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**ˇ ˇ Petr Simeˇek, Marie Simeˇkov´ c c a
**

Institute of Animal Science, Pˇ´telstv´ 815, 10400 Prague, Czech Republic ra ı

arXiv:1207.2883v1 [math.ST] 12 Jul 2012

Abstract In this paper we discuss testing for an interaction in the two–way ANOVA with just one observation per cell. The known results are reviewed and a simulation study is performed to evaluate type I and type II risks of the tests. It is shown that the Tukey and Mandel additivity tests have very low power in case of more general interaction scheme. A modiﬁcation of Tukey’s test is developed to resolve this issue. All tests mentioned in the paper have been implemented in R package AdditivityTests. Key words: two-way ANOVA, additivity tests, Tukey additivity test

1

Introduction

In many applications of statistical methods, it is assumed that the response variable is a sum of several factors and a random noise. In a real world this may not be an appropriate model. For example, some patients may react diﬀerently to the same drug treatment or the inﬂuence of fertilizer may be inﬂuenced by the type of a soil. There might exist an interaction between factors. A testing for such interaction will be referred here as testing of additivity hypothesis. If there is more than one observation per cell then standard ANOVA techniques may be applied. Unfortunately, in many cases it is infeasible to get more than one observation taken under the same conditions. For instance, it is not logical to ask the same student the same question twice.

⋆ This research was supported by the grants MZE 0002701404 and NAZV QH81312. We are indebted to Dieter Rasch and an anonymous reviewer for their comments to the text. Email address: simecek@gmail.com, simeckova.marie@vuzv.cz (Petr ˇ ˇ Simeˇek, Marie Simeˇkov´). c c a

Preprint submitted to Elsevier

13 July 2012

. and its scaled versions equal ωi = κi . . . . i. In Section 3 the power of the tests described in Section 2 is compared by means of simulation. > κmin(a.e. j = 1. .b)−1 . . where αi = i j i = 1. To test the additivity hypothesis H0 : γij = 0 i = 1. two–array model. Let y·· denotes the overall mean. a. . . . . see also Alin and Kurt (2006) and Boik (1993a). Actually after a small modiﬁcation derived in Section 4 the power of the test improves dramatically. (2) a number of tests have been developed. .e. (1) βj = i γij = j γij = 0 and the ǫij are normally distributed independent random variables with zero mean and variance σ 2 . The matrix R = [rij ] will stand for a residual matrix with respect to the main eﬀects rij = yij − yi· − y·j + y·· ¯ ¯ ¯ The decreasingly ordered list of eigenvalues of RRT will be denoted by κ1 > κ2 > . The Section 2 recollects the known additivity tests. b) − 1. k κk i = 1. . While Tukey test has relatively good power when the interaction is a product of the main eﬀects. i. yi· the ith row’s mean and y·j the j th column’s ¯ ¯ ¯ mean.We restrict ourselves to a case of two factors. 2 Additivity Tests This section recalls the known additivity tests of hypothesis (2) in model (1). . b. j = 1. its power for more general interaction is very poor. It should be reminded that Tukey (1949) did not originally propose his test for any particular type of interaction. when the response in ith row and j th column is modeled as yij = µ + αi + βj + γij + ǫij . . when γij = kαi βj (k is a real constant). . . . . min(a. 2. . . There exist some issues when a sample size is not large enough that may be resolve by a permutation test or bootstrap. . a. . b. 2 .

Tukey test ﬁrst estimates row and column eﬀects and then tests for the interaction of a type γij = kαi βj (k = 0 implies no interaction). (a − 1)(b − 1) − 1 Under the additivity hypothesis ST is F -distributed with 1 and (a−1)(b−1)−1 degrees of freedom. The additivity hypothesis is rejected if SJ is high. The additivity hypothesis is rejected if SL is high. b ﬁxed. For a. y ¯ 2 j (¯·j − y·· ) is F -distributed with a − 1 and (a − 1) · Deﬁnitions of the three later tests slightly diﬀer from their original versions. yij (¯·j − y·· ) y ¯ . 3 . Johnson – Graybill test statistic is just SJ = ω1 . LBI test statistic equals (up to a monotonic transformation) min(a. Tukey test statistic ST equals ST = MSint /MSerror . a simulation may be used to get the critical values. Mandel test statistic SM equals SM = where zi := j i (zi y ¯ − 1)2 j (¯·j − y··)2 / a−1 i j ((yij − yi· ) − zi (¯·j − y·· ))2 ¯ y ¯ . Locally best invariant (LBI) test: See Boik (1993b). Mandel test: Introduced in Mandel (1961). Tukey test: Introduced in Tukey (1949).If the interaction is present we may expect that some of ωi coeﬃcients will be substantially higher than others. Johnson – Graybill test: Introduced in Johnson and Graybill (1972).b)−1 SL = i=1 2 ωi . (a − 1)(b − 2) Under the additivity hypothesis SM (b − 1) degrees of freedom. where MSint = and MSerror = i j (yij i j yij (¯i· − y·· )(¯·j − y·· ) y ¯ y ¯ − y·· )2 ¯ y j (¯·j y j (¯·j − y·· )2 ¯ 2 y i (¯i· − y·· )2 − a ¯ − y·· )2 − b i (¯i· − y·· )2 − MSint ¯ y ¯ .

0.84.61. independent of βj and ǫij . . αi are constants.27. The mixed eﬀects model used for the simulation study is as (1) where µ. ˜ The dependence of the power on k is visualized in Figure 1. For each combination of parameters’ values a dataset was generated based on the model (1). −1. and βj are independent normally distributed 2 random variables with zero mean and variance σβ . −0. 0.00). All tests were done on α = 5% level. while Tukey and Mandel tests outperformed omnibus tests for interaction A 4 . As we can see. The additivity hypothesis is rejected if SU is low. . According to Simeˇkov´ and Rasch (2008) the type-I-risk of the tests c a mentioned in Section 2 is not touched even when one of the eﬀects in (1) is considered as random.Tusell test: See Tusell (1990). Two possible interaction schemes were under inspection: A) γij = kαi βj where k is a real constant. σ 2 = 1. 1. and k a real constant. a = 10. B) γij = kαi δj where δj are independent normally distributed random variables 2 with zero mean and variance σβ . 0. LBI and Tusell omnibus tests are suitable in cases of more complexed interactions. Tukey and Mandel tests are appropriate if γij = kαi βj while Johnson – Graybill. Tusell test statistic equals (up to a constant) min(a. the tests of additivity were done and their results were noted down. 2.92. and unit variance.b)−1 SU = i=1 ωi . (α1 .70.07. σ 2 = 1.94. The step was repeated 10 000 times. and 10 different values between 0 and 12 are considered for the interaction parameter k. either b = 10 or b = 50. µ = 0.46. 2 The other parameters are equal to µ = 0. 3 Simulation Study In this section simulation results about power of the additivity tests are preˇ sented. α10 ) = (−2. . The estimated power of the test is the percentage of the positive results. . Two possibilities are considered for the b. The ǫij are independent normally distributed random variables with zero mean. 0. σβ = 2. −1.03. As will be veriﬁed in the next section.

B down).0 2.6 1.power 1. 1.6 0.0 1.0 k Fig. they completely fail to detect the interaction B even for a large value of k and b = 50.0 k 0.6 1.0 0. The estimators of ˆ row eﬀects αi = yi· − y·· and column eﬀects βj = y·j − y·· are calculated in the ˆ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 5 .5 1.0 power 0.5 1. Tukey test solid line.0 0. Mandel test dashed line.5 1.2 0.0 1. b = 50 right) and interaction type (A up.5 2. and low k and b.5 3.0 k 0.6 0.0 0. Johnson – Graybill test dotted line.0 2.5 3.5 2.0 2.5 3. LBI test dot-dash line.0 1. it is desirable to develop a test which is able to detect a spectrum of practically relevant alternatives while still has the power comparable to the Tukey and Mandel tests for the most common interaction scheme A.5 1.0 power 0.5 2.2 0. Tusell test long dash line.0 1.2 0.5 3.0 2. Therefore. b (b = 10 left.0 0.0 0. 4 Modiﬁcation of Tukey Test In Tukey test a model (1) yij = µ + αi + βj + γij + ǫij = µ + αi + βj + kαi βj + ǫij (3) is tested against a submodel (2) yij = µ + αi + βj + ǫij .0 0.2 0.0 k power 1. Power dependence on k.5 2.

The iteration procedure continues by updating estimates one by one (while the rest of parameters are ﬁxed): • (n) αi ˆ = j (n−1) ˆ ˆ(n−1) yij −ˆ−βj µ ˆ · 1+k (n−1) ·βj j ˆ ˆ(n−1) 1+k (n−1) ·βj (n−1) 2 ˆ(n) • βj = ˆ • k (n) = i yij −ˆ−αi µ ˆ i ˆ · 1+k (n−1) ·αi ˆ (n−1) 2 (n−1) ˆ 1+k (n−1) ·αi ˆ (n−1) i j yij −αi ˆ i ˆ −β j (n−1) 2 −ˆ ·αi µ ˆ (n−1) 2 ˆ ·βj (n−1) j αi ˆ (n−1) ˆ(n−1) · βj Surprisingly. it seems that one iteration is just enough to converge in a vast majority of cases. 4. βj = βj = y·j − y·· and ˆ ˆ ¯ ¯ ˆ ¯ ¯ k ˆ(0) = i j (0) ˆ(0) ˆ ˆ (0) ˆ(0) yij − αi − βj − µ · αi · βj ˆ i j αi ˆ (0) 2 ˆ(0) · βj 2 . for a simplicity reason let us deﬁne RSS = i j (1) (1) (1) ˆ(1) yij − µ − αi − βj − k (1) αi βj ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ 2 . The main idea behind a presented modiﬁcation is that the full model (3) is ﬁtted by a nonlinear regression and tested against a submodel yij = µ + αi + βj + ǫij by a likelihood ratio test. The estimates of row and column eﬀects therefore diﬀer for each model. Therefore. 6 .1 Non-adjusted test Under additivity hypothesis the maximum likelihood estimators of parameters ˆ can be calculated simply as µ = y·· . Residual ˆ ¯ ˆ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ sum of squares equals RSS0 = i j ˆ yij − µ − αi − βj ˆ ˆ 2 = i j (yij − yi· − y·j + y·· )2 . ¯ ¯ ¯ In the full model (3) the parameters’ estimates are computed iteratively.same way in both models although the dependency of yij on these parameters is not linear for the full model. Let (0) (0) ˆ us ﬁrst take αi = αi = yi· − y·· . αi = yi· − y·· and βj = y·j − y·· . ˆ The k (0) is equal to the estimator of k in the classical Tukey test.

as we will see in the following part a situation for a small number of rows or columns is quite opposite. the power of modiﬁed test is much higher than the power of Tukey test. Theoretically. However. The reason is that the likelihood ratio test statistic converges to χ2 -distribution rather slowly (see Bartlett (1937)) and a correction for small sample size is needed. Thus. 4.ab−a−b (1 − α) stands for 1 − α quantile of F -distribution with 1 and ˜ ˜ ab − a − b degrees of freedom. We present two possibilities that are recommended if a number of rows or columns is below 20 (empirical threshold based on simulations). Now we will return to the simulation study from Section 3. modiﬁed test does not work properly (type-I-risk = 6%). Easy manipulation of (4) gives the modiﬁed Tukey test which rejects the additivity hypothesis if and only if RSS0 > RSS 1 + 1 F1. For interaction B the power of the tests is compared on Figure 2. using a linear approximation of the nonlinear model (3) RSS0 − RSS RSS ab−a−b (4) is F -distributed with 1 and ab − a − b degrees of freedom. ˜ ab − a − b where F1. 7 . a diﬀerence of twice log-likelihoods. For interaction A the power of the modiﬁed test is almost equal to the power of Tukey test.e.2 Small sample adjustment If the left part of Figure 2 would be magniﬁed enough it will show that the . we may expect the modiﬁed test to be conservative because just one iteration does not ﬁnd precisely the maximum of model (3) likelihood. RSS The consistent estimate of a residual variance σ 2 equals s2 = ab−a−b and RSS σ2 is approximately χ2 -distributed with ab−a−b degrees of freedom. equals RSS0 − RSS σ2 and is asymptotically χ2 -distributed with 1 degree of freedom.The likelihood ratio statistic of the modiﬁed Tukey test. i.ab−a−b (1 − α) .

generated from a normal distribution with zero mean and variance s2 .0 k k Fig. t = 1. The modiﬁed test performs almost as good as Tukey test when the interaction is a product of main eﬀects but should be recommended if we also request reasonable power 8 . b (b = 10 left.0 2.i. N (perm) . t = 1.0 1. Mandel test dashed line.d. . .0 1. Johnson – Graybill test dotted line. 2.0 2. b = 50 right) for interaction type B.e.2 0. ˆ ˆ t = 1. Power dependence on k. . . As in the permutation test the additivity hypothesis is rejected if more than (1 − α) · 100% of sampled statistics lie below the statistic ˜ based on real data. The critical value equals (1 − α) · 100% quantile of S (perm) (t). N (sample) where (ǫij )(t) are i. Tukey test solid line. .6 1. . . For each t the statistic of interest S (perm) (t) = RSS0 (t) − RSS(t) is computed. LBI test dot-dash line. . The proposed modiﬁcation improved Tukey test and for large k almost reach power of omnibus tests. The proposed statistic of interest is abs(k (1) ) mirroring deviation from null hypothesis k = 0.0 3.0 0. . i.6 0. Tusell test long dash line.0 power power 0. One possibility to overcome this obstacle is a permutation test. N (perm) where π(t) is a random permutation of indexes of R matrix. .2 0.0 3. . ˜ RSS The second possibility is to estimate the residual variance s2 = ab−a−b and then generate samples of a distribution yij (sample) (0) (N EW ) ˆ(0) (t) = µ + αi + βj + ǫij ˆ ˆ (t). This is simply parametric bootstrap on residuals.0 0. (N EW ) 5 Conclusion We have proposed a modiﬁcation of the Tukey additivity test.1. modiﬁed Tukey test two dash line. . generate data as follows yij (perm) (0) ˆ(0) (t) = µ + αi + βj + rπij (t) .

M. M. (1990). Journal of the American Statistical Association. 160:268–282. Computational Statistics & Data Analysis. F. R. (1949). J. All mentioned tests are implemented in R package AdditivityTests that may be downloaded on http://github. (2006). 15:411–424. Johnson. 10:29–45. Computational Statistics & Data Analysis. R. Problems with small sample size may be overcome by permutation test or parametric bootstrap on residuals. this is the ﬁrst R implementation of additivity tests with the exception of the Tukey test. and Graybill. Tusell. Testing additivity in two-way classiﬁcations with no replications:the locally best invariant test. Statistical Methods in Medical Research. Journal of the American Statistical Association. F. (1972). 5:232– 242. and Rasch. Testing for interaction in two-way anova tables with no replication. (1993b). Mandel. 15:63–85. Boik. An analysis of a two-way model with interaction and no replication. 9 . Poster presentation. References Alin. Additivity tests for the mixed model c a in the two-way anova with single sub-class numbers – type-I-risk. Biometrics. (1937).com/rakosnicek/additivityTests. 56:878–888. One degree of freedom for non-additivity. (1993a). and Kurt. A comparison of three invariant tests of additivityin twoway classiﬁcations with no replications.in case of more general interaction schemes. 67:862–868. (2008). Boik. Testing non-additivity (interaction) in two-way anova tables with no replication. As far as we are informed. A. S. Royal Society of London Proceedings Series A. D. Journal of Applied Statistics. 20:41–55. Lifestat 2008. Properties of Suﬃciency and Statistical Tests. (1961). Non-additivity in two-way analysis of variance. J. Tukey. Bartlett. S. ˇ Simeˇkov´. D.

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