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CHNG 1: KNH TRUYN V TUYN

1.1 GII THIU CHNG Cc phng tin thng tin ni chung c chia thnh hai phng php thng tin c bn, l thng tin v tuyn v thng tin hu tuyn.
Ngun tin Knh tin Nhn tin

Hnh 1.1: S khi chc nng h thng truyn Trong mng thng tin v tuyn ngoi ngun tin v nhn tin th knh truyn l mt trong ba khu quan trng nht, v c cu trc tng i phc tp. N l mi trng truyn thng tin t my pht n my thu. V th chng ny tm hiu cc thng tin v knh truyn. 1.2 NIM V H THNG THNG TIN V TUYN 1.3 KNH V TUYN 1.3.1 Gii thiu Cht lng ca cc h thng thng tin ph thuc nhiu vo knh truyn, ni m tn hiu c truyn t my pht n my thu. Khng ging nh knh truyn hu tuyn l n nh v c th d on c, knh truyn v tuyn l hon ton ngu nhin v khng h d dng trong vic phn tch. Tn hiu c pht i, qua knh truyn v tuyn, b cn tr bi cc to nh, ni non, cy ci , b phn x, tn x, nhiu x, cc hin tng ny c gi chung l fading. V kt qu l my thu, ta thu c rt nhiu phin bn khc nhau ca tn hiu pht. iu ny nh hng n cht lng ca h thng thng tin v tuyn.

tin

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Hin tng fading trong mt h thng thng tin c th c phn thnh hai loi: Fading tm rng (large-scale fading) v fading tm hp (small-scale fading).
C ba c ch chnh nh hng n s lan truyn ca tn hiu trong h thng di ng: Phn x xy ra kh sng in t va chm vo mt mt bng phng vi kch thc rt ln so vi bc sng tn hiu RF. Nhiu x xy ra khi ng truyn sng gia pha pht v thu b cn tr bi mt nhm vt cn c mt cao v kch thc ln so vi bc sng. Tn x xy ra khi sng in t va chm vo mt mt phng ln, g gh lm cho nng lng b tri ra (tn x ) hoc l phn x ra tt c cc hng. 1.3.2 Cc hin tng nh hng n cht lng knh truyn 1.3.2.1 Hin tng a ng (Multipath) Trong mt h thng thng tin v tuyn, cc sng bc x in t thng khng bao gi c truyn trc tip n anten thu. iu ny xy ra l do gia ni pht v ni thu lun tn ti cc vt th cn tr s truyn sng trc tip. Do vy, sng nhn c chnh l s chng chp ca cc sng n t hng khc nhau bi s phn x, khc x, tn x t cc to nh, cy ci v cc vt th khc. Hin tng ny c gi l s truyn sng a ng (Multipath propagation). 1.3.3.2 Hiu ng Doppler Hiu ng Doppler gy ra do s chuyn ng tng i gia my pht v my thu nh trnh by hnh 1.4. Bn cht ca hin tng

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ny l ph ca tn hiu thu c b x lch i so vi tn s trung tm mt khong gi l tn s Doppler.


Trm pht Tuyn 1

2 (t )
Tuyn 2

Vt phn x

1 (t )

Hnh 1.4: Hm truyn t ca knh 1.3.2.3 Suy hao trn ng truyn M ta s suy giam cng sut trung binh cua tin hiu khi truyn t may phat n may thu. S giam cng sut do hin tng che chn va suy hao co th khac phuc bng cac phng phap iu khin cng sut. 1.3.2.4 Hiu ng bng rm (Shadowing) Do nh hng ca cc vt cn tr trn ng truyn, v d nh cc to nh cao tng, cc ngn ni, i, lm cho bin tn hiu b suy gim. 1.3.3 Cc dng knh truyn Knh truyn chn lc tn s v knh truyn khng chn lc tn s Knh truyn chn lc thi gian v Knh truyn khng chn lc thi gian 1.3.4 Cc m hnh knh c bn Khi nghin cu cc knh v tuyn di ng, thng cc phn b

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Rayleigh v Rice c s dng m t tnh cht thng k thay i theo thi gian ca tn hiu pha inh phng. Sau y, chng ta s xt cc phn b ny v a ra cc c tnh c bn ca chng. 1.3.4.1 Knh theo phn b Rayleigh C th coi phn b pha inh Rayleigh l phn b ng bao ca tng hai tn hiu phn b Gauss vung gc. 1.3.4.2 Phn b Pha inh Rice Khi tn hiu thu c thnh phn n nh (khng b pha inh) vt tri, ng truyn trc tip (LOS), phn b ng bao pha inh phm vi hp c dng Rice. Trong phn b Rice, cc thnh phn a ng ngu nhin n my thu theo cc gc khc nhau v xp chng ln tn hiu vt tri ny.

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CHNG 2: K THUT CDMA


2.1 GII THIU CHNG Trong bt k h thng thng tin v tuyn no, di bng tn c cho php s dng l lun b gii hn. V vy, vic chia s knh truyn nhiu ngi c th s dng ng thi l mt nhu cu cp thit. K thut CDMA ra i, da trn nguyn l tri ph v c s dng rng ri cho thng tin v tuyn trn ton th gii. 2.2 NGUN GC CDMA L thuyt v CDMA c xy dng t nhng nm 1980 v c p dng trong thng tin qun s t nm 1960 cng vi s pht trin ca cng ngh bn dn v l thuyt thng tin vo nm 1980 CDMA c thng mi ho t phng php thu GRS v ommi Tracs, phng php ny c xut trong h thng t ong ca Qual Comm - M vo nm 1990. 2.3 NGUYN L CA K THUT A TRUY NHP PHN CHIA THEO M ( CDMA ) Trong h thng CDMA, mi ngi dng c gn cho mt chui m xc nh, v tt c cc ngi dng c th s dng chung khong bng tn trong cng mt khong thi gian. Do CDMA da trn nguyn l tri ph, do mi trm pht s s dng mt chui tri ph gi ngu nhin tc ng vo tn hiu tin tc. Khi my thu nhn c tn hiu t nhiu trm pht khc nhau, n s ly tn hiu mong mun bng cch gii m tn hiu bng chui m ring ca chnh tn hiu . Ta c c kt qu ny l do tnh t tng quan v tng quan cho ca cc chui m tri ph.
Hnh 2.5: Phn b xc sut Rice vi cc gi tr K khc nhau

2.4 CC C TNH CA CDMA


2.4.1 Tnh a dng ca phn tp

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Phn tp l 1 hnh thc tt lm gim pha inh : C 3 loi phn tp : Phn tp theo thi gian Phn tp theo tn s - tn hiu bng rng 1,25 Mhz Phn tp theo khong cch

2.4.2 iu khin cng sut CDMA H thng CDMA cung cp chc nng iu khin cng sut 2chiu (T BTS n my di ng v ngc li). Mc ch iu khin cng sut pht ca my di ng cho tn hiu pht ca tt c cc my di ng trong mt vng phc v c th thu c vi nhy trung bnh ti b thu ca BS. B thu CDMA ca BS chuyn tn hiu thu t my di ng tng ng thnh thng tin s bng hp cn tn hiu ca cc my di ng khc ch cn l tn hiu tp m ca bng rng. 2.4.3 B m - Gii m thoi v tc s liu bin i Do s tch bit tn s 45 MHz gia knh hng i v hng v vt qu di thng lin kt ca cc knh nn my di ng c gi thit l cc gi tr ca tn hao hai a ng dn ging nhau, do khng c kh nng o suy hao ng dn hng v mc d c 1chnh lch gia suy hao a ng trn knh hng i o my di ng v suy hao a ng ca knh hng v. Phng php o ny cung cp gi tr trung bnh chnh xc cho cng sut pht nhng 1 phng php ph c cn ti tnh ton giao thoa Rayleigh ch ra cc tnh cht khc nhau trn 2 knh. 2.4.4 iu khin cng sut mch vng kn trn knh hng v ca CDMA Cc tn hiu cng sut pht c iu khin bi thng tin iu

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khin pht i t trm gc. Khi xy ra s suy gim ng k trn knh hng i trong mt vng nht nh v nu cng sut pht khng tng ln th cht lng thoi ca cc cuc gi qua knh ny gim xung di tiu chun cht lng. iu khin cng sut trn knh hng i trm gc gim theo chu k cng sut pht ra ti my di ng, gim cng sut ra nh vy duy tr cho n khi cc my di ng yu cu cng sut ra b xung nh d thy tng t l li khung v trm gc tng cng sut pht ra vi s gia 0,5 db. S tng gim cng sut ra c thc hin mt ln cho mi khung mi ting ni tc l c trung bnh 12 n 20 ms chm hn tc tng hay gim cng sut ra trn knh hng vng ng tng hay gim cng sut ra c th iu khin ti +6,-6 db xung quanh cng sut ra trung bnh. 2.4.5 iu khin cng sut trn knh hng i ca CDMA 2.4.6 Bo mt cuc gi H thng CDMA cung cp chc nng bo mt cuc gi cao v v c bn to ra xuyn m, vic s dng my thu tn kim v s dng bt hp php knh RF l kh khn i vi h thng t ong s CDMA v tn hiu c trn ( Seranbling ). V c bn th cng ngh CDMA cung cp kh nng bo mt cuc gi v cc kh nng bo v khc, tiu chun xut gm kh nng xc nhn v bo mt cuc gi c nh r trong CIA/TIA/SI-54-B. C th m ho knh thoi s mt cch d dng nh s dng DES hoc cc cng ngh m tiu chun khc. 2.4.7 Chuyn vng mm 2.4.8 Dung lng, dung lng mm 2.5 K THUT TRI PH 2.5.1 Gii thiu

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Ky thut trai ph ra i t nhu cu bao mt thng tin trong qun s. Mc ch ca k thut tri ph l lm cho tn hiu c pht ging nh tp m i vi cc my thu khng mong mun, lm cho cc my thu ny kh khn trong vic tch v ly ra c bn tin. Mt h thng thng tin c xem l tri ph khi tha 2 iu kin: Bng thng tn hiu tri ph ln hn rt nhiu so vi bng thng tn hiu thng tin. M dng tri ph c lp vi tn hiu thng tin. u im ca k thut thng tin tri ph Kh nng a truy cp Tnh bo mt thng tin cao Bo v chng nhiu a ng

2.5.2 Cc k thut tri ph c bn 2.5.2.1 K thut tri ph bng cch phn tn ph trc tip (DS SS: Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum) Tn hiu truyn i c biu din di dng lng cc, sau nhn trc tip vi chui gi ngu nhin. my thu, tn hiu thu c nhn vi chui tri ph ln na to li tn hiu tin tc. 2.5.2.2 K thut tri ph bng phng php nhy tn s ( FH SS: Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum) K thut FH SS pht trin da trn iu ch BFSK. Trong , tn s sng mang c thay i lin tc theo mt quy lut gi ngu nhin (da trn chui m ngu nhin s dng), nh vy m ph ca tn hiu FH SS c tri rng trn trc tn s. 2.5.2.3 K thut tri ph bng phng php nhy thi gian (TH SS: Time Hopping Spread Spectrum )

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Trc thi gian c chia thnh cc khung (frame). Mi khung li c chia thnh k khe thi gian (slot). Trong mt khung, ty theo m ca tng user m n s s dng mt trong k khe thi gian ca khung. Tn hiu c truyn trong mi khe c tc gp k ln so vi tn hiu truyn trong ton b khung nhng tn s cn thit truyn tng gp k ln. 2.5.3 Cc chui tri ph c bn 2.5.3.1 Chui tn hiu nh phn gi ngu nhin Chui tn hiu nh phn gi ngu nhin l chui tn hiu nh phn tun hon nhng c chu k lp li rt ln, do nu khng c bit trc quy lut ca n, ngi quan st kh nhn bit c quy lut. Ta gi l chui gi ngu nhin (PRBS: Pseudo Random Binary Sequence). Chui PRBS c to ra t mch chui gm NDFlipFlop ghp lin tip nhau nh hnh 2.11.

Hnh 2.11: S mch to chui gi ngu nhin 2.5.3.2 Chui Hadamarh Walsh Cc hm Walsh c to ra t cc ma trn vung c bit NN

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gi l cc ma trn Hadamard. Cc ma trn ny cha mt hng ton s 0 v cc hng cn li c s s 1 v s s 0 bng nhau. Hm Walsh c cu trc cho di khi N=2j trong j l mt s nguyn dng. Cc t hp m cc hng ca ma trn l cc hm trc

giao c xc nh nh theo ma trn Hadamard nh sau: H 1 = [ 0 ], 0 0 0 0 H2 = , H4 = 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 H 1 , H 2 N = N 1 H N 0

HN HN

Trong l o c s hai ca HN
2.6 HIU NNG CA CC H THNG DS/SS 2.6.1 nh hng ca tp m trng 2.6.2 nh hng ca nhiu giao thoa 2.6.3 Truyn a tia 2.7 H THNG DS CDMA ( Direct Spread Code Division Multiple Access ) H thng DS CDMA da trn k thut tri ph bng cch phn tn ph trc tip v cc l thuyt c bn v k thut CDMA. M hnh n gin ca mt h thng tri ph gm K ngi s dng chung mt bng tn vi cng mt tn s sng mang fc v iu ch BPSK

CHNG 3: K THUT OFDM


3.1 GII THIU CHNG

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OFDM l k thut ghp knh phn chia theo tn s trc giao, chia ton b bng tn ra thnh nhiu sng mang nhnh m cc sng mang ny phi trc giao. 3.2 NGUYN TC C BN CA OFDM Trong OFDM chui d liu u vo ni tip c tc cao (R) c chia thnh N chui con song song (t chui d liu 1 n chui d liu N) c tc thp hn (R/N). N chui con ny c iu ch bi N sng mang ph trc giao, sau cc sng mang ny c cng vi nhau v c pht ln knh truyn ng thi, c m t nh hnh 3.1. pha qu trnh thu tin th ngc li.
Chn chui bo v

D liu 1

D liu 2

B iu ch B phn chuy n i ni tip / song song

D liu

D liu tng

Tin

3.3. M HNH TRUYN DN OFDM N Tc


R 3.3.1. M t ton hc tn hiu OFDM

D liu

3.3.2 S h thng truyn dn OFDM


Tc R/N

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Hnh 3.1: S qu trnh pht tin

My pht: Chuyn lung d liu s pht thnh pha v bin sng mang con. Cc sng mang con c ly mu trong min tn s, ph ca chng l cc im ri rc. Sau s dng bin i Fourier ri rc ngc (IDFT) chuyn ph ca cc sng mang con mang d liu vo min thi gian. Tuy nhin cc h thng trong thc t dng bin i Fourier ngc nhanh (IFFT) v n tnh hiu ca n. Tn hiu OFDM trong min thi gian c trn nng tn ln tn s truyn dn v tuyn.

My thu: Thc hin hot ng ngc li ca pha pht. c lng tham s knh. ng b sng mang Gim t s cng sut tng i cc i PAPR ( Peak to Average Power Ratio)

3.4 CC VN K THUT TRONG OFDM

3.5 TNH TRC GIAO 3.5.1 tng tng OFDM l truyn dn song song (ng thi) nhiu bng con chng ln nhau trn cng mt rng bng tn cp pht ca h thng. 3.5.2 nh ngha 3.5.3 Minh ho OFDM t tnh trc giao trong min tn s bng cch phn phi mi tn hiu thng tin ring bit vo cc sng mang con khc nhau. Cc tn hiu OFDM c to ra t tng ca cc hm sin tng ng vi mi sng mang. Tn s bng tn c s ca mi sng mang con c chn l mt s nguyn ln ca tc k hiu, kt qu l ton

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b cc sng mang con s c tn s l s nguyn ln ca tc k hiu. Do cc sng mang con l trc giao vi nhau. Kin trc ca mt tn hiu OFDM vi 4 sng mang con c cho Hnh 3.5

3.6 NHIU GIAO THOA K T V NHIU GIAO THOA SNG MANG 3.6.1 Khi nim Trong mi trng a ng, k t pht n u vo my thu vi cc khong thi gian khc nhau thng qua nhiu ng khc nhau. S m rng ca chu k k t gy ra s chng ln gia k t hin

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thi vi k t trc v kt qu l c nhiu lin k t (ISI). Trong Hnh 3.5: Dng sng ca mt tn hiu OFDM trong min OFDM, ISI thi gian v tn s, [sim_ofdm_time_domain.m] k t thng cp n nhiu ca mt k t OFDM vi trc . 3.6.2 Phng php chng nhiu lin k hiu 3.7 CI THIN HIU NNG H THNG TRUYN DN TRN C S KT HP M HO GRAY 3.7.1 Cc nh hng Tp m tn ti trong ton b h thng truyn thng. Ngun tp m chnh l tp m nhit nn, tp m in trong b khuch i pha thu. Ngoi ra tp m c to ra trong ni b h thng nh ISI, ICI v IMD. Chng lm gim SNR v lm gim hiu qu ph tn ca h thng. V th cn phi nghin cu nh hng ca tp m i vi t l li truyn thng v ho hp gia mc tp m v hiu qu ph tn. 2.7.2 Gii php khc phc M ho Gray: l mt phng php m cc im IQ cnh nhau trong chm sao s ch khc nhau mt bit. M ho Gray cho php ti u t s li bit v gim xc sut li nhiu bit xut hin trong mt k hiu n. Thng tin hnh m ho Gray khi iu ch M-QAM hay M-PSK 3.8 U IM V KHUYT IM CA OFDM 3.8.1 u im Tng hiu qu s dng bng thng. Bn vng vi fading chn lc tn s do cc k hiu c bng phng. Chng c nhiu lin k hiu ISI do chu k k hiu di hn cng vi vic chn thm khong bo v cho mi k hiu OFDM. thng hp nn mi sng mang ph ch chu fading

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S phc tp ca my pht v my thu gim ng k nh s dng FFT v IFFT. C th truyn d liu tc cao. Nhy vi offset tn s + Ch cn mt sai lch nh cng c th lm mt tnh trc giao ca cc sng mang ph. V vy OFDM rt nhy vi hiu ng dch tn Dopler. + Cc sng mang ph ch tht s trc giao khi my pht v my thu s dng cng tp tn s. V vy, my thu phi c lng v hiu chnh offset tn s sng mang ca tn hiu thu c.

3.8.2 Khuyt im

Ti my thu, s rt kh khn trong vic quyt nh v tr nh thi ti u gim nh hng ca ICI v ISI. T s cng sut nh trn cng sut trung bnh PAPR (Peak to Average Power Ratio) l ln v tn hiu OFDM l tng ca N thnh phn c iu ch bi cc tn s khc nhau. Khi cc thnh phn ny ng pha, chng to ra ng ra mt tn hiu c bin rt ln. Ngc li, khi chng ngc pha, chng li trit tiu nhau lm ng ra bng 0. Chnh v vy, PAPR trong h thng OFDM l rt ln.

CHNG 4 : K THUT MC-CDMA


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4.1 GII THIU CHNG Bn cnh vic cung cp cc dch v v ng dng mi, thnh cng ca 4G s ph thuc nhiu vo s la chn cc khi nim v s i mi cng ngh trong kin trc, phn phi ph, s dng v khai thc ph. V vy cc k thut a truy nhp mi rt cn thit cung cp tc d liu cao vi s phn phi di tn linh hot. Nm 1993, tng v s kt hp gia CDMA v OFDM dn n vic ra i ca m hnh a truy cp mi. Mt trong nhng m hnh h thng ny l MC-CDMA (MultiCarrier CDMA).

4.2 NGUYN L CHUNG CA MC CDMA

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Hnh 4.1: Nguyn tc chung ca MC-CDMA v MC-DS-CDMA MC-CDMA da vo s kt hp cht ch gia tri ph chui trc tip v k thut iu ch a sng mang. Lung d liu tri ph DS tc cao c li x l PG (Processing Gain) c iu ch a sng mang theo cch sau: Cc chip ca cc k hiu d liu tri ph c truyn song song v cc k hiu ny c truyn ng thi trn mi sng mang con (Xem hnh 4.1).

4.3 H THNG MC-CDMA


D liu vo Chuyn i S/P Tri ph
IDFT & OFDM

Chuyn i P/S

Chn khong d phng

AWGN

Knh truyn

D liu ra Chuyn i P/S

Nn ph

DFT & OFDM

Chuyn i S/P

Kh khong d phng

Hnh 4.3: S khi m hnh h thng MC-CDMA 4.3.1 My pht

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My pht MC-CDMA tri tn hiu bng gc trong min tn s bng mt m tri cho truc. Ngoi ra, mi phn ca k t tng ng vi mt chip ca m tri c iu ch bng mt sng mang ph khc nhau. i vi truyn a sng mang, chng ta cn t c fading khng chn lc tn s trn mi sng mang. ( hnh 4.4 ) 4.3.2 My thu MCCDMA B thu l b OFDM thm vo mt cng vic kt hp tch d liu c pht i vi mi ngi s dng mong mun. (hnh 4.5)

Hnh 4.4: My pht MCCDMA Hnh 4.5: My thu MCCDMA

4.3.3 Knh truyn Trong h thng MC-CDMA bng rng knh truyn fading Rayleigh chn tn s bin i chm l knh truyn in hnh. Knh truyn ca h thng c bng thng rng c chia thnh N knh bng hp m mi knh nh vy ch chu tc ng ca fading phng, ngha l ch c

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mt h s li trn mi knh ph. V mi knh truyn ph c li khc nhau nn khi xt n knh truyn ca h thng th n l knh truyn c tnh chn lc tn s.

4.3 NHIU MAI V NHIU ICI


4.4.1 Nhiu MAI L loi nhiu a truy nhp do tn hiu ca cc thu bao khc ang cng tham gia hot ng trong h thng tc ng ln tn hiu ca thu bao ang xt. Nhiu ny sinh ra khi thc hin tng quan cho gia m tri ph ang xt v cc m khc th gi tr ny khng trit tiu. C hai phng php gim nhiu MAI: Tri ph bng cc m trc giao c tng quan cho bng 0. Dng cc b trit nhiu MAI. Cc b trit nhiu rt hiu qu cho ng ln. 4.4.2 Nhiu ICI L mt trong cc loi nhiu chnh ca h thng MC-CDMA. Khi cc sng mang ph khng hon ton trc giao th thnh phn tn hiu trn knh con ny s gy nhiu ln thnh phn tn hiu trn knh con khc hay xut hin nhiu ICI. 4.5 K THUT TCH SNG N THU BAO 4.5.1 Tch sng kt hp khi phc tnh trc giao ORC 4.5.2 Tch sng kt hp li bng nhau EGC 4.5.3 Tch sng kt hp t s cc i MRC 4.5.4 Tch sng kt hp sai s trung bnh bnh phng ti thiu MMSEC 4.6 K THUT TCH SNG A THU BAO

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4.6.1 Tch sng a thu bao SIC

Ngc li vi b tch sng SIC, k thut PIC thc hin tch sng kt hp trit nhiu MAI cho ng thi tt c cc thu bao. S ln tch sng-trit nhiu trong h thng ph thuc vo phc tp cho php ca h thng.
4.6.2 Tch sng a thu bao PIC Mt vn cn quan tm lin quan n cht lng h thng MCCDMA l dch tn s sng mang. Bi n lm suy gim bin ca tn hiu mong mun v lm mt tnh trc giao gia cc sng mang ph dn n nhiu lin sng mang ICI. M ta bit nguyn nhn chnh gy ra dch tn s l do: Tri Doppler do thit b di ng tc cao. Sai lch gia b to dao ng cho cc sng mang pha my V th ta cn s dng k thut c lng dch tn s v

pht v pha my thu. sau tm cch ng b tn s sng mang, ng thi kt hp mt s k thut khc. Mc ch l tm cch ci thin cht lng h thng. 4.8 MY THU RAKE 4.8.1 M u Thng thng cc h thng CDMA c thit k c 1 s ng phn gii trong tr a ng ( 10 ln RDS ). ng thi tri tr c chn nh hn rng Tb ca 1 bit. Nu tri tr c chn ln hn thi gian ca 1 bit th tc s li cao hn rng bng tn nht qun v iu ny dn n nhiu gia cc k hiu, tc s liu phi c chn thp hn rng bng tng nht qun.

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My thu Rake cho bi hinh 4.7 bao gm tp hp cc b tng quan, mi b c s dng tch sng 1 trong s phn t ng mnh nht. V bn cht my thu ny l phn tp trn c s l cc phn t a ng trong 1 h thng CDMA khng tng quan nu tr tng i ln hn thi gian ca 1 chp. V cc tn hiu nhn c my thu b dch theo thi gian, nn trong my thu trc khi a ln cc b phn tng quan cc tn hiu thu c.
4.8.2 My thu RAKE

Ta xt K = 1ngi s dng knh. gi thit rng tri rng ca tr a ng l giy. Kai ny ta c L = [ /Tc] + 1 tn hiu a ng phn gii c my thu. Tng ng trong s L ng phn gii s c suy hao ngu nhin c lp vi Rij v pha ngu nhin ij , trong i = 1,2,3,,L. Gi thit rn phadinh chm c th nh gi c cc thng s R ij v ij , chng hn bng cch s dng thng tin nhn c t cc on bt trc.
k1
B tng quan ck(t)

k2
Yk

r (t)
B tng quan ck(t) B tng quan ck(t)

Mch quyt nh

bk

kL

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Hnh 4.7: My thu Rake vi L nhnh 4.9 U IM V KHUYT IM CA MC-CDMA 4.9.1 u im MC CDMA tha hng tt c nhng u im ca CDMA v OFDM Do mi sng mang ph ch chu nh hng ca fading phng nn h thng bn vng vi fading chn lc tn s v c th gim phc tp ca cc b cn bng my thu. Do chu k k hiu di hn nn h thng chng c nhiu S phc tp ca my pht v my thu gim ng k nh s lin k hiu ISI v hn na l vic gi ng b tr nn d dng hn. dng thut ton FFT v IFFT. 4.9.2 Khuyt im Rt nhy vi offset tn s Offset tn s xy ra do hiu ng Dopler hay do s sai lch trong vic to dao ng cho cc sng mang my pht v my thu. N lm cho cc sng mang mt tnh trc giao v do nhiu lin sng mang ICI v nhiu a truy cp MAI xut hin, nh hng nghim trng n cht lng knh truyn. T s cng sut nh trn cng sut trung bnh PAPR ln.

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KT LUN V HNG PHT TRIN

Kt lun: n trnh by tng quan v knh truyn v tuyn, u im ca h thng MC-CDMA. T nhng u im ca MCCDMA em li m ta chn n ci thin cht lng knh Trang : 23

B tng quan

truyn. Xy dng chng trnh m phng nh gi, so snh t l li bit BER ca h CDMA v MC_CDMA Hng pht trin: Xy dng h thng thng tin kt hp gia k thut MCCDMA v anten thng minh ci thin cht lng knh truyn tt hn Trong phn m phng th xy dng h thng hon chnh hn (nh c khi m ho), cho nhiu loi nhiu tc ng n h thng hn, trong h thng DS-CDMA s dng thm my thu Rake cn h thng MC-CDMA th s dng cc k thut tch sng(ORC, EGC, MRC v MMSEC).

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