP centralized the management of IP address allocation and reduces human error associated with manual IP configuration. DHCP Super Scope A super scope is used to combine two or more scopes each serving different subnets.1 Working of DHCP Server (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) DHCP Scope DHCP Super Scope Exclusion IP Range DHCP Lease Time IP Reservation Scope having the range of IP address for providing dynamic IP address to other computer. Scenario showing DHCP server IP address allocation.

It allows communication when . a DHCP server computer can activate and provide leases from more than one scope to clients on a single physical network. When a DHCP client is unable to locate a DHCP server.254.0. With in 8 days:After 80% of day clients demand new IP some times server refuse the client request.0. With this feature. a DHCP server can: • Support DHCP clients on a single physical network segment where multiple logical IP networks are used. When more than one logical IP network is used on each physical subnet or network. such configuration is called multinets.*. By default DHCP lease time is 8 days minimum.2 to 192. • • Support DHCP clients located on the far side of DHCP and BOOTP relay agent.e if we want that from the series of 192. Using super scope you can group multiple scopes as a single administrative entity that allows the client to lease from either one. In multinet configuration.254.manageable.1 day maximum 999 days.168.*.168. After 87. In this way . Exclusion IP range If you want to reserve some IP for any computer i.100 if we want that a series of IP addresses must not be assigned automatically then at can be done using exclusive IP range. DHCP Leased Time DHCP lease time is validity of IP address. DHCP superscope can be used to group and activate individual scope ranges of IP addresses used on your network.0. it is random because the client generates an arbitrary host number for that network.5% of days it will retry.*. the client picks out a random IP address from the private APIPA address range of 169.255. The 169.* IP range is private because that network number is not in use on the internet. The significance of APIPA is that DHCP client computers that cannot find a DHCP server can still be assigned an IP address and communicate with other computers on the same subnet mask that also cannot find DHCP server.0. with a subnet mask of 255. 23 hours to53 day. and if the server did not give the new IP address then the client will receive APIPA address (Automatic Private IP Address).

2 • • • • • Installation Steps of DHCP Server start→ control panel add and remove program→ add and remove window components select networking services and click on detail button check box of DHCP server ok→ finish 3.1 • • • • • • • Steps To Configure DHCP Server start→ program→ administrative tool select DHCP create new scope in action menu→ new scope → next give scope name→ next give IP address range→ next add exclusion name→ next check lease duration→ next→ finish After DHCP server is configured. it is required to be authorized and DHCP scope should be active.6. 3. and therefore it cannot communicate with any computer that lives on the other side of a router.6. We can reserve IP address with the help of MAC address for a particular computer. This can be done by statically filling the IP address. For that select DHCP server and click on authorize in action menu.2. but you will also want to make sure that they get same IP address every time. .DHCP server is down or just plain not there. Note that APIPA does not assign a default gateway. Then right click on scope name and click on active. IP Reservation There are some DHCP clients that you want to be the DHCP clients.

Steps of taking backup : • • Stop the DHCP server and disable the DHCP server services Copy the DHCP server directory to a temporary location. fill the IP address and select two LAN cards Open Routing and Remote Access → enable Routing and Remote Access Right click on general new routing protocols Select DHCP relay agent New interface Select LAN card which is to be connected to the cross cable i.6.6.2.3. we can take our database from the place where it is stored. say pen drive or on a new DHCP server. 3. as it is helpful in case due to any reason our data is corrupted or deleted. 3.6.3.6. In window 2003 server system the DHCP relay agent can be enabled as a part of Routing and Remote Access (RRAS).3 Backup of DHCP Server We can take backup of all the configuration in DHCP server with the help of administrator.1 Steps To Configure DHCP Relay Agent • • • • • • • Set the network. Backup means to export the DHCP database to another system.2 • • • • On Client Side Go to LAN card properties → select TCP/IP protocol→ properties Select obtain IP address automatically Go to command prompt (cmd) Give command 3.2.e L1 Ok .3 DHCP Relay Agent The DHCP relay agent is a software that listen DHCP discover packet and forward to DHCP server.

It has uniqueness of the user account that allows administrator to control access for every member of domain. Every users account is unique. There are two types of users accounts: local account and domain account.e information about the user. The fundamental building block of Microsoft’s Directory services continues to be a domain. . Active Directory is used to create server based networking. DNS based naming and other network information. The user account represents the individual to domain. Active Directory’s job is to store and make available a Directory database i. Local accounts are maintained in the local database of a computer and cannot be used to grant access to network resources. Microsoft introduced Active Directory. groups and users accounts. Active Directory also allows administrator to assign policies. Domain users accounts are stored in Active Directory.7 ACTIVE DIRECTORY With the release of Windows 2000. Local users are primarily used to administer a computer or to allow several people to share a single computer that is not a member of a domain. Whereas domain users accounts are much more widely used in organizations that local user accounts because they allow for central administration and user can log onto any computer in the domain. its class. A domain is logically grouping of network resources. Additional improvements were made in Window server 2003 and Window server 2008. phone numbers. location. released first with window 2000 server edition and revised to extend functionally and improve administration in Window 2003. robust directory service.• • • Right click on relay agent → properties Enter IP address of DHCP server add→ apply→ ok 3. printers. name. a scalable. including shares. Active Directory is a technology created by Microsoft that provides a variety of network services like Directory Services. and allows for different type of access and different types of tasks. deploy software and apply critical updates to an organizations. Active Directory was previewed in 1999. mails. address.

6. 4. each PC can be administrated and managed from the server. called domain controller (DC)which controls all other computers called clients.com etc.like win2000/2003 server are used. There is no client and no server. There is centralized administration and separately. This model is recommended for large networks. model.com. system . It is a peer-to-peer networking 1. 6. There is no centralized Administration and each PC is administrated 4.In this model. • • Workgroup Domain Difference Between Workgroup and Domain Table 9 Workgroup Domain 1. Workgroup can be given names like sales.3. HR. xyz. 3.This model is recommended for small networks (upto 10 pcs). 5. 5.7.In this model high grade operating win 98 etc can be used. Domain can also given names like abc. 3.1 Active Directory Services A computer network can be divided logically into two networking models. computer All computers are in equal status. .there is a centralized dedicated server 2. 2. accounts etc. It is a server based networking model. low grade operating system like 2000/xp professional.

yahoo. each domain has security boundary. Active Directory also links related domains in a hierarchical structure and users can access resources in any of the domain in which their user account resides. 7. All domains in the forest share same schema. yahoo. where mail.7.7 Users accounts are created in each PC and are called as “Local Users”. Active Directory uses domain to hold objects.g we can create a parent domain and then child domain like mail.1. such as a shared folders.Users accounts are created on sever side DC and are called as ”Domain Users”.com. The child domain includes the complete parent domain name. 3. Domain Tree A domain tree is made up when there is a parent child relationship between the domain in the forest. The hierarchical structures of related domain is called a tree. and all domains in the tree share the same Domain Name System (DNS) namespace. . a tree is a set of two or more domains sharing common namespace e. Users must authenticates to the domain in which their users account resides before they can access resources. All the domains and the trees in a single organization are called a forest.1 • • • Types of Domain Domain Forest Domain Tree Organization unit Domain Forest A forest is created when window 2k3 server computer is configured as a domain controller. A forest is a collection of multiple domain link together and relationship between the domains.child domain.parent domain.

accounts in a company OU can be used to apply different security policies to computer and users in different department. computer groups.1. shared folders. OU also helps in dividing administration among different administrator of managing only computer and users of sales department. accounts department like sales.7. printers and group policy object in simple words. OU means department like sale department.2 Types of Domain Controller (i) (ii) (iii) PDC : Primary domain controller ADC : Additional domain controller BDC : Backup domain controller . 3.Fig 8: Structure of domain forest and domain tree Organization Unit (OU) Organization unit is the smallest unit in a domain network that can contain users.

3 Requirements of Active Directory (i) (ii) (iii) Window 2000/2003 server computer. the other DC will continue serving the client. Additional Domain Controller (ADC) It is a domain network. it is automatically created in the ADC because of replication. group policy.Primary Domain Controller (PDC) This is the first domain controller. Fig 9: Multi-Master Model 3.master model . Static IP address . Organization unit etc. in this domain all entries are created in it like users account. Atleast one NTFS partition. All the domain controllers in the domain networking are peers and this model is called as multi.1. We can make a change in the active directory of any domain controller and that change is replicated to all other domain controllers. Replication takes place among all the domain controllers and it is controlled automatically. ADC has same configuration of AD as primary domain controller. If we create a user in the first domain controller. it is important to have more than one DC so that if one DC fails. All FSMO role are done in PDC.7. All domain controllers in a domain networking are masters. The first DC we create is simply called PDC and if we create an extra DC then that DC is known as ADC. There is also load balancing of Active Directory Service if we have more than one DC.

4 Installation of Active Directory First of all fill the static IP address. if not installed of Active Directory and configure it.com) Next Domain NETBIOS name (gmail.com) Next Data folder.7.(iv) (v) (vi) Atleast 1GB free hard disk space LAN card enabled and connected to the network Install DNS.1.DNS is automatically installed and configured during the Active Directory installation. then install DNS service into it and after that install the Active Directory • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • start→ run→ dcpromo Ok Welcome to active directory → next→ next Select domain controller for a new domain e. 3. Tick on permission compatible only with window server Next Enter the restore mode and the password next→ next→ finish now restart computer Command used for the removal of Active Directory start→ run→ dcpromo . It should be noted that active directory cannot work without DNS. folder new tech directory service→ next (SYS VOL) Next Click on install and configure the DNS server on this computer to use this DNS server as its preferred DNS server.g (gmail.

exam. if after this command the active directory is not removed then type • • • start→run cmd→dcpromo /forceremoval Ok How to identify Active Directory installation • Start → administrator tool After that if three options specified if come.edu ─ start of authority (SOA) ─ name server (NS) Now ping active directory with domain name like • start→ run→ ping gmail. it means that Active Directory has been installed ─ Active Directory domain and trusts ─ Active Directory sites and services ─ Active Directory users and computer Open DNS console by • • Administrator tools→DNS Forward lookup zone ─ msdcs.This command is also used to remove active directory. • • • • Start→ run→ntbackup→ok Select advance mode and untick that is already ticked Select backup Selsct system state . If there is any problem in active directory then remove it and restore the backup.com Backup of Active Director Active Directory backup come in use when there is some problem in active directory.

com.• • Change backup path browse keep in your hardware and then send it to the pen drive D:\adbackup 3.com”.xyz. Now “chd. Each branch office will have its own administrator to manage the users of the child domain present in the branch office. Moreover users of either domain can use clients of either domain for logging in . We can create the parent domain in the head office of the company and the child domain in the branch offices.7. This means users in the child domain can access the file server of the parent domain. this domain is known as parent domain or the root domain. A true relationship is automatically created between the parent domain and the child domain. Fig 10 : parent-child relationship model A child domain is created to ease administration in a very large domain network.com” will be the child domain or the sub domain of xyz.2 CHILD DOMAIN A domain is created say “xyz.

mcse. Now make Tom user on it.7. then make users on it. Users of either domain can logon its own domain from either side but only when it use its own domain name. Also parent domain can apply policies or security on the child domain.1 Steps to create child domain First of all install the active directory on pc1 i. On pc2 create the child domain. user.com) next enter username.2. password and domain name enter user parent domain name also enter child domain name enter complete DNS name i.the domain but a user can always logon only in the domain in which his account resides. though he physically can use client pc of parent or client domain. users of parent domain can communicate with child domain but he has to use its domain name for that.e xyz.e on the parent domain.com) Run →dcpromo→ ok next→ select domain controller for a new domain next→ select child domain and existing domain name (mcse. 3. .com next→ next→ next→ next it should be noted that parent domain can logon into child domain but on the other hand child domain cannot logon to the parent domain. • • • • • • • • • • Fill the IP address in the child domain Now ping to the parent domain with the domain name (xyz.Ram Below are the steps to cerate child domain.

just by taking internet connection directly from ISP (Internet Server provider). then it is provided to ADSL model. The scenario for direct sharing is as shown in figure: .com 3.Make the client member by entering particular user with its domain name.1 Direct Sharing Internet sharing can be done between computers directly.8 INTERNET SHAREING We can share a single internet connection to multiple computers with the help of networking or internet sharing. further connects computers those have to be provided with internet connection. Switch.8.abc Domain name – mail.Tom Domain name .com Again logoff and check the other user Start-user name. There are four ways to share internet.mcse. • • • • • First right click on My Computer Properties Computer name Change Write domain name →ok Now logoff start and then write user name . (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Direct sharing ICS – Internet connection sharing Win Proxy NAT – Network Address Translation 3. Then it is connected to the switch with RJ-45 connector. ADSL modem is connected to the ISP through RJ-11 connector.mcse.

Also DHCP (Dynamic Host Communication Protocol) is enabled which will provide IP addresses to the PCs automatically.Fig: 11: Direct Sharing Scenario ADSL modem has IP address 192.it . Internal LAN card uses Local LAN card (L2) and External LAN card (L1) is used by Internet.168. All the PCs are assigned with a DNS (Domain Name Server) and GW (gateway) -192.1 address and an adapter for public connection.2 ICS (Internet Connection Sharing) Internet Connection sharing provides an alternate way to provide Internet Sharing. 2k3 Server SP1. ICS is designed to be as simple as possible.1.0.e. ICS server requires two LAN cards. Vista. ICS requires a server with two network interfaces. Internal (Private) and External (Public). ICS requires two connections in order to work: one public and one private i. ICS works on following windows: XP.1. 3. one for the private internal network configured with IP 192.8.168. 2K3 Server.168.1.1.

1 address automatically.0.Properties Click on sharing Enable ICS Ok yes 3.When we configure ICS then the local card detect 192. How to configure ICS • • • • • • • • Open network and sharing center Network.8. The scenario for ICS is shown below: Fig 12: ICS scenario Note:.3 Win Proxy Server .168.doesn’t work on the server in which AD+SP1 is present.Properties Click on Manage network connections Right click on LAN Card which is used for internet.

Assign IP address 192.1.1.4 NAT (Network Address Translation) If we have to connect many computers with a single IP address then we will use NAT.1. NAT exchange IP packet between local network and internet. By enabling NAT on a Server 2003 system. you allow connected users on a private system to share a single connection to access a public network such as the internet i. assign GW 192.168. WIN Proxy supports all the three classes A.e. The scenario for WIN proxy is shown below: Fig 13: scenario of win proxy server In win proxy as shown in the scenario above we can share internet.168.2 and end IP address of 192. The routing and remote access server of window 2K3 server provide us with a component known as NAT. NAT enable multiple client computer to connect the internet through a single publicly registered IP .1. Then after ADSL modem connect PC1.Win Proxy is a third party software which is used for sharing internet and we can also block the web site with the help of win proxy.8.1 to the ADSL modem also enable the DHCP server and set the start IP address of 192.1 and 3.168. First of all a ADSL modem is connected to the ISP (Internet Service Provider) by a RJ-11 connector and other end of ADSL modem is connected to the PC1 through RJ-45.254. C also it is supported by all operating systems. B.168.

168. On the client side of NAT. Fig 14: NAT server When deploying NAT. Assuming NAT is used for address assignment.255.255. On the server side of NAT fill the IP address statically.0.4. it is needed to configure setting on both the client side and the server side.0 private addressing range Subnet mask (255. 3. The client information includes: • • IP address from 192. A NAT server translate private IP address to public addresses.8. client side is configured to obtain IP addresses automatically and then restart the client system.address. NAT eliminates the need for large number of IP addresses by mapping externally assigned IP addresses.0) . the client system will receive TCP/IP information from the NAT server.1 Steps to enable NAT server • • • • Open internet → Tools→ Internet options connections→ LAN settings untick the IP and port address ok→ ok→ give site name .

To do this.• DNS server address. start the Routing and Remote Access Service Setup Wizard.9 VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORK (VPN) A virtual private network is used to convert public network address to private network.one network card can host several inbound connections. which would be the address of the NAT interface on the server. 3. rather than require a modem and telephone line for each simultaneous remote user. . All the clients of VPN dial to public IP address of VPN server and receive private IP from virtual VPN dynamic host protocol (DHCP).in VPN one can have multiple virtual connections to a single IP address. This way . tick on remove. there are few things to do on NAT server: The first step to configure NAT server is to actually install the Routing and Remote Access Services. With the client side configured. • • • • • • • Start→ administrator tools→ Routing & Remote Access Right click on My Computer→ right click on computer name Select option Configure and enable routing & remote access Welcome to routing → next→ next Select NAT→ next Select LAN card which is to be connected to internet next→ next From any of the four methods of internet sharing only method is used at a time to remove the other method • • • go to start→ setting add & remove change/ remove.

9. 3. VPN Client VPN clients establish connection to VPN server. you can allow access to just that server. or pass traffic through VPN server so that the remote user gain access the resources of the entire network. Router-to router VPN connection can be made from computers running server2003 and Windows 2000 running VPN server VPN Clients WAN Option Security Options . We can create a private network through public network. serve as the end points of a VPN connection. including Window 2003 server. When configuring a VPN server.1 VPN components (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) VPN Server VPN server. we can use firewall for security and data encryption in VPN server.Fig 15 : scenario of VPN server Using VPN server we can connect many private networks to internet services i. VPN client software is included in all the modern window operating systems. They can also be routers that obtain the router-to-router secure connection.e the remote connection.

WAN Options PPTP or L2TP These provide the physical mechanism for passing data back and forth.Routing and Remote Access. Security Options Since a VPN uses a network that is generally open to the public.9. IP packet filtering and caller ID. One of the key differences between Window’s server 2003 implementation of L2TPand it cousin PPTP is that L2TPis . Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) L2TP is a standard based encapsulation protocol with roughly the same functionality as a Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP). Additionally.2 Types of VPN (i) (ii) PPTP (Point to Point Tunneling Protocol ) L2TP (Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol) according to CCNA. PPTP encapsulates IP or IPX packets inside of PPP datagram’s. data encryption. To aid with secure communication routing and remote access supports such security measure as logon and domain security. These connections typically include such similar network technologies such as T1or frame relay. It was developed in conjunction with other communications companies such as Robotics as an extension to the PPP protocol. any client that support connections can be VPN clients of a window server 2003 system. making it much safer to send information over nonsecure networks. smart cards. In order for VPN connections to be successful. it is important that the data passed over the connection remain secure. 3. the VPN client and VPN server must be connected to each other using either permanent WAN connection or by dialing into an internet server provider (ISP). One of the keys to remember about PPTP is that the protocol provides encryption capabilities. This means that you can remotely run programs that are dependent upon particular network protocols. Point to Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) PPTP is Microsoft’s legacy protocol for supporting VPN.

L2TPencapsulates Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) frames. For data security L2TPrelies on the services of another standards.25. frame relay. Like PPTP.based protocol.9.3 • • • • • • • • • • • How to configure VPN start→administrative tools Routing and Remote access Right click on computer name configure and enable Routing and Remote access next→ select remote access (dial up or VPN) next→ VPN→ next select LAN card which is connected to internet (172.designed to run natively over IP networks only. or ATM networks. allowing users to remotely run programs that are dependent on specific network protocols .5 • • • • Create users in VPN server open user properties→ dial in → allow access apply→ ok Working on Client Side Right click on My Network Places→ properties Double click on New Network Wizard→ next Connect to network at my work place→ next Virtual private network connection→ next .15.9.9. 3.50) public IP disable enable security → next from a specific range of address→ next→new enter the required range ok→next→ no radius next→ finish 3.4 • • 3. But unlike the PPTP protocol. IPSec. which then encapsulate IP or IPX protocols. This implementation of L2TP does not support native tunneling over X. L2TP does not provide encryption of the data.15.

To assign a specific IP to a user. In an internetwork a router must then about all the networks present in the for effort websites. This is the only way in Window Server 2003 that you can assign a specific IP to a user. The routing table helps direct traffic that is passed through the router.1 Static Routing In this routing information required for routing is manually entered into the router by administrator. Static routing can also be specified as per user. then. users can be limited to only specific parts of networks.• • • • Enter company name (abc)→ next Enter public IP address of VPN server→ next Any one use →next finish 3.1. . The dial-in properties also allow for specific IP address to be assigned to a user. Now when there is a router.10. also there is a routing table. 3. check the box next to assign A Static IP Address and enter a valid IP in the space provided. Routing connect different networks having ID help in process of routing.10. There are two ways the routing table can be built and modified: either manually or automatically. Even win 2003 server computer configured as router.e from one network to another. By defining static routes.10 ROUTING It is a process of transferring information through an inter network i. there are hardware routers like CISCO. are attached to two different logical IP networks. These two network cards.1 Types of Routing (i) (ii) Static Routing Dynamic Routing 3. there is a need to configure the router in order for that router to pass along traffic to the proper network. In simple words Router is a computer with two network cards.

0 IP 10.0.0.15.0.0.0 GW 20.0 SNM 255.0 GW 20.0.0.0 SNM 255.1 Fig 16 : scenario for LAN routing How to configure static routing At Router R1: • • enable LAN routing right click on static route .How to configure LAN routing • • • • • • • • Enter the static IP in the router Administrator tools Routing and Remote access Right click on computer name (pcc1) Configure and enable routing and remote access next→ custom configuration select LAN routing→next→ finish yes and logon to see IP table route Enable LAN routing Interface WAN IP 172.0.0.2 enable LAN routing Interface WAN 10.0.0.255.0.0.

1 Fig 17 : static routing 3.0.0.10.15.0.0.2 Enable LAN routing Right click on static route Interface WAN Destination 10.0.0 Mask 255.2 Dynamic Routing The other way to manage a router routing tables is to let the computer do it for you.0.0 mask 255.0 GW 20.0.1. Just like DHCP allocate IP addresses.• • • • At Router R2: • • • • • • interface WAN destination 172.255. configuring the dynamic routing .0 GW 20.0.0.0.

In dynamic routing. RIP version2 offers more flexibility in subnetted and classless inter domain routing (CIDR) environments. you get the following features: (i) (ii) RIP version1 and version2. with the ability to configure individual network cards with separate versions. RIP is used for small networks where as OSPF is used for large networks. When RIP is enabled for an interface. These routing protocols used by Window Server 2003 use one of two kinds of algorithms to determine the best possible path for a packet to get to its destination. the routing table includes entries only for the networks that are physically connected. With a few clicks in the Routing and Remote Access Server and MMC console. either distance vector or link state. Also.protocol usually means less errors due to human error. routing information is automatically entered in the router using protocols like RIP AND OSPF. RIP version1 uses broadcast packets for its announcement. This protocol was designed for the exchange of the routing information within a small to medium size IP network. Calculations used to avoid routing loops and speed recovery of the network whenever topology changes occur. and less administrative overhead. Routing Information Protocol (RIP) The distance vector protocol in use on Window 2003 is called Routing Information Protocol (RIP) for IP. RIP version2 offers an improvement and can be configured to use either multicast or broadcast packets when communicating with other routers. . With the RIP dynamic routing protocol installed on Window’s Server 2003. When Router is enabled on Window 2003 machine. the router will periodically send an announcement of its routing table to inform other RIP routers of the networks it can reach. you can deploy RIP. The biggest advantage of RIPis its simplicity.

(iii)

Route filters; you can configure RIP to except information from only certain networks, and also choose which routes will be shared with RIP routers.

(iv) (v)

Peer filters, which allow control over which router announcements are accepted. Simple password authentication support.

But there are significant drawbacks, which makes RIP a poor, if not unusable solution for large networks. For example, the maximum hop count used for RIP routers is15, making network 16 hops away (or more) unreachable where RIP is concerned. Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Where RIP is built to work to work in smaller networks, the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing protocol is designed for large or very large networks. The goal is the same: information about connection to other networks is shared from one router to another. It offers several advantages over RIP, especially significant in large networks: (i) (ii) (iii) Routes calculated with OSPF are always loop free. OSPF can scale much more easily than RIP. Reconfiguration for network topology changes is faster.

The biggest reason OSPF is the choice in large networks is its efficiency; instead of changing routing table via broadcast the way RIP does, OSPF configured routers maintain a map of the network. The mapping is called the link state database, OSPF routers keep the link state database up to date. Once changes have been made to link state database, an OSPF router’s link state database is recalculated. As the networks start to multiply, the size of the link state database increases, and a corresponding hit on router performance results. To combat this, OSPF sub divide the network into smaller sections, called areas. Areas are connected to each other through a backbone area, with each router only responsible for the link state database for those areas connected to the routers. Area Border Routers (ABRs) then connect one backbone area to another.

The biggest drawback of OSPF is its complexity; OSPF requires proper planning and is more difficult to configure and administer.

3.11 EXCHANGE SERVER
Exchange server is a mail server, we can send and receive mail from one user to another user. Exchange server is the mail server of Microsoft.

3.11.1 Elements of Exchange Server
Mail Server A server which helps to the users to send and receive mail is called mail server. Mail Box A storage place where senders and receivers mails are stored.

3.11.2

Exchange Version
Table 10: Exchange Server with different operating systems Exchange Version Exchange Server 5.5 Exchange Server 2000 Operating System WIN NT or 2000 server (without SP). WIN NT or 2000 server (SP3,SP4) without (SP). Exchange Server 2003 WIN 2000 Server or WIN2003 server (SP4) without SP. Exchange server 2007 WIN2003 server or R2/WIN 2008 server with SP1.

Where SP stands for Service Pack. Service Pack are the services which are loaded externally to remove some bugs that come during installation of server CD.

3.11.3 Requirements for Exchange Server Protocols Required
• • • • POP3 (Post Office Protocol) This protocol is used for receiving e- mails. IMAE4 (Internet Messaging Access Protocol) This protocol is advance version of POP, this is also used to receive mail. LMTP (Local Mail Transfer Protocol)/SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) This protocol is used to send mails. NNTP (Network News Transfer protocol) This protocol is used for transferring messages on internet.

Hardware Requirements
• • Processor: min. 133MHz Rec. 733MHz RAM: min. 256MB Rec. 512MB

Other Requirements
• • • • • • OS: 2k or 2k3 Server NTFS partition Static IP address Active Directory DNS installation with AD zone IIS installed with ASP.net, SMTP, NNTP and www service

3.12 Open System Interconnection (OSI) Model
OSI model is the layer approach to design, develop and implement network. OSI provides following advantages: (i) (ii) Development of new technology will be faster. Devices from multiple vendors can communicate with each other.

But logical addressing is easier to communicate on large size network.(iii) Implementation and troubleshooting of network will be easy. Transport Layer Transport layer is responsible for connection oriented and connection less communication. 3. maintain and terminate sessions between different applications. Session Layer This layer initiate. It also able to performs other function like compression/decompression and encryption/decryption.1 Description of Different Layers Application Layer Application layer accepts data and forward into the protocol stack. It creates user interface between application software and protocol stack. Due to this layer multiple application software can be executed at the same time. Transport layer also performs other functions like (i) (ii) Error checking Flow Control Buffering Windowing Multiplexing (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) Network Layer This layer performs function like logical addressing and path determination. Logical addressing defines network address and host address. Some Sequencing Positive Acknowledgement Response . This type of addressing is used to simplify implementation of large network. Presentation Layer This layer decides presentation format of the data. Each networking device has a physical address that is MAC address.12.

Physical Layer Physical Layer is responsible to communicate bits over the media this layer deals with the standard defined for media and signals. Network layer has different routing protocols like RIP.examples of logical addressing are: .11 wi-fi. BGP. to perform the path determination for different routing protocol. IPX addresses etc.IP addresses. Network layer also perform other responsibilities like defining quality of service. 3. Data Link Layer The functions of Data Link layer are divided into two sub layers • • (i) Logical Link Control Media Access Control Logical Link Control defines the encapsulation that will be used by the NIC to delivered data to destination. EIGRP. Token Passing. Some examples of Logical Link Control are ARPA (Ethernet). (ii) Media Access Control defines methods to access the shared media and establish the identity with the help of MAC address.13 ROUTERS . 802. Some examples of Media Access Control are CSMA/CD. fragmentation and protocol identification. and ARP etc. This layer may also perform modulation and demodulation as required.

It is used to store the startup configuration of the Router.1 Router Architecture and its Key Component Processor I/O Controller Memory Controller BIOS ROM Incomplete IOS NVRAM Startup Configuration IOS RAM LAN WAN Ports Flash RAM O/S Fig 18 : Architecture of router Processor Speed: . Router O/S is also called IOS (Internetwork Operating System). Orion. It is on chip RAM. NVRAM NVRAM is a “Non Volatile Random Access Memory”. Power PC. . This memory is used to store one or more copies of router O/S. This memory is Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EEPROM).The size of Flash RAM in the router is 4MB to 256MB. its size is 32kb.20 MHz to 1GHz Architecture: .Motorola.13.RISC Reduce Instruction set computer Manufacturers: . Flash RAM is the permanent read/write memory. IBM. Intel.13. Texas. Flash RAM Flash memory is just like a hard copy of the computer.

• • Primary RAM Shared RAM Primary RAM Primary RAM is used for: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Shared RAM Shared RAM is used as a buffer memory to shared the data received from different interfaces. Size of RAM in a router may vary from 2 MB to 512 MB.this means that it holds the running configuration. RAM of the router is divided into two logical parts. Mini IOS .RAM (Random Access Memory) It is a volatile memory. BOOT Strap Boot strap specifies from where and which inter operating system is to be loaded. The types of memory that may be present in a RAM are: (i) (ii) (iii) DRAM -> Dynamic RAM EDORAM -> Extended Data Out RAM SDRAM -> Synchronous Dynamic RAM Running copy of IOS. All the activities we do are stored in RAM. Running configuration Routing table Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) table (IP address to MAC address) Processor & other data structure ROM (Random Access Memory) It has four components: • • • POST (Power on Self Test) It performs hardware testing.

Interface will use protocol stacks to send/receive data.2 Router Ports Table 12: Router Ports . Ports are not used to connect different networks. 3.2.1 Router Interface Table 11: Router interfaces and connectors AUI – Attachment Unit Interface EPABX – Electronic Private Automatic Branch PSTN – Public Services Telephone Network 3.Cisco 2500. Ports are used for the configuration of routers.13.2.13. 1600 • ROM MOW Router Interfaces & Ports Interface is used to connect LAN networks or wan networks to the router. The primary purpose of port is the management of router.

we can display all information. Privileged mode Router# In this mode. We are not able to perform here configuration editing of the router. privileges and rights are assigned to the user. .Modes of Router When we access router command prompt the router will display different modes. configuration. perform administration task. In this mode we are not able to change and save router configuration. User mode Router> In this mode. According to the modes. debugging. testing and connectivity with other devices. we can display basic parameter and status of the router we can test connectivity and perform telnet to other devices.

This mode is used to configure router interfaces. OSPF etc. Banner.Ethernet. .g:.g: .router hostname or access list of router. Global parameters applied to the entire router. For e. i. We have to enter enable password or enable secret password to enter in this mode. Router(config)#interface <type> <number> Router(config)#interface serial 1 Routing configuration mode This mode is used to configure routing protocol like RIP. EIGRP. If both passwords are configured then only enable secret will work. Serial. There are main types of line that are configured. (i) Console Router(config)#line console 0 (ii) Auxiliary Router(config)#line aux 0 (iii) Telnet or vty Router(config)#line vty 0 4 Interface configuration mode In this mode we can set ip addresses of the interfaces.e to set user mode password .The command to enter in this mode is ‘enable’. The command to enter in this mode is ‘configure terminal’ Line configuration mode In this mode we can set the password of the user mode. All the changes are performed in this mode. Security. password. vty and auxiliary. Routing. Global configuration Route(config)# This mode is used for the configuration of global parameters in the router. For e. But here we cannot see and save the changes. BRI etc. Enable secret has more priority than enable password.This mode is used to configure lines like console.

Router(config)#router <protocol> [<option>] Router(config)#router rip Router(config)#router eigrp 10 Configuring Password There are five types of password available in a router Console Password router#configure terminal router(config)#line console 0 router(config-line)#password <word> router(config-line)#login router(config-line)#exit To erase password do all steps with no command. Vty Password router>enable router#configure terminal router(config)#line vty 0 4 router(config-line)#password <word> router(config-line)#login router(config-line)#exit Auxiliary Password router#configure terminal router(config)#line Aux 0 router(config-line)#password <word> router(config-line)#login router(config-line)#exit Enable Password router>enable .

Startup configuration is used to save settings in a router. this command is written in the running configuration.13. Running Configuration is present in the Primary RAM wherever we run a command for configuration. It is stored as clear text in configuration where as enable secret password is the encrypted password. Router>enable Router#configure terminal Router(config)#enable secret <word> Router(config)#exit Encryption all passwords All passwords other than enable secret password are clear text password.router#configure terminal router(config)#enable password <word> router(config)#exit Enable Secret Password Enable Password is the clear text password.5 Managing Configuration There are two types of configuration present in a router (i) (ii) Startup Configuration Running Configuration Startup configuration is stored in the NVRAM. The command to encrypt all password are Router#configure terminal Router(config)#service password-encryption 3. Startup configuration is loaded at the time of booting in to the Primary RAM. To save configuration Router#copy running-configuration startup-configuration Or Router#write .

To abort configuration Router#copy startup-configuration running-configuration To display running-configuration Router#show running-configuration To display startup configuration Router#show startup-configuration Configuring Host Name Router#configure terminal Router(config)#hostname <name> <name>#exit or end or /\z Router#config terminal Router(config)#hostname r1 R1(config)# Configuration Interfaces Interfaces configuration is one of the most important part of the router configuration. all interfaces of Cisco router are in disabled mode. Router#configure terminal Router(config)#interface <type> <no> Router(config-if)#ip address <ip> <mask> Router(config-if)#no shutdown Router(config-if)#exit To display interface status Router#show interfaces (to show all interfaces) Router#show interface <type> <no> This command will display following parameters about an interface (1) Status . We have to use different commands as our requirement to enable and configure the interface. By default.

(2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12)

Mac address IP address Subnet mask Hardware type / manufacturer Bandwidth Reliability Delay Load ( Tx load Rx load) Encapsulation ARP type (if applicable) Keep alive

Configuring optional parameter on WAN interface
Router#configure terminal Router(config)#interfac <type> <no> Router(config-if)#encapsulation <protocol> Router(config-if)#clock rate <value> Router(config-if)#end

Command displaying history of Router To display commands present in history
Router#show history

To display history size
Router#show terminal

To change history size
Router#config terminal Router(config)#line console 0 Router(config-if)#history size <value(0-256)> Router(config-if)#exit

Configuring Banners
Banners are just a message that can appear at different prompts according to the type. Different banners are: • Login Appear before login prompt Exec Appear after we enter to the execution mode Incoming Appear for incoming connections Message of the day (motd) This banner appear at every access method

Syntax:Router#config terminal Router(config)#banner <delimation char> Router(config)# <type> <delimation char>Text Massage

Example
Router#config terminal Router(config)#banner motd $ This router is distribution 3600 router connected to Reliance $ Router(config)#

To set time in router
We can configure router clock with the help of two methods: (i) (ii) on reboot. Configure clock locally Configure clock on NTP server (Network Time Protocol)

Router does not have battery to save the clock setting. So that clock will reset to the default

To display clock
Router#show clock

To configure clock
Router#clock set hh:mm:ss day month year Router#clock set 7:15:10 9 June 2009

To configure clock from NTP server
Router#config terminal Router(config)#ntp server <IP address> Router(config)#exit C:\>ping pool.ntp.org To get ntp server ip from internet C:\>route print

3.14

SUBNETTING
Subnetting is a process or a technique to divide large and complex networks into

smaller parts or smaller networks and each network is called as subnet. Subnetting is done to reduce the wastage of IP addresses ie instead of having a single huge network for an organization smaller networks are created within a given huge network. Subnetting allows the user to create multiple logical networks within a single Class A, B or C based networks. In subnetting, the IPv4 address is broken into two parts; network id and host id. This process borrows bits from the host id field. In this process, the network size does not shrink but the size of hosts per network shrinks in order to include sub-networks within the network.

3.14.1 • • • •

Advantages of subnetting
Size of the physical networks is reduced and hence easy to manage. Reduce network traffic. Easy to troubleshoot. Reduce the wastage of IP address.

bit network address.00000000 . Class B. Default Mask Classfull addresses consists of three classes. Identify the class of address assigned. Class B consists of 16 1s in network address field and 16 0s in remaining field.255. A subnet mask when logically ANDed with IPaddress provides a 32. 11111111. the default address mask in binary and dotted-decimal is shown in the table To Calculate the Subnet Mask 1.Subnet Mask A subnet mask specifies the part of IP address that is to be used for identifying a sub network.0 and the equivalent binary format is. This binary address gives the first address in the subnet block specified in the large network.Each class has a default subnet mask C lass A consists of eight 1s in the network address field and 24 0s in remaining field. and Class C cointains 24 1s in the network address field and remaining 8 bytes as 0s. 2.11111111. For this example the class of IP address is Class B.0. Class A.00000000. check the default address mask for the appropriate class and convert it to binary format .for this example the default address mask is 255. Class C used for subnet.

2 • • Fixed Length Subnet Mask (FLSM) Variable Length Subnet Mask (VLSM) 10000000 11000000 11100000 11110000 11111000 11111100 11111110 11111111 Types of Subnetting .240. of 0s in the n/w is 32-20=12. the next no. This no. the total no. as 16 1s are from network id and 4 1s are of additional bits required for subnetwork. we require 4 extra 4 extra 1s in the network field which has to be borrowed from the host id field.14.g this address contains 16 1s in class B. So. hence address is given as 11111111. 9 is not a power of 2. that is power of 2 and greater than 2 is 16. 5. The no.11110000. of 1s is 16+4=20.0 Table 14: decimal and binary values of subnet mask Decimal Binary 00000000 0 128 192 224 240 248 252 254 255 3. 6.00000000 and in decimal format can be given as 255. E. check the no. 4. which defines whole address. of 1s in the default mask. 16 bits 2 octat are for net id and the last 16 bits 2 octates are for host id. now if we need 9 subnets.3.255.11111111.

of valid hosts.255. valid hosts. Therefore 2^n =4 i.11111111.192 range=> 256-192=64 To idettify the total no.168.s and borrowed bytes from host ID portion. Let we are given that we have to make 4 subnets. of the valid hosts for each subnet.11111111.0/26 is 11111111.10. Calculate the subnet mask and range Subnet mask for n/w 192. of valid hosts and the broadcast address.255.of subnets Where n are the no. of bits in host ID 2^62=62 Table 15: showing subnet mask.Steps of Subnetting for FLSM For IP address 192.0 (Class C) Step 1: • • Identify the total no. of subnets 2^n = no.10.1100000000 ie 255. 2^m-2= no.168.e n=2 Step 2: • • Step 3: • • • step 4: • Identify the total no of subnets. no. Where m are the remaining no. broadcast address Subnetwork Valid Host Broadcast Address .

The network having more no of hosts is given priority and the one having least no of host comes at last and for each network the subnet is assigned separately.168.10.193 192.168.10.10.168.64 192. As in the scenario given: Fig 19: variable subnet mask .10.254 VLSM In VLSM to allocate IP addresses to subnets depending upon the no.168.10.10.10.168.65 192.168.168.168.255 192.127 to 192.1 192.168.126 192.10.63 to 192.192 192.63 to 192. of hosts.168.10.168.191 to 192.168.10.10.10.10.168.192.168.10.168.128 192.190 192.129 192.0 192.10.10.168.

1 To Access the Device Remotely For this purpose we have to assign the IP addresses to the PCs and the interfaces.2 Commands to assign IP addresses to the interfaces: At Router1: Router> . 3. terminal encapsulation on the network. Port number of Telnet is 23. Telnet service is used where small bandwidth is low. First of all select the PCs and the routers connect the ports to the router. The serial link should have the speed of 64K also apply vty password and enable secret password. click on the PC select RS232 option. Like wise set the IP address of all the PCs. Also DCE cable is used to connect the Routers. then go to the other Router and connect the serial cable at interface s1/0. subnet mask. and the default gateway. Now select cross. so go on first Router select the serial port as s0/1/0 in the scenario. Now connect the PCs to the routers. then connect it on the Router and select console cable. to do this first select the console cable. Accordingly connect the third Router with interfaces s1/1 and s1/2.15. It provides textual access of the remote device. Select the cable to connect the Routers. switch off the router if it is on. Router to Router connections are made by the serial cable. switch on the router. Now set the IP address of the interfaces of router. so that the device can ping each other.over cable on the PC select Fast Ethernet option and on the Router select f0/0 option now as the PCs and Routers are connected to each other assign IP addresses to the PCs and the Routers. It provides textual access of the remote device.3. Set up the Routers so that they can manage via Telnet. Then select the serial port according to the routers. Now set the IP address. double click on router. According to the fig set the IP addresses of the PCs→ double click on the PC→ choose the option of desktop→ IP configuration.15 TELNET Telnet stands for terminal network. Purpose of Telnet is to access the remote device in order to configure it. For Telnet the Routers are to be configured with RIP version1 . It uses the services of TCP. 3. telephone network.15.

Router>enable Router#configure terminal Router(config)#interface f0/0 Router(config-if)#ip address 10.0 Router(config-if)#no shutdown Fig 20: scenario of Telnet Router# Router#configure terminal Router(config)#interface s0/1/0 Router(config-if)#ip address 40.0.0.0.0.0 Router(config-if)#no shutdown Router(config)#interface s0/1/0 Router(config-if)#clock rate 64000 Router(config-if)#no shutdown Now to check the assigned IPaddresses to the interfaces the command used is Router#show ip interface brief .1 255.0.1 255.0.0.0.

0.1 255.0.0.0 Router(config-if)#no shutdown Router(config)#interface s1/1 Router(config-if)#clock rate 64000 Router(config-if)#no shutdown At router 3: Router#configure terminal Router(config)#interface f0/0 Router(config-if)#ip address 30.0.1 255.0.0 Router(config-if)#no shutdown .0.0 Router(config-if)#no shutdown Router# Router#configure terminal Router(config)#interface s1/0 Router(config-if)#ip address 40.2 255.0.0 Router(config-if)#no shutdown Router#configure terminal Router(config)#interface s1/1 Router(config-if)#ip address 50.0.At router 2: Router#configure terminal Router(config)#interface f0/0 Router(config-if)#ip address 20.0.0.2 255.0.0.0.0.0.1 255.0.0.0.0.0.0 Router(config-if)#no shutdown Router# Router#configure terminal Router(config)#interface s1/0 Router(config-if)#ip address 50.

. 3. which are created or connected by us. If we want anyone can telnet our router without password then on the line vty type command “No Login”.16 ROUTING Routing is a process or technique to identify the path from one network to another.To Telnet a device from Router At all the Routers use these commands Router(config)#line vty 0 4 Router(config-line)#password cobra Router(config-line)#login Router(config)#enable password cobra Router(config)#enable secret cobra1 To telnet a device from router Router#telnet <IP> Or Router>telnet <IP> To exit from telnet session Router#exit To exit from a hanged telnet session Ctrl+shft+6 Or Router#disconnect To display connected session Router#show sessions This command shows those sessions. Routers don’t really care about hosts—they only care about networks and the best path to each network.

16.1 STATIC ROUTING In static routing an administrator specifies all the routes to reach the destination. Possible number of routers to reach the destination. Static routes have an Administrative Distance (AD) of 1 Features  There is no overhead on the router CPU.1. How to maintain & verify the routing information.16. 3.  It adds security. (4) Bandwidth of interfaces is not consumed in routing updates.  There is no bandwidth usage between routers. (3) Less overhead for router.By default. Static routing occurs when you manually add routes in each router’s routing table. Default routing.To route the packet the router must know the following things: • • • • • Destination network Neighbour device from witch it can learn about remote Networking. Advantages of static routing (1) Fast and efficient. (2) More control over selected path. . Best route to reach the destination.1 TYPES OF ROUTING • • • Static routing. Dynamic routing. 3. because the administrator can choose to allow routing access to certain networks only.

0.0.0. To check the routing table of router Router # show ip route Fig 21: scenario of static routing Static routing of router (R1) Router(config)#ip route 20. (2) Load balancing is not easily possible.0 255.Disadvantages of static routing (1) More overheads on administrator.address or exit interface> [<administrative distance>Permanent].0.0.0. Syntax for Static Routing Router (config)# ip route <destination N/w> <Subnet mask> <Next Hope.0.2 Router(config)#ip route 30.0.0.0.0 255.0.2 .0. (3) In case of topology change routing table has to be change manually.0 40.0 40.

0.0 255.0.0.0.1 Router(config)#ip route 20.0.2 DEFAULT ROUTING Default routing is used to send packets with a remote destination network not in the routing table to the next-hop route.0 255.0.0 50.1 Router(config)#interface s1/0 Router(config)# clock rate 64000 Router#show ip route 3.0.0 255.0.0.0.0.1 Router(config)#ip route 40.0.0.0.0.0.0.0 255. Stub networks are those having a single exit interface.0.Router(config)#ip route 50. Default routing is also used for unknown destination.0.0.2 Router#show ip route Router(config)#interface s1/0 Router(config)# clock rate 64000 Router(config)#interface s1/1 Router(config)#clock rate 64000 Router#show ip route Static routing of router (R3) Router(config)#ip route 10.1.0.0 50. Default routing is also a type of static routing which reduces the routing overhead & default routing is also used with stub networks.0.0.0 50.0.0.0 50.0.0 40.0.0.0.0.0 40.0.2 Router(config)#interface so/1/0 Router(config)# clock rate 64000 Router # show ip route Static routing of router (R2) Router(config)#ip route 10.0.1 Router(config)#ip route 30.0 255.0. .0 255.0.0.0.16.

A routing protocol defines the set of rules used by router when it communicates routing information between neighbor routers. In dynamic routing. OSPF There are two type of routing protocols used in internetwors: • Interior Gateway Protocols (IGPs) IGPs are used to exchange routing information with routers in the same Autonomous System(AS) number.16. IGRP. EIGRP.0 0.0. If there are more than one path available then routes are compared and best path is selected.0 50.0.0.A special address is used to perform the default routing ie 0.0 0.0. .0 The scenario for default routing is same and but the commands used at the routers having single exit interface like R1 and R3 have different commands.0.0. The routers will pass routing information receive from one router to other router also.0.0.0. Routing which is performed within a single autonomous system is known as interior routing. This protocol will send its routing information to the neighbor router. At Router (R1) Router(config)#ip route 0. we will enable a routing protocol on router.3 DYNAMIC ROUTING Dynamic routing is when protocols are used to find networks and update routing table on routers.0.0 40. Some examples of dynamic protocol are: RIP.2 Router#show ip route At Router (R3) Router(config)#ip route 0.0.0.1 Router#show ip route 3.0. The neighbors will analyze the information and write new routes to the routing table. The protocol that are used to perform this type of routing are known as IGP(Interior Gateway Protocol).1.0.

If a router receives two updates listing he sane remote network. the first thing the router checks is the AD. then the route with the lowest AD will be placed in the routing table.16.These protocols are:(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) RIPv1 (Routing Information Protocol Version 1) RIPv2 (Routing Information Protocol Version 2) EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) IS-IS (Intermediate System to Intermediate System) • Exterior Gateway Protocols (EGPs) EGPs are used to communicate between different Autonomous System. . then routing protocol metrics (such as hop count or bandwidth of the lines) will be used to find the best path to the remote network. The advertised route with the lowest metric will be placed in the routing table.2 Routing Protocol Basics (i) (ii) (iii) • Administrative Distances Routing protocol Routing Loops Administrative Distances The Administrative Distance (AD) is used to rate the trustworthiness of routing information received on a router from a neighbor router. If one of the advertised routes has lower AD than the other. Protocol that used to do this type of routing are called exterior gateway protocols. An Administrative Distance is an integer from 0 to 255. where 0 is the most trusted and 255 means no traffic will be passed via this route.An autonomous system is a collection of networks under a common administrative domain. 3.If both advertised routes to the same network have the same AD. which basically means that all routers sharing the same routing table information are in the same AS. Autonomous System:.

The route with the least number of hops to the network is determined to be the best route. IGRP. that’s called a hop.  The distance-vector routing algorithm passes complete routing table contents to neighboring routers.1 Classes of Routing Protocols (i) (ii) (iii) Distance vector protocol Link state protocol Hybrid protocol. Ex: RIP. 3.16. They send the entire routing table to directly connected neighbors. . The vector indicates the direction to the remote network.Route Source Connected interface Static Route EIGRP IGRP OSPF RIP External EIGRP Unknown 255 Default AD 0 1 90 100 110 120 170 This route will never be used But if both advertised routes have the same AD as well as the same metrics.2. There are three classes of Routing Protocol • Distance vector protocol The Distance-vector protocols find the best path to remote network by judging distance. then the routing protocol will load-balance in the remote network. Each time a packet goes through a router.

Fig 16: Routing table Converged Network . A router receiving an update from a neighbor router believes the information about remote networks without actually finding out for itself. and if that’s the case. If the AD is the same. the protocol will have to use other metrics to determine the best path to use to that remote network. the administrative distance is checked first.  It’s possible to have network that has multiple links to the same remote network.

Routing Loops Example Router A Router B Router C Router E Network 3 Network 4 Network 5 Router D Fig 24: Routing loops . Routing loops can occur because a every router isn’t updated simultaneously.Fig 23 : Routing table of covered networks • Routing Loops Distance-vector routing protocols keep track of any changes to the internet work by broadcasting periodic routing updates out all active interfaces. This broadcast includes the complete routing table.

• Link state protocol Also called shortest-path-first protocols. which includes the ability to reach Network 5 and now Routers B and D receive the wonderful news that Network 5 can be reached from Router A. and then back to Router A.16. in its tables. Any packet destined for Network 5 will go to Router A. Router C will eventually send out its update and cause B to stop routing to Network 5. but Routers A and D are still not updated. To them. But Routers A. Ex: EIGRP 3.3 RIP (Routing Information Protocol) Routing Information Protocol is a true distance-vector routing protocol. Link state protocols send updates containing the state of their own links to all other routers on the network Ex: OSPF • Hybrid protocol Hybrid protocol use aspects of both distance-vector and link state protocol. B.The problem occurs when Router A sends out its regular 30-second “Hello. It is an IGB (Inter Gateway Protocol).The interface to Network 5 fails. One keeps track of directly attached neighbors. Link state routers know more about the internet work than any distance-vector routing protocol. so Routers B and D then send out the information that Network 5 is available. It sends the complete routing table out to all active interfaces every 30 seconds to its immediate neighbour. has a path to Network 5 through Router B. it appears that Network 5 is still available through Router B with a metric of 3. This causes Router C to stop routing to Network 5 through Router E. to Router B. Router E tells Router C. When Network 5 fails. This is a routing loop. and D don’t know about Network 5 yet. so they keep sending out update information. All routers know about Network 5 from Router E. the routers each create three separate tables. one determines the topology of the entire internet work. and one is used as the routing tables. I’m still here—these are the links I know about” message. This is slow convergence means that one router sends a request to other about its route or network get networks which are . Router A.

thee router will send out updates to all its neighbors letting them know that the route is invalid. and does send subnet mask information with the route updates. . RIP version 2 provides something called prefix routing. When that happens. if there is one more router in the network then this routing will fails. Route update timer Router update timer sets the interval 30 seconds between periodic routing updates. meaning that 16 is deemed unreachable. Invalid timers. this process is repeated to send and receive request so it is called slow convergence RIP only uses hop count to determine the best way to remote network. Hold timers.This routing supports only 15 routers. RIP version 1 uses only class full routing. Router invalid timers A router invalid timer determines the length of time that must elapse 180 seconds before a router determines that a route has become invalid. This is called classless routing. which means that all devices in the network must use the same subnet mask. Hop count limit is15. • Default administrative distance (120) Timers of RIP (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Update timers. Flush out timers. but it has a maximum allowable hop count of 0-15 by default. • Hop Count It is a way of measurement. in which the router sends a complete copy of its routing table out to all neighbors. It will come to this conclusion if it hasn’t heard any updates about a particular route for that period.not assigned to it after all thee three routers have same networks.

The default is 180 seconds. Before it’s removed from the table. the router notifies its neighbors of that route’s impending demise. The value of the route invalid timer must be less than that of the route flush timers. Route flush timer Route flush timers’ sets the time between a route becoming invalid and its interval from the routing table 240 seconds. This continues until entire an update packet is received with a better metric or until the hold-down timer expires. Difference between RIPV1 & RIPV2 .Hold-down timer This sets the amount of time during which routing information is suppressed. Routers will enter into the hold-down state when an update packet is received that indicated the route is unreachable.

0.0 Router(config-router)#network 40.0.0 Router(config-router)# network 50.0.0.0.0 Router(config-router)# network 40.0.0.0.0.0 Router#show ip route .0 Router#show ip route At router 2 Router(config)# router rip Router(config-router)#network 20.Steps to do routing (version 1) At router 1 Router(config)# router rip Router(config-router)#network 10.0.

with 15 hops maximum hop count of 255 being the maximum IGRP Timers To control performance.0.with a path to a remote network. IGRP uses bandwidth and delay of the line by default as a metric for determining the best route to an internetwork.At router 3 Router(config)# router rip Router(config-router)#network 30. load.16.0.0 Router(config-router)# network 50. IGRP includes the following timers with default settings: .4 IGRP ( Interior Gateway Protocol) Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) is a Cisco-proprietary distance-vector routing protocol. To use IGRP.0. although they are not used by default. and maximum transmission unit (MTU) can also be used. IGRP has a maximum hop count of 255 with a default of 100.0. Table 18 : Difference between IGRP and RIP IGRP Can be used in large internetworks RIP Works best in smaller networks Uses an autonomous system number for Does not yse aytibiniys system numbers activation Gives a full route table update every 90 Gives full route table update every 30 seconds Has an administrative distance of 100 seconds Has an administrative distance of 120 Uses bandwidth and delay of the line as Uses only hop count to determine the best metric (lowest composite metric). all your routers must be Cisco routers. Reliability.0 Router#show ip route 3.

0.0. • Hold down timers These specify the hold down period.0.0 R1#show ip route At Router 2 R2(config)#router igrp 10 R2(config-router)#network 40.0 R1(config-router)#network 40. The default is three times the update timer period plus 10 seconds. • Flush timers These indicate how much time should pass before a route should be flushed from the routing table.0.0.0. At Router 1 R1(config)#router igrp 10 R1(config-router)#network 10. • Invalid timers These specify how long a router should wait before declaring a route invalid if it doesn’t receive a specific update about it. The default is seven times the routing update period.0.0 R2(config-router)#network 20. then 7 × 90 = 630 seconds elapse before a route will be flushed from the route table.0.0.• Update timers These specify how frequently routing-update messages should be sent. The default is three times the update period.0.0 R2(config-router)#network 50. The default is 90 seconds.0 R2#show ip route . If the update timer is 90 seconds by default.

At Router 3
R1(config)#router igrp 10 R1(config-router)#network 30.0.0.0 R1(config-router)#network 50.0.0.0 R1#show ip route

3.16.5

EIGRP(Enhanced Interior Routing Protocol)
Enhanced IGRP (EIGRP) is a classless, enhanced distance-vector protocol

that gives us a real edge over IGRP. Like IGRP, EIGRP uses the concept of an autonomous system to describe the set of contiguous routers that run the same routing protocol and share routing information. But unlike IGRP, EIGRP includes the subnet mask in its route updates. The advertisement of subnet information allows us to use VLSM and summarization when designing our networks. EIGRP is sometimes referred to as a hybrid routing protocol because it has characteristics of both distance-vector and link-state protocols. It sends traditional distance-vector updates containing information about networks plus the cost of reaching them from the perspective of the adverting router. EIGRP has a maximum hop count of 255.

Powerful features that make EIGRP a real standout from IGRP
• • • • • • Support for IP, IPX, and AppleTalk via protocol-dependent modules Considered classless (same as RIPv2 and OSP Support for VLSM/CIDR Support for summaries and discontiguous networks Efficient neighbor discovery Communication via Reliable Transport Protocol (RTP) Best path selection via Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL) Cisco calls EIGRP a distance vector routing protocol, or sometimes an

advanced distance vector or even a hybrid routing protocol. EIGRP supports different Network layer protocols through the use of protocol-dependent modules (PDMs). Each EIGRP PDM will maintain a separate series of tables containing the routing information that applies to a specific protocol. It means that there will be IP/EIGRP tables, IPX/EIGRP tables, and AppleTalk/EIGRP tables.

Neighbor Discovery
Before EIGRP routers are willing to exchange routes with each other, they must become neighbors. There are three conditions that must be met for neighborship establishment:  Hello or ACK received  AS numbers match  Identical metrics (K values) To maintain the neighborship relationship, EIGRP routers must also continue receiving Hellos from their neighbors. EIGRP routers that belong to different autonomous systems (ASes) don’t automatically share routing information and they don’t become neighbors. The only time EIGRP advertises its entire routing table is when it discovers a new neighbor and forms an adjacency with it through the exchange of Hello packets. When this happens, both neighbors advertise their entire routing tables to one another. After each has learned its neighbor’s routes, only changes to the routing table are propagated from then on. EIGRP maintains three tables containing information about the internetworks. (i) Neighbor Table Records information about routers with whom neighborship relationships have been formed. (ii) Topology Table Stores the route advertisements about every route in the internetwork received from each neighbor.

EIGRP Metrics
Another really sweet thing about EIGRP is that unlike many other protocols that use a single factor to compare routes and select the best possible path, EIGRP can use a combination of four: • • • • 3.16.6 Bandwidth Delay Load Reliability

OSPF (Open Shortest Path First)
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is an open standards routing protocol that’s been

implemented by a wide variety of network vendors, including Cisco. This works by using the Dijkstra algorithm. First, a shortest path tree is constructed, and then the routing table is populated with the resulting best paths. OSPF converges quickly, although perhaps not as quickly as EIGRP, and it supports multiple, equal-cost routes to the same destination. But unlike EIGRP, it only supports IP routing. OSPF is an IGP protocol. It is a link state routing protocol. It is supported by many operating systems. Its default AD is 110, hop count limit is unlimited. It is classless routing protocol, supports VLSM/CIDR. By default the highest IP address of interface will be elected as Router id.

OSPF provides the following features
      Consists of areas and autonomous systems Minimizes routing update traffic Allows scalability Supports VLSM/CIDR Has unlimited hop count Allows multi-vendor deployment (open standard)

• Router ID The Router ID (RID) is an IP address used to identify the router. But routers that connect other areas to the backbone within an AS are called Area Border Routers (ABRs). at least one interface must be in area 0. OSPF Terminology • Link A link is a network or router interface assigned to any given network. it’s considered by OSPF to be a link. Still. This is the best design for OSPF. which basically means that you can separate the larger internetwork into smaller internetworks called areas. and all routers should connect to this area if at all possible. or the backbone area. • Neighbors . The reasons for creating OSPF in a hierarchical design include: • • • To decrease routing overhead To speed up convergence To confine network instability to single areas of the network Each router in the network connects to the backbone called area 0. OSPF runs inside an autonomous system. OSPF will choose the highest IP address of all active physical interfaces.OSPF is supposed to be designed in a hierarchical fashion. Cisco chooses the Router ID by using the highest IP address of all configured loopback interfaces. When an interface is added to the OSPF process. OSPF must have an area 0. If no loopback interfaces are configured with addresses. but can also connect multiple autonomous systems together. The router that connects these ASes together is called an Autonomous System Boundary Router (ASBR).

Instead. A prime example is an Ethernet LAN.Neighbors are two or more routers that have an interface on a common network. but doesn’t flood LSA updates. A backup designated router (BDR) is a hot standby for the DR on multi-access links The BDR receives all routing updates from OSPF adjacent routers. • Adjacency An adjacency is a relationship between two OSPF routers that permits the direct exchange of route updates. LSA packets are used to update and maintain the topology database. A designated router (DR) is elected whenever OSPF routers are connected to the same multi-access network. OSPF is really picky about sharing routing information—unlike EIGRP. OSPF Topologies database The topology database contains information from all of the Link State Advertisement packets that have been received for an area. All routers in the same area share a common Area ID. The router uses the information from the topology database as input into the Dijkstra algorithm that computes the shortest path to every network. which directly shares routes with all of its neighbors. There are different types of LSA packets. OSPF areas An OSPF area is a grouping of contiguous networks and routers. Broadcast (multi-access) . And not all neighbors will become adjacent—this depends upon both the type of network and the configuration of the routers. A Link State Advertisement (LSA) is an OSPF data packet containing link-state and routing information that’s shared among OSPF routers.such as two routers connected on a point-to-point serial link. OSPF directly shares routes only with neighbors that have also established adjacencies. An OSPF router will exchange LSA packets only with routers to which it has established adjacencies.

So. and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). but have no broadcast ability like Ethernet. This calculation is based upon the information collected in the topology database and an algorithm called shortest path first (SPF) OSPF uses a metric referred to as cost. In OSPF. as in a serial cable directly connecting two routers. These networks allow for multi-access. As with point-to-point. a DR and a BDR must be elected for each broadcast multi-access network. All of the interfaces on all of the routers sharing the point-to-multipoint connection belong to the same network. X.25. as well as provide a broadcast ability in which a single packet is delivered to all nodes on the network. or it can be logical. SPF Tree Calculation Within an area. . The point-to-point connection can be physical. Non-broadcast multi-access Non-Broadcast Multi-Access (NBMA) networks are types such as Frame Relay. each router calculates the best/shortest path to every network in that same area. NBMA networks require special OSPF configuration to function properly and neighbor relationships must be defined. The cost of the entire path is the sum of costs of the outgoing interfaces along the path. no DRs or BDRs are needed.Broadcast (multi-access) networks such as Ethernet allow multiple devices to connect to (or access) the same network. A cost is associated with every outgoing interface included in an SPF tree. • Point-to-point Point-to-point refers to a type of network topology consisting of a direct connection between two routers that provides a single communication path. • Point-to-multipoint Point-to-multipoint refers to a type of network topology consisting of a series of connections between a single interface on one router and multiple destination routers.

The bandwidth is the configured bandwidth for the interface. a 100Mbps Fast Ethernet interface would have a default OSPF cost of 1 and a 10Mbps Ethernet interface would have a cost of 10.0. Benefits of OSPF (i) (ii) (iii) Minimum routing updates.255.255 area 0 Router(config-router)#network 10. Priorities on all the CISCO routers the priority is 1.000 would have a default cost of 1563. An interface set with a bandwidth of 64.255 area 0 Router(config)#interface s0/1/0 . The routers having highest IP address become BRD(Border Destination Router) Steps to apply OSPF Syntax: Router(config)#router ospf <ospf process id> Router(config-router)#network <network address> <wild card mask> area <area number> Fig 25: OSPF Scenario At Router r1 Router(config)#router ospf 1 Router(config-router)#network 10.0.255.Cisco uses a simple equation of 108/ bandwidth.0 0.255.0.0 0.0. Using this rule.255.

witch reduces latency and delays in the network.0.0 0. for example.Router(config-if)#clock rate 64000 Router#show ip route At Router r1 Router(config)#router ospf 2 Router(config-router)#network 20.0.1 SWITCH Switches are generally used to segment a large LAN smaller segments.0 0. Smaller switches such as the Cisco Catalyst 2924XL have 24 ports capable of of creating 24 different network segment for the LAN. Some switches support cut through switching.255.255.0.255 area 0 Router(config-router)#network 40.0. Larger switches such as the Cisco Catalyst 6500 can have hundreds of ports.255.17. while bridges support only store-and-forward traffic .0.0.255.0 0. a 10 Mbps Ethernet LAN and 100 Mbps Ethernet LAN can be connected using a switch.0 0.0.255 area 0 Router(config-router)#network 50.255 area 0 Router#show ip route 3. Switches can also be used to connect LANs with different media.255.255.0.0 0.17 LAN SWITCHING 3.255.255.0.255.0.255 area 0 Router(config)#interface s0/1/0 Router(config-if)#clock rate 64000 Router#show ip route At Router r3 Router(config)#router ospf 1 Router(config-router)#network 30.255 area 0 Router(config-router)#network 50.255.

However. Fast Ethernet or Gigabit Ethernet network). SWITCHING METHODS There are three types of switching method: • Store-and-forward switching The entire frame is received and the CRC is computed and verified before forwarding the frame. device A wants to send data to device B. WORKING OF SWITCH When switches receives data from one of connected devices. Switches forward the traffic on the basis of MAC address. for high-speed network (e. it forward data only to the port on witch the destinated system is connected.The basic function of a switch is to manage the signal flow. Ethernet switches are used in LAN to create Ethernet networks. Finally switches reduce collision on network segment . it will be discarded. Switches maintain a switching table in which MAC addresses and port numbers are used to perform switching decision. It allows multiple system to transmit simultaneously. Concider. it allows the signal to flow through it and when it is closed.switching. Switch than cecks the MAC address of the destination system. A switch is a hardware device that filters and forward data packets between network segments. It then transfer data to device B only instead of brodcasting to all the devices. It has the lowest error rate but the longest latency for switching. By forwarding data only to the system to witch the data is addressed. When the switch is open. too long (i. Switch connects separate LAN segment. less than 64 bytes including the CRC). It is more advanced then hub but not as advanced as router.The MAC address is a uniqe number that is programed in to every Network Interface Card(NIC).e. or has CRC error.When device A passes the data.e. the latency is not . If the frame is too short (i.g. A switch is a networking device which filters and forward packets through the network. switch decreases the amount of traffic on each network link. It is a layer 2 device. it stopes the signal to flow.It use the media access Control (MAC) address of the device to determine the correct port. more than 1518 bytes including the CRC). switch receives it.

Since a collision can be detected within the first 64 bytes of a frame. The error rate of fragment-free switching is above store-and-forward switching and below cut-through switching.significant. It is the most commonly used switching method. fragment-free switching provides better error checking than cutthrough switching. fragment-free switching can detect a frame corrupted by a collision and drop it. • Cut-through switching It is also known as Fast Forward switching.Therefore. It has the highest error rate (because a frame is forwarded without verifying the CRC and confirming there is no collision) but the shortest latency for switching • Fragment-free switching ( Modified Cut-through switching ) A frame is forwarded after the first 64 bytes of the frame have been received. A frame is forwarded as soon as the destination MAC address in the header has been received (the 1st 6 bytes following the preamble). The latency of fragment-free switching is shorter than store-and. it should be noted that Cisco 1900 switches use fragment-free switching by default. Types of switch based on OSI model (i) (ii) Layer-2 switch Layer-3 switch . and is supported by most switches. However. NOTE: Bridges only support store-and-forward switching. Most new switch models also use store-and-forward switching.forward switching and longer than cut-through switching.

17. first we have to create a Vlan on manageable switch then we have to add ports to the Vlan. switches connected with each other are also in the same . The devices of different Vlan may communicate with each other with routing. a switch can group different interfaces into different broadcast domains. security. Vlan provides following advantages: • • Logical Segmentation of network Enhance network security Creating port based Vlan In port based Vlan.1 VLAN (Virtual LAN) VLAN provides Virtual Segmentation of Broadcast Domain in the network. instead it looks at the frames hardware address before deciding to either forward the frame or drop it. The devices. Layer 2 switches are fast because they do not look at the network layer header information. With VLANs. this cause performance issue which limits the size of your network. For this one reason the switch cannot completely replace routers in the internetwork. all interfaces of a switch are in the same broadcast domain. Layer-2 switch can be considered as multi. on a switch or across switches. Limitations of Layer 2 Switching With bridge the connected networks are still one large broadcast domain. are able to communicate with each other. which are member of same Vlan. So that different Vlan devices will use different n/w addresses. instead of the physical locations of the devices. A Virtual LAN (VLAN) is a broadcast domain created based on the functional.• Layer-2 Switching Layer-2 switching is hardware based. or other requirements.port bridge. Layer 2 switch cannot break the broadcast domain.1. Without VLANs. which means it uses the MAC address from the host NIC card to filter the network traffic. 3.

A VLAN can also span multiple switches. It is easier to set up and manage.broadcast domain. A VLAN management application is used to set up a database of MAC addresses. devices in different VLANs cannot listen or respond to the broadcast traffic of each other. and configure the switches to assign VLANs to the switch ports dynamically based on the MAC addresses of the connected devices. Inter-VLAN communication can be controlled by configuring access control lists on the router or Layer 3 switch connecting the VLANs. It provides better security by separating devices into different VLANs. • Dynamic VLAN Assigning VLANs to switch ports based on the MAC addresses of the devices connected to the ports. It breaks broadcast domains and increases network throughput. Different ports of a switch can be assigned to different VLANs. The application used by Cisco switches is called VLAN Management Policy Server (VMPS). The advantages of implementing VLAN are • • • • • It can group devices based on the requirements other than their physical locations. . Cisco switches support a separate instance of spanning tree and a separate bridge table for each VLAN. Since each VLAN is a separate broadcast domain. Types of VLAN • Static VLAN Assigning VLANs to switch ports based on the port numbers. unless there is a router in between.

Trunks carry traffic for multiple VLANs.A VLAN = A Broadcast Domain = Logical Network (Subnet) VLAN Operation Fig 26: VLAN Operation • • • • Each logical VLAN is like a separate physical bridge. VLAN links . Trunks use special encapsulation to distinguish between different VLANs. VLANs can span across multiple switches.

A 100 Mbps or 1000 Mbps point-to-point link that connects switches or routers. • Trunk link A link from switch to switch or switch to router is called as trunk link. Therefore. And the mode of port is called as access mode. a port connecting to a trunk link can be a member of multiple .There are two different types of links in a switched network: • Access link A link from Pc to switch is called as access link or A link that is part of only one VLAN. and carries frames of different VLANs . a port connecting to an access link can be a member of only one VLAN. Therefore.

> Switch(config-if)#exit . we can change vlan membership according to our requirement. allows traffic from different VLANs to transmit through the same Ethernet link (trunk link) across switches. Commands to create Vlan Switch#vlan database Switch(vlan)#vlan <no. all ports are member of single vlan that is Vlan1. With frame tagging.> [name <name of vlan>] Switch(vlan)#exit Commands to configure ports for a Vlan By default. VLAN Trunking. by making use of frame tagging. If we are not using trunk links then we have to connect one cable from each vlan to the corresponding vlan of the other switch. It also knows which bridge table it should use for forwarding an unicast frame (since a separate bridge table is used for each VLAN). and is removed when the frame is forwarded out to an access link. A frame tag is added when a frame is forwarded out to a trunk link. Therefore. When there are multiple switches then we have to use trunk links to connect one switch with other.> Switch(config-if)#switchport access vlan <no. a switch knows which ports it should forward a broadcast frame (forward out the ports which have the same VLAN ID as the source VLAN ID). This feature is known as frame tagging or frame identification. Switch(config)#interface <type> <no. any device attached to an access link is unaware of its VLAN membership. VLAN Trunking identifies the VLAN from which a frame is sent by tagging the frame with the source VLAN ID (12-bit long).VLANs. All VLANs are configured on a trunk link by default.

The server will send periodic updates to VTP client switches.Commands to configure multiple ports in a vlan Switch(config)#interface range <type> <slot/port no.17. In multiple switches.Suppose we want to add interface fast Ethernet 0/10 to 0/18 in vlan5 Switch(config)#interface range fastethernet 0/10 – 18 Switch(config-if)#switchport access vlan 5 Switch(config-if)#exit To display mac address table Switch#show mac-address-table Vlan 20 Mac address 00-08-a16-ab-6a-7b type dynamic ports fa0/7 To Display Vlan and port membership Switch#show vlan brief Command to make Trunk link Switch(config)#interface <type> <type number> Note :.Trunk mode should not be a member of any vlan port.> Switch(config-if)#switchport access vlan <no. (space)–(space) port no. 3. we can configure one switch as VTP server and all other switches will be configured as VTP client. we can simplify the process of creating Vlan. The clients will create Vlans from the update received from the VTP server. We will create Vlans on VTP server switch.2 Vlan Trunking Protocol (VTP) With the help of VTP.1. .> Switch(config-if)#exit Example: .

we are not able to create. The client will create same Vlans as defined in vtp update. modify or delete Vlans. The server will send periodic updates for VTP clients. VTP advertisements are sent every 5 minutes or when there is a change. delete or modify Vlans. VTP server is a switch in which we can create. VTP client mode On VTP client.The client will receive and forward vtp updates. A transparent will not send its own VTP updates and will not learn any information from received vtp update. delete and modify Vlans locally.yhe switch in this mode forwords the vlans to next switch. VTP configuration At Switch 1: • • • • Creat vlan Port assignment Trunk port Switch vtp Switch(config)#vtp mode server Switch(config)#vtp domain cisco . VTP servers and clients are synchronized to the latest revision number. VTP Modes VTP server mode By default all the switches in this mode are in server mode. VTP Transparent mode Transparent is a switch. which will receive and forward VTP update.VTP Operation • • • VTP advertisements are sent as multicast frames. It is able to create. A vlan created in this mode cannot be forworded into next switch. The switch in this mode creates the vlans that are received from server mode switch.

Switch(config)#vtp password sun At switch 2: Switch(config)#vtp mode server Switch(config)#vtp domain cisco Switch(config)#vtp password sun At switch 3: Switch(config)#vtp mode server Switch(config)#vtp domain cisco Switch(config)#vtp password sun Fig 27 : VTP Configuration To see all the configurations Switch#show vtp password Switch#show vlan brief Switch#show vtp status • • • • Vtp version Vtp domain Vtp mode Vtp pruning .

• • • Vtp reusion number Maximum vlan supporting Total no. and broadcast is flooded only toward any switch with ports assigned to the red VLAN Command to configure VTP Pruning We have to use only one command on VTP server for VTP Pruning. Switch#configure terminal Switch(config)#vtp pruning Switch(config)#exit Fig 28 : VTP Pruning . • • Increases available bandwidth by reducing unnecessary flooded traffic Example: Station A sends broadcast. Vlan1 is not prun eligible. of vlans VTP Pruning Pruning is the VTP feature through which a trunk link can be automatically disable. for a particular Vlan if neighbor switch does not contain ports in that Vlan.

STP is only required when multiple path exist then there is possibility of loop in n/w. the frames traveling between some source / destination devices may not be able to use the shortest physical path. Spanning Tree Protocol will solve this problem by blocking the redundancy interface. • Because STP solves the looping problem by blocking one or more links in a network.It runs on bridges and switches in a network. (iv) Packets may enter in the endless loop. (ii) Frequent changes in the mac address table of switch. If the primary path goes down then disabled link will become enable and data will be transferred through that path. . • STP ensures that there is only one active path between any two network segments by blocking the redundant paths. • Bridges exchange STP information using messages called Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs) through Layer 2 multicast. Spanning Tree Protocol Basics • Spanning Tree Protocol or STP (IEEE 802. A redundant path is used only when the corresponding active path failed. (iii) A mac address may appear at multiple ports in a switch. Problems that occur with redundancy path (i) Multiple copies of the frame will be received by destination. So that only one path will remain active in the switches. Multiple paths are used to create redundancy in the network. It is not used for load-balancing. which calculates a loop-free topology for the network.Spanning Tree Protocol When we connect multiple switches with each other and multiple path exist from one switch to another switch then it may lead to the switching loop in the network. It implements a Spanning Tree Algorithm (STA).1d) is used to solve the looping problem.

Wi-Fi is an IEEE standard 802.11b and 802. . compared with the long-established audio recording term "High Fidelity" or "Hi-Fi". The name of a popular wireless networking technology that uses radio waves to provide wireless high-speed Internet and network connections. an electromagnetic field is created that then is able to propagate through space. a frequency within the electromagnetic spectrum associated with radio wave propagation.11b/g. first used commercially in August 1999. "Wi-Fi works with no physical wired connection between sender and receiver by using radio frequency (RF) technology.11 protocol employed the overall strength of the device transmitter the nature of obstructions and interference in the surrounding area A general rule of thumb in home networking says that 802.11b/g.18. Another rule of thumb holds that the effective range of 802. Obstructions in home such as brick walls and metal frames or siding greatly can reduce the range of a Wi-Fi LAN by 25% or more.11a is approximately one-third that of 802.11a employs a higher signalling frequency than 802.1 Wireless LAN Wi-Fi is also known as wireless LAN.11g WAPs and routers support a range of up to 150 feet (46 m) indoors and 300 feet (92 m) outdoors.18 Wi-Fi (WIRELESS FIDELITY) The term "Wi-Fi" suggests "Wireless Fidelity". When an RF current is supplied to an antenna. Factors that determine a particular WAP or wireless router's range are: • • • the specific 802. 3.11a is most susceptible to obstructions.11. The Typical Range of a Wi-Fi LAN The range of a home Wi-Fi LAN depends on the wireless access point (WAP) or wireless router being used. The term "Wi-Fi".3. Because 802. 802.

11a It was modified in year 1999.4GHz where telephones and microwaves may cause interference. the max.18. . devices and location.11 It was released in year 1997.2 Wireless Standards The different wireless standards that are used for IEEE 802.11 standard are Fig 29: IEEE 802.11 Standards 802. data rate of this is 2Mbps and frequency of this is 2.4GHz frequency band and can transmit data at speeds of up to 11Mbps within a range of up to 100-150 feet or a distance of 90m. Although the speed is up to 54Mbps. The standard was original of 802.4GHz and can cover upto 46m. Operates at the frequency of 5GHz. Operates on the 2.11a standard is incompatible with both 802. which is less crowded than 2. the range is only up to 75 feet or distance covered is 46m. 802.11b and 802.Interference from microwave ovens and other equipment also affects range. whether indoors or outdoors. walls. 802.11. 3. this is improved version of original standard.11b and g because it operates at a different frequency. such as mirrors.11b This standard was released in 1999. 802.11g are both susceptible to these. 802.Wireless range can be affected by reflective or signal-blocking obstacles.

Multiple Output) technology. and music. Operates in two modes of frequency 2. data rate for the standard is 54Mbps. which uses multiple radios to transmit multiple streams of data over multiple channnels. It supports a frequency range of 2. covers a distance of 90m.6GHz frequency band and can transmit data at speeds of up to 11Mbps within a range of up to 100-150 feet .802. whether indoors or outdoors. voice.4GHz. The max. devices and location. capable of delivering the range and capacity to support today's most bandwidth-hungry applications like streaming high definition video.4GHz and 5. The next generation of high-speed wireless networking. walls. Wireless range can be affected by reflective or signal-blocking obstacles.11g This standard was released in 2003. such as mirrors. Wireless-n is based on MIMO (Multiple Input.11n The latest version of IEEE 802.11 standard that is still in progress of development. 802. Wi-Fi is supported by many applications and devices • • • • • • video game consoles home networks PDAs mobile phones major operating systems other types of consumer electronics .

Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) encryption was designed to protect against casual snooping. "hiding" it. Tools such as AirSnort or aircrack can quickly recover WEP encryption keys. If the eavesdropper has the ability to change his MAC address. the Wi-Fi Alliance blessed Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) for wireless security. it has outlived its designed lifetime. MAC address are easily spoofed. Though more secure than WEP. If used with a 802.11i (WPA2) encryption standards were released. . Another unproductive method is to only allow computers with known MAC addresses to join the network.1X server or in pre-shared key mode with a strong and uncommon passphrase WPA2 is still considered secure. has known attack vectors and is no longer recommended.18. as of 2009. but is now considered completely broken.3. This is ineffective as a security method because the SSID is broadcast in the clear in response to a client SSID query. To counteract this in 2002. then he may join the network by spoofing an authorized address. In 2004 the full IEEE 802.3 Wireless Security A common but unproductive measure to deter unauthorized users is to suppress the AP's SSID broadcast.

All the organizations are using multiple computers within their departments to perform their day to day work. computers are used in a wider range. WAN. Computer Networking has bound the world in a very small area with it wide networking processes like LAN.4. MAN. Now a days. Applications • • • • • • • Communication Field Industries Medical Field Rearch Field Organisations School Colleges . General Conclusion CONCLUSION Computer Networking is a very vast project in the present developing era of electronics and communication. share folders and files with other users connected in a network. Computer network allows the user to share data .

in www.com Network Essentials module Introduction to Window Server2003 CISCO Cretified Network Associate Faruk Husain .REFRENCES • • • • • • • • • www.nythimes.microsoft.com http://nbccindia.goole.gov.com www.com www.digitech-engineers.