2.

5D Solids GibbsCAM 2009
April 2009, rev. 1.2

Proprietary Notice
This document contains propriety information of Gibbs and Associates and is to be used only pursuant to and in conjunction with the license granted to the licensee with respect to the accompanying Gibbs and Associates licensed software. Except as expressly permitted in the license, no part of this document may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated into any language or computer language, in any form or by any means, electronic, magnetic, optical, chemical, manual or otherwise, without the prior expressed written permission from Gibbs and Associates or a duly authorized representative thereof. It is strongly advised that users carefully review the license in order to understand the rights and obligations related to this licensed software and the accompanying documentation. Use of the computer software and the user documentation has been provided pursuant to a Gibbs and Associates licensing agreement. © 2003-2009 Gibbs and Associates, a Cimatron company. All rights reserved. The Gibbs logo, GibbsCAM, GibbsCAM logo, CAM von Gibbs, Virtual Gibbs, Gibbs SFP, SolidSurfacer, MTM and "Powerfully Simple. Simply Powerful." are either trademark(s) or registered trademark(s) of Gibbs and Associates in the United States and/or other countries. Microsoft, Windows, and the Windows logo are trademarks, or registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. All other brand or product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. Contains Autodesk® RealDWG by Autodesk, Inc., Copyright © 1998-2006 Autodesk, Inc. All rights reserved.

Gibbs and Associates 323 Science Drive Moorpark, CA 93021

Modif ied: April 14, 2009 5:49 pm

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION 1
About 2.5D Solids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 What is a 2.5D Solid Model? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Making Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 What will the 2.5D Solids Option Model? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 What will the 2.5D Solids Option Cut?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 What is the Difference Between 2.5D Solids and the Other GibbsCAM Solids Modules? . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 More About Solid Models. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Text Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

INTERFACE

7

WorkSpace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Taskbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Palettes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Main (Top Level) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Multiple Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Body Bag. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Solid Menu Items. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Edit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Modify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Plug-Ins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Context Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Edge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Body Bag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Profiler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Faceting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Machining. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

MODELING

21

Introduction to Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 What is Modeling? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Sheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Primitives/Atomic Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Workspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Workgroups and Coordinate Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Boolean Operations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
i

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Sweep Solid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Rebuilding Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Method 3: Replace/Swap and Rebuild . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Surface Modeling Palette . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Swap . . . . . . 45 Add . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Tips and Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Subtract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Create Solid Palette . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Replace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 Body Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Offset/Shell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gen 3 Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5D Solids machining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Intersect . . . . 49 Know Your History. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Solid Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Table of Contents Recreate Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Geometry Creation from Solids . . . 28 Plane . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Geometry from Solids . . . . . . . . . . 34 Revolve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Unstitch Solid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Loft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Modeling Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 Body Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Method 1: Create a New Solid . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Stitch Sheets. . . . . . . . . . 37 Solidify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Trim/Untrim Surfaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Extrude. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Separate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Surface Tolerance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Sheet from Face . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 Modifying Recreating & Rebuilding Bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Loft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Recreate and Rebuild . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 MACHINING 59 61 61 62 62 62 Introduction to 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Blending. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Advanced Solid Modeling Palette . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Revolve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Cuboid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Method 2: “Locally” Edit an Existing Solid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Method 4: History. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Sweep Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Slice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5D Machining Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Compatibility With Earlier Versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 Unstitch Sheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Coon’s Patch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .100 #3: The Base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 #6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Loading Processes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Pockets and Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Roughing Process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Tool List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contouring Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 #1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Saved Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Part Set-Up. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 #2: Building a Spherical Ellipse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 #2: The Hot Punch. . . . . . . . 63 64 64 65 65 66 67 67 67 69 70 74 76 SOLID MODELING 79 About the Tutorials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 MACHINING SOLIDS 93 AboUt these Tutorials . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Part Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Importing the Changed Pocket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machining Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Document Control Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 #4-5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Machining the Part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Modifying the Part . . . . . . . . . . . Material Only Pockets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5D Cap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 #3: Replace History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Creating Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Limitations of Create 2D Toolpath . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contouring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Step #2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 The Solution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Material Only. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Open Sides Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Table of Contents Machining Palette . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Machining the Part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 #1: Engraving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Optimizing Material Only for Solids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Replacing the Model History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Notes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Step #3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Redoing the Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 The Problem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Part Set-Up. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pocketing . . . . . . . . . . . 102 iii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solids Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 The Challenge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stock Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the Profiler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 #1: 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Face Milling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 #2-3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Step #1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Unstitching and Subtracting “Pocket” . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102 Part Set-Up. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103 Ops 4-6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Roughing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Table of Contents About the Part . . . . . Contouring with the Profiler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 iv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rough & Contour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103 Op 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 APPENDIX PART PRINTS INDEX 109 115 119 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102 Machining The Part . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Op 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

INTRODUCTION .

.

and several methods for generating solid bodies from geometry. Users should familiarize themselves with the basics of the system outlined in the Geometry Creation manual. but all slices must be 2D shapes.5D model. A 2D solid is an XY shape extruded in Z — a circle produces a cylinder. The standard Roughing and Contouring functions can be applied to solid bodies and sheets. This manual is composed of two types of sections: reference and tutorial. producing analytic (lines & circles) toolpath feature output from underlying analytic model faces.5D Solids machining capabilities. the system can directly read solid model formats generated by other CAD packages. The system does not use an importation f ilter or any means of translation for these solid f iles but rather directly reads them. It allows users to def ine parts using solid and surface modeling techniques that can be directly machined using 2D.5D SOLID MODEL? A 2. makes it a 2. Every Z slice is different but slicing the corners still produces a circle. The f inal method is through the importation of 3D surface f iles. Mill manual and Advanced CS manual before reviewing this manual.5D solids only. A “2. Regardless of the method used to def ine the part. it can either be made into a solid (using the Solidify functions) or can be kept as a surface model and machined. 3 . This manual assumes prof iciency with geometry creation. more f iles can be directly opened by the system (some formats require the purchase of an additional option).5D Solids is focused on the needs of machining 2.5D and occasionally even 3D machining techniques. The system recognizes and imports several surface entities. automatic chamfering and f illeting. Once a surface f ile is brought into the system. In a 2D solid model all Z slices produce the same shape. A taper on the walls of a 2D solid. For example. Adding top and bottom f illets or chamfers to a 2D model creates a 2.5D solid model” allows different Z slices to be different 2D shapes.5D solid —þcylinders are now cones but a Z slice still produces a circle. 2.5D Solids to create part models that can be machined. There are many powerful modeling functions including adding. coordinate systems and basic machining.Introduction CHAPTER 1 : Introduction ABOUT 2. Secondly. subtracting and intersecting solids. The f irst method is creating solid models from part blueprints using the solid modeling functions contained in the system.5D solid can be cut with a series of 2D toolpaths at different Zs. WHAT IS A 2. MAKING MODELS There are three primary methods of using 2. the f inal model can be machined using the 2.5D SOLIDS 2.

and also to provide CAM focused modeling functions. More information can be found in the Glossary starting on page 111 Body: The term “body” is a generic term that refers to both solids and sheets. Modeling Functions in 2. 2. and throughout this manual.5D analytic faces.5D side. one side of a cube would be considered a face. Each face is bound by loops. Sheet: A sheet is an surface with two sides. Surface: A surface is either a face.5D Solids option includes all the solid modeling functions useful to create 2. to model tooling like vise jaws.5D Solids option will contour and pocket any solid — 2D. What is the Difference Between 2. 2. 4 . DEFINITIONS The terms and def initions provided below are used to describe objects and elements used by the system. The SolidSurfacer module provides more modeling techniques than 2.5D Solids Option Model? The 2.5D Solids option is far more powerful than the Solids Import option which allows you to open a solid model. A sheet has no volume or thickness associated with it. A solid body can be thought of as a bowling ball. or to work from imported models.5D Solids. and provides greater solid model machining functions that produce 3D or 2D & 2. and will produce the best output for. Face: A face is one surface of a solid or sheet. solids only have a positive side. It is optimized for. Solids have volume.5D optimized toolpath. Solids bodies are used as the building blocks in creating part models in GibbsCAM. while a sheet body is more like a balloon with an inf initely thin wall. it will start with the little line segments and attempt to f it arcs. Faces are surfaces that have knowledge of the surfaces that surround them. with or without the use of geometry.5D Solids Union Create Spheres Create Planes Simple Rounding Lofted shapes from 2 curves Difference Create Cuboids Extract Sheets Chamfering Swept shapes (Drive Curve Plane 2D) Intersect Extruded shapes Coon’s Patches (2. to correct and modify imported solids. extract geometry from the model and machine the geometry.5D) Unstitching bodies Swept shapes with one drive curve Separate Revolved shapes Shell & Offset Solidify sheets Swept shapes with sharp corners What will the 2.Introduction What will the 2. particularly for making 3D shapes. Sheets have two surface sides and a solids have only one. chucks. Using the Advanced CS option allows for rotary positioning that will make any side of the part the 2.5D allows you to make the model or modify an existing model and machine it directly. A Sheet face includes the positive and negative sides while a solid only includes the positive side. For 3D faces. For example. and f ixtures. group of faces (depending on how the surface was created) of a solid or side of a sheet.5D. Unlike sheets.5D solid models. replacing lots of lines. A simple face is bounded by one loop. 2D and 2.5D Solids and the Other GibbsCAM Solids Modules? The 2.5D Solids Option Cut? The 2. Solid: A solid is a body composed of faces and the area enclosed by the faces. or 3D. positive and negative.

5D solid is. A 2. 10. Z axis revolved shapes and XY base curve Z plane drive curve swept shapes. producing analytic toolpath feature output from underlying analytic model faces. Since the 2D model def inition is a subset of the 2.5D Solids product. say 5. A 2. A “2. Another common variation occurs with imported bodies. with analytic segments from analytic faces. A 3D solid model can still be machined with the 2.5D solid model” extends this concept by allowing different Z slices to be different 2D shapes. therefore. in the creation of analytic toolpath features. If the cylinder is sliced along the XY plane the resulting prof ile is an ellipse. and it becomes a 2. What about “3D solid models”? Picture a cube and put a different angle taper on each wall. They are 3D models with no analytic faces. The edge of a sheet can have a single face connected to that.5D solid model is still made up of analytic faces. We expect perfect analytic toolpath elements (lines & circles) from analytic solid faces (plane & Z axis cylinder). Loop: A loop is a series of connected edges that outline a face. 2D simply means a shape lies in a plane. but they aren’t. What makes the common CAM usage of the terms 2D solid and 2. In a 2D solid model all Z slices produce the same shape. GibbsCAM uses the 2. The Simplify function attempts to detect and restore the analytic def inition of suitable faces. a solid that can be cut with a series of 2D toolpaths at different Zs. 15. but a 3D solid model. but slicing the corners still produces a circle. They look like planes and cylinders and look like 2. spheres. A 2D solid model (aka a prismatic body) is an XY shape extruded in Z.5D body.5D model. Vertex: A vertex is an endpoint of an edge. The cylinders are now cones. and 20 degrees. Put a 10 degree taper on the walls of a 2D body.5D toolpath is a series of 2D toolpaths at different Z levels. In CAM terms.5D model def inition. orthogonal f illets/ cylinders. Adding top and bottom f illets or chamfers to a 2D model creates a 2. Then round the edges. The Solid Inquiry plug-in (see the Plug-Ins Guide) will display the nature of all selected faces for your review. a 2D toolpath doesn’t change in Z.5D solid different is the expectation of clean line. The cylinder in the third image represents the f illeted corner. Let’s start with the CAM term “2D solid model”.5D CAM def inition for the 2. and the slice of a cylinder face produces a circle segment. Z axis cones.Introduction Edge: An edge is a curve/line between two faces. MORE ABOUT SOLID MODELS In CAD terms. A slice will not produce a circle segment at the corner.5D process. Note that more than two faces at an edge produces an invalid solid. An edge of a solid must have exactly two faces connected to it. Any 3D model can be cut as a series of 2D toolpaths at different Z levels — this is referred to as a 2. As a CAM package. but a Z slice still produces a circle.) We use the term 3D solid model for anything that exceeds the 2. This includes planes. Some CAD systems output solids as all NURB faces (especially if the export options are not set properly).5D solid model. A circle produces a cylinder face. (This example is illustrated to the right. The corners are no longer cylinders or cones. But all slices must be 2D shapes.5D Solids option. 5 .5D def inition. A 2.5D functions work equally well on 2D models. This is not a 2. Every Z slice is different. clean circle output — what is referred to as analytic toolpath features. all 2.5D models.

All other parts. You’ll get the best output from 2. Keystrokes: Words that appear like this refer to a keystroke or mouse action. This is anything that can be created with the “Wall Control” options in the process dialogs. 3D Solids. the angle of the tool will not vary all the way around the part.5D Model 3D Model All faces are parallel or normal (perpendicular) to tool Setting tool normal to a face.vnc” for samples. Screen text: Any text you see like this is referring to text you will see in GibbsCAM or on your monitor. G19=X) 2D Model 2.Introduction A 2. TEXT CONVENTIONS In this and all other GibbsCAM manuals you will f ind a number of standards used in the text.5D analytic faces. Term: Words that you see like this followed by a colon refer to a word or phrase used in GibbsCAM. Differences Between 2.5D model has all 2D or 2. Not to worry. In reality many parts are not so pure.5D Process Machine 2 simultaneous axes. This includes parts with variable radii & f illets at an angle.5D analytic faces and 3D faces. G18=Y. Control position of 1 axis point to point (G17=Z. such as right-click or Ctrl+C.5D analytic faces. 6 . See the part f ile “2. known as conventions.5D vs. Typically this is a button or text for a dialog. 2.5D & 3D Solid Models 2.5D Processes and 2D. but the 3D faces will be cut just f ine. but contain a mix of 2.

INTERFACE .

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Surfaces may be extracted from faces or created from geometry. with the Surfacing Modeling palette or the Solid Modeling palette. The Getting Started. Indicate Sheet Side: Indicate the positive and negative sides of a sheet. 9 . modeling is done through the Surface Modeling palette. PALETTES Modeling is accomplished with palettes. Edge Selection: Enable/disable edge selection mode. For more detailed information about these items see the Getting Started manual and the “Modeling” section beginging on page 21. Profiler: Enable/disable the Prof iler grid. The palettes are accessed from the main (or top level) palette.Interface CHAPTER 2 : Interface This chapter describes interface items that are specif ic to the system when the 2. Render/Wireframe: Render fully shaded objects. WORKSPACE TASKBAR The Taskbar contains six items that are part of the SolidSurfacer interface.5D Solids option is installed. Show Solids: This button will show and hide all bodies. For more detailed information on these Taskbar items see the Interface section in the Getting Started manual. Some of the palette buttons will open a dialog and some will take a specif ic action. Common Reference. There are two ways of modeling in GibbsCAM. or surface. including sheets. MAIN (TOP LEVEL) Three buttons in the Top level palette are part of the main functionality of SolidSurfacer. Booleans from Solid Modeling palette are also used in sheet modeling. Geometry Creation and Mill manuals contain descriptions of standard system interface items. The Surface and Solid Modeling palettes help to create and modify bodies and the Body Bag is an organizational container for bodies Surface Modeling Solid Modeling Body Bag MODELING Sheet. Face Selection: Enable/disable face selection mode. or simple wireframe. For more information see page 28.

Imported models will not have an existing history (they are essentially atomic bodies). The system maintains the history of all bodies that are created.” “Parents” is the term used to describe the solids or sheets that were used to create the selected body. HISTORY The History list is accessed from the body context menu (see page 15). Recreate and Rebuild are described in the next section. while bodies in the workspace and Body Bag are active. allowing for changes to easily be incorporated to the f inal model without having to start over from scratch. Bodies can be hidden and placed in a container called a Body Bag.Interface Solid modeling has three palettes. the main Solid Modeling palette and two sub-palettes. It displays the creation tree for any selected body. changes can be made to an earlier step in the modeling process. They may even be rendered in wireframe and hidden. Operations such as rounding or any of the Boolean functions can be performed on active bodies only. By giving the user access to the history of a model. All non-atomic bodies have histories which contain information on the “parents. Solids may have one parent as in cases of rounding or slicing. even if they are no longer active bodies. 10 . For more information see page 33. BODIES Each body (solid or sheet) contains a written history of how it was created and details about its physical and display properties. or two parents as in the case of Boolean operations. Bodies removed from the Workspace as the result of a Boolean operation are maintained in the History list. The History list allows the user to access any body that went into the construction of the selected solid. Double-clicking on the icon next to the name of a body will make that body active and bring it back into the workspace. See page 51 for more information on the History list. One for creating simple atomic bodies and another palette for more advanced modeling. Bodies contained in the History list are considered dormant bodies. All of the bodies and functions that were used to create the selected solid or sheet will appear in the History list. The History list is structured in a hierarchical format where the selected body is at the top and all other bodies used to create it are found below in steps or branches. In order to make modif ications to a body contained in the History list and have those changes incorporated into the existing history. Recreate must be used.

for more information) for the faceting of the selected solid or sheet. In those cases. it may be desirable to designate a lower 11 . but will not be used in the toolpath generation calculation. volume calculations for bodies. It contains items that apply to the selected body. When solids and sheets are created. The user can change the name of the solid or sheet and enter a comment. This dialog also contains a Chord Height (See “Display” on page 18. Using “Display Only” stock and f ixtures settings can greatly improve system performance.Display Only options. Fixture or Stock. With the slide bar closer to the negative end of the spectrum. The percentage values do not directly correlate to the calculation. It should be noted that all calculations fall within a certain set range of accuracy regardless of the setting of the accuracy slide bar. different bodies can be selected and the contents of the Properties dialog will change to reflect the new body selected. the calculation time increases. Within the Physical Properties section is an Accuracy slide bar and a Calculate button.Interface PROPERTIES The Properties dialog is accessed from the body context menu (see page 15). The Properties dialog can also be used to view bodies. Solids and sheets can be designated as Part. When this dialog is open.Display Only and Stock . The Accuracy setting affects the calculation processing time. Additionally there are the Fixture . making this feature very important for TMS. Solids and sheets designated as Stock will be rendered in dark blue and will be used as the initial stock condition when creating machining operations. as bodies become more complex. This value will only be applied to the selected solid or sheet. in that a 0% accuracy is still going to provide a reasonably accurate calculation. The Accuracy slide bar designates the amount of processing time and effort the system will allocate for the calculations. When any stock or f ixture bodies are present the system may attempt to use 3D toolpath rather than 2D in some cases and having potentially hundreds of f ixture bodies to take into account when generating toolpath can seriously affect system performance. There is also a Physical Properties section which provides surface area calculations for solids and sheets. the calculations will be less accurate and vice versa. Solids or sheets designated as a Fixture will be rendered in red and will be used as constraints when creating machining operations. and surface periphery calculations for sheets. Click the Apply button to change the chord height based on the value entered. Using either of the “display only” items will display a body as a f ixture or stock. and be used in rendering. they will be designated as a Part by default unless the setting is changed in this dialog. Bodies contained in the History list can be viewed in the Properties dialog by selecting the cube icon in the History list. The coordinate system that the selected solid or sheet was last modif ied in will be displayed at the top of the dialog.

Quickly set all bodies in the dialog as a Part. Fixture. 1 cubic inch = 0. The system will always provide the +/. This dialog helps to assign properties to many bodies at one time. 1 oz. The following are conversion values for taking the volume in cubic inches (as is shown in the Properties dialog) to such measurements as ounces and liters. = 29.accuracy tolerance so that the user can determine whether the calculation is accurate enough for its purposes.55409 oz. 12 . Multiple Properties Add or change bodies in the dialog by changing the selection. or Stock type as well as their Chord Height and a Comment.57353 ml Figure 1: Solid Properties measurements The Multiple properties dialog appears when more than one body is selected when the Properties command is chosen.Interface accuracy in order to speed up the process. Apply To All must be pressed in order to apply the new settings to all the bodies in the dialog.

Doubleclick a body to move it from the workspace to the Body Bag. and Edges items so that users can select only the solids. Deselect: The Deselect menu contains the same items as the Select menu but act by deselecting (instead of selecting) entities. Shrinkage can also be applied differently in each axis. Bodies can also be moved with the Body and Body Bag context menu. machined. It performs a uniform or axial reduction or enlargements on selected solids.Interface BODY BAG The Body Bag is used to store bodies during part creation in order to organize the Workspace. resized and selected. and edges in a part f ile. modif ied. Figure 2: Resized Icons in the Body Bag SOLID MENU ITEMS Select: The Select menu contains Solids. Final Size = (100 . The Walls From Selected Edges item selects all faces that are tangent to the selected edges and perpendicular to the current CS. When sheets are converted into solids by offsetting. sheets. Items that are placed in the Body Bag are still considered active as long as the Body Bag is open they can be selected. EDIT Shrinkage: Shrinkage compensates for the rate at which an injection substance will shrink in a mold cavity. the offset must be calculated from one side of the sheet or the 13 MODIFY .Shrinkage%) * Start Size /100 Toggle Sheet Side: This item is useful when solidifying sheets into solids using the Offset solidify option. By Body Name and By Body Comment allow users to select bodies by entering their name or comment in the respective dialogs. etc. All Profiles selects all the available prof iles found by the Prof iler and Faces From Selected Profiles selects all faces that touch a selected prof ile. Bodies in the Body Bag are represented as icons which can be moved. The range of shrinkage is -10% to 10%. Sheets.

PLUG-INS There are many plug-ins available for solids. and is useful for when stitching has failed to identify problem areas before attempting to stitch again. Edges is only necessary when using the Gen 2 Engine in surfacing operations. Machining Face Check is only necessary when using the Gen 2 Engine in surfacing operations. The Max and Min offset values are referenced from one side of the sheet. are strictly developer tools. If a sheet is not valid. Polyline: This item verif ies the validity of trimmed surface polylines to ensure proper machining. See the Plug-Ins Guide manual for more details on body specif ic plug-ins. Multipass Stitch: This option will attempt to stitch all selected sheets together by performing a series of single passes. allowing the user to identify the problem. CONTEXT MENUS Menus accessed by right-clicking on certain items in the system are referred to as context menus. SOLIDS The system’s arsenal of tools for diagnosing problematic solids can be accessed by selecting the Solids > Tools menu. This function can also be performed by clicking on the Face Check button in the Stitch Utils dialog. Polyline is only necessary when using the Gen 2 Engine in surfacing operations.Interface other. Remove Unneeded Topology: This function attempts to merge any sheets that are def ined by the same underlying surface def inition into a single sheet. it will be deselected once the check is complete. select the sheet and then select the Toggle Sheet Side item. analytic surfaces are converted to NURBS. Check Trimmed Surf. Check Trimmed Surf. the system will display a message with information on the face(s) if the check passed or an error message on each of the bad faces. Check Trimmed Surf. this function will convert those NURBS back into analytics. Check Body Validity: When this item is selected. Check Face Validity: This item runs a face validity check on the selected sheets. An error message identifying the specif ic problem will also be displayed for each invalid entity. Simplify: This function attempts to convert NURBS surfaces into analytic surfaces within a given tolerance amount. the system checks to ensure that all selected entities are valid. thus reducing the number of individual sheets and simplifying the entire part f ile. The Multipass Stitch option is the same as stitching using the Multiple Passes option in the Stitch Utils dialog. Check Trimmed Surf. Edges: This item verif ies the validity of trimmed surface edges to ensure proper machining. Machining Face Check: This item checks the validity of selected faces to see if they can successfully be machined. 14 . The following dialogs have context menus that are accessed by right-clicking on the title bars of the dialogs. To offset the sheet from the other side. Some items however. After validating the face(s). Often times when surface f iles are imported.

6. This function does not work on multiple selections. Select a planar.Interface Body The body context menu is accessed by right-clicking on a body or history entry. the f inal model cannot be rebuilt. Apply the Modify CS (XYZ) command to the solid to assign it to the new CS. 7.e. This action is not undoable. For a cylinder use Align CS Normal & Move. Apply the Modify CS (HVD) command to the solid to assign it to the target CS and move it. Un-Bag It item will place it in the workspace. the CS you want to align to. 5. see “Body Bag” on page 13 for multiple selection functions. 15 . Select the target CS. The Rebuild function is limited in that models cannot be rebuilt if the changes require a signif icant alteration to the topology. All bodies that were used to create the selected body will be displayed in the History list. i. Choosing this command orients the part to the CS as if the following steps were taken. 4. This command is accessed by right-clicking on a face. 1. To cancel Recreate mode. Recreate : The Recreate mode takes the selected body back to its creation action to be modif ied. Bag It/Un-Bag It : Bag It will place a selected body into the Body Bag. See “Properties” on page 11 for more information. Create a new CS from the target CS. if the change created any new edges. and frees the user from having to select one face at a time. The following items for selecting and deselecting faces are only available when the system is in Face Selection mode. Swap or Replace into a new f inal part model. Delete new CS. For example. Clear History : This clears the history of the selected body. Select Align Plane Through & Move (right mouse menu choice) or Alt-click the Align CS button. These options are useful when multiple faces must be selected for modeling or machining functions. Align Face To Coordinate System : When Face Selection is active you may choose a face and align it to the current CS. Properties : The Properties dialog contains information on the selected solid or sheet. right-click a body and choose Exit Recreate or click the red body. essentially turning the solid into an atomic body. History : The History list displays the creation process of the selected body. cylindrical or complex face. 3. 2. Dormant bodies contained in the History list can be brought back to the Workspace by double-clicking on the icon in the History list. The selected body is drawn in red and any changes made will permanently replace the selected body. If the body is in the Body Bag. Rebuild : This will reprocesses the History tree and incorporates any changes made using Recreate.

3D Faces : This will select/deselect faces connected to the target face that are not def ined as a floor or wall. The system will only select f illets that have the same constant radius as the target face if the target face is a f illet). Next it will branch out to the adjoining faces and select/deselect them using the same logic. 2D Chain : When this option is selected. The 2D Chain and 3D Chain options affect how the system chooses the next edge to be connected at each vertex. The target face will also become selected. double-clicking an edge will attempt to select a loop of edges that are normal to the current CS (or those closest to it).Interface Tangent Faces : This will select/deselect the target face and all of the faces reachable by a tangency. However. adjoining flat faces will be selected/deselected based on the upper boundary of the target face. If there is more than one possible choice for an edge at a vertex. Faces Below : Neighboring faces will be selected/deselected if they have an lower boundary that lies below the lower boundary of the target face. Angled walls that fall within the Floor/Wall Angle Tolerance value set in File > Preferences > Selection will also be selected. Next it will branch out to the adjoining faces of the neighboring faces and repeat the selection/deselection using the neighbors upper boundary as the condition (rather than the target face). Fillets : This will select/deselect all constant radius f illet faces that are connected to the target face. A special condition exists for flat faces that neighbor the target face. the system tries to build a closed loop of edges starting with the selected edge. Wall Faces : The target face will be selected/deselected and any connected face that is parallel to the depth of the current CS. Floor Faces : Selects/Deselects all floor faces connected to the target face. When an edge is double-clicked. A transition face is a smooth blend that is connected to a wall and floor face. the approximation is set by the Floor/Wall Angle Tolerance value set in File > Preferences > Selection. Next it will then use the adjoining faces boundary and repeat the selection/ deselection. 16 . the system chooses the one that is closest to the same direction. double-clicking an edge will attempt to select a loop of edges that are planar to the current CS (or those closest to it). They will be selected/deselected based on the lower boundary of the target face. A floor face is approximately normal to the depth axis of the current CS. Transition Faces : This will select/deselect all transition faces connected to the target face. Faces Above : Neighboring faces will be selected/deselected if they have an upper boundary that lies above the upper boundary of the target face. therefore resulting in a 3D loop. 3D Chain : When this option is selected. therefore resulting in a 2D loop. Edge Right-click a selected edge to access options that affect edge selection.

Un-Bag Selected.Interface History The context menu. The Snap to Grid item can either be checked on or off. The depth of the face is not a factor. Select Body Bag. 17 . The Resize All Icons item allows the user to modify the size of the Body Bag icons. When on. The Clean Up Body Bag item will reorganize the Body Bag icons so that all icons can be viewed and none overlap. Select Faces Inside Selected Profiles: This option selects all faces that are contained fully within the boundary of the selected prof ile and that are not tangent to the prof ile. this option will only select the faces that are tangent to the toolpath. displaying all branches which contain the bodies used to create the selected model. Select Workspace. Deselect Body Bag and Deselect Workspace. any face within the boundary will be selected regardless of its depth. Resize All Icons. All the icons in the Body Bag will be resized accordingly. Select All Profiles : This option selects all prof iles generated by the Prof iler grid. When a prof ile has been selected for machining. Body Bag icons that are moved will snap to a grid for alignment. Profiler Access the Prof iler’s context menu by right-clicking on any visible part of the Prof iler grid. or the portion of the prof ile between the start and end machining markers. contains the items Expand All and Collapse All. The Un-Bag Selected item will take any selected Body Bag icons and place the solids/sheets back into the drawing window from the Body Bag. drag the grid while this dialog is open and the f ield will update itself to reflect the current depth. When this item is selected. i. The Expand All item will expand the tree. The Bag Selected item places any solids or sheets that are selected in the drawing window into the Body Bag. This item is active when an icon is selected in the Body Bag. Select Faces From Selected Profiles : This option selects all faces that are tangent to the prof iles generated by the Prof iler grid. The user may specify a new depth by entering the value in the f ield and clicking Apply. Snap to Grid. These last few items are very useful when analyzing surface f iles by providing a method for isolating problem areas.e. Collapse All will not show any branches and only the selected model icon will appear at the top of the History list. Bag Selected. and the Select/Deselect Workspace items selects/ deselects all entities (including bodies and geometry) in the Workspace. Body Bag The context menu contains the items Clean Up Body Bag. Note that selected prof iles turn blue. Profiler Depth : Select this option to access the Profiler Depth dialog. accessed from the title bar of the History list. The Depth f ield shows the grid’s absolute depth. The Select/Deselect Body Bag items selects/deselects all the bodies in the Body Bag. a box that can be dragged and resized will be drawn around the selected icon.

It also affects overall system performance and speed. Solids and sheets can be displayed as rendered solid objects or as wireframe drawings. as well as setting the value for new bodies to be created in the future. 18 . the closer the facet will be to the arc or circle. the system uses a 3D chord height for the faceting of solids and sheets. The global chord height will be applied to all solids and sheets that are created or imported. Faceting Rendering is the process of displaying a picture of a model on the screen. The Render/Wireframe button in the Task Bar determines whether solids and sheets will be rendered objects or wireframe drawings. The faceting tolerance has NO effect on machining tolerances. they are faceted. It is this specif ication which designates how closely the toolpath will follow the surface. The chord height is the distance from the chord to the arc or circle (Figure 3). the closer the model resembles the actual mathematical model and the more time it takes for the system to render the model. The overall part chord height is controlled here. A number can be entered in the text box or the slider can change the value by moving it left and right. Chord Height Figure 3: Chord Height The system uses a global faceting chord height which is applied to the entire part model. Facets are small planar surfaces that compose the rendered model. Click the Apply button to f inalize the change to the faceting tolerance for selected bodies. but the general idea is the same). The global chord height is entered in the Graphics dialog which is accessed from the File > Preferences menu. resulting in a better rendered image of the solid or sheet (this is a 2D description of chord height. 1. The more facets drawn. The faceting chord height should be set at a value that balances the quality of the model with system performance. The chord height determines the faceting resolution when solids and sheets are rendered. The number of facets used to render a model is determined by the chord height. A chord is a straight line that joins any two points on an arc or circle.Interface PREFERENCES Software preferences are accessed from the File > Preferences menu. The wireframe drawings will either display edges or facets of solids or sheets depending on the selection made in the Wire Drawing section. only on the rendered image on the screen. DISPLAY This Preference contains settings that affect the graphic display of solids and sheets. Faceting affects the quality of the rendered bodies.The tolerance used for surface machining is set locally in the Process dialogs Solids tab > Advanced Settings dialog and is labeled as the Cutting Tolerance and globally in the Document Control dialog as Use Global settings for Solids > Part Rough Tolerance. The smaller the chord height. When bodies are rendered.

19 . See “Properties” on page 11 for more information. MACHINING The process dialogs are enhanced by the Solids tab in machining processes for Contouring and Roughing. The Properties dialog. For more informatio\n see page 70. The Solids tab contains options for overriding global settings for each operation type. contains a chord height value which will only be used to facet the selected solid or sheet. accessed by right-clicking on a solid or sheet.Interface A different faceting chord height can be applied to individual solids and sheets.

Interface 20 .

MODELING .

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only the latter can be selected to perform modeling functions. SOLIDS A solid is an object that has volume. Surface modeling is the process of creating sheets as the foundation for a model. and surface modeling. Solids can either be single bodies (lumps) or a collection of bodies (multilump body). When surface f iles are imported. 23 .or three-dimensional space. Solids are rendered in grey. selecting a solid changes it to a yellow body. Advanced techniques such as shelling. stock. however. The surface creation tools are primarily intended to be used with surface f iles that are imported rather than for creating complete part models using surface modeling techniques.Modeling CHAPTER 3 : Modeling INTRODUCTION TO MODELING WHAT IS MODELING? Modeling is the process of def ining a part’s shape and dimensions on a computer. Common types of modeling include geometric modeling (both 2D and 3D). Solids can either be viewed as wireframe drawings or rendered objects. Sheets may have either one face or several faces. Boolean operations can then be performed on an atomic body to create a new. SHEETS Sheets do not have any thickness or volume. Solids may also be def ined as stock (blue) or a f ixture (red). however. sheets may also be def ined as a part. distinct body. Selecting a body will show if it is composed of lumps or if it is a multi-lump body. The process begins with the creation of a simple solid known as an atomic or primitive body. The use of solid modeling tools is the recommended method for modeling a part. Boolean operations can also be performed on sheets. lines. A sheet has knowledge of the neighboring sheets that surround it. offsetting. circles and splines. solid modeling. Geometry can be def ined in either two. Solid modeling is the process of def ining a part as a solid object rather than as geometry or a collection of sheets. each surface entity is brought in as a single sheet (unless the Solidify option is chosen). blending and stitching or unstitching may then be used to create the f inal part model. These sheets can either be machined directly or modif ied as necessary to complete the part model. Models containing lumps or multi-lump solids can be separated to create multiple bodies. Similar to solids. or f ixture. Geometric modeling is the process of def ining a model with simple geometric constructions such as points.

All solid models originate from at least one atomic solid. Sphere: A ball shaped solid. Revolve: A 2D shape. Atomic solids do not have a history (or branches). Atomic solids are created using the options in the Create Solid palette which is accessed by clicking on the Create Solid button in the Solid Modeling palette. Lofting is also referred to as skinning or blending. which convert sheets to solids.Modeling PRIMITIVES/ATOMIC SOLIDS A primitive or atomic solid is a simple. Extrude. non-divisible solid—a solid that is not built from other solids. a cube and a revolved/lofted/swept/extruded 2D shape. The base curve acts as the spine which determines the overall contour of the sweep and the drive curve(s) designate the location and shape of the solid. are also contained in the Create Solid palette. Sphere Cuboid Extrude Revolve Loft Sweep Solidify WORKSPACE Active solids and sheets exist in the Workspace. Extrude: A two dimensional closed shape extruded along the depth axis. The Workspace consists of the drawing window and the Body Bag (when visible). The solidifying functions. either open or closed. 7. 5. Bodies must be active in order to perform any modeling functions such as Boolean operations. Solidif ied sheets are considered atomic solids as they have no history associated with them. 4. 6. Cuboid: Any type of rectangular solid. revolved around either the horizontal or vertical axis by a specif ied number of degrees. They include: Cap. Loft: Lofted solids are created by selecting a series of closed shapes that will be blended together using selected alignment points. Dormant bodies can be retrieved using the History list. Solidify: There are several options for solidifying sheets into solids. 24 . the component bodies are removed and made dormant to simplify the modeling process and control the f ile size. Because the solid modeler creates single bodies from any operation by default. 2. Sweep: Swept solids are created by selecting base curve geometry and drive curve geometry. Bodies that only exist in the History list are considered dormant bodies. 3. Offset and Solidify Closed Sheets. Examples of an atomic solid include a sphere. 1.

the plane through geometry groups includes planar edges and planar faces. Intersection: Keeps the common volume between two bodies.Modeling WORKGROUPS AND COORDINATE SYSTEMS Bodies are not contained in workgroups. swap. and only the resulting body remains active in the Workspace. The deleted bodies used in the Boolean operation become dormant bodies and can be retrieved from the History list. subtraction. Replace: This function replaces one body with another. Boolean operations are destructive. while the plane normal geometry groups includes an edge and a point. Nondestructive Booleans can be performed by holding down the Alt key. Some of the modeling functions (such as extrusions and revolved bodies) are CS-specif ic. BOOLEAN OPERATIONS Boolean operations use two bodies (either solids or sheets or some combination of the two) to create a new single solid or sheet. the resulting body will be a multi-lump body. Non-destructive Booleans will generate the new body and place the original two bodies used in the Boolean operation in the Body Bag. The resulting body will be a new single body composed of the two selected bodies. The f irst body selected is kept and the second body selected is subtracted out. Select two bodies and subtract them. 25 . Addition (Union): Combines the volume of two bodies. meaning that the current coordinate system is used to create the body. Select two bodies and intersect them. Planes can either be aligned through selected geometry or normal (perpendicular) to selected geometry. If the two selected bodies were disjunct (not touching). For further information on these subjects. addition. regardless of the current workgroup. Subtraction (Difference): Removes the volume of one body from another body. The f irst body selected will completely replace the other body. Bodies are assigned a coordinate system which is based on the current CS when the body was created. in that the initial two bodies selected for the Boolean operation are deleted. The resulting body will be the f irst body minus the second body. plane through geometry groups and plane normal geometry groups. Swap: This function switches the two selected bodies. Other modeling functions (such as lofting) are not dependent on the current CS. please refer to the Advanced CS manual. Coordinate Systems can be modif ied into the proper orientation by selecting components of a solid or sheet. Separate: Separates a multi-lump body into individual bodies. and a face (planar or non-planar) and a point. Select two bodies and add them together. intersection and separation. The Boolean operations contained in the system are replace. With solids and sheets. There are two categories of CS alignment. The resulting body will be the volume that is common to the two bodies selected. They are drawn in either the Body Bag or the Workspace.

the body selected to be recreated is drawn in red and placed in the Body Bag. • • • Recreate only affects the creation of the selected body. the system goes into Recreate mode. Change the selected parents used in a Boolean operation. 26 . To recreate its parents. the radius of a sphere). which is contained in the context menu (accessed by a right-clicking the body). Exit Recreate mode by selecting the body drawn in red or selecting the Exit Recreate item from the body context menu. The geometry should be changed prior to entering Recreate mode. they must be brought back from the History list. The function button (or buttons) originally used to create the body will be outlined in red. When Recreate is selected. and must be used for changes that the user wishes to incorporate into the rebuilding of a solid. Recreate allows the user to change a parent body. These bodies are referred to as parent bodies. Change the type of atomic body that was created (for example. the parent body or bodies that were used to create the body to be recreated become active and appear in the drawing window. The following are some examples of what can be done using the Recreate function: • • Change the data for an atomic body (for example.Modeling RECREATE MODE Rebuilding a solid incorporates any changes made to bodies that were used to create that solid. If applicable. When in Recreate mode. a sphere can be made into a cuboid). Bodies can be modif ied using the Recreate function of the software. Change the type of Boolean operation that was performed. Recreate an atomic body from different or modif ied geometry. All original data will be restored.

The new model is imported into the system. 1. it is possible to modify earlier steps during model creation and rebuild the f inal model. it cannot be changed back to its previous state. To rebuild a model. Changes are made to the original model provided.Modeling REBUILDING SOLIDS Because the system maintains the history of solids and sheets. The only way to make a modif ication to an existing body without changing the name and reference of that body is to use the Recreate function. Make modif ications to that body using the Recreate function. you would recreate the mold base by selecting the new body instead of the old one and performing the Boolean operation. You may reopen the model to retrieve the previous history if needed. The Rebuild function cannot be undone. follow the steps outlined below. let's say you start with an imported Parasolids f ile. 3. To incorporate the new changes. The Rebuild function reprocesses the History tree. As an example. You build a mold base body from this model. 2. This level of associativity is very useful when working with complex models that would take considerable time to rebuild from scratch if changes were necessary. Any changes made to a solid or sheet in the tree will be reincorporated into the model. Rebuild the body by selecting Solids > Rebuild. which means that once a model has been rebuilt. 27 . Any changes made can be incorporated into the f inal model using the Rebuild function. Rebuild is useful when working with imported solid models. Bring a previous body back from the History list. Then select the f inal body and rebuild it.

swept sheets. lofted sheets. 1. 7.Modeling MODELING REFERENCE This section provides functional descriptions of the modeling capabilities contained in the system. Triggering this function with a closed shape selected will create a sheet bounded by the selected geometry at a depth of zero in the coordinate system. When no geometry is selected. Revolve This button will open the Sheet Revolve dialog which allows users to revolve a shape around the horizontal or vertical axis by a specif ied number of degrees to create a sheet. using this function will create a flat planar sheet based on the current coordinate system at a depth of zero. stitch/unstitch. If the closed shape is not planar. 2. including planes. The Surface Modeling palette includes various methods for creating sheets. revolved sheets. 4. a plane will still be created by projecting the geometry to a depth of zero in the current coordinate system. SURFACE MODELING PALETTE Clicking the Surface Modeling button in the Top Level palette opens the Surface Modeling palette. It may be best to start with the modeling exercises and refer to the reference section when something is unclear. These modeling functions are put to practical application in the modeling exercises which provide tutorial-style instruction. 8. 3. and extend sheets. Plane Revolve Loft Coon’s Patch Sweep Sheet From Face Trim / Un-Trim Stitch Unstitch Plane This button is used to create planes. Surface modeling and sheets are primarily used when working with imported surface f iles. which is shown below. 6. 9. Coon’s patch sheets. 5. 28 . and are not generally required for building bodies. and sheets from faces as well as the ability to trim/untrim.

Likewise. connected splines or features can be selected to create a Coon’s patch. Each shape can be any size or orientation as long as the endpoints are coincident (in the exact same location in X. In some cases. The value entered in the A text box is the angle (specif ied in degrees) the selected shape will be revolved around the selected axis. a vertical value must be entered to specify the position of the revolution axis. A Coon’s patch is a surface type that uses boundary shapes (typically splines) and blends a smooth surface between them. The axis buttons specify which axis the selected shape will be revolved about. a Coon’s patch surface can be created if there are more than three or four line segments but the connected splines have three or four distinct corners. If the horizontal axis is selected for the axis of revolution. the system will attempt to blend the f irst and last shapes together to form a closed sheet. Y and Z) and each shape is continuous and does not contain any sharp corners. Sheet lofting produces ruled surfaces when only two shapes are selected and sculptured surfaces when three or more shapes are selected. This button will open the Sheet Loft dialog which allows users to create a sheet through a series of open or closed shapes. Often times. 29 . a horizontal value must be entered to specify the position of the revolution axis. terminated shapes. Also. Either three or four shapes must be designated as boundary shapes. Coon’s Patch This button creates a sheet called a Coon’s patch through either three or four selected open. Loft Sheet Loft dialog: Select a series of shapes to be blended into a smooth sheet. The selected shapes represent the boundary of the sheet. if the vertical axis is the axis of revolution. A positive angle value will revolve the shape in a counter-clockwise direction and a negative angle in a clockwise direction based on the positive axis of revolution. The system will blend the selected shapes into a sheet using C0 points (corners) as alignment points. The shapes act as the cross-sections through which the f inal sheet will be created. If the Close checkbox is selected. The system will blend all the selected shapes into a smooth sheet. if trimmed splines that do not have coincident points at the edges are imported. terminated shape or a closed shape to be revolved.Modeling Sheet Revolve dialog: Select an open. These can be closed shapes or open. terminated shapes. a Coon’s patch can be created provided that the ends of each trimmed spline are coincident.

If only a sheet is selected. The Untrim function removes the bounding edge loop so that the underlying surface def inition replaces the selected surface. the user can select the problem sheet. This is useful when working with imported IGES f iles that are not stitching or solidifying due to edge loops of neighboring surfaces not joining within the specif ied tolerance. users can select individual faces of a body. If the geometry does not lie on the selected sheet. Only one alignment point per drive curve needs to be selected for the Sweep Sheet function. untrim it to create the underlying surface def inition and then trim that surface with the extracted edges from neighboring sheets. Neighboring faces will produce stitched faces in the resulting sheet. The only difference involves the alignment rules for the drive curves. Selecting a face or faces and clicking on this button will create a sheet based on the face and bound by the edge loop of the selected face. Swept sheets do not use alignment or sync points selected on the drive curves to determine how the drive curves will be blended together. Refer to the Sweep Solid section on page 37 for additional information. If a sheet and geometry are selected. Trim/Untrim Surfaces This button performs both the trim and untrim functions depending on the entities selected when the button is clicked. the system will attempt to untrim. never attempting to create a valid face from the untrimmed surface. The Untrim function only works with single-faced sheets. 30 . The system will untrim the selected one-faced sheet and then trim that sheet to the selected geometry in one step. Using the Face Selection mode accessed from the Taskbar. The edge loop is what bounds the underlying surface def inition into a f inite bounded surface. the geometry will be projected onto the selected sheet and the trim operation will be performed. Holding down the Alt key while clicking the Trim/ Untrim button will perform both the trim and untrim operations at once. The untrimmed surface will be bound by the workspace stock size. Sheet from Face This option creates a sheet from the face of a solid or sheet. The geometry selected for the trim operation must completely cut the selected sheet into two pieces. The trim function breaks a single sheet into two separate sheets at the selected trim geometry.Modeling Sweep Sheet The Sweep Sheet function is nearly identical to the Sweep Solid function described in the Solid Modeling section beginning on page 33. A face is one surface of a solid or sheet that is bound by an edge loop. the system will attempt to perform the trim operation. If this is the case.

For sheets to successfully stitch to their neighbors. This is accomplished by selecting the problem edges. Applying a different edge tolerance to certain edges often aids the system in stitching together all the sheets together. the two sheets will not be stitched together and remain two separate entities. The minimum tolerance is set by the system and is 0. the system will attempt to stitch all selected sheets at the given tolerance. A face is a trimmed surface with an edge and knowledge of its neighboring surfaces. Surfaces are stitched at their edges. entering the looser tolerance in the Edge Tolerance text box. The system must be in Edge Selection mode in order to view edges. If all edges stitch together at this tolerance into a single closed sheet. thereby creating a solid. the only external edges that will be visible are the edges that could not be stitched together because of the tolerance gap. 31 .002mm or greater. choose a stitching method from the Stitch Sheets dialog and click the Stitch button.00002mm or 0. Each of these methods uses the Tolerance value entered in the dialog.00000079".002mm. When surface f iles are imported into the system. the user must select all the sheets to be stitched. This dialog provides different methods for stitching sheets together as well as tools to analyze stitched sheets. 1 Pass: When the 1 Pass option is selected. The external edges are the edges that need to be stitched together. There are three stitching methods offered in this dialog 1 Pass. The system will take one pass at the specif ied tolerance in this attempt. All stitched edges become internal edges. The Show Internal Edges checkbox provides a method for only viewing the external edges of a part. Multiple Passes and Multiple Tries. An edge is the trim curve that bounds a face. and clicking on the Set Edge button. The system will analyze each sheet. Otherwise. there are holes (gaps) and adjoining sheets that are separated by a gap cannot be stitched. For example. Once the problem edges have been identif ied. the user can build a sheet using Coons Patch or another Surface Modeling tool to f ill the hole. if the gap is large. the result will be a multi-faced sheet composed of all of the sheets that could be stitched together. each surface is represented as a single-faced sheet. The tolerance specif ied by the user cannot be less than this value. The tolerance can be thought of as the maximum gap that can exist between the edges of two sheets that the system will still stitch together. stitch the sheets together. In order to stitch sheets. If the tolerance set is 0. After performing a stitching operation.Modeling Stitch Sheets This button will open the Stitch Sheets dialog. while the external edges are ones that can be viewed from the outside. The internal edges are edges that can be viewed from the inside of the model looking out. the edges of two adjoining sheets are 0.002mm apart. Often times the gaps are small and can be f ixed by applying a looser tolerance to select edges. the two sheets will be stitched together and the result will be a single sheet. If the tolerance is less than 0. its neighbors and its edges and if they fall within the tolerance. the edges of these sheets must align with each other within a specif ied tolerance. otherwise. the system will solidify the sheets.

00000079") and attempt to stitch the sheets at that tolerance. Multiple Tries: This option is similar to Multiple Passes in that it takes incremental passes ranging from the minimum tolerance (0. Face Check: Clicking the Face Check button will perform a face validity check on the selected sheets. This is similar to taking a series of one-pass steps and undoing after each one. resulting in a solid. starting over after each pass that does not stitch all the selected sheets together. Original Sheet 2. In the second row. The faces will be unstitched at the edge loop which bounds the selected face or faces.00002 mm or 0. The system will attempt to stitch all the sheets together at each tolerance increment. The stitching process will stop when all the selected sheets have been stitched together into a single sheet even if this occurs before the maximum tolerance is reached. if the sheets stitched together into a single closed sheet. This will also convert solids into sheets.00000079") to the maximum tolerance. Edges of sheet which separate the faces 3. the system will automatically solidify the sheets. multiple adjoining faces are selected to be unstitched. The progress bar. Otherwise. The system will begin at the minimum tolerance (0. the result will be a multi-faced sheet or sheets. it must be deleted and re-created in order for future stitching attempts to be successful. Multiple passes will be taken at incremental tolerance steps ranging from the minimum tolerance (set by the system) to the maximum tolerance (set by the user). attempting to stitch any remaining sheets. When all of the passes have been completed. which is the Tolerance value entered in the dialog. 1. displays the number of sheets remaining to be stitched and the tolerance being used on the current pass. the system will stitch together all the sheets that it can at that tolerance and then proceed to another pass at the next tolerance. Unstitch Sheets This button will unstitch or detach faces of a sheet. Selected face to be unstitched 4. The system is looking for the smallest single tolerance that will stitch the entire part. The f irst row of pictures shows geometry revolved to create a single multi-faced sheet with the edges displayed to differentiate between the faces of the sheet. The face check produces an error message for each invalid face and also deselects the problem faces. On each pass. It is useful to run a face check if stitching has failed to identify problem areas before attempting to stitch again. When a face fails the check. Resulting Sheet Figure 4: Example of unstitching a sheet 32 . the system will attempt to stitch together all selected sheets by performing a series of single passes. Figure 4 illustrate an example of unstitching. located on the right side of the Taskbar. The tolerance entered by the user provides the maximum tolerance that the system will go to in its attempt to stitch the sheets. This is identical to the face validity check that is run when the Solids > Tools > Check Body Validity item is selected.00002 mm or 0.Modeling Multiple Passes: When this option is selected. Resulting Sheet 5.

5. Sphere Cuboid Extrude Revolve Loft Sweep Solid Solidify This button will open the Sphere dialog which allows users to create spherical bodies. 3. The controls accessed by each button are described in the following sections. All of the modeling functions that are used with solids are accessed from this palette. 3. 1.Modeling SOLID MODELING The Solid Modeling palette is accessed by clicking on the Solid Modeling button in the Top Level palette. 6. Enter the H. Replacing. The f irst button accesses the Create Solid palette which provides options for creating atomic or primitive bodies. and depth) coordinates of the centerpoint of the sphere and a radius value. Intersecting and Separating and all provide for various interactions between solids and sheets. The remaining buttons in the Solid Modeling palette include Slicing. Click the Do It button to create the sphere. The second button accesses the Advanced Solid Modeling palette which provides for such functions as offsetting and rounding. 2. Atomic or primitive solids are non-divisible bodies in that they were not created from any other bodies. Subtracting. 9. vertical. 2. 7. Adding. Sphere 33 . 8. Swapping. D (horizontal. 6. 4. Create Solid Palette Advanced Solid Modeling Palette Slice Replace Swap Add Subtract Intersect Separate Create Solid Palette Clicking the Create Solid button opens the Create Solid palette which provides various methods for creating atomic bodies and solidifying sheets into solids. V. 7. 1. 5. 4.

Negative angle values can also be entered for the taper amount. Y and Z will be used instead of H. The labels X. Click the Do It button to create the cuboid. the shape selected to be extruded is duplicated along the depth axis by the amount specif ied. vertical and depth value to def ine the volume of the cuboid. Cuboid This button will open the Extrude dialog which allows users to create a solid by selecting a closed shape and extruding it along the depth axis. The Stock Dim. When the Taper box is activated. When 34 . The labels used in the dialog may vary when the current coordinate system aligns with one of the primary planes. A negative value can be entered for the Z+ value so that the shape can be extruded along the negative direction of the depth axis. the negative depth specif ication will become grayed out. Click the Do It button to create the extruded solid. Tapered Extrusions: A taper can be put on an extruded solid. When doing an extrusion with no taper. A closed 2D shape can be extruded along the depth axis of the active CS in the positive and/or negative direction based on the values entered. button will load the workspace stock def initions based on the XY coordinates. The value entered in the Taper box specif ies the angle of the taper. the offset shape is an exact duplicate of the original shape. Extrude Straight and Tapered extrusions work with multiple geometry loops. The extrusion starts at the depth location of the selected geometry. Enter a minimum and maximum horizontal. When extruding a solid. The order of selection is important because the system will use the loop that is selected f irst as the outer prof ile.Modeling This button will open the Cuboid dialog which allows users to create cubes and rectangular bodies. An extrusion with a taper can only be done in one direction along the depth axis in order to properly calculate the taper on the solid. These values will be measured from the origin of the current coordinate system. V and D.

Modeling creating an extrusion with a taper. Likewise. A corner is def ined as the non-tangent intersection between two features. a horizontal value must be entered to specify the position of the vertical axis that will be the revolution axis. These selected shapes def ine the cross-sections of the resulting lofted solid. one alignment point per shape can be selected and the system will blend the lofted solid using the corners as alignment points. When selecting alignment points on the shapes. A positive angle value will revolve the shape in a counter-clockwise direction and a negative angle in a clockwise direction based on the positive axis of revolution. The value entered in the A text box is the angle (specif ied in degrees) the selected shape will be revolved around the selected axis. The alignment points on each shape will match up in the f inished lofted solid. If the horizontal axis is selected for the axis of revolution. select all relevant points to act as alignment points. This button will open the Solid Revolve dialog which allows users to revolve a shape a specif ied number of degrees around either the horizontal or vertical axis to create a solid. a vertical value must be entered to specify the position of the revolution axis. The system looks at the selection order for each shape. etc. 35 . if the vertical axis is the axis of revolution. Select a series of closed shapes to be blended into a solid. there cannot be a line on the axis of revolution or else revolving will fail because it will produce self-intersecting edges. The axis buttons designate whether the shape will be revolved around the horizontal or vertical axis of the current coordinate system. the offset shape is going to be larger or smaller (depending on if the taper is positive or negative) than the original shape. Revolve Loft This button will open the Loft dialog. The selected shape must be an open terminated shape. either select all alignment points per shape in the same order or select the f irst alignment point on all shapes then the second. The shapes should be selected by choosing points on each shape that will act as alignment or synchronization points. in order to revolve 360° about an axis position of zero. The system will break up the section of the shape between alignment points into an equal number of segments and create a face (surface) by matching each segment. To achieve the best results when lofting. In other words. Select any terminated or closed shape to be revolved. If the shapes selected have the same number of corners. rather than a closed shape. Lofting is also referred to as blending or skinning.

the system will attempt to blend the f irst and last shapes together into a closed solid. the other six alignment points per shape. The second set of pictures show the alignment points selected—one has one alignment point per shape. three closed shapes are to be lofted. The third set of pictures show the lofted bodies created from the shapes. 1. 3. 4. The resulting lofted solid Figure 5: Example of the use of alignment points in lofting 36 . 2. Curves to be lofted. The solid created from the shapes with six alignment points selected blends the solid based on all of the alignment points. The top picture shows the shapes selected to be lofted. 1 alignment point is selected.Modeling If the Close box is checked. 6 alignment points are selected. Click the Do It button to create the lofted solid. In Figure 5. The solid created from the shapes with one alignment point selected blends the shapes using the four corners of each shape because the shapes have the same number of corners. allowing the user more control over the solid that is generated.

how the drive curve will be swept around the base curve. keeping the drive curve’s prof ile. and a base curve. 2D Normal BC and 3D Normal BC. Swept Shape Terminology Base Curve: The base curve can be a 2D or 3D curve and must either be a closed shape or an open terminated shape. the drive curve will not remain normal to the base curve as the base curve moves in Z (or the depth of the current CS). 37 . If Sharp Corners is checked. A swept solid is created by selecting a drive curve(s) that def ine the basic shape of the sweep. is used to designate the base curve. which def ines the spine or edge of the sweep.Modeling Sweep Solid This function provides options for creating swept solids. Another way to think of this is that the vertical axis of the drive curve plane always stays parallel to the depth axis of the sweeping plane. 2D Normal BC: The selected drive curves will be rotated around the sweeping plane normal vector so that it is perpendicular to the base curve in the sweeping plane. The B-pointer can be dragged from its box in the dialog and dropped on the geometry to be used for the base curve. The following is a list of rules regarding drive curve creation. Drive Curve: The drive curve is a 2D curve that def ines the cross-sections of the swept solid. dragging it from geometry back to its box in the dialog. However. Drive Curve Plane (DCP) Alignment: The DCP Alignment options determine the alignment of the drive curve plane in reference to the base curve — in other words. The drive curve must be def ined in the correct 3D location for the desired swept shape. There are three options: None. The B-pointer marker. The location of the B-pointer marker on the base curve has no affect on the resulting swept solid. The tolerance value specif ies how closely the generated swept solid will be to the “true” swept surface. see “Swept Shape Terminology” on page 37. Sharp Corners: This checkbox determines whether corners should be smooth (rounded) or sharp (square). the system will extend a solid so the corners meet to have mitred corners. • Drive curves must be planar. It can be removed in the same manner. There are some terms you should familiarize yourself with to fully understand how to use the Sweep function. It should also be def ined in the exact 3D location of the desired swept solid. The alignment is locked. located in the Sweep Solid dialog.

The same number of alignment points must be selected on each shape. Full circles have a default alignment at 12:00 in their respective planes. If full circles are selected for the drive curve without alignment points selected and the resulting swept solid is not the desired result. • • • • Sweeping Plane: The sweeping plane is the current coordinate system when the Sweeping function is performed. Figure 6 illustrates the capping function to solidify a sheet. In order to use the cap option to solidify a sheet. • • Alignment points must be connectors or terminators on the drive curves. The enclosed area is f illed in to create the solid. If more than one alignment point is selected. all corner connectors (non-tangent intersections) must be selected. Solidify This button accesses the Solidify dialog which provides options for creating solids from sheets. This dialog includes four options for converting sheets into solid bodies. It is often useful to solidify sheets into solids to reduce part complexity and so that solid modeling functions can be performed. The sweeping plane affects the DCP Alignment options when the 2D Normal BC item is used. select the sheet and click the Do It button. select the desired option in this dialog. This allows the user to select circles for the drive curves without needing to create and select alignment points. Each method is described below. the sheet selected to be capped must only require planar surfaces to provide closure of open ends of the sheet. Open terminated shapes can be used for the drive curves only when these open shapes can be capped by a single plane. create terminators or connectors on the circles in order to control alignment. it is not necessary to solidify sheets in order to machine them. Figure 6: Solidifying a sheet using Cap 38 . each shape must have the same number of corner connectors or else the sweeping operation will fail.Modeling • All drive curves must be closed shapes. In this case. The sweeping plane also determines the CS to which the resulting swept solid will be assigned. If only one alignment point is selected for each shape. Cap: The Cap option creates a solid from an open sheet by creating planar surfaces at any open ends of the selected sheet. Surfaces can be machined directly without being solidif ied or stitched together. The Solidify Closed Sheets option can be used on multiple sheets. corner connectors will automatically be aligned. The f irst three options can only be used to change a single sheet into a solid. To solidify a sheet. Select the drive curves by choosing alignment points on each of the shapes. However.

Offsetting can be thought of as rolling a ball with a diameter the size of the offset amount along the sheet. the extrude axis (depth axis of the current coordinate system) can not hit the sheet in more than one place and cannot be parallel to the edge of the sheet.Modeling Extrude: The Extrude option creates a solid by extruding a selected sheet along the depth axis of the current coordinate system. the sheet selected to be extruded cannot overlap itself or fold over. Also. Figure 8: Solidifying a sheet with Offset Solidify Closed Sheets: This option creates a solid by f illing in the volume enclosed by separate adjoining sheets. The sheet selected to be solidif ied acts as the zero reference point for the Max and Min values. Figure 7 illustrates extruding a sheet in order to solidify it. The sheets selected do not need to be stitched together in order to use this option. These values can be positive or negative. Entering a negative value will extrude the sheet along the negative direction of the depth axis. the sheet selected to be extruded is duplicated along the depth axis by the amount specif ied and the area between these sheets is f illed in to create a solid. When using the Offset option. the user specif ies a Max and/or Min value that acts as the offset amount. This option provides the same functionality as the stitching options accessed from the Surface Modeling palette. The sheet can be extruded in either the positive or negative direction along the depth axis. The sheet selected to be solidif ied will be offset in one direction by the Max value and in the other direction by the Min value. Figure 7: Solidifying a sheet with Extrude Offset: The Offset option creates a solid by creating an offset sheet of the sheet selected to be solidif ied at a specif ied distance and f illing in the area between the original sheet and the offset sheet to create a solid. In order to use the extrude option to solidify a sheet. The user enters a value which specif ies how far along the depth axis to extrude the sheet. The def inition of an offset is that every point on the offset sheet will be normal (perpendicular) to a point on the original sheet. Figure 8 illustrates the offsetting function to solidify a sheet. There can be no holes or gaps between the sheets to be solidif ied. 39 . When performing an extrusion.

1. Each is described below. Offset Solid Figure 9: Example of an Offset solid In Figure 9. It should be noted that the original solid selected to be offset is replaced by the offset solid. Offset 2. select the solid or face(s). Both bodies and faces can be offset and multiple bodies and faces can be offset at one time. Unstitch Offset/Shell This button is located in the Advanced Solid Modeling palette and accesses the Offset/Shell dialog. This example would fail to offset if the offset amount was greater than the size of the f illet.Modeling Advanced Solid Modeling Palette Advanced Solid Modeling: This button opens the Advanced Solid Modeling palette. The original solid can be brought back from the History list if necessary. Blending 3. Each function is described below. To offset a solid or face. This is due to the fact the system must extend the other faces to intersect each other. 40 . smaller. Original Solid 2. sheets and individual faces. Note the change in the size of the f illet at the top of the bottle — it is a much smaller f illet than on the original solid. This function will enlarge or shrink a solid or face by the specif ied Offset amount. 1. Shell Offset: The Offset function can be performed on solids. enter an offset amount and click the Do It button. 1. Blending and Unstitch Solid. the original solid is a canister and the offset is enlarged by a given amount. There is an Offset button and a Shell button within the dialog. Offset/Shell 2. negative values. Positive offset values will make the selected entities larger. The functions included in this palette include Shell/Offset.

The outside of a sheet is def ined as the side from which the positive direction of the surface normals are projecting outward. This button will display the outside of sheets as blue and the inside of sheets as red. the offset function will not succeed because the specif ied offset amount creates excessive topology changes. Modeling functions that change the shape of a face do not affect the topology unless the function requires a change to the way faces connect to one another along their edges. When offsetting sheets. only selected faces are offset and the unselected faces “grow” in order to provide for the offset. The offset function attempts to extend the unoffset neighboring faces to intersect with the faces that are being offset. Select a solid. is if the offset amount is greater than an inside (concave) f illet of the face or solid to be offset. Offsetting Sheets: The Offset function can also be performed on sheets. no amount of extension will intersect with the offset face. Therefore the offset function will fail in this instance. and therefore will fail. Shell: The Offset amount specif ies the amount the solid will be shelled. Faces selected to be offset 3. which is equivalent to the wall thickness of the resulting hollow solid. It is not necessary to create entry holes. 1.Modeling In Figure 10. Entering a negative value for the offset will shell the solid to the inside. the inside of the face of the shelled solid is the same as the outside face of the original solid. an inside and an outside. Deselecting faces on the solid to be shelled will create entry holes at those faces. In this case. however. and will remain in its original position. An example of offsetting that will require excessive topology changes. the location of the selected sheet will be moved in the direction of its positive surface normals by the specif ied offset amount. A sheet has two sides. A positive value will offset the solid to the outside and the solid itself will become larger as a result. When one or more of the unoffset neighboring faces is tangent to the offset face. Topology is the term in solid modeling for the manner in which specif ic faces of a solid are positioned relative to each other. Resulting body with offset faces Figure 10: Offsetting selected faces of a body In certain instances. if there are no entry holes on the shelled solid. The negative direction of the surface normals projects to the inside of the sheet. 41 . deselect the faces to be removed for entry holes while in Face Selection mode and click the Do It button to create the shelled solid. The outside and inside of a sheet can be determined by turning on the Indicate Sheet Side button in the Taskbar. Original body 2. Surfaces are offset to the outside. meaning that the outside face will not be enlarged to account for the shell amount.

The chamfer is calculated by offsetting both faces joined at the selected edge by the length value specif ied and then f inding the intersection of these offset faces. In order to use the blending functions. When the Spherical Corners option is checked. Unstitch Solid The Unstitch function allows solid models to be broken into component pieces or “healed” to remove holes. There are several uses for Unstitch Solid. Figure 12 shows which button is used for the different blending options. selected edges will be rounded according to the Radius value entered.Modeling it will need to be sliced or modif ied to see the results of the shell. Solid selected with top face unselected 3. From the intersection. Result Figure 11: Example of a shelling operation Blending The blending or rounding function contains options for blending edges of bodies. The dialog will change slightly depending on the blending type. Constant Radius 2. Original Solid 2. edges of solids or sheets must be selected. rounding will be applied down each sharp vertex at each corner. normals are projected back onto the original faces. There are options for constant radius rounding. Cap holes which are intended to be drilled and do not need to be machined along with the contour of the model. 1. 42 . selected edges will be chamfered based on the Length value entered. 1. The points where the normals intersect the original faces are the start and end points of the chamfer. variable radius rounding and constant width chamfering. Figure 11 illustrates an example of a shelling operation which creates an entry hole by deselecting a face. 1. Constant Chamfer Figure 12: Blending dialog Constant Radius: When the Constant Radius button is clicked. Multiple edges can be rounded at one time. Constant Chamfer: When the Constant Chamfer button in this dialog is clicked.

Removing blends on edges simplif ies a model and may provide for faster and more eff icient toolpath creation. This opens the Solid Unstitch Options dialog. 1. Create Plug 2. Create core and cavity molds from hollow models. You may select multiple options to use as a backup. Calculate the volume that a bottle or any type of hollow container can hold by using the volume calculations in the Properties dialog. Note that Create Plug always takes precedence over Heal Only. For example. only when Create Plug fails and Heal Only is checked will Heal Only be performed. Create Plug: An additional solid or “plug” will always be created instead of simply sealing up or removing a feature. either all of one group’s faces or edges must be selected which will separate all of the original solid’s faces into two unconnected groups. Heal Only: A plug will not be created when unstitching. 43 . Right-click the Unstitch Solid button and select Options. 5. This dialog offers multiple methods for removing holes or bosses in solids. 3. When using unstitch. 6. Heal Only 3. a hole in a solid will become a plug and a boss will become a separate solid. A solid can be thought of as a series of faces stitched together at their edges into a complete closed shape which is a solid (f illed rather than hollow).Modeling 2. the Edge Selection button in the Taskbar must be clicked so that the edges of a selected solid are visible and able to be selected. 4. or for removing holes and other details not needed for certain machining operations. The system will extend faces along the selected edges to “heal” the components into valid solid bodies. or would be more eff iciently created using a tool. Use bodies created from the unstitching function to build EDM electrodes. For greater control over the unstitching of solids. These options are not mutually exclusive and can be used in conjunction with one another. one option may succeed where another has failed. This is particularly useful when working with models that were imported into the system. Multple Loops Figure 13: Examples of the Solid Unstitch Options. Remove f illets or chamfers that are unnecessary for machining. The primary purpose of the unstitch solid function is in working with f inished part bodies to create core and cavity bodies for mold work. In order to select edges. Unstitching a solid provides a means of removing the stitching along selected edges to separate a solid into component bodies.

One will be the sphere. the selection will invert and reattempt the unstitch. Unstitch will invert holes into a solid. The two resulting bodies are a cylinder (the hole) and a solid cube with no holes. In this example. The hole has two edges. which will not have a hole where the cylinder was previously attached. The unstitch option may or may not work on some bodies. Selecting the intersecting edge to unstitch with Create Plug enabled will create two solids. which can result in an odd 3D shape. Figure 14: Example of unstitching Healing Components Unstitching can also remove or “plug” holes. one of the bodies is completely empty. To unstitch this type of hole.Modeling Multiple Loops: The multiple loops option is an additional method to heal bodies. Use Cap: During an unstitch. Unstitching Components In Figure 14 the original solid is a sphere with a cylindrical base. one at each exit. The original body is a cube with a through hole at its center. Figure 15: Another example of unstitching to “heal” a body 44 . This option creates a 2D plate that patches the hole. The other solid will be a cylinder: flat on one end and concave (spherical) on the end that was initially attached to the sphere. select both the edges of the hole and click the Unstitch button. the Multiple Loops option is simply another method to use and is particularly useful in a situation like the image to the right. faces are typically extended to seal off a hole. Invert Selection: If unstitching cannot be done based on the selection. The following series of pictures (Figure 15) illustrate this aspect of Unstitch Solid.

the sheet must extend all the way through the target. the order in which they are selected is irrelevant. Slicing a solid with a sheet is a type of Boolean operation. if two sheets are selected. Replace does not work with solids from the same tree. 45 . Click the Swap button and then use the Rebuild function to update any affected solids as needed. The f irst body selected replaces the second body selected: f irst select the body that you wish to replace the existing body with (if dormant. The slicing entity can either be the current CS or a selected sheet. Swap does not work with bodies from the same tree. If a solid and sheet are selected when this button is clicked. Click the Replace button. Select the two solids to be swapped. therefore. bring it back into the Workspace from its History list). It is recommended that slicing operations be performed as early in the modeling process as possible due to the fact that coordinate systems and planes act as very big (potentially inf inite) knives when slicing and may unintentionally slice other entities. the sheet will be destroyed or deleted once the slicing operation is complete. the f irst sheet selected will be sliced where the second intersects the f irst. then select the body to be replaced. Likewise. This function is useful when modif ications need to be made to objects whose History list contain imported or atomic bodies. the body will be sliced into two separate bodies where the selected sheet intersects the body. This will work with either atomic bodies or bodies that have been modif ied. Replace Swap This function swaps two bodies in any stage of the tree. The slicing function also works only if a solid or sheet is selected.Modeling Slice This function slices selected solids or sheets into separate entities. In that case. When using a sheet as the slicing tool. the solid or sheet will be sliced with the current coordinate system. This function replaces a body with another body in any stage of the History list. you may then use the Rebuild function to update any affected body as needed.

or be non-intersecting. In Figure 17 the top image indicates the edges of the overlapped sheets. Sheets must either be coincident or completely nonintersecting. Subtract The subtraction boolean operation will subtract one bodies common area from another.Modeling Add The addition boolean operation provides for sheet to sheet and solid to solid combines. Figure 18: Solid – Solid = a solid with the common volume of the second solid minus the first. The order of selection is not important when performing additions. 46 . The second body will be deleted after the operation is complete. Figure 16: Solid + Solid addition Figure 17: Sheet + Sheet addition. The order of selection is important as the second body selected will be subtracted from the f irst. Adding two sheets will produce a new single sheet composed of the two added sheets. Two surfaces are coincident when they overlap and all points on one surface also lie on the other surface within the area of overlap. Figure 18 through Figure 21 illustrates the different types of interactions between sheets and solids when the subtraction operation is performed. Non-intersecting sheets and solids will produce multi-lump sheets or solids. All bodies must be coincident or intersect in a way that would completely split the f irst selected sheet.

Figure 20: Solid – Sheet = a multi-lump body if separated becomes two individual bodies Figure 21: Sheet .Modeling Figure 19: Sheet – Solid = a sheet trimmed by the solids boundary intersection of the sheet.Sheet = removing the common area of a sheet 47 .

Performing the separate function will break a multi-lump body into the unique and disjunct bodies it was composed of.Modeling Intersect An intersection operation will trim two bodies to the shared area between them in the workspace. Figure 22: Solid intersect Solid = the common volume between the two bodies Figure 23: Sheet intersect Sheet = the common area between the two sheets Figure 24: Sheet intersect Solid. 48 . Intersections can be made of any two bodies whether solid or sheet as illustrated in the following f igures. Now when selected. only the body clicked on will be selected instead of the entire multi-lump body. resulting in a sheet trimmed by the solid Separate The separate operation provides for the separation of multi-lump solids and sheets.

if the resulting spline edge can be converted to lines or circles within the specif ied tolerance. 1. This function allows the user to extract circles from the existing holes on a model in order to have geometry to select for drilling operations. Parting Line: This function automates the creation of a parting line curve which can be used to create a parting line surface. The parting line function uses the depth axis of the current coordinate system as the draw axis. The parting line curve is the curve on which the surface normal vector is normal to the draw axis at every point. making it easy for the user to determine the depth for the drilling operation. Typically. When hole extraction is performed. the part model can be subtracted from a cube to create the mold and then sliced with the parting line surface to create the two halves of the mold. Each of these functions is described below. Geometry Extraction 2. Hole Extraction 3. The straight line is the drive curve and should intersect and slightly overlap the parting line geometry which is the base curve. the system must be in Edge Selection mode. Parting Line Geometry Extraction: The geometry extraction function creates geometry from selected edges of solids and sheets. select all the faces that the parting line will be on or select the entire solid. the resulting geometry will all be circles. 49 . When using this function. The draw axis is def ined as the axis on which the mold will be pulled apart. However. Hole Extraction and Parting Line. A tolerance of zero is recommended when extracting geometry that is def initely a circle or a line. The palette that it accesses provides options for creating 2D geometry from solids and sheets. The depth of the extracted geometry will be based on the bottom of the hole(s). creating a sheet which will intersect the solid. Hole Extraction: This function is used to create circles from holes in solids or sheets. A good way to create a parting line surface from parting line geometry is to sweep a straight line along the parting line geometry.Modeling GEOMETRY CREATION FROM SOLIDS Geometry from Solids This button is located in the Geometry Creation palette. the extracted geometry will consist of lines and circles. In order to view edges of a solid or sheet. To use this function. Connected shapes will be created if the selected edges create a closed loop. this function will extract the selected edges as splines or curves. either a solid or sheet can be selected. The options contained in the palette include: Geometry Extraction. The parting line function creates geometry which can then be used to create a parting line surface. Once the parting line surface is created.

Top half of mold cavity 6. Bottom half of mold cavity Figure 25: Example of creating a parting line surface to create a mold 50 . Parting line and Sweeping geometry 3. creating parting line geometry. Parting line surface: swept shape 4. Model 2. 1.Modeling Figure 25 shows the process of creating a parting line surface by selecting a part model. and then generating the mold. Mold block (with part model subtracted out) 5.

When these operations are performed. 2D Rotate Slice Symbol t T u v w x X none none Function Translate Duplicate And… Translate Untrim Variable Radius Round Swept Explode Extract Absolute 2d Rotate Absolute translate BODY NAMES The history names can give a clue to how they were created. the name of the history item will indicate the operation by combining the two names and placing a character to separate them. Multi-lump body: A multi-lump body consists of at least two lumped bodies. Lump body: A lumped or complex body is made up of two atomic bodies. lump and multi-lump bodies contain a symbol on the icon to clarify what operation was performed in order to reach its state in the History list..Modeling KNOW YOUR HISTORY Understanding the History list can be crucial to extremely complicated modeling. The following information is intended to clarify the meaning of each icon and symbol within the History list. Rendered facet bodies.. BODY TYPES Atomic body: An atomic or simple body is any body created in one operation such as those in the Create Solid palette. There are three operations that combine two solids: Addition. A name with “Cube1+Extrude2” indicates addition while “Cube1^Extrude2” represents an intersection. So a name such as “Cube1-Extrude2” in the image shown. means an extruded body was subtracted from a cube. Subtraction and Intersection. Symbol + – – | / ! b c f $ Function addition Subtraction Trim Unstitch Sheet Unstitch solid Draft Blending Round Chamfer Offset or Shell Facet Body Symbol Function h i k m M o r R s Stitch Intersect Shrinkage Mirror Duplicate And… Mirror Solidify 2d Rotate Duplicate And. 51 . The following is a list of characters that appear on lumped and multi-lump bodies. It is highly recommended that you name bodies when working with complex models.

creating a hole. Larger cylinder 5. Modify and/or recreate the component and then use the Replace Solid and Swap Solids functions to replace or swap the old component with the new one. New model with larger hole Figure 26: Creating a new solid to modify an existing solid 52 . and then use the Rebuild function on the f inal part to incorporate the recreated solid into the f inal part. Bring back the solid that needs to be modif ied from the History list. there are four different methods for making modif ications to bodies. • • • The following examples provide a practical application of each of these methods.Modeling MODIFYING RECREATING & REBUILDING BODIES In general. Modify that solid using the Recreate function. METHOD 1: CREATE A NEW SOLID For this method. Make a modif ication to an existing solid using one of the modeling functions. The f inal part model is a cube with a cylinder subtracted from the middle of it. such as slice or offset. • Create a completely new solid (component) and manually recreate the f inal part to include the new component. That new extrusion could then be subtracted (Boolean operation) from a cube to create the f inal part. a cube with a larger hole. New extrusion 3. Original cube 4. Recreate and Rebuild functions are all accessed from the body context menu. The modif ication that needs to be made is that the hole needs to be larger. a new cylinder would be extruded from a new circle with a larger radius. and then use the Rebuild function to get the f inal solid. 1. Each of the methods described above for modifying a solid will be applied to facilitate the necessary change (Figure 26 through Figure 29). The History. Original model needs larger hole 2. and manually recreate the f inal part including the modif ied component.

in this example the original cylinder was named “Extrude#”. the modif ied solid is a completely new entity that has a new reference identity. 1. The original cylinder may be in the Body Bag or can be retrieved from the History list. but instead modif ied an existing solid using the Offset function. According to the system. When the offset operation is performed. To make the cylinder larger. When a solid is modif ied using modeling functions. Value by which to offset the cylinder 4. Examples of functions which locally edit a solid are the offset function applied to selected faces of a solid or the Solid Unstitch function used to remove particular faces to “heal” a solid. the user could locally edit the cylinder that was initially used to create the part by offsetting the outside face. Offset cylinder 6. Original model needs a larger hole 2.Modeling METHOD 2: “LOCALLY” EDIT AN EXISTING SOLID The system provides functions that allow the user to edit certain faces of a solid without the use of Boolean operations. For instance. The cylinder with the offset faces could then be subtracted from the cube. the name and reference of the solid are changed to signify the change that was made. In this example. the new solid will be named “Offset#”. Original cylinder 3. we did not create a new solid. In this case. New model with larger hole Figure 27: Editing an existing solid to modify the end result 53 . The original solid labeled “Extrude#” still exists in the History list of this model. effectively making the cylinder larger in diameter. the user can offset the outside face of the cylinder by a given amount. Original cube 5.

Modeling METHOD 3: REPLACE/SWAP AND REBUILD In this example. Original model needs a larger hole. 5. The new model Figure 28: Using Replace and Rebuild to modify a solid. the user would create the new extrusion with the larger diameter and then replace the old smaller extrusion with the new larger extrusion by using Replace. Replace will replaces a solid with any other solid in any stage of the tree. The model is Rebuilt 6. 1. Then use the Rebuild function to incorporate the new larger extrusion into the cuboid and generate the modif ied solid. 2. 54 . Original extrusion is extracted from History list 4. New extrusion 3. History is Replaced by the new Extrusion.

History list is opened. It changes the existing solid while maintaining the original name and reference. RECREATE AND REBUILD Figure 29: Modifying solid using recreate and rebuild. It cannot be retrieved. it allows users to make modif ications to an existing solid without creating a new solid. Rebuild the changes. The model after being rebuilt. 3.Modeling Use the History. a new solid with a new reference will be created. Anytime a solid is created or modif ied. 6. The History lists maintain all of the bodies that were used to create any model. Recreate and Rebuild functions to make the necessary changes. 5. The solid that was recreated now exists in the History list. The dialogs and geometry that created the cylinder are activated. The History list is reporcessed. Recreate function is accessed. The Rebuild function simply reprocesses the History list of a given model. The body is extracted. 7. The only way to change a model using the Rebuild function is by making modif ications to a solid in the history of that model using the Recreate function. 8. New geometry is created and extruded. METHOD 4: HISTORY. 4. 2. 1. it is assigned a name and reference. 55 . while the original solid that was modif ied no longer exists—it has effectively been deleted from the system. If a modif ication is made to an existing solid. The Recreate function is the only exception to this.

Modeling

TIPS AND TECHNIQUES
• Avoid congruent face modeling The system will attempt to solve co-planar congruency problems (where the faces that are congruent are planes) and is often successful; however, as a general rule the user should avoid Boolean operations with congruent faces. When possible, adjust one of the bodies (by offsetting faces, etc.) so as to not have congruent faces. It’s good practice to always try to overlap bodies when possible. • Avoid co-edge modeling There must be exactly two faces per edge in a solid. • Slice simple solids A CS or plane acts as a big knife and will slice every solid that it intersects. For purposes of accuracy, it is better to perform slicing operations on a simple solid. • Blend corners last Rounded bodies have more faces, which can slow down several of the functions. Another reason to round last involves the Rebuild function. Bodies that have rounded edges can be rebuilt; however, there cannot be any signif icant changes to the topology in order for the rebuild to work. • Do not round fillets that can be left by a tool The intersection surfacing option is designed to machine edges at the intersection of two surfaces. The intersection process can only be applied to edges that are not blended. So, if you want to create a necessary f illet using the radius of a ball or bullnose endmill, do not create the f illets on the part model. • Minimize generations Be careful with Modify operations, such as Duplicate And..., as each time one is performed a new body is created. It is good practice to think carefully about the modeling operations in order to reduce the f ile size and make all future modeling more eff icient. Another way to minimize generations of solids is to intersect bodies rather than perform two subtraction operations. • Name your body Bodies should be given distinct, descriptive names to avoid confusion. Bodies can be named using the Properties dialog or by changing the icon name when the solids are in the Body Bag. • Minimize the use of non-destructive Boolean operations. Promote the use of the History list. By having fewer bodies, the f ile size is smaller and processing time will be faster. • Deselect the Body Bag items If a body in the Body Bag is selected it may be accidentally deleted. The safest way to handle this is to keep the Body Bag closed when not being used.
56

Modeling

Use the Un-Bag It function for small items in the Body Bag Often a body is so small it can’t be seen when the Body Bag renders it to scale. The easiest way to select these small objects is to right-click the name and choose Un-Bag It from the context menu.

Bag and Un-Bag many items in the Body Bag at once The title bar context menu for the Body Bag contains two important bagging techniques for bagging multiple selected items, Bag Selected and Un-Bag Selected, which are especially useful for surface f ile imports.

57

Modeling

58

MACHINING .

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You can’t select a face that isn’t there. if you so desire. In general. Roughing/Pocketing is a 2D area clearance function. with a constant Z toolpath. as the through hole’s region is part of the region that was selected to clear. at various Z depths. the faces control the toolpath. This f irst section explains some of the terms and concepts that the user will need to know in order to utilize the multisurface machining capabilities.Machining CHAPTER 4 : Machining INTRODUCTION TO 2. For the second operation the wall of the through hole is selected so that when pocketing down to Z-50 we don’t waste time f inishing the floor across the top of the through hole. For the f irst pocket. will extend the region where ever possible. one without the hole. with or without Projection. the walls of the pocket are selected to extend the “clear” region across the hole. or above the selected faces. 35mm deep in a part whose total depth is 50mm. This is easy to visualize as slicing the selected faces. deselect faces to machine less.5D SOLIDS MACHINING This chapter contains reference information on the multi-surface machining functions in the system. Contour and Roughing can be used in several ways. The tool will cut on centerline on a region boundary above the model. 2. Unselected faces are not machined. Both can project these toolpaths on top of selected bodies. When pocketing down to Z-35 we’ll have a simple rectangular toolpath. Selected walls on the edge of a region. This region concept is especially important when cutting at Zs above the part body. Large through holes & empty areas (see the image below) make the selection & machining of their regions diff icult. Contour’s primary solid machining function is to machine selected faces. with where there is. Or you can use the advanced short cut of selecting the walls of the hole. Picture a rectangular pocket. Don’t confuse this “through hole” in the f inish part model.5D MACHINING DETAILS Contour and Roughing are the primary toolpath processes for the 2. Refer to the Mill manual for information on the standard machining functions contained in the Production Milling module.5D Solids option. select faces to machine more. It has a 50mm diameter through hole in it’s floor. Both can machine Prof iler loops (See “Prof iler” on page 17. Both can directly machine selected faces. or is not material. In the model. It’s primary solid machining function is to remove all the material in the region represented by the selected faces.) and edge selections. You can always make a process model. 61 . Both can cut selected geometry shapes.

1 will use the Gen 1 engine exclusively. the process will be rebuilt with whatever data can be gathered from the old process and the default values will be used for new options. 1. Saving a f ile to prior versions will not result in identical toolpath but the toolpath will be valid. namely smoother and more optimized toolpath for contouring operations. Gen 3 is optimized to produce toolpath consisting of lines and arcs. 62 . The tolerance value specif ies an amount that the toolpath can deviate from the actual surface.1 will use Gen 2 and even Gen 1 where appropriate. Saving back to versions prior to 5. the more closely the toolpath will follow the actual surface. The example illustrates a valid toolpath and displays the surface being machined and the surface tolerance region. The Gen 3 engine boasts many improvements over Gen 2. Machined Surface 2.Machining GEN 3 ENGINE GibbsCAM v7. To accommodate this. Compatibility With Earlier Versions Since the system has a new solids toolpath engine. Older to new version: Data coming from earlier versions of the system does not have all of the functionality of the Gen 3 engine and the new features. Saving back to versions 5. Coarser tolerances provide increased performance at the expense of processing time. specifying a surface stock greater than the tolerance amount will ensure that the surface will not be gouged at all by the toolpath. Toolpath Because the toolpath can cut on the “inside” of the surface by the tolerance amount. SURFACE TOLERANCE The Surface Tolerance affects how closely the toolpath will approximate the surface to be machined.1 through 6. It is recommended that coarser (larger) tolerance values be used on roughing operations and tighter (smaller) tolerance values be used on f inishing operations to reduce processing time and the length of the generated code. but valid toolpath will still be generated.0 utilizes the new Gen 3 solids toolpath engine. all of the new functionality will be lost. either on the inside or the outside. what happens if a part that was created in an older version needs to be opened in a newer version of the system? Or what if a part needs to be saved to an earlier version? The Gen 3 Engine has the capability of automatically converting toolpath to or from older versions of the system. The smaller the surface tolerance. New file being saved to an older version: When saving to an earlier version. Surface Tolerance 3.

They allow the user to select what to cut. 63 . faces or sheets selected will not be cut. any bodies. Any selections made while the Part button is clicked will be used as the cut shape for the process list. Descriptions of the other functions contained in the Machining palette can be found in the Mill manual. In addition to the standard processes are three buttons for controlling machining selections. When the second button is depressed. The third button is the Stock button. Part 2. Solids and sheets can be designated as local stock which means that the selected body will act as the starting stock condition only for the current process list. The second button is the Constraint button. contour. 1. any unselected faces of a solid being machined will be considered constraint faces and will not be machined. Combining a function tile with a tool tile in the process list accesses a machining process dialog specif ic to the function where all of the machining parameters are entered. Stock Figure 30: Machining palette options Machining Selections: These buttons are used when selecting the cut shape. By default. All machining processes in the process list will be applied to the selected cut shape whether it be a solid.Machining MACHINING PALETTE The Machining palette contains function tiles which are used to create machining processes. constraints and stock for a set of processes. sheet. Solids. Constraint 3. etc. roughing and threading. sheets or faces can be selected as constraints for processes. The Part button is selected by default. The available machining functions include: drilling. contouring. This manual describes the contouring and roughing processes as they pertain to machining bodies and sheets. what not to cut and what to use as the stock condition for each Process Group.

Temporary Stock: A body may be def ined as stock for a single set of processes. For roughing. Only one stock body will be used. Create a temporary stock body by selecting the desired bodies to def ine the stock and press the stock button in the Machining palette. This method of stock def inition can be overridden by other methods. This will alos lead to problems when attempting to calculate remaining material. Workspace Stock: This is the initial set of values specif ied for every part in the Document Control dialog. the stock and part loops created at a single Z level/slice should not intersect. This stock condition will be used for machining operations as well as in cut part rendering. a workgroup that is def ined as stock and a solid that is def ined as stock. This is considered a global stock specif ication as it will be used for the entire part. Stock that def ines a part may be set in one of three ways. 64 .5D Solids option allows any solid or sheet to be a designated as stock.Machining STOCK DEFINITION The stock shape is used to create machining operations and display the cut part rendered image of the part once those operations have been generated. The Properties dialog contains options that allow users to specify that a particular body is either a Part. These methods are the workspace stock in the Document Control dialog. Selecting the Stock option will cause the selected body to act as the initial stock condition for the part. Stock. however. Included in the stock condition for operations is the stock tolerance. Error messages may appear if the operation may be invalid because the Surface Stock Allowance goes beyond the workspace stock size. This will temporarily override any of the above three stock def initions. Stock def initions have different effects on different operations. although it may be a multi-lump body. or Fixture. NOTES Operation Stock Size: For proper toolpath to be generate a part should be contained within the workspace stock. (part plus surface stock) within the workspace stock size. Part Stock: Geometry in a workgroup may be used to def ine the initial material condition. Roughing operations will go around a f ixture while contouring operations will retract over f ixtures. Fixtures: Fixtures are recognized differently in roughing and contouring operations. these values still def ine the Workspace and the area used by the Unzoom command. The primary effects are to extend or reduce the 2D area being machined. A stock body must completely enclose any bodies selected to be machined. There should only be one stock workgroup. The shape may be extruded or revolved and may contain a single hole. Stock Body: The 2. as additional instances will be ignored. A stock workgroup will override the stock cuboid as the initial material. This can be useful for def ining stock smaller than the part and to restrict the area being machined for a single set of processes. This will override any workgroup or stock cuboid def initions. They can also reduce the area being machined in Z.

• • USING THE PROFILER The prof iler can be used for quick & easy selection of faces for machining. like geometry. Selecting a 2D contour and a solid (or sheet) for the cut shape will create a toolpath based on the contour selected and the machining markers. • Selecting only a 2D contour will create a single pass around the selected shape based on the machining markers. Machining sheets using this method is not supported. This is no different than standard 2D machining. Selecting only a body for the cut shape will create a toolpath that will take a single pass around the surfaces of the selected body at the specif ied Z depths. The advantage of this is that the start and end features may be extended. The Prof iler can be used to set machining markers for a Contour operation.Machining CONTOURING PROCESS Contouring operations are designed to take a single f inishing pass along a selected cut shape. The prof iler will be automatically activated when an operation that uses the prof iler is double clicked. The system determines the contour based on the solid (or sheet) selected. That toolpath will then be projected up in Z onto any selected body. The Z moves of the toolpath will only be modif ied where it would have gone into the body. The cut shape for a contouring operation can be a solid. a contour (connected 2D shape) or some combination of the above. 65 . Please note that the extended moves are not gouge protected. selected faces of a solid or sheet. a sheet.

Cut shape selection for roughing is very similar to contouring. • Selecting a closed 2D contour for the cut shape will create a roughing routine to remove material from the inside of the selected closed shape. If a fully-selected solid is being roughed. select the bottom face of the pocket for the cut shape. this allows for individual pockets to be machined. Each pass will be calculated from that depth and moved up in Z by the specif ied Z step amount. toolpath will be conf ined to the current stock def inition even if the part extends past the stock. Note that any passes above the stock will be omitted but passes below the stock will still be generated to the f inal Z depth. When Use Stock is active. To machine selected pockets. This does not include faces on the backside. that pass will not be created. the tool will machine inward from the stock def inition to remove material. meaning that a pocket can be machined by simply selecting the floor (if the pocket’s floor is flat). No pass will be created above the surface Z. That toolpath will then be projected down in Z onto the body. The only exception is any value def ined in the open pocket dialogs. Selecting a body for the cut shape will create toolpath that will pocket out the body (or face) from the stock. • • • The toolpath at the f inal Z depth (specif ied by the floor Z) is calculated f irst. If the pass at the floor Z depth cuts into a selected solid or sheet.Machining ROUGHING PROCESS The Roughing process creates offset. The term “fully-selected” refers to all the faces the tool can see being selected. The Z moves of the toolpath will only be modif ied where it would have gone into the selected solid (or sheet). and the next pass (a step above) will be the f inal pass. which specif ically allow a tool to move beyond the stock. The stock is used as the outer shape for the pocket. the stock def inition is ignored. Roughing a solid will machine all selected faces. Selecting a 2D contour and a solid (or sheet) for the cut shape will create a toolpath based on the selected shape. 66 . This is no different than standard 2D machining. The system will continue creating steps up in Z until the surface Z level is encountered. Individual faces on a model can also be selected for the cut shape. zig zag and face milling routines designed to remove material quickly. A partially-selected solid will not use the stock to create a larger area to rough but will trim the pocket to stay inside of the stock def inition. When Use Stock is unchecked.

67 . Machining Preferences Material Only Pockets There are two different types of pockets when calculating toolpath for Material Only machining operations— closed and open. the system will track the areas where material is left during an operation by creating closed shapes with both “wall” and “air” features or a combination shape for each occurrence of remaining material. SolidSurfacer uses the Multiple Shapes method described below. During subsequent operations. MATERIAL ONLY The Allow Mill Material Only checkbox in the Machining Prefs dialog box must be active in order to track and store the condition of remaining materials. Toolpath generated in these areas is based upon an open-sided pocket conf iguration. the system treats the pocket as an island inside the stock. Multiple Shapes Method: This is the recommended method for assuring the best toolpath when generating toolpath for Material Only machining. and another shape representing the pocket as an island. this information will also be saved with the part f ile. When generating toolpath for a solid that has closed and/or open pockets. This second shape is an all “wall” shape. Using this method. More information on Material Only and cutting geometry can be found in the Mill manual. When this option is active.Machining Material Only calculates toolpath for all remaining material left on walls by prior operations only. It is strongly recommended that this option be deselected if the Material Only option is not going to be used in operations. Material Only may be used as a single operation or as part of a multiple process group. the system will generate toolpath to remove only the material within these shapes. Surface Flow and 2 Curve Flow cuts. Undercutting tools are not supported. the system will perform the necessary calculations for a Material Only operation even if the calculations will not be applied. The f irst is an all “air” shape. which represents the stock. Remaining material is NOT stored for 3D operations including Lace. Material Only supports custom stock def initions. Remaining material is stored for 2D operations including contouring. roughing and drilling. When the Material Only option is selected. sharp/bullnose/tapered/ball endmills and most form tools. This method requires at least two shapes.

5.Machining To generate these shapes.air and wall shapes The following part shows what the “air” and “wall” shapes would look like at two different Z-level steps for the part. 68 . 1. Part model Custom Stock Air geometry for stock Material at Z20 Material at Z10 Figure 31: Material Only—Multiple Shapes .5D Solids performs a horizontal slice of the solid at each Z-level cut depth def ined in the process dialog box. The part consists of a floor at Z0 and four walls with the tallest at Z25. 2. The all “air” shape is based on the stock condition at each Z-level step and the all “wall” shape(s) is based on the part condition at each Z-level step. 2. 4. 3.

The recommended value for Past Stock is the tool diameter minus 2. Use 2. and circles (analytics). Redef ine the stock def inition for this operation. arcs. specify a small tolerance so that the edges will be extracted as lines. the f inal cut depth may be below the stock bottom. then move the stock bottom to the desired f inal cut’s Z-depth. If all else fails. • • 69 .5 times the maximum surface tolerance of the previous operation.Machining Optimizing Material Only for Solids • • Avoid full solid selections.5D toolpath optimization. Material Only Limitations: • • • Undercutting tools Custom Stock with undercuts Depth First • Troubleshooting • If wasteful toolpath is generated.5D toolpath optimization feature. If no toolpath is generated. When extracting the edge geometry. Only select the area (faces) to be cut. Avoid undercuts when using the 2. Then use the Multiple Shapes method described in Figure 31. Select Ignore Tool Prof ile when permissible (see the Mill manual for more information on Ignore Tool Profile). the Past Stock value for this operation may be too large. This will produce better toolpath (not just G1s but G2s and G3s) and will also allow for a tighter Surface Tolerance setting. extract edge geometry and machine as geometry.

The toolpath will be bound within the selected geometry and will not go beyond the bounds of SOLIDS TAB 70 . A looser tolerance will require less memory and creates shorter output. A f ixture may be def ined as a sheet or a solid designated as a f ixture. Cutting Direction: Note that the user must select the Cutting Direction only in the Contouring Process dialog. use these radio buttons to toggle between a Rough and Finish tolerance (applicable only to the specif ic process). the machining markers will be updated to match that selection. Project 2D Toolpath: The system will trim toolpath to a specif ic area when a solid and 2D geometry are selected for contouring. there are separate settings for Cutting. Click the Advanced Settings button to access the Advanced Settings dialog and then select the Override Global Settings checkbox to apply the clearance and tolerance values to the process. One does not supersede the other.005" or 0. or the margin of error.127mm. providing the user with a method to designate the direction of the cut. The default value for all selections is 0. the setting for the cutting direction contained in the Contouring dialog will match the selection indicated by the arrows.Machining The Contouring and Roughing process dialogs have a Solids tab which contains information specif ic to machining solids and sheets. allowing the user to indicate the direction of the cut by selecting the appropriate arrow. Using this setting speeds up toolpath and minimizes G-code. Tolerances: These are the machining tolerances for the toolpath. These options are especially useful when only a solid or sheet is selected for a contouring operation. machining markers appear on the selected geometry. When geometry. To provide as much flexibility as possible. The Fixture tolerance specif ies the accuracy of the toolpath’s interaction with areas that are to be avoided. A blue checkmark will appear on the Advanced Settings button if the global settings are being overriden. if a selection is made for the cutting direction. prof ile or solid is selected for a contouring operation. the system uses the last selection made before the operation is processed. This value is the additional distance the toolpath will be offset from the object. because when that is the case. The Stock tolerance is the accuracy of the toolpath’s interaction with the stock def inition. The toolpath may deviate by up to these amounts. Tolerance: When Use Global Settings for Solids is checked in the Document Control dialog. The selection made for the cutting direction determines whether the tool will climb cut or conventional cut during a contouring operation. Clearances: This section allows the user to set the interaction between toolpath and f ixtures that are to be avoided. Advanced Settings: Use the Advanced Settings to override the tolerances set in the Document Control dialog on a process-by-process basis. and Fixture. Likewise. The Cutting tolerance is the tolerance of the toolpath over the selected face or faces—the area to be cut. If the cut direction is indicated with the machining marker arrows. There is a text box for the clearance value from a Fixture. machining markers do not come up on the screen. Stock.

If viewed from another angle. an adequate f inish is left on the part and the tool always moves in the same direction. The user must specify a tolerance for the constraint faces as well as the Create 2D Toolpath settings (described in the section below) if using Gen 2. using the solid as a shape to follow and the geometry as a boundary. 71 . The Ridge Height (also called scallop height) is calculated from the tool's corner radius cutting a flat surface. the difference is apparent. Z Step: If Desired Z Step is selected. The Stock± amount entered in the Contour tab only adds stock in the cutting plane (machining CS X. creating 3D toolpath while following the shape of the geometry (that is. generating a smoother f inish on the part. If viewed from the top. However. An example of using Project 2D Toolpath is illustrated below in Figure 32. one does not override the other. The tool will take successive 2D passes in Z. this toolpath creates extra cut time and can re-machine the surface of the part on multiple passes.Machining the stock if the geometry overlaps the def ined stock. Surface Stock can be less negative up to -0. The system is set to use Gen 3 by default for contouring operations. If both Stock± and Surface Stock are entered. Project 2D Toolpath is enabled 2. When this option is disabled. The Ridge Height selection will create variable steps in Z resulting in a uniform ridge height on the cut part. they will be added together. It is an approximate value. selected geometry acts as a boundary that the toolpath will not cross. By projecting the toolpath. the toolpath will be projected over the solid. 1. the toolpath will look like toolpath for a regular 2D pocket. Project 2D Toolpath is disabled Figure 32: Example of using Project 2D toolpath. When this option is on. Toolpath Generation: Use these radio buttons to toggle between using the Gen 3 or the Gen 2 Engine.Y). The behavior of the toolpath within the geometry is optional based on the Project 2D Toolpath option. the step in Z will be constant based on the value entered.00005 less than the corner radius of the tool. the tool will take a pass around the geometry). Y and Z. The toolpath will be offset by the Surface Stock amount in X. Surface Stock: The Surface Stock setting specif ies the amount of material that will be left by the toolpath on any sheet or solid machined by the process.

however. or the distance by which you wish tools to clear these faces. Create 2D toolpath is useful when a solid or single surface is being machined and most useful when the solid being machined has 2D elements such as planes and cylinders. Strictly speaking. if each of the surfaces was a single pocket). resulting in a crash. Since the stock can be used as the outer loop of pocket. and stock def initions. Several of these methods have protection limitations that are different from the standard 3D toolpath. A 2D toolpath contains lines and arcs and does not vary with surface tolerance. Solid stock body def initions do not inherently produce 2D toolpath but instead produce a large number of small line moves. Constraint Faces Clearance: This value specif ies the clearance for constraint faces. “Prismatic” refers to parts that can be constructed by extruding XY shapes along the Z-axis. We only see the area at the level being machined. Even if a method creates a toolpath. this can lead to a rapid Z move into an area we think is clear.Machining Constraint Faces Tolerance: This value specif ies the tolerance for constraint faces. a 2D toolpath here will improve all the roughing passes in a pocket. but if sheets must be machined. optimal for the machining of 2D prismatic parts. then they should only be used to machine a collection of surfaces if each surface is a single feature (for example. These are not. When one fails. as they only move in X and Y. There is no undercut protection if the Create 2D Toolpath option is selected for stock. Selecting the Stock Body option will apply the Slice Offset Body only to the stock body. Stock Body: By activating this option. a 3D toolpath is created. This is why multiple choices may be selected. solids. The selected faces of a feature must be stitched together into a single surface. then the area to be machined at D= –2 can be smaller than the area at D= –1. They are attempted in the order in which they are listed. Create 2D Toolpath: The purpose of the Create 2D Toolpath settings is to produce toolpath from what might otherwise be a 3D toolpath. only to discover that uncut material from a higher level is bigger. The 2D toolpath can come from geometry. the next is attempted. If they all fail. it may nevertheless be an invalid toolpath. This function will produce better toolpath with 2D and 2. Note that this value should be smaller than the Constraint Faces Clearance value to avoid gouging. A 3D toolpath is usually a large number of small line moves that vary from the true surfaces by the surface tolerance. An informational message box will appear listing the status of each of the 2D methods attempted. Create 2D toolpath is recommended primarily for use on solids. and will work better with the Material Only option. A 3D toolpath is created when solids and surfaces are being machined. The term “2D toolpath” is used to identify a toolpath of the type desired for machining a 2D prismatic part and “3D toolpath” to identify a toolpath typical of machining a complex surface. The system has multiple options on how to achieve this toolpath for contouring operations. the system’s 3D toolpath methods frequently produce toolpaths that are mathematically 2D. Any of the options may fail to produce a toolpath. If a stock def inition gets smaller as you go down in –D. the system will attempt to create 2D toolpath from a stock body for the outermost loops of a roughing operation. They are documented below and are noted as they apply to each option.5D prismatic shapes. None of the choices available from Create 2D toolpath will approximate complex surfaces with arc moves. To 72 . This allows more control over the results of toolpath generation.

you can either avoid using the Create 2D Toolpath options for your stock.Machining avoid this. standard 3D toolpath is created as shown. Any combination of these options may be selected. No passes above the part will be generated and all Z steps will be uniform—there will not be a variable step. The system will start with the simplest. Without Create 2D Toolpath. or else you must be sure to visually check your entry plunge moves. no f ixture protection and can fail due to complex face edges. 4. If a partial body selection is made. Model that is ideal for 2D toolpath Standard 3D Toolpath From 2D Body: This option will generate 2D toolpath (lines and circles) without the surface tolerance deviation. quickest one. Clear Entry with undercut protection Clear Entry without undercut warning Stock Part Figure 33: Undercut protection in a T-shaped part Part Body: This option allows the system to generate optimized toolpath based on the selected body. 2. no constraint face protection. 3. A similar image will be used for each of the four options. 73 . provided that all of the faces selected are 2D. (faces are selected instead of the entire body). The model below is ideally suited for 2D toolpath. The next four examples will show the toolpath generated using the various Part Body options on the same model. The From 2D Body has limited undercut protection. then move down the list of selected items to the next option if the current option fails. it is recommended that Use Stock be turned off. In order for the From 2D Body option to work. the system produces 3D toolpath from all solids. It makes high-quality 2D toolpath very quickly. 1. There are four Part Body options for how the toolpath is generated. Note that a horizontal chamfer or f illet is not 2D. either the entire body or all faces of a pocket must be selected. try to generate toolpath. When this option is inactive.

3D toolpath will be generated from this Z level down.Machining Slice Offset Body: This option will accept any shape body with 2D or 3D elements. On a part body. This 2D toolpath may be different at each Z level. There are no restrictions on the shapes the option can work from. constraint faces or f ixtures.5D face is a face that can result in a 2D toolpath from an XY plane slice at a specif ic Z level.5D faces have failed. The Replace TP with 2D Sections option will produce a 2D range down to a depth where 3D toolpath will be needed. Note that this is the only choice that produces 2D toolpath from 2D and 2. The 2D on Top. undercutting will gouge the part.5D faces. Some of the 2D methods do not have this protection. The probable cause is that faces at concave corners are smaller than the offset amount. or blind features such as a pocket on the backside. Z-axis revolved bodies. This option can signif icantly reduce toolpath generation time as the From 2D Body option is extremely fast but slowed on toolpath requiring many moves. the entire body or all faces of a pocket must be selected. Replace on Bottom option will use From 2D Body methods for the top Z range and Replace TP with 2D Sections below that. This option is intended to improve performance in pockets that are primarily 2D with a complex floor. 2D on Top. Limitations of Create 2D Toolpath Undercut protection: 3D toolpath has undercut protection and will not allow the tool to cut a section of the part if doing so violates a higher area of the part. but is safer than gouging the part. It is relatively fast and produces high-quality 2D toolpath. In order for the Slice Offset Body option to work. This option will work on all selected faces including 2D. This may produce some 3D toolpath on 2D faces near the transition area in Z. it will generate all toolpath and will skip any other Create 2D Toolpath choices. Replace TP with 2D Sections: This will produce a combination of 2D and 3D toolpath. A 2. Undercut protection on a stock body has a different effect than undercut protection on a part body.5D and 3D but only 2 and 2. Examples include spheres. and some swept bodies. 2.5D faces will produce optimized toolpath. If a partial body selection is made (faces are selected instead of the entire body). cones. Undercutting on a stock body may fool a tool into plunging into overhanging 74 . This includes a wall with grooves. If Slice Offset Body succeeds in its offset calculation. Replace on Bottom: This is intended for bodies that have a top Z range that is entirely 2D but then transition to 3D below this range. This option works best with single pockets as opposed to a large and complex group of faces that may transition from 2D to 3D at different Z depths in different areas. all selected faces must be able to offset by the tool’s corner radius amount. If the selected faces fail to be offset by the tool’s corner radius. Slice Offset Body will not work. Slice Offset Body does not protect against undercutting. This is why it is a good idea not to select backside faces when using Create 2D toolpath options. a mushroom-shaped part. This option does a good job of cleaning up slow 3D toolpath where 2D and 2. The From 2D Body optimization option will be used to within the tool’s corner radius in Z of the start of the 3D range. it is recommended that Use Stock is off. Additionally.

because it thinks there is no material at the Z level being machined. you cannot cut one face of a square pocket. Fixture Protection : 3D toolpath will not cut into a f ixture body or face. 75 . and the advantages of a 2D toolpath for prismatic solids are signif icant. Some of the 2D methods do not have this protection and will ignore f ixtures. Some of the 2D methods do not have this protection. Despite these limitations (listed on the following pages with the appropriate function). Figure 34: Areas of a part that may cause undercut problems Constraint Face Protection : 3D toolpath will not gouge an unselected face on the same body. as starting at the face’s edge will cut into its unselected neighbor. Undercut protection eliminates both potential problems. this does not cause a part gouge.Machining material. Without this capability. there are many parts that do not need this protection.

Overhang: This option only applies while roughing.Machining OPEN SIDES TAB The system has an enhanced ability to machine open-sided pockets. This is also the maximum allowable value. Both the Contouring and Roughing (with the exception of Face Milling) dialogs includes an Open Sides tab to specify parameters for open sides. a pocketing process will be created along with drilled entry holes. the tool will start at the center and work its way outward. The routine will consist of three operations: a hole operation and two pocketing operations. The part’s stock will function as “air” geometry. This will all be done from one routine. With SolidSurfacer. In this image we also see that the outer pocket. 76 . and allows users to specify an amount that a tool will overlap the part’s stock to clean up edges that might otherwise have a ridge. The minimum allowable value is the tool’s cutting radius. only “air. the system will automatically overhang the tool on the stock by the tool’s cutting radius. Thus. If this f ield is left empty. which has no boundary. This ability as it relates to geometry is fully detailed in the Mill Manual. Minimum Cut: This option determines the smallest amount of material to remove along the outside of the material def inition to complete a toolpath. Note that the toolpath extends to and rides on the stock diagram. and bodies will function as “wall” geometry. When the operation is rendered. geometry does not necessarily need to be created or def ined as “air” for this function to work. large values can leave small ribbons of material for the last pass to clean up. To machine this model. The model acts as a “wall” to the operation. Small values are best for normal roughing.” has been started from an edge and the tool is working inward. Clearance: This f ield allows users to specify the distance from an open-sided pocket from which a tool will enter. we see that only one entry hole is drilled for the pocket that is bounded by the model.

This is most likely to occur at sharp corners. there is a very small chance that the actual tolerance may be off from the machining tolerance by up to 70%. When Use Stock is active. workspace stock. output to geometry and posted but if the operation is redone or if Redo All Ops is selected. workgroup stock. • • • • 77 . Deselect undercut faces for 2D toolpath. Note that this operation is machining outward. When performing a Roughing or Contouring operation. If this is the case. try tightening the machining tolerance by 50%. Machining Tips • Remember the stock hierarchy: temporary stock (Machining palette). the operation will be deleted. a pocket in a solid can be machined by simply selecting the face that comprises the floor of the pocket. the system moves on to the bounded pocket.Machining Once the open-sided pocket is complete. stock body. If a f inishing operation remains to be performed. If a part with Corner Cleanup is saved to an earlier version of the system. The Corner Cleanup operation may be viewed. there is nothing to do as the remaining stock is greater than any deviation in the tolerance. This is because there is no compatible operation in earlier versions. the operation can be lost.

Machining 78 .

SOLID MODELING

Solid Modeling

CHAPTER 5 : Solid Modeling
ABOUT THE TUTORIALS
This chapter contains step by step instructions for creating models for a variety of parts. The models in this chapter will be machined in the Machining Exercises so be sure to save them for later use. The measurements for these models can be found at the end of this manual.

#1: 2.5D CAP
• • Create a new part named “Cap.vnc”with the dimensions shown. Open the Solid Modeling palette.

Open the Create Solid Open the Cuboid

palette.

• •

dialog.

Enter the data in the Cuboid dialog as shown and click the Do it button. Pressing the Stock Dim. button will enter most of the data so that only the Max Z f ield needs to be changed.

81

• Choose Modify > 2D Rotate and enter the values shown and click the Do it button. Enter 4 for the number of sections. palette and the loft 82 . • • Create the circle shown.Solid Modeling • • Create the rectangle shown. • Switch to the home view (Ctrl+H). • Open the Create Solid dialog. Select the circle and choose Plug-Ins > GeoTools > Segment Circle. Double-click the cube to place it in the Body Bag.

• • • Open the CS Create CS2 Open the CS list. palette. Method 1 .Solid Modeling • Ctrl+click the sync points shown. from the circle to the square. followed by the next shape in the same order. Alignment points can be selected in two ways. and label it “XZ plane”.Shape Sequence Method 2 . First shape Second point First point Third point Fourth point etc. in order.Shape to Shape Select each point in sequence and in the direction of the loft. 83 . selecting alignment points from shape to shape or select a single shapes alignment points. Alignment points must be selected in the right order. Alignment points are used to determine how the shapes will be aligned and blended. • • Subtract the loft from cube Create the Rectangle with the Fillet Radius shown.

Switch to the home view (Ctrl+H). • • Switch to XY plane. • • Place the Base Curve pointer on the rectangle with fillets and click the Do it button. Select the profile and open the Sweep Solid dialog. Create the profile geometry in the XZ plane. Switch to the isometric view (Ctrl+I) and double-click the cube base to place it in the Body Bag.Solid Modeling • • • Click the XZ button. • Select the square and create the extrusion shown. 84 . • Open the Rectangle dialog and enter the following dimesions.

Solid Modeling • • Subtract the tapered extrusion from sweep. Save the part file. between the • the arc with the • • Switch to the XZ plane and choose Modify > Translate. the swept shapes to the modified • • Turn on edge selection. Select the revolve. • Create the 40mm arc terminated two points as shown. • Select the sweep and Separate it. Select the arc and Revolve following information. 85 . • Subtract revolve from sweep Note that the sweep is now two disjunct shapes but one multi-lump body. • Add cube. • Create the points shown. enter the following information and click the Do it button. Switch to the XZ plane.

The model. If you turn on “Show Edges”. Y0. another “3 Point Arc” on the YZ CS and then Sweep a sheet over these two arcs. Z–8 and lastly X+35. We then duplicate and mirror the Coons Patch sheet over the X and Y center lines and stitch the sheets together. Is this problem unique to GibbsCAM? No. THE PROBLEM The print specif ies values for one quadrant of the 3D shape. Z0 then at X0. Create points at X–35. GibbsCAM is machining the model exactly as it was built. this is the result of poor modeling techniques and will be reproduced in any other CAD or CAD/ CAM system unless a better set of modeling techniques is used. one quadrant at a time. is the cause of the problem. Z0. you can see the intersecting lines running through the model. there is a problem with this model that cannot be clearly seen until the part is machined.563mm). Terminate the circle with the points at X–35 and X+35. This result looks like the f inished shape we want. this is how we might normally go about building the part. Follow the steps below: Step #1 • • • • • Create an XZ plane. Y0.Solid Modeling #2: BUILDING A SPHERICAL ELLIPSE THE CHALLENGE You need to create a concave elliptical where the lowest point is in the center. Y0. these lines will show up as if they have been magnif ied. Create a “3 Point Circle” (the circle will have a radius of 80. When the part is machined. Select the points we just created. THE SOLUTION To create a single continuous 3D flowing shape we will create a “3 Point Arc” on the XZ CS. These intersecting lines run parallel to the X and Y axes at the centerline. . We build the f irst quadrant and then create a “Coons Patch” between the geometry. not the machining. The Challenge 86 However.

• • dialog. Create points at Y–25. Z0.Solid Modeling Step #2 • • • • • Create a YZ plane. Create a cube based on the workspace stock size. X0 then Y0. The Solution • Place the base curve pointer on the curve shown and double-click the other curve as the drive curve. Create a “3 Point Circle” (circle will have a radius of 43. X0. Click the Do It button to create the sheet. Select the points we just created. Z–8. Step #3 • • Switch to the XY plane. Z0.063mm). X0 and Y25. Terminate the circle with the points at Y+25 and Y-25. • • 87 . Open the Surface Modeling Open the Sweep Sheet palette. Set the sweep options as shown.

Turn on Edge Selection and you will only see the edges of the spherical ellipse at the top surface of the body.Solid Modeling • Slice the cube with the swept sheet. Now you have a continuous shape which does not have quadrant intersections. • Save the file. You may machine as desired (the sample part uses a lace cut) and you will not see any lines in this area as you did before. There are no edges in the middle of the spherical ellipse like we saw with the quadrant building technique. The Solution 88 .

we will recreate the model and redo the machining.vnc. as shown. After we machine the part we will import a new body that represents a redesigned pocket. Using Replace. • Open the .Sample Parts\Solids\Required\Swap Example folder and copy the Swap Processes folder to My Documents. All faces inside the pocket except the flats on top of the bosses should be selected. it is the exterior shape we will be subtracting from the Block. • Select Processes > Set Directory.. The interior topology is not important. PART CREATION • Open part file Swap Example. Open the My Documents folder and choose the Swap Processes. Cavity is currently not visible as it is in the Body Bag.Solid Modeling #3: REPLACE HISTORY In this tutorial we are going to modify a model to create a pocket. • 89 . Block Cavity Saved Processes The f irst thing we will do is make the saved processes available for use. • Select the two flat tops of the bosses. thereby creating a core. We will machine the pocket with saved processes. • Turn on face selection and right-click the bottom flat face of the pocket body. Placing the saved processes here will make it easy to f ind them when we need them. folder. Choose the Select Faces Above option. Part Creation Unstitching and Subtracting “Pocket” Opposite isometric view (Ctrl+Alt+I) We are going to unstitch the body named “Cavity” to close off the shape. This part f ile has 2 bodies — Block and Cavity.

We do not need the core that was created. Render the operation. Deselect the operation and delete the process tile. Deselect the operations and place the model in the Body Bag. • • • • .prc.Solid Modeling • Click the Unstitch button.prc and create the toolpath. but we need the f illed pocket body. Machining the Part 90 MACHINING THE PART Loading Processes. • Select and delete the smaller of the two resulting solids. • From the Process menu select 1) Rough Pocket. This creates a tool and a process that will rough the pocket. This results in two solids. • Subtract the filled cavity from the Block. From the Process menu select 2) Finish Pocket. • Select the faces in the pocket the same way we selected the faces for the unstitch and create the toolpath.

Shouldn’t we be able to just extract the original smaller body and replace that? The answer is. Click the Replace button. in this case.) we could just select the two original bodies and perform a swap or replace. If we were using a function that was not face-dependent (translate. We will use the Replace function to insert it where the f illed Pocket body was used. etc.x_t from the Swap & Replace folder with the options shown. right-click the bottom face and choose Select Faces Above and then select the tops of the two bosses. • Import the file Large Cover. 91 . • • Select Edit > Redo All Ops and render the part. it is complete. The modeler is not able to match up the faces of the two bodies. Select the filled Large Cover solid then the smaller filled pocket. no. You will not see any changes but you may be wondering why we had to unstitch the larger pocket. • Right-click the Block model and choose Rebuild. Replacing the Model History • As with the smaller pocket shape. • • • Modifying the Part Extract the smaller filled pocket from the History of the Block. booleans. Save the file. Unstitch the solid to fill it and delete the smaller solid.Solid Modeling MODIFYING THE PART Importing the Changed Pocket We are now going to import a model that is a different pocket shape. Redoing the Operations Now we will update the operations based on the new model.

92 Modifying the Part Solid Modeling .

MACHINING SOLIDS .

.

Machining Solids

CHAPTER 6 : Machining Solids
ABOUT THESE TUTORIALS
The part models for all of the following exercises were created in the Modeling Exercises chapter of this manual. If you have not gone through those exercises and created the solid models for these parts, you should do that now. We assume you are familiar with the interface and the principles presented in the Mill and Advanced CS Modules. If you are unfamiliar with that information please read through those manuals before attempting the following tutorials. All parts in these exercises are assumed to be made of cast aluminum alloys. The feeds and speeds are all defaults, based on the CutDATA™ values. The exercises do not provide a step for setting the material but if you have CutDATA, please set the part material when you open the part f ile. If you do not have CutDATA simply use the default material — stainless steel. The feeds and speeds may be set by clicking on the calculation buttons.

POCKETS AND CONTOURS
In this exercise, we will use a pocketing process to rough the part. The part will be f inished using Contour operations on the whole body and selected faces.

PART SET-UP
• Open the 2.5D Solids part created in modeling exercises. Set the Global Settings as shown. Ensure that the part has a Clearance Plane value of 15mm. Create the following tool list. # 1 2 3 Type Face Mill Rough EM Finish EM Total Length 50mm 92mm 66mm Diameter 50mm 16mm 10mm Bottom Radius 0mm 0mm 2mm # Flutes 5 3 3 Flute Length 11.5mm 32mm 16mm Material HSS TiN Coated TiN Coated

Part Set-Up

• •

95

Machining Solids

MACHINING THE PART
#1, Face Milling
First we will Face Mill the part. • Create this roughing process with tool #1. This will clear off the top of the part. Face Milling is not dependent on having a solid to machine. Face milling machines either selected geometry or the workspace stock. • Create the toolpath.

#2-3, Pocketing
• Create this Roughing process with tool #2.

Machining the Part
When all of the options are set, create the operation. The Use Stock option will trim the toolpath to the stock condition. Since this is an open pocket we can get some drastically different results. If you wish to see the difference, try re-doing the operation with Use Stock off. The Rough tolerance setting allows us to generate toolpath faster with looser tolerances. This will be f ine since we’re going to f inish the surface in the next group of operations.
96

Machining Solids

Create the toolpath and render. This process creates two operations.

#4-5, Contouring
We will now do the f irst of two sets of contour operations to f inish the prof ile.

Machining the Part

Create this Contour process with tool #3. The Desired Z Step determines how smooth the wall will be. Alternatively, the Ridge Height option can be used to specify the part’s smoothness. Often the rendered part is far more accurate in showing any scallops that are on the part than our eyes can discern.

97

Contour The last operation will contour the inner pocket. . • • Modify the existing Contour process as shown. the toolpath is completed around one wall before rapiding over and machining the other.Machining Solids • Create the toolpath and render. This operation produces smooth toolpath that wraps around the walls of the part. Turn on face selection mode. Machining the Part 98 #6. Because we specif ied Depth First. When rendered your part should look similar to the image to the right.

We will create a text shape and project the contour toolpath onto the model. Tool List • Create the following tool.15mm Center Drill 31. Ensure that the part has a Clearance Plane value of 15mm.vnc part.Machining Solids • • • Select the faces of the angled pocket. Create the toolpath and render. The part consists of a stock body.5mm 3. #2: THE HOT PUNCH The Hot Punch will only have one operation — a projected engraving operation.15mm 118° 2 1.9mm Carbide Solid 99 . # Type Total Length Diameter Corner/Tip # Flutes Flute Length Material 1 3. Set the global settings as shown. Save the part. PART SET-UP Document Control Dialog • • Part Set-Up Open the Hot Punch.

If you have any problems with text creation. The contouring process provides for centerline machining of all selected shapes which include text and artwork. The system can create spline geometry from any TrueType font. • • • Creating Operations 100 • Create this Contouring process with tool #3. In the Text Flow tab select the clockwise arc. several of the items in the Contouring Process dialog will be grayed out. There is a Set Font Directory item in the Preferences submenu which allows you to designate a directory that contains your system fonts. When more than one shape is selected prior to creating a contouring process. When this is the case. The toolpath generated by the operation will be shifted down along the Z axis only by the amount specif ied. The Z Stock option is used in this case so that the engraving toolpath will cut into the selected body.Machining Solids CREATING OPERATIONS #1: Engraving We will create text and engrave the top face of the part. In the Text Flow tab enter the information shown. refer to the Text Creation Exercise in the Geometry Creation Manual. The toolpath itself will be projected onto the surface of the body and then will be shifted down in Z to cut into the body. Click the Do It button to create the text. You may need to set the directory that contains the fonts for your system. • Open the Text Creation dialog from the Shape palette in the Geometry Creation palette. The Moorpark TrueType font used in this exercise is shipped with each order. . We will need to create text geometry that can be machined. Contouring operation toolpaths can be projected on to sheets and bodies. the system automatically assumes that you are doing engraving. • Select the text geometry.

101 . the toolpath will be a projection of the 2D toolpath onto the body or sheet. • Create the toolpath Creating Operations • Render the operation. Ctrl+click the model.Machining Solids • • In the Options tab enter the information shown. The text and the model should both be selected. When 2D geometry and a solid or sheet are selected for the cut shape of a process.

This part has an existing stock condition and two groups of operations including two drilling operations and a roughing operation. Drilling in 2. Part Set-Up About the Part The part should be ready for you to apply operations to it but to be safe we will go over certain aspects.the Prof iler and using constraint shapes and faces. # 1 2 3 4 Type Drill Drill Rough EM Finish EM Total Length 260mm 260mm 121mm 72mm Diameter 80mm 40mm 25mm 10mm Bottom Radius/Tip 90° 118° 0mm 0mm # Flutes 2 2 3 3 Flute Length n/a n/a 45mm 22mm Material TiN Coated TiN Coated TiN Coated TiN Coated 102 . • Open the part file Base. The part has four tools as detailed below. Let’s look at how this works.vnc. is accomplished with geometry or the Hole Wizard so we do not need to go over the Holes process.Machining Solids #3: THE BASE ABOUT THE PART This part is intended to help you become familiar with two important tools . • Ensure that the part is using a 5 Axis Vertical Mill MDD. that the Clearance Plane is set to 350mm and the Global Settings are as shown. as with the standard Mill package.5D Solids. The roughing operation uses a combination of containment faces to achieve the desired results.

Turn on Face Selection and deselect the top flat face as shown. The results are very different. By deselecting the face we have told the system that face is a constraint and we cannot machine by it. 103 Machining The Part . Roughing • • • Double-click operation #3. Redo the operation. • Reselect the top face and Re-do the operation to return it to its original state.Machining Solids MACHINING THE PART Op 3.

Create this roughing process with tool #3.Machining Solids Ops 4-6. If your machining CS is set to something other than CS 2 you may get different results. The Surface Z and Depth Z values are acquired by interrogating the top of the circular boss and the large flat angled face. Rough & Contour We will now create a roughing and contouring process group to machine the angled face. Machining The Part 104 . • • Switch to CS2.

We have already drilled out this hole and we don’t need to waste toolpath on it. 105 Machining The Part . the rotations automatically acquired. then deselect the two faces that define the hole in the boss. information is • Select All (Ctrl+A) the entire model. You can see that we have some toolpath that is not necessary. We forgot to select the constraint geometry. • Create the operations.Machining Solids • Create this contour process with tool #4. As usual.

you can ignore it. This toolpath creates moves that are partially out of the stock boundary so the system is warning us of this. Interrogate the face shown and click the Apply button. Turn off the Coordinate system grid. Activate the Profiler. • Click anywhere on the Profiler’s grid and drag the Profiler to a location in the center of the rounded wall. You may get an error message. If you do. • • • Switch to the XZ plane. We will have to manually move the Prof iler. • • Right-click the profile grid and choose Profiler Depth. These results are more desirable. Machining The Part 106 . Contouring with the Profiler The last thing we will do is use the Prof iler to machine a selected area of the part.Machining Solids • Ctrl+double-click on the “air” geometry and redo the operation. Unfortunately at this depth the Prof iler does not see the rounded wall. as shown. You will f ind it easier to see and work with the Prof iler if the CS grid is off. Operation #3 leaves stock on the rounded wall. Op 7.

You may f ind it necessary to go to the Home view to get the markers in the correct location. 107 . Machining The Part • Click the Profiler and set the machining markers as shown. then create the operation. The Final Z depth can be acquired by interrogating the same face we tried to use for the Prof iler depth.Machining Solids • Create a Contour process with tool #4 as shown.

Save this part.Machining Solids • • Render the operations. Machining The Part 108 .

APPENDIX .

.

they are converted from analytic surfaces to parametric surfaces. Some examples of analytic surfaces include spheres and cylinders. for example a circle produces a cylinder. The term “body” is a generic term that refers to both solids and sheets. Because analytic surfaces are completely def ined by simple equations. The Body Bag is used as a storage place for bodies and sheets in order to keep the Workspace as uncluttered as possible. All Z slices produce the same shape. A solid that has all 2D or 2.Appendix CHAPTER 7 : Appendix GLOSSARY 2D Solid Model Also referred to as a prismatic body. Alignment points are also referred to as sync points. A solid body can be thought of as a bowling ball. Double-clicking on a body or sheet in the Workspace will place that entity in the Body Bag.5D solid model def inition including parts with variable radii and f illets at an angle. Similar to standard desktop icons. A 2D solid is an XY shape extruded in Z.5D analytic faces and can be cut with a series of 2D toolpaths (of varying shapes) at different Zs. they can be dragged within the Body Bag and also dragged back into the Workspace. and the slice of a cylinder face produces a circle segment. revolved bodies and extrusions. Alignment points indicate how the system will blend the selected shapes into a solid or sheet. Bodies and sheets contained in the Body Bag are considered active bodies. Analytic surfaces are less mathematically complex than parametric surfaces and are therefore easier for the system to handle. The Body Bag is accessed by clicking the Body Bag button in the Top Level palette. This term is used to describe surfaces that are def ined by a precise mathematical equation. 2. Often times when bodies or surfaces are imported into the system. in that several functions (such as Boolean operations) can be performed on them while they are in the Body Bag. Atomic bodies are bodies that were created using the standard modeling functions available in the Create Body palette. The selection of alignment points is used with the lofting and sweeping modeling functions. Examples of atomic bodies include spheres. A term used for any model that exceeds the 2. Atomic bodies are not created from the combination of other bodies using boolean operations. Atomic bodies are also referred to as primitive bodies. producing analytic toolpath feature output from underlying analytic model faces. Bodies and sheets are represented as icons when they are in the Body Bag. cuboids. it is much easier and faster to perform modeling functions such as rounding and boolean operations on analytic bodies.5D Solid Model 3D Solid Model Alignment Points Analytics Atomic Bodies Body Body Bag 111 . The Solids > Tools > Simplify option will attempt to convert any parametric surfaces back into analytic surfaces within a tolerance amount. while a sheet body is more like a balloon with an inf initely thin wall.

contain more information than merely the surface def inition. in that the initial two bodies selected for the Boolean operation are deleted and only the resulting body remains active in the Workspace. if two points are in the identical position in 3D space. The Boolean operations contained in the system are addition. Faces. Non-destructive Booleans can be performed by holding down the Alt key. An edge of a solid must have exactly two faces connected to it. Also. This term refers to the line or curve between two adjoining surfaces. Facets are small planar surfaces that compose the rendered modes. which is composed of all of the connected edges that bound the face. The smaller the faceting chord height. For example. when two surfaces overlap and all points on one surface also lie on the other surface within the area of overlap. usually used in reference to lofting and sweeping. drafting. these surfaces are coincident. subtraction and intersection. Faces have knowledge of all neighboring faces and they are adjoined. C0 continuity signif ies that there are sharp corners in the selected curves. one side of a cube would be considered a face. When two features (from points to surfaces) are located in the same position in space. Boole. Continuity refers to the smoothness of the curve. The chord height can either be designated with the sliders or by entering a numeric value. What bounds a surface def inition into a f inite bounded surface.Appendix Boolean Operations Named for G. In order for a body or sheet to be considered a valid solid object. but no corners. these points are coincident. and intersection machining. This is the term used for a single surface of a body or sheet. The process of def ining a model with simple geometric constructions such as points. This is a mathematical concept that the system uses to evaluate curves. Chord Height Coincident Continuity Disjunct Edge Edge Loop Face Geometric Modeling 112 . For example.or three-dimensional space. The overall chord height used by the system is specif ied in the File > Preferences > Graphics dialog. Geometry can be def ined in either two. Multi-lump bodies are composed of disjunct solid components. circles and splines. Several modeling and machining functions require the selection of edges. Solids must be faceted when they are rendered. C1 continuity signif ies that there are tangencies. Tiles that are disjunct are not a continuos order. stitching/unstitching. the more facets that will be used to compose the model and the better the model will look on the screen. The deleted bodies used in the Boolean operation become dormant bodies and can be retrieved from the history tree. an English mathematician. it must have a single edge between all adjoining faces. The chord height setting determines the number of facets that will be used to render a solid model. Boolean operations are used to combine two entities (either bodies or sheets or some combination of the two) to create a new. A Sheet face includes the positive and negative sides while a solid only includes the positive side. This term means that items are disjoined or separated. This term describes the method by which bodies and sheets are rendered on the screen. they are said to be coincident. single body or sheet. A simple face is bounded by one loop. Different chord heights can be applied to individual bodies and sheets using the Chord Height specif ication found in the Properties dialog. such as blending. not touching at all. lines. however. The user can view and select edges of bodies or sheets using the Edge Selection button located in the Taskbar. Every face is bound by a loop. Non-destructive Booleans will generate the new body and place the two original bodies used in the Boolean operation in the Body Bag. Boolean operations are destructive.

A sheet is represented as a single object. Solids bodies are used as the building blocks in creating part models in GibbsCAM. The process of def ining a part’s shape and dimensions on a computer. A lofted shape is created by selecting a series of shapes that will be blended together using selected alignment points. The process begins with the creation of a simple solid known as an atomic or primitive body. and surface modeling. the only edges that will be displayed are external edges. A sheet contains more information than a surface because a sheet has knowledge of the neighboring surfaces that surround it. distinct body. then it is a multi-lump body. A surface is either a face group of faces (depending on how the surface was created) of a solid or side of a sheet. Solids can either be single bodies (lumps) or a collection of bodies (multi-lump body). Unlike sheets. The concept of internal versus external edges is useful when performing stitching operations on sheets. The process of creating sheets as the foundation for a model. This term is often used for a face that will be used in the selection of other faces or for modif ication. Sheets do not have any thickness or volume. solids only have a positive side. Boolean operations can then be performed on an atomic body to create a new. See “Alignment points” A selected face on a body. The process of def ining a part as a solid object. The system utilizes B-splines. If all or more than one of the disjunct pieces becomes selected. solid modeling. A solid is a body composed of faces and the area enclosed by the faces. Common types of modeling include geometric modeling. turning off internal edge display provides the user with a method of determining which edges were not successfully stitched together. The edge of an island or a cavity that is within the faces selected to be cut. Sheets have two surfaces. The faces of a body or sheet must have an adjoining edge in order for it to be a valid entity. A sheet is the modeling entity that represents a surface. Loft Loop Modeling Multi-lump bodies Parametric Primitive Bodies See “Atomic bodies” Sheet Solid Solid Modeling Surface Surface Modeling Surface Trim Lynch Points Target Face 113 . This term is used to describe more complex surfaces that are def ined within a given set of parameters and not merely an equation. which are a class of parametric surfaces. Multi-lump bodies are considered one entity by the system and can be identif ied by selecting the body. A loop is the series of connected edges that provides the boundary or trim for the face. Solids have volume. the resulting entity is composed of parametric surfaces. These bodies are composed of disjunct solids—solid pieces that do not intersect at any point. All stitched edges become internal edges.Appendix Internal Edge An internal edge is one that is viewed from the inside of the model looking outward. When performing stitching operations. Parametric surfaces are often referred to as freeform surfaces. A face is composed of a surface bounded by a single loop. When modeling functions such as lofting or Coons patch are used. Also referred to as skinning or blending This term refers to the bounding curve of a face. All edges that are successfully stitched become internal edges so that when the Show Internal Edges checkbox is unselected. A sheet is the graphical representation of a surface or collection of surfaces. It is these external edges which still need to be stitched together.

A vertex is an endpoint of an edge. and the Body Bag.Appendix Topology This is the term used in solid modeling to refer to how specif ic faces of a body are positioned relative to other faces. and therefore the topology is changed. Vertex Workspace 114 . Modeling functions that change the shape of a face do not necessarily affect the topology. which is the main portion of the screen. unless the function requires that a change be made to the manner in which the faces are connected together at their edges. Bodies that are no longer in the Workspace can often be retrieved from the History list. the number of edges of the body is changed if the modeling function creates new faces. Modeling functions can only be performed on active bodies. Bodies and sheets that are contained in one of these two locations are said to be active bodies. The Workspace consists of the drawing window. For example.

PART PRINTS .

.

Part Print 1: Spherical Ellipse 20 C C 80 8 25 8 35 A B 60 B A 117 .

0 Part Print 2: 2D Contour R 130 40 R 25 R4 R4 R 13 15 9 53 26 25 118 .40 R 130 21 R 6.0 R 7.

INDEX .

.

18 definition of: 112 Clean Up Body Bag: 17 A Addition function: 25. 70 Clearances: 70 Tolerances: 70 Advanced Solid Modeling palette: 33. part body option: 74 2D Solid: 3. tip: 56 . Replace on Bottom. 38 definition of: 111 Allow Mill Material Only: 67 Analytic Geometry: 3 Analytics. 40 Air Walls: 76 Align Face To CS. 17. 33. solid: 42 Constant Radius. Body context item: 15 Bag Selected: 17 Base Curve: 37 Blend edges. 70 Contouring Process Dialog: 70 121 B Bag It. 72–75. 25. 52 definition of: 112 Boundary: 16 B-pointer marker: 37 C Cap. 24–25 button: 9 definition of: 111 Body Validity. 111 Body Bag: 10. 5 2D Toolpath: 5.5D Solid Model: 5 2.Index NUMERICS 1 Pass Stitch: 31 2. body machining: 63 Continuity. 45. 15. 51 definition of: 111 Axis of Revolution. Check: 14 Boolean Operations: 10. open sides: 76 Climb Cut: 70 Closed Shape: 37 Co-edge Modeling: 56 Coincident. solid: 42 Constraint button: 63 Constraint Face Protection: 75 Constraint Faces Clearance: 72 Tolerance: 72 Constraints.5D Toolpath: 5 2D Chain: 16 2D curve: 37 2D Normal Base Curve: 37–38 2D on Top. 46 Advanced Settings: 18. definition of: 111 Atomic Body: 10. 77 3D Chain: 16 3D curve: 37 3D Faces. Body Context menu: 15 Alignment Points: 35.5D Solids product: 3 2. definition of: 112 Collapse All (History): 17 Commenting Bodies: 11 Congruent Face Modeling: 56 Constant Chamfer. Body Select context item: 16 3D Normal Base Curve: 37 3D Toolpath: 72. 23–24. solidify sheet: 38 Chord Height: 11–12. revolve solid: 35 Clear History: 15 Clearance. definition of: 112 Contour Operations: 65 Contour Process: 65. 74 Blending see also Lofting solid edges: 42 Body: 9 Definition of: 4.

Body Select context item: 16 Faceting Tolerance: 18 D DCP (Drive Curve Plane) Alignment: 38 Deselect: 13 Body Bag: 17 Tangent Faces: 16 Wall Faces: 16 Workspace: 17 Desired Z Step: 71 Destructive process: 25 Diagnosing problems in solids: 14 Difference. 112 Edge Loop: 16.Index Conventional Cut: 70 Coons Patch: 29. 32 definition of: 112 Edge Selection: 31 2D & 3D: 16 Edge Tolerance: 31 Enlarge Solid: 13 Expand All (History): 17 122 Gen 2 Engine: 14. see Subtraction Disjunct. Body Select context item: 16 Floor Z: 66 Floor/Wall Angle Tolerance: 16 From 2D Body. 62. 34 Cut Part Rendering Stock: 64 Cut Shape: 63 Cutting Direction: 70 Extrude: 24 Solid: 34 Solidify Sheet: 39 F Face: 9 Check: 32 Definition of: 4. Body Select context item: 16 Fillets. Check: 14 Face Selection: 30 Face Selection mode: 15 Faces Above. 71 Gen 3 Engine: 62. 71 Geometric Modeling: 23 definition of: 112 Geometry As Stock: 64 Boundary: 71 Extraction: 49 From Solids: 49 Geometry Extraction: 49 . part body option: 73 G G-code: 70 E Edge: 9. solid: 24. definition of: 112 Document Control dialog: 64 Dormant Bodies in History: 15 Drive Curve: 37 Plane Alignment: 37 Facets: 18–19 Fillets. creation tip: 56 Finish Tolerance: 70 Fixture Display Only: 11 Fixtures: 64 designating body as: 11–12 Protection: 75 Flat Face: 16 Floor Faces. 31 Coordinate Systems: 25 Corner Cleanup: 77 Create 2D Toolpath: 71–75 Limitations: 74 Create Plug. 30. 112 Validity. Body Select context item: 16 Faces Below. 31 definition of: 5. 33 Cuboid. unstitch: 43 Create Solid palette: 24.

55 Characters: 51 Names: 51 History list: 15. definition of: 113 Modifying Bodies: 52–55 Multi-lump bodies: 25. Pocketing: 66 Machining Preferences: 67 Processes: 63 Selections (part.Index Global Settings for Solids: 70 Machining Face Check: 14 Machining Markers: 17. 113 Lower boundary: 16 Lump: 23 Lump body: 51 O Offset Shelling amount: 41 Solid: 40–41 Solidify sheet: 39 Solidifying: 13 Offset function: 53 M Machine Partially Selected Solids. 48. 26. 17. 56 NURBS: 14 L Loft: 24 Definition of: 113 Sheet: 29 Solid: 35–36 Loop Definition of: 5. 15. 72 3D operations: 67 Multiple Shapes Method: 67 Parameters: 67 Tips for Solids: 69 Minimum Cut. unstitch: 44 Multiple Loops. unstitch: 44 Multiple Passes Stitch: 14. 24. stock. 51 definition of: 113 H Heal Only: 43 Heal Solid: 42 Healing Components: 44 History: 10. 70 Machining Surface: 62 Main palette: 9 Material Only: 67–69. 51–52 History tree: 27 Hole Extraction: 49 I IGES Files: 30 Indicate Sheet Side button: 41 Internal Edges: 31 Definition of: 113 Intersection function: 25. 46. fixture): 63 Tips: 77 Open Pocket Settings: 66 Open Sides Tab: 76–77 Open Terminated Shapes: 35. open sides: 76 Modeling. 37–38 Open-Sided Pockets: 76–77 Overhang: 76 Override Global Settings: 70 123 . 32 Multiple properties dialog: 12 Multiple Tries Stitch: 32 N Naming Bodies: 11 Neighboring faces: 16 Non-Atomic Bodies: 10 Non-destructive Booleans: 25. 45. 48 Invert Selection.

65 Context Menu: 17 Selection options: 13 Setting Depth: 17 Project 2D Toolpath: 70–71 Properties dialog: 11–12. 23. 48 Sharp Swept Corners: 37 Sheet: 9 Definition of: 4. see Material Only Remove Unneeded Topology: 14 Render Shaded Objects: 9 Render/Wireframe button: 18 124 . Body context item: 15 Rendering of Bodies: 18 Replace Solid function: 25. create: 28 Planes. body definition: 11 Part. Profiler: 17 Select Faces From Selected Profiles. 55 Red Body: 15. 54 Replace TP with 2D Sections. Solid: 40 Shell. 52. 26–27 Rebuild function: 52. solid: 41 Show R Rebuild Body: 15. see Ridge Height Select All Profiles: 13 Body Bag: 17 Faces From Selected Profiles: 13 Tangent Faces: 16 Wall Faces: 16 Workspace: 17 Select All Profiles. definition of: 113 Parent Body: 10 Part Body Create 2D Toolpath option: 73–74 Part button: 63 Part Stock: 64 Part. body bag: 17 Revolve: 24 Sheet: 28 Solid: 35 Ridge Height: 71 Rough Tolerance: 70 Roughing process: 66–70 Z step: 66 Rounding solid edges: 42 S Scallop height. see Atomic body Primitive Solids: 23. 54–55 Recreate Body: 15. 113 from Face: 30 Toggle Side: 13 Sheet Side: 9 Shell.Index P Palettes Main (Top level): 9 Parametric. 26 Reduce Number of Sheets: 14 Reduce Size of Solid: 13 Remove Remaining Material. part body option: 74 Resize All Icons. Profiler: 17 Select Faces Inside Selected Profiles. 33 Prismatic Shapes: 72 Profiler: 9. 45. see Coordinate Systems Plug-Ins: 14 Primitive Body. Profiler: 17 Selecting By Body Comment: 13 By Body Name: 13 Edges: 13 Sheets: 13 Solids: 13 Walls From Selected Edges: 13 Separate function: 25. 19. 26–27 Recreate function: 52. designating body as a: 12 Parting Line: 49–50 Physical Properties of a solid: 11 Planar Sheet: 28 Plane. 64 Properties.

33 Definition of: 113 Solid Modeling palette: 10. designating body as: 11 Subtraction function: 25. see Lofting Slice function: 45 Slice Offset Body: 72 Part body option: 74 Snap to Grid: 17 Solid Definition of: 4. 45 Swap Solid: 52 Sweep: 24 Sheet: 30 Solid: 37 Sweeping Plane: 38 Synchronization Points: 35 See also Alignment Points T Tangent Faces. 71 Surface Tolerance: 62 Surface Trim Definition of: 113 Surface Z: 66 Surfaces button: 9 Surfacing Process: ??–77 Swap function: 25.Index Solids: 9 Show Internal Edges: 31 Shrinkage: 13 Simplify (NURBS Surface): 14 Skinning. 33 Solid Models: 3 Solid Unstitch: 53 Options: 43 Solidify: 24 Closed Sheets: 38 Closed Surfaces: 39 Sheets: 38–39 Solidify Sheets: 39 Solids button: 9 Solids tab: 70–75 Sphere. solid: 24. 46 Surface Definition of: 4. calculating: 11 Surface Entities: 3 Surface Machining Tolerance: 18 Surface Modeling: 23 Palette: 28 Surface Modeling palette: 28 Surface Normals: 41 Surface Stock: 62. Body Select context item: 16 Tapered Extrusion solid: 34 Target Face: 16 Definition of: 113 Taskbar: 9 Temporary Stock: 64 Tolerance Solids Tab setting: 70 Tool. 23. 113 Surface Area. 33 Splines: 29 Stitch Multiple Passes: 32 Multiple Tries: 32 Stitch Sheet: 31–32 Stitch Utilities: 14 Stock: 64 Defining: 64 Designating body as: 11–12 Display Only: 11 Hierarchy: 77 Ignoring: 66 Local: 63 Multi-lump Body: 64 Temporary: 63–64 Toolpath confined to: 66 Workgroup: 64 Stock Body: 64 Create 2D Toolpath option: 72 Stock button: 63 Stock Shape: 64 Stock. moving past stock: 66 Toolpath 125 . 113 Solid Modeling: 23.

114 Volume. 44 Surfaces: 32 Untrim Surface: 30 Upper boundary: 16 Use Cap. calculating: 11 W Wall Faces. Body Select context item: 16 Trim Surface: 30 Trimmed Surface Edges. only the stock: 66 Toolpath. see Addition Unstitch Components: 44 Solid: 42. Body context item: 15. 77 V Variable Radius Rounding: 42 Vertex: 16 Definition of: 5.Index Deviation: 62 Not cutting entire part. Check: 14 Trimmed Surface Polyline. 45 As Stock: 64 Definition of: 114 Z Z Step: 71 U Un-Bag It. Check: 14 Workspace: 24–25. Trim: 70 Tools menu: 14 Top level palette: 9 Topology: 41 Definition of: 114 Transition Faces. Body Select context item: 16 Wireframe Drawing: 18 Wireframe View: 9 Workgroups: 25 126 . 74 Union. unstitch: 44 Use Global Settings for Solids: 18 Use Stock: 66. 57 Un-Bag Selected: 17 Undercut Faces: 77 Undercut protection: 72.

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