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In transmission of the impulses causing the heart to beat, the impulses pass from the bundle of His to the: A. Visceral pericardium B. Purkinje fiber of ventricle C. Atrioventricular node of the ventricular septum D. Nodes of Ranvier
2. Which of the following is/are true? A. The force of contraction of the left ventricle is greater than that of the right ventricle B. The lowest velocity of blood flow occurs in the capillaries C. The atrioventricular node is the typical site at which the electrical activity occurring in the atria can be conducted to the ventricles D. All of the above E. None of the above
3. If an individual has a heart rate of 150, what is the amount of time it takes to complete one heart beat? A. 0.4 seconds B. 0.8 seconds C. 8 seconds D. 150 seconds E. 60 seconds
4. In a resting individual, which is true? A. Sympathetic stimulation of the heart is dominant B. Parasympathetic stimulation of the heart is dominant C. Neither is dominant
D. The balance between the two determines which is dominant.
5. As the heart rate increases, the time available for filling the ventricles of the heart, called diastolic filling is A. Increased B. Decreased C. Not affected D. Stable, does not change 6. What part of the ventricle contract first in the cardiac cycle? A. Atrioventricular valves B. Ventricular septum C. Lateral walls of ventricles D. Lower or apical portions of the ventricles
7. Blood flows directly into the ventricles from the atria during A. Early atrial systole and late ventricular diastole B. Late atrial systole and early ventricular systole C. Early atrial diastole and late ventricular systole D. All of the above
8. The “lubb-dup” sounds have practical clinical value because they provide info concerning the A. Strength of arterial contractions B. Power of the papillary muscles C. Efficiency of heart valves D. Closure of foramen ovale E. All of the above
9. Pressure in the atria is greater than pressure in the ventricles during A. Atrial diastole B. Atrial systole C. Late ventricular diastole D. All of the above E. B and C only
10.Which one of the following structures listed is passed thirdly by a drop of blood starting at the left atrium? A. Left ventricle B. Coronary sinus C. Bicuspid valve D. Right atrium
11.Arterial blood pressure could be decreased by A. An increase in cardiac output B. An increase in venous return C. An increase in peripheral resistance D. All of the above E. None of the above
12.The electrical conduction system in the heart (is) A. Innervated by somatic nervous system B. Capable of generating its own heart beat and regulating its own heart rate without other nerve influences C. Influenced greatly by the degree of venous return
D. Also affects the valves guarding of the heart orifices E. Two of the above
13.Stroke volume is increased by A. Increased venous return resulting in increased end diastolic volume B. Relatively empty ventricles C. Decreased intra thoracic pressure D. Increased diastolic filling E. All of the above
14.Blood viscosity and arteriolar diameter are the major factors in determining the A. Venous return of blood to the heart B. Peripheral resistance to blood flow C. Venous blood pressure D. All of the aboce E. B and C only
15.If the cardiac output is 5.0 liters per minute and the stroke volume is 0.05 liters per beat, what is the heart rate? A. 100 beats per minute B. 0.001 beats per minute C. 25 beats per minute D. 0.25 beats per minute E. Can’t be determined
16.Which of the following is true?
A. Venous pressure is normally higher than arteriole pressure B. Capillary pressure is always lower than arteriole pressure C. Capillary pressure is normally less than pressure in any other kind of vessel D. Venous pressure is greatest in the superior and inferior vena cavae E. All of the above
17.If the systolic pressure is 130mmHg and the diastolic pressure is 70mmHg, the pulse pressure would be A. 60 mmHg B. 200 mmHg C. 9100 mmHg D. 119 mmHg
18.Which of the following would no influence venous return? A. Contraction of skeletal muscles squeezing veins B. Higher pressure in capillaries than in veins, forcing blood toward heart C. Gravity D. Dilation of veins E. Exchange of materials at capillary bed
19.The greater the volume of blood in the ventricle before the start of the ventricular systole, within the physiological limits A. The less powerful the ensuing heat B. The more powerful the ensuing heat C. The more rapidly the next beat will be completed D. The more likely an EKG will occur
E. The more likely a PVC will occur
20.Your blood pressure is measured as 130/80. The 80 represents the ……. Pressure of blood in your….. A. Diastolic, veins B. Diastolic, arteries C. Systolic, veins D. Systolic, arteries
21.With the progressive changes from arteries to capillaries which one of the following is not true? A. There is a decrease in the diameter of the vessels B. There is a decrease in the thickness of the wall of the vessels C. There is an increase in the velocity at which the blood travels through the vessles D. There is a decrease in the pressure within the vessels
22.Pulsations exist in the circulatory system because A. Blood is poured steadily out of the heart into the aorta B. Arterial walls are elastic C. Pooling occurs in arteries when their pressure is high D. Capillaries resist blood flow E. None of the above
23.Plasma proteins that remain in the blood capillaries help best to A. Maintain the colloid osmotic pressure of the blood B. Decrease the colloid osmotic pressure of the blood
C. Maintain the hydrostatic pressure of the blood D. Decrease the hydrostatic pressure of the blood
24.Under normal conditions, capillary blood pressure is always A. Less than arterial blood pressure B. A force which pushes water and dissolved substances out of the blood at the arterial end of a capillary bed C. Both A and B D. Neither A nor B
25.Osmosis and filtration are …………. forces, respectively. A. Pulling and pushing B. Pushing and pulling
26.Amanda Bowersock’s blood pressure is 144/110. The 110 is A. A measure of diastolic pressure B. Indicates a somewhat low reading C. A measure of systolic pressure D. Indicates atrial fibrillation E. A and B
27.The most inclusive means by which substances pass into and of capillaries is A. Endocytosis and exocytosis B. Osmotic pressure C. Fluid pressure D. Fluid movement E. Diffusion
28.In the condition called “circulatory shock”, reduced blood volume lead to A. Lowered filtration pressure at capillary beds B. Initial reduction of blood via the veins to the heart C. All of the above D. None of the above
29.The SA node establishes the rate of the heart’s contraction because A. The beat arises in the SA node B. The SA node sends out impulses faster than the AV node C. The AV node only influences the ventricles D. The SA node is bigger than the AV node
30.If arterial blood pressure falls markedly, which of the following would you expect to occur? A. Less movement of fluid from the capillaries to the interstitial spaces B. Body cells swollen with excess fluid C. Leakage of blood proteins into the interstitial fluid D. Exchange of water between the blood and the interstitial fluid unaltered E. Interstitial edema
31.Which of these is/are not a normal stimulus to make the cardio accelerator center fire? A. Decreased oxygen levels of the blood B. Decreased carbon dioxide levels of the blood C. Decreased blood pressure amounts D. A stressful situation such as bleeding from an ulcer
E. All of the above 32.Contraction of the papillary muscles A. Results in the ejection of blood from the ventricles B. Prevents AV valves from protruding into the atria C. Closes the semilunar valves D. Prevents back flow from the pulmonary trunk to the right ventricle E. Causes the atria to eject their contents into the ventricles
33.Which of the following represents the correct sequence of parts through which blood moves in passing from the vena cava to the lungs? A. Right atrium, pulmonary valve, right ventricle, tricuspid valve B. Right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonary valve C. Tricuspid valve, right atrium, pulmonary valve, right ventricle D. Pulmonary valve, right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle E. Pulmonary capillary bed, pulmonary arteries, pulmonary semilunar valve, right ventricle, right atrium, superior vena cava
34.Venous obstructive promotes edema by …………… in the venous end of the capillary bed A. Decreasing blood pressure B. Increasing osmotic pressure C. Increasing hydrostatic pressure D. Decreasing osmotic pressure E. None of the above
35.After several hours of standing at attention on a hot sunny day, several army recruits fainted. Compared to normal resting values, measurements taken on the recruits just before they collapsed would have indicated
A. Decreased venous return B. Decreased cardiac output C. Increased blood volume in the legs D. Decreased cerebral blood flow E. All of the above
36.Which of the following increase blood pressure? A. Increased venous return B. Increased urine output C. Both A and B D. Neither A nor B
37.Which of the following organs or tissues receive the greatest portion of the total blood flow when the body is at rest? A. The brain B. The kidneys C. Skeletal muscle D. The liver E. The heart
38.The most important job of the heart is to A. Get oxygen to our lungs B. Carry hormones to our tissues for growth and stimulation C. Prevent accumulation of waste products in our organs D. Deliver nutrients to our brain and other vital organs E. Send blood to the capillary beds to facilitate exchange of materials with the cells
39.The diastolic blood pressure A. Is maintained by the recoil of arteries and arterioles B. Has a normal range of 60 to 90mmHg C. Occurs during ventricular relaxation D. All of the above E. None of the above
40.Which statement best describe arteries? A. All carry oxygenated blood to the blood B. All contain valves to prevent backflow of the blood C. All carry blood away from the heart D. Only large arteries are lined with endothelium
41.The fact that veins hold more blood than arteries is/are due to A. The larger lumens that veins have compared to arteries B. The larger number of veins compared to the smaller number of arteries C. The thinner walls that veins have D. All of the above E. None of the above
42.Which statement about capillaries is not true? A. Capillaries are microscopic vessels whose walls are one cell thick B. Blood pressure is lowest in capillaries C. Velocity of blood flow is slowest in capillaries D. Many capillaries are smaller than whole cells
E. All of the above
43.The vessels which helps to regulate blood pressure the best is/are A. Precaplllary sphincters B. Muscular arterioles C. Venules D. Large arteries E. All of the above equally
44.The auscultation method of measuring blood pressure A. Relies on the insertion of a cannula into the vessel in which pressure is being measured B. Requires a device that is sensitive to the oscillations that occur in the blood vessel during changes pressure C. Relies on hearing Korotkoffs sounds through stethoscope D. Involves an electronic transducer attached to a mercury manometer E. Requires a device that senses the difference in the degree of stretch in the vessel wall at systole and at diastole.
45.Which of these tells how the functional syncytium of the heart works? A. Only one impulse is needed for the whole heart to contract B. Nerve impulse flow meets tiny resistance at intercalated discs C. Both A and B D. Neither A nor B
46.Which of the following statements about the ventricles is true A. They are completely filled prior to atrial contraction
B. They are both filled with blood of relatively high oxygen concentration C. The left ventricular is more massive than is the right ventricular wall D. Chordae tendinea are attached to the mitral valve of the right side and to the bicuspid valve of the left side.
47.Given the following values, determine the direction of flow of materials across the capillary bed. Blood colloidal osmotic pressure = 25 mmHg Interstitial osmotic pressure = 1 mmHg Blood hydrostatic pressure = 60 mmHg Interstitial hydrostatic pressure = 15 mmHg A. Material moves to the outside of vessel B. Material moves to inside of vessels C. Material moves equally in both direction D. No movement of material occurs in either direction 48.If the cardiac output is 5.4liters/min and the heart rate is 100 beats/min. what is the stroke volume? A. 540 beats/liter B. 27.0 beats/liter C. 54 ml/beat D. 27 liter/stroke E. Can’t be calculated from the data
49.Starling’s Law of the Heart can be stated A. Cardiac output = stroke volume x heart rate B. Pressure = flow x resistance C. Neural reflexes act continuously to maintain a steady state of blood pressure D. The heart pumps all the blood delivered to it within physiological limits
E. The rate of epinephrine release is directly related to the speed of the heart rate.
50.Cardiac output is increased during exercise because of A. Increased peripheral resistance In vessels supplying skeletal muscle B. Increased heart rate and stroke volume C. Both A and B D. Neither A nor B
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