Advertising Management

Persuasive
Communications

How advertising works
“Advertising, of course, sells. Advertisements inform, persuade, remind, influence, change opinions; they may even alter attitudes and feelings. Advertising changes society, makes people buy things they do not want, enables multinational capitalist monolopolies to batten on the working classes. Well, doesn’t it?” (White 2000, p. 42)

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Does advertising force people to buy what they don’t want?
• Have you ever seen or heard an ad and then bought something against your will? • Has an ad ever threatened you or your family with the dire consequences of not buying the product (or service) it is advertising? • Has an ad made you feel that your life is incomplete without the possession of the product (or service) it is advertising? • Has an ad ever advertised something that you have bought that does not fulfill its promise/ your expectations? • Has an ad persuaded you buy something you really do not need or cannot afford?

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Effective advertising communication is not simple!
• Effective advertising capitalises on people’s needs, their emotions, their cultural backgrounds (for instance); to persuade them to take an action, change a behaviour or attitude or make a decision via the provision of:
– Information – Support and confirmation – Entertainment and – Capturing their attention

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Theories of Persuasion
• Theories are changing constantly; White (2000) outlines a number of these (Chapter 4) but these are rarely used in the daily operation of ad agencies and advertising departments during the actual creation of advertising rather, their methods are more pragmatic, e.g.:
– – – – – – – – Identify a consumer need and fill it Identify a consumer fear and resolve it Identify a consumer emotion and exploit it Reinforce a consumer’s attitude by agreeing with it/ reinforcing it Pander to a consumer’s ego by stroking it Save the consumer money/ time/ effort Make the consumer laugh, feel good Make the consumer feel bad/ sad/ guilty and then give them a way to feel better – And many more …

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Understanding why people choose one product over another
• There are a number of interconnecting factors that influence why a person chooses one product (or service) over another; this differs with the product category as well as social and cultural influences at play. Some of the factors that people take into their decision-making are:
– Image: reflects their own tastes and aspirations – Personality: appeals and reflects their own or that which they aspire to – Convenience: easy to find/ purchase/ use – Service: value for money and confidence – Uniqueness: something they can’t get elsewhere – Price/ value: the best price or the best value for your dollar

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What do we want our ads to do?
• Effective advertising should seek to: CONVINCE (target audience) THAT (desired outcome after advertising exposure) BECAUSE (advertising proposition)
• • When this is achieved, the advertising is said to be effective and persuasive Let’s run through some some ads and assess their persuasion

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Tools for persuasive advertising
• (Reference: Reading 14 Sutherland)

Develop a unique and consistent style; avoid being the same as the category, become recognisable for the brand’s style, own it Style is :
– – – – Look of the communications Sound of the communications Words used Logo

Style triggers memory (recall) the more often it is used

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Identity
• ‘Own’ a style of presenting the brand • Maintain it consistently and only change when it no longer works (not when the advertiser is tired of it) • Copyright and trademark identity elements • Be on the look out for competitors who copy the identity

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Nike

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Nike

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Nike

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Anglican Church

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Anglican Church

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Anglican Church

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Slogans
• The objective is for the slogan (or ‘tag line’, or ‘end line’ or ‘sign off’’…) to immediately conjure up an association with the brand
– – – – – “Where do you want to go today” (Microsoft) “Just do it” (Nike) “Think different” (Apple) “The taste of a new generation” (Pepsi) “Absolutely, positively has to be there overnight” (DHL) – Any others?

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Symbols
• Logos, brands, trademarks… mostly mean the same thing • Almost every brand and organisation has one of these and they are used to encapsulate the brand’s essence • These are often changed or updated as time the market changes: decisions to change should be made with the benefit of market research and an understanding of the effects (positive and negative) of a change
– Example of positive effects: contemporary, improved, change of philosophy – Example of negative effects: loss of recognition, confusion, wrong messages

• Ideally, brand symbols should be used every time the brand appears in the public arena, with consistent presentation and style

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Visual devices, actions & gestures
• A repetitive visual cue which appears associated with the brand every time it appears in the public arena • It may be part of the ad, a ‘sign-off’ or the location or something that becomes consistent with the brand • Examples are the ‘Energizer Bunny’, the Toyota ‘jump’, Chicken Tonight’s ‘flapping wings’

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Presenters and celebrity endorsements

• •


Cosmetic companies use this a lot; picking one celebrity/ model to be the ‘face’ of the brand for as long as possible These can be ordinary people too; who take on the persona of the brand This can also include a well-known voice, rather than showing the person The presenter does not necessarily have to be a living human either: they can be a fictional character, an animal, an alien… as long as they are able to ‘speak’ for the brand Using presenters is quite risky because:
– The advertiser does not know what may happen to the presenter in the future (e.g.: poor behaviour, change of allegiance, illness or death) – The brand becomes dependent on the presenter and this places the presenter in a powerful fee-negotiating position – The presenter may become less popular or be perceived by the target audience in a less favorable way, over time (e.g.: uncool)

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Characters
• Costumed actors or animated characters can also be used, with less risks than a live presenter • The character can be trademarked and protected against misuse • This only works in some categories (and not in others, like cosmetics) • Animated or costumed characters can become enduring brand representatives, developing ‘lives’ and ‘personalities’ of their own

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Layout & format
• This involves the consistent use of a layout style; the ads become instantly recognisable (even with the brand device masked) • Strict adherence to the style must be monitored by the Advertising Manager; this can be difficult if the advertising creation is decentralised (e.g.: in different countries) • This is becoming more popular with technological communication advances (e.g.: e-mail final ads to a central brand approval resource to check for consistency) • Consistency to the corporate ‘look’ may involve the entire ad layout/ style or simply the typography and colours and style of illustrations

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Sound
• Music (jingles, soundtracks, anthems), unique noises (BOING!, ping), the voice-over can all be used as a means of branding an ad
• The same person doing the voice-over in a distinctive style, year after year • A well-known piece of musical arrangement used for every commercial in the brand portfolio • A bell or whistle (or anything) that signifies to the target audience that the commercial is for the brand

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Seminar Exercise
• Lets discuss the techniques of integrated constancy used in the following print advertisements

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Summary
• Effective advertising communication is not simple! It requires a lot of research and conceptual thinking before it ever reaches the consumer • Different people respond to different ads in different ways • Effective advertising should seek to:
CONVINCE (target audience) THAT (desired outcome after advertising exposure) BECAUSE (advertising proposition)

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Summary
• Integrated constancy is an effective technique for advertising. Seek to develop a consistent style in advertising for a brand
– look, sound, words, logo

• Even if you are not working in or with advertising at the moment, build your skills in the area by reviewing ads (as we have done here) to see who they are talking to, what they are trying to say and how they are saying it.

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Next Seminar
1. The role of Advertising Management 2. Persuasive Communications 3. Advertising Strategy 4. The Creative Process 5. Media Planning & Buying 6. Advertising Implementation 7. Advertising Evaluation 8. Advertising Ethics 9. The Future of Advertising 10. Assignments & Seminar Conclusion

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