MeGRA WHItr, CIVIL ENGLNEERING SERIES
HARMER E. DAVIS, Consulting Editor
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OPENCHANNEL
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HYDR~AULICS
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BABBI'IT '. Engineering.in Public Health BENJAMIN' Statically Indeterminate St~uctures Cnow . Open,cha,nnel Hyqraulics DAVIS, TROXELL,'AND WrsKoCIL . Tl1e Testing and Inspection of ' Engineering Materials DUNl'iAM . Foundations of Structures DUNHAM' The Theory and Practice of Reinforced Concrete DUNHAM AND YOUNG.' Contracts, Specifications, and Law for Engineers GAYLORD AND GAYLORD' Structural Design HALLERT 'Photogrammetry HENNES AND EKSE . Fundamentals of Transportation Engineering KRYNINE AND JUDD' Principles of Engineering Geology and Geot.echnics LINSLEY AND FRANZINI . Elements of Hydraulic Engineering LmsLIDY, KOHLER, AND I'A ULHUB ' Applied Hydrology LINSLEY, KOHLER, AND PAULHUS' Hydrology f9r Engineers LU:8DER . Aerial Photographic Interpretation MA'l'SON, SMITH, AND HURD' Traffic Engineering MEAD, MEAD, AND AKERMAN' Contracts, Specifications, and Engineering Relations NORRIS, HANSEN, HOLLEY, BIGGS, NAMYET, AND 1fINAMI . :Structural Design for Dyiramic Loads PEURIFOY' Construction Planning, Equipment, and Methods' PEURIFOY' gstimating Constructi()u Costs • TROXELL AND DAVIS' Composition and Properties of Concrete TSCHEBOTARIOFF . Soil Mechanics, Foundations, and Earth Structures URQUHART, O'ROURl<::t, AND WINTER' Design Concrete Structures WANG AND ECKEr. . Elementary Theory of Structures
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VEN TE CHOW, Ph.D.
Proiessot of Hydtaulic En(finl!erin(f University of Illinois
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To Humanity and Human Welfare
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OPENCHANNEL HYDRAULICS
INTERNATIONAL STUDENT EDlTION
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Exclusive rights by Kogakusha Co., Ltd., for manufacture and export from _. Japan. This book cannot be reexported from the cou\ltry to which it is consigiled by Kogakllsha Co., Ltd., or by McGrawHill Boak Company, Inc., or any .of its subsidiaries.
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Copyright © 1959 by the McGrawHill Book Company, Inc. All rights reserved. This bo"k, or parts thereof, may not be reprodlJced in any for~ without pClmissioll of the publishers. Libra,,' of COI1g1·es.r Catalog Card Number 5813860
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In recent years waterresources projects and hydraulic engineering works' have been developing rapidly throughout the world. The knowledge of .openchp,nnel hy~raulics, which is essential to the de~ign of many hydraulic structures, has thus advanced by leaps and bounds: To the students and engineers in the field of hydraulic engineering, such valuable new knowledge should be .made available in suitable book form. It is therefore not that some 'new books have already appeared. Howi:lver, most of them a.re presented in limited scope and 1111 2.re written in foreign In the· English langu!l.ge, the t\>,ro wellknown books, respectively' by Bakhmeteff and by 1VoodwI1l'd and Posey, were published nearly two decades ago. 2 This book gives broad coverage.of recent developments; it should meet the present Ilead. It is designed as a. textbook fo\, both undergrachui.te and graduate stuuents .and also as a compendium for practicing <:;,ll'=>lU"'" Emphasis is given to the qualities of "teachability" and" practicability," and t1tt,empts were made in preaenting the material to bridge the gap which is generally to exist between the theory and the practice. In order to achieve these objectives, the use of .advanced mathematics is deliberately avoided as much as possible, and the exp~a.nation of hydraulic
1 Such. as: Etienne Orausse, "Hydrauliquc des can~ux decouvel·ts en regime permanent" (" Hydraulios of Open Channeld with Steady Flow"), Editions Eyrolles, Paris, 1951; R. Silber, "Etude at trace des ecouleroents permanents en canaUl( et rivieres" ("Study and Sket<lh of Stelldy Flows ill Ca.nals and Rivers It), Dunod, Pa.ris, 1954; Martin Schmidt, "Gerinnehyqraulik" ("Opencha.nnel Hydraulics"), VE'B Verlag Teehn:ikBauverlag GMBH, B~rlin and Wiesbaden, 1957; N. N. PllV10vskiT, "Otkrytye rusla i sopdazhenie biefov sooruzhenil" (Open channels and adiustment of water l~veh), in the "Sobranie sochinonil" ("Collected Works"), voL 1, pp. 309543, Academy of Scieooes of U.S.S,R., Moscow and Leningrad, :1955; and the new edition of M, D. Chertousov, "Qidraivlika" ("Hydraulias':), Gosenergoizdat, Moscow and Leningra.d, 1957. • Boris A. Bakhmeteff," Hydraulics of Open Channels," McGrawHill IIook Compa.ny, Too" New York, 1932; ao.d Sherman M. Woodward a.ud Chesley J. Posey, New' "Hydraulic.s of Steady Flow ill Open Channels," John Wiley and SOIlS, York,' 1941. ' yii
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theories is greatly simplified as far as practicable, ~Illustrativ.e example~ . are to show the application of the theories, and practical problems are provided Jor exercises. Furthermore, short historical accounts are given in footnotes in order to stimulate the reader's interest, and ample references are supplied for his independent .studies. Some references, hO'\'8ver, may not be readily available the reader, but they are liste:d for academicaud historical intercst. In essence, the book is the outgrowth of the author's 20 year,,' experience as a student,teacher, engineer, rese.iucher, and consultant in' the field of hydra\llic engineeTing, The manuscript of the book was drafted for the first time in the academic year of 19511952 for use in teaching the students of civil, agricultural, and mechanical engineering and of .. theoretical' ahd applied mechanics at the University of Illinois. Since then several revisions have been made. In .the beginning, the material was prepared solely for graduate students. Owing to the general demand for a book on the design of hydraulic structures for undergraduate studies, the manuscript was expanded to include more fundaments;! principles and design procedures. At the sa.me time, most of the advanced mathematics and theories were either omitted or replaced by more practic.'l..l approaches using mathematical operations of a level not higher than calculus.. Fro!!. 1951 to 1955, the author made several special visits to many major engineering agenCies and firms in the United Stat,es tQ discuss problems with their engineers. As a result, a Yl'.st fund of information on hydraulic design pnictices was collected and incorporated into the manuscript. Thereafter, the author also visited many hydraulic institutions and laboratories in other countries and exchanged knowledge with their staff members..In 1956 he visited England, France, Belgium, the Netherlands,.Germany, Italy, <I.lld Switzerland. In 1958 he visited Austria, Turkey, India, and Japan, and again England, France, and Belgium, The information obtained from these countries and from other countries through publications and correspondenc'e was eventually added .to the final draft of the manus!}ript as supplements to the American practice. . The text.is Ol:ganitlec,i into five partsnamely, Basic Principles, Uniform Flow, Gradually Varied Flow, Rapidly Varied Flow, and Unstea,dy Flow. The fin;t three parts cover the material which would ordinarily be treated in a onesemester .course 011 openchannel ;hydraulics. For a one~ semester course on the! design of hydraulic structures, Chaps. 7 and 11 and part IV should suJ:iply most of the material fpr..the t'eaching purpose. Part V on unsteady fldw may' be used either fOl' advanced studies or as supplemental material ;to the onesemester course, depending If),rgeiy 011 the discretion of the irlstructor with .reference to the time available and the interest 'ahown by the students. .
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In Part I on basic principles, the type of flow in open channels is cla~i· fied according to the vliriation in the parrunetersof flow with respf.ct to space and time. For simplicity, the depth of flow is used as the flow parameter in the classification. The state of flow is classified according to the range of the invariants of flow with r~spect to viscosity and gravity. The flow invariants used are the Reynolds number and the Froude number. Since the effect of surface tension of water is insignificant l.n most engineering problems, the Weber nU!l1b~r as it flow invariant is not introduced. In fact, the state of fiow c~n be further classified for its stability in u.ccordu.nce with the Vedernikov number or other suitahlf?l:rlt!:!rla. However, ::mch a criterion h.as not been weli established in engil1eering praatice, and therefore it is taken up only briefly later in Chap,8. FOUl' coefficients for velocity and pressure distributions are introduced, particular, the f.mel'gy coefficient is presented throughout the book. This coefficient is usuHlly ignored ill most books on hydraulics. In practical applications, the effect of the energy coefficient on computations and hence on is quite significant f:Ll1d therefore should not be overlooked, e,reHl though the value of the coefficient miJ,y not always be determined accurately. The energy and momE,ntum principles constitute the basis of interpretation for most hydraulic phenomena. A thorough treatment of the two prfnclples is in Chap. 3. SilIce the book is intended for the use of practicing engineel's, the treatment of a problem i~ in m013t cases based on a ollEl or twodimensional flow: . In Part II 011 \ll1ifol'm flow, eeveral uniformflow formulas are. introduced. ,Despite many new proposals for a formula having a theore~ical background, the Manning formula still holds its indisputable top position in the field of practical a;pplicatioI)s. This formula. is therefore used extensively in the book. In certain specific problems, however, the Che2iY formula is used occasionally. ' . The design for uniform flo\v covers nonerodible, erodible, and grassed channels. The erodible channels in general may be classified under three types: chapl1els which scour but do ilOt silt, channels which silt but do not ~cour, and channels which ;icour and silt simultlllleously. In channels of tlie second and third types, it is nec€6sary for the walter to carry sediments, As will be stated later, the sediment transportation il'; consid~red as a subject in the domain of river hydraulics, Therefore, only the channels: of the first type, which :carry relatively clear wa~er in stable condition, are treated in this bodk ,. Iii Part III ongl'adually varied flow, se,,eral methods for the computation of flow profi1.~s are discussed. .A new method of direct integration is introduced which requires the use of a, variedflow function table first
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developed by Professor Boris A~ Bakhmeteff in 1912. 1. The table given in Appendix D of th IX. book ]s an ~xten8ion of the table to n~arly: three times its original size. This extended table \1nd a table for negative slopes were prepared during 1952 to 1954 by the author for teaching purposes at the : j Universjty of Illinois,2 For the computation of fiow profiles in circular , e) conduits, a variedft.ow function table is also· provided in Appendix E. : The method of singular point is a powerful tool for the analysis of flow , • profiles. Since this method requires the use of advancedmatheml1tics} it is described only briefly in Chap. 9 for the purpose of st.imulating £ur. the I' interest in the theoretical study of flow problems. . alit In Part IV on rapidly varied fiow, the treatmellt of the problems is 1 I largely supported by experimental data, because this t.ype of flow is so ~:, complicated that a mere theoretical analysis. in most cases will not yield sufficient information fO!' the purpose of practical design. The use of the ~!i fiown!;i metllod and the method of characteristics is mentioned but no . details are given, becallse t.he former is so popular that it, can be found .. in most hydraulics books; while the latter requires t.he knowledge .0£ i I advanced Tiiathematics beyond the scope of this wbrk. In Pnrt V on llnsteady:fiow, the keatment is general but practical. It \ Iii I should be recognized that this type of f10wia a highly specialized subj ect. 3 ·1 The knowledge of advanced mathematics would be required if a compre. hensive treatment were given. i It should be noted that the subject matter of this book dwells mainly t/) on the flow of water in channels where water contains little foreign material.· Consequently, problems related to sediment trAnsportation and I)) air entnl.inment are not fully discussed. In recent years, sedirrient tr!lnsi portatim in channels has become abroad subject that is generally COvered '~ a1 in the study of river hydraulics, which is often treated iI).depc:mdently.1
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1 Boris A. Bakh~ete.ff,"O Neravnomernom Dvizhenii Zhidkoati v Otkrytorn Rusle" {"Varip.d Flow in Open Channels"),·St. Petersburg, Russia, 1912. , Ven Te Chow, Integratmg the eC\uation of gra~ually varied /lOw, paper no. 838, Proc!;ecHngs, A.men·caT' Society of Civil ETl{/in~er3, vol. 81, pp. 132, November} 1055. Closing disc~ssioil by the author in J01trnal of HydrauHcs Division,vol. 83, no. HY1, paper no. 1177, pp. 9·22, February, 195;'. : ' • Spedal references are: J: J. Stoke". "W';'ter Waves," vol. IV of "Pilre and Applied Mathenlatics," Interscience Publishers, New Yorle, 1957; V. A. ArkhangelskiI, "Ra~chety Neustanovivsh~gosia pvizheniill. v Otkrytykh Vo40tokakh" ("Calcula.tion of Unsteady Flow in Op£,n Channels"), Academy of ScieRces, U.S.S.R., 1947; and ·8. A. Khristianovich, "N eustanovivsheiesia d vizhenie v kana.lakh i rekakh" ("Upstea.dy Motion ill Channels and.Rivers"), in "Nekotoryie!Vopl'osy Mekhaniki Sp19~hnol Sredy" (" Several Que~tions on the Mechanics of Oontinuous Media "), Aca~emy of Sciences, U.S.S.R., 1938, pp. l3154. .. • ~pecial references on the subj'eet of river hytlrauiics are:· Serge Lelia.vsky, "An Introduction to Flilvial Hydrauli~s," Constable and Co., Ltd.; London, 1955; and T.Blench, "Regime Dehaviour of yanllis and Rivers," Butterwor;th & Co. (Publishers) Ltd" London, 1957. .
Similarly, the transient flow in chanI).els subject to the iilfiuence of the tides is a special topic in the rapidly developed fields of tiditl hydraulics and cOD,stalel1gineering and is therefore b9yond the scope of this book. In a science which has reached so advanced a state of development, a large portion of the work is necessarily one of coordination of' existillg cOlltributions. Throughout the text} the auth6r hr,s attempted to make specinc acknowledgment regarding the source of m:lter.ial employed} and any failure to do so is o.n unintention:al oversight. . In the preparation of this \:lOok, engineers and a,dministrators in many engineering agencies hl1ve ~!1thusi<:1st.ically furnished information and extend~d cooperation. The author is especially indebted to those in the U.S. BUl'cau of Reclamation, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Soil Conser,ration Ser~ice. U.S. Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Army Engineer. . WiLterways E~periment Stat.ion, Offices .of the Chief Engineer and District EnD'ineers of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Weather Bureau} U,S~Buref~u of Public Roads; and the Tennessee Vilrey Authority . Also, mn.ny friends and colleagues have kindly. supplied information and generously offered suggestions. In particular, the author wishes· . to thank Dr. Hunter Rouse, Professor of Fluid Mechanics and Director of Iowa Institute of Hydraulic Reseal'ch, State Unive·rsity of Iowa; Dr. Arthur '1'. Ippen, Professor of Hydraulics and Director of Hydrodynamics Laboratory, Massachusett.s Institute of Technology; Dr. Giulio De Marchi, Professor of I:1ydraulics and Director of Hydraulic Laboratory, Institute of Hydraulics and Hydraulic Construction, Polytechnic Institute of Milan,Italy; Dr. Roman R. Chugayv, Professor and Head of Hydraulic Con:;truction, Scientific Research Institute of Hydraulic Engineering, Polytechnic Jl1sti;tute of Leningrad, U,S.S.R.; Monsieur Pierre Danel, President of SOGREAH (Societe Grcnobloise d'Etudes et d'Applications Hydrauliques), France, and President of the Interun,tional AssociatiO!l of Hydraulic Research; Dr. Charles Jaeger, Special L.ectul'er at the Imperial College of Science and Technology, Univemityof Londoll, and COllsulting Enginee!' of. The English Electric Company, Ltd., England; Professor L. J. Tison, Director of Hydraulic Institute, University of Ghent, Belgium; Dr. Tojil'O' Ishihara, Professor of Hydraulics and Dean of Facult.y of Engineering, 'Kyoto University~ Japan; and Dr. Otto Xirschmer, Yrofessor 'of Hydraulics and Hydralllic Structures, Technical Jnstitute of Darmstadt, G e l ' m a n y . . , Special acknowledgments are due. Dr. Nathan M. Newmarlt, Professor and Head; ofthe Department of Civil Engineering} University; of Illinois} for his encouragement and unfailingisupport of this project; D~. James M. RobertsoiJ., Professor of Theoretica~ and Applied Mechanics, ;University of Illinoi.':\, for his review of and c~mmellts on Chapter 8 onitheoretical concepts;: nnd Dr. Steponas Kolu~aila, Professor of Civil Engineering,
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PREFACE'
University of Notre Dame, for h.is readi~g of the entire manuscript and his valuable suggestions, Dr. Kolupaila' also helped in interpreting and collecting information from the hydraulic literature written ill Russian, Polish, Lithuanian, and several. other languages which are unfamiliar to theauthol', . The author also wishes to express his warm gr[l.titucie t,o those whQ have constantly shown a keen intei'est ill .his work, as this iuterest lent a strong impetus toward the completion. of this volume.
CONTENTS
Prefacs . PART I, Chapter 1. BASIC PRINCIPLES
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Ye.nTe Chow
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Openchannel Flow !llld Its Classiffcations
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11. D~scriptiori . 12. Types 'Of Flow . 13. State Qf FlQW 1·4. Regimes Qf Flow . Chapter 2. 22, 23, 24, 25. Open Channels and Their·Properties
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21. Kinds of Open bl~annel
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Channel Geometr)~ . Geometric Elements of Cha.nnel Section, Velocity Distribution in a. Channel Section. Wide Open Channel Measurement of Velocity , Velodtydbtribution Coeflicienu, . DeterminaHon of Velocitydistribution Coefficients PrllS<!ure Dh;tribution in a Channel Section. Effect of Slope on Prcssui'e Distribution. Energy and Momentum Principles.
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26 27
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39 39
41 42
Chapter 3.
31. Energy in Openchannel Flow. 3·2.. Specific Energy. 33. Criterion for a CriticnJ State of Flow 34. Inte~pretation of Local'Phenomena 35. Energy in Nonpri~atic Chl!.nnels 36. Momentum in Opencharinel Flow 37, Specific Force. . ,. 38. Momentum Priu¢iple Applied to Nonprisffiatic, Channels.
Chaptet 4. Critical Flow: Its CQl~nputation and Appllcations .
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41. Critical Flow 42. The8ection Factor for Crit.icalfiow Computa.tion . for Criticrufiow Computation _ 43. The HydrILulic' 44. Computation of Flow. 45. Control of Flow. 46; Fl9W Measurement.
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PART 11. Chapter 5.
CO!T'l'ENTS
CONTENTS
719. Selection of Gr8.53. . . 7~20. Procedure of Design
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UNIFOR.M FLOW
Development ()f Uniform Flow and Its Founulas
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51. Qualifications for Uniform Flow : 52. Establishment of Uniform Flow . 53. Expressing the Velocity of a Uniform Flow. 54. The Chezy Formula 55. Determination of Ch,s'Oy's Resistanoe Factor 56. The Manning Formula. 57. Determination of l\1anning's Pw:mghneas Coefficient 58. Factors Affecting Manning's Roughness Coefficient 59. The Table of :VIa.nnillg's Roughness Coefficient 51.0. Illustro.tions of Chimnels with Various Roughnesee3 , Chapter 6.
61. 62., 63. 64. 65. 66. 67.
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Chaptllr 8. Theoretical Concepts of Boundary Layer, Surface Roughness,. .192 Velocity Distribution, and Instability of Uniform Flow. 81. The Boundary Layer . 82. Concept of Surface Roughness 83. Computation of Boundary Layer. S.4. Velocity Distribution in Turbulent Flow 8S. Theoretica.l Uniformflow: Equations. . 86. TheOl·etica.l Interpretation of Manning's Roughneas Coefficient 87. ::Vlethods for Determining MalUling's Rougbneas Coefficient 88. Instability of U:uiform Flow . . PART III. GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW.."
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198 200
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101 108 114
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Computation of Uniform Flow .
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The Conveyance of a Channel Section The Section Factor [or Uniformfio;; Computation . . The Hydraulic EXjlQnent for Uniform,.flow COmputation. . Flow Chua.cteristics in Jl. Closed Conduit with Of/enchannel Flow Flow in a Channel Section' with Composite Roughness Determination of the Normal Depth and Velocity. Determination of the Normal a.nd Critice.l Slopes 68. Problems of Uuitormfiow Computa.tion. 69. Computation of Flood Discharge. 610. Uniform Surface Flow . Chapter 7. D<"sign of Channels for Uniform Flow
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Chapter 9. . Theory and Analysis.
91. Basic Assumptio!l.9 . 92. Dynamic Equation of Graduallv Varied Flow 93. Che.ra.cteristiDs of Flow Profiles' 94. Cla.ssification of Flow Profiles. 95. Analysis of Flow Profile 96. Metnod of Singular Point. 97. The Transitio,nal Depth
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157 157 157
Chapter 10. 10·1. 102. 103. 104, 105.
Methods of Computa.tion
A. NONERODIBLE CHANNELS
71. The Nonel"Ddlble Channel.
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73. The Minirmlm Permissible Velocity
74. Channel Slopes . . 75. FreebofJ.l"d 76. The Best Hydraulic Section 77. Determination of Section Dimensions
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159 160
The GrD.phicalint!lgration Method Method of Direct Integration. The Direct Step Method The Standard St.ep Method Computation of iii Family of Flow Profiles 106. Th~ Standard Stap Method for Natural Channels. 10,7. The SLagefalldischarge Method ior Natural Channell! 108. The E.m. Method for Natural Channels. Practica.l Problems .
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265 268 274 280 284
297 297
302 303 306 307 310 .317 319
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Cb,apter 11.
B,
ERODIBLE CHANNELS WHICH SeOUR BU'l'
78. MethOds of Approach .
79. The Maximum Pel'missible Velocitv . 710. Method of Permissible Velocity . 711. The Tra.ctive· Force. 712. Tractiveforce Riltio 713. Permissible '1;'raotive Force 714. Method of Tractive Force. 715. The Stable Hydra.ulic Section. C. GRA8SEDCHANNELS 716. The Gra.ssed. Channel . 717. The Retardance Coefficient 718. The Permissible Velocity
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167 168 . 170
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11·1. Delivery of a Canal for Subcritical Flow 112. Delivery of a Cana.! for Supercrit.ical Flow 113. Prublems Related to Cana.! Design . . 114. Computation of Flow Profile in Nonprismlltic Channels 115. Design of Transitions . 116. Transitions between Canal and Flume or Tunnel 117. Transitions between Cana.l and Inverted Siphon 118. Backwater Effect of a Da.m 119. Flow P!l.SSing Isla.nds . . 1110. River Confluence Chapter 12. Spatia.!ly Vflried Flow
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184
121. Basic Principles and' Assumptions 122. Dynamic Equa.tion for Spa.tia.lly Varied Flow
. Control of Jump by Sills .l'aight Drop Spillway 1516. i. 174. 1711. 157. The St... i . 177.'.. 194. \ I "~. __ . 152. 1410. ' . Flow in Channels of Nonlinear Alignment Nature of the Flow . 1517. . Types of Jump ..2. 202.. Analysis of Flow Pro5Ie . Monoclinal Rising Wave . The Moving Hydraulic Jump. 188. The Sharpcrested Weir 142.tion for Uniformly Progressive Flow Wave Profile of UnIformly Progressive Flow Wave Prupagation . Chapter 16.12. . . . Effect of Pi~rs in Gated Spillways' . ro'loW' between Bridge Piers Flow through Pile Trestles Flow through Trash Racks Underflow Gates Channel Junctions 461 464 468 470 475 476 490 493 499 501 506 506 507 512 \. : . 16L 16. Surge in Naviga~ion Canals 197..~ Continuity of Unsteady Fiow Dynamic Equation 'for Unsteady Flow. 156.Junctions 199.erllow Spillways 1411. (PART V. 'Upper Nappe Profile of Flow over Spillways 147. The Surface Profile . Constrictions Sl!bcritical Flow through Constrictions Backwater Effect due to Constriction Flow through Culverts.. CONTENTS CONTENTS I xvii 461 J( ':. Sudden Transitions. 179. Aeration of the Nappe . Chapter 20. . 1510. Subcritica. 124. 182. Uniformly Progressive Flow 192. Jump as Energy Dissipator 159.racteristics of the Jump 155.. Rating of Overflow Spillways.. 171.148. Routing of Flood Method of Characteristics.57 '357 131. . 201. . Surge in Power Canals. ''''L . Stilling Basins of GeneraU"ed Design 1512..'. Spati~... 146. 191.. Positive Surges .. 163.. 1714. BllSic Cha.. IntroducUon. Surge at Channel..' Chapter 19. '. Approa. Negative Surges... The SAF stilling Basin 1513. 357 3.. Pressure on Overflow Spillways .lly Varied Surface flow PART IV. 185. UNSTEADY FLOW l~. 186. 187. The Skijump Spillway 1412. 178.i xvi 123. Pulsating Flow. 203.8. Method of Diffusion Analogy. Flow over Spillways 360 360 362 363 141._~ • • ' _ _ _ _ V~· y. 183. Design Considerations for S~percritical Flow 365 368 ~70 176. Control of Jump by Abrupt Drop 1511.l Flmv through Sudden Transitions Contractions in Supercritical Flo''''' Expansions in Supercritical Flow.ulic Jump . . 173. 166: 16. 206. 154. Spiral Flow . 184. Drum Gates. . Solution of the UnsLeadyflow Equations Spatially Varied Unsteady Surface Flolv Rapidly Varied UnsteadY Flow .( ( '' l_ .3in II 1514. 164. . USBR Stilling Ba. Surge through Channel Transitio!IS 198. Jump in Horizontal Rectangular Channels 153.  . Chapter 14. Characteristics of the Flow 13.. 17. 1t5.. Flow through Nonprismatic Channel Sections Chapter 13.. The Hydra. 143. Flood Routing C '.ulic Jump and Its Use as EneIgy DissipatoI 151.ch to the Problem . 1713. . Chapter 18. Submerged OverfloW' Spillways Chapter iii.2. 370 374 380 382 384 385 393 3113 395 395 396 398 399 399 404 408 412 414 415 417 422 423 425 429 439 439 439 441 444 448 455 456 Gradually Varied Unsteady Flow 525 525 626 528 631 533 537 640 543 554 554 557 559 566 568 572 575 578 580 586 ( . Discharge of the Overflow Spillway '145. 19. . \.7.. 204. 126. RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW 333 341 346 347 Chapter 17. Flow at the Toe of Ov.. USBR Stilling Basin IV 1515. 196 .. l. 1710. . 205. 125. Super elevation Cross Waves. Design Considerations for Subcritical Flow. Crest Shape of Overflow Spillways 144. I.5. Principle of Hydrologic Routing Methods of Hydrologic Routing A Simple HydrologIC Method Routing of 586 587 601 604 607 609 ' \ ~. 193. 149.' 15. 172. 181. 165. Location of Jump .. . Jump in Sloping Channels. Dynamic Equa. Hydra. . Method of Numerical Integration The Isoclinal flilethod . Length' of Jump.' Ii l. Obotructions. The Oblique Jump. Energy Loss. ' ..
. ~low conditions in open c~annels are complicated Py the '. ~ Despite the similarity between the two kinds of flow. the piezoine'tric height y. ~ 11.. Two piezometer tubes are installed on the pipe at' sections 1 and 2.ited across the conduit othenvise a correc.The t\VO kinds of flow are compared in Fig..". and ~~~.~ It is here assumed that the velocity is uniformly distrib\.. '.tion and that the slope of the channel is.. the 'Y~~!t~ §~rj~ce is .hldraulic m£l~dine. it is much more cl. ! .Qf..fact that the channel flotu or 'Pip~ flow. x~rts irect atl!lo.§e.tion . : 1 s~ction.. pipe is indicated in the corresponding tube by the height y of the watet c.The water levels in the tubes are maintained by the pressure in the pipe at elevations represented by ~he socag~a.§ heri pressure but hydraulic pressure only..~ piezometric h~@t. whereas pipe flow has none. I . it is assumed .CHAPTER . " . As a result.al energy in the flow of the section with reference to a datum line is the sum of the elevation z of the pipecenter line.represented by hi. : 2 If the flow were curvilinear or if the slope of the channel w~re large.1 OPEN~C:HANNEL FLOW AND ITS CLASSIFICATIONS '> The flow of water in a conduit may be either openThe two kinds of flow are similar in many ways but differ in ohe important respect.. since the water must fill the whole conduit. The loss of energy that results when w:ater flows from seqtion 1 to sectiori 2 is . being connnedin a . Description.the .. ! . _:PiR~ .. 11. Openchannel flow must have a free surface. : . .guliq g. For simplicity. . where V is the mean velocity of flow. the hydraulic grade Une would not coincide exactly with the water surface. lP.closed "£Q~1duit. "1"' 3 I . . l The energy is represented in the figure by what is called the energy grade line or simply the energy line.rade line.olumn above the center line of the pipe. ". 29 and 210). A similar diagram for openchannel flow is shown on the right side of Fig. . 11..2 '..ould have to be made. that the flow is parallel and has a uniform velocity distribu.his c!1.1~j~OIUjUg".. The tIJt.lYJdr..1t£. .ifficult to solve problems of flow in open channels than. the piezometric height would be appreciably different from the depth of flow (l<ilts.i. and the velocity head V2/2g. flow. . 27 fbr open c h a n r r e l s . such Ilf is desaribed in Art. small.. The pressure exerted by the water in each section of the .in pressure pipes.. Shown on the left side is pipe flow. A free surface is subject to atmospheric pressure.
.ms F(u. Triangular. . . Geometric Elements for." . = dtl )0 l+'uN r" 641 657 BASIC PRINCIPLES Appendix E. and Parabolic Cbannel Sections Appendix C. 629 640 ! '~ NQIDographic Solution of the Manning Formula Table of the Variedflow FuncH.N)_s. Subiect Index Table of the Variedflow Functions for Circular Sections 663 669 ( I ) . Appendix D. = Jo r " IUN dlt and F(u. Name Index. CONTENTS Geometric Elements for Circular Channel Sections 625 Appendix B..N) ·PART I . Trapezoidal. .~ xviii Appendix A.
~tead"y flow should include the time element as a variable (Art. from that of new smooth brass or woodenstave pipes. . the discharge Q at a channel section is expressed by Q 'VA (II) where V is the mean velocity and A is the flow crosssectional area normal to the direction of the flow.1 for example. the selection of fdction coeffic~el1tS is attended by greater uncertainty for ~ open channels than for pipel$. the physical condition of open channels varies 'much more widely than that of pipes.. It must be " classified as openchannel flow if it has a free surface..vloreover... however. Hence. Reliable experimental data. .!s A. Therefore. Furthermore. using (11).. flow requires consideration of thEf.l'!l ~!ied . Equation (12) is obviously invalid. can yield results of practical value.. . This type of flo.aHu.ntinuo. kn2wn as_~/Ltiql..This is the '/:::. is generally designEld for openchannel flow because the flow in the sewer is ekpected to maintain a free surface most of ..r troughs in filters.t~nl1el. Qontinuous steady flow. cL'ASSlPICATI0NS position of the free surfa. In open channels the surface varies from tha. The depth of the flow does· not change during the time interval undercons'ideration. 181).water runs in or ont along th... The empirical ) method is the best available at present and.'. depending on whether or not the depth changes with time.oE~(. which is a closed conduit. the discharge.that of old corroded iron or steel pipes.in other words.. the interior Surface ordinarily ranges in roughness Steady Flow and Unsteady Fww: Time as the Criterion.i~.. [Jteady uniform flow is. sidechannel spillways.If. In general.tott. the efHuent channels around sewagetreatment tanka...te. where. The la\v~ntiriuftyorunsteady.~. .1 flow FIG.:l..QLfloW'.. t. and the mrun drainage c~annels and feeding channels in irrigation 8YSt~lDS:''. In most open~channel problems it is necessary to studyftow behavior only under sready conditions. Flow in an open channel is said to be steady if the depth of flow does not change or if ' it can be assumed to be constant during the time interval under consideration.. Comparison between pipe flow and openchannel flow.!ii8c<!.iQ.shwa. the treatment of openchannel flow is 30mew~at morl:l~Ip..J91!gQ.Ol~J. The storm sewer.time..!!!. Types at Flow.!::.~time effect.. the flow is continuous.r " " ) . '. ..and space and also by Lhe fact that the depth of flow...conduit. A uniform flow may be steady or unsteady. 11. for instance. if cautiously applied. closed conduit is not necpssarily pipe flow.t of the polished metal used in testing flumes to that of rongh inegular river bed'l.. 4 BASIC PRINCIPLES OPENCHANNEL FLOW AND ITS. The flow in a..om: Obvio~his . ..~"'. that is. _I The cross section of a pipe is generally round.o. where' the subscripts designate different cllannel sections. ~<?f:1tjn~i~ ~~~a~i. 12._. . In most problems of steady flow the discharge is constant throughout the reach of the channel under cOllsideration.._... since the mean velocity is defined as the discharge divided by the crosssedional area.. but that of an open channel may be of any the circular to the irregular forms of natural streams.Eirical than that of pipe flow. . continuity equation for a. on flow in open channels are usually difficult to obtain.treated as unsteady.' the wa. ~~~: ' ~.mental type of flow treated in openchannel hydraulics.!!ile reE}aininlLIW:!eJlel..'s thecrit.ce is likely to ch~nge with respect to time .. • . the fundg. however. since it is completely defined by the geometry of the . on the other. . which are typical examples of unsteady now. Uniform Floi»'anil VariedJji.the . on the one hand.P.. to time is of maior concern) the flow should be ... and the time element becomes vitally important in the design of control structures. Openchannel fiow call be classified into many '\ types and descri:be'd in various ways.Q~. :. rrhus. In floods and surges.s_~. (12) Pipe flow Openchann. the change in flow condition with respect ._!()a!si~~e gutters.:mtiIll!qu.' In pipes.&.Opellchannel flow is said to be uniform if the depth of flow is the same at every section of the channel... The flow is unsteady if the depth changes with time. In pipes the cross section of flow is fixed.!?llI. The following classification is made according to the change in flow depth with respect to time and space.. where the discharge of a steady flow is nonuniform along the channel. the stage of flow changes instantaneously as the Wf1ves PMS by...!!L.~. and the slopes of the channel bottom and of the free surface are interdependent. The establishment of unsteady 'Uni~ form flow would require that the water ~urface fluctuate from time to ·time w. the roughness in an open channel varies with the position of the free surface. .!Q._tt. tJ?'~. For any flow.
~~e. In turbulent flDW.' examples are the hydraulic jump and the hydraulic drop. I I j. ~nce unsteady 2l~fI. . state. Varied. used hereafter to refer only to steady uniform flow. and infinitesimally thin layers of. 6 BASIC PRINCIPLES i .F. The flow is rapidly. .r~: .. State of Flow. RV. i where V is the velocity of flow in fps.... Various types of openchannel Bow.Jh~~arti. . defined as I I I '{' t ~'.~" I OPENCHANNEL FLOW AND ITS CLASSIFICATIONS 7 I is a practically impossible condition.. and 11 (nu) is the kinematic viscosity of water in fV/sec. or streamlines. have been draw. flow roay be furt~.rm II unsteady flow" is used hereafter to designate unsteady varied flow exclusively:'. // R.v. here consider'ed equal .F. A rapidly varied flow is also known as a local phenomenon. = gradually varied flow...to the hydraulic radius R of a conduit. the t~. Varied flow may be either steady or unsteady.strative purposes. L is a characteristic length in ft.V. but it does not piay a significant role in most openchannel problems encountered in engineering..e. these diagrams. . Rapidly varied flow B.. . G. Unsteady flow L Unsteady uniform flow (rare) 2.F. or transitional.. 13..lt l~ye.Flow in a laboratory' channel Unsteady unifarm flow . .ssified as either rapidly or gradually varied. since ordinary channels have small bottom slopes. Unsteady now (i.. the water particles move in irregular paths which are .F. . Varied flow c.forward motion of the entire stream.states there is a mixed. or transitional.The flow is turbulent if the viscous forces are 'weak relative to the inertial fDrces. as well as other similar sketches of open channels in this book.V.Flood wove ~ '. The effect . The term «uniform flow" is . .ertial forces of the flow. '  .V.F. F. G. .neither smooth nor fixed but which in the aggregate still represent the . i~ laminaLfl.l to a greatly exaggerated vertical scale.I.mY. turbulent. ~mpidly varied flow.ppeal' to IAove in deE!lite smooth paths. Steady flow L Uniform flow . varied if the depth changes abruptly over a comparatively short distance. RV.2. Sluice Confraction below the sluice Varied flow :~ G. .Gradually varied unsteady flow b.F.Race RV. The state 01' behavior of openchannel flow is governed basically by the effects of viscosity and gravity relative to the in..Bore 1 i I I R == VL JJ (13) lJnsteqdy flow • FlG. The surface tension of water may affect the behavior offlow under certain circumstances.91esa. Effect of Viscosity. 12. da. Depeilding on the effect of viscosity relative to inertia.. it is gradually varied.. Flow is varied if the depth of flow changes along the length of the channel. Chong'e of depth from time time I I f' For clarity. For iIlu.. 12. the flow may be laminar. Gradually varied flow b. therefore. I I r to Uniform 'flow . . Rapidly varied unsteady flow Various types of flow are sketched in Fig. . The flow is laminar if t. Between the laminar and turbulent . the classification of openchannel flow is summarized as follows: A. otherwise.he viscous forces are so strong relative to 'the inertial forces that viscosity plays a signiftcant part in determining flow behavior.. The kinematic viscosity . fi»id se~11l To slia:e ove~\:n~Q~!. unsteady varied flow) a.of viscosity relative to inertia can be represented by the Reynolds number._ ..
e Blas:ius equatton ' .8 . the fR relationship inopenchannel flow does not follow exactlyJ.. The: data in the laminar regiQu can be defined by a general equation 'I( f F R • (18) I). f. since th.number.ggn. ~n~ a valuethfl.!:l:jJ.!lssed bv th.•." I ~/m.50q. equation which Weisbach firstformulated. .. in .r value is arbitrary.s the dIameter of the pipe was taken as the chal'act~rIStlC. For water at 68"F (2000) 5 f.' nly for flow in pipes. ' It should be noted.: [21: ~n flo~ in pipes. It must be remember.".. It snould be noted that there is actually no definite upper limit. increases.500 to 11.lov:e. ~he hydraulic :radius is used as the characteristic lengtll in defin. . since there is no definite upper limit ' for all flow conditions. K = 8gR 2S ! . Some specific features of the '..el flow is laminar if the ReYl10lds number R is small and tUl'bt~lent if. turbul~ntJ .thetransitioUal range of:R Iol:opei1='channel ~._________  .I (mu) in shlg/ftsec divided by the mass densl(. 2. a formula.. sinlpleConcepts thathohlfor pipe flow.!4sm Is 1 Nikuradse 8 ~ 2 log (R .. 0.~'''''and transitional stat. as the Reynolds number. for the rectangular channel.08 X 10$..lso be applied to uniform ahd nearly uniform flows channels.0pen (15) :'hls equation may a.fR relationshiP openchann.. however. '. the above equation 1. the numerlllal constant of ~he numerator in this equationfwould be 0. 1 also developedpJ:i~. diameter of pipe were used as ~he characteristic length.th. For practical purpoSes. The da. i is the friction fact~~.~.t i I . for flow in the pipe. :/. ' .QTI!3~ giYQ!L:.and p = 1. c~an~es. t tn.tj. mg the Reynolds ... ...:. pIpe .t inay be as high as 50.4 ' (17) '~Eciuations (16) and (17) will be used i'n the follo\ving discussion as ~Th~i~mi~~:.Q.channel flow c~m be expressed by. however.V' (19) I Y I I Se~ [l(~1 to [23].'1) The resulting Prandil:von + 0.. that can be reducEid to the form of Eq.OQJ.n ft.~smo~t~J. I I . ' '.ta.000. for the .u. "BASIC PRINCIPLES ' \.large.'.ch [31 deslgna. " ill ft2/sec is equal ~o the dynamic viscosity. . a.The 'plot shows clearly how the state of flow changes from laminar to turbulent. has beeg.937. L L~ the l~ugth of the pIpe III ft. I .es ot open.ue~&Q. so as "pipe flow. 11 1. however. from laminar to tul'l)ul~l1t in the range of R betwee~ the cntlCal val. lAnsford ann processedJoi the present purpose by the author. (14)...where 14. . stud.' ! ' : .erfloware described below.223 ? f . the corresponding' range IS from .s.1 t8 a result ~f Darc(s.~sumed to bc..fl:. basis for comparing flow conditions in open channel.t Experimental data available.. " An open~chan?.. ' :t.·._~~~ can ~~~e.. owing to the free "mlrface and to the ~~oUhe }u~draulic ~us. The transitional range.S.I = 2.th.QQP.316. If the.htl.!2I'. r'l From Eq. .Eipe is fo~r times its hydraulic mdlUs. .. hence.9~(i60.. as they do in . Numerous experinlents have shown that the flow 10 n.~ flow mfty be a.m Ill.. (13)• and (15) it can be shown that i ~ I . In . I .epear to be very_similaLtQ_ihrnQefiow t:lJl'\l.09 X 10.<!~veloped f?r flow 11l plP£lS. Th fR[IiJrelati~l1S~pJ. . and g is the acceleration due to gravity In ftfsec~. ~ the fl'1::Lional los..J I . g~I1el'ally knoWn us the BtanloTL4:f.Y p (rho) in slug/ft. and slope. his name is commonly associated wlthithat ~ WelS~o. i. 1 2 .1..~rally l~g~..oemgg~i. Such 9~ dlUgra~.~lagram thatshows a relation between the Reynolds number and the fnctlOn factor of the DarcyWeisbach formula. value 'for pipe flow. 1 Figure is based on data developed at the University of HUn an University of Minnesota [20].The DarcyWfJisbach formula.l!l~~~_ of '!. I~ th~se exp~nment.'ith the data obtained b d1'man equ~. . le~gth m defining the Reynolds number..determinationof the fR relationship in openchannel flow can be found in various publications on hydmu' which plots the relationship for flow iIi lics.t S may be rewritten for the friction factor hJlL. that the uppe. .the Stanton for fio'w in pipes. The discontinuity of the plot and the spread of data characterize the transitional regIon.~' (16) t Act~IlYI dAubulSson [4] presenteji. In this plot the following features may be noted: l. Since da = 48 and the ~ne~gy gradie.. .! = RO. . It may be noted that corresponding equations forflO'wi'n open channels have been derived byJf~~~l~L§>lld ~.tJng~hlS. prIOr to Darcy. discharge.is (14) OPENCHANNEL FLOW AND ITS CLASSIFICATIONS 9 I r I i I v. this equation. R IS . When the hYdra~11C radlUS 15 taken as the characteristic length.. The value :ia~0rQD1 Q. were furnished through the cdurtesy of Professor W.Q. i . The iower critical Reynolds number depends to some extentoa channel shalle.. that.. .e~!.§QQJ.ed. do is the diameter of the pipe in V IS the velocIty of flow in fps. ..
m k whic IS a SIze m . SlJFl~ FACE. k.Q " . 14.02..'(P VE~TEX MOLt. . The data in the turbulent region correspond closely to the Bllisius:j=lrandtlvo1n Karman curve. The fR. same B.. for tht> reetanguJar channels and 14 fol' the triangular channel under consideration.R CHA'HN£l. ' d K' her's cha. wlTK GL. Bo.. .04 Q k 100.1.CTtiRAL srUL fsd''V~Rrt)t .S. ...Oi f 0. The plot also shows that the shape of the channel does not have an important influence 011 friction in turbulent flow..= fLl!NOlS DATA $ ~ a . 7 Ne 14.'TY n.qz 0. R R . The lsgram d fi d b Eq (18) In this • • .1. 14). Elsner [221.·t~·'r~ 0.008 0.AI\ C:Io!IAIfN!:l..5Ff \\'10£. .08 nU4NCAA.nllE)ls. TRtANCiULi\J'i CHNfh£i. . 24. L In the lammat reg~on e ~ly h' h than it is for smooth channels region. sp.t~I. POI.. FIG..es'. K is a purely numerical factor dependent only on channel shape.06 ().OO41++++4+~+'f++'JHh+'I+l+I!·++H 10 "' '. This ~ndicates that the law for turbulent fiowin smaoth pipes may be approximately representative of a.n 50 . 'unpolished wo~d gravel embedded In aement.SUre of the roughness fll1rttcles or. 13Qme 0 ' • f I _ . ~4 tK a til e (I R • 0.nnel: smooth concre . e8. 1. can be e ne Y . IrSC In . The fR relationship for flow in smooth channels. I \ . f tur.. 14. as'it does in .t0Q'l'. FIG. lining.1 • RECrANGtJt. 0.JSH(O 9Fl4SS PLATE lhjrro~.:11 .1.01 0. . and No. • h' .000 O. u~p<Jhshed woo.S genera 19 e r .0 tloll A .:2 C!A 0•• G fI£CTAlfGlA.HAflNa~.831" .zin's channeis.0rt9fM . 13. \ 1 O.1 a te· : spacmg.lli:vtRS. 13 indica. represen d' . ent . wr:'H SMOO'lM . except WIt . Y . the value of K l.WlrH 0.AR c.J ~ i 4 • $1'0' R . ~ t 3..' ..A. No.o AI 4. The pJot in Fig. to e R .2 !~ e . .. th d til.0* a. unpo m lon 10 mm high.ES. o or Sl'Flt.~in'" of mm.. For laminar . No. .. ~" . No.11 10 BASIC PRINCrPLES Since V and R have speeific ~'alues for any given chantiel shape.Usmooth channels..16}." laminar fl o:W... No.{I td • eta i. and Kozelnn f the' data channel roughnes. O.:. '...l'd" TO f om O.nsverse wooden stripS 27.tes that Kia approximately 24...02 0. R • 3.r .7 1M WfDt~ 'Wt!'H SJ.. . o (C F: '.~ is (Fig. 0. and·lO mm In roughened by tra. No.us WALlS &. I . illustrates the followmg ea ' ing the channel surface.. flow in smooth cha. 26. h channelS. (23] are shown in the diagram for fio~ in y (15. " \. ~elatlonshlp for Row In rOU~ed wood. . the value of J( call be determined theoretically [20} .4..OIl4+. cem.01. Il. 4. The dataJor laminar flow obtained at the University of Minnesota [20J and the da~ for turbulent flow cdllected individually by Kirschmer l \ I.
' prohllJily.c~~u..<n'§. At the suggestion of Prandtl. 82).nd streaming.. I and..nd.ar.91 ine~al forces to gravity forc~ This l'atio is.. T)terefore.Q~opecLbjullsJ.in sheets. . t j) 1. shooting.include (1) the lcinencflow factor}. a model empl. )J (J.nce. If F is greater than unity.J. V is the mean velocity of fiow in fps. and channel sha~ star~ off from ll.nging from quasismooth flow to wakeinterference flow. }llOID. then rises as the Reypolds n~mber incre~§. Since the flow in most channels is controlled by the gravity effect. so the flow has a high velocity and is usually described as rapid.. mor. The' plot of Varwick's data [16J for a give~ roughness.or gravity force. It is believed that. and torrentiaL IE the mechanics of water wave~Jhe.ghness flow (~t.S!"'1 G. cross section normal to the longitudinal direction of the channel. Such a change may . [ OPENCHANNEL FLOW. 3.2'::~g.l to unity. ..say. 4. below the mean surface level and thus create waves th~t.sru:.0(. a . curve parallel to thLPran.~~inar. so the flow has a low velocity and is often described as tranquil a.._. or V < V(jJ5.e)_ and to Row onwhich 8. This curve serves as an approximate limiting position toward which a plot moves as the overall resistance becomes less.· :J. by gravity forces is mOfe pronounced.urha.Jl. . trapezoidal.2..dicati2..aminat opencha~Jm9.. gated upstream in water of subcritical flow but· not in water of super. factor decreases roughly in the order of rectangular... flow in the channel divided by the width of .nd (3) the kinelicity or velocitYhead ratio 11.e E.. 186).1lent region most plots appear parallel to the Prandtlvon Karman curve. >IL n2 " According to thelloncept of Morris [241. When the Reynolds number is very high.AftSIFICATIONS 13  As the flow in most channels is turbulent. .nother type of flow having higher energy loss. .v wnterm channels as a result of any momentary change in the local depth of the .. sa.khmetefi' f26Ji (2) the Bouuinesq number B "'" V / v'2UR..!. reaching a stllte of SOGalled complete turbulrnce.!IJlp.v.. Kirschmer [15. or V > the flow is 8upercriticaZ.since the celerity is~ater tha11 the velocity of flQ}! in th. FI. and circular channels. some plots become essentially horizont.lDj explained that the effect of channel shape may be due to the development of secondary flow.i. In the turbulent region the channel shape has a pronounced effect on the friction factor.Jtn ob. since this finding has not been verified by other data.. . The effect of gravity upon the .. g is the acceleration of gra Yity in ft/sec z) and Lis a. ' and ranges bfltween 60 and 33. . _. hydraulic' radius. E. = V'/2gL. In openchannel fiow the characteristic leng~h is made equal to the lmdraulic deptAJ2.l. In the turbl.Q!m~t../gD (111) _..ll:.!. the rise of the plots above the smoothconduit curve may be explained as a resul~ of additional energy loss generated by the roughlless elements. r r ) 'r u ( f'J I' ) ") Ir} ~"..I J... the flow is s'libcriticaZ..ll. i "" .state of flow is represented bt aratio. . proposed by Stevens [28] alld Posey [29J respecti vaLr.~t tfu. and final1y becomes horizo'ntal as a state of complete turbulence is reached. 82).2f_ ~t?l' flow over the grq. It should be noted that a gravity wave can be propa. 8.1nd Dr where it is created deliberat~ ~testlng ~~!lnels.te. when the degree of roughness i~ const.!.rface tension dOEls not have a §1IDlificant influence.. 2. ~'~It should be noted that the ab'Jve descriptions are limited to lowvelocity. . • ...~the possibilitY_2I'il!!PQ§. AND ITS Ci.sJ:<dl.e experimental studies ... for aistinguiShing between subcritical and supercritical flow.al..me purpoae.lL.n t'O exist.cl._. thIS phenomenon probably represents a tJ'ansition of thefiow to a..and channel shape .. 1 I O~ber dimensionless ratios used for the. triangular channels: The secondary flow is the movement of water particles on /l..b. ~. Accoi'dingtQ a concept advanced by Morris [241 (Art.!l .Th~!!l.hydraulic radius.characteristic length in ft. and then tomolatecl·rou.. . .el that cause a di§placement of waj.!'lr. which is defined as the crosssectional area of the water normal to the direction of. In this state the inertial forces become domL'lant... the fio'IV may be cha. flow (which will be defined later in this.. (110) gives V = . The rise of the plot is a peculiar phenomenon which demands explanation.by no mea~__a. 12 BASIC PRINCIPLES L . however. When F is equa..ti. For rectangular channels this is equal to the depth of the flow' section.!~~~.ru.~ model used to simulate it prototype channel for testing purposes must be v'{jD.( f ~ of propagating a gravi~y wa'::~)J. At this state the value of fis independent of Reynolds number and dep~nds solely on roughness.~~e and less in the latter._. t:'iangular.1 the surface of a streilr!!:J!:eE!~!g_~<JmlOoth and glassY_.Q.JQ. v (110) where.. ~~::wJ1~~ th. Eq.. first tlsed by Rehbock [251 and then by Ba. .:('. _water (Art. As the Reynolds nu~ber increases.frul..::. it indicates that the sU11aqe vel.ant the fdction. In this state the role played.critic& velocity v'gD is ideirtified as the celerity of the small gl'avitywaves that~ccu. .ccounts for high chaI!!lE11. which is ~pparently more pronounced in rect(1ngular channels than in..thJL!lb.QQi!! is lower than that required for capillary wav~Qnn...1. In most open channels laminar flow occurs very rarely..fnshallo.ll.:2stream can be used as a criterion .i. ._   and the flow is said to be in a critical sta. If F is less thaJ1 unity. VI/uL .€: critical flow.l.. A high secondary flowrinvolves high energy loss andthns r.!: obstacl~in.oyed to simulate a prototype channel should be designed so that the Reynolds number of flow of the model channel is in the turbulent range.seem necessary to substantiate it.ffect oj Gravity._.".tj~ Voill'{arman curve.given by the FrQuile numbe1'z' defined» '.. first used by Engel [27J. indicating the pronounced influence of the channell'oughnesson the friction factor.J:{:!§.'.the fr¢e surface. 01' subcritical..
tly where then~ is very thin depththis is known as sheet flow. are not commonly encountered in applied openchannel hydraulics. and they become significant in such problems as the testmg of hydraulic . I ~\ i ) ~J \ i I C:'\ \. However._I 1 '1 . sub criticallaminar and .ect on .. of turbulence. each pf which repres~nts a flow regime. (Courtesy {_. 1~5. when F is greater than unity and R is in the laminar range.that is. th~ graph and divide the whole area into four portions._ and R is in the turbulent range'. and (4) subcriticalturbulent.~ (Afler FIG. The first two regimes. Photographs showing four flow regimes in a laboratory cll!1nnel.) .' 1 I ( 'J j f. The top view represents uniform subcriticallaminar flow.djusted to slightly below the cntical value. .) L i . (2) 8upel'cl'iticallaminar. The depthvelocity relationships for the four flow regimes in a wide open channel can be shown' by a logarithmic plot (Fig. 1 I 1 ~ I . of H. Ips ~..tional range inters.supercriticalIaminar. The heavy line for F = 1 and the shaded band for the laminarturbulent transi.tlCalturbulent flow changing to varied subcriticalturbulent. The bottom view shows a uniform superc:'1...b:ritical. photograph the direction of flow is from left to right.. .. The flow is su. . A combined effect of viscosity and gravity may produce anyone of four 'regimes of flo7JJ in an open channel. Rouse. the study of overland flow. and erOSlOn cOlltrol for such flQlY:• Photographs of the four regimes of flow are shown in Fig.. namely. the diffusion of dye is the evidence. and the streak of undiffused dye indicates that it is laminar. when F is less than unity and R is in the 19. Th~ middle ~i~w shows a uniform supercritical~laminar fl'ow changing to v~r~ed subcnticalturbulent. Roberlson and Rouse [3D]. In each '~ I Fw.. the Froude llumhflr of the flow in the model' channel must be made "qual to tha. In both cases..I 'J 14 ... since the Froude number was I'. I ! Velocily. .ininal' range. (3) ::mpercriticalturbulBnt.t of the flow in the prototype channeL 14. itJ OPENCHANNEL FLOW AND ITS CLASSIFICATIONS BASIC PRINCIPLES . since the flow is generally turbulent in the channels considered in engineering problems. 15) [30]. 16. (1) 8ubcriticallarninar. 16.. r I I 15 designed for this effect . these regimes occur : frequeI). when F is less than unity and R is in the tui:bulentrange. All flows are uniform except those on the right side of the middle and bottom views. when F ia greater than unity 1 \. Regimes of Flow.. Depthvelocity relationships for four regimes of open':channel flow. models.
Berlin.y'is the drop in water surface between the sections. pp. 'With reference to Fig. ' : 2. respectively.'!1. 168174. '\ I 18. April.uli8chen In~tiluts der lel:h'rr. 1938. o.in pipes. . ~n the supol'criticalturhulent regil. Waterways Experiment Sta. 13. 1930. Mechauische Ahnlichkeit und Turbulenz (Mechanical similitude and turbulence).he minimum size of the model and the scale ratio.S.o Kirschmer: Pertes de charge dansles conduites forcees et lea eaI!o. 8. 119. Ciuil Ertgineering and P. 11. Proceedings. 10811112. Edward Silberman. Horace William King: :"Handbook of HydmIlIics.· vol. vol.S.npany. carrying . 1954.. iv. vol.. no. is possible that the presence of the free surface in (J~n~channel flow makes . are the crosssectional areas of the flow at sections' 1 and 2. American Society of Civil Engineers. Proceedings afthe 3d In/ema/irma! ConfITBsl!liar Applied M ecka1!. Miu"ilunge:TL des hydro.ha.ili increas~de n1Enbt:~. 649663. 6.mental data studied by Jegorow [311 and Iwagaki [32J for smooth rec'tangular channels. Otto Kirachtner: Reibungsverluste in Rohren und Kanalen (Frictional losses in pipEllj l1nd channels). Berlin. a.Whellmore data and :evidell(. • . Brater.Lorenz G. Darcy: Sur des rechercbes experimentales relatives au mouvement des eaux dans les tuya~ (Experimental researches on the floW' of water in pipes). Itnd a: tUl'bu[entfiow condition is asaured. Jou. 12.}le effect of gravity is practically negligible where the Froude numbeds small. 1939.1958. H. J.al of Research. p.' M emClires pT~senUs par d'!IIBrS savnll!~ d l' Academie des Sciences. 1933. 8. Dllcember. by W. U.ter in open cha. ( I \. A model channel is used to simulate a prototype channel 100 ft wi~e. Studies of river bed materials and their mQvement.000. and by Hom:ma [33J for rough :channels have shown that. Brown &: COllj. 1~3. pp.ITextbook of Engineering Mechanics"). Transacfions./' SpringerVerlag. CiJmptes rendus des 8~an. Transactions. L.. Inc. London.Berliu. 21.5.Engineers. Prandtl: The mechanics of viscous fluids. a depth of 4 ft. no. with special referance to the lower Mississippi River. a. Technical ' Paper 17. III. and H"r .nd lJ. motion in relation to surfa. 20J pt. Nelson: Openchannel flow at. the channelrougw. AND JTS CLASSIFICATIONS 17 ( I where A 1 and A. 6. U. F. Forsck'ungsheft des . Generally. M~rch. 1109112~. BSSuming the upper limit of the \'r1lnsitionruflow region to be R = 2.r to turbulent Row in a wide open channel. 11." revised by Ernest F. Die Wass~rwirtschaft.. pp. 193. Walll1ce M.Vereins deutllcher Ingenieur~.ischrn Hochschule Muncher£. Verify by computation the depthvelocity' relationships shown in Fig. P. ' 5.ics.ndards. J.perimental researches on the flO\v of wa. Raju: Versuche uberden Stromungswidersta. Owen. pp. Bardsley: Resistance to flow in curved open channels. . . The model is designed fOI' gravity effect. H.t of the prototype. 15. H. 1865. 1:1651166. 8. vol. with 'increasing Froude number) the friction factor of turbulent flow in both smooth and rough open channels becomes lal'ger than that . April. Lorenz G. no. pp. (110).1l5138.ce ftiction of fluids. 7. pp. 1954. .. 323324. Brunswidk. no. Stockhol1n. in W. 2. A further irivestigation by Iwagaki [34J indicates that. 1840. Novembet:. Nikuradse: Gesetzmlissigkeiten der t. Strllub: Studies of the transitionregion between laminar and turbulent flow in open channels. E. It is'believed th~t gravity action may have a definitive effect upon the flow resistance in cliurmels at the tut'bulentflow range~ The experi. Lansford ~nd James M. Pannell: Similarity of. Na. 1834. Levrant. vol. I.le ratio is the ratio 'of the linear dimension of the model tot. pt.pany. 609.i:ge of the openchannel flow may be expressed by 012) I OPENCHANNEL FLOW. Germa. Garbis H. J. Theodor von Ruman:.nslated int(l) English by Joseph Bennett.than the pipe.e oecome avaiTable. 685706. REFERENCES 1. Verify Eq.annels. 707741. 202211.ion fact<l!:. 11:11. 16. say. Straub. 123. pp. ' j.36. 12. p. I.ny. Tran8actions.uniforln flow in cli. T. Munich. EdinbuTgh and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of SciencfI. 10.nd gekrummter o:ffener Ka. ! . 4th ed.t disclmrge of 500 ds aL. 15 £0: the four flow regimes in a wide rectangular open channel. 38. . 199224. American Society of Civ'ii Engineers.nnels). 63. 1932. vol. 214A. 142.. vol. Illi3. R.t.l1e of flo~. Allen: Streamline and turbulent. vol. 14. 16 BAstC ' PRINCIPLES ~l I ! ! I I . vol. 52.zin: Recherches experimentrues. trll.. Stra. Reulegan: Lews of turbulent flow in open channels. 1949. by. 19. Paris. RllIIue q6n~rale de l'hydrauUllue. Robertson: DiB~lIssion·of Openchannel flow at small ReynCllds nUl)lbers. pp. Stuttgart. pp. hi. '2d ed. flow in open channels. Ba. Edvtard Silberman.f the water is tnken as 68°F. Yuichi Iwaga. 1935.representing the gravity effect.iollaL Bureau of Sl. voL 19. 1949. The temperature.le (Study of flow resistance in curved open ehannels). Determinet. ' PROE\LEMS .'3M. pp. Roya! S()ciety of LaMon. Lorenz G. pp. 11114. : . . d'Aubuisson de Voisins: "Tl"aite d'hydrl:\. Ott. 4. McGrll.Ameriron Society of Civil . 20. Forschungsheft des VereitUl deutscher . pp. 7. vol. Stanton and J. div. less than 3. English translation by Clarence E. pp. 9. :Little.' " Il1gimieure. sur l'ecoulement de l'eau dans les canaux decouveris (Ex. pp. and Herbert O.tion.wHill Book Co. the friflj.. may have to be' considered as an additional faotor in defining the JR relationshipfm' supercriticalturbulent flow. 17. Durand (editorinchiei): "Aerodynamic Theory. The sCII. 17. show that the theoretical dischl. 610. Bettes: Non. no. voL 39. New York.w oLsimilitude for: frictions in fl\1ids).ulique" ("Treatise on Hydraulics"). No. Boston. 1852. 137142. Blasius: Das Ahnlichkeitsgesetz bei Reibungsvorgiingenin Flilasigkeiten (The In. 1934. January. May.n!!.21. vol.ub.c. F. ser. The London. 7. 11)37. 49 after p. American GeQphY~icat Union. MayJune. the'Froude number. . 14. 735. 51.ces del' Aoodemie des Sciences. .blicW01'ks Review. 15. 1845.ux decouVllJ'ts (En:ergy losses in pressure conduits and open channels). . Julius Weishach: "Lefubueh der Ingenieur! und Maschinemnechanik" (. June 2tlj 1854. PMlosophical1'r(l?!sactions.ki: em Lllmina. June. vol. F. small Reynolds nUfnbers. 1957. 11.Ul'bulenten Stromung in glatten Rohren (Laws of turbulent flow· in smooth pipes).lI!:_~!"~~~(L1:yj.~ ~Y~. Pari". 85"93. .p. 4560. no. pp~ 4344. paper RP1151. No. 3.
pany. pp: 11251135. 1944. The hydraulic properties of nll. 31. E. produce results . or bituminous materials.. llfemoirs of: tJte Faculty oj Engin. vol. American Society of Civil Engineers.. geomorphology.. Underground streams ca~ water with a fr~e surface are also considereclrulturul open chann~. . CHAPTER I i \ 2 OPEN CHANNELS AND THEIR PROPERTIES 21. by C.tten Wanden (Turbulent 5up'<!rcritical flow in open channel with smoDth wa. J.1 \ earth. stl·eams. SpringerVerlag. smaH and large rivers. pp. 26. Inc. therefore. 1941.l. JegorDw: Turbulente 'Oberwellenstromung(Schiesscnl in offenen Gerinnell mit gla. The canal is usually a long and mildsloped channel built in. . Posey: DiscussiDn on The hydraulic jump in sloping channels. 1944. American So..574. p. irrigation canals f). 1952. It constitutes. vol. 197200. Masashi Homrna: Fluid resistance in water flow of high . ( Natural channels include all watercoUl:~ that exist naturally on the <. F . pp." etc. 109. A. M. C. vol. An open channel is a conduit in which water flows with a iree surface. Flow in rough condl. 34.ciety o.j 18 BASIC PRINCIPLES : I·I \.. or masonry. in these channels become amenable ~o the analytical treatment of theoretical hydraulics. "Hydro. metal. known as river lLJlP. Proceedings oj the 4th Japan N a.. :sediment transportation. by C. trough spillways. f1tc. no. p. 1955. 392394." "drop. as well as model channels that are built in the laboratory for testing pm·poses. .defined only in a very genernl way.. to tidal estuaries. 5559. in' fact.R. Classified according to its origin a channel may be either natural 01' artificial. .open smooth channels.artificial open channel is 'given different names. 429430. 22.. Civil E'lI. vol.Froude number. the ground.f/. 37. Kindsva. Josef l(ozeny: "Hydraulik" ("Hydraulics"). 109.eerill. ~o. J. roadside gutters.ehbock: Zur Frage des Briickenstaues (On the prDblem Df bridge constrictions).. 1 9 5 8 . 28." "chute. . Yuichi Iwagaki: On the laws of resistarrce to turbulent flow in open rough channelS. 25. Kinds of Open Channel. 1932. 39. 373398. vol.ed or developed by human effort: navigation channels.· no. pp. American Society oj Civil Engineers. i . ·vol. 11..lls) . Transactions. 1919. pp.ttiol1s and experience may be made such that the conditions of flow. however. Munich. Trqnsaction8.. Under various circumstances in engineering practic\'l the. 1954. 23. Boris A. . !vIa. 155. practical design purposes. A.tural channels are generally very irregular. 2740. no. Wien and F. 229233. 33. In some cases empirical assumptions reasonably consistent with actual obs:ervl. 123. 3." "culvert. cement. These names. A comprehensive study of the behavior of flow in natural channels requires knowledge of other fields. The flume is a channel of wood.Offene Gerinne (Open channeL). Nels01l. 1932. Artificial channels are those constmcr.J Civil Engineers.. New York.120. Discussio. through brooks. Robertson and lIunter Rouse: On the four regimes· of openchannel flow. pp.lits. 29." "openflow tunnel. 32. Bakhmeteff: "Hydraulics of Open Channels.nd flumes. pp. Zenlralblail der B(11!verwaZtun!l.und Aerodynamik. S. The hydraulic properties of such channels can be either controlled to the extent desired or designed to meet given requirements. American Society oj Civil Engi1J. concrete. 169171. 1. in open channels with side cont. C(mgres8 Jor Applied Mechanics. E. fairly close to actual conditions and. .ee1's." Akademische Veda. WGSS/!iTkraJt unci Wasserwirf. 1953.gsgesellschaIt mbH. pp. TransactioTLI/. 1933. 1940.to University. IV... 15. 251254. E. 24.raulics. p." :'\ftume.ns on pp. . which may be unlined C!r lined with stone masonry. 3. pp. 3. Leipzig.99410.ulic theories to artificial channels will. Th. Engel: Nonuniform flow of water: Problems a.. Janua. . drainage ditches. Kyo. 1953. wood. 30.ter. varying in size from tiny hillside rivulets.ractions. 1..nd phenomena. BerUn. usually supported on or above the surface of the ground to carry water across a depression..rch.·. floodways.. Proceedings oj the ed Japan National Congress Jor Applied Mechanics. FtlLnz Eisner:. C.. Vienn9. Kindsvater. power canals. On the laws of resistance to turbulent flow in .1 b!lrt C." in \V... Yuichi Iwagaki. a subject of its own. V."McGrawHill Book Com. are used rather loosely and can be. The application ofhydra. concrete. The Engineer. Mcirris. log chutes. 35.{Ji11eering.298. hence..:. pp... Jr. pp. 11351138. Stevens: Discussion Dn The hydraulic jump in sloping channels. 707712.. TramactiO'nll. 64. 456457. The chute is a channel having steep 19 ./irma!.8chaJt. vo. 4 of vol. 27. vol. are reasonably accurate fOl' .. such as hydrology. etc.ry. . vol. sec. Henry M. Jilpan.. Hanns (editorsinchief): "Handbuch der Experimentalphysik. such as "canal.
the channel is nonprismaticj an example is a trough spillway having variable width and curved alignment. These sections are given various names according to their form. it is a form usually created by excavation with . 3 Qr 4. I I i i r 1 I i I ! ... The roundcQrnered rectangle is a modification of the rectEmgle.bolic of higher order: y azP with 11 .rl!. approximation of the parabola.'1dc~bottom slope is ~~lled a 'B. '. roadside gutters. The drop is similar to a. 22. The rectangle and triangle are special cases of the trapezoid.rry water through a hill or any obstruction on the ground.risma(ikma1Jnel. A l'ertical channel s8ction. The triangular section is used only for small ditches. usually varying from an approximate parabola to an approximate tmpezoid. such as lined masonry. it is commonly used for channels built of stable materials. metal. Since the rectangle has vertical sides. chute. The term channel Bection used in this book refers to the cross section of a channel taken normal to the direction of the flow. The roundbottom triangle L':! an . or timber. Unl\lss specifically indicated.> ~ + 21 . 1 of a pa.. For streams subject to frequent fioods. the channel section is always a vertical channel section. The openflow t'unnel is a comparatively long covered channel used to ca. therefore.tively short length installed to drain water through highway and railroad embankments. and laboratory works.shovels. Channel Geometry. The culvert flowing partly full is a covered channel of comparfl.is the vertical section passing through the lowest or bottom point of·the channel section. Tablc 21 lists seven geometric shapes that are in common use.20 BA. howeve". The trapezoid is the commonest shape for channels with unlined earth banks.i!: + I.a:t+ing cross sectiOll ti. but the change in elevation is effected in a shott distance. the channel may consist of a main channel section carrying normal discharges and one or more side channel sections for accommodating overflows. Artificial channels are USUally designed with sections of regular geometric shapes. for it provides side slopes fol' stability. particularly for sewers enough for a man to enter. Otherwise. the channels dGScl:ibed in this book are prismatic. For hvl'izontal channels.SIC PRINCIPLES ( ! I I slopes. A chann\'ll built witlulllY.boli~ section at the intersection of the sides with the free surface can be computed easily'by the simple formula z = Russian e!lgineers [11 also use semielliptica! and para. Natural channel sections are in general very irregular. they may be 1 The side slope z.. The constant CL is computed fl'om the side slope assumed· at the' free surface . The cirde is Hle popular section for sewers and culverts of small and medium sizes. Closed geometric sections other than the circle are frequently used in sewerage. rocks. The parabola l is used as an approximation of sections of small and mediumsize natural channels.
nt and are used extensively in flow computations. Ushaped. of the sectioll. or. . Geometric Elements of Channel Section. 21. 'etc. The section factor for uniformflow compulaUon A]z% is the product of the water area and the twothirds power of the hydraulic radius. . tain trapezoidal.ter area to the top width~ or D = '1 T (22) The slJction factor for criticalflow contputtllion Z is the product of the . therefore. the stage is identical with the depth of flow. ' ~lements '{ [ I ·1 . 21 represent the ratios of the geometric elements of the I s~ction to' the corresponding elements when t11e section is fl~wing full.A.al to the / direction of flow.er. triangular.' Geometl"l:c elements are pro'perties of a channel section tha.nd the depth of flow. For complicated sections and sections of natural streams.22 BASIC PRINCIPLES OPEN CHANNELS AND THEIR PROPERTIES 23.\ eggshaped. The wetted perimeter P is the length of the line of intersection of the channel wetted surface' with a crosssectional plane normal to the direction bf flow.] These curves are prepared from It table. catenary. Stridly sp~aking. The depth of flow y is the vertical distance of the lowest point of a /' 'chanilel section from the free surface. commonly' used channel sections. the diag. Geometric elements of a.5J is the shape of the cross section of a trough. the curves in Fig. the two tei'ms should be used discriminately. semielliptical. . In the case of steep channels. filled with water up to the top of the seCtion.rams given in Appendix B provide a convenient Ii means of determining the geometric elements.aulic radiu. The definitioris of several geometric elements of basic importance are given below. the geometric element. FIG.. however. I Tabie 21 furnishes 11 list of formulas for six basic geometric of' 1 seVf\11 . Other geoIlwtric elements used in this book will be defined where they first appear. it can be 8een that the depth of flow is equal to the depth of flow section divided by cos e. A R (21) The hydr~ulic de1Jth D is the ratio of ~le wa. baskethandle. / The wafer al'ea A is the cro~ssectional area of the fi~w norlD. formed of flexible sheets assumed to be 'Iveightless.! A special geometric section kilOwn as hydrostatic catenary or lintMrw [4.$ R is the ratio of the water area to its wetted perimet.'. The top width T is the width of channel section at the free surface. For cer. and firmly supported at the upper edges of the sides but with no effects of fixation~ The hydrostatic catenary has been used for the design of the sectiolls of some elevated irrigation flumes. the depth of flow section is the depth of flow normal to the direction of flow. .! seWer sections arEi described in [2J nnd [3]. given in Appendix. If the lowest point of the channel section is chosen as the datum.110 simple formula can be 'written to express these elements. These flumes are constmcted of metal plates so thih that their weight is negligible. For simple regular channel 'sections. For a circular section. ' I Many typica. or the height of the channel section containing the water. horseshoe. For a channel with a longitudinal slop~ angle e. . and parabolic sections commonly found in practical uses. These elemerits are very importa. The stage is the elevation or vertical distance of the free smface above 'a' datum. and are :firmly attached to beams at the upper 23. The hydr.s can be expressed mathematically ill terms of the depth of flow and other dimensions. Dimensions and'properties of sewer sections may be found in textbooks on sewerage.! I .t can be defined entirely by the geometry of the section B. or Z=A (23) . but curves representing the relation between these elements and the depth of flow can be prepared for use in hydraulic computations. ovoid. water area and the square root of the hydraulic depth. The complete rectangle and square are also common for large sewers. This term is often used inter' changeably with the depth offlow section d.j " \ . circular section.
5 = 46. 1.refullaboratory investigations.. '/ As revealed by cv.05 to 0. shallow stream..5 t~.\ \ ' i \  24 ) BASIC PIIINCIPLES OPEN CHANNELS . Typical curvea of equal velocity in various channel sections. !111d. Effect of chann~i section is usu!). such as the unusu~l shape of the section. " . in short labora. D = 19%4 = 4. a double spiral mqtion will oc~ur to per¢it equalization of shear stresses on both sides of th~ channel [7.37 = 401 ft. The measured maximum velocity in ordinary channels usually appears to occur below the free .clors. Velocity Distribution in Channel Section. Owing to the pres~ ence of a free surface and to the friction along the Ghannel wall. 25).. $oluti{)ll. . ' ~'. ... ponents. . 24. The depth of flow is' 6 ft. Velocity distrib. hydraulic dep~h. Tropezuidal chonnel Triangular channel FIG. although the velocity component in the transvel:se 'FIG. The . owing to the centrifug!11 action of the flow.~' C~b=20':.0 ft>./4. the velocities in a channel are not uniformly distributed in the channel section. In a broad. ' ~~ .distribiltion in an open .al'ious vertical and horizontal sections of a rdctangular channel sectio~ and the curves of equal velocity in the cross section.&.l over \. 24. A = 0. 22.5' I '. . 26). manifesting a spiral motion. . The general patterns for velocity distribution in several channel sections of other shapes are illustrated in Ji]ig.37 ft.roughness 6f the channel will cause the curvature of the verticalvelocitydistribution curve to increase (Fig.. . A channel crosS'section. . tlle roughness of the channel~ <md the pJ·esence of bends.or in a very smooth channel. NarroW' (@c!anglJlar 5~ction ). Compute the'hydraulic radius.lly small.1' \ '~//l7~~0~ T:44" P=46.Lt the h'ee surface. a surface wind has very little effect i on velocity distribution. chann~I. Shukry [6] found that.sUlface at a distance of 0. On a bend the velocity increases greatly at the convex side. 23.8 = 4. and insignificant roughness on velocity compMecl with the longitudinal velocity com.: Sholtow ditch .25. Example 21. .. FIG. . a Pipe Natural irregular channel FIG.# ' \ ~~' .8 ft. . R = Hl2/46.ution in'·a. : In a long and uniforrri reach femotefl'om the entrance. 22. and section factor. By formulas given in Table 21.10 ft. and Z = 192 . Figure 23 illustrates *e general pattern of veJocity distributio.?: Of the~ra. the closer to the banks.pezoidal chUlluel section in Fig. CCfmtrary to the usual belief.8J. rapid. which is usually unavoidable.. the deeper is the maximum. the following are computed: P = 20 +' 2 X 6 ".AND 'TIIEIR PROPERTIES 25 ) ..8 . a small disturbance ~t the entrance. . is sufficient to cau()e the zqne of highest water level ito shift to one side. 'channeL I r r I. the maximum velocity may often be found l.?!/' ~ ' . ~ROugh' bed the flow in a straight prismatic channel is in fact threedimensiqnal.·.25 of the depth.5(20 + 4'!L0 6 = 192. tory fl~mes. rectangula. thus giving rise to a single ~piral motion (Fig. I The velocity distributfoJ in a channel section depends also on other f('l. \' I 24. Q.
on each side of the center line . where morc reliable results are required. Velocitydistribution Coefficients.0328 fps). where V is the ri.lea. the flow in the cen tral region of a wide open channel may be' considered to be the same as the flow in !1 rectangular channel of infinite width.Q 0. From the principle of mechanics. the "momentum of the fluid passing through a channel section per unit time is expressed· by {JwQVj(J.2 and 0. According to the streamgaging procedure of the U~S.fficient.A. The two velocitydistribution coefficients are always slightly larger than the limiting value of unity.2 and 0.4~IJe~on the .cing downstream a.nnels varies approximately from 1. Careful experiments indicate. Q is the discharge. Thus. 26..'3 the mean velocity. one spira}. lines of equal componenHv.grea~. equal component (vyl Jr (e) Dire clio n Jines and ma9niludes of the IOlerol currenlslvor ' FIG.Ie section is. Geological Survey.: ThG sum of discharges through all strips is t.piral motion in straight prismatic channels. in honor of G . further. Boussinesq [13] who fii'st proposed it.01 to 1. Coriolis [12J who first proposed it.) 25.re In em/sec (= 0.t the midsection of a.6 of the depth J!l_~Gh vertical. th€ water level is the highest.500.d of an openchannel flow is generally greater than the value computed according to the expression V 2 /2g. h. is an important phenomenon to be considered in design add wHl be discussed later (Art.istributiol1 of velocities over a channel section/the velocity hea.12. (o)Con!our lines 01 equal ve c for (v) Co I Con lou. the value of a varies from about 1. eq ua! to the total discharge divided by the whole· area.0.Eehtral region c~n therefore be regarded as twodimensional in hydraulic ana:1yses.36 for fairly straight pri!:imR.26 BASIC PRINClPLES OPEN CHAN)lELS AND THEllR PROPERTIES 27 ) The pattern will include.is the unit weight of water. 162). which are beyond the scope of this book.03 to 1. _. The value is generally higher for small channels and lower for large streams of considerable depth. y/b = 1.h of flow. The average of the ~ean velocities in any two adjacent verticals multiplied by the are:1..tic channels. In practical considerations. The nOllUniform di. the sides of the !iliJ!imel h~i practically DO influence on the velocit. w. the mean velocity is no longer close t. As a result of nonuniform 9.6 of the water dept. 27.generally found that the value of (3 for fairly straight prismatic cha. and Q = 701iters/s.cient. Experimental data indicate that. after J. For either experimental or anaJytical purposes. (Afler .'lthe channei crosssecticH1 isciivid~d ~rti6a1 strips by a number of successive vert~cals. fa.E 5 to 10 times. however. In other words. it is quite safe to ignore the :.ee (= 2.1§.h. and.between the verticals gives the discharge through this vertical strip of the cross section. under this condition. where . ! ~ For details see !9J to [11 J. t:. It is . the depth <:>f flow .. and mean velocities in verticals are determined by measuring t.entum coefficient or Boussinesq coe:ffi. .stribution of '/elocities also affects the co. or. R "" 73.8 of the depth. Measurement of Velocity./ _ I . Observations in very wide open channels have shown that the velocity disttibution in the central region of the section is essentially the same as it . For precise measurements more elaborate methods must be used.rnputation of momen~umin openchannel flow. that this central region '~Xi~t8 in rectangular channels only when a the width. a. straight flume.he total discharge. 26.y distribution in the C~gi~l. where a is known as the energy coefficient or Coriolis coe.y of the who. When the.t which the velocity distribution is 1 'I ) . and V i. Spiral flow in curved channels.mUI!e average at 0.1 (cleonlcur Jines equal componenl lv'l 'or (d) ConI our lines 01 . Wide Open Channel.s covered with ice.would be in rectangular channel of infinite width.n velocity.~~. Distribution of the velocity components. where f3 is known as·the mom. by taking the average of the velocities at 0. the flow i~_Y. a wide Open channel can safely be defined as a rectangular channel whose width is greater than 10 tiri1es the dept.. ShlLkry [6J.. therefore.2_'?~ion of l:lu):fac~ roughness. The mean velocit. When the stream i.8 of the water depth still gives reliable resul. l.47 cfs).energy principJe is used in computation. the true velocity head may be expressed as a V 2/2g. Voloeitiestl.he velocity at 0. It should be noted that the above methods are simple and approximate.
observed at the outlet section of a. and can vary quite rapidly from section to section in case of il'I'egular alignment. . is probably the largest known value obtained from actual measurements. S. and w the unit weight of water. the area ivithin each curve of equal velocity is planimetered. much larger values of . respectively. The total momentum is :Z1l!V2 AA/g.flooded . Precise studies or analyses of flow in such channels will require measurement of the'actual velocity and accurate determination of the coefficients.'~! LlA (24) V3A ..~a from Wl}it' measurements made by Ernest W.00 2.. The largest known value from laboratory meO:suremen1. Rehbock [201 obtained c< = 1 f" I1nd. IS" curvattire of the streamlines is taken into account. Jy 2 dA {J = V2 A 2:v 2 LlA "". irregular natural channels will be discussed later (Art.. Now.WB. 85.17 L 17 1. in the vicinity of obstructions. Computation of the velocitydistribution coefficients for. per unit time is the product of the mass W<I AA/g and the velocity v.08 was computed by Lindquist [141 uslng da. In most pl'nctical problems dealing with regular cha~nels it is not necessary to consider the varia. River vlllleys" ove. . This is equivalent to the product of the weight wu AA and the velocity head v2/2g. 28 BASIC PRINCIPLES OPEN CHANNELS AND THEIR PROPERTIES 2 29 I "I I! strictly uniform across the channel section. have been obS.15 1..s a.lteaDytne following formulas: 1 Ct r I..$ is believed to be '". and reciuping.. = 2.ft tube in the Rublevo power pmnt. . or {3wA V2 / (I. Actual values of the coefficients for a number of channels may be found in {l7) and [18J. V2 A (25) Vo. For practical purposes.lue of". ficients a and p..05 L05 1. Rivers.07 '1.15 1. integrals 1:v 2 Ail. 121J and [22].. .4. ' Channels Min Regular channels.% 1 + 2t 3 f2 (26)· (27) where Ii = v.. • For discussions on this subject.50 2.6 and 1. especially in comparison with other uncertainties involved in ~he computation.33 O'Brien nnci Johnson [19] used a graphical solution of the above formulas sa follows: From the measured velocitydistribution curves.l value there must have been still lar!!~r. Kv:ia. .. However. Taking the velocity indicated by each equalvelocity l!'!!rve as v. 65). Kolupaila [16J proposed the values shown below for the velocitydistribution coefficients.evident that the area beneath this v3 curve is the integral 2:v 3 AA. dro. the reader may look into.2.. a curve of 1]3 against the corresponding planimetered area is constructed..· \ . .u/V 1. the total kinetic energy 'is .10 1. 30 1.25 1. or wv 2 AA/g. The expressions V2/2g and wQ V j g a~e used extensively in this book with the understand:ing either that these items have been cOlTected for the effect of the non~ uniform velocity dis~ributionj Of that a value of unity is asiumed.{j = 1 "/3...re obLained by I1ssuming a. For approximate values. Similai:ly..R. the effect of nonuniform velocity distrihution on the computed velocity head and momentum is small.20 1.. the coefficients are often assumed to be unity.. which can be obtained by planimetering again. corrected velocity head for the whole area as a V /2g. In the case.S.50 1. the above equations can be solved for the coef. ~ ~ Value of {j Av 1. the re". flumes. Prob..erved [15].lue of".33 1. A value of '" = a.'"'" va as The momentum of water passing AA. 1 .time with a velocity v is 'wv LlA. In regard to the effect of channel slope. the mean velocity as V.50 1. he should use' judgment in reading these references because they contain erroneous + + .under ice cover.: . N o. taking the whole area as A. or near pronounced irregularities in alignment. model turbine wheeL 'p = 1 + 3. spillway:. in steep channels than in flat channels.S.00 lVIin Av Ma. In channels of complex cross section. I r I 28.. 2 I These formula... It is . the energy and momentum coefficients can be 'compl. . Turner. and 2:v LlA can also be obtained.. The integral 2:v AA divided by A gives V.10.tural streams and torrents .07 1.. if the effect of a. VM being the maximum velocity and V being the mean velocity. Schoder and Kenneth B.tion of velocity throughout the cross section. ..2% more. J1]3 dA L. Determination of Velocitydistribution Coefficients..03 1.. then the weight of water pasSing LlA per unit . since use of the average· veiocity will give the accuracy required. The total kinetic energy for the whole .0 have been observed. U. With these quantities determined. Equating this quantity with 2:wv 3 AA/2g and reducing. Equating this quantity with the corrected momentum for the w'hole area.ter area is equal to 2:wv ll t1Aj2g.20 1. which was derived by V. Assuming a lincar velocity distribution. The kinetic energy of water passing AA per unit time is wv 3 AA/2g.) for the spiral flow under !l. '89). Therefore... the coefficients for energy and momentum Can easily be great as 1. values of a greater than 2.. For channels of regular cross section and fairly straight alignment.of clolled conduits.x '"0 1. Let LlA be an elementary area in the whole water area A. logtLrithmic distribution Qf velocity (Art. = 7. Upstream' from weirs. .10 1. and the 1 A va. the coefficients are usually higher .87.75 'Max 1.aw A/2g.17 1.tkovskii in 1940 in the VIGM (AllUnion Institute for Hydraulic Machinery. . .
This is known . ' If the channel has a curved longitudinal profile. the application of the hydrostatic law to the pressure distribution in the .lly different principles (Art.. ~ p ".. the approximate centrifugal pressure may be computed. measured by the height of the water column in a piezometer tub~ Instayed at the point (Fig. (c) preciablc acceleration component.tions for parallel flow were clea:rly stated for the first tlme by Belanger [23].IS .nd equal to the hydrostatic pressure corresponding to this depth.'. It is assumed that ail streamlines are horizontal at the section under consideration. In other words. o1 d TI 1IS IS no carr . in a curvilinear flow be designated by c (Fig. The two coefficients are derived independently from baslca. g is the gravitational acceleration.the distribution is linear and can be represented by a straight line AB (Fig. Neither of them is wrong and neither ca.. and'r is the radius of curvature. d is the depth of flow.. Pressu're Distribution in a Channel Section. ~l"tlow. there are n. h. . ) .30 BASIC PRINCIPLES _7 OPEN CHAN.e . by Newton's law of acceleration. since the cha. both should be used in th~ correct sense. 27a). h = that is. so the resulting pressure is greater than the otherwise hydrostatic pressure of a parallel flow.u in thfLcros~ctien offlt In actual problems uniform flow i:s practically parallel flow.§ection. The effect of the curvature is to produce appreciable ELGceleration components or cell trifugal forces normal to the direction of flow. v is the velocity of flow.iQ. ' IS Ill:r where w is the unit weight of water.. (a) Par~ gence. the pressure distribution over the section deviates from the h}'drostatic if ourvilinear flow occurs rn the vertical plane:' Such curviiinear flow may be either convex or concave (If. In convex flow the centrifugal forces are acting upward against the gravity action. . ( . ' " ' I Specific qualifica. Ignormg mInor disturbances due to turbulence. Gradually varied flow may also be l'egarded . In both cases the . neither substantial curvature nor diverrection for curvature. the resulting pressure is less than the otherwise hydrostatic pressure of a parallel flow. therefore.crQ§s se~tiQn of a flQwing . consequently. 27). The pl'esstirehead correction is.lg~nd c). If the curvature of stl'eamlines is substantial. etc. hydrostatic latO of preSS1lrB distribution . ~~uently. therefore. 36).~ . For practical p1. and c "" pressurebead cor. . 27b and c). the flow is theoretically ~> known as curvilinear flow. = hydrosta. ~~. it is apparent that this water column should rise from the point of measurement up to the hydraulic grade line or the water surB face.nonlinear pressure distribution is represented by AB' instead of tlte straight distribution AB that would occur if the flow wel'e parallel.lIjELS AND THEIR PROFER'I'IES 31 ) 29. (b) convex flow. Let the deviation from an otherwise hydrostatic pressure h.nge in depth of flow is so mild that the streamlines have neither appreciable curvature hoI' divorgence. r is the radius of cu::'.§. r'epJace the energy coefficient even in computations based on the energy PrJ?ClpJ~.~he E~~~~~ oL~L@iWt d and a croSQ. Similarly. of pressure dislribution is applicable to gra.I \ . the distribution of pressute over the cross section of the channel is the 'same as the distribution of hydrostatic pressure j that is. and for practical purposes ./ Strictly speaking./' = wd~~ g r (28) statements. Some authors have proposed the use of the mOluentUnl coeffic~en.tic head. the pressure at any point on the section is directly propor(al tional to the depth of the point below the free ~ui'face 9. the hydrosta.tion.n be replaced by t~e other. or ' ~. when divergence of streamlines is great enough to developappl'eciable acceleration components normal to the flow. that is. d v2 (29) c=gr For computing the value ofc at the channel bottom. wd/g. and the centrifugal ac~ v2/r.JlQ!:= concave flow.rposes. thehydrostati'c pressure distribution will be disturbed accQrdingly. Thus.fi section of the flow in a channel of small slop: can be . + c. Pressure distribution in straight and curved channels of ·plane·gf cross sectioE' This type of flow small or horizontal slope at the ~oretically known as parallel flow. .rature of the bottom.o agallel flow. l section under considera.!o\v filaments (c 1 have no accele~~n coinponertts in the FIG. . mal to the direction of flo'\' that \VO~ disturb the hydrostaticpressure d~J. the curvature and divergellce are so small that the effect of the acceleration components in the crosssectional plane is negligible. Therefore.tic law .as the. The pressure at any point on the crO.tto . Qf 1 sq ft. such th'at the streamlines ha VI! piez~metric head.as parallel flow. Then the true pressure or the piezometric height h = h. ) J.dually varied flow as well as to 1miform flow. 27. " t ec't V'Nhether the energy coefficient or the momentum coeffiCient . In concave flow the centrifugal forces are pointing dDW:lward to reinforce the gravity action. that is. to be used depends on whether the energy or the moment?m prw::lple :. 8 s' channel is valid only if th&.
(211) does not apply strictly to varied flow) piwticularly when 0 is v~ry large.. 11) and (212) very sa~Jsf!l.m1Ul. In fact. .. curvatul'e~ the pressure head should be cOl.IJ!1riifl:U. c is positive for concave. Eq~lition ·(211) states that . the correction tends' to decrease the pressure head by an amount less than 1 % until e is nearly .nnel cross section..e higher than th~ JAil' becomes entraine~.bly . bearing on a.ter generally. the pressure head may be expressed as g'y cos 2 Jt. whereas Eg.. of appreciable.0 for convex. It should be noted from geometry (Fig. negative for convex flow. Ther~ore.nnels of lurge slope. Apparently. 10ngitudin!11 vertical profil£.0 for concave flow.rected fo]' the effect of the curvature of streamlines (Fig.oJYJs so rapid and abl'Upt .nd di. ' . 1 or I i I .vill entrain nil'. "tude.h dL is equaltq. distance ..in ".the presor. When this velocity reaches a certain riHl. . cha.It should be noted at the outset . 28). i!!!. it will be assumed that a' = 1) unless the flow is specifically described as either curvilinear or rapidly varied. however.Y!1:riedJto£ . .Y!1ried flow theghange in depth of fl. Since the slope of ordinary channels is far less than 1 in 10. . ~ seguently. produ'cing a swell in its volume:i . In simple notation. The data. In ramr!l. For complicated curved profiles. Apparently. ' . flow. and. Unless specifically mentioned. zero for parallel flow. the total pressure distribution can be determined approximately by the fjow~net method or DlOre exactly by model testing. with a slope gre~ter than 1 in 10. e h = d 90S e 1 where d = ~ cos e. therefore. i I \ I where Q is the total discharge andy is the depth of flow.UIJD!J)J.and Ml increase in depth.~n shown in several gases to b. It can easily be seen that a' is greater than 1. """~~~~S== In channels of large slope the usu . and thehead 1 is 'on. ness. In parallel flow the pressure is hydrostatic. A hI! dA 1 + 1 }o ' r A cv dA (210) /. this factor will . andhighel' thl1n the critical velobity.gni. obtained from these ekperimenta have verified Eqs'. :(2 .v~nce.distribut~s not hold strictlJl. the correction foi: slope effect can usually be safely _ _:i"" ignored .1ines l. will not be considered (~hat is.Ctorily (25].. i " 32 BASIC PRINCIPLES OPEN CHANNELS AND 'l'HEIR PROPERTIES 33 v m~y be ass~med equal to the average velocity of the flow... For simplicity.has a.1. volume discharge. flow.equal to wy cos~ e.. where a'is a correction ~oefficiimt for the curvature effect.. where the slope effect is negligibie. (212) still applies.  .that throughout this boqk flow is treated in general as either parallel or gradually varied. the weight of the shaded :"vater element of lengt. 91) that Eq. and equal to LO for parallel flow. thecorrection should be made if Mcumte comput~ttion is '~. the depth measured perpendicularly from the water surface. . desired. 210. Since this coefficient is applied to a pl'esswe head. It can be shown that the pressure coefficient is expressed by a' sure head at any vertical depth is equal to this iiepth multiplied by a correction fact·or cos 2 e .:l:!:'lUlQ~.!!! v"e19\l~ of !>~t go Ips and higher.ir entrainment. With fPjerence to a straight sloping channel of unit width and slope angle 6 (Fig.l For this rel1son the pressUl'C computed uy Eq..t. not differ apprecill.traveled. The unit pressure is. If a channel of large slope . {211) or (212) 4. when the cha~l_slope is large and its eff5l9t becoroe~ appreciable. other factors such'as entrance condition. Hasurrh has measured the distributibn of pressure along the slopihg faces of we~ [241. if the angle (J is small. etc •• all have some. less than 1.3 hereafter called a channel of large slope. 28.. 29)..fl'Om unity.[ Besides velocity. Effect of Slope on Pressure Distribution. the flowing water .:that th<L§trea!!J. the effect of the curvature of streamlines. 6" i a slope of about 1 in 10.on~oeffici~nt is referred to as apressuredislribtttion coejfiy'ient. .'. ' or h = Y cos 2. M. the pressure head of a curvilinear fiow may be represented by City.. it may be specifically SLa~'/m1~:!t!~~!1fficienl.stribution FrG. A channel qf this type.. =~ ~y}o r.. Pressure tlistribution in parallel How in cha. all chMlnels descrlbeanereafter are ~onsidered to be channels of small slope. However. ~ertical section A'C Pressure di. the hy~ro8tatic law of pressure . . The pressure due to this weight is wy cos 2 fJ dL.. and the pressme head may be represe11ted by the depth of flow y. say.:!9ssess 8ubstfilliia.. The l:orrecti. channel rough..
= 35'37'7". Verify the cUrY'es shown in Fig. 29. $2.t its downstream end. and (3) the flow is entto. This happens in ma. In designing side walls steep chutes and overflow spillways.3 0. D.h.y be shown looking upstream.] . Compute the energy and mo~entum coefficients of the cross st'ction shown in Fig. k = sin (110/2). is 'equal to the radius of the bucket but. The hydrostaLil" cll.tenary may be plott. 21. are the ordinate and abscissa measured from t. the cross section wiII simplify cQmputation. and 2.6 3.is the unit weight of water. because the Tennessee River and most of its tributaries flow from:east tQ west. is equal to the radius of the concentric flow lines. i " ( . Estimate the Ylllues of momentum coefficient (j for. The actual density of the mixture varies from the bottom to: the surfafaTor the floV\L For practical purpo. 2 . 23 (a) by Eqs.tically to be II. and 11 is the slope angle at the point (XI.om a reference point neClr left bank. ft 4 2 0 1 5.9 0.he slope angle of the channel. with. downstream and to prepare the lQngitudinal profile qf a channel so that the wate~ flows from left to right.ccuracy. and (b) determine.50. respectively. 28.1 f [sin (1/>/2)l!kl.1)1. Construct curves siinilar tQ those shown in Fig. (24) and (25). . 210) has a 60ftradius flip bucket u.lu.j.' (29) and on'the following assumptions: (1) the velqcity is uniformly di~tl'ibuted across the section. 'Verify t.100 ds.0 1.h. wherew. The computatiQn is bailed an Eq. This practice is generally fqllowed bt most 'engineering offices. conventional map. where :1'1 and YI. ft 7 9 11 13 15 17 \\ j Stage. from the curves the geometric elements for y = 4. this assumption of I!!llform air distributi_o_I?:_i~_ struct curves showing the relationships between the depth y and the section elementS A.00. the.the water surface at the vertical section OB is at El. From the data g(ven below on the cross section 1 of a natural stream con· . cross section when the flow is at its full dept. 8.k4). '" = sin. the errors on the safe side. 29. 23. (210).given values of energy c(lefficient ex = 1.1 0.op.e used for r.. and 9 is t. 21 for an equilateral triangle with one side as the channel bottom. . The slope angle at the ends of a hydrostatic catenary of best hydraulic efficiency is found mathema. A highhead overflow spillway (Fig.1 0. D. at the ends. 21. If the average density of the airwater mix~ure is known.left bank. (2) the vo.4 0. The cross section and the curves of equal velocity can be transferred to a piece of drawing paper and enlarged for deSired ll. for geographical reasons or in order to depict clearly the location and profile of a stream. for a square channel section. 211.10. 24.6 4.2 Stage. of 1 f ) j ) . ft Left bank: 5 Distance fro~ a referenc(J point near . flow Concave flow FIG.[ /a) 1 It is common practioe to show the cross section of a stream in a direction looking .pressure acting on the training wall at section DB. (a) Plot this section with' a depth y = 10 ft. varying from 0 at the bottom of the curve to 9. and (b) by Eq~. fQr pressur~ values near the wall base. and Z. but acts to change the direction of the flow from the slope of the lipillway face to the horizontal and to discharge the flov1 into the air' between vertical training walls so ft apart.g. the profile may be shown with water ftow~ ing from right to left and the cross section ma.he curve that represents the computed hydraulic . Verify the formulas far geometrio elements of the seven channel sections given in Tahle 21.52. R. 1.5. (26) and (27). and so are shown with the direction of flow from right to left on a. Pressure distribution in curvilinear flow in channels of large slape. the density may be assumed constant. and the density .ed for [Lny given depth l/ and slDpe angle O. replace the density of pnrc water in the computation when air entrainment is expected.8 0. The above equations will define' the.2 0.e midpoint of the free surface.of the airwater mixtureca~ be estimated by the .1 3 '1 5 19 Right bank: 20 j \ 26. 9. and Z at the full depth .. Distance f. I (213) l I YI = if cos 10 (214) Convex.1 0. however.p + (%k' + %2k4) sin 21/> ~ %56k~ sin 4. PROBLEMS 21.34 BASIC PRINCIPLES OPEN CHANNELS AND 'rHEIR PROPERTIES 35 actual measured pressure obtained 'by model testing.unless this arrangement would bit to show the feature to b~ illustrated by the cross'section and profile. y is the vertical depth of the flowing water. .7 2 2. for other pre.2 4. R. ft 0. The bucket is not submerged.l!I). At: a discharge of 55.ny drawings pre'pared by the TennesseEj Valley Authority.isure values. However. Prove Eq. Construct cu'rY'es similar to those shown in Fig. it shouM be' used to.ined with air.es. and (bl determine the values of A.6 4. prove that the overturning moment due to the pressure of the flowing water is equal to Yswy' cos' 9. 27. . at its ends by the following two approximate equations: :1:)= fk [(1  %k' .
. Hl43.. Gibb: Curves for solving the hydrostatic oatenary. 12.tion of the kinetic energy facto!'. 15. 1934. 15.lelques problemes relatifs au mou. 113. W. 1828. Apr. by Ernesf W. Averillnov: 0 gidravlicheskom raschete rusel krivolineinoI formy poperech. 21. nogo secheniia (Hydraulic design of channels with curvilinear form oithe crosS section). 80·ns. O'Brien and Joe W. Grover and A.nical .' that is.$. Boris A.. .. Inc. 1"7'(tllaac:l. ..age der Energielinie bei ftiessenden Gewfulsern mit HilIe des GeschwindigkeitshOhenAusgleichwertes (The determina. 6. 633644. Geologicnl SlI1vey." California. P. et .ions. AND THEIR PRO'PERT1ES 37 10 ~0. vol. p . 8.y. W. 14.nsac:I. 1. AmericilTl Society of Civil Engineers. no.ging procedure. 3. 1929. P. .ry. M.hers:8trealnga.tid the corrections to be introduced to !lccount for the difference of the velocitie$ at different points on the same cross section). M.0. N. 22. pp. 1945. Bela.nger: "Essai sur la solution numeriqne de ql.pov: H Gidrometriia Gidrotelchnicheskikh SoorllllheniI i Gicir. pp. . . 'U  . Sidewall pressures on the flip bucket of a spillwa. Compute the wall pressure on the section OA (Fig. pp. New York. Brater.. Paris.1 ! 36 Douma.sees. . pp. Shcha. II 01 woler \I FIG. 20. Discussions. 11. Erik G.. Januo. 11. C.S.h Nauk" Moscow. New York. 5. 210. Inc.omashin" (" Hydrometry of Hydrv.. Freeman: "Hydr·a. 1943.I$~. . p'.66. vol. ' 18.sIU· 12. 668670.S / \« $PilIW1!Y Iraining wall.. Socie4/ of Civil Enginee7's. Boussinesq: Esg's'i sur la theorie des eaux courantes (On the theory of flowing waters)." 4th ed. United Natio7ls Economic Comm.. 70: ' 9. REFERENCES 1. 14.djustment). lzvestiia Akademii Nauk S. vo!. Th.· ' 7. Ba." Crosby. pp. 1.n'nalca du punts et chaw. p. American Society of Civil Engineers.a Un. India. 1M. 1954. voL 11:0. 1218. vol. 1836. The Port Engineer.0. A.S. Johnson: Velocityhead correction for hydrau1ia flow.) i. 93. 1950. pp. I This iormull!. 2630. pp. 11122. Berlin.1935. pp.7. Harold E. 5965.ta obtained from actual· conorete and wooden chutes.air by voiume. 16. V is the velocity of flow. 1915. 214216. no. 4. London.ter"). Pasadena. . Harri'ngtoo. ser. 1934.1536. no . 1927. vol. New York.l. M~moire& ]fr/.id of velocityhead a.ement permanent des eaux courantes" ("Essa. ' 5.ream FlOW.. in "Theodore von !Urman Anniversary Volume. Tra. ilorrection tiu'on doH y int.6. 19. Paris. Morrough P. and R Is the hydraulic radIus. G. Ltd. 7th ed. 645668.lllic Structures and MacJ:Jnery ") I Gosenel'goizciat. . .sentes par diven savants ri l'Academie des Sciences. 13. 8. Babbitt: "Sewerage and Sewage Treatment.S. It is assumed that the depth of tlow section is the same!l. 60:. New York. 210) of the spillway descrIbed in Prob. gR . 1024. II. 1956. eo II cpO!1 . 1956. Lockwood &: Son Ltd.ulic Laboratory Practice.·· Aug. Ahmed Shukry: Flow around bends in an open flume. U.R. 5458." McGrawHill Book Company. [26J is based on da. S. l'evised by Ernest F." Amedcan Society of Mecha. New York. 16. F.. P.l pressare.. Water Supply Paper 888.use the submergence will reault in a severe reduction in velocity. pp.. 314335.roduire POllr tenir compte des diffel'ences de vitesse dans les diVers points d'une marne section d'un COUl'ant (On the ba.. pp. George Higgins: "Water Channels. 17. Stcponas Kolupaila: Methods of determin!l.SSulned that the pressure resultbg from the centritugal force or the submerged jet need not be considered beca. Otdelenie ~'ekhnic"eskfk. Der Bau. . Turner. p.ckwatercurve equation a.l Solution of Some Problems Relative to Steady Flow of Wa. It is !l.1 (215) where u is the percentage of entrained .2V: . Inc. formule qui donne la figure des remons. 1954. 4th ed. involving errOnl of ±10%. formula. 10.: "S. 212. B. pp. 2. Engineering News. Schader andT(ennethB. Engineers. 1937. pp. Eddy: "American Sewerage Pra. Eisenlohr: Coefficient's for velocity distribution in openChannel flow. 211. pp. Inc. '712. Calcutta.ctice.j 2 /. Transactions.tion of the position of the energy line in flowing water with the o. i 4 .J.. 211 if the bucket is submerged with a tailwater level at EL 75. Moscow. Aug. Institute of Teohnology. 1941. 1929.) New York.ngkok. Lindquist: Discussion un Precise. London.. vol. McGrawHill Book Company. 210) of the spillway described in Prob.. BASIC PRINCIPLES OPEN CHANNELS. Ivnmoire No. p. 0." McGrawHm Book Company. C . . 88. J. 1st ed.ingenieuT. pp. CorioUs: Sur. . \ . weir measurements.2 ." John Wiley &: Sons. vol. American. H. Flood Control Series. Engineering NewsRecord. W.272. ~ I :OJ ::l t. i'Handbook of Hydraulics. N. 3. Horace William·King. I.ehbQck': Die Bestimmung der I.'" Constable &: Co. 268. 213.:. 1957. 1877. that at section DB.. 73. 15.isslcn for Asia: and the Fa:r Ei. 332. CarilianGoeury. Don M. Hickox: "Applied Fluid Mechallics. Gibson: "Hydraulics and Its Applications. 23. O'Brien and G: H. 115. S. no. Compute the wall pressure on the section OA (Fig. 1952. . 453455." John Wiley &...ior/. No. R. 1. Leonard Metcalf and H. Bak&meteff: CorioIis and the energy principle in hydraulics. Corbett and ot. J.l'etablissemellt de Ill. vol.. 751779. 11631176.y on tIle Numerica. Standards for methods and records of· hydrologi~ measurements. 3d ed. pp. M.
~yo.bq:. H. dA is the depth of point A below the. cos 8+ V2.l Pit' 67/\1c: . pp. Munich. < . American Society of Civil Engineers. 8 is the slope angle of the channel bottom. ::>..~Ci//. T>/~~cf '7. 6572. 1929. 5.. 30..~' • ..1 (f?)e.C.iJ.rY:J < . water surface measured along the channel section.{2j2g is the velocity hea~ of the flow in the streamline passing through A.lo1ly varied 'openchannel Row.inment of atr in flowing water: a symposium. ( '!.tLul vV ·'n'YII!'.u ¢ .l:£nnd~~L4..~e l'..Il. For example.. resulting from the impact of the fa.5q.. bkrl~)~""'p1) above a datum.. 1935. Energy in Openchannel Flow.k.38 BASIC PRINCIPI. . 5 .1/f'A(iCL . 7882.7 VW' _.c. vol..> J: . ... _. Yl . J... " . . 'H&rald Lauffer: Druck.tt/).s~t:rt.~) .N eN . by L. no. und Wasserwirtschaft. cd cbf #.i :/'t'10 f? . ~y. the pressure head. 31..o 4. In general. 22.~(j . ~it. vol.ltU.. every streamline passing through a channel section will have .'" Y . 7.2.lillJ' foet ~ Y'. f t'k.1 .) • ( = ZA + d A. channel section may be expressed as the total head in feet of water.pdjW 4t. Die W IMJserwirtschaft.lling water)..f. 'I 1 d ~'i. Standish Hall...ES 24.it. In a CCt·n~l..."fp"U.. (...·r/6.& o. pp.4i:5 p.T1'ansactions.:.:..l.ot/.u.. 2 (31) !/YiM.d.§ "'"'t CttYD.4ff luitf& 7 tUi.~"Vl/ r1 f~J . t·'1' ...pver. It is known in elementary hydraulics that the total energy in footpounds per ponild of water in any streamline passing through 9.d(c4blh ( . c: c .:di.__ ~:lum _1_1. e>J rret .c. 39 d.ftu. ('/. 26.t. J'Vi4 v. ellAof/:J~"m . r. (l!':71tdVt) ~. Vr'. 1943. energy..1".$ dtre.ttt'a .tl. ./~1{. 31.": HI]~II tt'l"1 I _ P . with respect to the datum plane./·1/0 fall . ."< ~ iJ d /. 31) may be written H /u. 6 rtf.~.. which is equal to the sum of the elevation t d tU...' fYr.Je1' @ . and flow type in channels with high gradients).!/f"''' V"'r1.he.. .. "e J' . no..:!.~. and V..P. pp.!1 /!. in Entra.'Ui4'V"t where ZA is the elevation of pain t A above the datum plane.. Vienna. Energie und Fliesszustand in Gerinnen mit grossem Gefiille (Pressure.'1~ t&.ining point A on a streamline of flow in a channel of large slope (Fig. Douma: Discussion on Open channel flow at high velocities. c. vol. e It:. rv:5 (id. is /l.. r"'. Wasserkrafl. CHAPTER 3 ENERGY AND MOMENTUM PRINCIPLES 1 LeI!. 1..t.~" .Vassers (Experiments on the distribution 'of pressuresa\ong the f~~e of w(d . and the velocity head.'foI. ftvtAP.~_ __ • I I I I FrG. ctylv) ' Jt#rry.. h}jc/rct. 14621473.._ .o (}v'Iv: vI< / /J / '.. 25.f t! Ci. .: (IU9A . It Ehrenberger: Versuche Iiber die Verteilung der Drucke an Wehrriicken infolge des I1bsturzcnden '...t:. 108..( e @'we <5 (I! Saelioil 0 ~ 1. W/ibn . the totltl head H at a section 0 conta.".. Energy in grad'. I IS r1..
(34) ) This equation applies to parallel or gradualJy varied flow.2 = Z2 + d z COs /1 + V" ." 1 The concept of specific energy was first ir~troduced by Bakhrneteff [21 id 1912.·.noted by Sw and the slope of the channel bottom l by So = sin () . it becomes . for a given specific energy. The curve shows that. the specific energy becomes . The slope oLthe water surface is de. For a channel of small slope.' . ' ' If the discrarge changes.Jlow is the lill. When the depth of flow is plotted against the specific energy for a given channel section and discharge. and.dro1yn~mICs.:. which is equal to the snm:6f the pressure head y a.L h 2g .a2 = 1 and hr = 0. 0 = O. V + a . H = z + rl cos () . The 1wo B. H = z +d + c . ZI V.ontall\xis asymptoticallx toward the righ. Zl +d .be seen that.S oSln. For simplicity. (38) for a channel of small slope. () ..he velocIty head be truly IdentlCal for aU points on the cross sectlOn. (38) may be written E = y + Q2/2gAz. . the flow is supercritical. which is known as the critical depth 1/e. In the ~ase of gradually varied flow. denoted by Sf. Since V = Q/ A. .QJUiQl!j11 to '!5~! For a channel of large slope. (35) al Either of these tW? equations is known as the energy equation. .ati.abscissa represents the specific energy. In uniform £10'" S J.lpward and to the right.~J)proache. the ordinate represehts the depth.li energy equation." Actuall}'. however it is defined as sm O. Z2 +y~ + 2g V 22 const (3()) This is the wellknown BernoHl. the specific energy is a n~inimum. Thus.rhe slope of the hne IS known as the energy g'radient. th:e fiow js sub criticaL When the depth of flow is less than the critical depth. = .... m . and 1/2 is the depth . (Why?) At any point P on this curve. or . the specific energy will be changed· aucordcurves A' B' and A" (Fig.• i 40 . 'f .lal to the· total energy head at t~e downstream seetion 2 plus the loss of energy hf between the two sectIons. depth of a supercritical flow. the low stage YI and the high stage y~.. + Y2 + a2 V~ +hf 2g .S w. Thus. + YI .on can .l: . For the present purpose. for a given channel section and discharge Q. the total energy head at the upstream section 1 should be eql.. hence.P. specific energy corresponds to the critical state of fio. .3the . The low stage is· called the alternate depth· of the high stage. the tots'! energy at the chan. At point G. S. Leonhard Euler a. = d cos or. Thus. the velocity of flow is less than the critical velocity for the given! discharge. The limb Be approaches the line OD as.t. a specificenergy CUTve (Fig. It can. ' 2 .partlcular the in~roductio'n of the concept of "~ead. for pr~ctlCal purposes. Specific Energy. It ~s .cLOf. for instance. 32) is obtained. . This curve has . . \ 'JI ?y which illdic!l. to gjve recognition to his pioneer achievement in hy. . l cos /1 .lb AC. there are tW9 possible depths.· it may be assumed. (35) becomes Zl Wh~n .+ al 2 = g Z2 . (3:2) with Z = 0. . BASIC PRINCIPLES ENERGY AND MOMENTUM PRINCIPLES 41 ~ different velocity head. 32) represent positions of ingly. it extends l. the following discussion' will be based on Eq. + V I2 = . Hence.Onl~ in un ideal pal'a:lel fl~w of uniform velocity distributl.tes that the specific energy is equal to the sum of the depth of water and the velocity head. Line OD is a line that passes through the origin and !ul:.believed th~t this equiltioni is ascribed to the Swiss mathematician Daniel Berno\llh only lllf~l'ence. 2g 2 (32) E =y+.two limbs AGand BG. for 8: channel of small slope and a 8 + = a 2g V2 (37) 1. ".Lhea. YI is the. Eq.. Specific energyl in a channel section is defined as the energJi per pound of water at any section of· a channel measured with respect to the channel bottom. and the: . 'rh~ .2 1 The slo~e is generally defined as tan O. It will be proved Inter that this condition of minimllriJ.s _ananglfi Qf lr~eJlP. + al ~2· g V.fiowis greater than the critical depth.nd the'velocity head V 2 /2g. and the el~ergy coefficient may be used ·to correct for the overall effect of the nonuniform velocity distribution. . Eq.v.lifl. 31). .nd later popularized by Julius WelSbl\ch [1 J. 2g (33) Consid~r !lOW a prismatic channel of large slope (Fig. According to the principle of conservation· of energy. the specific energy in a channel section is a function of the depth of flow only. owing to· the nonuniform vel~ity distribution ~ctual fl~w.&gy_line. ) I . the total energy at the channel section is U1 32. at the critical state the two alternate depths apparently become one. however. When the depth of .. according to Eq.of a subcritical flow. Yl+ 2 g . tlu~ e~uatlOn was first formulated by. The line r~pl'eSelltlltgJhL~_~~va~ion of the tota.. the angle of inclination of the line OD will be different from 45°.horiz. nel section is Thus.l .. 2g V! (38) For channels of small slope. and vice vel'sa. that the velocity heads for all points on the ch~nnel sectIOn are equa. . az .
. than the discharge used for the construction of the curve AB. ..2 N\':. the Froude number may be defined as . In the above derivation.). Now dA/dy = T. The above equation. so the above equation becomes ' dE V2T 'V2 =1=1dy 'gA . hydraulic jump are.l depth bas'ed on the theorem of minimurh energy introdl. 32.I .beused in any problem. therefore.< . the velocity head is equal to half the hydraulic depth. Such a phenomenon is generally caused by an abrupt change .gJ5 == 1. The above eq~ation may also be written V!. Q2 217A  (313) (39) Diffe~entiatiilg with respect to y and noting that Q is a constant. theoretical criterion for critical flow may be developed from this definition as follows: Since V = Q/ A. the criterion . the equation for specific energy in a channel of small slope with a = 1J may be written E=y+. therefore..~ 4 (310) ro y I This is the criterion for critical flow.. this is the definition of critical flow given previously (Art." . Vl 2g = D cos 2 e (312) where D is the hydraulic depth of the wateI: area normal to the channel bottom.' I. 1 I' j I j Supercritica I ) For a channel of large slope angle 8 and energy coefficient for critical flow can easily be proved to be ct ct.Fw. . " The differential water area dll near the free surface (Fig. 32) is equal to T dy. 12). 13). Criterion for a Critical State of Flow. 34. If the energy coefficient is not assumed to be unity.42 BASIC PRINCIPLES ENERGY AND MOMENTUM PRINCIPLES 43· min~mum. Eq. the two types M local phenomena. ' Wall first It should be noted that the coefficient a of a channel section actually ·varies with depth. Change of the state of flow from subcritical to supercritical vice versa occurs frequently in open channels.. (2) channel 01 small stope. At the transitory region of the hydraulic drop a reverse curve usually or ~ . the resulting equation is il0t absolutely exact. . gD I Th~ concept of critica. dE = 1 _ ~ dA = I _ VI dA dy gA3 dy gAdy . the criti~alflow criterion is (311) () " i. If the above criterion is to . (38).the specificenergy curve when the discharge is less 'and greater. respectively.in the channel slope or cross section and is known as a hydraulic drop (fig. and. the following conditions must be satisfied: (1) flow parallel or gradually val:ied. 13) as the condition for which the Froude number is equal to uni~y. alld (3) energy coefficient assumed to be unity. A rapid change in the depth of flow from a high stage to a low stage will result in a steep depression in the water surface.ced by BOss [3J.which means F = 1. 33. described as follows: Hydraulic Drop. ' The hydraulic drop and . the flow is rapidly varied and is known as a local phenomenon. ~~1 (j { . and the hydraulic depth D:= A/T. A more common definition is that it is the state of flow at which the specific energy is a minimum for a given discharge. which states that at the critical state of flow. the coefficient is assumed to be constant. gives or VI D 2g . The critical state of flow ' has been defined (Art. In this case. however. Such change is manifested in a corresponding ch&nge in the depth of flow from a high stage to a low stage or vice versa. Interpretation of Local Phenomena. 1 A At the critical state of ftowthe specific energy is a dE/dy =0. If the change takes place rapidly o'/er a relati velyshort distance. Specificenergy curve. may be .
lli} of ..The theoretIcal watersurface curve of an overfall is shown with a dashed line in Fig.4yo.. the change in depth is great.' The point of inflection on the reverse curve marks the approximate position of the cdtical depth nt which the specific energy is a minimum and the flow passes from a "SUbcritical state to a supercritical state.~. that is.mination of critical depth by Eq.his. in which the vertjc!l.hen~..p~nsating external en~.~ having a prolonged reversed curve of water surface.ilial deplh Hydraulic jump Specific·force Culye FIG. the result is usually an abl'llPt rise of water ~e." In deJ2th woul£. When the jump is high. the flow becomes a gradually varied flow ..11) IS based on the assumption of parallel flow a. the water will not rise obviOtisly and abruptly but will pass from the low to the high stage through a series of undulations gradually diminishing in size.44 BASIC PRINCIPLES ENERGY AND MOME~TUM PRINCIPLES  45 \ I. 33).. when.J~titical depth _because !Er~he:~ecl'eas. It ~hould be reme~bered that the detel. . at. fru:.flow is P.'CQllQl!nclill.:the curYatl. The free ove'rfall (Fig.specificenergy and specificforce curves.~~h~~ the brin~. the jump is called a direct jump.e. the energy content in the flow after the jump is appreciably less than that before the jump. "" c. the foot of a spillway. <U '0 _ Ii Y Y "" " o. if no energy were added from the outside. the y T~actual situation i~ that the brink section is thg true section of minimum energy. .c31O) or !3. It may be noted that the depth before the jump is always less than the . When the rapid change in the depth of fiow is from a low stage to a.. as shown On the specificenergy curve..pos~ll>l~o. It occurs frequently in a canal below a regulating sluice.l scale is exaggerated).rid is ap. \ appears. Consequently. but it is not the critical section as comjnite(fEyt'te prineiple based on the parallelflow assumpti~ Rouse [~l .. that is. connecting the water surfaces before and after the 'drop.tion. high stage. or Yo = 1. increo. If the specific energy at an upstream section is E.phcnomenoll may ~Clllled ~ grad'unl hud7'a1t~ic drop and is no longer a local phenomenon~ Hydraulic Jump. ~.!. and that it is located about 3y< to 4yc "behind the brink in the channel. if the change in the depth of flow from Do high stage to a low stage is gradual.licOi water surfoce o " """". is the law of nature that.. 33. It occurs 'where the bottom of a fiat' channel is discontinued. r~~~~tie less_tha!Lth.TI. the method is invalid 'for determining the critical depth asJ. 33) is a special case of the hydraulic drop. v'{ijl.. if the change in depth is small.!ll.. The direct jump involves a relatively large amount of energy loss thro. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ~ E Specificene'g)' CUrye Ir...' If thejump is low. found that for small slopes the computed critical depth is about 1.ls sup~lie<!: .se in sgecific energy. there will be no reverse curve in the water surface until it strikes some object at a lower eleva. .. or at the place where a steep chann!)l slope suddenly turns jlat. 33. . This local' phenomenon is known a~J. t. The actual water surface of the overfall is shown by the full line (Fig.It should be noted that.. As the free overfall entel'S the air in the form of a nappo. 34. \ ' 1 water sl1T~!:\cewould seek its lowest possible position corresponding to the least possIble content of energy dissipation./::~LJ) '7 f"'~'''1i ::!~ o .ll interpreted by specificenergy c~rve.! I~ _ _ _ 'Actual WQter surface .==:::t' ~s~~nLP~~e. The specificenergy curve shows that the section of minimum energy or the critical section should occur at the brink..ulic ~ ju~np interpreted by... (Fig.ugh dissipation in the turbulent body of water in the jump.'\. it will COl1ti~u. Free overfa.e to be dissipated on the way downstream and 'Will finally reach a mllllmum energy content E". Hydro.. 1'he flQW at the brink E' actually .."".tl: /Theore. . 34. FIG.he hydraulic j1tmp. .!eguire a..phc~ble only approximately to gradually varied flow.llllt:llilinear.4 times the brink depth.. It. Such a low jump is called an uooular jtimp.
sequent depOt Y2. 34). the low stages Yl and Y2 are the actual depths of flow singe they are in the supercriticalflow region. In other words. 35) . { \ :l . For non prismatic channels. built of straight wa..l critical depth and alternate depths C3.lls and a horizontal fiooc. In the downstream sections rand 2.slope channel. They· should he distinguished from the altern!J. criticaldepth line. The initial section 0 is an upstream section in the sUbcriticalflow region. At &ection C the critical flow occurs.ction (0. For simplicity.depth y 1 and that after the jump is called . is the critical depth. Eumple3L ·A rectangular cha. t. In preceding discussions the channel has been assumed prismatic so t.hat one specificel~ergy curve could be applied to evil sections of the channel.ction. Shice this section is in the subCl'iticalflow region. A~p~hs YI and Y2'! whi(J~~e the two nossible depth~ fo!:.the same specific ener~l' _.46 BASIC PRINCIPLES ENERGY AND MOMENTUM PRINCIPLES 47 depth after the jump. intersect at a single point. Ilnd(b) a.ined.nnell0 ft wide is narrowed down to 8 ft by a contrMtion 50 ft long. At the critical section. The critical depth at each se ytion can also be obtained from the energy curve at the point of minimum energy. stibcritical state to a supercritical state: (Fig. determine the flowsurface profile in the contra. the high stage yo should be the actual depth of flow.llowing a gradual .ngle and curvature of flow is ignored in this discussion.ving its point of inflection a. For simple channels. hence. On the H x plane. the channel section varies along the length of the channel and. it is noted that the three lines. .yater surface.E is invohed.ried flow from sllbcritical to supen::ritical state. For demonstrative purposes. In actual applications. showing the channel bottom. The exact position of the energy line depends on the energy losses along the channel. instead of the specific energy.t. the alternate depths in other sections can be obta. Energy in a non prismatic channel of variableslope.te.. the . water surface. criticaldepth line. whereas the low stage is the alternate depth. varioUs lines can finally be' plotted.t the midsectioll of the contra. The vertical profile of the channel along its center line is plotted on the Hx plane with the x axis chosen as the datum. carrying gradually va. the initial and sequent depths would become identical with the alternate depths in a prismatic channel. An energy line is then plotted on the Hx plane below a line parallel to the x axis and passing through the initial total head at the H axis.. against the depth of flow on the By plane. Energy in NQnprismatic Channels.. a nOllprismatic channel with variable slope is taken as an example. in which agradually varied flow is carried from a. . however. separately on a number of tWodimensional Hy planes for the chosen sections. It is seen' tho. The· threedimensional plot of energy curves is complicated. For a variable. the specificenergy curve differs from section to section. the criticaldepth line.n the specific energy at the sequent depth . the pressure correction due to the slope a.hydraulic drop ha. The initial and sequent depths VI and Y2 are shown on the specificenergy curve (Fig.he water surface entei'S the supercriticalflow region smoothly. and the depth y. Similarly. the specific energy E 1 at the initial depth Vl is greater tha. 100 cfB and the depth of Bow is 5 ft On the upstream side of the transition section.the . the energy C'lrves may be constructed 1 \ I I I i I ! I I I ! II X FIG'. . and alternatedepth line. The two depths corresponding to a given total energy H 0 can be obtained from the energy curve.~~itial and s~lent depths are actual depths before and after a jump in which ~rgy lOss b. The depth before the jump is called the initial . 35. in passing through the critical Reotion.) allowing no gradual hydraulic drop in the contraction. namely.tionalloss through the contraction is negligible. The description given here is used only for helping the reader to visualize the problem. Four channel sections are then selected and four energy curves for these sections are plotted in the Hy planes ~ shown. Th!Jrip. 35.y~ by an amount equal to the energy loss AE. and alternatedepth line on a twodimensional Ex plane. and the alternatedepth line. the energy curves are not necessary because thi. The data obtained from these curves are then used to plot the water surface. it is more convenient to plot the total energy head H = z + y + V Z/2g. If the discharge is . II there were 110 energy losses.n easily be computed directly. This cbm'plication can be seen in a threedimensional plot of the energy curves along the given reach of a nonpl'ismatic channel.
The lm~ and high stages at each section are then computed by the equation previously'given. ll5 to 117).The above equa' tion . l . Since the point of inAection of the drop or 11. the momentum of. or 5.00 ft. which is the depth of flow.45 X 3.5 06'> " y .l energy. W is the weight of water enclosed between the sections.actual profile would deviate from th/'! theoretical one. 37). which can be measured from the plan.mit and V is the mean weight of water in lb/ft i . Sol1ttiDn.with straight lines. equation gives a low ati\ge YI =. 1 The application of the inomentum principle was first suggested by Belanger [5J. . for the momentum change per unit tirnein. . Momentum in Openchannel Flow.tion in which b is the width of the channel.25 b'.38) = 2.. .omentum equation.. Similarly.375 ft. By :r::q. . which is the altemate depth..the water and the cha.5 (Prob. ! When no gr~dual hydraulic drop is allowed in'the contraction (Fig. 36a).4.83 fi. FIG. where b = 10 ft. . with subscl'ipts refe1'l'in'g to ' sectionrl~nd P! and P 2 are the resultants of pressures acting on the two sections. the low stages are computed by the aboye procedure and indicated by the alternatedepth line~ .. its s61ution gives two positive roots: a low stage 'YI = 0.l depth can be computed from the equation (lOO/by. or vice versa. .Applying this principletO channel of large slope (Fig.Qt bet\V'een. Energy principle applied to a channel contraction (a) without gr:adual hydraulic drop. w is the l.062/1. e. lts water surface should follow the high stage. On the basis of Eq. "gb% where' b is the width of the channel. " 48 BASIC PRINCIPLES ENERGY AND MOMENTUM PRINCIPLES 49 + . thefiow passing a channel section per 'unit time is expressed by pwQV /y.062 ft. as shown. theldepth of flow at the exit ~ection should be at the low stage. the fplfo~~ing expl:ession. A horizontal energy line showing the elevation'of the tobl head is. It should be noted :that the vertical scale of the channel profile is greatly exaggerated. .the body of water enclosed betv. the critica. In reality.964 ft. The high stages for other interm£ldiate sections are then compute~ by the above equation.. 36b). w. the width of this' critical section should be 100/(10. the total'energy in the approaching flow meas~red above the channel bottom i~ u: = 5 {100/(5 ?< 1O)1'/2g = 5.062 = Y + 2g(by)' or .5 = 3.lIC contractIon. (39) as follows: . (314) cit! C( )>1' _. Downstream from the critical secti6n.should be kept at the high stage. .(hop.).750 ftiand a high stage Y. At the exit section . and the .. the flow near the drop is more or less curvilinear.. critical depth at t}Jis section is equal to the total head divided by 1. At the entrance sec' tion. "'>l·~)(qt '~l 0( . where p is the momentum coefficient. based on the theory of parallel flow.n be computed by Eq.. (310).. 2. = 4. the outline of the gradual hydraulic drop is only theoretical. and ahigh stage Y2 := 5. The criti. ' The alternate depths for the given tot . . ' " 100' 5. Q is the discharge in velocity in fps. 0. since energy losses are negligible. the flow is sllpercritical and its Burface profile 'follows the lowstage line. As stated earlier (Art. y = {/lO. whicli giveB the flowsurface ptofile. Yn . As the flow upstream from the critical section is subcritical. When a grodua:~ hydrauiic drop is desired in the contraction (Fig.I I I ! ! .5 fps. . Hence.ilong the lLUliace of conta.tion and reslstanc~~ing. ' With the size of the midsection determined. 1 •. the side walls of the contraction can bo drawn in . 36). . From the given data. and 1:::' are :as.OOO . the 36. the critical velocity ts'eqllnl to V. . (310). = V3.?'?>. previously defined.:een sections 1 and 2 may be written: cfs. and F! is the total external force QL friE. drawn on the channel· profile (Fig. resultant of all the external forces that are acting on the body. The designer may fit any type of contraction walls he desires to suit a given flow profile.589 ft. where Q.According to Newton's second law of motion. . This energy is kept constant throughout l. Furthermore. critipal section is maintained at th~ midsection of the c~ntracti<?n. 36. 33).nl)el.::aldepth line is shown to sepai'ate the high from the low stage or the subCl'itical from the stipercritical region of flow. 27).375g = 10. I · . 2g or = '2 y. This example also serves to demonstrate 11 method of designing a channel transition (Arts. the1depth of flow at the exit section. . = 0 This is a cubic equtl. the change of momentum per unit of time in the body of water in a flowing channel is equal to the . this.where 11 = 8 ft. (b) with gradual hydraulic . ~Y + 155. therefore. a  J(.is known as the m..
37) that eha weight of the body of water is W = wbfjL and sin {j = Substituting :111 the abo. by {)!'P 1 and f1~'P2' where {:Jt' and {)z' are the correction coefficients at the two sections. or I .'lpite the fact that mmany instances the two principles will produce practically. In uniform flow. less than 1.quation is similar to the energy equation when ~pplied to certain flow problems.r.. Sjnce and P2 are forces. It can be shown thu.50 BASIC PRINCIPLES ENERGY AND )'. For a cur:vilinea.IOMENTUJI{ PRINCIPLES 51 r For a parallei or gradually varied flow. P z = 7§.'e expressions for the corresponding items in Eq.ge depth.l energy dissipat. .h . The discharge ~hrcillgh the reach may be taken as the produot of the average velocity and the avera.rs to be practically the same as the energy equation (35).s. 1 · Thus.e different meanings of the frictiollltllosses.. channel is ass~ed relatively small.oretically sp'3aking. (314) and simplifying.wb yz2 FI = wh/by L where h/ is the friction head and ii is the avera. .II!.ed in the whole ~. The.rit.a:k.on. . Application of the momentum. tI This equation appes.l(cd .c)id JI. 37). hence the ~alues of PI and P z cannot be so computed but must be cOl'rected for the curvature effect of the streamlines of the flow. a gradually varied flow.yres t. however. correction factor (Art. the. (29)1. 210). In this case. and (1' = 1.ter area A below the free surface. 1.0 for ooncave flow.!ll!t!. to as pressuredislribution coefficients. coeffi(Jients may be specificall~r (JaIled force coefficients.~~?} i I Co t1r I IC!cr'T(~ 0 • 'tl. the energy principle offers a simpler and clea~er I. The inherent distinction between the two principles lies in the fact that energ'J is a i5calar quantity whereas momentum is a vectC)r quantitT also· the ~nergy equation contains a term for' internal losses. are the Beptbs of flow section and cos IJ is a.is considered. I () j: /::}.r or rapidly varied flo"l. accordingly. P 1 and P2 may be replaced. h is the pressure head on the elementary area dA.~s of the water iI!tbe reseh. but al~o invol.he intl?rna. = . andc is the pressurehead correction [Eq. It can easily be seen th'1t pI is !. the pressure distribution is no longer hydrostatic.. the Item hr mea::. it seems that.t the force coefficient is expressed by {:J' = i 1:: fA AZ)o hdA= 1 + ~ fA AzJ~ cdA (315) where z is the depth of the centroid of the wa. 37.where ell and el.{.1lllJ:allel flow: It can be shown that the momentum e.ge area.\ I Q ~ ~i(Vl + V~)bii Also.Treater than 1.~ 1.tic distribution of pressure. or (YI+ Y2)/2. ~t·Z. it is evident (Fig. 1 <. therefore.4 A >(:i:. t'Yltkfr. and Assume PI . identical results.. then PI = }iwdl~ cos 0 and P. the internalellergy losses are practically identical with the losses due to external forces. the values of PI and P 2 in the momentum equation may be computed by assuming a hYdrosta. the pressure distribution in the sections may be assumed hydrostatic. .inction between hI and h/ does not exist except in definition. the slope of the .!l~le 8 is large. in gradually varied flow.0 for and equai =~~ to 1. the two equations not only use different velocitydistribution coefficient. respectively. A j'(. The coefficients are referred rectangular channel of small slope and wi~lth b (Fig. de.fW~1 cos O.' however. where:s th~ momentum equation contains a term for external resistance. the rate with which surface forces are doing work is equal to the rate of energy dissipation. . For simplicity. Generally speaking. In that case. Ignoring the small difference between the coefficients a and fJ. Also.y between the applications of the energy and momentum principles may be confusing: A clear ullderstandingof the basic differences in their constitution is important.'~Wb1l1:l. (316)1 Fro. in the short reach of a 1 If the slope a. ! c dA r +~ (colA 1/ z ) '" . = " j. whereas the item hi in the momentum equatirJll measures the losses due to external forces exerted 011 the water by the walls of the channel. although these are nearly equal. the energy !ill..0 f <2. a dist.Ad4 . The simila.a.principle.iJ" ~ e"" t Jtl'!' ~.
.~ t5 If) f3 L . Example 32.. this equation variesjfo~'!l'lR. If the momentum equation (314) is ·applied to the body of water between the upstream J 0 r 0 1">'1 e'Y°. W. (3) at the channel sections under consideration there is parallel flow. (2) the depth y. is unimportant in such problems and can safely be omitted. = Hwh[y.:aty/'b . . . . . Boilltiun. But the momentum principle has certain advl. in 188.h) .6 [9]. 37.1: /)~. The well"known experiments all broadcrested weirs are (1) Bl].<_.B..ntages in application to problems involving high internalenergy changes.zero to Infinity. For an analytical treatment of the problem. 1 a. Corncllle. The assumptions to be made in this solution (Fig. (2) U. 'The v:llue of the coefficient actually depends on many factors: mainly. + ZZA2 gAl g.. i:~ ' r · »( .it can be seen that knowledge of the internalenergy losses due to separation of flow at the entrance and to other causes ·is not needed in the ... where q is the discharge per unit width of th~ weir'. Geological Survey under the direction of Robert E..D. In applying the momentum principle tiJ"this problem." are negligible. at the university of Minnesota and Washington State University [6]. . Horton in 1903 [101. r .o/.u. lIee· '[13].zin tests performed in Dijon. . the length and slope of the weir crest. because the phenomenon takes place in a short reach of the channel mid the efiect due to external forces is negligibl~ compfkreq with the internal losses.G. + ilAl = il. q = 0.ter areas Al and Az below the surface of flow. Y I = Q/ Al a.433 .'Y) c'Af:i .. with (J = 0 and F. 38..) l~ H% h ·Y'T I (317) //.tic p~.S. I <Y'£.J<.h) The accuracy (If the last assumption has been checked ~xperimentally [61..r? j .c 11.. the effects of the internal forces will be entirely out of considerfltion and need not be evaluated.:: /. 7 (~~4li/M :: .of h from . (3) Michigan tests performed at the University of Michigan during H)281929 [11]. .t~.in considerable errors.B. From several of the wenknown experiments King [7J has interpolated the data and prepared tables for the coefficient uncle·r various conditions. and the height of the weir.S.Ired below the upstreamwatei: surface.[1""< a"1. Conslderillg the limit.. For some formulas and coefficients of discharge developed in the U.11. VI .17 1) g = PI . or.sts performed·by the U. approach section 1 and the downstream section 2 at themininium depth of the weir. 'c.'respectively. and (4) ~~~r . (){. .lV.R. the extern:al force of friction and the weight effect of water can be ignored. ' _ . the rounding of the upstream corner. '.P2 The hydrostatic forces PI and 'P 2 may be expressed as PI = wi 1 A. If the energy equation is applied to such problems. V2Y (4.) (3":18) FIG.d:. the unkriown internalenergy loss represented by h. /' Experiments by Doeringsfeld and Barker 181 ·have shown that.!!re . Specific Force.4) becomes Qw (V2 . An example showing the application ·of the momentum principle to the problem of It broadcrested weir is given below. since it deals only with extemal forces... is the minimum depth on the weir. .. (31... III that case the above equation can be simplified ani1 solved for q. It is interesting to note that the practical range·1lf tfie coefficient to H~" obtained by actnal observations' is from 3. Rafter. .. on the/average.)] = Hwh(2YI . A comprehensive analysis including more recent data and a presentation of the results for practical applications were made by Tracy [8J. Also. 52 BASIC PRINCIPLES ENERGY AND MOMENTUM PRINCIPLES 53 OIl explanation than does the momentum principle.(YI .ve.. on the other hand.I.!!. /. .. and U.~. = 0 and assuming also {31 = {3z = 1.~.Bi Cornell tests performed at Cornell University in 1899 by the U. and (4) MinneBola and· Washington tests performed. and· the omission of this term would result ...".r. meD..nd P 2 = wi 2 A 2 where i l a~d i2 are the distances of the centroids of the respective wa. .analysis. The term for il'ictionallosses due to ex~ernal forces. _!J_) Y2 YI = HWYI'  MWy2 2  Hwh(2y.4.! f. prismatic channel.:Ad . If instead the momentum equation is applied to these problems. is indeterminate.. Many experiments on bl'oad~crested weirs haye been performed.~L tv q = 2. such as the problem of the hydraulic jump. = 2Y2.le..6RH.05 to 2. the above momentum equation may be written ir..rI. Eq.67.rgf1lJ. ..S.fi 2 (Qr //. France."". Momentum principle ~pplied to flow over a broadcregted weir.11..S\. 3"8) are (1) the frictional forces Fr' and F. In applying the momentum principle to a short horizontal reach of fl. +. p .pressure £w'on ~e weir surface is equal to the total hydros~. Thus. Deep Waterways Board under the direction of G.nd V 2 = Q/ A z• Then. the following equation may be written: the top qw g (!1. Derive the discharge per unlt width ofa broadcrested weir across a rectangular channel./n Ct"7fdt.S. Further discussions on the solution of the hydraulicjump problem by both principles will be given IELter (Example 33). see [12].S.:u.
J<.. NQw. The {unction represented by Eq. assuming (dy) 2 = 0. .unit weigb. both are designated by 1/1' . This curve has two limbs AC and BC.bl (a) Specific i " i This is the criterion for the criMeal state of How. a ~pecificjorce CU'fve is obtained (Fig. briefly.. and the proof is known llS the J a.l!. channel of . that is. or.lways less than the high stage 1/2'. in order to maintain a constant value of F1. namely.17. For a given value of the specific force. At point· C on the curve the two depths become one. (Fig. .eger theorem {I9]. 1 This has been variously called the "force plus momentum. For a minimum yalue of the specific force.. about the free surface is equal to [A (2 + dy) + T(dyP/2] . and the second is !:. the sequent depth is designated by y." or. By plottillg the depth against the spec~fic force for a given.1 .ge lit. It is assumed that the low stage and the initial depth are both equaJ to YI' Thus.. their sum may . (310) Since dA/dy reduced to = T. 39. The first term is the momentum of the flow passing through the channel section per unit time per unit weight of water. Since .ted by Bresse [15J for the study of the hYdra.c~. the above equation may be c· o ~=:_. (e) specificforce curve. Therefore. (b) channel section.. 33).ullc jump to be described in Example 33. both terms al~e essentially force per unit weight of water..ail initial depth lit in the supercritica. it is proved that the dep~h at the minimum valueaf the specific force is the critical depth. ' as F 1 = F 2. Ignoring the differential of higher degree. and the ):ligh sta. be .l depth is: a genera.liel flow and uniform velocity distribution. zero or small slope (0] I I ( ! i l. the concept of !lritico.. the specificenergJ' curve shows that the energy content E2 for the depth Vi is less than the energy content El for the depth Y2'. tl:.nding change 'd(iA) in the static'moment the water area. (318) may be expressfld . clear distinction between the sequent depth and the high of tile alternate depths. ' ~ In order to make 2.I It may also be stated that at the critical state of flow the specific'jorce is a minim.i t zA ' This function cOMists of two terms. 39).ve:been developed by Boussinesq [16). derived e~rlier (Art." the "total force. which is equal to El . In some other places in thLs book. hence.ELrillr. the depth of flow may be changed from Yl to Y2 at the price 'of losing a certain amouilt of energy..zA.re the specificforce curve with the specificenergy curve. energy curve. = I:J.and AfT D.d(zA) dy T elY 0 For a change dy in the depth.. (318) are analogous and. from Eq. 39). Then the preceding equation may be written of dF B _ Q! dA gA2 dy +A = = 0 .'um for the given discharge.. proved by Jaeger [14. The following argument shows that the depth at the minimum value pf the specific force is eqv. 81 and 82 of [14J). the specificforce curve also indicates two poosible depths.!lr. comp£1. channel section and discharge.!.e for.l concept.. This validity has beeJ.h between the two s~ctiQns can be igno].iell specific energy Ell the specificenergy curve indicates two possible depths.54 BASIC PRINCIPLES ENERGY AND MOMENTUM PRINCIPLES 55 The two sides of Eq.18).rea<. However. The limb BC rises upward and extends indefinitely to the right. and the specific force is a minimum. the curve has two poss(ble depths Yl and Yl' " A13 will be shown later.l region nncla sequent depth ljz in the sub critical flow region.al to the critical depth. however. Furthermore.1 depth based on tbe theorem of momentum :is believed to ha.r:ovided t~t the e~rnal forces and the weight effect of water in the. the two depths constitute the il1it~al and sequent depths of a hyqraulic jump. namely. 39). the correspo.. (3:'19) was formula.'~ the "momentum ftux. u4'_ ' "(319) gP Q2 dA . Specificfofce curve supplemented \~ith specificenergy curve. Therefore. (319). (Fig.s 1 and 2 are equal. a low stage YI in the supel'critical flow region and a high stage yz' in the subcritical flow region. 2 .~ .. the two curves indicate jointly that the sequent depth Y2 is a.l(jr. the first derivative of F with respect to iJ should bl') zero.a. ' dF F . may be expressed for ahy channel section by a general function " Qz' .ed. the "force" pf a stream (see pp. : i The conoept of critic!!. p. One example o( this is the 1 It should be noted that the above proof is based on the assumptidrul of para.E. whether derived from energy or from momentum considerations.E.t is valid for aU flows. For a gi.c~lled the 8PlJcifjE.:Lm w~t. For a given v~lue of F1. The limb AC approaches the horizontal axis asymptotically toward the right. the change in static moment becomes d(iA) = A dy.I I. 45° for () Ez '£lEiE:. This means that the specific forces of section.Accordingly. Q/ A V.
'Then. passing through the P?int PI and intercepting the upper limb of the specificforce curve at point P" which gives the sequent depth 1)2. For the given approaching depth 11. ~ .i:n. . = V... because~ thejump't. respectively.5 ft. channel expansion (a. . that the depths YI and yz' shown by the specificenergy curve are the alternate depths. whereas the ?epths.' 0 y. 34). The point Pi'!gives the initial energy content E . 2F • = 0 I TIle solutjon of this quadra..5 + [IOO/(O. For practical purposes.Fig. respectively.c force. flowing nt. .n i~ be eliminated? :' . ' ..tion. P..therefore be considered equal. A rectangular channel Sit wide.2F. The o~ 4 n (Fir. UIlB of the specificenergy curve aud the specificforce curve helps to d~ter ~ne gra. If. is connected by a str:oightwall transition to Il.he specificforce curve are. 310. after the j'.y~/2. Example 84. ana.'] (~ .S X 8))'/2g = 10.A. For ll. The el:ternal forces of friction and the wet'lH effect of Wil. varies with the snape ofthechannel priIicipl~ Applied to Nonprisrnati~ Channels. The' specific forces of sections 1 and 2 (Fig. a hyqraulic jump occurs in the transition. 34).iv:? . in which the specific forces before and after the jump are equal and the loss of energy is a consequence of the phenomenon.lmp. given appro8. the tptal energy with respect to the channel bot~' tom in the approaching flow is E ~ 0.' are located on the spe~iticforce curve and the spec~c~energy curve. how C!l. = V d v'Uih in the above equation and simplifying.4. recLanguinr channel of width b.n&'ition is negligible. that deal .) with hydraulic jump. The energy loss in the jump is then equal to El .earrying 100 cfs at a depth of 0. This will be explained further in the following example. and ii' .tic equation is (321) . It should be understood that the momentum principle ill used in this solutiou because the hydraulic jump involves a high amount of internalenergy losses whioh cannot be evaluated in the energy equation.ry.0 + (100/(4 X 10)Ji/2y = 4.\e tra.". . Then. which: gives the energy content E..Wr in the hydl'~ulic jump o~ a horizontal floor are negligible. 2.~.bJ'JlJ""'''''' th. (mnergy and'momentum principles applied to II..tJ.chmgflow. channel 10 it wide. Where there is no interyention 'of external forces or where these forces are either negligible or given. depth.. J:!.alllic jump.. S"l'Uti"n~ From the given data. E .. Dedve a relationship b~tween the initial depth and the sequent depth of 8: hydraulic jump on a horizontal floor in a rectangular channel.'.. . (2F. however. Determine the flow. let (:1!!)' . = bYt. profile in the transition if th~ frictional loss through tl.097 ft.plllcally the energy loss involved in the hydraulic jump for II.0 YI YI YI ~ = (320) ~V ( Y. (b) without hydraulic jump. 35) can be constructed.he hydr.I "'i 56 BASIC PRINCIPLES !' hydraulic jump on a horizontal floor. Yl and Y2 shown by t. this is rarely necessa. the momentum pdriciple can be applied to its best advantage to problems.F'roude ?u~ber FI of the apprQaching flow. .. Substituting these relations IlJld F. .E" represented by / l E . therefore.: a8. [(1Lt)' +. .' 1) . (318) i \ I f ENERGY AND MOMENTUM PRINCIPLES 57 section.' + 1) (J!J)+ 2F. For a. Q = V. can.. before and after the jump. and in the dowiistrea.s. depth to the IlUt1l3l depth IS given by the above equa. points P.207 It. respectively (.It is appnhnt that this .A. Factoring.horizontal fioor is zero.t point P. : ' FIG. like the specific' energy. ' .The jOilit. Al = by" A.:kes place in a relatively short distance and the slope angle of the ."!I"':'. such as t. draw a horizontal line passing through the point P a and intercepting the specificenergy curve a.a threedimensional plot similar to that shown for the application of the energy principle (Fig. ' Example 311.""'!j12!JiJ.' In applying the mornentur~l principle to nonprismatic channels. however..:/ + 1l! _ y. that is.Momentum sp~cifj. Sob/ion.!:~l!!!i~~.at. Dralv a vertical line.' It may be noted at this point.. the mitinl depth and the sequent depth of !1 hydraulic jump.."'J="_<". the xatio of the sequent. 3~lO). jUhe energy following example shows how the momentum design of a channel transition in which a hydraulic jump is involve(i. = yi/2.
in !1 rectangular channel ca.8 8.d B. or at the intersection of the F lines.m channel will also change the po~ition of tile jump.rnate depths Y1. TABLE 31. ~ince the bottom of the transition is fixed. it is convenient first to assUlne the lIow profile and then to proportion the dimensions of the tranllition so 'that the jump can be eliminated. since the frictlontll lru.58 'BA. deSign p1l1poses.construct a dimensiouleSiil graph for the above equation rand study its characteristics. Derive the equations for the lOCI15 of the critiMldepth point on the specificenergy curve and for the curve of critical depth vs.n be expressed by . however. 01' "humped" (Fig.7 78. At. to be disclosed by fur~her analysis. difference between the flows in the conne¢ting channels. as 31. Show that at the critical state of How tha specificenergy head in a rectangular channeli. PRODLEMS Take 'five sections of the transition with their widths shown in Table 31.ch section are computed and plotte~ to any convenient scale and datum. at ea. ft Low stage for E = 10. 200. this <laction the water surface at low . 3L 36. 300. and a decreaSe in the depth will move the jump do:wnstream.9 79. This line should be tangent to the totalenergy line at the critical flection.8 78. If the critic31depthlinc is plotted. the high st. indicll. change of the flow from supercritical to Bubcritica.ined in Prob.110 ftl covering the energy.Ai'/SlON DESCRIBED IN EXAMPLE 34 .3. TllUB.tion. Construct the specificenergy curve for a 36in. Actuall:)" however.:e minus the depth of flow.00 0.ud a section shown in Fig.l state o( flow the discharge is II ma::dmum for a given specific energy.ate. Using values of y. shown by the dotted line. Changing the depth of flow in the downstrea.. (2) compute the velocity head. a line of minimum speCific energy can also be construc. 100.SIC PRINCIPLES ENERGY A. . as oota. Prove (3~12). occur where the specific 'forces for the low and IUgh stages are equal. at a llumbe!' of sel". a hydra. . 3lOb). Therefore.pproaching a. Show that 'the relation between the altc. and (6) compute F'l and F. respectively.22 of the 8.lternate depth.ulic jump can be expected to occur to dissipate the energy difference and to effect a change in the flow st. 38.. 3lOa). it will intersect the alternatedepth line and th~ water surface simultaneously at the critical section. Generally. be done by introducing proper roughness in the transition.00 9.l. the energy line in the tl'ansition is simply a straight line joining the total heads of the two end sections (Fig.concepG of critical depth based. Whether this jump will occur within the transition or in the upstream or. equal to 1. from 8upercritical to subcritical stale. that is. The subsequent procedure of the compuGlttion is to (1) a.the low stage YI for each section call be computed by means of Eq. V~.and 1/. lines fo!' the low and high stages.50 9. the Fro. Furthermore.:"" 10. which is equal to 6. assuming zero slope and a = 1. for the given discharges_ . of the transition.207 'II" ft PI F. (38) or (39). where the :flow cha.940 3. the specific forces P! and F.nges from low to high stage.310b). It can be seen that the two F' lines inter3ect and' become tangent to each other a. ' The .ted.6 87.097 Thelow.5 times the depth of flow.s is negligible.419 0. (313).t a critical section. as indicated by a vertic. for low and high stages.stage will jump to the high stage.and highstage linea are then construeted slong with t·lle energy lines (Fig.500 o 470 0.' The energy loss in the jump is represented bj' the vertical intercept between the upstr.1:3 0. PrC/ve Eq. With reference to a channel of small slope !l.00 8. 82.979 3. By varying tlie shape of the cross sections of the connecting chan: nels the location of the intersection of theF lines. 1 .9 83. (a) construct a family of specificenergy cllrves f(or Q = 0.1 10 ft is dissipated uniformly in tlte transition by artificial roughness. discharge. 22.207 where b is the width of the section. by bolting orOM .!limbers to the bottom.! \ r ~ '1 I \' . After these stage and energy lines are determined. respectively.6 78. This can.000 for instance. CObfPUTATION FOR A CHAI'1N1:lL EXF. 4. The hydraulic jump (lan be eliminated if the energy loss can be dissipated gradually And ·smoothly. which is equal to the difference. and (d) plot a family of curves of alternate depths.nd the watersurface eleva.097 can be computed from Similarly. and 400 ds.cted sections. 71. 36.8 78. For. an increase in the downst~eam depth will mon the.8 3. flat slope.9 75. 34. 1 ". SB. Bl\Scd on the critica. jump upstream.987 4. Yl vs. and (bj on a 30 slope.097 Section width b. can be altered. In proportioning the transition. or "':"""1::=::' + VI. (3) compute the velocity and then the water area and depth of flow foreayh section. which is equal to the devation of the water surfar.m flo'YS are.9a. The hydraulic jump must. (5) compute the o. between the total heo. is the critical depth.ude numbers 6.age 1/2 for a total ene1'gy of + V2 = 4.24 and 0. It can be !LSSumed ill this a'(ample that the energy diffcrcnce of 6.50 10. (c) plot a curve of the critical depth against the'diilcharge.).!lsume the flow profile.ting IJ.960 .ldepth line. High stage 1/2. Prove that at the critica.d plot them on II convenient Sl'ale.ND MOMENTUM PRINClPLES 59 IlMrgy difference 01 6.20i ft. an. (b) draw the locml of the criticaldepth point on these curves. the jump is eliminated either by varying the wid~h or by raising the bottom of the transition. or the position of the jump. For the total approaching enel'gy of 1O. the downstream channel is.110 It must be dissipated through the transition by ~ome means.398 78. ft for E = 4. 310a.nd downstrea. 0 (322) where Y. the jump will take place over a 'short distance.. pipe carrying 3:n openchannel flow of 20 cis (a) on It. on the theorem of maximum diacharge was first introduced by Belanger [20J. 50.m and downstream energy lines. (4) determine the elevation of the bottom or the transition.al line. In this example.4'.1 . (Fig. greater and less than unity. 37. it is assumed that the bottom is to be raised.!Yc as ordinates !tud of Yz/Yt as abscissas.
pp. 287319. pp. show th!Lt the Froude number of a parallel or gradually Vllried flow in a cha. hydrAulic jump is forllled on the .S. 3. A. 11. Wolf. 96. . 1957. pp. horizont. Horace William King: "Handbook of Hydraulics. REFERENCES where y. pp. 318. 1. 1890. Geologica! Sm'vcy. 100. coefficients. 23124~. American . J. Tl'antwine.l hydraulic jump is AE ()J2 YI)' . ' ENERGY A. J. R. M. Trarlsuctian./' 4j/lY2 _(324)* 312. Determine the flow pro. Flow in Open Channel ").1. ' length of the tra. ser. 22. B.udes" ("C'Almputation of Water Surface with Change of the Flow Type").societv of Civil Engineers.nnel of small slope and Ll. is the height of sluicegate opening. and vol. 1680. U. IJ being the discharge per unit width of the channel. determine the sequent depUl and the energy loss involved in the jllmp.60 ft unifol'Jnly diStributed throughout the lel!gth of the contraction. 1954. 106. October. 6. ' 31'1. English trllnslatioll by Arthur Ma. A.horizontal floor at the toe of the spillway descl'ibed in Prob. prove that where V is the mean veloility. vol. 1957. A frictional loss of 1. Berlin. pp. Mostk~w: "Handbuch der Hydraulik" ("Handbook of Hydraulics"). Neglect the channelbed friction i. JulyAugust. 20 and 52. 'Huntel' Rouse and' Simon Ince: "History of H:rdraulics. 'J. 23. Bazill: Experienceli nouvelles sur l'ecoulement en deversoir {Recent experiinents on tile flow of water over weirs}.file in the tmnsition. Charles Jaeger: "Engineering l. A. 7. and (b) plot a family of curves of initial depth against sequent depth for the given discharges. 1. Using the momentum principle. Tison: Le deversoir l\. (315). revisedas Paper 200.seuil epais (The broadcreste'd weir). April. 5th yr. pp. is thesubme!"ged depth. no. M"tletBacheUer. 13. 2e semestre. V. section shown in Fig. shown by Brcsse early in 1850 115J. Memoiresp1'sslmtes par diver~ savants a l'Academie des Sciences. O. Ch. 5) p. If !I.€. Prove Eq.g Technik. Vi. pp. 1956." pt. 426439. overfall. PItHI Boss: "Berechnungder Wasserspiei\'ellage beim Wechsel des Fliesszustu.)!.cal Survey. dllpth at which the subcritical flow chl>nges to BUpel'criticai. diStance 20 it upstream from tlie exit section. 9. 6. theorie des eaux eonrantes (Essay on thli theory of water flow).' g~/gy!3. SOO.. 311).'luid ~[echanics/' translated from the German by P. H." 4. J. 1912. Paris. 4. IOlVa. 98112. as a..r!ed. Bresse: "Cou~s de mecanique appliquee. 1919. 1877. pp. Transactions.S. Prove tlmt the energy loss in a.p. Cir~ltlar 397. Bakhmeteff: "0 Neravnomernoln Dvizltenii Zhidkosti v Otkrytom Rusle" (U V9.nrying an openchannel flow of 20 cfs on Ii small sIope.. For eliminating the hydraulic jump in Example 34. 200. 111"tmO'ires et Dor:u:mlmts.ons" ("Summary of Lectures"). London and Glasgow. La' Houille blanche. no.nsition in EXMllple 34. 10. 311. L. the flow profile is assumed to be composed of two Feversed circular curves tangent to el1ch other at the middle aection of the transition and also to the water surfaces "in the connecting channels at the two ends of the transition. A submerged hydraulic jump at sluice outlet.Ssumed to be uniformly distributed along the. L. Berlin. 2. 7. is th~ tailwater depth. Verify the computation (shown in scale on Fig. Petersburg. 1906. pp. Woodburn: Tests of broaderested weirs. Boris A. 1860.s. 2. 310. 4. U. no. Belanger: "Resume de lec. 3. .. (a) construct afamily of specificforce cUI'ves for Q = 0. Doeringsfeld and C. 1932. McGrawHili Book Company. Paris.. 188195. 211. 1907. 10. 93~946. 311. vol. or vice versa. Grenoble. and no. James G.pplied to the broadcreated weir. vol. 1911. 121164. 1956. Hydraulique (" Course in Applied Meeha:nics. Civil E1I{}ineering. 1892. 2. pp. 4. Blackie & Son. 2. 387416.ced the concept of critical depth.60 !!ABIC PRINCIPLES . H.With reference to a Ilha. Brater. Anna/as des pants III cha1IssJ." Iowa Institute of Hydraulic Research. y. H. 3lD. Ltd.. 15.S. vol. y.0 ft is p. no.s. 316. 1893. Applying the momentumpl'inciple and the continuity equation to the analysis of a submerged hydrllulic jump which occurs at the sluice outlet in a rectangular channel (Fig. voL 7. Iowa City. 1838. pp. pp. Russia. pipe c. 16. and (0) if a gradual hydraulic drop is desired with its point of inflection at !l. 3~14. VEB Verl£1. Hunter Rouse: Discharge characteristics of the fre.r . total energy 108s of 0.. and 400 cfs. E. 3ill. D is the hydraulic depth of the section. revised by Emest F. 14. 188B. 257250 . 1936. 9. Engingers' Club of Philadelphia. Jr. SpringerVerlag. Solve the problem given in Example 31 (a) if there is a. HOI·ton: Weir experiments. and t3 is the 'momentum coefficif. 12." 2e partie.nt for nonuniform velocity distribution.. Proc~ed:in. Barker: Pressuremomentum theory a. 61 to 6Ht 8. Paris. 259310. At the slime time Bresse illtrodu. 3100).th ed.nnel of slope !Lngle IJ may be defined by F = V VgD cos 8/13 (325) * This formula wliU. 5. Tracy: Discbar~e characteristics of broadcrested weirs. Waler S1I'pply and Irrigation Paper 150.gs. Inc" New York. J. 1950. no. 50.ND MOMENTUM PRINCIPLES 61 39.' . Hydralllics).. American Society of Civil Engi1lee. 393448. und F. Geologi. Construct the specificforce curve for a 36.richal and John C. Boussinesq: Essai sur Ill. FIG. no.·pp. and formul!J. St.in.
Etienne Crausse. 20.l energy of a fl"eeIlurface liquid flow).ulio5 of Open Ch!lJlneL'! with Steady Flow"). RlWue gtntrale de l'hydravliq1l. and cl'itteal flow in a prismatic 'channel should.l important conditions. pp. 111120. llO •. the slope of. voL 13. llHmoire. 1 Recapitulating.l state for the given discharge. B. a slight in energy would change the depth to a much smaller or much greater alternate depth corresponding to the specific energy after l . pp. or close to Cl'itical state will cause a major chl111ge in depth. I~ CHApTER 4 CRITICAL FLOW: ITS COMPUTATION AND AP:PLICATIONS 41. (4) the velocity head is equal to half the hydraulic depth in a channel of small slope.yac I'energie totaled'un cou:u. A slope oithe c. pp. 18. pp~ 3233. 41. 33. pp . the channel that sustains a given discharge at a uniform and critical depth is called the critical slope S~.fact can o. 2572iH. t.c. and. As described in the previous chapter. A flow at or near the critical state is ullstable.121\). slope. Paris. 1951. For a historic~l account of the theory of critical £low. and is called a steep or supercritical slope. Bela.nt liquide a surface libre (The tota. 34. Paris. 38.62 BASIC PRINCIPLES 17. the critica.. see [1J. Editions Eyrolles.tionale de$ Pont8 e~ ChaU$88I3$. RIWWi genlrale .l·: De l'impulsion toto.l depth in a prismatic channel of unilorm slope will be the same in all sectio1l3. If the critical state of flow exists throughout the entire lellgth of the channel or over 11 reach of. 63 . hence. Since. (310).herefore. J.l impulse and its relations with the toto. ( '. pp. HI. yol. pp. At this condition. curve (Fig.. 139153. Charles Jae~e. . as indicated by the criticalflow criterion Eq. "lIydr3ulique des canaux deco\lverts en regime permanent" ("Hyciro. This is becau~e a minor in specific ellergy at.{l PI'tTis.tiannelless than the critical slope will cause a slower flow of subcritica. the depth of critical floW' depends on the geometric elements A' and D of the channel section when the discharge is constant. . no. 39. the llritic!1! stf1.nnel. (2) the discharge is a maximum for a given specific energy (Frob.vs).te of flow through a channel section is characterized by severa.e. 191197. and (6) the velocity of flow in a channel of small slope with uniform velocity distribution is equal to the celeri~y of small gravity waves in shallow wat. known as the critical sectiQu. 1947. no. Paris.nger: Notes sur Ie cours d ' hydraulique (Notes on the course in hydrl:lulies). (5) the Froude number is equal to unity. . be uniform flow.lso be recognb>ed in the specificenergy As the curve is almost verticalliear the critical depth. 111112. gmt" Na. .. pp. 8687. A slope grel1ter th~\n the critical slope will result in a faster fiow of super critical state. no. 40. Critical Flow.) I. (3) the specific force is a minimum for a discharge. given discharge. they are (1) the specific energy is a minimum for (l. no. as will be shown later. no.el' caused by local clisturbances. pp. Cll!irles Ja. Discussions 011 critical state of fiow have referred mainly to a particular section of a channel. 37).oe libre (Contributil1nto the St11dy of Ireesurface liquid flo.de L'hydrauliq1l. no. the flow in the channel is a criticaL flow. 143151.eger: Contribution a l'etude des courants liquides a 8urf8. 18491850.le at de ses rapports a. 1943. 0. the cha. is called a mild or subcritical . 37. This.
. Q=z:(2 N. cross section... ::> . "OJ . It can be observed· also that... tj) ... the~'e can be 'only one discharge that maintains a critical flow and makes the depth critical in the g'iven channel section.. if the depth is found at or neart. (41) 'in the following form: Q =Z . .':! Q '" !" :3 ".s 0 " . Such phenomena are generally caused by the minor chnnges in energy due to variations in channel roughness.tation [Eq. The Section Factor for Criticalflow Computation. Equation (41) or (42) is ll. Q tJ . which is the t.. 01' deposits of sediment or debris. (42) in the following form: . In the design of a channel.. function of the depth. II z=v'g When the energy coefficient is nO& assumed tobe unity. .. channel and similarly that.. In the above equations.... the equation indicates that there is only one possible critical depth for maintaining the given discharge in a. the water sUl'face appears unstable and wavy.~e root of U/Ol. " (41) :. the critical depth Yo_ On the other hand" when the depth and.l '' 't .. the equation gives the critical section factor Zc and.v' D. 42.ection factor Jor Equation (42) states that the section facto!: Z for a channel section at the critical state of flow ~s equal to the discharge divided by the squaJ. .5 '0 N '0 . hepce.<i ~~. 'w . .. o 1> OJ a '" ~ dt5 .' (44) ci OpI ~ puo' q/.. hence. slope. Q ('12) A. . .. Since the section factor Z is !l.PRINCIPLES I .. Two major applications of critiClllfiow theory nre flow control and flow measurement.. When the discharge is given. the shape or slope of the channel should be altered... \ I the change. fIl ...he critical depth fOl" a great length of the chinnel.. Substituting V Q/ A in Eq... "'0 .. ·11 .. very useful tool for the computation and analysis of critical 'flow in 1111 open channel. Z criticalflow compu.. g.. < .. 3:3) is the basis for the computation of critical flow/which will be explained in subsequent articles.64 BASIC . (23)].. ci ~ g (5 Vg I (43) or by Eq.~ c 0 z=v'g!cY. when the flow is near the critical state. "'1 . (310) and Simplifying. the critical! disharge can be compu~ed by Eq. . The criterion for a critical state of flow (Ar~.j.c:: .. in order to secure greater stability.~ :5 ..if practicable. which will also be discussed in this chapter.:. when the depth is fixed. 0.( lO SGnlOI\ 65 . the section factw' are given.
Tdy (49) FIG.. '0 4.04 0..! \ = JL .16. (47) an~ (48) and solving for M.3 0.nnel width and the total head.5. The Hydraulic Exponentfo.0 o. Taking logarithms on both sides of Eq.0 to 5. 1.3 . curves ·help to determine the depth y for a given section factor Z. 21 or from the table in Appendix A. which is a func~ tion: of the channel' section a. and (48) ay.C .0 Example 41. 33). using· g = 32.:1... (43). nent Jor criticalflow computation. ....a 0 ~ . vi A/T. .. we find that the cri~icar discharge is Q.. M ca.'+.. CRITICAL :FLOW: ITS C. Since the section factor Z is a function of the depth of flow y. This equation indicates that the value of M for the trapezoidal section is a function of z and y/b.tion was a. .lso developed indepe~dently by Chuga8v 13J. and 4.2 ... trapezoidal. 0 . the exptessions for A and T olJtained from Table 21 are SUbstituted in Eq. APPLICATIONS 67 A subscript 0 is sometimes used to specify the oondition of oritical flow. 4~2). .dicate.. Sol~tion. In this eq~e. and simplifying."'7'1rm". The Z values for a circular section can be found either from the curve in Fig.0 4.. d(ln Z) IvI ~ . 1. ~'.7 or so. will 5. as & pammeter.7.J.f varies in a range froni 3. Fo.5 (see Frob.6 0..1 ·r dif" "'" 3 l' 2y (47) o...66 BASIC PRINCIPLES . and vIce versa. For the rectangular section. At the critica.f'I'7'HI++j 1 ! 5.0. (45) 1.A (31' '.. 0...0. 1 dT 2T Equating the r~ght sides of Eqs...nd the depth of flow.. convenience in application.0 3.r Criticalflow Computation.0. (410)* A curve for a circular section with M plotted against 1Ildo. It is obvious that this curve: be identical with the 1 in Fiilj. the resulting equation [2] is simplified arid Mcomes M = 3[1 + 2z(y/b)P .l state'of flow.These selfexplanatory. 42).5.ngular.= 2 M dOn Z) J.." where C is a coefficient and M is a parameter called the hyd"aulic ·expo.5 0. For values of z = 0. Tal?le 21 gives the sQcti6n fantor Z = by!. In Ol·aer to simplify the computation of critical flow...he diameter. a single curve aiM versus " ·1 ourves of M versusy(b an shown.2 0.5. ... it may be assumed that (46) c 0 . but increases rapidly as the value of y/do becomes greater than 0. Derive arl equatioI! showing critic:u dillcharge through a rectangular cha. 'and circular channels.0 2. family of eurve for z • This equl). This curve . tion.4 0. or Z = A then differentiating with respect to 1/. 42.... (46) and then differentiating wi th respect to y. . The curve shows that ~he value of M varies within a rather narrow range for values of yjd D less than 0. [1 + 2z(y/b>:J[1 + z(yjb)] .087bHu . (49).wing the· relatiOll between the depth and section factor Z (Fig . This is a general equation for the hydrauUc exponent M.ccordingly. is alsoflhown (Fig. using If.a .os 0. where d u is t.. Curve:.he section factor Z of seven common channel sections are given in Table 21. 0. . 3... 2. however. 25 3. For a trapezoidal section.. Substituting these expressions in Eq..03 I Now. . a.0 5. 42..0 Volues of M 4.n be regarded as a function of z(ylb):. .dT).nnel section in terms of the cha. ~ I I. 2.w~ developed by a similar procedure but constructed from a much more complicated formula. Formulas fOI' t. a family of curves for 111 versus y/b are constructed (Fig.that the value of JI..02 .OMPUTATION AND.5 5.0 I.. (23).oe O.0. S.. the depth y HI1. 3.5 4. .0. 41) have been prepared for rect<:. a. These curves in.7""'.. dh:nensionless curves sho. The significance of this I z(1/(b) may be constructed. taking logarithms on both sides of Eq.:2z(y/b)[l + z(y/b)J ... 0.5 .. .05 0. of Mvalues.
Computation of Critical mow.puted. (411). The corresponding area is A.48. but the follOWing e. (49).Hi ft. 22) carrying ll. From the dimensionless curve or from the table. The value of Q/ Vg is then com. Three methods illustl'ated by simple examples will be given below. as shown hy Eq.2 iV. This is the critical depth.nd simplifying.ft. when the depth of flow in a circular section approaches the top of the circle. Compute the critical depth and velocity of the trapezoid"l channel (Fig. given section. By this procedure a curve of yversus Z is constructed.alue of a channel section under the condition of critical flow. This equation can eesily be derived from Eq.it is practically impossible to maintain a critical flow in a circular . (41)J. the wavy... dischD.ted stra. 1:<'01' f. Solving this equation for y by a trialanderror procedure.18 X 3 == 1.226.15 ft.this exponent will be further described in the computation of gradually vari~d flow (Art. 42.AND APPLICATIONS 69 characteristic is that. In other words. may . where Z == Qjv'g.rge of 20 cfs.bove expressions for D and l'in Eq.2 = 7.ample is given for further illustration: Example 42.0 ft and· do" s == 15. A 36in. 52.:1:. the section factor and with it the critical discharge. For a. the critical discharge can be determined by the method described in Art. 21) or the table in Appendix A for the geometric . ot P For channel sections of other than trapezoidal or circular shape.be obtained . 43. Then compute Z == Q/vii == 20/vii 3.44. The a:pplication of . Algebra·ic Method. Graphical determination of the for any two depths Yl and Yz of the M value.lld the critical velocity is V< = 400/52.53/15. For!l. I t . surface of the c!'itical flew will touch the top of the conduit before it ' act\lally comes so near as to approach ~he top. I ally closing crown. 44. In Example 42. Determine the critical depth. 3. Graphical Method. . !l. lon9 values of M can be computed di~ rectly by Eq.tion. curved' "~. FrOIXl the curve the critical depth for this value of Z is found to be '!Ie 1. For most channels.n Ihe depth approach. 4~3).66 fps. except for closed conduits with depth approaching !J. Thtl value of Z IbM is 0.58 BASIC. The method has already been used (Example 31). The hydraulic exponent equal to twice the slope of the plot. Construct a ~tlrve of Y VB. (46).6.P~INClPLES CRITICA. disoha. Z = 400/ v'i "" 70. complicated or natu~al channel section. Z/d. In fact.53.5 (Eq. For It simple geometl'icchannel section. a graphical m~thod is recommended instead of direct computa. Sinee d. Example 43. ' Solution. The hydraulic exponent M is described here only as a characteristic v.6 = 0. become indefinitely large. the plot takes a more or less straightline fOl'm. however. when the water the Q1oduo II}' converging crown of a closed conduit P surface approaches the crown of the i:~g<~~~.and so y. This involves a logarit.bscissa (Fig. conduit at a depth approaching the top of the section. Approximate values of Mfor any channel section. 2. 102). (41).ight line. = 0. if the critical depth and channei section are known. Using Eq. . The hydraulic depth and water area of the trapezoidal section arc eXIueflSed in terms oithe depth lras D = 1[(10 10 + 2y + 1/) and A = V(20 + 2y) The velocity is Substituting the a. a graphical procedure for critical~flow cOll)putation is genernlly employed.).108 or '!I. ft. In applying Eq. A similar characteristic and phenomenon occur also in other types of closed conduit with graduI! ne pial bee om . hom the following equation 4 . On the other hand.44 . is C. and the hydraulic exponent of a given depth is equal to twice the slope of the tangent to the curve at that depth. The dimensionless curve (Fig.484(5 + Y) [!I(10 + II)]! M log y' (411) where Z 1 and are section factors FIG.0394this value. B.4. ":' 2..g the critical depth (Fig. elements of a circular section might· also be used to solve this problem.1=2.hmic plotting of Z as ordinate against the depth as a. Computation of critical flow' involves the determination of critical depth and velocity when the discharge and the channel section are known. Solution.. (43) . the chart gives '!I/b = 0.o conduit. 41) can be used with great expedienCY. depth approaching the gradually closing ci'own of a closed conduit. exact 1.L FLOW: ITS COMPUTATION . Vida = 0. the critical depth may be obtained directly from the curve.the plot becomes a curve.rge of 400 ofs. the critical flow can be determined by an algebraic computation using the basic equations. (310) a. gradually closing crown and some channels of peculiar shapes.g. Ye '"' 2. u = 3. The design chart for determinin. Method of Design Chart. pi'ovided that' N the derivative dT jdy can be evalu'" ~ ated. A. concrete circular culvert carries a. Z (Fi.
the flow through the pool Will be subcritical and the pool surface will approach the horizontaL At the dowllstream end a socalled drawdown ettrve will be developed. The additional depth of water is required to build up enough head to give the increased velocity necessary to pass water over the spillway.!. CIUTICAL FLOW: ITS COMPUTATION AND APPLICATIONS 71 ! . For this value the clHLrt.. 45. the flow is initially subcritical. oon<lilian controlled 01 the downstream e~ I " rr_ . . In the presence of the dam. At the critical state of flow a definitive stagedischarge relationship can be established and represented by Eq. however. In the presence of the dam. critical. then the flow is initially uniform and critical throughout the channel. This equation shows that the stagedischarge relationship is theoretically independent of. . .e dam' is . Therefore. If the channel has a sub critical slope (top sketch in Fig. y. Curve Df y versus Z for a.48 or Depth of subcriticol flow without dam L 1 l. The control of fim:v in 3. (41).critIC<J~. 45).. Control of Flow.charg6 raturtg Gwrve. respectively. 45.226. If the channel has a critical slope (middle sketch in Fig.11 open channel is defined loosely in many v'ays.e_ctions. this section is a control section. critical. the pool surface will be fllrther raised for a long distance upstream from the pool in a socalled backwater curve. As used here the tertn means the establishment of a definitive flow condit. over the dam through an overflow spillway (Fig. This effect of backing up the water behind tb. and steep or 8upercritical. I \ . more specifically. wmchin turn is determined by the slope of the channeL Take for an example a long straight prismatic channel in which a pool is created bya dam across the chalUlel and the water flows. When the contror of flow is achieved at a certain section of the channl?l.~ t I i J . !rom a section near the spillway crest and becoming asymptotic to the pool level.ion in the channel or. FlO: 44.70 BASIC PRINCIPLES .2~. Flow conditions in a long prisma. correspondingly. 4. the channel roughiless and other tlllcontrolled circumstances. Three flow conditions in the channel are shown.5). Since the control section holds a definitive st. a curve representing the depthdischarge relationship at the gaging station. Zld~'" ~ ~ j BOCkWO!il( Add~d depth due h:I backwater effect curve 1 Drowdawn I r ~ . a definitive relationship between the stage and the discharge of the flow.. 4. a criticalflow section is a control section. mild or ilubcritical.agedischarge relationship.tic ohaullel. = 1. I Row condition contrnl1ed Qt lhe upstream enc L Depth of supercrilicol flow wilhoul dam FIG. and supercritical flows. In Example 43.s.5). it is always a suitable site for a gaging station and for developing the dis. It will be shown later that the control section controls tbeflow in such a way that it restricts the transmission of the effec~ of changes in flow qondicion either in an upstream direction or in a downstream direction depending on the state of flow in the Chlll111el. cir(lular 5C)ction. The slopes of the channel in the three cases are.44 ft. The location of the control section in a prismatic channel is generally governed by the state of flow.. extending upstream Flo'. representing the subcriliical... gives yld = 0. = 0.
t ..~O '" ..l distanoe to E..'I? 0 .he Parsholl flume. Instead.e ~ ~ . q.' 'ttl ~ l. 1: I~""~~~I ~.:MMc<:)M:r..=~M..q~:1N~ .. Eo ga. (} = wid.:...~ i ~ Ii .size of flume in in. . elevation.<:) t: : : .. D = width of upstrea. At the downstream end the backwater curve is conllected. ation between lower eml oj' flume and crest.th ofdownstl'ea......:... SlIil Conservation 8811>ilie [26J.•~ e ~ S' ~ CC .s....I 0 0: 0 0. which will be :described later (Art. Plan. the backwater r 1J . X = hol'izontn. 45) 1 the flow is initially supercriticaL In the presence of the dam. l'< 73 l . 01' ft.:.I~MP)(o)Mp') * ''. R radius of curved willg wall.l dilltance to.:· W .N ' r:OOOMp')~¢I'lO~tO<a\O . ·.nce back"from end of orest to gage point: B Ilxiallength of converging section. K = difference in ele.) ~ Q S ~~~~~~. horizontal but curved.. .• O.1 the~ .%A = dista... .. the flow in the upstream channel will eontinue in:the downstzeam direction at a supercritical state until the flows]lrface profile is actually below the poolle'Tel.:~i:f .CO)oc)OOOQOOO ~Q.f .tto':l(#)MM~"~"'')LI':l effect originlj.<. F length ofthl'oat. ..J "'tt "ttl <qO U1 t.. 94)..OOCl! .. roI. NN SECTION LL .::~~ 'otI t<.ge point from low point in throl1t. See the tlible on the next page for actual dimellsions for various sizes of flume.. If the channel has a supercritical slope (bottom sketch in Fig.. E = depth of flume." .it will rise abruptly to the pool elevation in a hydrau1 Itshoul:l: be noted that. 2 '" ::. G "" length of diverging section..!)Q :~ . NC'lC')"Iq'IV)~.... P = width between ends of curved wing wa. ~ C"ol C'. '" .~~ C'l N ~ C'1 ~'~ ("1 cq ~ ~oo(Oooooooooo (I'lC'lVlr')MC<')(?tnC") i I FIG.. . gage point from low point in tlu'Oll. " " 0 0 ~ 0 <:. A = length of side wall of converging seetion."C"')C'}(t)~. with a !':imooth drawdown curve which leads the water over the spillway.t. ana dimensions o. N ~ depth af depression in throat \:lelow crest.m end of flume...72 ·{l BASIC PRINCIPLES i known as the backwater effect.) ""'" a:t. Y "" verticil.} Plan and elevation of a concrete Parshall measuring fIl\me showing lettered dimensions as follows. ~tO ii~~~ :::fOOlQIt)OIOOf.O·tn 0: 10 .. ><: S. The curved water surface has an 81 profile.ImMI. 46. j.lls...m end of flume.yI = length of approach /lOOI'.:! '<J' "\!1 "¢I ae Q) co QO Q 000'0 r:.:".tillg from ~hepool will not extend far upstream.. the pool level in this case is ~ot. Col ...100C::OOOOQOOOOO ~_:l_. . (U.. co l~ .
is governed entirely by t... such as a weir.6875W I.~ downst.me W. The correction for the Ift flume is made applicable to the larger flume's by multiplying the correction for the 1ft flume by the fador given .Incontrollable circumstances. I' or freeflow condition having the critical depth at a contracted section and a hydraulic jump in the exit section.1 4.These difficulties. Parshall in [22] to [26J.et [19J iIi.but also on the discharge 0. Accordingly.3 5.ing in a . .u4T 3" 6" (412) 9" 12" to 8' 10' to 50' Q= Q= Q~ Q= 2. ft Correction factor 1 1..5J. flumes. the r. : y. It should be noted that whether the channel slope is critical. The above example explains the important fact that on subcritical slopes the effect of change in watersuI:face elevation downstream is transmitted upstream by a ba:ckwater curve.12]. The diagrams in Fig.S shown in the figure.uuw'·'" (3. Outstanding designs of criticalflow flumes were aIso developed and tested by . some will be deposited in the upstream pool formed by the weir. Under certain conditions of flow however. tile control of flow is said to be at th.l·cam conditions. 2. or supercritical will depend not only on the measure of the actual slope. by Khafagi [18] in Switzerlandj and by Balloft. or by a contraction 'in the cross section.8 2.5)H.' The initial studies were reported ill [20[ and {211. independent of the channel roughness and other '. .7]. Contessini[ll]. has been designed in various forms. 46. The fiowupstream from the jump.1. 0. the correction for the 10ft flume is made applicable to the I Experin).a.17J in Italy.r. the flow becomes submerged. If water contains suspended particles. In such devices the critical depth is usually created either by the construction of a low hump on the channel bottom.ream end for channels .ents on this type of mea.8 for 10. at a critical control section.to 8ft flumes. 1 t ~l r .. below for the particular size of the flume in use.5 2 3 4 6 8 1. whereas on supercritical slopes the effect cannot. A sluice gate or an orifke or other control structure may also be used to create a control section. L.. however. the jump may be submerged. ~nd Ha is the gage reading in ft.alflow flume. Colo. be transmitted far upstl:eam.thro~t in Size of flu. the depth of flow. Based on the principle of critical flow. . sunh as that created on the top of an overflow spillway.he Upst. L. The effect of submergence is to reduce the discharge. theoretical basis for the measurement of discharge in open channels.4 Similarly. Flow Measurement.16) which was developed in 1920 by R.suring. When t.ri flu rite. ..06H. Fort Collins. In this case the discharge computed by the' above equatiollS ~ust be correc~~d by a negative quantity.ith sub critical slope and at the upstream end £01' channels with supercritical slope. but it causes relati vely high head 109s.6 for 3. . the relationship between the depth and the discharge is defillitive. . result. byCrump [9] and Inglis [10] in India.i ] ·r " . are represented by the following equations: ' ThrQat width Equ.l : J+. I .G {413} (414) (415) (416) In the above equations Q is the free discharge in cfs Wis the width of ft.l. device.7 for 1.Dec~mber meetIng of 1929.Jamcson [4.rshall flumes of various sizes.ua 3.the hydraulic laboratory of the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station. were began by M. subcritical. American Society of Civil Eq. in a supercritical channel." Parshall measuring flume" was adopted for the device oy the Execu~Ive. Argentina. and 9in. 47 gIVe the correct1Ons for submergence for Pa. can be overcome at least partially by the use of a criticalflow flume.gradual change in the discharge coefficient. ' One of the most extensively used criticalflow flumes is the Parshall flume l (Fig. then called the Ventu. and Linford f8] in England.9921I. The use of a weir is a simple method. and Citrini [16.63 4WH. The depthdischarge relationships of Parshall flumes of' various sizes as calibrated empirically. also known as the Vent~ri flume. The flow condition in a sub critical channel is affected by downstream conditions. 6. The backwater effect will not extend upstream through the hydraulic jump. is usually operated with an unsubmerged The criticalflow flumes mentioned in the text are those developed and studied in 'the United States. by De Marchi [11.0 1. such as a criticalflow fiwne. durmg 1~. ~he name .74 BASIC PRINCIPLES CRITICAL FLOW: ITS COMPUTATION AND APPLICATIONS 75 J lie jump.4 1. Whe:l the ratio of gage readmg Hb (FIg. Cone at.ontrol section at· the upstream end may also be a critical section. Parshall.The critir. . Nebbia [1315]. but. Further developments on the Parshall flume arc d~scflbed by R.to 50ft flumes. Commlttee of the !rrigation Division.4 3. the flow condition is dependent entirely upon the condition upstream or at the place where water enters the channel.he challnel is on a subcritical slope a control section at the downstream end may be a critical5('1ction. 46) to Ha exceeds the limits of 0.lion Q = 0. It was mentioned in the preceding article that. various devices for flow measurement have been developed.. Engel [ft. Such a definitive stagedischarge relationshipoffers. On a supercritic~l slope. ~.gineers.07 H.2. and 0.
TIONS 77 U Discharge.5 5. in cubic feet per ~econd.S.5 6. 4~7 .0 FIG. (el Diagram showing the rate of submerged flow.d flow. (Colorado Agricullural Ezperime:n. cIs (tt) Discharge. through a loft Parshall measl.!"ged flow through ParshaU flumes of various sizes.76 BASIC PRINCIPLES GRITICAL FLOW: ITS OOMI'iJTATIONAND APPLICA. through a.t Sta.gram s!lOwing the rate of submerged flow. 6in. cis (e) b c. in eubic feet per second. cIs (OJ 1.lring flume.nd U. P!lrshall measuring flume. f '" aa Fro.0 5. cIs ( b) Correction. cIs (~) 4. SlYil Conservation Service [26). Pa.tion [25J a. through a 9in. Pars!lall measuring flume. 4. Diagrams ior computing Bubme.0 Oischarge. in cubic feet per second.gra.m for computing the rate of $ubmerge. in cubic feet per second.) (a) Diagram showing the rate of submerged flow. (bl Dia.through a 3in. (d) Dia.rshall measuring flume.' (e) Diagram for determining the correction in cubic feet per second Plll': 10 ft of crest for subDlergedflow discharge. 47.9 ZD I i Correction.
The loss or head can be determined from ~he diagrams in Fig.ticular flume ill use.ssnJl1tion h~!l. side contractions. criticalflow flumes of special designs have been proposed. I "\' :.5 2.S. ~ : It is desiiable to set the crest of the Parshall flume so that free flow will occur. be carried through. a modified Parsh. the Parshall flume will become invalid like the weir. leaving the flume free of deposit. because deposition of ths debris will produce undependable results. reason any sand or silt in suspension or rolled along the bottom call. the velocity of water flowing through the flume is higher than that of the flow ill the channeL For this. whenever possible.e of the flume and. combined with a head gate. I I l . one with a rectangular croSs section.) . f/.BASIC PRINCIPLES 78 larger flumes by multiplying the correctioll for the lO~ft flume by the factor given below for the paJ.ion of the flume crest. 48. ~~:s' 48. . CRITICAL FLOW: ITS COMPUTATION AND APPLICATIONS 79 \ I Size rJ/ flume W. A practical example (Example 45) will be given' to show the deterrcinatiol1 of the size and elevat. If conditions do not permit freefloW operation.ur of lW • • ell \ . "It is more expensive to build and requires more accurate I I .0 15 20 1 25 30 40 50 2. Stevens [32]. recommended a criticalflow flume in which he used a blistershaped' hump control on the bed of the conduit to produce a critical flow over it. 10 12 CorrectiOlt factor I j 1 I [ LO 1. including one'which is simplr a flat slab on the bottom and has no. Palmer and Bowlus [2931J have developed several of these flumes. the critical~flow flume has certain disadvantages. many measuring devices. Like. For use under such circumstances. which has the advantage of a selfcleaning mechanism for heavily debrisladen flows in the stream. and several witp trapezoidalshaped throats. The frictional. since the flume will not measure dependably if the submergence is greater. ho\yever.:z:pmmen .. below the practical limit of about 95 %. flumes of various Seroi~e ~61.lsent in the stream. When a heavy burden of erosion debris is pl't. The size and elevatiori of the crest depend upon the discharge to be measured and upon the 5i.0 5. I. upon the loss of head through the flume.nnot be used directly with or.d 251 and U.Tgar.aLl flume known as the San DimGSfiume (27.(. .28] has been developed.0 .5 3. the percentage of submergence Hb/H" should be kept. The flume CD.s Slat~{)'11 t(hrough ParshallSml Ccm.. Because of the contraction at the throat.:~. .~sAf{)O~ del~ermalirunE''g th.0 4. For measuring openchannel flow in closed conduits. consequently. such as sewers and covered irrigation canals.s los.cD()lio!l.2 1.1osses in this design are believed to be very small.
7. Example 46. the throat wldth of the flume Will be from onethird to oneh!'\lf of the channel width. "" VUH. is uncertain since the critical section is usually difficult to locate. (417) This is a theoreticru discharge equation i1) which H. the nappe of the free overfall becomes detached and the weir is in effect a sharpcrested weir. . • 4. This idea was first suggested by Mavis [361 and others and was later studied at the Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station [37. 0. 48. the equ!l.. In the above equation~.tion required is PROBLEMS . Technical information on other kinds of openchannel measuring devices and methods can easily be.. . ' ' • This example is sdopted from [26J.t M of a 36"1n. using (a) Eq. at Hb gage. Prove that the critical depth and velocity for a rectangular channel are' .. Usually. tapered cotlvergin~ sills placed on the culvert Hoor with an opening left between them (39}. = 3.tion~ are L53 and 1.and H. (411). however.(I) + 2zy)'.12 ft.43 ft. Design ft. however. sllown lin Fig. Similarly.th. a standard Villemontetype weir silP was developed and its location on the culvert floor determined. but the best selection' is the flume of most practical' a. For' practical purposes.= 0. Under :this condition of flow. :.. = Q.. . the t\quation is generally written q = CH'Jl.81 = 1.$  9.!st practical aize of flume to use. .Therefore.5 or V.5 . Compute .38y ol.range. = 2(V. and (e) the graphlCru method based on Eq. =%H. .671{(b + zy)yJu . other notation' .or 4ft flume because moderat~ or long wing wall.nnel section (lfig: 22) ~avlDg a flow dept!h of 6 ft. 42 and (b) the graphical method. (410).ge over a broad·crested weir. Q.. 42. g = V. based on Eq." 80 BASIC PRINCl. In deciding them. 41.. ' At 70% submergence. exponeD. is the specificenergy head at the section.005TH. C~mpute the hydr£lulic exponent M of the trapezoidnl cha. . H. Since y. = Experiments h9. 49.nd economical size.381 by carrying out extensive experimental tests on rectangular highway culverts. torn is X 2. i ' Assume W . (0) Fig. COllsiaer the section on the weir crest where critical flow occurs. However when the width of the channel is considered.81 f t .S . try 2" and 3ft flumes. the final selection may be in bvor of th~ 3.4y~ (Art. where H is the elevation of the upstream wa~er surface iLbovethe weir c~est. I I j . Parshall flume for handling 20 cfa of now in a. above the Invert.energy head. . Channel 8e£!lion Triangular Trapezoidal Circular Parabolic q . and W = 4 rt is 0. derive an equation for the discha.98 and 3. V%i'if.: chann'cl of moderate slope when the water depth in the channel is 2. .23 ft and that the respective upstream water depths £1. (415) gives' H." Solulimt. = 2. 8. IX = 1 and H.the hydraulic. 4 it ./1.295zH.1..s may be required for a smeoll structure.5 times the length of the crest.l (418) . it will btl necessary to examine the freeboard or the ch!LIInel and the effect of rise of the water surface upon the flow through the h~adgate.0. flow depth of 24 In.5 ft. Eq. 2.'/2g} HJ1.5.3. 4:9. Solution. equal to l the tailwater depth D ~ 2. ' ' 42. .l'LES i CRITICAL FLOW: ITS (TO¥PUTATION AND APPLrcATIONS 81 . Q = 20 cfs. 1 The Vilhimonte weir sill consists or two. such as weirs or submerged orifices. and the elevation of the c~est above the channel b. found in ml1ny textboQks and handbooks on :hydraulics (such as [33J to [35]).7. follows that of Table 21. circular conduit having a. the 1vater surface ih the throat. In this investigation. For Q = 20 cfs. ~ L15 ft. when the head on the broadcrested w!:!r is greater than about 1. FIG.69 ft. is essentially level with the surface of the tailwater.!'sated free overfall exists at the downstrea~end of the weir. to improve the accuracy ofthe measurement in the lowflow .n be expressed in termso! the brink depth Y" which can easily be measured. The discharge per foot width of the weids. The results of this experimental study indicate that the culvert can be used as a flowrate measuring device if it flows part full and has free outlet fall./H. { workmanship in its construction than other commonly used devices. A weir sill should be installed.e determination of the' proper crest elevatlOn [26]. (411). Using the theory of criticaillow. the 2ft flume will be the.09H. where H. At this section.V~ shown that. the a\'ove equation ca. the head loss corresponding to H~I H u = 0..t. 34). ' ' 44. = Equation Q _ 5. It is found that the respective crest elevo.y. the depth of water upstrcuim from the flume will be = ~+~=~~.6 (421) (422) Q. l. If these conditions arc satisfactory.5 ft. ' From Fig. Hence.1'(> 2.L5 . If an . is the specifiiJ. . tri!LIIgular. Headdischarge relationships were also determined for various flow ranges. most eoonomical because of its small dimensions. Example 44. therefore. Many culverts along modern high ways can be used as or converted to criticalflow flumes for measuring runoff from the adjoining agricultural lands.251(0' .·• (419) (420) U n Q. y. This is the form described earlier (Example 32). The discharge given can be m!"llsured by flumes of several si~es.sin OJ''' d (sin Yz 9) 0. uSing (a) Fig.9ction of a Parshall Ilume illustrating . Prove the following criticaldischarge equations for the triangular trapezoidal ' aud circular' sections: I ' .
49. A uniform flow of 300 cfs occurs'a. Determine the discharge measured by a 10ft Parshall flume if the gage rea. On the basisof the theory of critical flow. ' .n the computed minimum height? 416. Verify anyone of the .erican. high having a broad horizontal crest is built in a.mum IH~ight of a. discharge. Am.5 ft measured on the crest is the critical depth. 410.ted from the German by P.083d. 1.tion.llers voL 81 pp. 48. Prove that the section of a cha. 157289. trial procedure In determmmg the velocity hegd of the a. An' a. b is the channel width. Stevens [32J. furthermore. co. compute the discharge and the depth of flow upstrea. I 3. Determine the dischltrge through the 4ift Parsha.I fonnula for the critical depth of a circular section of <iiameter do. ra tmg curves.m from the dam. 47.1 I REFERENCES 1. Alll"lnian Scientific.n equaticm equ. 132 November 1955.9. R. Society of Civil Engi1l.l.:l00/". Verify the computa.ulic Engineering). wha. ""diameter of the cor.. 47 by this formula. criticalflow flume proposed for a clos"d conduit. 25. pp. corresponding to th'e energy head instead or'the actual area. paper 833. London and Glasgow. (4:25) which accurate only when 0. . J. Solve Example 43 by various methods if tr. O.: corresponding to Y" and (3) that the criticalflaw section i3 at the maximnm ~leight of. ' 416. Ltd. 20 ft wide.n be built on the floor of the channel in order to produce' a critical depth.lliar channel .3 < y.e discharge is 15 cis.5 ft. tends to .twill be the maximum contracted width? 417.te of Hydra.d. Leningra. Is this channel possible? If not.osy neravonomernogo dviphenna. A rectangular channel.mption elimina.~) trrulsu.rshal! flumes tried in Example 45. Bla. I I 1 I I f dh'ided lJy the water area.10 ft wide.tions for the 2. Design a Parshall f!IJme to mell. Rating curves of ." The second assu. 45. In the deriva. C. it is as~umed (1) that there is no energy loss from !ll to !It. pp. . 410. Assuming that a depth df 2.ll flume described in Example 45 if the percentage of submergence is .Z1logo N a.21). What wilLresult if the hump is lower or higher tha.te. Referring to the naturalchaonel given in Frob. Research Institu. Compute the mini.duit./d Q < 0.82 expressed by BASIC FRINCIFl. Stevens [32] has derived the rating curves for the blisterlShaped criticalflow flume tlll~t he proposed for use in circular conduits (Fig. (:~) that the !.325 (£t + [). I zVcsliia. discharge of 200 cfs. Proceedtngs. 41B.pproxhnate but practiclJ. Ven Te.'55umption. 1955. ' 2. derived by BrILine [40] from ~. Compute the critical depth and velocity. ITS COMPUTATION AND . Solve Example 42 by various methods if the discharge is 300 cfs. If the critical depth in the above problem is produced by a contraction of the channel. t~e cDntrol "hump..m 5 ft. is 3Al ft at a. . how could it be made pOllSible? Is this channel practicable ind the flow stable? 411. C~uga~v: Nekutorye vop.IllS CRITICAL FLOW. 414. 410). carries g.du!l. 413. Chow: Integrating the eq1!aticns of gra.uChnol ssledClValel' alcaga Imt'. = 0.I. Charles Jaeger: "~ngineering Fluid Mllchanics.. vody v o tkrytykh pnz~tlchesJ{lk~ ruslakh (About some questions concerning n'Jnuniform flow of wat~r m op~n pnsma:i~channels). and "dll the energy coefficient. ' . 1931.pproachingvelocity in the pipe is eq ual to the discharge I ' 1 FIG. is y.ding H. t"6ct~ng\llar channel 20 ft wide.lly varied flow.ckle & Son.) d.inst discharge. 46. construct a CUrve of critical depth aga. 93119. ranging from 0 to 400 crs. Wolf.ivalent to Eq.nnel in which the flow is critical at any st'lge takes the form expressed by (426) is I I I ( { J ! whhle z is half the top width and II is the di5~ance of the water surface below the energy line. Draw II skeLch of the section and d!lscripe its properties. R. ."?pensatc for the error involved in the first a.pproa.. V sesoi11.llila Gidrlliekhntk~' (Tramactians. free~flow condition. 412. fiattop hUmp that ca.APPLICATIONS 83 (423) and (424) where Q is the. A low da.ving a depth of flow equal to 1.nd.s a. (4. vol.t a depth of 5 ft in a long rectan!!. ' Solve Example 43 and Prob.ching flow !l.and :HtPa.sure 10 ers of flow in J1 channel ha. ' (After.
5. Enginee1'ing NewsRecord. 103. London.eri di :A{ilano. 25. and 26. 749771. 3R~. vol.. pp. 12371253. 35. lB. pp. 1953. Trans~clions. 532587.. pp. Transactions. no. Parsho. Villemonte: New type gaging station for small streams. November.1917. 21.llnli Venturi). 6. Lu~wig and Russel G. .Milano. E. 10.gi: Der Venturikanal: Them'ie und Anwendung (The Venturi flume: theory and application).ens: Discussion on Adaptation of Venturi flumes to flow measurements III c~ndUlts. . 27. Gotaas: Design of Venturi flumes in circular condUits.S. 1936.e I.. 25. pp. Government of Bombay. pp. revised. Paper Nos. ' " . 2fl. 3. Pt"dab Irrigation Brar4ch Publications.g. H. 1950. revised as Bulletin No.12. Aug. Reprinted as lstituto di Idraulica e Co. Pal·te III. . 615. Engine~rin(l NewsRecord. Wawr and Water Engineering. vol. Engel: Nonuniform flow of water: Problems and phenomena in open ehannels with side contrn. E. vol. France. Instituliolt of Water Engineers. 26 and 30A. "Wate'l' 'tvIell. 1. June.1939.. Results of the experiments]. no. 21. BttLettn No. 17. Description of the experiments.. 45[':'457.. vol. PP: 104107. 11951216. 39. Crump: Moduling of irrigatioIl channels. vol. ' 38. Book Company. Storey: Measurement. .. 18." 4th ed.ll: The improved Vent~ri flume. ' 30. ~. James R. 265 February 1921 . J. nu. Milano. vol. U. AnnJysis of the hydralilic process. 1947.sl. 1930. Ministry of Agriculture. 10. 1955. 1936. MaVIS: Reducmg unknowns in small culvert' design. Mitteilungen der Versuchsallslaltfv. I.flume. Venturi flume).tions. This is an abstract of pt.vater in irrigation channels with Parshall flumes and s:nalt weirs. 424. no.' la. Palmer and Pred D. T. ressaut hydra. W. H. pt. Ree and F. This Circular supersedes [24]. Jr. 1932. December. March. .cr!. . ' . No. 15. Acqua e gas. 27. 189214. Duilio Citrini: Miauratori a risalto (Standingwave flumes). Zurich. lO. Centro studi per Ie. 16. 1941. 1'ransactions. vol. 1938. 4. Memorie e sludi Nos. N 33. Wells. 6. W. . 34. Braine: Drawdown and other factors relating to the design of stormw2.ls with cross sections of geneml forms: Preliminary experimental results). R. Coloraclo Agricultural' Experiment Station. 131. 1938. M.uliqne. 429430. no. pp. Parshnll and Carl Rohwer: The Venturi flume. Crow: Culverts as Wo. pp. C. 5. 748750. NoteB on standing wave flumes and flume meter baffle falls. 14731475. Esame del pro(. pp. May. 20. L' Enfn'gia . Horace William King: "Handbook of Hydraulics. American Society of Civil ElIginee1's.nd Harold B. Sindaeato ingegn. 23. 19'11. Pa.:d !. AmeJ". Pl:bUc Works Department. 26. 23. . 15. September.Enyineers.. . 1951. 2B. Edwl~ A. JlIly. 1954. Apr.zioni dell'ingegneria all'agricoltura. Parshall: The Parshall mellsuring flume. C. ' . Apr.al~: Parshall flumes of large size. Nov. A. May 5. C~ow: Measuring runoff rates with rectangular highway culverts. V. 1924. 37. F. India. AgriC1!/tural Eng~neenng. London. 1939.&lica e Costruz'ioni Idrauliche. Parshall: Measuring water in irrigation channels. 123. 10961107.teT rUIloff measuring' devices.· 426A. B9.offet: C:i~ical fl~w meters (Venturi flumes). 101. Parmer's Bulletin No. Giulio De Marchi (anthoT.sunnnent Manual. pt. 1928.nnary. JIIlemorie e studi No. 5. A. .rvelopment of the Venturi flume. May. paper 743. I of \11]. ' '. no. 155181. 101. pp. 7. October.lrawHill. no. 12291231.ter outflows on sewers. 5.esso idmulico. S. .tioll May W53 4358.rold re.ety of Cwtl Engmeers. October. pp. K. Arma~do Ball. Aequo e (las. p'p. Civil Engineering and Publ'ic W01'ks Review. Waler Works Association. A. F. Cone: The Ventnri flume. vol. Journal of Agricultm·aIResea·rch. pp. Herbert Addison: "Hydmulic Measurements" JohnWile v & Sons In . O. W36. L. H. 236244. Lahore. 1941. U. Guido Nebbia: VeJ. India. no. Mct. Techn·ical Papers. The Engineer. Americar. C. pp. 763768. Bulletin No. 1942. . vol. Institution of CiviL Engineers. Bermel: Hydraulic influence of modifications to the San Dimas criticaldepth measuring flume. and pt.s vol. 1925. Oklahoma AIlT!CUU'Ural Experiment Stat'ion.S. Milan. Duilio Citrini: Modellatori a risalto: Guida al progetto (Standingwave meters: Direction~ for design). pp. 44. 19361937. pp. 1922 and' 1\)33." U. II): Dispositivi per la misura della pOl·tatll dei canali con minime perdit. Anwar Khafa. Technical Bulletin T51 November.. 1. C. . O. . generica: Primi rj. Giulio Dc Marchi: Nouvelles recherches experimentales sur Ie jaugeur !I. 3. vol. Colorado Agricultural Experimen l Siation Btdlet'in No. 155. July 11.R.' 8. ew York. The EngincliT. . 28 no. Acqua e gas.n SlJciety lJf Ciuil. Colorado A(Jricul/ural Experiment Statton.r Wasserbau und Erdbau. I'. Department lJf Ag"i. Amencan Soc. Bowlus: Adaptation of Venturi flumes to flow measurements in conduits. C. vol. 13. 103S.e di quota: Nuove ricerche sperimentali slii misuratori a risalto !draulico (C'l. Transactions. Linford: Venturi flume flow meter. Bureau of Il. 5152. Inglis. 1954.. 31. voL 158. \"01. vol. V.lturimetri per canali a sezioni di tipo monomio (Venturi 'meter for canals with cross sections of monomial type). 392394. Jameson: The Venturi flume and the effect of contractions in open channels. 1932. voL 16. ' c. pp. American Geophysical Union. vol. R. Transactions. May. 1954. pp. 131. '30. 27. Mar. A. pp. 193fl. 17. 1883. of debrisladen stre~m flow with criticaldepth flumes. March. reprinted as I stituio Ji I draulica e Cos!ruzione' I drauliche. An abstract is given in Journal.ris. F. C. lII. Ree ~nd ~. 35. Se. pis. pp. 423. canal Venturi (New expel'imental researches' on standingwave . 1936. John S. vol. pp. pp. pp. Part. . 1937. I. 13. New York. 2'rD291. Transactions. 1926. . vol: 81. Ralph L. no. London vol. Parte II. pt. and H. American Society of Ciuil Enginee1's. 2. ' J . 131133. Milano. 1936. Inc. 34. No. Parshall: Measurmg i. Eidgenossisehe Itchnische Hochscitu/e Zurich. A.eclamo. 11. 1946. ~ulh!rB. Jil.. 5 pp.Memorie e studi No. no.ione delle esperienze. 199214. pp. 12. I l . no. October. no. no. L' Energia elettrica. aPl?lica. 23. R. vol. Descri. 1936. Amirican Society of Civil Engmeers. pp. 1941. October. Milano. Ste. . Aug. Milano. D. pp. January. elettrica. no. 1937. March. voL 9. revised by Ernest F . June 30. 1942: 9. a. L. 6.. 19&4. Harold K. Guido Nebbia: Venturimetri per can ali a sezione di forma. vol. . May. 28.84 BASIC PRINCIPLES CRITICAL FLOW: ITS COMPUTATION AND APPLICA~ONS 85 4. 1958. pp. G. Jameson: The (il. by Ha. American' Society of CilJU E7tginee. John H.~truz'io7'li JdJ'auliche. pp: 2831 and 39.evices for measuring discharge in cannls with minimum loss of level: New expaTimentnl researches on standing wave flumes (Venturi flumes). 22. L. 19. L. Par. Guido Neuhia: Ventul'imetriper canali a sezioni di forma generica (Venturi meter for canals with cross sections of general forms). 758763. . ' 24 R.c. 32. vol.6. Brater. 11. E. 115129. 375. V.oorate Paper No. Soil Consenlation Senlicc. 1950. Transactions. 21. 11. 1941 . Wilm. Cotton. Eagel: The Venturi flume. H. 25. 1933. B41~B51. 36. Risultati delle esperienze [D. 136163. II. reprinted as Istitutodi Idra1. Sewage ~ndltst"al Wastes. 105107. January. Apr. 326333. no. Ludwig: Design of PltlmerBowlus flumes. 14. I and III) and FraMesco Contessi~i (author. Bowlus. R. pp. vol. Proceedings. 1953. voL 32. April. 25. pp.S. September. . 137. Palmer and Fred D. 20. 35. vol. Journal. 31 no. 40.'Ultat~ sperimentali (Venturi meter for cano. Circula?' 843.
\ \ .PART II UNIFORM FLOW j 1 i. 1 I '1 .. . j. .
general. I '" l ~. water surface.l pmposes.in features. At highel' vetoci~ies' the fl~ "'1ill eventually entrain Edr and becbme unsteady.CHAFTER 5 DEVELOPMENT OF UNIFORM· FLOW AND ITS FORMULAS . and will be described only in Art. resistu. usually described as ttltTarapid. velocity at every point on the clHmnel section within the uniformflow reach. The uniform flow to be considert:d has the following mn. when uniform flow reache~ i certain high velocity. . " It should be noted that unifor:m flow cannot occur at very high velocities. for rivers and streams in natural states seanleiy ever experience a strict uniformflow condition . Laminar uniform flow has limited engineering applications. the requirement of constant velocity may be liberally interpreted as requiremel1t thtl.: ~. Qualifications for Uniform Flow. und discharge at every section of the channel reach I. .of Uniform Flow. Strictly speaking. stable pattern of velocity distribution call be attained when the socalled" boundary layer" is fully developed (Art.. water area.I ! I I I I i ~ 151. it will be discussed e. the uniformflow condition is frequently assumed in the computn:tiOD of flo\v in natural streams. The results obtained from this assumption are understood to be apPl·oximo. that their slopes are all equal. 89 I~~. Such fl. 'This is because. even steady uniform flow is rare. When flow OCCtll'S in an open channel. Establishment . ' Uniform flow is considered to be steady ouly.niform flow will be discussetl1i:1':A:rt:1f8: 52.l problems.nce is encountered by the water as it flO\vs downstream.'(tensively il1 tbe following chapters. however.e constant. the velocity distributIon across the channel section is uualtered in the I'each.. but they offer a relatively simple and satisfactory solUtion to many prnctico. since unsteady uniform flow is practically nonexistent. It becomes very unstable.) J 1 I . In other words. and channel bottom are allparallei. velooity. (1) the depth. 81). In natural streams.1r.teallq.t the flow possess a constant mean velocity. ' . this should mean that· thB flow possesses a constant.. As turbulent tmiform flow is most commonly encountered in engineering problems.. or Sj = S'" = Sn = S. The criterion fOl: instability of u. 610. ' . For practica. Despite this deviation from the truth. and (2) the energy line.
unIform flow cannot be. 1 At the critical slope (middle sketch in Fig.. uniform flow f S :'" Sf =' S. The upstream reach that is required for the establishment of uniform flow is known as the transilory zone.' In this zone the flow is accelerating and varIed. I \ . channel irregularities.. i ! FIG.he mean velocity in ips. abbreviated as N. 51) the water surface of the critical Row is unstable. through a gradual hydl'aulic drop.2 x and yare exponents.1.lanced by the gra. 51) the water surface in the transitory zone appears tmdulatoi:y.D. R is the hydraulic rf. When the uniformflow formula is applied t. At the subcritical slope (top sketch in Fig.::~1 t.\ t . . For hydraulic computations the mean velocity of a turbulent uniform flow in open channels .90 UNIFORM FLOW DEVELOPMENT OF 1}NIFORl'rl FLOW AND ITS FORM.fterward the flow becomes uniform. however.y be considez:ed constant if the variation in depth is within a certain margin. The magnitude of the resistance. t . resulting:in an accelerating flo~v in the upstr~am reach.rcritical slope (bottom sketch 'in Fig. viscosity. . say. At this moment alld' a. is usually expressed il.'()'LAS 91 1 l This resistance is generally cO.J r~~.' .blishment of uniform flow in Il long ohe. the fiow in a natural channel may be assumed l.tions may occur in the middle reach.s ca:n be expressed in the following general form: (51) 1 ) . Possible undula. 51). and. = So. considered uniform. 51. shape. if there are 110 flood Rows or markedly varied flows caused by.dh15 in ft'. In all figures the long dashed line represents the llormaldepth line. the energy slope will be denoted specifically by Sf instead of S. Beyoml the transitory zone the flow Is approaching uniformity.~ity forces. and the resistance is outba. 52)."ifOftl1 I fl 0 "' _ _I.o the computation of energy slope in a gradually varied flow. For purposes of explanation. 53. Toward the downstream end of the channel the resil5tance where V is t.lpc. the velocity and hence th(. varying with the mean v:elocity. depends on the velocity of flow. :&!ts.D.lia. and supercritical (Fig. 51) the transitory water surface passes from the subcritical stage to the supercritical stage. Buch as entrance' condition.h in the middle llSymptotically and gradually. 81).L. hydraulic channel roughness. Most practical uniformfiow form1. Expressing the Velocity of a Uniform Flow. .pproximately by a socalled unifol·tnflow formula. A uniform flow will be developed if the resistance· is balanced by the gravity forccs. Ivorled~w I Tronsitor zone ytI I . At the sl. ' .miform under normal conditions. small. the resistance will gl·adually 'increase until a balance between resistance aDd gravity forces is reached. and many QtheJ: factors. 'In applying 1 Theoretically speaking. when other physical factors of the channel are kept unchanged. or C. and the short clashed or dotteclline represents the critioaldepth line.L. slope. For praotica\ PUfilvS\lS. The depth of a uniform flow is caned the nonnaJ depth. attained.l resista~ce are. the varied depth a. ' I un[f~rm flow on the ove''::Qe . S is the energy slope. the depth ma. The flow is uniform in the middle reach of the channel but varied at the two ends. _ 1 I I i I I I I I t I may again be exceeded by gravit:r forces •.1' " If the water enters the channel slowly. critical. 1 % of the lwerage uniformfiow depth. the length of the transitory zone should not be less than the length required for the full development of the boundary layer under the given conditions. but Ql1 the average the depth is constant and the flow may bf'.. a long channel is showll with three different slopes: sub critical. From a hydrodynamic standpoint (see Art.unteracted by the compon~llts of gravity forces acting on the body of the water in the direction of motion (Fig. and roughness. If the channel is shorter than the transitory length required by the given conditions..l·. Z In. C is a factor of flow resist~ ance. The velocity and .apd the flow may become varied again. The length of the transitory zone depends on the discharge and on the phj"Sical conditions of the channel.nne1. that is.t each end approaches the uniform dept. For practical purpos~s.
The first assnmption was made by CMzy. area of the stream bed is proportional to the square. The best known and most widely used formulas are the CMzy and Manning fOl'mulas. maximum depth. The total foroe resisting the flow 2 is then equal to ](VSPL. Theoretical uniformflow formulas have also beell derived on the basis of a theOl'etir. • Thi~ channel resisting iorce may alao be . known as the coefficient of 7'oughness 1 the sllspended sediment charge the bed load the dynamic viscosity of the water' the temperature of the water where V is the mean velocity in fps. called ChezY'$ G. the velocity under any givell condition of the variables is simply equal to the algebraic summation of the individual contl'ibut. the maximum depth of water area the slope of the water surface a coefficient representing the channel roughness. ' . A different approach to the determina. The surface of contact of the flow with the stream bed is equal to the product of 'the wetted peri~eter and the length of the channel l'efLClh. hence. . .tion of the velocity in a natural channel has been attempted by Toebes [5]. "I have sought in vain for further information on the' Bubject.not mentioned in most hydraullcs textbooks. maximum surface velocity.eloped and published a large number of practical uniformflow formulas. In 1876. . R is the hydraulic radius in ft. 1 the water area the mean velocity the maximum surface velocity' the wetted perimeter the hydraulic radius . . The CMzy formula C. 1 The source of this famous formula. IlInd published it in [8]. wl1i~h will he discussed later (Art. it is understood that the result is very approximate' since: the flow condition is subject to more imcertnin betors th}l[l would be involved in it regular artificial channeL As pointed out by Schneckenberg [1].tion . in 1897.:l. As early as 1769 the French engineer Antoine Chez)" was developing probably the first uniformflow formula..!a. is.al channel with sediment transport and turbulent flow should take equal aecount of aU the following variables. 52). a good uniformflow formula for an alluvi. . in open channel. and C is a factor of flow resistance. . S is the slope of the energy line. Derivation of the CI~ezy forml. However. The ChezyFormula. coefficient of roughness. the Courp!1let Canal. and temperature of water. . which will be described in the' following articles alid used extensively in this book. By this method it is . wett~d perimeter.NT OF UNIFORM FLOW AND 1'1'13 FORMULAS 93 the uniformflow formula toa natural stream. ftnt plate warped into a oylinder . In this approach amultiplecorrelation analysis is applied to the following significant factors affecting the velocity in a gi. Qb 'IL T There have been dev.explained by the principlea of fluid dynamics. possible to e"aluate the independent individual influence of each variable on the magnitude of the velocity. 85). . or PL (Fig.. Chezy's report revealed that the formula' was developed and verified by experiments made on an earthen canal.l. 5'. the famous CMzy furmula l which is usually expressed as follows: (52)' A . of the velocity.AI velocity distribution across the channel section. this knowledge has long been sought for.nt of proportionBlity.FIG.92 UNlF'ORM FLOW DEVELOPMF. for uniform flow. this force is equal to X"V2 where ]( is a constD. "But.ions as <\ffected by each variable.. A number of weHknown uniformflow formulas are given Md discussed in [2] to [5J. then translated the portion relating to the formula. this method applies only to the streams in the geographical region for which the analysis is made. the German engineer Gotthilf Heinrich Ludwig Hagen mentioned in his 'work [7] that Geapard de Prony . the American engineer Clemens Herschel through the assistance of a friend in Paris traced the original Canal de I'Yvette report to its hiding place.V V ma P R y SUI n Q. cannot be generalized. The open channel can be coneeived as a. its applica.ven alluvial channel: water area. When such an evahULtion is made. had stated tha." Then.\. In fact. 54. that ls. t but none of these formulas meets the qualifications of a good form'lIla as defined above.n be'derived mathematically from two assumptions. In British literature the term "l'llgosity coefficient IJ is used..slope of water surface.t Chezy set up this formula in 1775.'. on the occa$ion of a report that Chezy made on the Canal de j'Yvette in conjunction with JeanRodolphe Perro net. and on the Seine River in late 1769 ." says Hagen. It states that the foi'ce resisting the flow per unit. .
.various types. it usually produces satisfactory results. I 1 . I the formula appears cumbersome. the effective component of t~e gravity force caus~ng the flow musl'.' in uniform flow. Of 95 j i I I i ! V = v(wIK){AIP)S = C vRS.11 0. .ower Mississippi RiYer between 1850 and t860.. rubble masonry.S...1n 0..K.e flow... ?[mguillet and ..... . A fluid flowing ill the uncloaed cylinder will create a drag or resls"mg ~orce on the inside surface. Three important fOI'mulas developed for this purpose will be given in the next article . 1 The' slope under consideration is defined as the sme of the angle 0. ... the French hydraulician H. . or brick: .. ~~enchannel flow.. or S = sin 11. formula itself is seldom found necessary in engineering offices.. . Ashla.' ... S (53) The co~ffi~ient n in this formula is specifically known as [(utter's n. where w is the Ulllt weIght Ol water. TABLE 51. including Bazin's gagings and the gagings of many European rivers and of the Mississippi River.... hence. The values of the average variation indicate that Bazin's formula is not as good as Kutter's even for his own measurements..ems somewhat ridiculous nolY.. .. . or poor brickwork ... It has been so widely used that many tables and charts are available for its application.. This force is equal to tha drag created by the flow of . formula Simply m order to make the formula ~gree with the Humphreys and Abbot d. Thus. Powell [14) suggested a logarithmic.t.0. 133136 of (2]). The. : . \ .. 52) is parallel ~o th~ chal~nel bott.. then the previous equation is reduced to the Chezy formula.. The Mississippi River gagings were made by Humphreys and Abbot on the I. PROPOS!lD VALUES OF BAZIN'S 171.. . wAL8 = KPPL. ~ ~ICk'l11Jj.83 1. coeiIicient of roughness whose values proposed by Bazin are given in Table ·51.. l Thence.the factor CdP/2 is equivalent to the constant..... Darcy and then completed by Bazin. Kutter [10].l channels.riations ill Chezy's C. and 8 is the channel slope. .. IL formula was derived elaborately from flowmeasurement data in channels of ... It states that.00281 + 1. Some authors have suggested that the slope term 0... Figure 53 gives a popular chart for the solution of the G. so the use of the.. fJ is the slbpe angle..becllu. an (55)  42 (4i + It) log the G . formula. The effectIve gravityforce component (Fig. In English units.t'_·_ 1 attempts have been made to de~ermine the value of Chezy's C.Engin~ers in 1861 (11].... published a formula expressmg the value of C m terms of the slope 8..K. .mnel flow were first begun by H.'ea..".de which corr'osponds to the free surbce of the.65 M~my + m/vR (54) >.. . which is believed to have been claimed first by Brahms [9] in 1754.btained were published in a report submitted to the U.. On the basis of the accumulated date. . In 1897.. and I{utter's n for Bazin's experimental data and several naturaL streams.. The results were published by Bazin in 1865 (12)..94 UNIFORM FLOW i i DEVELOPMENT OF UNIFORM FLOW AND ITS FORMULAS The second asst1l~ption is the basic principle of uniform flow... formula be omitted in order to simplify the aP?lmranCe of the formula...~ive seiie:s of experiments on opench. Army Corps of Topographica'J...r. implicit function of C. tw~ Swiss engineers.21 0. hydraulic radius R. The G. Let.00~81/S of The formula was developed primarily from data collected from small experimenta. A lS the water a. is C = This formula. K. The term containing S was introduced into the G.00281) vB. Thi~ se.) CdP V'PL/2..~ B.nd even to make the general results more satisfactory.K formula. Description of chanael Very smooth cement of planed wood ...811 .O surfaces offer resistance to th.. In 1950.. be equal to the total force of reslStance. formula for the roughness of artificial channels..o~ and equal to tuAL sin e = wAL8.. this formula is C 1 = __ 157. K. The Miami ConservancY'District [2] has made a study comparing the v!l. Earth channels in rough condition .36 C  + 8 n° 1 n + ( 41.. Three importltnt formulas for the determination of CMzy's C are given as follows: .. the formula is .. aild the coefficient of roughness n. Baziu finally proposed the formula in 1897 (13).. Powell Formula.here m is 9. Earth channels in perfect condition .~ C. . and the data thus o. Bazin's m.. 57 and 58.. 55. .. Cd is tbe coefficient of drag and P IS the ma~s de~lty _of the flUid . Ba'lin l proposed a formula according to which Ch~zy's C is considered a function of R but not of 8.flUld along a flat plate whose tl\.ata. 1 From 1855 and 1862 an exten. .. The la~ter' IS equal. a.. ..se these data are known to have been qUite maccurate (see pp. Earth channels in ordinary condition .65 + 0. concrete. The Bazin Formula. Determination of Chezy's Resistance Factor.~.. inclinatIOn.Ads.. its general application is found to be less satisfactory than the G. Bazin's..54 2. The results based on this study are showll in Table 52. of proportlonabt. 2 Although but unclosed on one si.la~_ In 1859.. Expressed in Engli8h units..... Uuplaned wood.41. The value of n will be discussed in. wherp. AlP = R and let vw/K be replaced by a factor C..
...4 0...!~I~!~I'L1UT~..tG.. .. 16 ..........4 MiSSissippi River.0120 ... (55) approximates the. " ..1 Mia. :... thus... COMPARISON OF VARIATH)NS IN CHi:z.. .. 0...ll~ttLI~I~.... • Values a. ... 19151916".... 0.... ...... ' ... ..0363 18.. . R is the Reynolds numbel'. " ..12 O. ...tUILE ~ "' 0 U en "'u.. 11.~ ~ ~ ~ Jl . tQ ~ J '" '" ill '0 .1 22.. ..llk'~~~~~~WW~~WU~~~~o S3l'iNlmlO .~E~i.......... ~ l:t:1 ill' ".. .7 0. '" p" A. .......... 1913 ..7210.8 IrraWllddy River.LIW..... '" c := . . RUl~sia...~ ..0130 .....8 Mississippi River. 0.8580....129 O.8 1... c '""""" '" .. '" ..070424...0 Volgu.8 1... the iurface roughness may be: .. ' 5... . . . :3 18 4......185 O. "'..... 0. .~I~.. Eq.2 1. 0.4240... j.0' 1... La. ..... '0 oil ...riation. 15 .. '" ~ g :El '" .......2 1.0...... 1 .. c <J III Average vaiue3 Measurements C m varia. ..:. . . . .46 12...... . 10 ... ....20.... .2 Arkansas Drainll. 63.!!l ..0 Volga River at Zhiguly.. 1...... 0121 .1420..58 0. .........J j I l I !J '" m...~ Q) A .7 ..~ III ... 14..0212 .0 3 ..... 1..• 1914 . . .... ...'... " ..... . 'Oarrolton. 11.. " ....'7150. ....4 3.. .. Carroltoll........0810....8 .. t:i A Q) A ........... .....2 t:i Bazin's Series 6 .... Miss .2 0.. :: .....0311 1...0150 ... .. 4......q en Q " "' .. . River at Sa......8 5. 33 . OJ '' 'A .. form T.. ...... .. 8 .. . . ·~ ... then the formula approaches the fbrm.... 32 .... % C 0Q) '" s< '" <f ...... 1.....mara.324.. La.....0 1. .. .2 0.. For smooth channels....J:! " g tJ is "'~ .. :j2. 35 23.0116 ......9· 2. .C = 42 log (4R/C). " '" 5 ...S tQ .. .0148 . .AZ~H:> 2~!!!~g... " . having the tentative values shown in Table 53.... a 96 . 1...7 0....... . Burm!l .. .ussia. BAZIN'g m......... ....:Ici SIXV gg ." :1\ ~ .... Sinoe Chezy's is expressed implioitly in the Powell formula.......6 OJHI0....... so slight that e becomes negligible compared with R..: '" r:I il: ~ ~ where R is the hydraulic radiusin H. Q) "'" ... '" oil til 52..... i'l . 4. :a :a !5 .c: ...~ii!~~ fL~.. ... <l " '" '" g... For rough channels...0151.. .7110.....and E is a measure of the channel roughness...3· 4. ...444 0. 165..i! '" :il . Ohio.... ....0 2. ....S....09 0.. 0.1 7 ............. .... . 4....8 0.1440. . ..5 Average va. c .35... ....4 L2 8...9 Bogue Phalia River.... J915 ........9 4.....tions. Ill . '0>... 1...... . 9 ... the flow is generally so turbulent that R beoomes very large compare~~th C. the solution of 'the formula for C requires: !l. .. .....8036. 0... ( I C = 42 log (R/e)....i1 . ......... 167. " .... ...ge Onnals.!!l :El~ ~ '" :El o S. . 0 .......... " .......30 5..... . ...::..............5 1....4* L9S O.0209 .... 17 ...5 2....veraged by the author.0117 ..........S 0 t1. Ark.0. . .. R.....8713..7040. . trialanderror procedure. 12 .... .. .. 44.... ..y's AND KTJT'J'ER'S 11 C.. . 0.••...gj ~~ 0 "I '" :S n 1 1 1...1990. ..' ...1 0....0215 16..> . 0.. j.~ DEVELOPMENTOF UNIFORM FLOW AND ITS FORMULAS 97 1l 'tl .: .mi River at Tadmor.1118:6 45 ... .76 0........ The Powell formula was developed from limited laboratory experiments: on smJoth and rougn channels and from the theoretical velooity distri.. i' .......~..... ~g'O oil '" '0 . J912 ... OJ 1:j .OU3 . ~ ~~] .33 1. ... ....3210...156'0...".. ..... 0..
R is the hydraulic radius. the reSUlting equation should be writtan V = 1. value of n is used in both systems. is more direct a... On the ot. In this conversion. Concretelined channels.005 0. .ctions of the Institution [15J.. the practical form of the formula in the English ..811. . L..486/n)R. From Example 21.O = \ I 0= Then... tiori that II has no dimensi. In 1889 the Irish engineer' Robert Manning I presented a formula.811 0. it was converted back again to English uni~. Since it is unreasonable to suppose that the roughness coeHicient w01.[ues of E.nning's own work.. the author has failed to find an y significant discussion regarding ~he dimensions of n..bsorb the dimen'sions of Lwr. Some authors.8395. side slopes 2: 1.resulting in V = (1.. In a search of early Ii~erature on hydmulics. TllNTATlYE VALUES OF POWELL'S. R is the hydraulic radius in ft. Mll.. thus yielding the dimensions cif i>~ for n. ConsiderinC' these variations. and further verified by 170 observatipns} Owing to its simplicity of form and to the satisa linear meas.2HlOn = 1.00281) 0. and S = 0. straight and uniform ..nd simpler. since further investigation is needed for determination of the properva.2190n.. Solution.004 0. .. ... C is a factor of flow resistance. This formula was developed from seven different formulas. .. however....ment by Major Cunninghllm (171. H. 1889.0004 0. . is converted from metric to English lin its. authors assume that the.her hand. SA)...04 0.8 3. For different shaj:les and rOllghnesses.8 fps = J Q = 192. ~H. is independent of the dirn~nsions of n.. This was further modified by others and expressed in me. it will be seen that n = (</>(Rlk)Jk>~ IEq..486 since 1 meter = 3. ..98 UNIFORM.lue of % for the exponent.0 it' and R = 4. becau. and n is the coefficient of roughness.ure of roughness and </>(Rlk) is a iunction of Rlk. It is also known that PllilippeGaspl1rd Gauckler [18J had all early proposal of the simplified form of Manning's formula in 1868 and that Strickler [191 presented independentiy the Same form of the formula ill: 1923.. that 11: was unconsciously taken 2S dimensionl¢Ss in the conversion of the Manning formula.ta on artificial channels [12J. Dredged ear~li channels ...2B08~ = 1.gives the numeric.10 It. The paper . S is the slope of energy line. specifically known as 111anning' 8 n. as shown above. '41 6. Example 51. Powell's.015..(Rlk) involves a dimensional factor. as iIi the conversion of the: GanguilLet and Kutter formula..assumed dimensionle~s.8UR~S!h1 1. it seems unjustifiable to carry the numerical constant to more than three significant figures. \~here k is .005 = 17.olls.0010 0... Later.. consider n it dimensionless coefficien t. by the Therefore.2B08H)n = 1./g.. It is most likely. that is..as Io. . It ..0017 0.. Then.rical ~orrection factor is introduced for compensation. which was later modified to its present 1 Manning first presented the formula in a paper read on December 4.I .015 . where V is the mean velocity.. Using the G.49 is believed to be sufficiently ac. . Thus... Earth.. Manning mentioned that the simplified form of the forl11ulahad been suggested independently by G. . whiGh is identical with the formula derived on the assump.. Given: Kutter's n = 0. it" nllmerical value in English units must be different from its valuo in metric units. In the vielV of modern flllid mechanics..according to a state. . . Chc~y 1242 .. Description of channel New Neat cement surface .. (B26)J. which pays much attention to dimensions. some. tlie numerical value.. then the formula in Engliah units . hONing a bottom width of.. Let n be the vallie in metric units and II' the value in English units. since..system is Y = 1. therefore. Directly from the Manning formul!l..ter published in the Transa.10 Old 0.\yil! have the same dimensions as those of kH.2BOB~~ = 1. Hagen's formula was believed to have appeared first in 1876 [7J.006 where V is the mean velocity in fps. TAIILll wellknown form (56) 53. as long as the same value of n is used in both systems of units.0 X 17.~S'~.. use was made of Bazin's experimental do..tric units as V = (1ln)R~\SH. a value of 1..2808 ft: NfliV" if n is assumed to have the dimensions of LhI. It seems that this was not ~ problem of concern to the forefathers of hydraulics.420 ds 56. ' It is inte~esting to note that the conversion of the units for the l\'Ianning formul!l. formula.ensions of·n are seen to be TLH.se such a conversion. For practical purposes. formula... preferring the simpler choice. Now. thus leaving no dimen~ions for n. .. unless a nnme.tion of the exponent of Il.of n is kept unaffected. the value or Ch6zy's C i" 41 65 + 0... i 0.005. numerator contains . Unplanedplank flmlles ."l Gonstallt 3..015 +( • 0 0. V = 124.. . and S is the slope. When the formul(l.n' = (3. Compute the velocity and discharge in the trape~oidal channel described in Example 21. A = 192.10 X 0.lld contain the dimension T. l{. for physical reasons.nning adopted an approximate v[l.005 V4J.... The formula \V'as first given in a complicated form and then simplified to V '= CR?~S'\. 'On the 1 j l.. . The practical application of this formula is limited. . the resulting form takes the numerical constant 3.er 6 ft. of course.2 V4. If <p(Rlk) is considered climensionless.. FLOW DEVELOPMENT OF UNIFORM FLOW AND ITS' FORMULAS 99 butioll studied by Keulegan (Art.811R~~S}i/n' Since the same. based 011 Bazin's experimental data. at a meeting of the Institution of Civil Engine:ers of Ireland. the same value of n is widely used in both systems of units.0002 0.urate [161. the average yalue of the el{ponent was found to vary from 0.486/n can a. If n is . and a depth of wat. the din). 20 ft. Cons:equently. it is equally possible to assume tha~ the numerator of 1.+ 0. .00281 + 1. Also. Hagen prior to Mo.6499 to: 0..2808'~+~~ = 3..48I}R~S"~/n.. n has the dimensions of Lli. ' I For the derlva. considering the approximations involved in the derivation of the formula and the uncertainty in the value of n.. the 'dimensions of n become a matter of consideration. The Manning Formula. or that ".
basic knowledge of these factors should be found very usefuL 'The factors that exert the greatest influence upon the coefficient of roughness in both artificial and natural channels are therefore described below.0001 and the hydl'aulic radius is betwe~n 1. 58. Surface. and the fourth approach will be· taken up in Art. For this reason. 2 On account of this relationship.nd roughness (see 11 previous footnote). fine grains result in a relatively low value of n and coarse grains. A nomographic solution of the formula is given in Appendix C. such as sand.ndbook of Hydraulics" [211_ An article o. Factors Affecting Manning's Roughness Coefficient. value oi % [20]. (1) to understand thefa.ctnally not a constant but varies ina range depending mainly on the channel shape !l. This is often considered the only factor in selecting a rOllghness coefficient. (5~7).ll Chazy (Formula fur a Chtzy coefficient) is given in pp. ' A. was published in severa! editions of Pll. Determination of Manning's Roughness Coefficient. proposed in 192£$. for there is no exact of knowledge. some authors Stiggested ll. (59) are generally suggested for use: Y= 1. At the present select !1 value of n actually means to estimate the resistance to flow in a given channel. Comparing the Chezy formula with the Manning' formula. 87. Typical values good fer both Kutter's nand Manning's n are shown in Table 50 and illustrated in Fig. The final recommendation for such use was mlide by the Executive Committee at the 3d World Power Conference in 1938 in Washington. the Manning formula is sometimes oonsidered a variation'oi the CItezy fortimla with Chezy's C defined by Eq. For example. For practical purposes.il formula. some' hydraulicians prefer to use the. to method of f'electing the n value.he appearance of some typical ehannels whose roughness coefficients are known. the following approximate forms of Eq. Tile formula is valid Jor R between O. it can be seen that for n between 0. widely used in the U.040. .ctors th!l. four general approaches' will be discussed. 1C.100 UNIFQRMFLOW . and different individuals will obtain different results. . A footnote in this article reads: "'1'. the Manning formula has become the most widdy used'of all uniformflow formulas for 6penchannel flow computations. i I .n. Within the normal ranges of slope and hydraulic radius.III Qrder to give guid::mce in the proper determination of the roughness coefficient. the value of n is highly vELdable and depends on a number of factors. entitled Ft)1'l1m!a dlia kt)effitlrien/. for beginners. .0 and 30 ft. foi'Inula. The exponent y depends on the Ioughnesscoefficient and hydraulio radius. namely.5 Y"" 1. D. Rm€ghness. it.C. In alluvial streams where the material is fine in grain. the values of Manning's n and Kutter's n are generally found to be numerically very close. formula with a variable (lxponent. 5S. the greatest difficulty lies iIi" the determination of the roughness coefficient n. 140149 of the 193T edition or the book. l The Manning formula was suggested for intern~tionaJ use by Lindquist [3j at the Scandinavie:Sectional Meeting oi the World Power Conierenee in 1933 in Stockholm.011 and 0.t one factor may be repeated in connection 'with anothel'. the unifomiflow formulil.he formula. but it is actually just one of several major factors. Generally speaking.t affect the value of n and thus to acauire a basi~ knowledge of the problem and l~arrow the wide range of gues. in a high value of n." 157. hence discussion abou.0 m 1. It should be noted that these factors are to a Certain extent int/ilrdependent.3 t~e vn vrn for R for R < > 1.vlovsIl. can be no mOl'e than agness.ND ITS FORMULA. It is not uncommon for engineers to think of a channel as having a single value of n for aU occasions. In applying Manning formula or the G. .v!ovskiI's "Ha.S 101 factory results it lends to practical applications. was proposed in 1925. The first three approaches will be given in the next three articles.work. this means the exercise of sound engineering judgment and experience. is of this type. fl. . To veteran engineers'.S. and (4) to determine' the value of n by an rmalytical procedure based on the theoretical velocity distribution in the channel cross section and on the data of. where (59) and where C is'the resistance factor in the Chezy formula expressed in 'metric units.S. this is the Pavlovskiiformttla [21].. which is really a matter of intangibles. The exponent of the hydraulic radius in the Manning formllla is !'. and others suggested a variable depending on Rand 11. (2) to consult a table of typical n values for channels of various types. For practical purpose~ the two values may be considered identical when the slope is equal to or greater than 0. " basis of other later studies. In selecting a propel' vaiue of n for various design conditions.* This formula in mei)'ic linits is (58) . either velocity or roughness measurement. [21J. i DEVELOPj\HlNT OF UNIFORM FLOW A.i'and 8. The surface roughness is represented by the size and shape of the grains of the material forming the wetted perimeter and producing a retftrding effect on the flow.0 ill and . (3) to examine and become acquainted with t.bout this formula. Ii1 reality. *' The Pa.0 m c (57) I ) This' equation provides an important relationship: between Chezy's C and :Manuing's n.
Larger boulders usually collect at the bottom of the st. the value of 71 is generally high. in diameter growmg on the Side slopes do not impede the flo\v so much as do small bushy growths. the increase of roughness in unlined channels carrying water at low velocities is negligible. but abrupt changed or alternation of small and large sections necessitates the use of a large value of 71. l.steep slope causes greater velocity. Generally speaking. ridges and depressions. At the University of Illinois an investigation has been made to determine the effect of vegetation on the coefficient of roughness [22]. 82.tural channels.lally introduced by the presence of sand bars. However."' The U. ing branches are cutoff. The conclusions. This low value of n shonld not be used unless the channel IS to be cleared a:nnuaUy of all weeds and b u s h e s . .ssion of surface roughness will be 'given in Art.0). an~ retards the flow.t no bushes. be found. ThIS ll1crease m. When the materIal IS fine. D~ring the summers of U)25 and 1925 there waS a thICk growth of cattaIls on the bottom of the channel. a gradual and uniform change in cross.. On the basis of flume tests. banks and increasing the value of 71 at low stages.1nd it is very important in designing . sand waves.years. all other factors being equal.002 in n value would constitute an adequate allowance for curve losses in most flumes containilig pronounced curvatures. but it also markedly reduces the·capacii~ ~f the c~annel. It was found that n values for these channels varied with· the shape and cross section of the channel. Comparing two channels.S. in part. Uneven deposits such as sand.002 or 0.. drawn from this investigati'on were..om of the channel IS clear of vegetatiOn and the. Altholagh. Channel Ir:regularity. whereas sharp curvature with severe meandering will increase 71.0. and a wide channel has a lower n value th11D.115. These irregul9. whether built of concrete or other materials. thus increasing the value of n. The effect of vegetation on flood plains will be discussed later in item H. Scobey [23] suggested that the value of 71 be increased 0. In channels that are not cleai'ed for a number of . the average value of 71 found after this occurrence was 0. I.geffect is much less tha.affected by change i. The cattaIls inihe channel were washed out by the high water in September. Large weeds and bushy willows from 3 to 4ft high on the side slopes will produce this value of n.055.ream. The minimum value of 11. a narrow channel. Generally speaking. it is doubtful . however. a triangular channel has a higher n value than a trapezoidal channel.1\. 1925.050 should be used if the channel is to be cleared in alternate years only. the depth of flow. 'Yhen the material consists of gravels and boulders. A . . The n value at medium summer stages w~s about 0. .8ilting may change a very irregular channel into a comparatively uniform one and decrease n. and shs. . DEVELOPMENT OF UNIFORM FLOW AND ITS FORMULA.. . E. Thus. the lesser average depth gives the higher n value. 1925. The meandering of naturai streams. the dominant effect of silting will depend on the nature of the material deposited. 4. In na. degrees of curvature 111 100 ft of channel. the increase in n may be 0. D.072 . Veget. 1926. bU. and holes and humps on the channel bed. denmty. 3. 7.005 or more. Soil Conservation Service has made studies on flow of water in small shallow channels protected by vegetative linings (Chap. portion of the energy of flow is used in rolling t. and type of vegetation. particularly at low or high stage.. provided overhang.. size. the slope of the channel bed. T1 egetation.S 103 '.UNIFORM FLOW 102 clay. Trees from (3 to 8 in. the value of ~ is low and relatively un. Channel Alignment . and .n flow stage. '" . A flow of sufficient depth tends to bend over and submerge the vegetation and to produce low n values. sectioll. \ ". Side slop~s are covered with grass or low weeds.100 may. may increase the 71 value as' high as 30 %. An increase of 0. an avera~e n :value of 0. greater flattening of the vegetation.' . making the channel bottom rougher than the. .hether curvatllre ever increases 11... the growth may become so abundant that values of n· ~ 0. size. owing to a larger proportion of affected vegetation. A value of n = 0. B. Generally speaking. Smooth curvature with large radius will give a relatively low value of 71.040. its effect should not be ignored. there were bushy willow? a~d dry w~eds on the side slopes. for curvature may induce the accumulation of drift and thus indirectly increase the value of n.tnd at a nearly bankfull stage it was 0.. and n was found to be 0. loam.' j i .pe along the channel length. .the retardiI). as follows: 1. On one of the drainage ditches in central Illinois under investigation. In this case.1ge channels. and shape will not a. roughness in addition to that caused by surface roughness and other factors. Sec . small d[ainl.ppreciably affect the value of n.rities definitely introduce. bars and sand waves 'are 1 \ 1 1 I 1 I . 2.003. . 71 represwts the result of one year 's growt~ of vegetation. and low n valu. A theoretical discu. dlstnbutiol1.099. . mOfe than 0. This value is obtainable at high· stages duri!1g the summer months in th~ most carefully n:aintained ch~n nels where the bott.. C.033 was measured in March.001 for each 20.er and variations in cross section. when the channel was ill good condition . At high stages.. or boulders. 'whereas scouring may do the reverse and increase 71 • . In April. This effect depends mainly on heIght. a . ChanneUrregularity comprises irregularities in wetted perimet. such irregularities are uSl. that should be used for designing drain~ge ditches in· centml Illinois is . Changes that cause sinuous flow from side to side of the channel will produce the same effect.ation may be regarded as a kind of surface roughness. Silting and Scouring.<::s.. or silt.n whe:e t?e material is coarse such as gravel.he boulders downstream.
the irregularities of the. which shows the· n values for various flood stages according to the type of cover and depth TAriu:l 54. a 50 o i!: Mississippi River oetweenMemphis and Fulton. theil' size. Size and Shapl'J of Channel.06 O.scha1'{}e. theyalue of n may remain almost the same at all so a constantn is usually assumed hi the flow computation. showing th.riations of the n value with tile. G.. The effect of scouring is not significant as long as .DEVELOPMENT OF UNIFORM FLOW AND ITS FORMULAS 105 .vith increase in stage and in' diseharge. 54).:O. F. There is no definite evidence about the size and shape of a channel as an important factor affecting the value of n.creasen. that vegetation has a marked effect only up to certain stage and that the roughness coefficient can be considered to remain constant for pl'actical purposes in determining overbank flood discharges.!..progressing eyenly and uniformly.fof the average gfowing season [24].e variations 01 11 value with hydra. . vJlues for eleven lar~e cbanneJs at tbe most efficie[lt depths and tlle curVel.SON. This cnnbe seen. The two most important conclusions reached from this study were (1) that the n value fol' a river !channel is least when the stage is at 01' somev..10 0. When the water is shallow.S.: ~ ~O 20 " g '" o O.me!tn stage or depth. from Table 54. the n value may be large at high if the banks are rough and gra. • 0. Tenn. Stage and Di.09 Depth of water. and tends to in~rease for both 1 A tJble of . 54) in streams have been given by Lane (25\..he condition of the channel (Fig..==~::. However. channel bottom are exposed and their effects become pronounced. shape.. FIG.06 0.O~ Brush and waste 0. happens mostly in artificial channels. bridge piers.03 0.07 0.Oi.04 0.". 0.07 0. Geologicol Survey doto .BOTNA RIVEI!.:. depending on t.07 0. it Channel section i Corn 0. The energy used in eroding and carrying the material in suspension or rolling i~ along the bed will also increase the n value.03 0.. numbel'.05 0..03 0.:O'::::03~O". .10 0. and When the discharge is too high.ulic radius in eight river channels are also given in this reference.09 Under 1 1 to 2 2 to 3 3 to 4 Over 4 0.. ObstrucHon.. An increase in hydraulic radius may either increase or de. channel irregularities and will increase the 'roughness.10 O.045· n value n FOR VARIOUS' STAGES m THE NI5HNJ.07 I 0. . however.Oi 1 ! . as obseryed in the Nishnabotna River.03 0. showing how vahle of n varies with stage three river channels. On flood plains the value of n usually varies with the stage of submergence of the vegetation at low stages. U.. The n v3.104 UNIFORM FLOW i ! l' f . !f the bed and banks of a channel are equally smooth and regular and the bottom.1 . The n value in most strearas decreases . Corps of Engineers dato .5. 54. for example. Va.04 0. a sandy or gravelly bed will be eroded more uniformly than a clay bed.3.08 0.! n value I Tennessee River at Cholloooogc. the stream may overflow its a portion of· the flow will be along the flood plain.k02. lowa. it study in connection with the design of the Panama Canal . Floodpilli~ cover Small gt'ains 0. IOWA.rhat above normal bankfull stage. and the like · tends to increase n. GROWING SEl..11 0.5. Thus. FOR THE AVlllRAca.. It should be noted.03 I I Curves of n v!\lue versus stags (Fig. slope is uniform. and its magnitude depends on the surface condition or vegetation..06 0. and distribution. o U. H. The deposition of silt eroded from the uplands will tend to even out the irregularities in:a channel dredged through clay.lue of the flood plains is generally larger than that of the yhannel proper. For the roughness of large canals.The presence of log jams.04 0.'2 .the erosion on channel bed caused by high velocities is.S. VALUES OF ! I I i I I of .06 Pasture Meadow 0.12 0.05 0...Schultz [26). Tennessee . 1 The amount · uniformity of scouring will depend on the material forming the wetted · perimeter. The amount cif increase depends on the nature of the obstructions.yas made by IVley~r& and ..inundfltion.ssy.
Suspended Material and Bed Load. Owing to the seasonal growtih of aqus.?n for conditions comparable to the following: (a) turf grasses where the average depth of flow is 1 to 2 times the height of vegetation. In selecting the value of n~. similar to willows 1to2 ~ean. (b) stemmy grasses. to 12 in.~. the character of obstructions (sharpedged or angular objects induce greater turbulence than curved. '(3) High for conditions comparable to the f.hicplants. '. and fallen and lodged logs. n4 is a value for vegetation and flow conditions. of canals or drainage channels. along side slopes of a channel with no significant vegetation along the channel bottom.' ~""'"~'. . Or salt cedar where the average depth of flow is 3 to 4: times the height of the vegetation. This is identical with the usual design value. As a general guide to judgment it may be accepted that conditions tending to hldtlce turbulence and c~use retardance will increase 1.". no to n..higher and lower stages. Cowan [32J developed a procedure for estimating the value of n. exposed roots. and (2) that the bankfulLn values do Dot vary . the nvalue at halfdepth should be about 0..of which Bermuda and blue grasses are examples. boulders.I 1 J \ \' \ . slightly ei'oded or scoured side slopes of canals or dra. and the position and spacing of obstructions transversely and longitudi. .:106 UNlFORM FLOW DEVELOPMJilNT OF UNIFORM FLOW AND ITS. (2) 1l1edi11.el1~. . selected from Table 55 according to the given conditions. Recognizing several primary £actors affecting the roughness coeffic.0103. .nnels. he found an increase of about 24% in the n value at the halfdepth (Fig. and other related considerations. III selecting the value ofn2' the character of variations in size and shape of cross section is considered gmdlLal when the change in size or shape occurs gradually. I The n/n~ curve was based O. both clay and concrete. and unshaped. . Camp [27. badly eroded or sloughed sides. weeds.which is based largely on measured values in sewers Hov\e'ing partially fulL . separated locfl. and (b) supple seedling tree switches.~. I. or tree sCl'ldlings with moderate cover where the average depth of flow is 2 te 3 times the height of vegetation and {c) brushy growths. moderate for fair to peor dredged channels. the degree of effect of vegetation is considered' .l The n value for the pipe flowing full was found to vary from 0.te occasionally or when shape changes r. ahd cla. Using measurements on clean sewer pipe and drain tile. the value of n may be computed by < n = (no + ". and diminish in the dormant season. where the hydraulic radius is greater than 2 ft. . the value of n may increase in the growing seasOl]. I . They provide a basis for determmmg the proper value of n for a given problem. By thIS procedure.:i:.1 ~! ~~.iudging the relative effect of obstructions.channels. The selectioll of the value of n3 is based 011 the presence and characteristics of obstructions such as debris deposit".. value added to no to correct for the effect of surface in'egularities.nd by Yarnell a. SeasonoJ Change.001:15 to 0. In . the. will decrease n value. All the above factors should be studied I1nd evaluated wit. and irregular surfaces of channels excavated in rock. J.'~ t ! In selecting.h respect to conditions regarding type of channel.013.ause occasional shifting of main flow from side to side. The suspended material and the bed load. smooth channel in the natural ~aterial:.reach under consideration. nally in the . . involved. For circular conduits.ions. consider the following: t.inage cha. in eiZe. weeds. the degree of irregularity is considered smooth for surfaces comparable to the best attainable for the materials involved. 'r.28] was able 'to show that the n value for 11 conduit flowing partially fuBis greater than that for a full conduit.011. uniform.nd Woodwa. old. degree of mainten~~ce.llowing: ea) turf grasses where the average depth of flow is about equal to the height of vegetation. moderately sloughed or eroded side slopes of canals cr drainage . 'lt2 is a value forvf. Taking an average value of 0. jagged. state of flow. where the average depth of flow is 2 to 3 times the height of vegetation. 'I . alternating occasionally when lal'ge and small se·::tions alterna. clay and con~ ~rete sewer pipes a. This seasonal change may cause changes in other factors. . greatly for rivers and canals in different kinds of material and in widely. and severe for badly sloughed banks of natural strea. 65).ms. and trees in the channel or on the banks. value of nl.stumps. . may be . would consume energy and cause head loss or increase the apparent channel roughness. smoothsurfaced objects).rd 130] on openbuttjoint concrete .tl'iations in shape and size of the channel cross sectiol1. grass. (1) Low for conditions comparable to the following: (a) dense gl'owths of fla"{ible ~urf grasses Qr weeda.1 + n2 + nl + n()m5 (512) where no is a basic n value for a straight. cottonwood. and mil is a correction factor fllr meanderiIlg of channeL ' Proper values of. in size... willow. r . dormant season.he. extent to which the obstructions occupy or reduce the average water area. One should recall that conditions considered in other steps must not be reevaluated or' doublecounted in this selection. and alternating frequently whim iarge arid small sections alternate frequently or when shape changes cause frequent shifting of main flow from side to side.I5d.i.j I t :~' . the eurve was verified by the data of Johnson [311 forlarge sewer!!. value and that those tending to reduce turbulence and retardance. and m.y drain tiles 4. such as willow. Tt3 is a value for obstructions. whet. For depths less thaD about O.D measurements by Wilcox [29] on 8in.her moving or not moving. FORMULAS 107 . minor for good dredged chm1l1els. moderately dense. from 4 to 12 in. nl is 8.
Rood ways.020 0. none of thp.015 0. value to be used in !\.tions. where the hydraulic radius is greater than 2 ft.~ 0.005 0. aIld (c) growiIlg season:trees intergro. The normal values for artificial channels given in the table are recommended only for channels with good maintenance.000 Fine gravel Coarse gravel Smooth . (512) Values' Channel conditionB Earth Rock cut nQ 0. 0.. ~ .! '\ 108 UNIFORM: FLOW . In applying the above method for determining the n value. nOimal. say.000 Gradual Va. where' hydraulic radius is greater than 2 ft.0500.!!lNT I . all in full foliage.2 to L5. inter " ) grown with . selecting the value of ms. Ir:.030{}.g to the situation expected.bol'aLory nt the University or Illinois [33).030 0. ed :BY EQ. with any value ofhydratilic radius up to 1001' 15 ft. The values given in Table 55 were developed from a study of some 40 to 50 cases of small ftnd moderate channels.ateriul in vo I.0 to 1. several things should be noted..010 0.vegetation in foliage.. but no observntions have yet been reported.nd glass. Such a low n value Inay perhaps be obtained also for smoot\) brass o. no signifieant vegetation along channel bottom.0100. j Degree of irregularity Minor Modernte Severe r. however.02 fol' the 11. (b) growing seasonbushy willows about 1 yellr old. are ShO\VIl.red by Horton [34) from an examination of the best available experiments at his time.025 0.1 I . Therefore.e meander length to the straight length bf the channel reach. rninimum value of 0. 2 Table 56 is compiled L The minimum value lor Lucite was observed in the Hydra.0050. (4) Very high for conditions comparable to the following: (a) 'turf . with any value of hydraulic radius up to 10 or 15 ft. t A table showing n values and other elements hom 269 observations made on many existinga. The Table of Manning's Roughness Coefficient. 69.024 0.ulic Engineel'ing La.ria. may be as low as 0. of channel cross Alternating oceaSionally section Alternating irequently Negligible Relative effect of obstruutions Minor 1\.il. 01O{}. 15 ft. or dtmse growth of eat tails along Ghannel bottom. Table 56 will be found very uspIul as a guide to the quick selection of the 11. the method is qU<jlstionable when applied to large channels whose hydraulic rn. and (c) growing seasonbushy willoW's about 1 year old intergrown with some weeds in full foliage along side slopes. The boldface figures are values generally recommended in design . 4. value of such channels. I f i 'fAllLl!l I' DEVELOPMENT OF UNIFORM FLOW AND ITS FORMULAS 109 (b) dormant seasonwillow or cottonwood trees 8 to 10 years old. The meandering isconsidel'ed minor for ratios of 1.5 and greater.0400. The minimum value of n in general. A poplllur table of this type was~prepn..000 1.. 0.012 in lined channels and as 0...010 0.dii exceed. '11. For the case in which poor maintenance is expected in the future.028 0. the degree of meandering depends all the ratio of th.000 O.010~. Table 56 gives a list of n values for channels of various kinds.rtifiCia. given problem.. . intergrown with weeds in full foliagealon.02S{}.020 0. and maximum values of 11. 015 .100 1.... and severe for ratios of 1. VALUES FOR THE CO]>tl'UTATlON OF THE ROTlGHNESS COE·FFICI.005 O..g side slopes. The method dQes not consider the effect of suspended and bed loads.Ilnels is also given by King [35J.l:eds and brush. 0. grasses where the average depth of fio~ is less than onehalf the height of vegetation. I For each kind of channel the minimum." n2 .150 1.2.080 Low Medium VegeLfLtion High Very high Minor Degree of meandering Appreciable Severe m. The method applies only to unlined natural streams.025 0. appreciable for mtios of 1.vn with weeds and brush. and drainage channels and shows.l cha.300 .050 0. 55. I M.008 in artificiH1 laboratory flumes. values should be increased accordiQ.some v.
017 0.011 0.009 O. etc. wavy section 7. Finished. Unfinished. .017 0. Steel 1. Laminated.016 0. b. Float finish 3. creosoted 3.5 0.013 0. Metal a.014 .010 0. TABLE 56.020 0. Lined with cement mortar h. Wood L Planed. straight and free of debris 2. Rubble masonry.020 0.016 0.013 0. S'anitary sewers coated with sewage slimes. Random stone in mortar 3.~s.016 0.015 0.015 0. Vegetal lining 0. Plank with battens 5.013 0. Gunit8.d ashlar i.017 0.014 Q.020 0.020 0.025 0.021 0.500 0.024 0. Glasll c. I t.014 0.011 0.OlD Maximum A.017 0.013 0. Dry rubble h.015 0.026 0. steel form 6.013 0.016 0. 0. Galvanized e. 0.017 0. Trowel finish 2.014 0. In cement mortar 11. Guuite.011 0. N el1t. Dry rubble or riprap f.011 0.015 0. Dry l'Ubble or riprap e. 2.014 0.al 1.011 0 .013 0.014 0.: .013 0.017 0.010 0.012 0." ·f I '. Gravel bottom with sides of 1.017 0. Commondrain8. Meta! a.013 0. Bl.S AI. Masonry 1. Clay 1. :. Vitrified subdrain with open joint g. Asphalt 1. Smooth 2: Rough .020 0.OZI) I I ! f 0. Corrugated B2. Unpainted 2. Culvert with bends. Unfinished. Lucite 0. .011 0.030 0. I ~. Vitrified. Cemen't 1. Painted b.016 0.017 0.027 0. smooth wood form 7.017 0. treated f.011 0.012 0. I I I I .017 0.017 0. VALUES OF THE ROUGHNESS COEFFICIENT n (Boldface figures are values generally recommended in design) ( DEVELOPMENT OF UNIFORM FLOW AND ITS FORMULAS I 111 ~~~~~~~~~I Typ~ of channel and description I Minimum I Normal 0. Mortar. 5. VALUES OF THE ROUGHNESS COEFFICIENT n (continued) D.013 0.OlD 0.015 0.014 0. TABLE 56.013 0. Brickwork 1.017 0. Mortar d.015 0.011 0. Wrought iron 1.022 0. connections.023 0.015 0.036 0.h manholes.013 0.) 110 UNIFORM FLO>'i .011 O.011 0. with gravel on bottom 4.012 0.013 0.013 0.018 0. smooth bottom j. Concr'lte bottom float finillhed with sides of 1.012 0.BUILTUP CHANNE1. etc.013 0. Glazed 2.024 0. good section 6.017 0. Black 2.030 0.012 0.015 0.013 0..003 0. 014 1). illlet.020 0. Vitrified sewer 3.010 0.016 0.011 0. a. Storm drain A2.015 0. Culvert.030 b.015 0.019 0.014 0.. Wood 1.""::". On good excavated rock 8. On irregular excavated rock d. surf!lce 2.015 0.020 0. Corrugated met. Neat. Lockbar and welded 2.021 0.015 0.017 0.. Nonmet. 012 0.010 0. with bends and connections i.020 0. Sub drain .010 0.OlD I 0. untreated 2.025 0.012 0.tal.5 0.013 0.023 0. PaRTLY FULL LINED OR . and some debris 3.016 0. Random stone in mortar 3.014 0.033 0. Cement rubble maSQnry 5.011 0. plastered 4.009 0. strl!ight 5.017 0.015 0.012 0.sewer with manhol.01.013 0. ·'h· ..015 O. .015 0. Brick 1. Coated 2. Planed.017 0.03.015 0.025 0. Unfiliished . Sewer wit.024 0.022 O.013.013 0.016 0. rough wood form e.014 0.020 0..020 0.ge tile 2.011 0.030 0. 0. Riveted and spiral c.011 0.010 0.013 0.012 0. Cp. Brass.017 0.030 0. inlet.014 0.014 0.015 0. Paved invert.019 0. Finished 4.016 0.016 0.025 0. Cemented I'Ub ble 2. Lined with roofing paper c. Dresse. j.023 0.011 0.011 0.035 0. Concrete 1.019 0. sewer. cemented I: 0..012 0. Smooth steel surface 1.009 O.017 0. 0. surface 2.al a. Concrete 1.015 0.014 0.. 4.018 0. Uncoated d.013 0. f 0.020 0. Dressed stone in mortar 2. Stave 2.013 0. Cement 1.018 0'. Formed cOllCrete 2.012 0.OlD .ment rubhle masonry. Cast iron 1.023 0.::.018 0.021 0.017 0.017 .030 O.012 0.032 0.OlD i I ! J.014 0. Nonmp.018 J .012 0.020 0..013 0.013 0.030 0.Of3 . Unfinished. smooth b. Glazed 2 .016 0. Type of channel and description Minimum Normal Maximum 1 CLOSED CONDUITS FLOWING. Unplan(ld 4.025 0.025 0.012 0.015 0..
but with flood stag" 0.030 0.050 0~060 3.030 0.035 0.040 3.160 reaching bra.040 0~050 0.020 0.050 boulders 2.. Rock cuts 1.050 : 2.040 0. Gravel.nnel.bove. Earth bottom lind rubble sides 0. no 0030 0. 0.045 0.040 0.fter weathering 0. but llome weeds a. No crop 0. ·no vegetation in cha. l. Dense willows.030 0.035 . deep pools.tree stumps. becll. straight and uniform . Clean.120 trees.ew weeds 0. With short gr!l. Same as 4. winding.070 0.110 0.060 0. weedy.WATIilD OR DREDGED a. Very weedy rea. vallie is Jess than that for minor streams of similar .030 0.018 0. Light brush on banks 0.ches.1 ber a. Same.055 .1. I I: 0. e.016 2.035 0.070 D2. Heavy stand of timber.027 0. Cobble bottom nnd clea.150 0200 2.035 0.050 13. 4.100. Jagged and irregular 0. recently completed 0. Dense brush.050 0. little undergrowth.080 0.028 5.l few down 0.025 3. i 0.075 ftoodways with heavy stand of tim.033 0.050 0.060 brush I I ! I ____b_. fun stage. some wGeds 0. Regular section with no boulders or /1 0.00 it). Stony bottom and weedy banks 0.080 .u.4. uniform section. in summer 0. highest stage of flow 0.100 0.010 0.040 0. No vegetation 0.150 I I I I I 0.110 0. l\llnnr streams (top width at flood stage <100 it) a.025 0. trees and brush along banks submerged· at high sta. cobbles.018 3. brush on sides 0. DD brUsh 1.030 0.ges .080 D.022 b.060 0.100 0.035 .035 d. winding and sluggish 1._I_f_re_g_u_la_r_a_: n_d_ro_U_g""h_s_e_ct_i_on _ _ _.030 0. Same as above.030 0. Scattered brush.030 0. Brush 1. Grass.050 0.025 0. Flood plains <l.050 b. Mature row crops 0. Major streams (top width at flood stage >1.description.025 0. _ 0.UES OF THE ROUCnl'NESS COE)"FICIENT 7i (continued) i' I I J 1· C. Mountain strea.eds and' brush uncut .050 sprouts 3.040 2.2: High grass 0. Short grass 0. Same ail above. but more stones 0.vels. Light brmlh and trees.060 0.040 0. Same as aboye.025 2. Smooth and uniform 0. . Dritglineeltcavated or dredged 1.023 2.045 4.080 0.025 0. Same ¥ above.110 5.use banks offer less effective resistance.025 deep pools I 2.i:_O_.030 0.035 e.040 ineffective slopes and sections 6.100 0.160 d. 1.nks usually steep.8S.Dense weeds. no rifts or 0. 56: VALUES OF TliE Ro'l1GllNESS COEFFlCllilNT Type 01 channel and description ·Minimum n (continued) Normal Maximum TABLE5c6.030 deep channels 4.040 0.050 c.035 0. Exe.050 0.040 .120 0. deep pools 0.112 UNIFORM FLOW DEVELOPMENT OF UNIFORM FLOW' AND ITS FORMULAS ll3 'l"\13LE.025 0.0_3_5_'11___L_0 .050 0.1<10 . Clean.040 0.080 0.030 c. or 0. flood stage below branches 6.040 0. Channels not maintained.~ 0. summer. Siuggish reaches. Medium to densl'l brush.n sides 0.0'48 description ~inimum Normal Maximum' ~~I·~I b.033 0. high stage 0. Cultivated areas 1.033 shoals .nd stones .030 0.100 0.. 0.120 0. Dense weeds or aquatic plants in 0.. in sumInar 0. Earth.nd underbrush 0.050 0. but more stones and 0'. high as flow dept.030 I weeds 3. 0.020 0. Clean bottom. f. Pasture. Trees 1.033 0.070 2.ms. 1 5. but with heavy. wc. NATuML S'IREAMS' Dl.080 growth of sprouts I' 4.035 0. some pools and 0.035 0. Same as .071iJ 0. LIght brush and trees.04:> 0.028 0.040 0. f. in winter 0. Streams on plain Clean. Bo~tom: gra.035 0.033 0. a. The 11.035 0.035 0.rth.040 0.100 I' . Medium to dense brush. and fetv 0.050 0. lower stages. in winter 0.045 0. heavy weeds 0. V.nohes D3.040 0. Clean. Bottom: cobbles with large boulders 0.080 0.022 0.0215 0. clean 0022 4.025 6.060 0.045 g. Ea.050 0. straight 0. !vIa ture field crops 0.070 0. ba. more 0.045 7. No vegetation 0.025 2. Cleared land with . straight.
1 .: ~1~1~rtlj. Typical channels ~howing different n values.38]' and unpublished data) . . • .114 UNIFORrk FLOW l I fl' from uptodate information collected from various sources ([34.nd so should facilitate selection of then value for a given channel condition. The above type of visual aid is also employed by the U. The reaches were photographed in stereoscopic color. The Survey has made several determinations of channel roughness in streams.otogrhrkphs 1 10 14 rkncl phol()gl'aph 19.rr" C' E' ". Photo. mostly in the northwes~ern United S~ates.0 ey tofr ph.) width.36. ~.~ 115 . are shown in Fig. mean velocity.epth..) .. slope.m~1 rc~ure~ used Jo~ reprodu. The n vaJue given for each chennel represents approximately the coefficient of roughness when the photograph was taken. (These photo h ' ft~m [3~J and [38J with the permi.ctil]ll purposes were supplied thTUugh th~ courtes. These photographs' are collected from different sources and arranged in order of increasing magnitude of the n vslues. ' 1 1 . Geological Survey. These include measurements of crosssectional area. •. 510. graphs of a number of typical channels. duced ~ . accompanied by brief descriptions of the channel conditions and the corresponding n values.. I I l I I I J i 1 <I I I 1 55.S.) 't '. : . 9. Illustrations of Channels with Various Roughnesses. and the photographs have been circulating among the district offices 'of the Survey as !!.!er or l!e 01 !Jrs.nion of the U. 55.S. hence it is much broader in scope than the Horton table.. and computation of the roughness coefficient. They provide a [eneral idea of the appearance of the channels having different n values 8.guide in evaluating n.am. rknd lhrou(lh the courtesy FIG. Departme~~~f ~ ~~l~!t~:.
I . 2. Canal lined with concrete slabs havir. n _ 0.5 (13) 1.lgae and bottom with drifting sand dunes. Surface covered with fine a.~l' ! I I I ! t (1) 1 i j I ) (4) 1 i I i t ( I ! ! \' I . cut.Uf~rm.014. FtG. n = 0. Earth channel excavated in a clay loam. 'Concrete lining made in a. 6. rough depoSIt. 5. 117 ll6 . 3. with deposit of clelln sand in the middle and slick silty mud near the sides.lue.lg smooth neat cement joints and very smooth surface handtroweled a.nd with cement wash on concrete ba.\ ! ~ii) I I (6) FIG. Concr~te canal poured behind s~reeding and.tment.012. I .OlB. the sides and bottom covered with 0. . n = 0. Small concretelined ditch. bottom slightly dished. n = O.!Ie. . S. smoothing platf?rm.016. n = 0. and deeply pitted.020. Shotconcrete lining without smooth trea. which Increases the n va. tough lavarock.018. ' . n == 0. 55 (46) 4. cleanscoured very Tougb. straight ~nd u.
insufficient silt in the wa. of' .o. with upper bank mostly of willow roots and lower bank with wellmade concrete wall.0.0. .022. I.ter Or too hIgh a velOCIty. Canal excavated on hillside. where there is.020.026. with sca. .:'\. lW . n "" O. 1'1 = . US FiG.024. . 1'1 = 8.nd bottom with drylaid un~hinked rubble.024. straight. 0. 1"10. in hardpacked smooth sand. Bottom qUite lrregular. preventing formation of a graded smooth bed. 1'1 = . With weeds in broken places and looStl ssnd on bottom.l:!i~c~ lined on both sides a. 1'1 the earth 9. 55 (1:"'9) . Bottom co:"ered with coarse gravel. . 12. Slick and hard bed. 55 (1012) 10.O~8.\ J (8) (9) . 1'1 = 0.ttered loose cobbles.L.. Cobbl~bottom channel. Irrigatiollcanal. ~entplaster lining applied directly tp the trimmed suria. I· 'I ~ ~1 7.ce channel. 11. Canal excavated in silty clay loam.
irregular side slopes . very little varia.ck. clean a.040. 14. with deposits of sand on. in cross section. 11 = 0. 12Q . Rock channel excav!\ted byexpl~sives. FIG. in light gray silty cla. Dredge channel. l (18) t (15) I .040. 11 = ().= 0. Ea.rth c~nal excavated in alluvial silt 'soil. 15.045. 17. 18. : :' . ' 121 ! ! 13.(13) (16) (17) (14) I ! I i I. irregular side slopes bottom !Lna cross section.tion .= 0.029. Canal with largecobbleswne bed.nd regular bottom.and bottom. .irly even. 55 (1618) 16. waxy clay at}op to yellow clay at bottom.dy loam.030. t. 7L. grass on s l o p e s . sides covered with small'saplings and brush slight and gradual variations in cross section. in bla. bottom and growth of giass. 11"" 0. Ditch in clay and sar. fa. somewhat irregular side slopes. 11 .035. Natural channel. 11 = 0.y to light tan silt loam.
practi· cally entire seotion filled with largesize growth 'of troos. : irregulrtr wide slopes and bottom. 55 (22241 ./ (20) I (23) (21) (24) I I ~ I .rmel due to bank caving. fairly e17ell and regular bottom with occasional Ba~ bpttom sl~ughs' l~ariation Hi depth. . trees continua.(19) (22) . some logs and dead fallen trees. . some silting on bottom. f .in timber. 23. Ditch in heavy silty clay. some · in bottom. but with much foliage and covered for about 40 It FIG. . · 20..22. 24. in darkcolored waxy clay. Dredge dianne! in black slippery clay and gray silty clay loam. 11. trees . remainder of both slopes c017ered with weeds and a soatteflng growth of willows and poplars. Many roots. .d.. 0. 123 .~d small trees.110. 122 I i . Dredge channel ~ith very irregul~r side slopes ap.ss.. Natural channel floodway hi median line sand toj fine clay none sId~ s!oPe:'.and bushes. bo~tom. no' foliage. n = 0. 8~me as (21). covered with dense gro\vth of bushy ~illOWIl.1~5.050. with growth of weeds and gra. .1 river In sandy clay soil. I . large logs and otb r drift on bottom. practically 17irg. Natur:J. 21. Quite uniform cross seotion.'{ 1 I Flo. e .Uy falling into ch". 55 (1921) '19.080. 11 = 0. = 0.150. . irregular side slopes and bottom. n .060. very little undergrowth except occa~ slUnal dense patches or btlllh~d a. principally willows and cottonwoods. irregular sl~e slopes and uneven bottom. = 0.. . n = 0. Very crooked course. ! i WIth growthresembllllg smart weed. Slight vanatlOn In shape of cross section for variation iin size. 11. .
parti~ularly for a natural channel. 90093S. 3. 3.S 8.l ill Example 51. I.7 cm wide nailed crosswise on the bottom and ~ides at a spacinll. 12.ble factors affecting the velocity in alluvia.n velocity of uniform flow). ' . Stockholm.rnal.4 0. ex~ept that the spacing of stripa was increaaed to 7.0 62. InternationaL Com'mislrion on Irrigalion and Drainage. pt.u critique sur le~ formules pour la predetermination de Ie. R. '612. ' 10.nguillet llJld W. no. 25 is described below. (14).Manning's n by f = 116n~/R~~. 1. compute the values of Ba.harge as that of run '124. Formel fUr die gleichfllrmige Bewegung des Wassers in CaniLlen und Fliissen (An investigation to establish a new general formula for uniform Bow of water in canals a. 1951. . A. .50 4. 1877.0 3. . Schnack~nberg: Slope discharge formuiae for alluvial streams and rivers. 363368. and depth of flow as the channel given in Example 51. Proceedings.nd John C.Eq.0 20.25 2.0 164. slope. (c) . 368369. vol.8 1l. 75 2. Germa. 8.49 for theoretical a~curacy) and the Chazy formula. Taking Manning'S n as the given value of Kutter's n..Oomptu'e the values of • obtained from runs 1274 and 154 with the height of the strips. Ill. (d) Powell's •.3 4... is related to .l streams and rivers. 6'8. E. 11. no. Houk: Calculation of flow in {)pen channels. ft Discharge. 4. 177234. with respect to the stllg'l above the datum. Switzerland. Berlin.022. '611. ' Philipp FOfchheimer. constant but a function of th. Run 124 of Bll.0 88. ' Clemena Herschel: On the origin of the Chezy formula. pp. vol.0 slightly curved rellch ill 61S: By the Cowan method. formula and the Manning formula are theoretically identical at the condition when . ' 56.00 !l.. " 610. and (b) in a.indquist: On velocity formulas for open channels and pipes. Ge. pp. 57. pp. Vienna. Use (a) tile G. L. 625.33 fps at a flow depth of 1. of 3. and compute (a) Chez)"s C. 1754 and 1757. vol. formula. pp. 1i9. (b) Kutter's n..ny. l~7f.9. and (d) Powell's . 1930.. and. 2. a mean velocity 0[3. ' 1 It should be noted that the synthetio rating curve thus obtained is very approxima. Sedional Meeting. Zeitsclirift cIes Oeslerreichischel~ Ingenieu..0 25. 1955.7 ern. For tbe conditions given in Example 51. When Chezy's C determined by the G. 55. beoause the n vDJue is a.{ENT OF UNIFORM FLOW AND ITS FORMULAS 125 PROBLEMS 51.aulic Engineering"). ' 62.3 0. and." Jt 124 UNIFORM FLOW DEVELOP!'. 9. I. 37. .5 '0.0 10'2. Association of Engineering Sooel:ie3.2y'S C.6 0. Proceedings.= 0.emperature rending WIl.l05.035. show that the value of R 3. Ie formula becomes independent of the slope S. Oornelis. 23. G. but a discharge of 2.ctually not !l. K.5·C.nd Berlin.6 7. It Discharge. Compute the velocity and discharge of flow in a new etu'th canlll having the same shape.50 3. cis 1. New Delhi. vol. question 2. 139163. K. Lut. C. December.'0 1. dischargerating curvel for the natural chlll\uel section given in Prob.. voL 2. and compute (a) CM.te. Find the corresponding relation between C all. JalluaryJune.'0 2.7 em center to center strips.Cl. pp. From the MllJlning formula (using a consta. . Inslittttion of Civil Engineers. He. . Transacli(]11)1 of th~ lst Congress.00 2.28. the depth of flow wn. Leipzig e. Dayton. 1933.u. translated into English by Rudolph Hering a. solve E):ample 51 by the Manning formula. liS.486 instead of 1. 'Using the same disc.00 50. 64.L . Aurich. selecting a proper value of •.0 38. Published as e. 1869.Bazin's m.02 ft and a slope of 0. IVllJl E.. Wellington. compute the v!Liues of l{utter's 1~ and Manning's 11. J(l. book in.nd rivers). Discussions. Zivko Vladislavlievitch: Apen.ezy's 'C is independent of the slope S. no. 132.±4 ft wide with wooden strips 1 em thick and 2. Toehes: Stres.0016. horizontal channel.nd Architekten Vern1les. 52. Tile actual rating curve of the channel section in Prob. p. Erik l. Uniform Flow of Water"). Teubner Verlagsgesellscha. 58). "Hydraulik" (" Hydraulics JI).25 1. ·Pl. 4659.33 :it. pp.8 0.0 15. This fiume gave.ocribed in: Pl·ob.he effect of roughness in both cases.28. This \\'iii show that the G. construct 0. Prov~ that the friction factor f in the DarcyWeisbach formuir. 4054. 25. IV.0 Stage. . 21. . Determine Manning's n. pp.fi. 7.gen: "Untersuchungen fiber die gleichformige Bewegung des Wassers" ("Research'!S on.104.50 1. estimate the n value for channel 21 of FIg. (b) Kutter's 7'" {~} Bllzin's m. Expiain why a uniform flow cannot occur (a) in Il frictionless channel.zin'i! m and Powell's ~..9 1. 4.assuming'Kutter's n "" 0.ft. Scand'inavi(l. selecting !l p'roper value of 11>. 340409.do'/1. and (e) the Powell formula.mfiow: Polydimensional treatment of vari!). or 6.und Wasserbaukunst" ("Elements of Dam and Hyd!..nt of 1. vol. ' Stage.0015. 18..e depth (see Art.. described in the preceding problem. New Zea. '1897. 1951. (b) the Bazin formula. Extend the sides of the channel by ~traight lines at high stages if necessary. Ohio. Run 15·1 of Bazin's tests was the san1e as run 124. determine the reilltion betweeu CMzy's C and Manning's n for the condition de:. The t. rept.000 cfs is observed under the given conditions. 56.land·lnsWt!lion of Enginesrs.:! Kutter's n. 5.s found to be 1. Transactions of the World Power C01~feTimce. 4. Bern.7 0. Discussion. Miami Conservancy District.zin's teats [12J was made on a rectangular plank flume . and explain I. ' Technical Report.r. U!iing the Manning formula. H. pp. cfs 0.4. 191B. Kutter: Versuch zur Aufstellung einer neuen allegemeinell. pp. If the coefficient of l'oughness 11 is unknown for the channe. Determine Mnnning's IL. Brahms: "Anfangsgriinde dcr Deioh. vitesse moyenne de I'ecoulement uniforme (Critical surveyor the formula() for predetermination of mea. si.0 199.e.. ' REFERENCES L E.0 75. pp. Construct a CUTve showing the' variation in Manning's r. The slope ii! 0. vol.
by Fred C. 17. . Transactions. 1888. vol. and upon the deepening.mg ~Handbook: Hydra.). 16.rches. 36. Humphrey.ssees.ion conducted by the Department of Civii Engmeenn. Bullelin No. pp. Wellington. "Handbook of Hydraulics. American Geophysical Union. Ph. tneer·"ng ews '1'0.nge'l des eidgen6:isischen Amteofiir }Vasserwirtachajt. Woodward: The flow of water in drain tile. Flow of water in drainage channels U. 2e partie. 35 . IHI. 1940. !{a. 14. vol. Departn\ent of Commerce May.nd Ven Te Chow: Full scale toeofslope gutter model unp~bI1SI:ed rep~'rt ~f an ~n"." Onti. 6. 1929. C.. vol. canals. p~.S. 2d ed.gainst overflow. pp. Thomas Blench: A new theory of turbulent fto. 38. Bulwt.es~ig~t. Lippincott Company.gnc!tll. Scobey and1 Robert E . M. vol.. 168 pp. Sprflvochnik. Ii. Thomas R.tives aux ramous et il. vol.re. Cow~n: Estimating hydraulic roughne.\!'cy a.sewer pipes.. ~.ions in central IllinQis. pp. U. ' 33. Wis. 1939.naadion'5. }'rank Johnson: Determination of Kutter's n for sewers partly Hl'led T ti A'S' . Ralph W.l research on 'bMkwater and the propagation of 'wave:.ent of . p.v in liquids of small viscosity. Frederick C. 1916. Allnal6~ deB ponti I~t cha!. 240243. 611612. (3) "Gidrnvlicheskii Spravochnik.Agriculture. pp. pp.~titution of Civil Ellgine(Jl'8 'of Ireland.. D. D.S. pp. Hobert Manning: On the flow of water in open channels and pipes. 1955. Ramser. (2) "Uchebnyl GidravlicheskiI Spravoclwik'" (for schools). Experimenta. N. 1861. 1931. pp. . Recherches experiment&les rel(). 22. 1944. 1933. Camp: Design of sewers to facilitate flow. 136. voL 7l. Sewage 'Work. voL 24. Journal. seT. C. 18.re. . ~rate~.!~ubuch. 'Leningrad. ' 34. Scobey: The flow of water in flumes. 15. 668571. A. U." 4th ed. U. February. In coopera. 3.. ' .S." prelimi~ary ~raft. 4. 14. U!Jon the protection of the alluvi!>l region a. 37. Bulletin 232.6. .Hed clar .\in A. New Zealand 1~lItitu. Swit~erland. 1883." pt. 8.gkeitsia. 41. .ilJersill1 . N. Nevv York. 4me trimestrs. ) 25. pp. ten u. Institution . ' 27. April. 223239 1944. Ur.nii. • I~~ . pp.126 UNIFORM FLOW DEVELOPMENT OF UNIFOIUI{ FLOW A~m ITS FORM (JLAS Trautwine. 'mcnoon oClely of Ct~ll vol. • 29. 1. no. Army Corps (Jf Ellllineel's. ser. ·I1/. 688.S. lng. J•. Donal~ Schnepper B.schbssene Leitungen (Some contributions to the problem of velocity fonnul" and roughness c(lI.' for the calcula. Departm.5.. Jfillcil!l.C. no. reprinted in Washington. '.le und ge. Gosstrolizd'at. vol. Sons. 1868.i und der Rauhi. 'l'. " no. Disoussion Oil Dete. Tlda. H. 109. 109. W3l. Agricultural EngmeerL1l{/.. New York. DSDartmeni 01 Anr' It • .. no. Scobey. Ven Te Chow: A note on the Manning formula. University of Illinois. ElI(Ji'l'tee:ring Expariment Slatton.. 854. 192 pp. Proceedings. Schultz: P~na. and the Bureau of Public Roads. Technical Bulletin No. 25.. Bern. revised by Ernest F. U. . Inc. Schnackenberg. 'Experimental research on flmv of water in open channels...ridder: J3eitriige zur Frage der Geschwindigkeitsformr. August. 20. 4. December. Pr(JcllJldin(J~. C.. 1i"lomas It <A1. Flow of water ip irrigation and similar canals. Philadelphia. 1954 (ava. 18!H and i\)Ol.n~ca I BUL'1 etm N o. L. A.nd E. Army Corps of Topographical Engineers: "Report upon thB physics and hydraulics of the Mississippi River. supplement. ~ey~!.andes ("Hydralllic Resea. ~. Soii' Oonservation uervice.. vol.. 21.t!y filled. ' 31. 24.ent Sta. pp. St.S. Leningrad and Moscow. 1950. 4.nd by E. 1st ed.wHtll Book Company.ulics. State of IllinOIS. pp. Gauckler: Du 1l10UVeme[lt d~ l'eau da. 11.nd H." U.3(. 28.tion des . Discussions. Pickets: Ru·noff investigat. S. American Societ!! of Civil Engineers V<ll. no. ~g49. Department of Agriculture. ransa.vol. 24." John 'Wiley &. of Civil Engineel's. 7102 to 1111 3a. 15. 12. 1895. .Ha Canal: The sealevel pI'oject. T ec11. !lnd (4) "Kratki! GidravlicheskiI . propaga. 1897.~act!OnB: Ametican Society of Civil Engineers voL 114. H. pp. Transadidns. Jr. 161207. 7. pro 229281. by C. American Geophysical U'~ion. . based upon surveys and investigations . Lolkion. 194. . Technical BuUeiin No.les sur l'ecoulement de Feau dans ies canaux decouverts. .JanuaryDecember. . in 18157. 30.tive test of the ftow Gf water in 8~inch concrete and vltTl.tnp. 1. Iuc. George W.ll 27. 179207. Milwaukee. 1955. E·. August. lSIH. pp.1923. 127 1 . Horton: Some better Kutter's formula coefficients Eng' : N 1 75"" ( . 2. IS. Annates de~ pOJ~ts . 1865.\5 "A general Formula for the Uniform Flow of Water in Rivers and Other Glumnais.35438.. ACMiemie des Sciences. 'Engmeer.s and Lieut. voL 18." Put.hlen fur Strome. Yarn~ll and 8.1920. sec. C:. vol. ~orton. 32..lfficient for rivers. A. .u. . 3r3374. 129. 1954.~ many editions: (1) "Giclrl\vlicheskiI Spravochnilc. pp.~~ees.g." (concise version).?nlverSlty of ~l1mols. Ballin: "Recherches hydra.S. 314 pp. pp.l.tion of discharge in open channels). 1875. 37.'· lre partie. 100 pp. Soil Conservation Sel'vice. 575582. Wilcox: A compara. Departmenl of A. 7. F. L. 1916. no. PtofC8sionai Pap. Mtmoire No. Pavlov'skiI: "GidravlkheskiI Spravochnik" ("Handbook of Hydraulics"). 4. E.ion of Enqillee!'s vol. H}37. 1951.rmination of Kutter's 11 for sewers pal.:. Engineering Experim.iion. . Abbot. May 4. and dosed conduits). 393. November. DI. M?Gra.::ls les ()onduites (The flow of water conduits). Trans(lcl~ons.c· ons. Mar. Powell: Resi~tance to flow in l'ough cha. London. 23. 20.l currents. of the mOllths. Robert E. OUlmingham: Recent bydrl'luIic experiments.S. 11.B.. In.of W'ashil1(Jlon." J.s coeffici:nts.. and as U. Bnzin: li:tude d'one nouvelle fonnuls pour ca. 1924. 862863. [lO. No. 2070. 13. 13. 890 pp. Paris. Department of Agr::cu1tw'~. Methodology for cmp and pasture inundation damage appraisal: "Training manual for hydrologists on watershed protection and flood preventiQn work pIau parties. b'stittlt'ion of einil Engineer. 31. September. 1956. Allen J.uliques. 10. This book ha. 1.. . 75.:.Romce Wilham I{i?g.S. Recherches experimenta. July. Letlingrad. H. U.u.. Woody ~. 2d ed. Joumal. Tran.\pt:. Leningrad and Moacow. 852. FI ank Johnson. no. W.tion with the Division of Highways.~ :'I. U. in A symposIUm. Dublin. 1954. Feb. 1924.t. ~.tlable at the University of Illinois library). C.1 chriu.lculer Ie debit des canaux deoollverts (A llllW formula. Lane: DISCUSSIon on Slope discharge formulae for alluvial streams a.. 1.nnels. 29.
al'ways increasllII. and the conveyance is l( (64) v'S ' (69) This equation can Qe used to compute the convey!mce when the discharge and slope of the channel are given.taximum value of AR3i usually occurs in such a conduit at a depth slightly less than :the full depth. When the Chezy formula is used. Q= K'. .()1~~!l!!!)1 section. cases. For further discussion onthie subject see Art. . when y = 72.UNIFORM FLOW 61. r COMP!UTATION OF UNIFORM FLOW 129 (66).._.IS = Q.. (1)8) applies to a channel s~ction when the flow is uniform. I· When either the Ch~zy formula or the Mmmmg formult\ IS used D.49 AR~ n The above two equations are used to compute the Conveyance when the geometry of the water area and t1')e resistanc~ factor or rou~hlless coefficient are :given. Eq. when n. Similarly. This is true for channels in which the v'alue of AR3.. trapezoidal. :_. it is a measure of the carrying capacity of the channel seDtion.~ . In order to simplify the computation..r. ... The Conveyance of a Channel Section. (68) will give one value of AR~. Eq. 61) have been prepared for rectangular. These selfex:planatory curves will help to determine .. becaUse a n. and S.the depth for a given section factor A. fora giv~n condition of n. In the CMe of a closed conduit having a gradua. uniformflolv formula. and the· depth. The discharge of uniform flow in a channel may be expressed ns the product of the veloc:ity. Since the Manning formula IS used extensively. and roughness are known..l ThTs discharge 18 .f1Ji}]68) that there can beomyr!ne discharge for maintainin a unjform flow through th~ sectlOD. it is possible to have two depths for the 'lame value pf ARH. eomputatwn.. or Q = VA = CARS· = KS" (61) (62) where The term J{ is known as the comeY(1.. (66) K = 1. provided that the value of AR~i always increases with increase in depth.. this factof may be expressed as ~ CHAPTER· 6 and. a .'UP.. It IS an important element in the computation of uniform flow. and t. (51). (62) becomes K = CAR~~ (55) where C' is Chezy's resistance facto::. this equation gives the section factor A"R"H and hence the norml\. the va.._.Q. there is only one possible depth for maintaining a uniform flow.he water area.Qpdition of uniform ·fl9. On the other hand.?cript ~_g.l depth Yn' . and S. one greater and the either le5J3 than the depth for the maximum value of Ami. 62. .:Ui8:tARW'a ways increases withincrease of depth. The right side of the equation contains the values of n. 1~8 Thisis essentially thc product of the water area and the velocity defined by the Manning formula. with increase of depth.s t"le.This Q~h is the normal depth. . represented by EC[. which in turn gives only one depth.yS (63) ''Equation'T68) is avery useful tool for the computation and analysis of uniform flow.' . Th~ Section Factor for Uniformflow Computati<:n... and vice versa. .to Q . (61) becomes Primarily. i.:.e. since it is directiy proportional..... slope. n .lue of Ami will first increase wit~ depth and then decrease with depth when the full depth is approached. but the left side depends only on the geometry of the water area. S. I 1 . . . When the discharge. (64). are given.8~. which is true in most. (68) COMPUTATION PF. it shows that. . Therefor'}. From Eq. dimensionless curves showing the relation between depth and section fuctor ARH (Fig. it can 'be seeii1l1ilXl. 'tfi'enormal d~8~'i.ily closing top. '11h: ex~re: sion AR~i is called the section factor for uniformflow. 64..§ometill!!lL1L~.~provlaect ... the normal discharge Q" can be computed from this equation in the following form: ._ .nce of the channel section. hence the section factor. Wyen nand S are known at .d t<L§Qecify ihe_c.Ihe A R~ val ue~ for a circular section can also· be 'found from the table in AppeEi!ix A. from Eq. The)..gr·· .49 AR% . and cirpular channel' sections. . mos~ of the folldwing discussions and computations will be based on:Eq. the discharge by Eq.. when the Manning formula is used.. Q. (66). Consequentlj.a. Q = 1. since Eq.F.
Now. .. (611) and (013) and solving for N.5. A/ P.~.vlovskil [4] alJd R~khml\noff (5)."" ':" .. S Similar curves to tho'le in Fig. For a . (611) . 2.. 2 These curves indic.~= ~=.king logari~hlTIs on both side."..lte that the value of N varies within a range of 2....aind frorn Table 21. where do is the diameter. (610) and then differentiating with respect to V.. This curve shows that the ..... and 4. ci This is the general equntion for the hydraulic exponent N.0. .) 2R (613) . The Hydraulic Exponent for UniformAiow Computation.rameter called the hydra...:~ (5T .2R ~:) (614) <3 ..Kirpich [3J and al~o prepared iudependently by Pa. '" I N .. . T. taking logarithms oil both sides of Eq...2). 0 Equating the right sides of Eqs.""~... .3.~. ith respect toy under the assumption that n is independent of y.._. .. For values of z = 0... _ ...tmpezoidal section is a function of z and y/b.ulic l3:cponent for uniform~jlowcompulalton. 1. Substituting them in Eq. alld then differentiating this equation . 0. d(1nI{) dy Since dAjd'b' = T and R ~ 0 = . .5. 3. (614) and simplifying.0.COMPUTATION OF UNIFORM FLOW 131 63..:=_..~·:~~~~·'~~"...' 'A 1 l>. P. K lA9AR~~/n.2. 1.... 6"2 for trapezoidal channels were constructed by . dA: A dy +~! dR 3 R dy (612) d '0 c. a family of curves for N versus y/b can be constructed (Fig. ..!.0. hO l<J .. the resulting equatioll1 is 10 1 + 2z(y/b) 8 (y/b) N (615) '3 1 + z(y/b) 3' 1 + 2 ~1:=::+=z=~(y/b) This equation indicntes that the value of N for the. Ta. the expressions for A..y lormula.$ of Eq.~~. Cl. the above equation becomes ~ co ?. <0 !:l :> I!i.0 ~= ~(111 K) = dy 3A J.5..S s '" tt: <t .0. I This equation (IJ was "Iso developed independently by Chuga.... o 8 j I d 0 0 I l I N. d(ln l() N 2y dy . it may be assumed that a (610J where C is a coefficient and lV is a pn. ... 0. '0 "CJ . Since the conveyance !{ is function of the depth of flow y. and R may be obf... '" ..0 to 5.s. trapezoidal channel section having a bottom width b (l.. . d 0p/" puo q/" }OsanlOll 130 .r section with N plotted against y/d Q...lld side slopes 1 on z. 62. (5T _ dy d!.. (66).ev [2) through the use of the Chez.. is also shown in Fig.c~. Q ~ '" . ~ . The curve for a circula.
gainst tIle depth as abscissaJFig.5 Fro. C}~ugaev [2].l to twice the slope of the tangen't.Ssumed constant. if any' two points with coordinates (K1. The hydraulic..06 0. 4. (66) indicat~ that K IX he~ce.. the logarithmic plot will appear as a curve. . 'nels. Several typical sections are shown in 64. 64..06 0.0 I~+'J and abscissa are interchanged. 63).41_11_'. nnd 'circular shapes.''4./ The cutved' plot when 'h. Further mathematical analysis has reveo. . 6. which are plotted similarly except that the ordinate When the cross section of a channel changes abruptly with respect to depth. be seen that the hydraulic exponent for the straightline range of the plot is equal to twice the slope of the plotted straight line.3 0. tnpezoidal.) FIG.04 0.Y2) are 150r.0 log Y ':I Fw..y appear as a broken line or an evident curve.0 3 0. .2 III / K ~ ::: " ~I I {)'•• Kll I I I 1 Ille l .<1 0. in this article and the next.led that the value of N will be equal t~ zem at Vida = 0.938 and will then become negative at greater depths. In such cases the logarithmic plot of N against y rna. .0 5. 62.132 UNIFORM FLOW COMPUTATION OF UNIFORM FLOW 133 value of N. . 2. 0.q5 0.6 0. Typicltl channel sections having appreciable variation ill N value with respect ro depth.8 + I i § <. the ap100 proximata value N may be computed by the following equation: 50 or 2. .. exact values of N filly be computed directly by Eq.0 VOlues of N I . 'J ~ log (!(dK~) log (Yl/V2) (616) 1. a logarithmic plot of K as ordinate o. to the curve at the given depth (Fig. .. For most chan. it can. Fot channel sections other than the rectangular. If a constant n value is assumed.. 61.5 0. The significance of this fact will be discussed \ later.0. except for channels with abrupt changes in crosssectional form and for closed conduits with gradually closing top. For practiaalpurposes.alues..0 I+/J 3. the~e curves for AR~~ should show the same characteristics as if the curves were plotted for Ie From (610). Thus.".5 4. Curves of N v.Yl) and (K 2.. .02 2.. (614).. This can also be seen from tll!') dimensionless curves for ARH in Fig.1.5 5. 63) willappear approximately as a straight line. 83. decreases rapidly as the depth of flow approaches the top' of the channel. exponent in the range of the curved plot is equa.0 0. Graphica! determination of N by logarithmic plotting. .. For the nearly straight portions of the broken line or curve) the hydraulic exponents may be D." taken' from the straight line.0 5. the hydraulic exponent will ohange accordingly . When the depth of flow approaches the gradually closing crOWl1 of a closed conduit. depth opprooches crOllln ot 0 closed conduit 0. R. provided that the derivative dP/dy can be eVllluated. . Eq. (After R.0 >.0 N' 1 .
bove and one below the value of O. the dimensionless curve of QIQo shows t. hilS been shown to increase by as much as 28% from 1.thermore. The dimensionl€&s log:l. Taking the circular section as an example. QI Qoand YITT 0)' Both the discharge and velocity curves show maximum values. As the depth' increases. one above .938.hat..closed conduit with gradually closing top does occur at the full I I .x. is hQrizontal.. one !J. rr~.00d n to O. The subscript zero indicates the fullflow condition. The exact depths for maximum discharge and velocity. [27J 0/ Chap. cussion in Art. 'If the n value is assumed constant or independent of the .) taken to vary with the depth.938d o.l~channel Flow. Actually.r. Subscri:>t "d' indicolas the lull tlow condition r:r:. Since the n value is assumed constant..i34 UNIFORM FLOW COMPUTA. Flu.938' also corresponds to the maximum value of the conveyance K. The corresponding. the cut've of V /1'0 shmvs that..ular cOllduit or similar .7 0.. it is possible to have two different depths for the same velocity.938d o and 0. (Alter T. Since the ma. however.81do. . the depth for the maximum discharge.8 0. or O. for a full pipe. P'low characteristics of a circula. 65 and the disas a factor affectiIlg n value). Camp. or 0.97d o and O. shown. where the value of A RH/dij~'J is a maximum. the velocity would be the same for a halffull pipe ru. this means that the conduit WillllOt. both. Mathematically. these" two curves will represent the variation of the ratios of the discharge and velocity to their corresponding fullflow values (Le.81d o. the veloc.938. the curve shows a decrease in t. hence.depth variation. J.. curve and with it the hydraulic exponent will thus beconie negative. and one below the value of O. ru.. it is possible to have t'l'IO different depths for the same discharge._r~ I II 0..he This effect callses the actual maximum discharge and velocity to occur .9 Votues of 0/0 0 . Flow Characteristics in a Closed Conduit with Ope. since the discharge computed by the Manning formula is proportional to ARH for consta. Assuming a const. Similarly.ity at the halfdepth is only 0. 58 regarding t.6 0. arid eachsegment may be considered a straight line having.81d o respectively. 65..he value 'Of A RH!do'~ and. respectively. the curve deviates gradually from a straight line and finally reaches a prononnced curvature at Yldo = 0. the value of n for average clean sewer· pipes and drain tiles. when the depth is gn:&ter than the halfdepth. will depend 011 the shape and roughness variation of the specific conduit section.__. 64. The discussion for the circular conduit applies also to any l:losed C011duit with a gradually closing top. 65. whereas. The slope of the tangent to the..:!'ION 'OF UNIFORM FLOW 135 I ! i i. curves of Q/Qo and ViTr Q are shown by the dashed lines in 65. flow full at the maximum capacity as long as it maintaimr an openchalllHil flow 9n a uniform grade free from obstructions.8 the full velocity. when the depth is greater than about 0. can be obtained by equating the first oerivative of R"" to zero.his ratio yl d Q = 0.25dc. if the n value is .he Manning formula is proportional to R*.~. R. vivo • AR<iYAoRJI~. coefficient remains constant as the depth che.94do. For depths with ratio greater than 'lild o = 0.rithniie plot of ARH against depth is shown in Fig. the dhnenslol1less curves for ARHI AoRoH and R 3i l Roy" are shown by the full lines in Fig.82do.re interchanged. I I· ( i the curve may' be divided into 11 number of short segments'. is ai$Bumed constant. N ow take the circular section as an example. 5. t. which occur at about Q.93ado) can be obtained oimply by equat. Similarly.ing to zero the first derivative' of ARH with respect to y. According to the assumption of constant n value. according to the gl'aph in which the ordinate and abscissa a. the depth for the maximum velocity.ant '('Llue of n.nges. this curve will show the same characteristics as if the depth were plotted against K. The above discussion is based on the assumption that the roughness . as the velocity by t. a decrease in the conveyance K if r:.r section. at depths of about O.imurn discharge and velocity of a closed conduit of gradually closing top do not occur at the full depth. where it appears to be a maximum (see Fig. For praetical purposes. cnd R 1fYR~iJ FIG. clay and concrete. 61.a constant slope orhydraulie exponent. it may sometimes be assumed that the maximum discharge of a cir('. for example. The slope of the tangent to the curve at this depth. however.nt nand S. and thus the hydmulic exponent N is equal to zero.
. simple c~!\.: by Eq. In simple chann81s. C 1.OI60.lee condition Smooth iee: Withol\t drifting iee blookB Velooity of flaw. of course. the water area is divided imnginatively into N parts of which the wetted pel'imeters P 2.By this assumption. .to the channel bed and' the ice cover. see Art. Tabb 61 gives the 11. 49R . .8] assumed thateachpal't of the area has the same mean velocity. When a.0170. . as proposed by Lotter [13]. the equivalent roughness coefficient L'3 Let nand n1 be the roughness coefficients for channds with and without ice cover.136 UNIF.R/'f are hydraulic radii of the subdivided areas.01E . + PN'1i~!)H P}i . The bottom surface of the ice cover may be either as smooth as a finished concrete sUl1fa:ce or as rough as the natur&'l channel bed v.025 (617) There are many other assumptions for the determination of all equivalent l'Oughness. the coefficient thus computed may sometimes be a negative .exist.' .. n2.32. = V N = V.falue which is . .01D0. values for drcdg.rhenclrifting ice blooks . VI = V ~ = . PN and the coefficients of roughness nl. ' . .I J (618) Lotter [12] assumed that the total discharge 'of the flow is equal to thei sHm of the discharges of the subdivided areas.. coefficient of roughness may be obtained by the following equation:' . because the depth for maximum discharge is so close to the top . For the determination of the equivalent roughness.. .0 >2..jR OJ' J( = W/C2.0230. PRH' ! i I I i C1 P = P1' P! C1 2 Czl + (621) (lH9~ Let: the wetted perimeter P z = aPi or P = PI then 1 a 1 a = C12 C2 2 + P2 (1 + a)P1i (622) + Sin(:e. Thus. On the basis of this assumption. (57). Raugnne88 of Icecovered Channels. Pavlovskil [14) assumed that the total force resisting the noW' is equal to the sum of the resisting forces due. (623) RH! . respectively. that there is always. the roughness along the wetted perimeter may be distinctly different fl'OJU part to PE1l't of the perimeter. (520) where the subscript 1 refers to the channel bed and 2 to the ice cover.. .n2 + t'/n.012 0.. (1 a). the equivalent roughness coefficient . the above equation b~comes n (Plnl 2 + P2n2~ + . which at the same time i15 equal to the mean velocity of the whole section i that is. 54. from Art.0 0. For example. unrealistic. Thus. .0 >2. . In order t. .'. a rectangular channel built with a wooden bottom and glass walls must have different n values for the bottom and the walls. . In applying the Manning formula to ~uch channels.uw formula without actually subdividing the section.32. 60.Pavlovski! (9] and also Muhlhofer [10] and Einstein and Banks [111 assumed that the total force resisting the flow (that is JCV'"PL.is n = .017 With drifting ice blocks Rough ice with drifting ice blocks 1. However.o develop a realistic approach to the problem. Horton [6] <Lnd Einstein [7. .a possibility of slight backwater to increase this depth closer to and eventtu:IUy equal to the full depth.but the mean velocity can stiil be computed by a uniformfl. Flow in a Channel Section with Composite Roughness. .020 0. .. • .0. it is sometimes' necessary to compute an equivalent n value for the entire perimeter and use this equivalent value for the computation of the flow in the whole section.ed channels covered with ice. fps n Value 1... (617) to (619)' it is possible to compute the roughness coefficient 7l1 of the ke cover. ) nN are known. 54) :is equal to the sum of the forces the flo~ developed in the subdivided 3reas. it may be assumed that For RI = R2 = .ORM FLOW COMPU'l'ATION OF UNIFORM FLOW 137 depth. . = RN = H .0 0..0140. channel is covered with the wetted perimeter of the flcrw is greatly increased. By means of Eqs.nnel sections. where ~l' Hi. Since Chezy's C = vu. the equivalent.
let . A channel con8isting of one main section and two' side sedions. Owing to the differenr. (630) ~N~~~ 0. V2  Ll. . that is. (623) is reduced to (1 + a)~2 = 11. PavlovskiI [11] used the relation. . vI! be the mean velocities in the subsect. where Rand R 1' are the hydraulic radii with and without ice cover.A 1 .63. 'For example. . respectively. a2.6. Then. an alluvial channel subject to seasonal floods generally consists of a main cha. (24) and (25) and simplifying. Theni the discharges in the subsections can .he hydraulic radius Rl due to the channel bed and the hydraulic l':1.138 UNIFORM FLOW COMPUTATION OF UNIFORM FLOW 139 :i It is further assumed that the total hydraulic radius R is made up of . Thus. and Tt = P z. Ez z =aEI)'. the velocitydistribution coefficients of the entire section are I a = 1 ..AN . 66).es that exist among the velocities of the subsections.72 (1 + ~2~l)% (1. . N (aNKNJjdA N') 1. using the Manning formula and assuming R = RI/2. postulated that the relation !. the discharge of an icecovered channel is Q . .6.2 2 (1 + ~)H ( ' (T a' ' (E22 + aEif.ssumed that PI Thus.nnel and two side channels (Fig.. E22 = ~l~'. : • • . from Eq. The values of these coefficients may be computed as follows: Let Vt. 66. and n is such that dnjd~i = O. it may be a. n~ = (628) the water areas of the corresponding subsections. the following can be written: VI = Now let the discharges withand without ice covel' be Q and Ql1 respectively. .nd n = Tt2 channel section is equal to the total discbirge divided by the total water "1 area. C = and Incorporating the above expressions with Eqs. . that (627) Fw.be computed.A z 1(2 Sf~ _ 1(/'1 SH VN  . . that is. • • " ..r) N . nl (629) = {Kl + ](z + . that R '= Rl + R 2 • Now.) (624) For the condition of maximum discharge. let V be the mean velocity of the to~al section. Q = VA = VI .t . A 2. • '.6.. In such a case.dius R~ due to the ice cove'r.Ql 11. let El = Rl/R2 a. I Sfi Channels of Compound Section.6. let al . . For wide channels.ions with each subsection different in roughness from th~ others. let K l .6. ' The mean velocity for the whole . obtaining (626) ~ . (57).LlUOJ. Then Eq. usually found to be rougher than the main channel i so the mean velocity in the main channel ia greater than the mean velocities in the side channels. 1 aN and fJI I fJ~. therefore.6. i ! f ~ (Il(NY/ A I (631) X. the Manriing formula may be applied separately toearih subsection in determining the mean velocity of the subsection. The side channels a.fJN be the velocitydistribution coefficients for the corresponding subsections.AN be VT+li 'S)2~ 0Z' 7 = (625)* a = 1.68n n nl~I)~l The roughness coeffiCient for the ice cover is. a.I.. From the continuity equation Emd Eq.ions. KN be the con veyances of the corresponding subsections..A. the velocitydistribution coefficients of the whole section are different from those of the subsections. and let A be the total water area. (624). (57).4. [(2.lg R I .. I [(~ Sf.nd E2 = nt/nz. I " i l and (J N 1 (f3N[(N 2 jdA N ) = J'N'~~ " It was Belokon [lSj whQ us~d Eq. therefore. . .re. [(NY/ A' R~/n instead of Eq. V2. The cross section of a channel may be composed of several distinct subsect.. two parts: t. . 1 + Vz dA 2 + + VN dAN = 0. equal to the sum of th~se discharges. R 2. + ](N)S~~ 0:: IC. The totaL discharge is. (63). Pavlovskil.
A trapezoidal channel (Fig. Since do = 3.870 Am~ Remarks Y too sll~all Y too large I I i I I I i 137...269.. the. Popular tables for this purpose can be found in [16] to [20].l depth.DlS X 20/1.75 = 0.72.88. .49 X 10" 10' 16::.0 94./ y(20 + 2y) ..49 VS are then computed and the eorresponding new normal depths can be found from the same curve. ft . = 5.82 X 10' B.04/1S.tl' Si~::~~i~~.~ th~~l~sest trial :e. assume a value of y and compute the section fnctor ''AR%: Make several such trials until.015.10'1'04 I + = 1.Since the normal depth is greater than the critica! depth.2 158.ion may also be used for the solution of this problem.35 . or y" = 2.8 = 4. a graphical solution of the problem is found to be convenient. Sol. This depth i~ the required norma. .04. This is the normal depth..ssumed iii~.therefore" Yn = 3. AR. " K I /3K2/I!A I I I ". having n = '0. Lhen the a.. Construct a curve of y vs. (6~S) is 1IQ/1.49 YO.15' ft.4 181.56 2.762 1.0 ft and do" = 18. By this procedure.30 I 3..0 162.136 X 10' i g.53 2. lI/do = 0.!!te t~rmal 'depth and velocity. .t./ . the un'Hol'mftow conditIon may be determined by an algebraic solution. {J I ~5 11~0.. with b = 20 ft. carries a discharge of 400 cfs. Determination of the Normal Depth and Velocity.llormaCdepth:·This tl'ialand= error computation is shown as follows: _.:' ' I of ~ /71 140 UNI~ORM FLOW Example 61. Sollllion.lt/ion 1: The Analytical Approach. Using the given data./ion 2: The Trial~ande. 892 X X X 1.290. Determine the normal depth of flow in a 36in.}.0016H n value or 7.34 2.040 1. is very' closely equal .. ft' S 5./l I /r .. By Eqs.7.49 0. Graphical 111ethod.0016 '" 5. S"b~"tio" I! AA I~ R . the computed value of AR3. .. Then. the M.fferent methods of solution. suc.~or Approach.93 10" Solving this equation for Y by trial and errol'. '. for the given culvert (Fig.7 89.rT" Subsection Main section.'... a curve of y against the section factor A RYJ is first constructed and the value of nQ/IA9 VS is computed.680 +:1.710 J 1 200 y(10 y) P. the right side of Eq..TION OF UNIFORM FLOW V.S.K'/I!.5 Side section. ComIJ. The normal depth and velocity may be computed by a uniformflow formula. . the flow is subcritical.3601\. Ik"ld n = 0.16 ft. 3.360\22523.244 X 10' 12.035 I.I I Substituting the given quantities and the ILbove expressions in the Manning formula • Besides the methods described here. When the discharge changes.. or V = 0.136 X 10°)'/11.00 3.36 y J I A 66. From the yAm. 04 The computations are given below. . (68).025.852 J . ! R The velocity is = y(lO 10 + y)_ + y vS B..720y = [y(lO + !:::)J2.h as the use of hydraulic tables. For geometl'ically simple channel sections. .76 X 10' {J = (3. A.. and A = y(20 + 2y) I '100 .136 X 10')'/11. and carrying a discharge of 20 cfs.50 3. In the following COlnplltations. COMPUTA. . . = 400/89.Hl ft.070' = 1.6 167.anning formula is used with threedi.5 89.75..56 X 1O" I 3. (3.. Sol'u/'i01l:. . V..coefficients are 0'= and 32.s = 167.8 ~II I I 2. ' Example 63. 11 1. Algebraic Method.O35~JII1. 67). new values of nQ/1. Z = 2.:=: LJ"'L ~ J." .49 X 10'0. culvert (Example 43) laid 011 a slope of 0.49 V8= O. From EXlLmple 42. 405 0. ..I · . = 0./ d. curve.46 fps.915 1. .29 9. From the table.0016. Soh./ A.0 The closest The normal depth is.36 ft.· . the.870 1. The corresponding arelL is An = 89..0016.10 1 3.5 87.49 .. J.7.. 76 X 10 8 I 32...04 for AR3!. (630) a:nd (631). Am. The data obtained at the peak flow stage are: [md simplifying. ' Compute the velocitydistribution coefficients at a peak flow in a natural stream channel consisting of a main sectioll and an overflow side section. it is known that the critical depth for the same discharge in the channel is 2. Some engineel's prefer to solve this type of problem by trial and error. For channels of complicated cross sel}tion and variable flow conditions. Compute nQ/1. The table in Appendix A for the geometric elements of a circular sect..4 10'1"..65 2. there are other methods for the computation of uniform flo~. 22).070 =1. Since this depth is greater than tlie critical depth determined in Example 43 under the same condition.36 ft.uliiJ. find the depth corresponding to the value of 5. it is evident that the normal depth may be found from the VA R~1 curve where the coordinate of A RH equals the computed value ~f nQ/l:49 VS. According to Eq..:: ~:~~~I~~y~·15:~~ ~:~'~~ Main section. 5.S ft' alld the normal velocity is V.56 RH 1.72 X 3 = 2. The hydraulic raclius and water area of the given section are expressed in terms of the depth y as I 78. as ' i!lustrated by the following example: Example 62. = 3. the flow is subcritical.025 [Y(lO 10 + y V5 + Y)J~~ O.
' ' For this value. Example 64.rro~ a Cll::ve ~f. is b = . c. The depth of flow is 2. 'prismatic channel in which the flow is uniform at a given normal depth Yn. So:1ttion.36 ft and a discharge of 400 cfa (see Example 5. Example 66. I . The slope thus determined is sometimes culled specifically the normal slope Sn.n normal clepth of 3. 'when the Manning formula is used. The v".S~ll'tion.n = 0. i I.nd the corresponding norma. Determine the normal slope at a normal depth of 3. . Determination of the Normal and Critical When the discharge and roughness are given.lue.) From the given data it is found that R = 2.Q = K or. petermine the limit slope of !I. it is found that R = 2.3 X 89. ARn =< '167. ~or the determmatJOn of a cntlcal slope.68 ft.142 UNIFORM FLOW COMPUTATiON OF UNIFORl\I FLOW 143 The design..\J.49 .r section.~ Th~s is the slope that will maintain a. and.~oldng for Sn.56 it and V '= 446 f ps.72..16 ft. A trapezoidal channel has a bO.. •••• C' A. J I ·'l. Substitutin~ the known ~ A.l depth when the dis" charge is 400 cis. Method of Design Chal·t.lues m the MnnnlIlg formula and solvmg for Sa.D~term!ne the critir. chart for determining the normal depth (Fig. by adjusting the slope and the discharge. Ad  1.025 256"'8 I" 0..!tl slope a. For this va. AR15ldo~1 . The disoharge is equal to 9.Since the limit slope is the :. In Example 63.0569.the critical slope plotted aga.. This is the slo~e that will maintain a unifO~'m flow i~ the gh'en channel at a depth oI 3. For the given normal depth of 3 .19' 9. (632) (633) or..269. 67..3 = 0. Ii = 89.97 f~ and V 7. 97HB. The smallest critical slope for a channel of shape and roughness is called the l~:1nit slope SL.1 slope at the n01'l:11al depth of 3.7. a critical uniform flow may be obtained at the given llorinal depth. side slopes of 2:1. ' . .~8 ft.ical state for the ghren dischatge and roughness. rectangular channel (Fig. ARJ~ for n.ttoro w'idthof 20 H.lues of R ~nd V are R 1. 9. ' . = il.56~~S".•36 it. From the given data t.66 or 1..t . ·slope thus obtained is known as the critical slope at the given normal depth So. and the corresponding normal depth is equI11 to the critical depth. (63). circula. . the critical velocity V.(1067 S.. for the rectangular channel. v:J.025.025 2. 61) ~all be used with great expediency .8 = 835 ds. Furthermore.he critl!:al depth is found to be 2. t a dis~harge of 400 cfs. yla.phlc.8 fV D :" 2. I b.0016 or s. its value' maybe determmed gra. ' Su bstltutmg t hese va.nd compute the ~or respondmg dlscharge. Substi~ tutmg tne known values m the Manning formula and solving for 13 m . 1 (f}34) 'I i . and u = 0. the following two cOlldition~ should be satisfied: L The first condition.lues. b.[ue of AR~fi/M~ is 0. the uhnrt gives yllJ = 0. in the Manning formula and . or 11" = 3. Determine the critic. from Eq. by Eq.0l5. A curve of !I vs. 1.'ing examples will illustraie the above discussion.72 X 3 = 2. unifornl and critical flow in the givell cha.The folloH. (v. In Exalllple 62.. the chart or 11 = 0. ~.' 0.35 ft.0.36 ft. it is to change the normal depth and make the uniform flow occur in a cl'it.2). By varyillg the slope of the c:hannel to a certail1 value. c. ~Ill). ! 67.1& ft.mall~.3'fps..60 Ips. a.I I 7.168.15 ft (see Example 42) The corresp:ndin g. 68) with 10 ft and n = Q.nnel for o FlO. the Manning formula can be used to determine the slope of Ll.S6 it whf:)n the discharge is 400 cfs.0070 This is ~he slope that will maintain a uniform and critical flow in the given channel at the glvp. The slope thus obtained is the critical slope 8.lly. C.36 ft.st critical slope.a. vB. or S.inst discharge. a.l." 0.
ded area. (69).in the roughness coefficient in a given channel. substitute 11 in Eq. ' . This computation is required for the determination of the of flow in a given channel.144 UN)FORM FLOW COMPUTATION OF UNJl<'ORM FLOW 145 :2. Following this procedure. this comput. Ta compute the channel slope. flow. supercritical. Since t1:. D. The unknmm. To determine the dimensions of the channel section. E. The coefficient of roughness n . v v v v v v v. a dlScha.val'iables that can be determined The last from . .5 ft. 68. The kllown variables are indicated by a check mark (v') and the unknowns required in the problem by a question mark (?).dy. for the . is used as the uniformfl6w formula. ." the following six variables:' c D E F v v v' v .for the determination of the capacity of a given channel or for the construction of a synthetic rating curve of the channel. which IS the required Iimii slope. curve MLN indicates a minimum value·of S. The normal depth 'Ii 4. To compute the normal depth.cations. the .e point L is below the cUr'le 'OM.m will involve . The channel slope S " B. Similll. When :the Manning formulli. the rel!l..!ld Q in Eq. ? . O. betweEn the curves OM and MLN. is Q =Z. The second condition.g y'" By using Eqs.he channel roughness. To: determine the velocity of. 5. (635) (636) Q= 1O. and then substitute lIll. Inpractical applieD. the maximum expected depth of flow is !\.iLnd eliminating 11... the flows will be. Problems of Uniformflolw COII}putation. given channel. as an implicit function. v ? . . The computation of uniform flow may be performed: by the use of two equations.lssed. (Ex.. a direct solution is mathematically complic!l. Curves of critica. On the right side of the Cllrves. the remaining two unknowns can be determined by the two equations. the computati/. from Eq.. discharge. The plotted. In this case. To determine t. formula. Assumil1g that the maximum expected depth of flow in the ch$. F.tion between Q and S< was compute. SOME TYPES OF PROBLEMS OF UNn'ORMFLOW COMPUTATiON Type of problem Discha.nd plotted as shown ilt Fig.ation is required.t within the sha.lCVe·01l1. and 1.56 Example 64a Example 72 A B ? 68. (43). C. (636) and solve for Q. the limit slope is possible in the exj:lected flLnge of flow. 51) Example 62 Prob. (il34) and (636) . however.Ssumed to be 1. . N. fore. the relation between Q and S.. (Ex. This computation is required mainly for design purposes . ?  v v v v v 1 v v v ? . The mean velocity of flow V 3. Supercrltlcal flow 2. the· continuity i equation and a unifodnflow. When any four of the above six variab'lesare given.3 .mple : Prob. there.d .IlneLis 5 ft. etc. It becomes evident tha.rge cUl:veOM (Fig. 55.g or. The normal discharge Q 2. B. can be cOIl1itrueted according to Eq.ectangulul' chmnel. and the curves ar~shown in Fig. anti solve for So.. This computation is required for adjusting the slope 0(0. The following are some types of problems of uniformftow computa~ioll: A.the known variables are indicated by a dash TABLE t>2. a. . 50 Prob. : ' . Table 62 lists the known and unknown variables involved in each of the six types of problems mentioned above.ll expected flows wHi b~ subcritical. This computation has many appli.itis often required for the study of scouring and silting effects in a given channel.. A practical solution of the problem i~ to assume different values of ii. the point L is above the Cl. To compute the normal discharge. 68b. For example.004Il. (634). This relation is expr.such as A.ted.t L. can be established. The geometric elements that depend on the shape of the channel section. the limit slope cannot be expected to occur in the realm under cQnsideratioll. Slope in 103 (al F!G~ :3 4 5 Slape In 10.rge Q VeIoeity V I De th p 11 Roughness Slope S n Geometric elements .! slope vs. 55.tlons. Exa. .coefficient thus determined may be used in other similar channels. I v v v 'I. (b) 6 7 t>8.. This computation is used to ascerta.
qltal to thefil'st approximation. . andKd.he surfs. 2.y formula. however. : It shoul. . 176. The direct use of a uniformfl. see [21]. and the est. in Art. will be descri I:>ed later. The Slope·area Method.. or S =£ F' (638) The corresponding 'discharge may. that Table 02 does not include all types of problems.he change in velocity within the channel reach is not appredable.145 UNIFORM FLOW COMPUTATION OF UNIFORM :now 147 ·l column of the tabie shows the example given in this book for each type of problem. During flood stages.described here. and the le. This method shows how the uniformflow formula can be applied to gradually vllded flow and thus paves the way for a more cOinprehensive treatment on the subject of gradually varied flow in Part Ill. or Q= K vB. therefore. compute the conveyances Ie. use of the Chl:z. Owing to inegular channel conditions. The examples shown. the energy slope is equal to the fall F of water surface in the reach divided by the length L of the reach. flood flow is in fact varied and unstean'y. the use of the best hydraulic· section and of empirica.ow formula for the determination of flood discharges is known as the slopeaJ'ea method. in which the principle of energy is applied directly to a contracted opening in the stream. The 50% decreru. these three slopes are only approximateiy equal.n method called the contractedopening method. (63).t the slopearea method actually deals with gradually var.nd downstream sections. In natural streams.ted. and use of a uniformflow formula for discharge computation is acceptable only when the changes in flood stage and dischurge are relatively gradual. In uniformflow computation it is understood. of the Epstl'eam and dO\\'llstrealll sec~ion8 of the reach. The energy slope is. and channel bottom cannot be strictly parallel to one another.respeetively. It should be noted. which is unknown.ngth of the reach.'ling the revised flow. By varying combinations of various known and unknown variables. Compute the average conveyance K of the reach as the geometric mean of 1(u and F:.\st be either comparDtjvely regular valley channels free from bends and thus well suited to the slopearea method or else contrllcted openings wiyh sufficient constriction to produce definite indrease in head and velocity and thus suited t. such as l'vIa. The foilowingis a description of the slopearea method. therefore. Furthermore. the ·energy slope should be taken as the difference between the total heads nt the ends of the reach divided by the length of the reach. When this information is obtained.· . in parentheses are solved by the. the velocity var~eS greatly. k = 0. be computed by Eq. and the velocity head should be included in the total head for defining the energy slope.imation of the roughness coefficient applicable to the channel reach. that the energy slope Sf in the uniformflow formula is equal to the slope of the longitudinal watersurface profile and also to the slope of the channel bottom (Art. the energy· slope may be taken roughly equal to the bottom 01' t. the energy line. . In design problems.nlling's.l rules is generally introduced (Art. 4. Since the total head includes the velocity head. more types of problems can be formed.0.ee. so that frictional losses can be calcu!il.e in the value of Ie for an expanding reach is customarily assumed for the recovery of the velocity head due to the expansion of the flow. Both methods l require information about the high water marks that are detectable in the flomded reach.9. but they ml. (63) which gives the first approximation of the discluirge.o the contractedopening method. to the other. the discharge can be computed by a uniformflow formula.. ~ For a comprehensive description of the metholis. therefore. R. or au V.ce slope. (63) u. however.ied I ! I J 1. Assuming ~he disclul.tel' surfa. The following inform:ttion is necessary for the slopearea methqd: the determination of the energy slope in the channel reach. 77) and thUl'J new types of problems are created . wB. L where (639) (640) j I i i and kis a factor.o. Good locations for coll~cting such information may be found not only on main streams but also on smaller tributaries. a solution by successive approximation is necessary in the discharge computa~ion. Computation of Flood Discharge. if the velocity varies appreciably from one end of the reach. equal to s=!!:!. 6l. k = 1. compute the velocity heads at the upstream [1.). 2 The conI tractedopening method is related to rapidly varied flow and. Assuming zero velocity head.' or (637) i 3.5. and n.. 51).' When the reach is (. On the other hand. The procedure of computation is as follows: 1. but it is believed that at this stage of reading the rcad~r should be able to follow the procedure.2j2g and ad V d Z j2g. • When the reach is expanding (V" > V. The corresponding discharge is then computed byEq.d be noted tha. From the known values of A. theoretically. the measurement of the a vel'age crosssectional area. If ·1. The flood discharge may also be determined by another wellkno".ontracting (Vu < V d ).rge p.
070 10. . Average t.000 cfs. weighting them equally or as circumstances indicaie. . fr. depending upon such factors 11. . . Similarly. . and is called oo'erland flow. \ . slope. 5. Inte .oximatlon 1st 2d 3d IAs~umed Q Flo. «.0316 97. thc shear stress T per unit arel.437i 0. 2(/ ad V.0d0880 0.w of viscosity applies.430/500 = 0.000 10.354 1. conveyances.:\. socalled S1J.0293 90.~25I0.0296 91.. and energy coefficients for the two elld sections of the' reach are: .437\ 0.190 11..~" V?". Hence. In a drainage basin t) 2 (842) This is a quadratic equation indicating that' the velocity of uniform. COMPUTATION OF F1.er reich of 500 it ha. Repeat step 4 for ~he third and fourth approximatiOJls..1"!ace flow is produced. Since the unit weight tV = pg and 1>/ P = v (Art.500 1. This law expresses the ~~at~. T = gl>(Ym .' 'flop'li' 't~o 1 .000 I ~I! I 2g a~ ~l 2U h.y).. ~ 4th 5th 97.42.200 91."" 2(/ 1.0293 = 90..00086.l5 1.500 1.0~93.. The fall of water surface in the reach was found to be 0..000/10.034 X 10 6 K. .rI.000 ds. FOI' the first approximl. In this case the Newton's lD.500 .t"r areas.(. Then S = 0..ving· known values of the ws._ 1'13 A (97.verage K = Y3.000 0. = 1. (641). dv = g8 (Ym . .hen Y = 0. and degree of surface roughness. ~. If velocities and depths of flow are relatively small. 11.0010000.258 0. r = tV(Ym . assume Q = 97. TABLE dynamic viscm:ity i" and the shear stress bOlmdary surface (Fig. The estimated discharge is found to bl! 91.0296\ 91.500 1.. Example 66.. I S v'S 1Computed Q j .\ of the flow along 'the laminar layer PP (Fig.500 0. .070 = 0.. In other words.000 90.OOD DISCHARGE BY THE SLOPEAREA METHOD FOP.070 X 10'.103 X 10' = 3.034 X 10' X 3. face. ..iii:.91.ter areas. and so on until the assumed and computed discharges agree.~.' .·.990 K. h.he discharges computed for several reaches.. Since l'u is less than V d.oelficient8 of the upstream and downstream end sections. _.50 ft. Uniform flow may be turbulent or laminar.165 1.000874) 0.0310. . (639). Compute the flood discharge through a riv. wl)../ ··'·1:':··~7 ~~1:. v'S = 0. . 69)" as follows: r r at a dist.. 6.000 ds. ~ . .000874 0." is contracting.000 cfs.000/11.990): 2g . •• . t~F"'~~101l . . 13). Thus... 69) is equal to the effective component of the gravitational force.0010. and energy e. from Eq.50 ft. 29' = 0.~j·· ~V~~~.J.103 X 10 6 au = 1:13" O'd i n7 .253 1°.~ . .y)S/v.:.070 X 10' X 0. .354 1.tion. . r .." Au Ad = = surface flo~ occurs mostly as a result of natural runoff. This gives the secolid approximation of the discharge. \°.ance y from the = I> du dy (641) 63..c. For uniform laminar flow. Uniform Surface Flow.0. the viscosity becomes a domina.~ . viscosity.~~ .H. = 3. 1. The depth of the flow may be so thin in comparison with the width of flow that the flow becomes a wide' openchannel flow.50° °.e. ~. . Uniform laminar openchannel flow. COMPU'l'ATlON OF UNIFORlI'I FLOW 148 UNIFORM FLOW 149 slope obtained by Eq.000 91. that is.000860 0.070 .430 1 0.~ 'r " Ii! w(Y"l~'Y)S ( _ • .000 0. other approximations are made. = 0. as shown in Table 63. The a.00 = 0. "IS = 0. .50/E.177 . For the second approximation.000 1 0 . known specifically as sheet flow. Then the velocity heads at the t\~O end sections are: . = 0. ·laminar flow in a wide open channel has a parabolic distribution.. = 3. ' .tiQg factor and the flow is laminar. '.~ f' "'"(i"'.9l1_p~tween the ~" . AifC J. . and Q = K VB = 3. and k = 1. and Q = 3. 500 1.430.0297 .~Ofti~T!~ ~ . assume h.'> discharge. v = 610. V d ' _ 1177 (97. the flo.' '\\ .t· ) ' . fr9. S = 0.424 0.1 FHl.. the component of the gravitational force parallel to the flow in any laminar layer is balanced by the frictional force..070)" = .44010. conveyances.070 X 10' X 0.. Solution.. When water flows across a broad sur g8 (YYm _ )I • ...0316 = 97.200 10. EXAMPLE 66 Appr.y) dy J' Integrating and noting that v = 0 w.( .
66. depth of I I I \ FIG. from R = 300 to 330 by Hopf [23}. 1 . 65. For very rough surfaces or areas densely covered with vegetation.ving the following sections for . . UBing the Ch6zy formula. In this case the sui'face roughness is a dominating factor. to Y = Ym and divide the result by Yrn.l. the PROBLEMS V = 1 Y•• 10 °' vdy 11 (643) 'y = 6 ft.ls.'~ ..ri!l. and longitudinal slope S: (G48) where .017. 6~3. The transitional region was found variously at R = 310 by JeffreY<i [22]. Compare the results with those obtained in Frob.. maintaining turbulent £low. a coefficient involving slope and roughness. overland flow is apt to cha!lgefrom lamim\'r to turbulent.)llic exponent is based on the Chezy formula. n = 0. A highway gut:ter section. 614. A parabolic section having a width of 16 ft at the depth of 4 ft . MallTlilig's n. Thus.ted tha. Solve Prob. the flow ill general is highly turbulent.. and (d) an equilateral triangle with a vertex at the bottom. . N = A 1:. However.. (c) a Y~ry wide panbola for which the wetted perimeter i~ practically equal to the top Width.150 UNIFORM FLOW COMPUTATION OF UNIFORM FLOW 151 grate Eq. within a short di.015. the flow is mixed between the laminar and turbulent. Y = 0. formula shows that Chezy's C is a f~nction of the hydrauiic radius and hence of the depth ii. A cil'cular section 15 ft in diameter . a coefficient involving slope and viscosity.03. and S = 0. the flow cannot be turbulent if the velocity is less than (646) where Y". Experiments have indica.. :r .30 to 0. the Chezy formula has hot been found very convenient for determination of the N value. G4 if the determination of the hydl'!l. Compute the discharge in the triangular highway gutte!' described in the precedmg problem when z = 24. 62. A rectangular section 20 ft wide b. Uniform surface flow becomes turbulent if the surface is rough and if the depth of ftmv is sufficiently large to produce persisting' eddies. e. Consequently. 610) having one side vertical.0 for .ctory for sheet flow over relatively rough surfaces. 0 and the di:. however. 6~.s been studied by ffi8. \ :j: varies between 1. and the velocity can readily be expressed by the Manning formula.. is the average depth of flow and where CT = 1.. A trapezoidal sectiC'u with a bottom width of 20 It and side slopes of 1 on 2 d. Horton believed that the Reynolds criterion is not satisfn.0 for mixed flow. ( 'where C is a coefficient a~d where the exponent highly turbulent. the velocities for laminar and turbulent· flow are nearly equn. The change of state of sheet flow from laminar to turbulent hn.0020: 61. bottom angle equal to GO" c.ft. 610.rice. U~ing the Manning formula.. Cb) a very wide rectangle.t the discharge of overland flow per unit width of flow varies with the aver~ge depth o~ flow as follows: (647) a. As the natural ground surface is rarely even and uniform in slope.ny hydraulicians.22. is the avewge depth of flow." . because this condition of equal velocities represents the minimum amount of energy capable of . A triangular section with a.charge per unit width is (644) where CL = gSj3v. Prove the following equ1Ltion for the dischuge ina. Thi~ i~crease. Thus. He reasoned that. K. and S = 0. and from R = 548 to 773 by Horton [24J.49So·~/n. Detern:ine the normal discharges in channels ha. determine the hydmulic exponent N for the [01lowing channel sections: Ca) a very narl'OW rectan(!. Forcanal~ in earth and gravelly soil the N value is generally found to havBan increase of 0. one 3ide sloped at 1 pn z'. and vice versa. flow and 3. . I The G.ti~n in Chezy's C with respect to the depth.'lta.50 due to the v!l. at the transition point. (642) from Y average velocity is = O. tl'iangular highway gutter (Fig.' ~how that the general equation for the hydmulic exponent N is . flow y. (3 T _ U dP) dy (/H9) . the discharge per unit width is (645) where y". n = 0. brings the N valuc closlJr to that bMcd on the Manl1ing formula. Thus.
the measured normal depth of flow was 1. main channel and the side channels be seplJ. (~IN.. a. (616).ing bver a WIde mnge of stages. ft' 5. an. ... The data 0btained by the survey" are: ' 618.. a sloped side of z = 12. The discll!ir~es for the conditions describedin a and b were actually measured and found to be' G.0 581. determine the norm!.earthen canals.uniformflow fOl'mulfl. 6~16.>e nonscouring and nonsiit.5 590. . It is suggested that th".025 for the main channel. and a top width of T = 2 ft.Sld.05 1. 619~ For all equal amount of discharge. it should I. 543.7 540. circular conduit having a n~r mal depth of 24 in.0 Sta/·ian 6. usi. = 0.ting curve. the section is formed by two catenaries as sides. and thus the measured norrne.. (617)to (819).. MathematicallY. Compute the normal depth and velocity.' c. n = O. Compute the total disbhfLrge. Determine the corresponding n.0 Left b8lnk: 0 1 1 3 + 00 + 00 + 50 +00 4 +00 5 + 00 b. then.050.1 depths in channels having the following sections when Q = 100 cfs.! depth became 1.0 572. show that the depths for a maXimum discharge and velocity in a aircular conduit are. I:>y = n. ' . 61~_ A~ what depths will the maximl.. n = 0. (617) to (619).tion 500 ft downstream f!"om the section described in Example !ll. 616. Detel'mine the discharge for a normal depth of 1.~: Frrm~ the giv~n condition.· . 612.ng (al Fig.1035%. 622.. A rectangular testing channel is 2 ft.]ghened and the bed were smooth. 62. ' 69. The hydrographic survey of a stream jndicates tha. UNIFORM FLOW C01IPUTATION OF UNIFORM FLOW 67. once this cl~annel is designed for a safe velocity. Solve thIS mfferentlill equatlOn. and . wid'e and laid on a slope of 0.Prove that the CrOss section of this channel can be defined by y = R[ln (x i l I I I r Q.. B2 and (b) the graphical method based on. 66) .035 0. lor two reasons: (1) thc wetted perimeter is greater in an icecovered channel and thus results in greater resistance or less velocity.In R] (650) where x = R when y = o. ' . 610_ On the basis of the Chezy formula. Draw the sketch of this section and discuss its properties.l. (616). and evaluate the mtegration constant by the condition that x = R when 11 = O.10 (3 "':1 5.cal section is bottomless.1 ] Y (651 ) where n. A channel is assumed to have a constant hydraulic radius R for any dep'th of flow.lin discharge and velocity occur in a square cOlldUlt laId flat on one side? . in depth due to resistanee in' an iuecovered wide open channel may be expressed by . using (al Eq. lIlfiIcates that the hydrfLlrlic radius is the sole shape parameter for the velocity. A. For practical purposes.917.36 ft fOT a discharge of 8.t the hydraulic p¥operties of the stream llre relatively unifOl'm for a length of over 2' miles. 61S.001: 617.(615).938d. ' ..s. If the indication is tru:. . (b) Fig. values.OBOfor the side channels. andS i= 0.50 'and 6. the large variation in water surface during the change of stage wouldetode the sides very easily. S = 0. n 0.01 621.S + vx' .20 cis. + 00 8 + 00 10 + 00 11 + 00 12 + 00 14 + 00 Elev. since the spGCific gra\'ity Qf i~e is about 0.31 ft for a discharge of 5.017 and has a t~iangular section with a vertical curb side. The nl1~ural slope of the stream is about 1 it/mile. '" 1. respectively. Using the l\'Ianning formula.9 cfs. The gutter is made of conprete \vith n = 0.R') ch~. and (el the graphical method based on Eq.!.. . . A rectangular channel with 20 ft width. such as the Manning formula.12 1. 611. e. 510) having Il. determine the respective depths for maximum discharge and maximum velocity in a circular conduit.vement has a crosg slope of z.8 =' 0. The overflowed soilaggregate pD. Compute the discharge in I1n overfliJ~ved highway gutter (Fig. respectively'.2 cfs.320 P. 620: Compute the conveyauce and velocitydistribution coefficients of a channel ser. Compute the hydraulic exponent N of a 36in. and n = 0. Side section .l·ated by the extended sides of the main 1l.2 573. The same' channel was then roughened by cemented sand grains.020. assuming that the main section and the two side sections are separated Ca) by vertical division lines and (bl by extended sides of the main channel Given: n· = 0. A chann~l consists of a main section and two side section.7 578.s.035.theo~eti. The adequacy of this indication can bo verified experimentally hy testin'l' a channel built of tha section oi constant hydraulic radius. Verify Eqs.nnBl. 0.006. In .. Using the Manning formula. The value of n for the main channel is estimated as 0. wl1ter areas of the '. Elev. m.31! (n .)% [1.040 Main section . Compute the l)ydraulic exponent N of the trapezoidal channel section (Fig. and (2) the thickness of the ice cover is greater than a depth of wa~er oi equal weight. artificial bottom should he provided ~iilce the . = 24 and n. 614.0 580.2 582. Eq. for the side channels 0.s (Fig. Construct a synthetilJ re.0 580. When the channel bed and walls were made smooth· by neat cement. K Form. _ . and O.670 1. The cross sect·ion of the stream at 11 typical upstrel1m station in the uniform Tea<:h is given hy the following cQordinates: StrLUr:f(1. Solve Example 62 by the G. 623.. The survey data at the secti. n is the roughness coeflicient of the channel without ice cover.. square conduit laid on one side. however.. carries a discharge of 200 cfs. and a longitudinRl slope of 0. ft 205 408. R = A(P =dA/dP "'" "dY/Vd:!"' + dy'. ..2 568.0020: . and y is the depth of flow in the channel carrying the same discharge but without ice cover. 22) having a normaldep. Sbow that the increase . is the roughness coefficient of the channel with' ice cover. Determine tile discharge for a normal d~pth of 1.) . Prepare the curves of dis~harge: andveloeity variations with respect to the depth in ll. above the·invert.31 it if the bed were roughened and the walls were kept smooth.03. an icecovered .015.31 it if the walIs were rOl.ula. b.. m..channel should have greater depth of fl(HV than an uncovered channel.on 'fol' the same flood are: Subsection A. . depth of flow of 3 in. and compare these values with those computed by Eqs.1 '152 .h of 6 ft.015. 590.
Leningrad. 4 It. l. 1950.. Einstein.roenii krivykh svobodnolpoverlthnosti V. .. . Side channel . A.038 1. l'oughnells coefficient n = 0. l'Besoiuznogo NauchnoIssierlov(Ltel'skoIlO [nstitllta.N . ll./. Ahmed M. Compute ~he flood discharge through this reach. . /zv6stiia.ce during It flood. . Trans.1I8).. Solve Example 62hy the gr'aphkal method.' 634.l slope at n given norma. 1ll31.""di Newsltccord.nnels with different. ZUrich. American . " .'! I .novivshemsia dyil!henii (On the construction of curves 01 free surfaces in prismatic nnd cylindrical channels with established flow)..rch 17Ultitute of H1!d~G7j.ei$~rische Ba.Unio. Rakhmanoff: 0 post. using the following data: Subsection Upstream: Main channel. pp. Onti. Ins/itu/a Gidrolekhltiki (Tra.nnel cro~ssections.ulic element·s of opellcha.uzeilv. 1933. 238241.·vol.nnel reac)11..ngular channel 20 it wide has a. (646). 8.. 626. H. Verlag Leemann J ZUrich. ·Gid1'otekhniki (Transa. 5.s oi the channel desi::ibed in Example 64 for side slopes z €I. a. c. 636. Lott. Pavlovskogo dUo.. Izul1s€iia VsesoiUZllogo Nau. N.760 25.050 320 0. A. PavlovskiI: "Gidra. 12.c ResC(Lrcfl InstituteDf Hydraulic Engineering). vol..hen the discharge is 200 cis.54 and ~ 1. /zu. Wass8rlcra!t u. Downstream: channel .610 2.620 5. . 10. 157227. ProceediniJs.042 0. 13. Construct the criticalslope curves of the cha.35 ft in wa~er surfa.. aidrotekhniki (Tri. 3. Del' hydraulische odsr ProJilRadius (The hydraulic (11' cross section radius). 31.lIa the corresponding nonna. 6.UNIFOll. 632. Compu~e the discharges ·per unit width of a ghect flow on a. .d and Moscow.111. p.l depth !i4 may be expressed by (652) REFERENCES 1. prirmaticheskikh i tsilindriche. Einstein and R. 27.0'1 L08 1 . hvestiia V sesoiuznoyo NaudmoIs:sledouaf. A cha. i tolshchinY l'da naraschct derivatsionnykh ka. Side channeL. Nov..ctiqna. Jj7'dl""'.lIoI 8sledovatel' skolJo Instiluta. Robert E.vlicheskii Spravochnik" ("Handbook of Hydmulics").lic Engineering). August. no. ~ ~ A.nruov (Influence of condi~ions of ice formation and thickness on the design of derivation canlLls). vol. 1934.18 1.23 i~ when the discharge is 200 cfs.sdtafl. voL 81. 7. . 630. H.mple 64. B.hk s llcodnorodllymi stenkami (On a design formula.. ft' 11. A parabolic section having a wicl'th of 16 ft at the depth of 4 ft 624.'skof/Q Instiluta. determine the value of ]( in Eq.:' I" .. 7. 5&80. Resear~h Inslill1le of Hyd1"altiic Erl9ineeril~g). Phillip Z. ..estiia.038 0. (15) and (643). Ie LoLter. 2() ft.~kikh ruslakh pri usta. 5.5. Civil Engineering. Leningrad. Horton.~. 111. 1931.20. pp. 1931... vol.. Am.chnoI:ssled()va. Feb. 1.tillUnion Sde1\tijic Reseprch In.20 1. and "'.038 0. A rectangular section 20 H wide D. . Munich. 18. Kirpich: Dimeru. 626. Vsesoiu. .01 ft and (b) 0. AllUnion Scimtiji.c ReseO. Mitieilungen ruts der Vcnu. AllUnion Scienli. 30. 9. 633.nnel described in Exampie 65 for bottom widths b == 1 ft. 14. 24. 633 with those shOW\l by .. in Eq.10 1. 3. no. .stilutc of Hyd~at. . Separate roughness coefficients for channel bottom and sides.. 157164. 0. 28..035 when the depth of flow is (a) 0.250 25. Show that the velocitydistribution coeffici(mts for la.. 1933. 1948. MUhlhofer: Rauhigiteitsuntersuclmngen in einem Stollen mit betonierter Soble und unveddeidete~ Wand en (R(Jughne5S investigations in a shaft with concrete bOUom and unlined wo... Using Eqs.gOo i 6:11. A. vol..~ Scienlifu.lis). 47. 13.. Determine the critical slope o. Yassin: Mean roughness coefficient in open cho. pp. N. 2. vol.23 ft.10 1. IZTleiltiia. Leningrad. . N. . no..015. L~ningl'!ld..ionless cons~ants for hydr>l. The temperature of water is 6soF. 628. l{. ojJcedeleniia koeflitsienta I· i I a.eI'. I ! I i i . 1933. Determine' the critic!. . 3.cir. Leningrad. 10. curvl'. V~e~oiu2nogo Nauchno!ssledvvateJ.. surflLc€ with 11 0. . G..04 1. = 14. 75114.ahow that the cOI'nsponding exponent. and 'lr>mpute the corresponding disch'al'ge.OOO ft loug h<L~ a fall of 0.. voL 9. October. 22. Banks: Fluid resistance of composite roughness.kO'lo bl. pp.. 8.l slope at tbe normal depth of 1.ter in open channels). . Chugaev: NekotorY(l voprosy neravnomemogo dvizheniia vody v otkrytykh prizmaticheskikh ruslakh (Abollt some questions concerning nonuniform flow of w!). G. pp. pp. pp.1!g. ..na Wasserwir/. 635. 4. Deterrnhie the limit slope of the channel described in Exa. vol."!ocietl! of Civii Engineers. . 8991. 4. for sheet flow in Prob. R. A tril1ngulltr section with the bottom angle equal to 60~ c.2. AUUnion Scientific Re6eard~ institl. 052653. 1954.. roughness of bed and side walls..004 ft. A re. Leningra. p. . Yen Te Chow: Integrating the eqltation of gradually varied flol\'. 0. Prove Eq.06 . Determine the normal slope at a normal "depth of 1.ct'o. paper 838. (647) is:c = 1 77.chsa. November. . 1.t~l'slco(jo. for uniform move· men~ in channels with nonhomogeneous walls). pp.5n> lIH (653) ·627. A ~rapezoidal section "'ith a bottom width of 20 ft and side slopes of 1 on Z d.Pavlovskii: K voprOStl 0 raschetnoI formule dlia ravnomernogo dvizheniia y yociotoka. D.. A circuliI' ~cction 15 H in diameter e. vo!' 103.nnels. ~he cha'tt of Fig. Gidratekhnikt (T"(LMrtClions. No.lnsa:clioM. pp. no.l depth ". Of ~ 4. "> . I .. 629. Using the Blasius equation (16) for turbulent flow in open cha.rische technische H oCMchllle Ziirich.. actions.fi. Compare Horton's criteria. 2. R. 6036jO.minar uniform flow in wide open channels are a "" 1. Determine the criti·calslope. Sch".iVI FL01V COMPUTA'l'lON OF UNIFOR1I1 FLOW 155 a. Metod akademilca N. N. . 1937. N. 132.lititula Gidrotekhllim (1'ranS(lctions.nsactions. 1955. 8583. G. . no. L. . Eid(jelll!.lic En(Jineering). pp. 8. (18}.tionson hydraulic design of channels wi~h different roughness of \ir8..nd that thi~ slope for a wide cluumel is S crt. and "'.znogo Nav.erican Geophysical Union.nst(lltflIT Tfr(lsse!'oau una Erd:bau./e of Hydraulic Enyincerinp). It Lotter: Vliianie uslovii ledoobrazovaniia.er: SOQbrazheniia k gidravlicheokomu raschetu cusel s l'!>tlichnoI sherokhovatosliiu stenoI!: (Collsidera... Show that the critic!!.01 and AS = 0.. vol. 515. 1932. .
vol.h I'dam (Method by Academy Member N.d. New York. Robert E. D.. Usiug Ml:lIlningStrickler Formula"). II. cast iron. P.21. 777808. 2d ed. 1950. . In lined channels. but oacasionally it may be' to check seepage losses. Bra. and grassed channels. U. ·Horace William King. hydraulically or empil'ically determined. 20. Jeffreys: Flow of water in an inclined channel of rectangular section./ . N. ' 21. In designing nonerodihle channels. CHAPTER 7 DESIGN OF CHANNELS FOR UNIFORM FLOW Channels to be discussed in this chapter include nonerodible channels erodible chann. HOllk: Calculation of flow in open channels. bei einem Flusse (Turbulence in a flow). "Hydraulic and Excavo. I94L 15. pp. A. Gosenergoizdat. Edinburgh and D"blin PIIi!osophical Magazine and Jou..erial forming the channel body. "Hydraulic Tables. Arghyropoulos: "Ce]cu\ de I'ecoulement en conduites sous pression ou a sUl'fll. such' factors f:t:. the minimum permissible velocity. 293.d. . Technical Report.. IViLn E. Pavlovskil for der.els. Do. 2. Handbook of Hydraulics. L. McGra. to avoid deposition if the water carries silt or debris. no. London.V.which determines the roughness coefficient. etc. The designer simply computes t. Halle aml Leipzig.nsactiO'flS. P.to be considered in the design are: the: kind of mat. plastic.S. "Flow in Open Channels. A. the freeboard i and the most efficient section. or stones. Paris. Dunod.bed. Moscow IlIld Leningrad. can be ignored. H.nd R.rnal of Science. aee [3). Lenin. except those excavated in firm foundations. Leach..hedimensions of the channel by a uniformflow formula and then decides the final dimensions on the basis of hydraulic efficiency..ce libre." vol. UNIFORM FLOW sherokhovl1tostl rusel·.. however. the discussion will be limited mostly to those· which scour but do not silt (see Preface).wHiII Book Company. table \lD. a. AprilJuly. Nonerodible Material and Lining. H118. 18.eclam:l. 7. Van Vliet: Laminar sheet ftow. The purpose of lining a channel is in most cases to prevent erosion. it should be remembered that there is a tendency for the rapidly 1 For detailed information on channel lining.' Most Hned channels a!ldbuiltup channels can withstand eroslonsatisfactorily and are therefore· considered nonerodibZe. New York.nym pokrovom /I ("Engineering Hydraulics of a Current under Ice Cover "). IG. 393404. fOl'mule de ManningStrickler" ("Computation of Flow in Conduits under Pressure or with Free Surface. Annalen der Physik.'ancy Districl.1954.. pt. 157 . stone masonry." McGrawHill Book Compa!lY. steel. "Manning Formula Tables.e" the maximum that will not cause erosion.u of R. no. Burea. Belokon: "Inzhenernaia gidravlika patoka pod i<. The selection of the material depends mainly on the availability and cost of thf. Gidr612khniki (T1'Q. The factors . pokrytyl..yton.wm<Jljo N auchno. the method of construction. timber." U. provided that the water does not catty sand. gravel.gro.ter.of a channel and the body of a builtup channel include concrete. 1944•. Pt. pp.S. HISS. If there are to be very high velocities over a lining. the ma:r. either . For erodible channels. Ohio.tion Tables. 10th s. or empirical rule of best pi'acticability. I TllVest{ia V seso. Hortun. the maximum permissible velocity (Art. and economy [1. N. Unlined channels are generally erodible. 19.J ssledava te/' skOlia I nstitttUJ. . 49. H. the channel bottom slope and side slopes. sec. 713) are not the criteria to be considered. vol. vo!. 15. 24. 79) and the permissible tractive force (Art. sec. Inc. 1925." U. 72. such as rock . material. NONERODIBLE CHANNELS 71. The Nonerodible Channel. 1925. pp. i. Corps of Engineers. AllUnion Scientific Research Institute of Hyd1'auiic E1I{)ineering). and the purpose for which the channel is to be used. glass.156 .C. d'upres Ill. Hopf: Turbnlen:1. 1940. Government Printing Offiee. 22.imum permissible velocity. revised by Ernest F. 793807. 1934.dia.S.. Washington. Miami Conserl. A:merican GeophysicaJ Union. 17. 1039. Inc. R. I. May. 4.tiou.crmination Df roughness coefficients of ice{lovered channels). Horaoe William King: . 32. 23." 4th ed. l The nonel'odible materials used to form the lining. TTansactions. 29..
. Immg PerrnlSSI e VelO~l'ty The mim:mum pel'missible the urn SOli.h ..ter tha. for the Rume substructure may be endangered by any overflow. percolation gradients.... ...... ...'l.. d h droDower proJects reqUIre a Ign . start sedlmentatlOn an IJ1 t ' .. . . ....5 for a canal capacity of 20 cfs to 2....hc high stage at the least obstruction. h' . climatic change. The side slopes 0 a e anne . : .: created by many uncontrollable causes. however. 111 aterial Rock .. .~1..\ II . channels' used for W:Lterdlstrlw .. ow 0f the channe1 F'" exanlple .... water supply.depend also on the h f! f ater In many cases... .ndy earth.5 fps W pi even. ~dition of seepage loss. soH characteristics. . SUl'rABLE SID. . Firm clay or earth for small ditches . y is the depth of water in the canal in ft. ..• Loose sa.. 76. Table 71 give:. h Id be designed against such POSSibilItIes. . . water to pick up lining blocks and push them out .... . d its e"act value cannot be er.... t e . .. 714). . 1 I' '~d 'rable in order to keep the los3 III delivery.. d . ac IIOJ a kino' . f the .. .M' . therefore. . mean vel ' t ' f 2 t 0 • .'l OJ' lateral will nornu. . since wave action or wat~t8urface fluctuation in a channel ma. t a growth of vegetation that would not less than 2. coefficient varying from 1.~~ ??SlulOn.Vlth Btone I" Wing. . : ... Stiff clay or earth with. . . ..l1 y.... COl .ctuatioll of water surface are generally expected in channels where the velocity is so 11igh and the slope so steep th~t the flow becomes very unstable.000 cfs or more capacity with reheively large \vater depths. .. ra hv and the energy head required for generally governed by the topog .. '..y bi. " .sed to prevent water from slopping over... . Bureau of Reelamation [4J.. greater than .. that it is sufficiently flat to. I ' ty is very uncer aJl1 :Ln l\.. where F is the freeboard in ft. . carrying water at velocities not. or on curves where high velocity and large deflection angle may cause appreciable superelevuted water surface on the convex side of a curve. For h'd . Channel Slop . " ' b se used in irrigation. y :au I~ butlOn plll poses. According to the U. . e S l i t (Art 710) or by the principle of tractive maximum permli5s1bb~~e.. t Generally speakmgj SI e s opes s channel Size.sIly 1'1 . h s little si"'nI'fi canee excep for ... lon. .. .. . 'd 1 hould be made as . This distance shouid be sufficient to prevent wnves or fluctuations in water surface from overflowing the sides..peaL soils . sedously decrease longitudinal bottom Glope of cha.. . ' . For smooth....lly be governed by considerations of canal size and locatiOJ1.. a genera1 Id ea oslopes suitable for use Wit 'l'fLrJOUS ' TABLE 71. . t IS ''It . .. are method of constru<. force (Art. Other natural causes such as wind movement und tidal adion may also induce high waves and Tequire special considemtion in design.. : . h' liS ve OCI For water carrymg no Sl load or for desiltecl flow..S. a more accurate kinds of m~LterJal...4.. This ftwtor becomes imp or. The Bureau recommends that preliminary estimates of the freeboard required under ordinary conditions be made according to the following formula: (71) 'an I I 1.nnels .. operating road requirements. . stormwater inflow.. . or earth for large eila.. h slope may .h Gen'h .. effert onplant growth. so freeboard must he increll. : . and availability of excavated material.rd in unlined cann. il1terior.. 7 3.e c. ". . There is no universally accepted rule for the'determination of freeboard.. h .. ~ w ••••• Side slope Nearly vertic al ~:i: 1 H':1 to 1:1 1:1 159 a... . or in chnrmels where the velocity of flow appt'oaches the critical state at which the water may flow at alternate depths and thus jump from the low stage to I. .. concrete Immg .t its f t . . . ~J. such as t o . . v~locit'lJ ::allihe a elevation to a minimfum' h 1 deIJend mainly on the kind of materiaL.icipatcd by the Blireau.. ~. ' th .. 80 % of the criticnl velocity with a maximum of 8 fp.. .. Free boards va. For flumes on curves with high velocity or deflections.m 'or porous clay . ' sLOPES FO R CHANNELS BUILT IN V..... determme . f th lopes SOUl b e checked [wainst the criterion of " "0 determll1atwn 0.. . DESIGN OF CHANNELS FOR UNIFORM FLOW 1%:1 2:1 3:1 . . P'. . . t' the channel is small. and watertable fluctuations eaWled by checks.rying from less than 5 % to grea. wave Ilction will be produced. mll1Jl1g. One advantage a t IS S ope IS . e'~'5'1 slope for the usual sizes has been considering standarfdlzhl~lg ~n a .. For 11l1ed can~~. .... i'lg capaCity of the channel.. may be used safely w en" e ' a t> 'Hps OCI y 0 't f era y spea ""...000 cfs or more~ This approximation is . Accordingly. . Pronounced Waves and fiu. tant particularly in~he design of elevated flumes.hs to 4 it in canals of 3. a smaL b ope I::> eSI 158 UNIFOR\I1 FLOW" '~... . the approximate range of freeboard frequently used extends from 1 ft for smalliateral"/ with shallow depl.• Sandy I06... . ~ . . . . of canals. d Id·b designed for high hydraulic efficiency steep as practICable a~ s ou 1 e th US Bureau of Reclamation [4] and st:Lbility. ..UllOU.5 for a canal capacity of 3. and C is ll. ..'... * • • • • • • • • • Muck and . ?L' I'. T e mlm "t'n is the lowest velocity that Will not" velocity. level at the pomto! .. h Freeboll. .. .... . .S I{INDS OF MATElRIALS .nnel is 7.. wiud action.. movmg .he ~onS'O" ~d ~ duc~ the growth of aquatic plant and mo~s.n 30 % of the depth of flow are commonly used in design. and a mean veloci y 0 percentage of sIlt preseDillln. The freeboard of a channel is the vertical distance fi'Oill the top of the channel to the water surface nt the design condition. experience has indicated that a freeboard of 6 %. semicircular metal flumes on tangents.. . °f:c~ors to' be considered in determining slopes . 'or h d r ' pur~ose o. t e . . of the flume diameter shouid be used. Freeboard. erodible material.. . . ..now the pradicable Use of just about any type of lining or lining tl'eatment now or in tho future ant. . 'bi h '. " Etlft.
Show that the best hydraulic trapezoidal 8ecti~n is onehalf of a hexagon. As a guide for.decreD. or b = 2Y(VI . The Best Hydraulic Section. as frequently occurs. therefore. velocity of water.13 yl: 2 . of . the principle of tractive force must be used to determine an efficient section (Art.' . : In general. In a somewhat similar mannel'.. I_~ I' AArea Wetted /' Hydraulic' Top perimeter radius width P il.6 I 4y T=2V2y Hydro~tatic catenary Capacity.ies.) . half of a square I Triangle. For erodible channels.e constant.tion I __·.) (U. of Reclamation.58Sy' 2. the height of lining abo"'. condition of st0rm.'e the water surface will depend upon a number of factors: size of canal.se in the wetted perimeter.: I . Solutio ll . 715). The section of minimum excavation 'occurs only if 'the water surface is at. The s~micircle hrLs the least perimeter among all sec.. . wider channels will provide minimum excavation. be noted that a best hydraulic section is the section that gives the minimum area for a given discharge but not necessarily the minimum excav!1tion. to b. It is knO\vn that the conveyance of ar chn.n of nonerodlble channels. 71. curvature of alignment.arabola.! and in use of material. cIs ~Y' i I "~YI 72YI " I 1% V'2 )%'V2 HYt ! r I I 2 V2 11 Try ! ~YI . TABI. the channel section having the least wetted peri!lleter for a given area has the maximum conveyance.and drainwater inflow.n water.with the ground level.160 UNIFORM FLOW DESIGN OF CH . the level of the bank tops. amount of intercepted storm or drai. 72795y 1. • The geometric elements of six . b is the bottom width. NNELS FOR UNIFORM FLOW 161 I I. hence it is the most hydraulically efficient. . serve for all conditions. of soil. 9836y 0.46784y 1. Flrst. • Example 71. BEST HYDRAULIC SECTIONS. conslder A and z.E 72. half I of a hexagon I Rectangle. linedcanal design. it should + zy)y and P = b + 2 VI + .l'e even. Retommended freeboard and lleight of bank of lined channels. I based upon average Bureau practice. Table 21 gives the water area.S: Bureau . however.. From a practical point of view. and wind action. factor Tmpezoid.quare Semicircle P. such a section is known as the best hydrauNc section. but these seytions may not always qe practical owing to 'difficulties in constructioJ.best hydraulic sections are listed in iTable 72. dP Idy ~ 0. the U.+ ZZ  2) Substitl!ting this equation for b/n the previ~us two equations for A ELnd Pand solving . . If the' water surface overtops the banks and these il. 917532yIo. and wetted perimeter of a tl'apezoid as A = (b 76.teralS.II . above the water surfitce will vary with size and location of canal. ]'rom a hydr~ulic viewpoint..: 1 is the side slope. %' v3" 11 2YI '%y Y %y'" 2:\1'. type. it will not. Where the water surface is below the bank tops. . Bureau of Replaination [3] has prepared curves (Fi~. Cross se<.y'" 4 y' Y 20YI %YI % y'3y u 1. .tions with the same area.. _ _ RI_ _ %. efficiency but should be : modifi~d for practicability. channels narrower than those of the best hydraulic section will give minimum excavation. 39. . fluctuations in water level due to operation of flowregulating structures. a channel :section should be designed for the best hydraulic./3 11 I 2y l y' . "I ~' ~y" 2111 y 4 . the height of bank.' y whe~e y is th~ depth. etc.S.' The pri~ciple of the best hydraulic section applies only to the desig. dP dy = 2( v'f+Zi I  z) b y 1 I f t I For a minim~m wetted perimeter.h .. 71) for average freeboard and bank heights in . For lined canals or h1.19093y ' ·& FIG. half of a :. and .nnel section increases with increase in the hydraulic radius or wit. : Differentiating the above two equations with respect to y and solvmg Simultaneously for dP Idy. all sections.relation to capacit.y T_I_D~ _ __ _ Z Hydraulie depth Section .
z for trapezoidal sections' alld Ph'II'lP' . and sol viug for z. Comput~ the sectioll factor ARH by Eq. similar to Solution 2 for Example 02 " E 2 0 OJ :> Q! 10 100 ZOO 300400 600 IPOQ '1. a number of coltlbinations of section dimensions can be obtained. For lined canals. I 1 IS equlva ent to x = 3 . . . .' == 167.5 ex~~!~I~t~ting A. 2. 5 .:. Add a proper freeboard to the depth of the channel .pez~idal channel carrying 400 ds is . width and depth of lined· channels ( . estimate n.. solution by trial and erro!". y= 0.) ..! 15 3. (68) '0 <: 20 " == . Reolamatiau Service [51 for the full supply depth of water in feet . and the p.ureau of RG~aJltatum. where A is the water area in ft2. equcting dP Ida to zero. el1gJ.g steps: 1.ed an enlpirical formula: V = VA I ' 13 '= 0577 V r7A 'IVh'ch : .1 1 1. . Bureau of Reclamation [3J has developed experience curves (Fig.7. (68). 7 . (68) the expressions for A B.a. .5. of where x. Substitute in Eq.. The finaldimellsions are'decided on the basis of hydraulic efficiency and practicability.2 (73) = 2 and simplifying. far earth canals.S. Some engineers prefer a. .nd R = (t..n30· This means that the section is a half he"agon.neDusiy for: P.= ~ ' 25 '" <>. and solve for the depth. 61). (. such as band z of a trapezoidal section. 35 z = ~3 ~ ta.. A trf. simu1t.7 AR~1 = _0: 1. (68) the expressions for A and R obtained from Table 72 and sol verOr the depth.ulic section is required directly. + zV)y!CIJ + 2 Vi + z' y) y)% in the ~ove ::::'":. 72) showing the ayerage relation of bottom. and select S.S. For a trapezoidal section it can be shown that this rule may alsabe expressed by a simple formula x= 4.49 vIS. Zlavm g aBslope of 0. 7. = (b + zy)y a..sshowing bottom.= 3.OOIS of Art.. 025_ ~ '" 167. widths and water depths to canal ca. If there are oth('J' unknowns.19 VO. AR'i=~ 1. find tile va.~~. Y' Eq. . 4.pOD capodry ill cis FUIG ' 7B2. p UNl.. The determin8. By assuming several values of the unknowns.dop~ed.F'ORMFLD'W DESIGN OF CHANNELS FOR UNIFORM FLOW 163 =z Diifer:entiating P with respect to Now. (68). Proportion the section dimensions .ti. Similarly.. . .pacities. This best hydraulic section may be modified for practicability.0. z. the trapezoidal section is 'Commonly a. or z ~ 2. pme . the channel section is some~ times proportioned by empirical rules such as the simple rule given by·the early U.680 + 1.0016 and n =.S .36 It . Collect all necessary information..ud R obtained from Table 21. These curves can be used as a guide in selecting proper section dimensions. f7] El' .lue z tha. For the design of irrigation channels. then assume the values for these unknowns and solve Eq.: ne61S t use q.7 [ I \ vA (72) Assuming b "'" 20 it and z . .t makes P th~ least.. 7.ratio b/y and z is the horizontal projectkm of t~e SIde slope corresponding to 1 ft vertical.tion of section dimensions for nonerodible ch:u1l1eis includes the followin. 01' 30 .built with nonerodible e".5. Determination of Section Dimensions. • The determination of the depth for the computed value of AR7~ can be simplified by use of the design chart (Fig... engineers in IndIa [61 have uS. (68) for the depth. Check the minimum permissible velocity if the watel' carries silt.0 !!t. substitute in Eq.on.025.section. 66.720y = (y(1O + y)Ju Y. Experience cur:re. If the best hydn.000 '!. ' 6. b :~ample 7Jl.62 .73) WIth z 1. is the widthdepth ..
.26 0.020 2.025 3.. .. Silt loalll..00 0. 0. rat.075 2. see [81 and [91. which is greater than the minimum permissible velocity ' for inducing silt. .00 5. The method of tractive force hOes sometimes been used in Europe. aId and wellseasoned channels will stand much higher velociT. .. Two methods of approach to the proper design of erodible channels are described here: the method oj perrn1.. " " . n 3. very colloidal. Similarly. in AR~~ = Hi7.d simplify.. and .91 5. colloidal. nOllColloidal .)mputed only once..her than only on the hydral. THE CORRESPONDlNG UNITTIIAC"l'IVEFORCE VALUES U. Since the.15 3.AND SCOBEY ANi. " . after aging) va/a. is dependent mainly on the properties of the material forming the channel body. This velocity is very uncertain and variable.50 0..36 ft are the final vo.413 5.l. .. .. The method of permissible velocity has been used exteu.. .h~~ :~~~~~li~i~l~l: :~:~~~ . If the 'values of band z are decided o... Assign a freeboard of 2 ft..15 3. This is because the stability of erodible channels.. .020 2.. Bureau I It has been noticed that certain channels are erodible whereas others v:ary similar in cha.035 4.10 Coarse gmvel. substitute A.50 I 0.32 fps.n new ones. ... As a further step in investig~tioIl.1 . ERODIBLE CHANNELS WHICII SCOUR :BUT DO NOT SILT ) I 78. Accordingly.50 0.. the depth is found to be y = lUI it.00 4. In gencml. • 0. It may be that an ion exchange between water and soil or hydration of the..S ft'. .mple 62 can also be applied to the present prublem. the depth will be c.. The maxim1tm permissible velocity.7 !!p. . and y = 3.. is the greatest mean velocity that..ained can the uniformflow formula be llsed for .00 0. Suppose that b =20 ft. . the total depth of the channel is.. . . .. .00 0.5y.: .provides an insufficient condition for the design of erodi. and soil physical properties are not... Only after a stable section of the erodible channel is obt. BUREAU OF RECLAMATION" (For straight channels of small slope.. When other conditions are the same... . .020 /2. 2 = 2.025 I 3. sively for the design of. . '''. The final' decision on dimensions will depend on practical considerations.. . . . ..80 I ! i' i f f J • The Fortier and Scobey values were recommended for use in 1926 by the Special Committee on Irrigation Research of the American Society of Civil Engineers. . 79. material is providing a binder in some places and thus affecting the erosion. if any. . The behavior of flow in an erodibl~ channel is influenced by so many physical factors and by field conditions so complex and uncertain that precise design of such channels at the present· stage of Imowledge is beyond the realm of theory.1) ft. 0...! The uniformflow formula.02012.025 6. " " " ' ' ' ' " ' ' . noncolloidal. ...025 CObblesandshmglE'3. the total depth is 9. .lllcs of the flow in the channel. j I rD... therefore.6ft.00 0.50 0.. . ..he side slopes are 1 on L r of Reclamation and is tentatively recommended for design of erodible channels. Methods of Approach.7 ft.lues. the water area is 75. . Add 3 ft freeboard.. t...S... .00 10. 50 O..50 0..sSible velocity and the method of tractive f01·ce. : . ilb/ft2 V.037 0.erosion of the channel body. The Maxim'urn Permissible Velocity. the solutions by trial il.46 6.. a deeper channel will convey water at a higher mean velocity without erosion than a shallower one. colloidal .. it is now under comprehensive investigation by the U. earth canals in the United States to ensure freedom from scour.46 fps.36 ft and the top width of the channel (not the width of the . .. MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE VELOCITIES RECOMMENDED' BY FOR'rIEll CONVERTED BY THE . . which governs the design... f J I L !~ t ties tha. . . " ""'1 Sandy loam. . non colloidal.nd error and by the graphical method described in Exo. .' 1 ShalesandhardPl1ns . becau$e the old cha. .. afld the velocity is 5.. . "..075 0.ble channels.75 0... . and the velocity is 4. .computing the velocity of flow and discharge.048 0.can be estimated only with experience and judgment....tion....67 1. This is probably because the scouring is caused primarily by the bottom velocities and for the same mean velocity.30 . assume other suitable values of band z. For a general discussion of the compiexity of this problem..".50 0. Ordinary firm loim.43 5.10 I i 0.00 0.. the top width of the dUlllnel is 18.the shal~ lower channel. Alluvial silts.nnel bed is usually better stabilized....4 ft: The water area is 89. 5..50 0. It should be noted that either method at the present stage will serve only as a guide and \vill not supplant experience and sound engineering judgment. best hydraulic trapezoidal section is the half hexagon. .26 0. ~0IlC0I10idlll ..75 0.00 0.. / 0. fps Fine sand.50 0.. . Ib/ft' '1 '1 ~~:~:tl:~m' ~~. the chemical properties of the material forming the channel body should be explored. obtained' frem Table 72. ~~b'b'l~~ ".164 UNIFORM FLOW DESIGN OJ!' CHANNELS FOR UNIFORM FLOW 165 i' It should be noted that thia solution is exactly the same as the computation of the normal depth given in Solution 1 of Example 62.nnel geometry. particularly with the deposition of colloidal matter.67 i I 1 I i: ~~ ~:~~5 ~:~~ I g:~~ 2.0. " ".00 0. = vl3y' and R = 0. 75 .137 I iI i Graded siits to cobbles when colloida.00 0. .... 0. fps TO...~llLE· 73..vater smface) is 41...020 1.. " Alluvial silts. hydraulics. the bottom velocities are greater in ... When the best hydraulic section is required. Stiff clay.2 ft'.048 0. or the nonerodible velocity.075 0.t the 'beginning of the compuio. The corresponding: bottom width is 7. Voleanicash" .. .50 0..... which is suitable fOr the design of stable nonerodible channels.S.020 1.16... Clear water Material '7\ _I ! Water transporting colloidal silts B. v. ..15 5. .... (127 0. . and compute the corresponding depths.075 3. will not cause. " .
..92 for coarse light sandy soils. J _Ir j ! .~ :3 Per"r. fps !. depending primarily or. 0.ximum permissible velocities (Figs.. In 1925. and 22 % for very sinuom.·/'.'.S. From a stl\dy o.+.. however. a .R..NNELS FOR UNIFORM FLOW 2 167 [ Attemp~1 were made early to define a mean velocity that would cause neither silting nor Scoill:ing. (74) where V. The maximum permissible velocities mentioned abo Ire are with reference to straight channels. the valu~s of C generally recommended are 0. an exponent which varies only slightly.c Cloy ! I FIG.tion system in Punjab.'r".. a. 73.. since no accurate data are available Carreclion foctor at the. In 1036.ta on permissible velocities for cohesive soils. 75). 75. ~ : . There are voluminous writings on these methods. I .ff++++HHt Q.f tne dischargo and depth of 22 canals of the Upper Bari Doab irrig. India. Curves showillg U.than 3 ft. C . are veJ.5 has been suggested. and z "" 0.=l==I=t:I=l= ()'5~H++t " .~l'''''. Ba.. The values in thiE table are for lVellseasoned channels of small sfopes and for depths of flow less .s tho.. the Kennedy fOrImll". For clear water.8 O.h ~ (Fig.sed on later studies by other engineers. FIG. For the design of canals carrying sediinentladen water. Etcheverry [2Gl published probably the first table of maximum meIl.2 . it is dOHbtful whether such a velocity Mtually exists.S.'Y approximate.n velocities that are safe il:gaillllt e1'Osion.4 '0 .u.84.<1iH magazine [28] published values of m[l. For sinuous channels.g 0. 74. the Kennedy formula is now practically obsolete and is being replaced by methods based on Lacey's regime theory [1116]. corrections of the maximum permissible velocity as a criterion] permissible velocity fo. and U.) I j o~~. 0.. percentage val tieS. as. 713). Comprehensive bibliographies can be found in [19] to [25].:. data on ]lermissible veloCities for no.se found.u. y is the depth of flow in ft.nco.0.issible va loci!i es.r the design procedure for a channel section. which will be discussed later (Art.l. present time.4!H++ffltf+ o. U. Percentages of reduction suggested by Lane [29] are 5% for slightly sinuous canals.r siltladen water was published in 1895 by Kennedy [lOj.7 ~. 1.!l.depth for both collesive silmed to be trapezoidal. da. .S. steps: I r i j ... is the nonsilting and noneroding mean velocity in fps.. Method of Permissible Velocity.nd MaddockLeopold's principle of channel geometry [18J.. 73 and 74) ahove which scour would be produced in noncohesive materiai of a wide range of pa.rmula for this nonsiiting and no..suitable n values for various materials and the converted values for the corresponding permissible tractive force. :is '" "iii ·t { I 0. India. the firmness of t.01 for sandY loamy silts.neroding vciocit.y fo. a "alue of z = 0. l I~ l~ . In 1915. 13 % for moderately sinuous canals. The table also shows 1 The first famous fo.W.84 for fine light sand soils such as those found in the Punjab.\}.5fj·.S. Fortier and Scobey [27J pli bUshed the wellknown to ble of "Permissible Canal Velocities 11 shown ill Table 73.S. consists of the following and noncohesive materials. 710.c:+f1i 0.64.rticle sizes and various kinds of cohesiVe soil It also gave the variation of these velocities with channel dep!. the velocities should be lowered in order to 'reduce scour.S. WDS developed as .55 for extremely fille soils such a. From the presentday viewpoint] however. canals. Einstein's bedload function [17). Using FIG.hesive soila. .S.~ '" g 0.09 for coarse silt or hardsoil debris. . I LG6 UNIFORM FLOW DESIGN OF CHA.R. Curves showing' U. and 1.he material forming theqhannel body.in Egypt.
fl+!+l. Distrihution of tra. Maximum unit tractive forces in terms of wyS. a.46. channels from: the published data on the velocity distribution in the i 1. solve simultaneously for band y.5 fps. a.verage value of the tractive fOl'ce pel' unit wetted area. the following rm!estimated: n 0. trapezoidal cha. Add a pl'0per freeboard.5 or ThenA = 400/4.2 ft. the results of his study were not very conclusive. . and S is the slope (Art. that is . 57).ted 1.60 ft 88. and the maximum permissible velocity V (Table 73 and Figs.5 . 3.er . channels. Compute the wetted perimeter. 76. For the given conditions.0016 and carrying 8. l In It uniform flow the tra()tive forceis apparently equal to the effective component of the gravity force acting on the body afwater. U nfoi·tunately. is not uniformly distributed along the wetted perimet.0016 R . and tria!1g ular a trapezoidal chanchannels. z = 2. Solution. which is simply the pull of wilter on the wetted area. 'I 11.2 it Solving the above two equations simultaneously. 7·6.025. Fot' the given kind of material forming the channel body. Olsen and Flol'ey[32] and other engineers ha.49 0.0. ' 2.ft.8 ft'. estimate the roughness coefficir.7 ft and y 3. [TV = w~· V q5) In a wide open channel. .tractiv~ force in channels. A is the wetted area. Bureau of Reclamation. and nlll:llili1um pe. Many attempts have been made to determine the distribution of the tractive force in a chann~l. Compute the water area required by the given discharge and permissible velocity.025 R~ ".60 = 34. ' O:97QwyS :FIG. of 30]. parallel to the channel bottom and equal to wALS. or A = Q/V.5 and P = = It should be noted that the unit . the principle of balancing this foroe wit~ the channel resistance in 11 uniform flow was sta. A typical distribution . 73 to 75).F CHANNELS FOR UNIFORM l"L~W 169 1.rge of 4{)O cfs.nnel laid on a slope of 0.8 ft' )\4. force is developed that acts in the direction of flow on the channal oea:"This fm'cb.of tractive force Itel reSUlting from the m~mbraneanalogy study is shown in Fig.rllvels and pebbles. where w is the unit weight of wa..ctive force in !1 trapezoidai channel section. is known as the tract~'ve force.0 h!we been first :introdue~d intohydraulia litera. Howelrer.Ii". ' . Leighly [31] attempted to determine this . Example 73. hence TO '" wyS.Compute the bottom width and the 'depth of fiow . . is equal to wALS/PL = wRS. ' 4. 54).ve used the membrane analogy and analytical and finitedifference methods for determining the distribution of tractive fOl:ce in trapezoidal. or the socalled tmit tractive f~rce TO. 1 'l"his is also known as the shear force or the drab fOl·ce. Thus. I 123'156789 o o !4+1++=1t++i~ :.distribution in many trapezoidal and several rectangular and tl'iangular .. l UNIFORM FLOW DESIGN o. 1." 2.Iy Brahms earIy in 1754 (see Art. 'rhe channel is to be excavated in earth containing noncolioidal coarse i1.ture by du Boys in 1879 [po 149. and modify the section for practicability.nd P = AIR 88. When water 'flows in' a channel. The idea of tractive force is gellorally believed 1. In the CS. where P is the wetted perimeter and R is the hydraulic radius.nt n (Art.' L is the length of the channel reach. Ii.l'missible velocity = 4. The pattern of distribution varies with the shape pf the section but is in I . l. 4. 54). Using the Manning formula. the hydraulic radius is equal to the depth of flow y. Compute the hydraulic radius R by the Manning formula. The solution may be expedi~ed by the charts given in Appendix B. . to deficiency of data.168 I. side slope z (Table 11).of !l. Now A = (b = b + 2 v'l+ ii Y = + zy)y = (b + l!y)y (b + 2 y'S y) ~ 88. 5. !wlve for R. . rectangular. . Using the expressions for A and P from Table 21. The Tractive Force. except for wide open channels. 77. the a.ter.JI:~ I 2 3 4 5 6 7 B I rmm] 9 10 bh On sid s S 01 channels bh On bcttom of cl1annels FIG. b 18. or P = A/R. design dischfl.8/2. ' 6.
the resistance to mqtion of t. the cohesi vc fOI'ces. 78) in which water is flowing. the following is obtained fromEq. The a. . showing values of the angle of repose for nOli cohesive material above 0. Tractiveforce Ratio.2 When this force is large enough. tlmt causes impending motion on a sloping surface. From Eqs. Similo.rticie on the level surface is impending owing to t.76 wyS. .. On a soil particle resting sm the sloping side of a channel sect. the angle of repose need be considered only for coarse noncohesive materials. / tan" tP (77) T. It can be seen that this ratio is a fUllctioll only ~f the inclination of the sloping side". W. lV. The resultant of these two fO. According to the U. which are at right angles to each other. Hence. For use in design.1. sin ¢. W.he particle to roll down that the gravity force wn safely be neglected. . UNIFORM FLdw . the maximum tractive force on the bottom is close to the va.ilal design. when mot.lue wyS.S. it may be assumed that. in .nnel bed.tan 2 0 Si.35]. T.rticle resting on the surface of a chn. (77) and (7:'9). curves (Fig. 79) were prepnred by the Bureau.vas also developed independently by' the U.rly.vater.FLOW 171 practically unaffected by the size of the section. cos ¢ mUltiplied by the coefficient of frictioil. = submerged weight of the particle.to the normal force W. Bureau of Reclamation's investigation.nalysis . it was found in general t.ion (Fig. and the gnlvity cfol'ce component 'YV. is VlV. (79) The ratio of T. .u of Reclamation under the direction of E. two forces are acting: the tractive force aT.he particle 1 The concept of the threedimensional analysis of the 'gravity and tractive forces acti]lg on a particle resting on a slope at the Btate of impending motion was first given by F'orchheimcr [33J. Bur~a.Hwa Fan [34J.S.hat the' angle of repose increases with both size and anguiarity df the material.ion is impending. where e is the angle of repose. 7 12.c! J . Fot cohesive and fine noncohesive materials.tan' (1 .ll '" Sill" ~ f tan 2 ¢ (710) J( = '\. The diameter referred to is the diameter of a particle than which 25% (by weight) of the material is larger. = ~ T = COli '" ~ 1 . By the principle of frictional motion in mechanics. A complete analysis of a chann"l section using this . ) PIG. Analysis of forces ac. TL =  a tan e . DESIGN OF QHANNELS FOR UNIFORM . = cos rb tan II '\.S. = u\lit tractive force on the side of the channel. Therefore. (7 (3) Solving for theullit tractive force T. or tan (J. 78 . become so great in propprtion to the gravityforce component causing t. The two equations are mathematically identical. l The symbols used are a = effective area of the particle. tan fI = an (78) Solving for the unit tractive force n that causes impending motion on a level surface. diameter for various degrees of roughness.. the ratio is K Simplifying. to TL is called the tractiveforce ratio.. the particle ~vill move. The resistance to motion of the particle is equal. curves (Fig. 1 Equation (710) was presented by the U.the ilhapell ordinarily used ill canals.170 . (76) with <to = 0: }v. and". and of the angle of repose of the material O. this is an important ratio for design purposes. W .even with comparatively clear .hannels of .2 Si112 '" + oh. . for trapezoidal c. .ting on a pa.'l first developed by Chia.and on the sides close to 0. /1 _ ~ 1 1 (711) which tends to cause the particle to roll down the side slope.concept Wa. is equal to the force tending to cause the motioil.361 and Eq. Generally speaking. when motion of :1 pa.2 in. Based on such studies. Lane [29.he iractive force an. 77) showing the maximum unit tractive forces on the sides and bottom of various channel sections have been prepared for use in cu. Bureau of Reclamation [35.'ces. (711) by Fan [341. = angle of the side: slope.
Tb. This index has been investigo. 24 2...ted by the U. . V I. Bureau of Reclsmation has made 'a comprehensive study of the problem."'/ / I.. 2 V. . • ..R... verry and by Fortier and Scobey.0 I . Jes of repose of nonconesive material. This is prohab!y because the water {md soil in £l.nd substantially higher va.m.... with SCOill' OCCUrring for moder:.'") 'b J~Ci ~<~I . '" e c. '" .. An .1 and organic matter whiGh provide a bmdlllg power and also because slight movement of soil particle" can be t. without endangering channel stability. V:o. Il I ! .?lerated in P:a. 79.V ~ ~0° . be determined by laboratory experiments..8. a plasticity illdex of 7 may be. values converted from permissible velocities.I/I V .If': ~/ ~ ~~i/I .re still observed in many cases where the index is above 7. taken tentatively as the criticnl vllIue.0 ~ 3/16 1/4 lIB 112 ~j l T[I 3/4 H/2 40 I 8 r I / r V // .S.2 Panic 1e size in in clles O.) 50 ."':. experience has shown that actual canals L.terial. I i . Permissible Tractive Force.. Research'shows that determinat.:. j .1 42 UNIFORM FLOW L.active forces for canals in noncohesive (U.'1 coarse nUl1Cohasive material C[l.mce the permISSIble tractive force is the design criterion fOl' field.rL.c JOT'ce. ''" '0 ~ ~'" V if Ii t71 .' the U. the permissible value may be taken less than the critical value.. Bureau of Rec/a. and the value thus obtamed IS known as the critical t1'uctiz.~~ r L .. using data fol' coarse noneohesive material obtained from the Sall Luis Valley 2 .<1r+~I+H Recommeoded value for canals in coarse l si.VL ·Z " . values of permissible tractive force recommended for canal design were developed as follows: 1 The pla~ticity index is 'the difference in .te resistance to SCour for cohesive materials. sufficient data and information on these indexes are lacking_ The U.~. As a result.S..7c9). FIG. etc. .e determination of permissible.0 4.percent of moisture between plas~ic limit and liq:uid llmit in Atterberg soil tests.S. Recommended permissible unit tr. I particle size for noncohesive material and upon compactness or v:o~ds ratio for cohesive materiaL Other' soil properties such as the plastIcIty index 1 or the chemical action may probably also be taken as indexes for defining permissible tractive force more precisely. (Alt.S.nal deSign. given by Etche. :3 4 ~~"'/ .0 I DESIGN OF CHANNELS FOR UNIFORM FLOW 173 I I I I I I I I 3.!? '" c: '2 6 f..) canals [37). values.S. condi." 20 I) I (U. \ I I A I .l 004 0.6 o.ion of the plasticity index in (:00" junction with consolidatedshear testa may possibly be necessary.lues than the critical tractive forces measured in the laboratory." 0 ~o . tractive force is now based upon Ino. B.1l1alion. Bureau of Reclamaiioll as a soil characteristic that can be lL~ed to indics. / ."O. 710.~ 'ti t1 I ! ":. However.ctUtll canals (J?nt~in slight amounts of conoidl1.e 1. N " " . However. 2.. Burea:!' of Rec!amalit.' / /V /// V / / V/ V//V L/ ..' tlOl1S.6 1 o . 713. 0." $O~ b'" VI/'...~tical designs.:.172 0. For cs.te 'tractive forces below this value..'". acours a.I I 100 i.. However.n st!]. The pe?'missible tract1've'01"ce is the • • J maXImum Ulllt trnctive force that will not cauge seriOlls erosion of the material forming the channel bed 011 a level surface: This unit tractive fol'c~ c"n..FIG.e 25% lorg er noncohe~ive material~ \ I .
5' and z ~ 2.aulic practical considera!. Three design curves (Fig. 25 % of which is 1.587 X 0.. A = 99.ller than 30% of the weight. of [4].97 X 62. and selected for the flows required on the basis of econom. and determining the'required properties of the samples . the discharge by the Manning formula is 470 crs. Example 74. The final proportioning of the channel section.294. and (b) c. 5.25 in. the permissible tractive force on a level bottom is TL = 0..77 X 5 = 18. 0. With these data.nnel is to be excavated in earth containing noncollnidal coarse gravels and pebb['~s. data on permissible velocities. 79) is 8 = 33. Voids ratio FIG.the maximum unit tracth'e force OIl the slopillg sides is usually less th!>ll that Oil the (. (2) for canals with 10'. the angle of repose (Fig.66 ft and that the discharge is 41"4 cfs. of the distribution of tracthe'forces. I Typica.775wi.nnel should therefore include (It) the proportioning of the section dirnensioIlll for the maximum unit tractive force on the sides.ctive force on the channel bottom (Fig. Checking the Proportjalled Dimensions.5". 710). For trapezoidal channels. will depend on other nonhydl.lle tractivefol'ce ratio by Eq.recommendation is shown by the straight line in the design c'hart (Fig. 25% for moderately sInuous canals. or y = 3. Llilil! I I Sondy cloys (sand < 50 %) _~ 7 14.It. 5. Further computation will show that. ! a discharge of 400 cfs.25 in.s = 0.078y = 0. the designer investigates the section by applying tractiveforce analysis to ascertain probable stability by reaches and to determine the minimum section that appears stable. 77) is 0. 77).77 ft. b. in diameter. the bottom width is b = 3.:ming the channel bed. PTopol'lioning the..1.294 lb 1ft'. 710). For cohesive materials..5 Ib/ft'.078y lb/ft'.fine nOll cohesive material. Method of Tractive Force.e from Fig.nd a basedepth ratio bly "..S.. Approximate percentages of reduction.terial 1.5 ft' and R = 2.· The analysis for tractive force is best described by the following example: Design a trapezoidal channel laid on a slope of 0. or cJ> = 26. are 10% for slightly sinuous canals.0.587.v and stability. the values should be lowered in order to reduce. SoLution. The design of the cha.82 ft and b "" 15. are tentatively recommended (1) for canals with high content of fine sediment in the water. Manning's n. suggested by Lane [29J. <lnd (3) for canals with clear water.S. paragraph 1.120. The first step in the design of erodible channels by the method of tractive force consists in selecting a11 approximate channel section by experiene.5 = 0.ottom (Fig. E==E=E~j=R+q:B=t==+=a r\ .4 times the diameter in iilches of a particle than which 25 % (by weight) of the material is larger: This .. the Bureau recoIilluends tenta. ~.heckiilg the proportioned dimensions for the maximum unit tJ:active force on the bottom. and 40% for very sinuous . . with sufficient factor of safety.85 ft. . For this trapezoidal section.775 X 62. ' The pel'missible tTactive forces mentioned above refer to straight channels. = 0.S.tively a value of permissibletracti Ire force in pounds per square foot equal to 0. the maximum unit tractive force on the sloping sides (Fig. Bureau of Reclamatiotl.. hence.025 aud S = 0.79 ft. Considering a very rounded ma. 'Nith fJ = 33. th" ~ection dimensions are y = 3.11 content affine sediment ill the water.0016 = 0. the data based on convei·sion. .25 in.in the analysis. a. With z = 2 and bly = 4. For a size of 1.sible tractive .4 X 3.nd carrying The cha. are given in Fig.1.370 [b/ft'.0016Y = 0. and the effect of t.25 = 0.. For . 711. For a state of impending motion of the particles. for channels in cohesive material the rollingdown effect is negligible. For sinuous channels. the maximum unit tra.174 UNIFORM FLOW DESIGN OF CHANNELS FOR UNIFORM FLOW 175 For coarse noncohesive matel'ial. .l collecting samples of the material fo. scour.97wyS = 0. 710) \'0 . which is the pel'mu.0016 a. .~ions. force on the level boLtom. 3. and the permissible tractive force on the sides iST. 711 are recommended as design references. ho\vever.canals.nals and laterals. on side slopes. .·1 X 1. Section D!:men. which is close to thO} design discharge .he median size.. With n = 0.5". or z = 2. 77) is 0.l average earth sections of irrigation ca. t.4 X 0. or size sma. or over in diameter.025. Accordingly. constructed or proPQsed by the U. Permissible unit tl'l1ctive forces for canals in cohesive material as converted from the U. Alternative section dimensions may be obtained by as~uming other '(alues oI z or side slopes.82 X 0. less than 0.e or from design tables. (711) is K = 0. of permissible velocities to UIJit tractive forces and given in Table 73 and Fig. the side force i~ the controUing value . For channels in noncohesive materials the rollingdown effect shouid be considered in addition to the effect.he distribution of tractive force alon:e is a criterion sufficient for design.iops.5 lb/ft' (sam. the size specified is t. Assuming side slopes of 2: I.00113. for z = 2 and bIy = 4.
the follow'ing assumptions are made: .of incipient motion by the resultant of the gravity component of the particle's submerged weight acting on the side slope and the tractive force of the flowing water. If assumption 15 is to hold there.1 . . as described in.l1ll:l mentioned in the above paragraphs .220 cis. With this condition Takiflg the effect of lateral tnl. Fortunately.5'·1 The other assumpti(. y 2 (I = :t tan~ fJ ya' and = O .l sechydraulic (a) the channel bed. the mathematical analysis made by the Bureau I has shoWn that the actual I transfer (if tractive force has little effect on the results and can safely be ignored. Y is the depth 0 'water· above AB. and eh!l.· .1 to the square of the ll1ean velocity in the channel at 'the point where the I i pa. slope.lslderably less . where w is the unit weight of water. the tractlve force actmg on any e em en ar.tractwEl force in the a. .ctive force between adjacent currents moving at different velocities in the sectiona situation. In designing trapezoidal sections. have been suggested as stable hydrauUc sections by many hydraulicians. an a. The unit tractive force all the level bottom at the channel center is 1'L wYuS. can be no lateral transfer of tra.. where yo is the depth of flow at the center. . wyS cos <p = wYoSK Substituting Eq. According to assumption 5. at the of repose of the material under the action of gravity. This weight component is equal to the weight times the longitudinal slope of the channel.!ternative assumptioll ·1 was ina. it is necessary to satisfy the condition that impending motion shall prevail everywhere on the channel bed. The U. such as the ellipse and the parabola. Therefo. and S is. 712).176 UNIFORM: FLOW DESIGN OF CHANNELS FOR:UNIFORM FLOW 177 715. Since the area AB is VCdX)2 + (dy)2. (b) mod~fred section for Q" 400 cfs.materials.S. The section of an erodible channel in which no erosion will occur. Thc tractive force act.de by the' BUreau..tion [38] has employed the principle of tractive force t o · a theoretically stable section for erodible channels carrying clear water in noncohGS'ive . tiveforc~. L The soil particle is held against thechanllel bed by the component of r. equal to wyoSIL . the unit tmctive force is equal to t tal V where rP is the slope angle of the \ tangent at AB.ratio K (Art..therefore. In developing a stable hydraulic section· for maximum efficiency. At the center of the channel the side slope is zero and the. n. which states that the tractive force acting on a particle is prop~rtiona. III o~der to achieve impending Andysis desigll ?f sto. the impending instability occurs only over a small pr. It· y . but also the channel of minimum top width. (c) modIshould be equal. at a minimum water area for a given dischilrge is called the stable hydraulic 8ection. Bad wll:. fied section for Q' 100 efs. the two forces tion {or given soil properties. however.re. Empirical pi'oJiles.rea AB OIl the sloping side (Fig.ble mo~ion ·over the entire periphery of. (710) for K and tan1 (dy/dx) fol' <p in the above equDttion and simplifying. 712a) per unit length o~ the channell~ equal to wyS dx.irectly above the area acting in the direction of fiow. ·At points between the center and edge of the channel the particles are kept in a state . This assumption gives ~ solution . force alone is sufficient to hold the . surface the side slope is. .ms stated above have been used previously to develop the equation for the trac. For material with a given angle of repOSE> and for r~ given discharge. on most of the perimeter forces are less than the permissible value. that is. maximum mean velocity.he submerged weight of the particle acting normal to the bed.· .and above the water. 712. this optimal section will provide noi only the chl1Ilnel of minimum water area. rn other words. (dy)t + (lL)£ tan• dx Yo . At the center of the channel. 4. Bureau of Reclama.h cOJ. neglect of the trB?"fer 0. 2. In the maihematical·derivation of this section by the Bureau.. . secti0!1' and ~heoretLcl'l.the preceding article.ing on an area of the channel bed is equal to the weight component of the water d. .rt of the perimeter. The Stable Hydraulic Section. 3. where the forces are close to maximum.that agrees very clqselY w~th the solution bailed on assumption 5. and minimum excavation. At . FIG.lysis will give equally sn. • 29. the tractive force is made eqnal to the permissible value over only a part pf the perimeter of the section. the longitudinal slope. that never actually occurs. . The corresponding unit tractive force on the sloping area ~B is. providing Q . 5.particles at the point of incipient instability. . '.~!l.litive force into accoUnt.tisfactory results.rticle is loea~d.'ork.
Hence the discharge is 220 cfs. and the top widths of the designed section and the removed area are T and T f .00W1 . it was found that Manning's n for just one kind of grass varied over a wide range depending on the depth of flow and the shape and slope of the channel.16 cos 0.. S = 0. The Manning coefficient of roughness for grassed channels is specifically known as the relardance coefficunt.l6~~ X 0.. 179 .ractive force in IbjfV.6 .Q) (717) T . if the channel is to can'y more than the theoretical section will carry.ce the tra. Suppose the.. it is necessary to add a rectangular area at the middle (Fig. Determine the profile of the stable hydro.. which means loss of energy and retardance of flow. As a result.pezoidal section of the channel described in Example 71. which is less than Q. = O. (715).ical section is equal to Q '= FA.7 = l' A = 1. 716.7. From the results of the Bureau's mathematical anaiysis. ~ .~ T (716) On the other hand. and very low.'1 X 0.ry to remove !l.178 UNIFORM .5°.e top width is T = 2::.0016}'/ 0. the following properties of this stable section can be stated ~ Yo TO 1 it by 180/11" or 57.025. 0. a lining of grass is often found to ndvantageous and desirable. 'i . By Eq. For very low retardance be \ 1 1 .6 + 4.ulic section under the specified assumptions is a simple cosine curve. SolUlian. TO = 0. a'J. The value oLT' may be computed by I I l I I \ lB. Fortunately. (713). = 24. The grass will stabilize the body of the channel.1.6 ft.19 tan 8 yo%Sl! n 2. . (71il).35 . which y = 5. therefore. The Retardance Coefficient.certain relationship with the product of the mean velocity or flow V and the hydraulic radius R. vertical area ir.1.the erosion on the channel su1'face and the movement of soil particles along the channel bottom.. (712). GRASSED CHANNELS a I T' = 0.. For earLh channels used for carryin~ water on farm lands.1. 712b).V 1 0._ ·0. the mean velocity is V= (1. the center depth is Yo = 0. (717) as . (714).= 33.S.16 ft. V is the mean velocity in. or cos 0. The value of T)) may be computed by /I _ n(QI! . the section in fps.. 713) . If the channel is 'designed to carry 100 cis.and shape.04 X 5.7 ft Therefore the top width is 24. consolidate the soil mass of the bed} and check .1.6 = 7. Thus.49Yo~~SI~ Example 76.99 (1 . From Eq.rea may be computed by Eq. This relationship is charact~ristic of the vegetation and practically independent of channel slope . high. The . the following articles. discharge to be carried is Q".19 tau 33..ulic section to replo.128::.2 fV.9 ft TherefCJre the top width is 24.97 X 62. e. . The top width mllY be computed by Eq. respectively. the shape of the theoretical section is . S'upposc the dis. moderate} low.FLOW . Presence of grass or vegetation in channels will result in considerable turbulence. If the channel lS to carry a discharge less than Q. 8 is the angle of repose for the material or the slope angle of the section at the water edge of the channel. the selection of a desJgn value for n would be nearly· impossible.0016) 5.128::. = 11"/2 and x = 12.9 = 29.04Yo 2 tan e ·11 where 70 is the permissible t.4.151' X 0. Since the design discharge is 400 cfs.97wS (7 13) (714) (715) I I .0016.:im the middl~ (Fig.x) yo . T is the top width.128z It should be noted that the angle. of ~he I I l [ I ! I ~o~inc function is expressed inradiansj it may be converted to degrees: by multLplymg is plotted as shown in Fig.3 Tli..025{400 .5° = 82. it was discovered that the retardance coefficient n holds a. The U.5') 5. T' = 0. By Eq. The width of the rectangle may be computed by Eq.69 fps.96(1 . The' Grassed Channel. This equation shows that the shape of a stable hydra. I n. 712a. For the given conditions. it isnecesso. charge to be carried is Q'.49 X5. a number of experimental curves for n vers4S' VR (Fig. Soil Conservation Service (39411 has conducted a series of experiments on channels lined with various kinds of grass (Fig. o.5 lb/ft l .220) _ T .%20)X 21. it is necefisary to remove vertical portion of the section at the channel center. A is the water area in ft~.025 = 2.35 .5 ft. Thus. it is necessary to add a rectangular section at the center. The discharge of the theoret. DESIGN OF 'CHANNELSFOR UNIFORM: FLOW the solution of the above differential equation is tan 8 (712) Y = Yo cos ( . 712c). however. which is greater than Q. and the rest of the symbols are hS previously defined.\) ft. The top width of the removed a.16'/tan 33. and the top width of the added rectangular area is Til.5/(0. 717. 714) were developed for five different degrees of retardance: very high. the water Mea is A = 2. results thus obtained under different testing conditions and the procedure suggested for the design of grassed channels will be described in. By Eq.d n = 0.3. According to the investigation by the Soil Conservation Service. (712) with if = 0. C.
redtop. uncut (6 to 8 in. . The classification of degree' of l'etardance is based on the kind of vegetation and the condition of growth.nd..... The term" stand" used'in the tabie refers to the density of grass.to .....) Lespedeza ~ericea. .nce A Very high . sericea. . Weeping l.... . .5.. ... .. The n. 71~....).. ....... uncut (3 to 6 in. Good sta.... .. .Smn:ce.nd.•. Good stand... uncut (4.) .5 in. ..t t1 flow equal to 15 cfs for 4~ mm. Good stand. spring . unout Kudzu.. height Comm·:lo let. rye grass.nd.Jo grass....ss ... ... .... CenLipede grassed channel... uncut (!loV 11 in. cut to 1. together with the curves for low retardance.. .' ... (orchard grass..•.) AHal£a .. growth.. which is sometimes expressed as the 'number of stems per square foot..rdo.nd. .) Fm. ..te Good stand. very good 'stand before clltling Bermuda gras. . . .sS ..'igricultura! Research.•. .. .l \ ... . (B) after test a. .. unmowed Weeping love gra. . uncut (10 to 48 in.... ' ..... . cut ~o 2....s.. .. .. Very low U.a) . ..) Good sta. . . . ..) Grasslegume wixturefall. tall (av.. Good sta...) Good st!tnd.. . ..ow only the average ctll've is shown.5in.. ...5 in:) Lespedeza.........t A ) Before experiment. (C) dunng test at a flow equal to 30 cf... D I..•. ... headed (6 to 12 in. ... taU (av 12 in.. .. or the count of vegetation. High Very den'sE. ...... as described in Table 74... Illue granla ...180 UNIFORM FLOW DESIGN OF CHANNELS FOR UNIFORM FLOW lSI TAllLE 74..pedeza ..~.) dense cover (av 6 in. Ree.. mowed (~W 6 in. ..) C Moderr.... 1 \J in... O... Cover Weeprng love grl\SS .. . . Italian rye grass. .) Excellent sta... ltaliar... . Bermuda grass. (Courtesy of W. . uncut (av 4. tllll (av 30 in. Goodstand.) Good stand. Soil Conservation ! . Good stand..... provided that their characteristics and degree of I'etardance can be identlfied.... height. and common le8pede:z.nd. .. ... • .. uncut (av 11 in.... .. uncut (av 13 in. .g .. Fair stand. ........ Common Jespedezo.heighj. Bermuda: gra.1me mixture_ummer (orah1lrd grass..•. redtop.. .5s .. Centipede gr3..* Reta... trtll (av 36 in....S . . Bermuda grass .. CLASSIFICATION OF DEGRE1!l OF RE'l'ARDANClll FOR VAIUOUS KINDS OF GRAS/. . Good stand.) Dense growth...)ve grass . .•.nd short Midwest grtUlSes) .. ...) Native grass mixtur~ (little bluestem... Burned stubble [41J. blue gramat a.. .• . Grthssleg'..... mowed (av 13 in.ll (av 24 in.. Good stll.rdance for diffetent conditions of stand and average length of the grass. .• Yellow bluestero ischa.. .... Excellent stand. (D) at completion of the whole experiment.) B. Good stand. .. .) Crab grass.. U.. E . Condit... Table 75 is provided as a guide in the selection of the vegetal retu..ll. .. After cutting to 2 in. Kentucky bluegrass .. unout :Kudzu .) Buff. .. . .. . For this purpose. . .l!. ....VR curves thus developed may also be applied to other kinds of gmss. Good stand. .....ion Excellent stand..) Good stand...emuln ... not woody. and common le5pe·iez.. ta..Bermuda grass ... ............ . .....5 in.nd othr:r lon....
FIG. a. ..nd a.O~ ! .1 : . ..O~ H .nce..nce..++++!lf+ ~144.1 I ... i \ . 'f l i . Soil Conservation Service.rdll.n ..I VR (0) Curves for A or very high vegetal retardance. Experimental nVR curves.09 .s for C or modera~e vegetal retardancB. (U.OS .sllt.) (d) Curves for· D or low vegetal reta..rdllnce.f.vernge curve for E or very low vegetal reta.rda. 714. (b) Curves for B or high vegetal reta.e.00 .++~~+++r+~~~++~~+++~ r:: .. VR . VR (e) CurYe.182 UNIFORill FLOW· DESIGN OF CHANNELS FOR UNIFORM FLOW 183 .S.
the given conditions. 510 IDo not use I 3 slopes steeper ~han _10~% _ __ _ 05 . recommended on the baSIS of mvestlgatlOn by the Soil Conservation Service. . Bermudagl'assand weeping love.and kudzu. fps Erosionresistant soils 8 Easily eroded' soils 6 5 4 5 4 3 4 * U.' . The permissible velocity of Row in a gl'assed channel is the velocity that will prevent severe erosion in the channel for a reasonable length of time. 11'01' fust establishment of the lining. I ! (B) is to review the design for maximum capacity.24 810 26 <2 >30 1124 610 28 <2 establishment.d be used. mended common lespedeza.  .' Permissible velocities for different veg. * If.s. tht. grass will grow and the channel will be stabilized under a condition of low degree of retardance. Sometirne~ an~uals are used as temporary protectibn until permanent coveb by native gras~e~ are ~stablished. PERMISSIBLE VELOCITIES FOI! CHANNEI.S. and other f~ctors should also. in. in the second stag~. Silt deposition in channels may be con~rolled by Iml?g With bunch grasses. Degree of retarciance A . smooth brome. Kentucky bluegrass. From the hydraulic viewpoint. and soil conditions. uncut. The second stage . be considered.spread easliy. Lesp.Use on slopes steeper than 5 % is not reCOffimanent CQyel'S al'e established.:! SELECTION OF VEGE'L'AL RE'l'ARDANCE* I ! 1 DESIGN OF CHANN~LS FOR UNIFORM FLOW ~85 Stand Avcrage length of grass.: average length 11 in.5 2.ot.SS. only fine and uniformly distributed sodforming grasses sueh as Bermuda grass.v blue. such as alfalfa.ce (greell~ average length 4. are unsatisfactory for lining. and thus reduce silting. For slopes greater than 5 %.ed channel ..rv!l. the top portion of the.I Do not use on slopes steeper than 5 %. are shown in Table 76.l. % 05 510 >10 05 510 >10 (}5 I . After the !kind of grass for channel ]ining IS selected. GUIDE I. crabgrass side slopes in a combination channel I I I I Annualsused on mild slopes or as~ ~=51 3 . grass 'cover is fully q.S LINED WITH GRASS* Foil' .tlOnable spreading nature of sodforming grasses. ischaemuffi (yello. Soil Conserv!!.5 2. kudzu. Therefore. to determine the channel dimensions under the condition. the comnlOn lespedeza of low vegetal ret!l.edeza sericea. common lespedeza is selected as the grass for lining. and smooth brome ar~ re~om~nended fOl' lining· where the main flow occurs. 719.l'ge requu'cs a stronger or better lining. I I .es that do Ii. the qegree of retardrmce can be determined from the condition of the stem length and the density of growth. Permissible velocity. grass fLl'e recommended. that is.) shou1.5 temporary pr"tection until per. to determine the increase in depth of flow necessary to maintain a maximum capacity under the conditiun of' a higher degree of retardance.184 TABLE ~I UNIFORM FLOW I 75.tion Service 1411. In general. For instance. Very high B High C Moderete D Low E Very low Good >30 11.:.rdar\. The channel will not reach its maximilm capacity until' the.etal ?overs! ch~nnel slopes. TABLE 70. Then. lespedeza. uniform stands of each type of covel'. blue grama 7 6 5 5 4 all GrllSs mixture .I~~ under . Sel~ction of Gra~s. if..consist of two stages. Sides and the berm may be planted with gras.5. aHalf!\. stablhu y . a higher dlsch:.tion Service [411. such as weeping love gl'B.. During the period of Bermuda grass 7 8 Buffalo g'rass. The selection of grass for the channel lining depe.nce cll.eveloped and well established. The first stage (A) is to design the channel for stability. The values apply to average. The Permissible. B C D D E High Moderate Low Low Very low Cover  Slope IMlge. of a lower degree of retardance. a proper freeboard is added to the computed' . Proced?re of ~esign. Sudan grass REMARKS. which will develop channeled flow lnCl'ease velOCity. it is suggested that the hydrll:ulic design of a gras:. 720.: .n be obtairied. Because' of the obJec.5 in. 718. Finally. ' . that is'. On steep slopes ?unch grasses. Soil Conse. except lOr stem).Velocity. Kentucky bluegrass.nds mawly on the clImate and soil in which the plant will grow and surv.3. the cummon lespedeza of moderate vegetal retal'dance' (green.) is used for the first stage in design. will develop channel~ mg of the flow and" hence. lIse velocities exceeding 5 fps onlr where good covers and proper maintenll. weepi~~glove grass.
Example 77. trapezoidal and tLiallgular sections..050 0. The design procedure I is described as follows: A. the tot!). 3..pacity.58 3. and check this value of V against the value obtai!led in step 2.. which will further increase the maximum design capacity. the trial computations involved in tho design procedure !lore ¥ follows: 1. 1 !I' A 13.. 1 R 2 3 ' L35 0. named in order of increasing depth required in excavation. and carrying a discharge 0.00 n and check this value against the value of V R obtained in step 1. 4. Modify.rdallce. and triangle.ection with a side slope of 6: 1 and b 12..bola .. Assume Lne depth y.0 ft.mum ca. is to determine the additional dept.tion.. The correct depth is 0.. the Ilrst stage of design may proceed in the following stiOlPs: 1. channel slope.50 4 2 3 0.60 0. Other known da. grassed channel.186 UNIFORM DESIGN OF CHANNELS FOR UNIFORl!vl FLOW I depth of the channel.34 noQ.73 4. fully developed lining.s8 mixtute for fall.04.mple .. B. o..49R~5SH 11. and c()mpute the value of R.'}r lI1a:rim~tm Capacity. Since the correct values of.il the computed V in step 4 is equal to the computed IT in step 2.36 4. Adding a freeboa.. that of the dormaut ~eaaon. Soh.(J the velocity Y by Y = Q/ A and the value of V R.rabola.bolic after a long period of service. Owing to the norl11al action of channel deposition and erosion.y assumed 111 the first stage of deSign.V R curve.55 ft..n curve should be used in the c.5 0 Depth !I...54 0..rly...2 3..3 l2.07 1 1 The correct values for the determination of sections o. season.65 0. it Top width T.ta are Q = 50 cfs and S 0. Simila. detcrmiac the value of n.4 11.h necessary to sustam the maXImum capacity of (1.. 4. 2. the trial computations are given below: 'Trial Trial no.00 2(). ~ 1 3. compute the value of L49R%SH 187 1 Side slope z:1 Bottom width b.re.70 0. 6. Design j.he proposed sections. t~12 computat~on results in a total depth of 0. the corre~pond ·jng n. R V l'R n 0. Therefo~e.. . Para.the total depth is 0. ·It should be note~ that this velocity is a..00 20. For determining the proper depth for maXlnlum.R = 0. capacIty of t. Design Jor Stabilt·ty.  1 4. Seler:t the permissible velocity from Table . In designing for stability. 714).051 I V 1.94 ft. 6. that is. Assume a value.62 1. and kind of grass. and determine the corresponding values of VR from the n.72 2. will generally become para. the permissible velocity for design is taken as 5 fps. whIch offers a X?oderate vegetalreta..ctical of a. Add proper freeboard to the computed depth. 1. Using the Manning formula. in design for stability. 10: 1. the selected sections in Example. since the cross section has heen enlarged in the second of the design.. Determine the section of a coannellined with grltSS miX~ure. and spring. Given the discharge.85. is considered in the computatlOn.''\ys les5 than the permissible velocH. Using the n~l'R curve (Fig 714) for grn. . 3.ge in design. From the nV R curve of a higher degree of retardance for the selected lining. the grass mixture of the growing. laid on erosionresistant soil at a slope of 0. 5. ft 17.5 ft.rd of 0.0 12. The procedure is as follows:. j..VR curve (Fig. Comput. The second sta.' po.18 19 94 20.2.omputation.A and R have been obtained.96 4. and compute the water area A and the hydraulIc radius R.nnel sections meeting these requirements are proposed as follows (using charts in App~ridb:: D ) : ' .r sectIOn with a side slope of 10: 1 is found to be 1.. or A Q/Y.ft.. The sections generally used for grassed channels are the trapezoid. !~ " • ...'V. the grass mixture that offers a low vegetal retardance.2 tt.76..491mSH 11. Make other trials until the computed value of V R is equal to the IT R value obtained from the n.50 It and A = 3% = 10 ft'.53 0.lw. of n. For the trapezoidal ::. winter. if selected but not well maintained. Make trial computations unt. .04. . For the tl'apezoidal section with 3:1 side slope and b = 17.42 4. TnI' nVR curve (FIg. I For an eXl). 50 ds.39 2'. Compute the water area..e. 5.G3 0. 77. Several cha. .33 ft.1 6:1 Triangle .n 0. Solution..l depth of the trlangula. see £42J. the section dimensions may be determined the procedure described in Art. From TablCl 75. 7~6 for maxi. is considered.3. . 714) for grass mixhure in summer is therefore used.35 2. Example 76..1 .07 2. Compute the velocity by the Manning formula.ft . 2.of the pra.051 0.
. Transactions.Uuvi!ll soil. p.5 .002b in.406 3. no. . 'pt. Show t~at the most efficient rectangular or triangular section is onehalf of a square.2 13." iVIcGmwHiIl Book Company.VR n 2." E. . Assume other necessary data and use your o~vn jlldgment.. S = 0.~ity with the aid of (a) Fortier and Scobey's table. water depth of 20. The water is clear. A. Explain (a) that any section formed by a p'olygon which can be inscribed by !\ semicircle with the ccnter in the water surface will have its hydro.051 0. American Society of Civil Engineers. Bureau of Reclamation.1 ft.4 I R 0.15.. U. minimum freeboard of 6 ft and bank width of 27 to 30 ft. "Conveyance of Water. 7 6. pa. (d) Ii the channel is moderately sinuous.006 mm. . Jl1ly. 72. New York. The n.. Solve Example 72 by the empirical rule of Eqs. Ill~.llllvial noncolloidal silts and.eboard equal to 20% of the computed depth. Solve Example 73 if the material forming the channel body is fine silt having an average particle size of 0. modified for clear . clearwater floW.terial forming the channel body is fairly compact heavy clayey soil with a voids ratio of l. 1915. This canal is 80 millls long.tion.3.0020. Houle" Irrigation Engineering.85 21. 715." vol. & F. American Society of Civil Engineers.. Isidro D. 7th ed. N. 3.S.34 2.90 0. Solve Example 74 for the following conditions. grass on. . Design a waterway lined with Bermudn.188 For the parn. 7 I I 0. !l.Spon. Carino: A graphical solution for flow in earth channels.ue of the top width... 7 9. ' 7. Apr. .00040. (d) parabolic." John Wiley & Sons.. Use the curve for modemte vegetn. The typical maximum section has a bottom width of 160 ft.. 1. J oumal. 76.. Estimate the permissible velo. Hl52. 712..ion and discharge of the st~ble hydraulic section of 0 . London.ulic radius equal to onehalf the radins of th~ inscribed circle.020 and S = 0. Use your own judgment and assumptions. paper 1360. 717.erosionresistant soil and cn. and 1. 1952.0. 716. 1st ed. the total depth is 1.1 forming the channel bed contains fine noncohesive particles. having !L voids ratio eqllal to 0.5. Allowing!l freeboard of 0. Bureau of Reclamn.80 0. i . y I I T A 11.ermine (0) the freeboard of the channel designed in Example 'r2 when the channel is unlined and (b) the heights of the lining and benk if the channel is lined.ving a bottom width of 10 it and side slopes of L5: 1. .49m1S~~ mostly in n.3 12. flow depth 0'£ 3 ft _and an avernge channe. Design a nonerodible channel carrying 200 cfs with n = 0. (b) If the mateJin.. . the trial computn. T = 20 Vy/O.S. The canal was 'excavated REFERENCES 1.. . Determine the cross ser.l section ha.vater. ra~ging from light sand~ or silty [oams to adobe and having an average particle size of 0. Streetel': Economical conal cross section~. September. 6. (e) If the m~.31".155 cfs of desilted water from the Colorado River to irrigate the Imperial Valley in southern Califpmia. assumed as 1 on 1. Bureau or'Reclamation. Condllits.76 4. (b) triangular. Solve Example 73 if the channel has !l.20 ft. and (b) that such section will have the best hydl'll. 711.2 21.channel excavated in a' noncohesive IDr. 718. . . 7 19. p. The conversion from the maximum permissible velocity to permissible tractive force (Table 73) is based on 0.. Based on the p. 713. Victor L. that' is. Review the hydraulic design of the channel section. and (e) the Kennedy formul~. (72) and (73). 5.10 4. The terminal capacity is 2.S. Compute the corresponding permissible tractive foree. or over in diameter. For a. "Projects. 17.020 and S = 0. Molesworth: "Pocketbook of Engineering Formulae (Useful Formulae and Memoranda) for Civil·and Mechanical Engineers.32 2.ge Division. 7lt. voL 83. the m!lximum permissible velocity recommended by Fortier and Scobey is 2.0020. pp. Review the stability of the section dimensions obtaincd in Example 73 by the method of trn.S.15 4. Allow 11 fre. ghop.020.ulic effiuiency. .52 0.0 22. II. Proceedings.nd the n value is taken as 0. 2. 74. pp.I.600 cfs. 1957.34 I n 2 3 ·1 0. ' 77. I UNIFORM FLOW DESIGN OF CHANNELS FOR UNIFORM FLOW 189 =. SOlVE Example 73 if the mn. 122. 714.. B. ill depend on practicability nnd on the circllmstances under which the problem is proposed.0..nd the top width is 24. .051 3. Design the section of a canal to carry a discharge of 200 cfs throllgh a land of erodible soils with n = 0. . . 2.ving To = 0. Determine the total depth for maximnm capacity of the channel section propo. . 111e AllAmerican Canal is desigr:ed to divert 15. Irrigation and Dra.6 ft.ed for the preceding problem. Cllnals !lnd related structures. det.78 4. 175.R. Design and Constnlclion Manila!.Ssuming that 25 % of the material forming the channel bed is L2b in. X... (b) U.vernge slope of the channel is 3 %. I.18. data. .03 I.73.60 0. 2.58 V 4. G\lilford L. New York.051 0. Determine the modffied profile for the channel section obtained in the preceding problem if the channel is tOCllUY (a) 75 cfs ILnd (b) 300 efg.ina.8.00 fps r. .rabolic section.terial forming the channel bed is cohesive compact clay. I van E. 50% of which are larger than 1 mmin diameter. 7 3: Detenuine the best hydraulic section of the channel in Example 72 if the section is (n) rectangular.se of t}leequation for R in Table 21 and by the foct that the depth is proportional to the squ. (e) cirl!ular. .6 21.ctive force. respectively: (a) If the side slopes are. 1045.07 It should be noted that the computation for the parabolic section is simplifi<od by the lI.1 lblft'. Design Supplement No.051 0. Compute the maximum tractive force per unit area on the section of the AllAmerican Canal described in Prob. Etcheverry: "Irrigation Practice and Engineering. and (e) in the form of It hydraulic catenary.Jnc.73 ft and T = 20 ft." U. 19.bolic :3ection of y as follows: Trial no. paragraphs 1.Linings for lrrigrttion Canals. vol. ".06 ft n." vol. IR2.l rel.S. 1871.t¢r surface of 232 it. PROBLEMS 7 1.tions are 1. und Structures. 421430.2 12.rryillg a discharge of 200 cfs .The final choice of the cllannel section and its dimensions .25 2. 7 10. o "" . 78. 1956. and n = 0. ' .I. 110. width at wo.terial ho.85 I 0.ardance.ractice of t1u~ U.020. vol. 4.03 4.57 0. .
McGrawHill Book Company. London. H. Minutes of Proce. .mean 'velocity in open channels.rea. 1955. vol. 22. Emory W. .I\{oscow. August.. 7. Edward S. 1025. Proceedings.ili~p Forchhei~eT: "Hydraulik" ("Hydraulics "). Inst·itution of Civil Engineers. Borland: Design of stable canals and channels in erodible ma. Ltd. 18. 122. II. H. P.' 13. Research needs'in sediment hydraulics. 1952. pp. No. C. 29. Leopold and Thomas Maddock. Sept. paper 953. pp. 551. Canada.h6ne et l'action exercee par les eaux su~ un lit ~ fond de graviers indetiniment affouillable '(The Rhone and streams with movable •bedsj. Berkeley. Publications in GelJgraphy. pp. Agnculttlral . Tra1tSdctio. ana. vol. 20.sociation for H ydt·l}.: The hy. 1956. Jr. Marcll.S.ble channel profiles.Enqmeenng. ' .logy. American Bociety oj Ciliil En. 123142. 123~142. 4. 11.. Hydrav. AnLerican Society of Civa Engineers. Hyd325. vol. Kennedy: The prevention oI silting in irrigation canals. vol. The work was started by R." Evan~ 'Industrie$. 38. B. American Society of Civil Engineers. Technical Bulletin No. O. A lILerican Society of Civil Engineers.. 18. 2. vol. .\ . J oumal. 1954. CarIllOn: Some factors affecting the stn. Bgrea. vol.sion. Ree and V. Transactions. Carlson and Carl R. 5. 1926. vol. Inslit:l.und~y shear and velocity distribution by membrane 'ano. and discussions. Lah01'e.terial. 9901049. W. Simla. 122. ( ·1 I . Annales rles ponts et Cha1L8S~eS. .1400. India.rultation. S. Ph.Y. Gerald Lacey: A general theory of flow in alluvium. Eno~ J. HJ30. vol. April.pp. New York. 1924. ' 40. pp. Instit'ution of Civil Engineers. O. 495. J. Hydraulic En(]~neer. p.. Lane': Progrl:'ss report on results of studies on design of stable channels U.. 5.draulic g~ometry of stream cha. E. Serge Leliavsky: "An Introductiqn to F1uvial Hydraulics. 11 Y2. 1957. U. pp.. A. Lindley: Regime channels. L. L.June. 1937.K W. 15 no 1 pp 7179 Nanking. American Bociety of Civil Eng.j in I ·1 \ 1 . Ning Chien: Graphic design of olluvial channels. Gloyer and Q. pp. (Hydrotechnical Constmction). pp. April. Boil Co. Hi52. Lelp. ~~rter: Critica~ tractive fones on channel side ~lo]Jes. Tmnsactions. 3d ed.. Ltd. pp.tiolL c. . Stillwater Outaool' Hydraulic Laboratory: Handbook of chandel desig. 3748.A study. Florey (compilers): Sedimentation studies in open channels: Bo. Palmer: Flow of water ill channels protected by vegetat. 1950. 184187 and 189. pp. 1. V. Gerald Lacey: Stable channels in alluvium. vo!' 123. London.S. Ning Chien :'The present status of research on sediment transport.~1!!l. D. ' 33. But'eau of Re.lytical and fil11tedlfference methods.l! of Rcclmrt(lMTc. Inc. pp.ation for vegetated waterways. London. Lane: Stable channals in erodible material. 14.cr. AlILerican Society of Cillil Engineers. 940956. 121.f Civil Engineers. 1951.17/orlliCL. Fredcnhagen and E.S. E." Constable & Co. Sept. Toward a thaory of the morphologic significance of turbulence in the flow of water in stream. Scobey: Permissible cana.S. no. 1956. Leighly.blc channel cross section (in Chinese).ag and Berlin. va!. American Society of Civil Engineers. B. .ri' for soil an~ water conservation.. 31. ser. . Cenl. Agricullural Enuineming.' 20. Gidrotekhnichesko·ie Stroitel'stvo. E. Fortier and Jf. . Tran8~tions. Ree: Hy~raul. 1D£i8. U. Sp34. 1947. Teubner Verlag:sgesellschaft. 833868. A. 14. 12341260. Tl'anoactions. Proceedings.gineers. 42.hc LaboratoJ'Y Report No. J\1l1e' 1952. lIyrl352 . D..l . Depa"bILent of Agriculture. J. 4. 30. 41. Conard and revie. McHenry and It. 1 9 3 2 . Robert G.ed£ngs.5f. pp. Transactions. 1953. pp. 6.0. pp. Lane. E. Pr'oceedings of the Minnesota [nlernalional IIydmulics Convention. SCSTPGl. 38. Joint Meeling of Inte1'1wtional As. vol.S. U. June. . . . 26. 121.ti01l. The maximum' permissible . American Society of Cilia Engineel's. 141195. W.oI stD. 1946. Procced£ngs. 785793. R. 119. 1930. 1953. . ' ". Doll: Gmssed waterways. . 27. 6. Tmnsact·irms.. A. Miller. Etcheverry: "Irrigation Practice and Engineering. Proceedings. pp. W . no. Chtne.ble channels in erodilJle material. Lane: Design of stable channels. Londan.C.ic characteristics of veget. vol. 1647. C. 18. Lane: Sta. Uni~ersily of Ca.'i9384.s. vol. 229. 1955. Pun}ao Engtneering Congress. 27. 34. PlLblication No. Bureau of [leclamation. 16. 1940. 1947. 32. Gerald L"c"y: Regime flow in incoherent alluvium. Florey: Sta. 5. 117. reviewed by D. 102. 281290.B:G'eological BUTVP.ls and Eivers. Journal. 1936. .' 21.. pp. 1954.S.ive lmmg. 15. 9. " 35. 417419. Transactions. J. '. 133. 'Pete W. ~'. pp. Amer':can Society of Cilia Enuineers.u of Reci. 23. 1955. Hydraulics D£visio1]. G. American Society of Civil Engineers.. London. 1949.erican Society of Civil' Engineers. E. HydTflHl'ic Laboratory Report No. . vol. LabOl·atory. vol. vo!.. pp. 12. Einstein: The bedload fUllction for sediment tran~Jlorta~ion in open channet flows.. 1953. 1895. du Boys: Etudes du regime du B. 25. 37. pp.is. '. 1919. 1879. J. 1915. 9lH February 1949. vo!' 82. 1951. Vancl)uver. pp. \Y. W.. Iudia.clama. no. lOlU5. 10. lO2. . No.ulic Research and HydmldiC5 Divi. U. Terrell [LIld Whitney M. Glovel' U. 12671280. Thomas Blench: Regime theory for oclfformeci sediment bearing'channels.. 1953. U. 17.al Board of h1'1:galion.S. Technical BuUelin No. 19. vo!. 1956. p. Chi~Hw~ Fan:.nnels and some physiographic implictttions. ' 24~ Ning Chien: A concept of the regime theory. 1937. 110. December.stilution of Civil Enginp.~seTVation.bility of canals coustructed in coarse granular materials.wed by E. 89. 30. 27. III. Transactions.rwers. 39. Hyd3G6 (supersedes Hyd295) Feb. Professional Paper 252.lic Laboraiot']J Repol·t. pp. reVised. 36. 28. Bu. U. 1st ed. Aug. Thoinas Blench: "Bydrsulies of 'Sedimentbearing Cano. L. May." va!. . Service. Instit\ltion Research Committee: Recent developments hydraulics. Lane ~tl1d E. Olsen and Q. Soil Conservation Service. In. Am.se SoCtely of Hydraulic Enginse'rs vol. pt. 6374.relocities. B. no. 35.190 UNIFORM FLOW DESIGN OF CHANNELS FOR UNIFORM FLOW 191 8. Hyd'·(L!J. vol. RepOl·t. '120.
hlghnes~ is indicatedbythe. Since the bouhdary layer is not distinctive. 1'r"G<:. SURFACE ROUGHNESS.. owing to the presence of boundary The e. Distribution of velocitv over a smooth channel Sur!l1c9{not in sC!lle). At the beginning of the now in the channel (Fig.s 6 is the magnitude of the ':((5 w/.t:d _ . _' ..bu l( ~n normal distance from the boundary . VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION. AND INSTABILITY OF UNIFORM FLOW This chapter presents assorted theoretical concepts which have been developed in the mechanics of openchannel flow. thi<lkn. Near the channel surface and within the region ABC.Outside the surface represented by ABC.g3lry.~~_.. ..:.ceat . When watel' enters a channel. ~" 192 . wide open channel With exagger~ted verticll. approximately .tfol . . . onetenth of the thickness of the boundary layer.)' V{~U_1. .ii~~" IlHf. The region inside ABC. the twodimensiona. l... ..~l.E!. though not distinc'ti.trib!Jti®~t9. For simplicity of discussion the following m'e assumed. depending on the magnitude of the Reynolds number. though not to be thoroughly discussed. The Boundary Layer..(. is ' equitnQ99%Of theli:rrd~~: n:y Vo..ll~ft1.'l'HEORET1CAL CONCEPTS RELATED' TO 'UNIFORM FLOW 193 . ' r".... the ftow in the boundary byer will eventtmlly change to turbulent.fu!ed arbitrn.:..If . the water travels farther along in the channel. v~locjty"'y£l.A.. jiB.!!nAvlis the 'yJ.1'.l sc.. ~7.11 _ ' .~I~city7 d'i. .kes place is indicated by B. (3) the depth of Row is indefmitely 1111'ge.th~ ..Vclocity . i <¥ /i /'/t . .as shown by the curve AB.=. 'as shown I For a.k~~~~ boundary layer 1 and its thickness is deSignated by o.ry layer on the flow is equivale!lt to a fictitious upward displacement of the channel bottom toa virtual position by an amOl1!l.l entrance condltlOn.')j"~oJ. 81. the veiocity rustdbution will eventually reach a definite pnttern. ._~ thickne.1 For· the sake of simplicity.i ...· The velocity distribution in th~ layer is.. which is defined as ' r ~ .1lranCE condition is hypolhelicol bution.. channel. CHAPTER I 8 l I THEORETICAL CONCEPTS OF BOUNDARY LAYER. _"" tance'li from the channel surfnce .(81) " FlO. boun. 81) the ftow iii entirely laminar and a laminar boundary layer is developed along the channel surface._~ approaches asy!llptoticall~(Fig. These concepts.e iromthe channel surface.l profile of:a. (rhe point where the challge tn.~ays . The value of t. . will vary with the distance over wllich the water t!'avels in the. from oneeighth to. 82).r C> vI(. compl'ehensive treatment of this shbject see !ll to [4].> A common definition is that the lrei&C.ccording_tQ_ 4isww. 7'.tribution is practically uniform.es.~hi()h th.::I£YXQ.. .."yarioufi. _~9. ~L Development of the boundary layer in an open chl1nnel with an idea. / ' FlO.tId {J.1 If· the flow is uniform and stable and if' the channel is prismatic and of constant roughness. Downstre~m from B a tl1rb1dent boundary layer is developed. (Fig.l~r.1!. i i roughness. .~ha!!neJl the effect on the velocity di!J.d~ ~/. II/:.JLh~~_I?een de.. 81).ries l\.parabolic.'..fCL .rily in.. g:<~~~ . ''I'hTcli.the velocity:'distribu1ion:b~ur:ve1n the boundary Tayer 1 . (1) th~ fiow enteX'ing the channel is lamil1al' and of uniform velocity distribution. \ The effect of the bounda. may shed some light upon the solution of many practical problems. 82 ..so the depth of ftow cun be considered constant as the water enters the channeL 1n th!'i..he displacement tl1ickness generally varies .i. the velocity' distributionncross the channel section..ale isahown. As.1.!lGtci~t~Jit~!toftE... .t equal to the socalled displllcementthiclmess 0* (Fig. where l' ill the velocity at any elis" / £. (2) no restriction exists at the entrance that will cause abrupt disturbanc~ of the water surface and the velocity distri... .
13) and. 83c).:. The above conditionis·giveri for r0l1ghi1ess obtained with sand .to extend.e aVer~iW.tside the lam. where C is CheZ~I's C. an~ the totallen&h of the :/lone for the full development of boundary la~l' c!tllbe slloi'·tel1~~ SinGe the flow in ordinary chanl1els is usually turbui~nt:the f9UO. the laminar boundary layer AB _gan be elh?inated easily by placing a.e kinem(\tic viscosity.urbu' lent (Art. prob"bi. Using the Gh6zy formula. It is a.tion.er. the turbulen t boundary layer will be fully developed at section CD. which corresponds to C '" 113.ss. irregularities forming the roughness elements is called the 1'oilgl!1i68. Concept of Surface Rough~ The concept of the existence ofa laminar sublayer in the turbulent· boundary layer offers a picturesque explanation of the behavior of surface roughness. In connection with flow in pipes or on flat plates at zero incidence.ce irregularities will be so small that all ronghness elements will be entIrely submerged in the laminar sublayer (Fig.tht'lis~ffects beJ:::9l!.!!. A hydraulically smooth surface is said to be wuu!LiUh.l The top surface of th~ laminar sub~ ___ '_~ layer corresponds to the transitional zone of flow from laminar to t. the following condition for a surface to be hydraulically smooth: is 1 V.5. thereafte! the velocity distribution w~e patt.5k below the average bottom of the channel. In a laporutory ·cha.t k is measured from 1\ datUllI that li. height.pidly to zero· at the boundary surfll.he ac~ual. having \'alue.. 82. a very thin stable film offiow known as the la:minar sublayer will be developed on the surface. thus._. (83) (Fig.ce. the roughness elemeuts will have sufficient magnitude ~ angu!a.ooth.l. it can be seen that the surface is composed of irregular peaks ~l1d valleys.ce is relatively smooth."ou~hness el_e!l~e!l~ el1t..nJS.> liGally sn.k )I <5 or k < 51' (82) where V f a term known as the friction lJe/ocitu (Art.8Jl. 83)..s of C greater than 100.. the turbulent bounC!=ary layer will be developed very beginning of the channel. they may produce identical roughness effect and. thus to disturb the flow in the chi1nne1. ail approximD.. For example. = 5C .. 83b). Within the laminar sublayer the flow is kept laminar. (83) U1:. The ratio kl R of the roughlless height to the hydraulic radius known as tha relative roughne. 84). l I .minar subla. ~ depend 011 the the~eI.. their roughncsscs will be clesignated by the same roughness height.r subl~r. and l' is the mean velocity. cannot be precisely defined. Schlichtillggives kc = 100"/1'. I It should be noted that the roughness height is mel'eLy a measure of the linear dimension of the rQughness elcmeuts but is not necessarily eqoaL to t.g articles will deal only with the turbulent boundary layer.d~y EJi: . two roughness elements ll13. thlls. The ejJectiue height of the i A refined concept of the Ia. .yer will consider that there exi~ts in the s\lblayer a small a.194 THEORETICAL CONCEPTS RELATJi!D TO UNIFORM FLOW· 195 by BC. i .nnel.!~lce: Thus. n distance of O.nsions.han a certain fraction of the thickness j( < So of the laminar sublayer. I' is th. for a surface to be hydraulically smooth.mil~[1.ty be applied to channels.~ at. the roughness height must be less than a critical rotlghne.' Under this condition the roughness has no effect upon the fio'w ou.. The surface is therefore said to bC"ro1Lg/i:in rough ch~i. the !l).. When the surface profile of a channel is enlarged (Fig. . 454 of [ID .!1l1d a stable laminar subli1yer can no longer be formed. _~""''''' If the roughness height is less t. and the surface is said to be hydrau_..Y have diffctcllt linear dirnr>.inar sublayer. .c!...~ity distribution will form and ~ize of the roughness projections.. it can be shQ\rn~ above condition that.i1ncl.. owing to the difference in shape and orientation. the velocity close to the channel surface is low. For the avcri1ge COlldi~ion.r. 83a).l1UrY:e (Fig. The velQcity distribution in this layer can be shown analytically to be approximately log:1l'ithmic (Art.:. but. If the roughness height is gl"eater tha~l th'l critical va111e. Schlichting (see p.. I .ritY. 84). If the channel suds.ss expressed by k. the s~rfa.mount of eddy which dec~eases very ra. (83) '~Y If the conditions for ul1iformflow exist throughout the channel.. 2 The position from which the rOllghness hcight should he measured is IL disputable mli\tter. .s height! k.'<StlInJad here tha. or ev~n an average.. . hence.
s flow.OU15Q.E 81. Cement. Quasismo. . .. The nbove concept ap'pears to be substantiated adequately by experi1 Morris llsed the pipe radius instea. The apparent roughness would thereforere8ult from the form on the roughness elements.§.2hJ1. . ... . .i of abnormal turbulence...:..... .will be an importn.ments·is the roughness dimension of paramount Importance in roughconduit flow. rehlthr ely unimportant. the ratio k/A (or . Morns assumed that the flow over.00080. . and quasismooth (01' ~ (0)  I slcimmt'ng) flow...:.. Asphalted east iron. Mc... .00300....Q. the..therefore.. . wakeinterference flow. The f o. . . Wrought iron.. 84. .ccurs when_ the roughness elements...~..00040.'... .. .10003. ... ' . ... .. the average depth y of flow above the crests of the elements will control in part.. 0.lly smooth.... .... ..t the ~nd .. .. .lNESS HE1(lHT It ....!'l!i. ..0080 0."yor~i~ and tu~·bulen~g.. . where j is the groove width) will again be a significant parameter. . .?::.. Also.. ApPROXIMATE VALUES OF ROUG. _~ stable eddies.. represented primarily by the height of projection k of the element..:Y... .....~I 196 r>'I'h~ I.0040 0. '.. (b) walJ:einterf~rence flow...ches showing concept of three basic typ.. the height of the e~em~nt is.. Sket..0070 0. ... . Table g··1 gives averaged from manv The con~ept... Concrete. .•. may be taken as a significant correlating parameter influencmg the apparent friction factor in the flow.... THEORETICAL CONCEPTS RELATED TO ·UNIFORM. . .. .. am~f~gy..~.the_.0300 0.s~ clo~together tha.0150 0. : I 'L~olC!!:e. . . . In such a flow... . flow ~~vel' IOtlgh surfa....nt correlating parameter.... lead.. . glass .. ..s of How: (a) iso~ lll.~:01J..... .~' ski. ~ solatedroughne~~Jow. I .00020. In such a flow.t each element are completely developed and dissipated before the next element is reached....ill. . Large projections Illoe ~tisent from this pseudo wall. 1 °In 'such a flow. .!?~pl~x.. .. Natural river bed.0l00 0. .in tile .d of the depth in defining the parameter because he was '.00050.YQrJj)x at each element wiUjnterfere WIth those developed !l:L~tJ resulting in intense and c. in addition to the friction drag 011 the waH surface between elements.thJiy..tedroughness.oncerned primarily· with pipes instead of channels. . ' . Galvanized iron .. . The grooves between the elements will be filled with dead water contall1mg ! i !..ss...... Waleeinterference flow :esults when the roughness elements are placed .. . Wood stave . FLOW i97 I I . copper. .. prevails when the roughness elements are so far apart that the wake and VOl'tex a. . . of l"~ughness in conduits was further advanced by' Morris [5]..e!e~nt£. creating a£:?~1}...... hi such ~ flow. Riveted steel. . Cast iron .. 1" ..ms the _cre5t.0180 0.. . ...0000 tudinal ~f the r~~ss el~.ces can be classified into three basic types (Fig.0100 0.. .. and TA1l!. !low..lerial k.2l.... . .00130. " . ...~etermiM.. . "..which depends on the spacing of the elements.... the ratio yl). Under this concept.. (c) quasislnooth tlcw. but the spacing is obviously of major ImpOl·tance.. it B:ra. . steel.. ..2..0001:"'0.es... . .0030 0.. . Dra.00060. .Q. . and the surfuce £!'cts hydrauli~l\. .. together tb. are.. . . a rough surface is due largely tl) roughness element.. ratIO kl}.ooth ~o~. ..0030 0. ~si~m. UNIFORM FLOW average roughness height for a given surface can be determined by expenment. . . . the vertical ex tent of the surface region ( c1 FiG. ..ba~ factor than flow ovel' a true smootll surfa£ft because the eddies in the groove~me a certain.00200..
but it has been found applicable also to channels of small slope. Arbitrarily assigned length of x in ft.04 0.65 2. the computation has been repea.tes the location of the section where the bOlmdary layel: reache.oI large ~l'?.problem. This method waS' developed primarily for flo\v i.velopment by Bauer was made on concrete overflow spillways (Ii'ig..~l£~~~idlr .20 2. 50 ~~M t.~ y F" •. 4.0073 0. or where it is fully developed. fo'r it is all insignificant part of the . Example 81.han~els..8 SO 160 320.P.e. The lengtb of the development is shown to be approximately 460 ft. equal to x sin·e = 0. where k 0. 86).::.ye!' TA.13 where 8 is the thickness of the turbulent boundary layer at distance x from 0 in the diiectionof flow (Fig. the application of Bau61:'s method is just the same except that the water surface requires 110 computation.5 113. 1...024. Velocity head vo'/2g in ft.80x Col.005 ft Col.lly entirely converted into the lunetic energy expressed by the velocity head. In this case the transition from the la~illar to the turbulent boundary layer usually occurs far upstream from the zone under consideration. The point of intersection of the two profiles indica. ~. It can be seen tha.BLE ~ . " . the potential energy of water is practics. x . which is assumed w be 10 % of the thickness 0 of the boundary la. computing the variedflow surface is used.01 itO (Fig. Computation of Boundary Layer.l thickness plus the displacem<:lntthickness.35 250 480 The st. The· concept can also be extended to surfac€s of variable roughness by u5ing average values of the roughness dimensions that vary or by combining the friction factors for· each flow type to give all overall apparent friction factor of the flow.§1. 8··3.09 5.  either accelerating or.5 175. 2 X 10· 600 4 X 104 8 X 10' L2 X (05 0. 100 200 400 1 X 10. 7. Growth of bounda.r Dam k = 0. I <I J i .he bounda. ·an.o\ limit of boundory'loye. Actual thickness of Lhe flow in ft. 85) and a roughness snch that k 0.005 ft. compute the length for boundarylayer dev!:')opment.005 it 82.~l1!use boulldary~layer S~~~llS. G.ted using ~he8amc da.. 2.e 1160 cis/it divided by the yelocity fl. the headings are explained as follows: Col.:' . BOtiNDARYLAYER COMPUTATION (J 53°8' q = 360 cfs/n v. When the discharge is 3130 cfs per foot of spillway width..(x/k)o. Values of xlk. Velocity in fps corresponding to the velocity head in the preceding column CoL 7.0055 0. th.s its maximum. From the results of Bauer's investigation. It should be noted that the flow on the spillway surface to be described in this example is varied and that a sirtiplified method of The computed water surfa.13 5.00 3. 7.0052 0. Aooncret. and the water surface. surface slope angle 11 = 53°8' (Fig. 85. the profile of the boundary layer. !DeMured from 0 Col. . and. 3.j mental 'data from many· different sources.ia. It shOUld be noted that the simplified method of 'computing the watersurface profile of a varied flow is justified in this problem because the flow is relatively thin and the slope is very steep..0060 0. 86) is the result of this computation. I Fm.lues of lJ/:z..ry layer over the surfac<:l of an overflow Rpillway.ta but with a rOl\gbness twice as large.j \ Nomin. For the computation of surfl:\Ce proj\Ies of varied flow in general. Bauer has shown the application of this method by the 'following ·example. if accelerating. for it is simply parallel to the ehanneLbottom. hence the laminar boundary layer can be ignored.36 0. 85) and where k is the roughness height.12 40 50.nd t.ry layer are plotted on logarithmic paper (Fig. Values of ~ in HI obtained by multiplying x by 8/x CoL 5.. equal to the dischal'f!. In the case of tIle boundarylayer development of a uniform flow. k = 0.20 3.!Llly negligible. various methods will be described in Part Ill.l thickness of Row in it.E!:Q12Q~_Qy_Jl~lJ&t.198 UNIFORM FLOW THEORETICAL CONCEPTS RELATED TO UNIFORM now . CoL 8. the following equation may be written:' l) _ 2. ..07 101. To illustrate the effect of change in roughness upon the growth of a boundary layer.001313 0.f. (84) Col.udy of boundarylayer de. As the frictional loss in this case is :negligibly small. x/k li/x u.ce a.e overflow spillway of indefinite length has a. Potentia.t the difference between the values of the development lengtll for the two cases is 1 I ! I I I . provided the flow is . Solution. . For the development of a turbulent bound~ry layer in wide channels. uniform..136 1..:pprQximate but practical meth~2!L h~_~. i /2g ( 4) glv.. 85)... V". equal to the potent. computed by Eq. The change in water surface ispractic. The computation is shown in Table 82.1l.8 3.S 71. The line marked with It 11 = 8.72 2...
it. channel surface is equal to the unit tractive force (Art..f L~~:::) . ' my (810) Yo = Vr where m is a constant equ~l to about (85) where mass ~el1sity = wig." The shearing stress at any point in a turbulent flow moving over a solid surface has been given by Prandt. ' . wrItten (86) . The velooity distributiOn In a ulllform channel flow will become stable when the turbulent ".arith' mic law in practical problems. 0.. it is known as the ~n. (87) may be written .4 {j iY' it varies BOO = vgRS Vr (88) v: / V. I .n be shown that I '1 o. 86. Thus. ..l to (dv /dy) / (d~/dy·).r. . This shows that an increase in rough. ~~~ Prandtlvon Il.( '1 . //"'~ 'b' I [/1/ '/ I I r ·where Yn is a constant of integration. the second assumption 'gives T = TO.. to 'Ii. Veloc!ty Distribution in Turbulent Flow.l [7] as . 711).'" epV:l '++ I "/. From Eq. clistnbu:lOn can be shown to be approximately logarithmic. the constant yo in Eq.. 2 .5 f. i .. .ness has a tendency to speed up the boundarylayer growth or to'._Q. dvldy velocity gradient at a normal distance y from the solid surfp.5 Vp I~ In JL yo (8~7) 't>' O· o... 9 O. Since the shearing stress at the. (89) has been found to depend solely . that is.. 40 50 60 70 80 100 LJ I 200 DistallCe x... r THEORETICAL" COliCEPTS RELATBD TO 'UNIFORM FLOW 201. T = pl2 (::)2': Thili equation indicates .9un~ar~ la!el' 1l3i'!!!. . or a variation of less than 10%. In the turbulent boundary layer.~.' velocity... ~~~ . I This la.develoE~d.on the friction velocity and the kinematic viscosity. " bf: I r .f. J. ' c. the mixing length being proportiona.tiid and g IS the gravitational acceleration ': l ':'" a characteristic length known as.. From these two assumptions. For wavy 1 Von Karman .. CD.~ 0:../('·UViJ. :FEfIi ! I t s 5 i'..y. .200 10 9 UNIFORM FLOW ~I' . ' I .~ ! ~u{j .. the. 11ltegr'ating li<J.ed by several experiments [10J.J~he turbulel:t re~~~ logarithmic funotion of the distance .:.3 c.. offer reasonable justification for use of this log..Prandtl introduced two assumptions:' (1) that themixh}g 'length is proportional..:\) . ~ /' t. i5 1 ~ . /" V. about 30 ft. It is commonly known as the .w has been VCl. ! 011 • Thill value is derived from Nikuradse's experimental data. vr' P.~ Lbo. 8~.\ I ~.=::> I '" ~ "3' t v = 2.40.' "\< JiV oP~c:7 ". I.. (75) and w = pg. tVl ~ (89) FIG.QLth~n near the acEd surfac\l.ce p % for smooth surfaces. (85) may be .(irmdn· univeJ'salvelocitydist1ibution Zaw. The value of K has been ·determined py many experiments [8] to be about 0.7 ~I .' The results indica. . '+OJ U . Eq. f j 300 400 I 600 I The quantity represented by V r has the dimensions of a velocity. ". and (2) that the shearing stress is constant..i]i..jti. When the sul'face is smooth..61:. therefore. .[9J also proved this law by II similarity hypothesis which assumes a linear shearingstress distribution. 0.Rq. (86).v .jii1i or shea.ci.~ I I where K is a constant for the proportionality between L~nd }I:. wh~re w i~ the unit weight of the fi.. i 0. Since wi~h the boundary friction To.. smooth pipes [111.. ~>'er .te a striking i'imilarity betvveen observed and computed distributions and. 0..that t~l:9. ~he mixing length .educe the developmenL l e n g t h . Solution of Example 81 for the growth of a boundary layer.y.
n. obtl~ined: simplifying. of the tract.75 log [m~ exp ( 1 ~~) + 5.r the sake of clarity l. F~r the sake of simlJlicity. B = P . This equation gives the velocity distribution in turbulent flOlv OVer smooth surfaces.he chn. (810) for Yo in Eq. .y difitribution in tru:l:mlellt flow ml£. the variation of this quantity with different shapes of the section is relatively small. .75 lug n~~} 1 (817) r Q = FA =.d. It should be noted. It is to be noted that the constant.y = Ph .ion is . (812) 11 = }o ( B d. (89). (89) and simplifying..< i THEORETICAL CONCEPTS RELATED TO UNIFORM FLOW 203 surfaces. t V=k v dA 1. (814) .r surfaces. flow in open channels. (817) may be wribten where h is the depth of water. (810). Also.2 2 (816) Substituting in Eq. Using' the Prandtlvoll Karman universalvelocitydistribution law. the following equat.s nsed in the above velocitydistribution e@ations for smooth ®d rm~'faces were derived from data on pipes.J f I . (89). Substituting Eq. such as the effect of free ~urfn.2: 11.'.v .®. total discharge through an ordinary channel section (Fig..ce and the effe. it is Imow!LSpecifically as the Nikurad136 8and rough!.nd simplicity.20~ UNIFORM FLOW ! . that of B from Eq. However.5Vr In [li!!:.<"o. 4A or V = VI {5.ve profiles. Accordingly.. A is the vlater area. ~Q' Substituting v = 5. the. 80.ct of nonuniform distribution. and y is the vertical depth measured from the boundary to the curve of equal velocity. When the surface is rough. the quantity may be represflnted by an ov~rall constant" 11 0• This constn. the' value of m wHI depend on the shape of the wa.t it is permissible to apply the llniversalVelocitydistribution h~w to other cases of turbulent flow. Nikuradse's experjments. the water area is equal to 'k . For. (812) for YQ in Eq. exp (1 _1'h~)lJ Yo R . It is further assumed that the maximum velocity is at the free surface and that the length B is This' value is derived from Nikuradse's experimental data on Tough pipes [121.y equation. I t [n i l f ".ant l m is equal to approximately Eq. 2 Other references on this subject fLre [141 to r21J~ 1 V Y (A r = 0 + 5. (815).75YI log 30 !Co for rough surfaces (813) ~h equation' gives th~ velocit. simulate roughness. v = if: proportional to its vertica.nt will include not only the shupe function but also other uncertain factors. above equation t.= O . Channel ~ec~iol) to illustrate notation.he quantity represented by the first term on the righthand side is a function of· the shape of t. Yo mn:y be represented by Eq.NikIJm. :I. 9yVI for smooth surfaces . ~ . = lch vB dy . Keulegan's derivation will be modified below.1. (811) where P is the wetted perimeter and l' is a function depending on the shape of the section. sand grains were cemented to the inner walls of pipes to . • . using the constants determined from tests on circular pigcs.l distarice Y from the boundary i that is.75 log mR) Yo (818) This is the general theoretical equation for the mean velocity of uniform . It is assumed. (814) the value of v from Eq. that thexoughness height k in this equation is the mean dilolmeter of the sand grains used by. 0 . . 8·7. the procedure given here is aimed to give a logical demon·stration of the basic principles involved.'YY (815) 575V r log . Thus.. B is the length of the curve of equal velocity.nnel section. I * It is entirely feasible to simplify the derivation by assuming this constant at the very beginning. smooth channels.. However. Theoretical UnIfOrmflow Equations. KeulElgan (13)2 has derived equations for mean velocity of turbulent flow in open channels. In thp. . and simplifying. however.nd that fO!' A from . Such roughness is known as artificial T"Ougimess. the constant Yo is found to depend on the roughness height .ive force at the boundary. v= 2.!§M. By the cQntiuuit. Since the laminar sublayer is relatively very thin. (816) and then integra ling and where the const. 87) may be written lli i'LG. 00 can be assumed to he zero.Eq.. Eq. that is.. tha.
n ~.s may al." . For rough channels. + ~. and F. Similarly.75JOg~) for rough channels (820) 7 From the CMzy formula F = C . (812). Thus. . n . The 1· d t' f" ct~ of other mlllOI' ac OIS.' v= V. . ft. = '." for smooth channels for rough (!hannels (822) 0 C = 32. t " l ' ffects "When t 1e c lu. F 88..6 log 12}!!: (82:3) I After Keulegan's analytical study on laws of turbulent flow in channels. using transversebar roughness of various sizes. it is possible to introduce.. Powell [1618J experimented with small rect~tnglllar sills used as artificial roughness and arrived at Eq.»arger than that in pipes with increase in the Froude number. he theoIt should be interesting to study Mannmg s n by relo. "d' ber functions 0 f t h e F rou e num .e e . and £l~ ale . A. . yo may be expressed by Eq.o ll..23 to 18.an?m g s oug. R hess Coefficient.ws of turbulent flow described in tIllS o.' Ao is found to be 3.0 for large wood channe1s. From Keulegan's study of Bazin's data [22]. the following express:olls fo\' Chez}"s C are obtained: 4: 3 2 f 20. "I (AT + 5.3 0.25 for Ao may be used. SS.7510g ¥ ) r o r rough channels ·t'" L • . (819) and (820). (57) [1. u e ne e Ie·" . A further" study was made by Iwagaki [21] on experimental data obtained from many sources.nne shaded boundaries) probably OWlIlgo t le:. Keulegan obtained a value of Ao = 1.92.32"61 ogc.. . Rel~tions amoog A"" rL.25 + 5. and Hama [3] £\lso conducted similar studie:3./) l' = Umng Bazin's data [22] for wavy surfaces. .25 + 5. the effect of freesurface instability into Keulegan's equations by assuming that the constants in the equations are 2 3 0. n =" .204 UNIFORM FLOW THEORETICAL CONCEPTS RELATED TO UNIFORM FLOW 205 from ICeulegan's study "of Nikuradse's data [111. it cltn be shown that 6 v VI = Yo C 5 (821) . Theoretical Interpretation of M. I h slope becomes too large.. (55) for Chezy's C. :Moore.25. (81 g) and (820) be expressed for smooth channels (82·1) (825) Y VJ (3. therefore.8R C .l open channels becomes obviously ·f. Robinson and Albertson [19] used baffle plates as artificial roughness and developed another empirical formula of C for rough chaunels. . Eliminating C from Eqs.7u_ log.IRS and from the definition' of friction velocity 1'. F' 88 by the lotted data are found to be much scnttered(as shown III 'Ig" I . as ~e(v8e ~~e Ma ning's n ceding article.3 for smallwood channels and 3.I "1 . The results of the study have disclosed that resistance to turbulent flow i. 88).4 FIG. (6.. c: "c 4 Substituting this equation ahd the Reynolds Il'lmber R = RV / ~ in Eqs. the flow will be unstab~e (Al:t.rtlCle are no onger valid. l~ suc cases. In the above eouatlOns.. P j . varying hom 3. The theol'eticaluniformfiow equation for smooth channels is. the \u. Using the data presented by Iwagaki. as follows: IT = VI Let" E<. These constaill.fiRS. . therefore. the valu~ of Ao was found to have a wide range.' f' ns of the }'roude number .2 0.qs. Rand. Iwagaki ~easonedthat this is due to the increa:led instability of the hee surface at high Froude numbers.75 log R:/) " = for smooth channels (819) I _ RY "A./. a menu value of 6.mc 10 . The theoretical uniformfiow equation for Tough channels is. therefore.tl~g l~ tfn\he preretical channel roughness for rough channels.
The value of k is expressed This equation gives the va. As an approximation. for a wide range of R/ k. The. Based on the theoretical velocity distribution in rough channels. Strickler [23J ar.his equation.(82i3) willler...s.8y from the bottom of a wide rough channel. If the distribution is known.75Yr log R/l<. The roughness height used by Strickler is the I . (57) is the best suited to all formulas under consideration. This concept has been used by Boyer (24} and others [2528] in estimating the value of 11 from the vertical velocit. Eliminating VI from the above two equations.'" 5..o~': the velocity distribution depends on the roughness height. 24y ) ~ ~ .etor that affects the velocity distribution.d to the interesting conclusion that Manning's n varies with the power of the height. threefold change in n. Let VQ. formula. Data [24J· collected from sever".S. with R = .7&(:1: 0.vit.. V Equating the righthand siues of (830) (829) and (830) and solving for 1'1.ctual streams.. (826).. the effect of errors involved in estimating the roughness height for the determination of Mallning's n by Eq. two .. the roughness height as a measure of channel roughness is more sensitive than Manningls n... Consequently.. S J feems in No. A pli1t of this equ:1tion (n/y. of t.n. ·.s Uo. x) has been made to compare with a similar curve developed by Boyer [24Jand also with actual observations taken . K.9 log (12.ge value.tuting Eq. be determined. . Fig.sure of the roughness height !'esults in about n.. therefore. (826) is comparatively smalL . it can be seen that The plot. . "there x and simplifying. when compared with Eq. and the Bazin formula. where y is the depth of flmv. 87.. With reference to the logarithmic law of velocity distribution expressed ih Eq. (I . Eq. that at a distance O. at a formula which.s be the veloeity at eighttenths the depth.· Substi.dvo. M etlwd of Velocity M easuremellt.] streams in the l1orth\ycstcl'll United States and from the 'Mississippi River are also shown in.n formula [in a form corresponding to Eq.... a thousandfold change in the linear me~~.r.. (826). 89. let UO.~approaehes for 's n have og'k = Y O.p(R/Ie) = 0. On the basis of actual observations made in S.(Rlk) median sieve size of the material. (813). Methods for Determining Manning's Roughness Coefficient.3~8_1 . (Fig..e!·land.6 (R/k)'A 21.. Sfricklerts __ _ ~ = Similarly.f. from several streams in the northwestern United States and the Mississippi Rivet. By Eq. the value of Manning's nean. with R ~ y. 89 for purposes of comparison.s = 5.75V r logT . (828) ill Eq.rived. the value of it may be taken as the mean depth. _ _ _ _ II " '\. the variation in </I(R/k) is small. Functiqn ".~77~8~x~ __. (813).1(. the roughne8s in terms of Manning's n can be taken as a dominating fa.2R/k) (826) (827) A. (820). Thus.95) f='~xl + (829) From Eqs. 89) indicates that.t J . comparison leads to the belief that a general relation . I FIG. When this equation is applied to a. gives an average value l of .. in ft. (57) and (821). (826)). In other words. Bakhmeteff and Feocloroff [Z5} have made a comparison of the Manning' formula with the Prandtlvon Kirma. the velocity may be expl'essed a.which may be related to Manning's n by Eq.hen Yo. the G.lhweslern U._. V 1. (831)  1 This constant has been converted to ftIbsec units.. t. Their results indicated that the Manning formula in the form of Eq.2 be the velocity at twotenths the depth.206 may be expressed as follows: UNIFORM FLOW THEOBETICAL CONCEPTS RELATED TO UNIFORM FLOW 207 n where ~ (~)k. x (828) !la. for a wide rough channel with logarithmIc velocity distribution.0342... If </J(R/k) is assumed constant.y distribution ill a stream.lne for 1'1... : In other words..1 . vs. ¢(R/k) may be assumed constant and equal to an aVel'!l.
If this methqd can be shown to be satisfactory for practical applications.(Art. . These Curves are based on data taken from seven typic".L. For surface roughness. the va1ue of n can be determined by Eq.. seen that Eq. ~lethod of Rfl. (831)._ _.R' due to roughness ce. Therefore.. Nebl'. Randa. be In .._L_L") . 26). Values of .i Elkhorn Rhier at Waterloo. Nebr. or R . more data.cif'. . ment samples collected within the reach of the stream.1..U.St' 1'eam . are neceSsary to! verify this theory more convincingly and to d~linea. In this method it is assumed I that Eq. which is the grain size just coarser than G5 % of the materifl. Calif.2. in feet. Platte River at Ashl!l. . Big Sioux River at Akron.2.1. L_·_.. Nebr.tiol1!!hip that it can be used extensiv e1y for practical purposes. The method described above doeS not comudel' kmds of !IOu~hness to other than : surface roughness an d t h: rong hness d ue " movingsedIment e 1 beds.8 depths (Alt.. When ':Missouri River at Pierre and Ft.L.' CElIif.v:e shown that the function Ib(Rlk) for the combined effect of the surfice roughne3B D. Manning's r~ can be conlpllted by Eq: (826) When the roughness height is known.ms containing moving sediment beds. This size is taken from a mechanicalanalysis curve obtained from sedi. Nepl'.. 810..'. which are averaged to give the meatl velocity in.l.nd.:iS)H anel 1.tes.lrements in several vertical!! at 0.0342 (WIR)3~ . \.! and k361 RS. 8~).. the vel'tical.6 0.lsed by moving sediment beds..1 L~__l.l~4+\+H+~~:'l"r'": . 'liS x35 FIG. Doland and Chow [30] hlJ. (832) is reduced t. the slope S. of stream flow is llsually made by taking velocity mf)asl. as obtained from an average curve of mechanical anatysi. UNIFORM FLOW THEORETICAL .')e measurements. j This method can be' extended to strea. 0.at Junction.l rivers in the United Sto.L~_'. with k = k65. ~here the value of R'I R depends on the hydraulic radius R. . and Omaha. it is applicable on1y to problems 111 whlch the bUS1IY J .l~4~'Il~n:1 (832) 0.c"s and Paso Robles._+0. .4 0.:3&/~B •. so '.1 0.[eal1'!m'ment. the roughness height is represented by k'5 in feet.R' = 0.. L l. it can . SBlina.)'/. which is the size just coar. there is little moving sed' lment ' th ~ . Iowa. 1 When <f>(Rlk) is computed by Eq. the value of R' / R Can be obtained from the semiempirical curves of Fig.sel' than 35 % of the sedim(:nt grain.tell1 and BrLrbal'ossa [29]. the value of .6 O. (832).s. rl'1 20 ~ '0 I'" 10 B '" E :> 0 '" 6 4 0. Following this concept. The. However. and the grain sizes k65 and ka•• By computing values of (R/k G. Relationship het.te the rela. (826).u(Jhness lI.and the velocity distribution. T1~e rongnness height for ~oving sediments is reprepented by the size /. can be used to estimate Manning's 1"1. S.+een (R/l.81 2.208 . (827) for the function <p(Rlle) is acceptable. 4 ll++i4+t·~+··".~ River at San Lll. the hydraulic radius R for such stt'eams may be I1Ssumed to C011Sist of two parts: the hydraulic radius RI due to surface roughness and the hydniulic radius R ..CONC""FTS RELATED TO UNIFORM FLOW '" 2U\:l ship exists between Manningls n .D. r~B. 810. 0. This curve is to be prepal'ed from the material sampled from the wetted perimeter within the chosen reach of the stream. Nioprara Ri~er at Butte.nd moving sediments is 0. Thus. A{lcording to Eiu. j I 0. by means of Eq..2 and 0. it will Pl'ovidean easy way of determining roughness in streams wherEJ velocity observations have been made.~..o Strickler's co~stant ..000 ~~~~~1!~flE~~~!~!~~f~~~~~~t~~ eooR 600 400 The simple measurement.1.8 L _ _ .. and Nacimiento River..
x OJ) 'for turbulent flow if the Chezy formuln. 20 H.1U1. (813).cement I. For lack of such a formula. 89. A wide channel carries a uniform . Determine whether the c.2/C ~ 0.883 = 9.ow.5V'.on in wide rough cha. 88.nnels.nnel to a virtual distance equal to the dispLa. of the flow in the channel described in Prob. . z 2.t (836) I i. = absolute velocity of disturbance waves in channel ~ = a shape factor of channel section. What are the mean velodty and its position? . the instability of the free surface is characterized by 'the formation of a series of roll waves. VA( is the maximum velocity.l velocitJ:"distribution coefficients in wide channels can be expressed as <:t.n velocity .. Wha. 84. (v~r/V) . 82.nd {J defined (26) and (27). (80 is deriv~d from the condition that the presence oi'the boundary Lg.im!l. 59 and 510.yer raises the bottom of the cha.hannel'described in the preceding problem is hydrauli' cally smooth or rough. 811. . When this happens. In. 1\ ~ 1 + 3. even though split by sand ba'rs and possibly by islands) is free of debris and vegetation. 86: Using Eq. Since .rries a uniform Row at a depth of 6 ft.00215 ft. depth of 0. respectively.tally large when instability of [Jaw develops. The Vede1'llikov number may be expressed as I I I 1 providing the value of X.8 depth gives the velocity at 0."( = 1 for very wide channels. V".il.V where x = exponent of the hydraulic radius in the general uniformflow formula Eq. V = mell. Many attempts [3245J ha. Eq. (a) show that the I:iverag8 of the velocity of 0. 81. Vedernikov [35].' . 8S.Il V = xyV V".t are maximum friction velocities on the sides and bottom of the dUlIInel? 8li. and V is the mea.5n/RH . show that the theoretico..1 where C is Ch6zy's resistance factor. developed a criterion which may be called the Vedemikov number V. B7. (26) (27) 1: When the Vedernikov nuniber V is less than unity. and A is the water area: Thus.te the length of channeL required for a fun development of the boundary layer \vhich begins tobe turbulent u. it should be noted that a suitable unifermftow formula for flow in chul1nels of large slope shoul(i be used in I where.2 depth alid the velocity at 0. on a slope of O.' But when V is equal to or greater than unity 1 waNes will amplify so that stableflow will become impossible. 810. Plot the profiie of the turbulent boundary layer. Geological Survey (Art. defined by dP 'Y=lRdA.ve been made to develop a criterion for instability of uniform flow.25 in. Eq.210 . and S = 0.:j is Darcy's friction factor. UNIFORM FLOW .5 ftwide carries a unirorm flow of 0. 1). The roll Wave is a phenomenon of unsteady flow and its nature will be described ill Art.. Instability of Uniform Flow.2. and (b) compute the position of the mean velocity below the free surface) and compare the result with that determined by the rule of the U.rming's roughness coefficient. Compute and construct a curve showing ~he theoretical velocity distribution in the channel section.r flow (Art. and developed similar criteria. Since the channel slope is us. 186») or to the critical velocity V. Plot a curve showing the relationship between a a. slope of 0. Uniform floW' will become unstable 'when the velocity of How is very high or the channel ..n velocity. I I \ THEORETICAL CONCEPTS RF. (834) where R is the hydraulic radius) P is the wetted perimeter. the Manning or Chezy formula is used as an approximation only. In 1945. having a value ork = 0. (833) may be reduced to V where f is Darcy's friction factor and 11 is Mll. Snow t. PROBLEMS 81. 199. R is the hydraulic radius.LATED TO UNIFORM FLOW 211 bank friction is negligible and in \vhich the active channel.hiclmetls. employing certain approximations of SaintVenaht. Comput. which considers the slope effect. Show that Eq.. (313). (51). and 'Y 0 for very narrow· channels.. and roll waves will form. Also show that ( = H.OOOL The channel surface is rough.001 ca. unsteady flow will preva. x = 2 for laminn.0(\ est.e the velocitydistribution coefficients. Thus.:n is Manning's roughness coefficient.15 ft and ll. Later. This phenomenon was first reported by Cornish [31J in 1910 when he observed it in open :channels in the Alps. It will be shown that V". computing V for a turbulent ft.1 di5tUl'bo.' = xyF (835) (1=1+. Craya (41} and Iwasa [43} studied the initiation of continuous tilliegrowth or decay of an infinitesi1110.nce wave 011 fluid surface. is and x = H for turbulent flow if the Manning formula is used. A laboratory [·ecta. .y developed in the channel. Compute the unit tractive force :Lnd the fric~icm velocit.V is equal to the celerity c of the waves (Art.flow a~ a depth of 5 in.ngular channel 1.. Determine the values of k in Probs. 010).slope is very steep. 26).the Froude number F =. the Froude number ill (835) should be computed by Eq. 22) with b . (813) for expressing the theoretical velocity distributi. 88.t the entrance. The roughness height of the channel surf!>ce is 0. 2.S...any wave in the chalinel will be depl'essed!ll1d the flow can be stable.VIV. Vi r r 1>.0009.V.34 cis at p. A trapezoidal channel (Fig.6 depth.
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(a) th 'I' f I " I" genela e"ects ot the follOWing I .hlen fiir Strome. 12121233. e disc lIar t" ' an yare m ft " . 117. S · " . H.. ' tv J Kestl'n . BarbuTossa: River channel roughness. ~elieur: The boundary layer development in open channels a ' . 7 .'06. " ' . 1954. ' . ' 17.tb thannel cross section. pp.1. pt. vol. s ream IlaVing moving sediment bed the f I' " 1 • able: S = 0. . Bazin: Recherches hydrauliques:I.. Jr. 0 " mg (ata are aVO. 1'08. . P. 14. no.. vol.ny. arry " Ambrose. Tra.D. U.85 o'nd 1 32 f . 18~~: 213 ' D~!Jts!?n. Ba. toc. 177234. 19. L. Dretting: A set of practical hydraulic formulae based on recent experimental research. " .f1merican SOCiety of Civil Engineers Journal Engi" . pp. Yoshiaki Iwasa: Boundary layer grow'h of oPen ch"nnel fl ". u"" pp.67F fo). Proceedings of the. 6.. Kyoto University. Doyer: Estima. . pt. d A _ _.
55 . 43. . voL 32. G. no. England. A.nd Applied Mathomat'ics.1950. 79:3807. 111 c1Iloirs oj the Faculty oj Engineering.nsactions.c:'1· /w{fUr C~N). 264275. 1952. 52.l?.. 58358G.p. Yoshiaki Iwusa: The criterion for. no. 39.S.nd Ralph W.Y!r~~ IJ<!Lf.Pbt'/iCe~) . 19.. pp. pp. ~·J:7 !'Wut. llfemoirs oj the FawUy oj Eng£neering. vol. 40.thematical solutions of the problems of roll waves in inclined open <lhanneis.st~cL. . Comptes rendus (Dok. H. 21!l229.:.f. ser. Ame.S. Tramactions.ce. 594&96. pt.llnion.~('1 rP4/L <141oi. and Yasuo Ishihara: On the rollwavetrains appearing in the water flolV on a steep slope surface. 1949. no . i I· r L \ 1 [ !. March.d?. Camptes renclHS (Doklady) de I' Acad~mie des Sciences de t' U.. 45. COlnmttnication. 29. 33. C. 35. 1940. 207210. no. V. Kyolo University. 1946. pp. V. August. London. U. Powell. Yuichi Iwagaki. I. Esr. Lin: "The Theory of Hydrodynamic Stability. pp. pp.'q' . Universit·y oj Iowa St'~dies in Engineering.1948. Circu.( J/. vo:' XIV. American Gcophy. ChiaShun Yih: Stability of parallel laminar flow with a free surface.L ~t0ly. pp. vol. C.(.. Robert F.. 294332. Robert F. no. July. G. . vol. Francis F.. pp. /t1rUd t(/I. 1954. 42. 41." Cambridge University .~t. 4. Keulegan and G. W.lar 521. 6.o:i or in closed conduits flowing partly full.lady) de l'Accidemie desScience~ de l'U. Oambridge.S. 2. December. 44. V. 239~242. pp. 31. 8391. 237241. no. 6. I l 2. pp. pp. 1925. Na. vol.S. Vedernikoy: Characteristic featur!)~ of a liquid flow in an Open channel. Patterson: A oriterion for instability of flow in steep channels! T. Tojiro Ishihara. YfJL 49. 149194.tiona.. 1952. 195138.. 21.A. 882886.S. Circular 521. Proceedings oj Hydraulics ConJere1J. 23.S. XVI.s: The propagation 'of waves in steep prismatic conduits. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. May.dards.offier: A graphical method for inVestigating the stability 9f flow in opim channeJ. Thoms. Kyoto University. PART III f I i \ GRADUALLYVARffin FLOW. . Dressler: Stability of uniform flow and rollwave formation. vol. I \ 32: Harold Jeffreys: The flow of water in an inclined channel of rectangular section. V. 35. 19i5. 4. II.~ica.R. . American Geophysical .f.'o. Bulletin 20. vol. r /'''' ec. pp.m. Dressler: Ma. pp. Discussions by V. National Bureau of Stan. 503507.~ on PW'e a. 1954. 1952. " 1 . ·34_ Harold A. Edinburgh and Dublin Philosophical i1!agazine and Journal oj Science. pp. 48. March.Powell: Vedernikov's criterion for ultnHapicl flow. National C01t(JreSJ oJ Applied lif echanic8. Proceedings oj the Gmuily Waves SVm. 623528.u of Standards. instability of steady uniform Hows in open channels. 2.ti&t:"i lyev. no. Ontya: The criterion for the possibility of roll wave formation. I ~k'~ • }..posium. 1940.ravity 'Waves Symposiu. 4.214 UNIFORM FLOW l . ·vol. 37.S. V.icanGeopilysical Union. Vedernilwv a. U. Proceedings oj the G. pp. Japan. Transactions.l Burea. Proceedings oj th~ 2d U.. Vedernikov: Conditions at the front of a translation wave distributing a steady motioll of a real fluid.! Uni011.Press. RalphW. Japan.
tJ7Ur/&'n1 t!c# t. that hydrostatic distribution of pressLlre prevails ovel' the channel section.td on Ilu hMCd'9. Bettes [G] has dClL'ived an jR relationship (Art. 9 THEORY AND ANALYSIS . This definition signifies two conditions: (1) that the flow is stea.c. Jir""tJy nt~.ru..~ti.~:s. ~l'il1·i. that the hydraulic characteristics of flow remain constant fqr the time interval under consideration. Bresse.dy.ny early hydraulicians L have contributed to this development. 12).Sunderland Technical College lind ICing's College in England and from the University of lllinois. Also. • 1 .s been verified satisfactorily by many experiments.l!~t. Basic Assumptions.~ .) J !n~ for '/. _ . .].' l/eerd k11 tZP~>YI .century. The development of the theory of gradually varied flow dates back to the eighteenth . the computlltion of backwater curves based on this assumption ho.J 11. El. BOllssiuesq. .c::~l~_e~_dy_. .dfL! 91. though not VEry rigorous. entirely by frictional eff~g~. that is. t.". This as~umption has never been precisely confirmed by either experiment 2 or theory.form flow is applicable to the va'ned flow.~~I Bela."" nel .. indicate the validity of the assumption for practical purposes.:.(."v of decreasmg velocity~here may.. and the corresponding coefficient of roughness developed primarily f01' wd.hat is..nger ll] is believed to be the outstanding contriblltor. channel sect'ion._n7 CHAPTER .d~. 13) for gradually variedftow in smooth open cblHlels. 217 . the u:r. Also El.. According to this assumption.~·~ &~"Rtff lV1301HOd qn'gt. because in a flow of increasing velocity the head loss is caused almost.lo. l/}~ctr~ a:lt/ ~~ ~~"7~7~~~1/2prn#. Poncelet.tv' ai"r£. The gradually varied flow to be discussed in Part III of this book is the steady flow whose depth varies gradually dong the length of the channel (Art. whereas in a flo..tically all hinge on the following basic assumption: p A. These experimental verifications. Over years of use this assumption has proved to be a reliable basis for design.1iformflow formula and in the selection of the Toughness coefficient. 2 Using the experimentlll data from the . The assumption is undoubtedly more correct for varied flow where the velocity increases than where _the velocity decreases.mong early contributors are Bernoulli.1 .iformflow fonmila may be used to evaZ1/ate the enngy slope of a gracl1wlly variecl flow at a giveTI. which WIIS found to agree very closely with the relationship for uniform ftow obtained by Allen [7].. Mn. bnt errors arising . from it are believed to be small compared with those ordinarily incurred in the use of a u. The head loss at a sectionis the same as for a Hnijo'(m flow having the velocity and hydra111'icraciius of the section. SaintYenant. and (2) that the streamlines are practicaily parallel. The theories thus developedprac.E(.I~ [af.lld others [2] to [5].
'C is positive.. The total head above the datum at the upstream section 1 is I Ii :) ! . Thus.:'~ . dd Substituting dx = cos () + Ctd(V~j2g)jdd So .+ a 2g V2 (32) T . The conveyance K (Art.tersUl'face profile. ". and greater than So 1 if ddjdx is negative. It represents'the slope of the water) surface with "espect /0 the bottom of the channel. 63) and section factor Z (Art.5 <1> 54J<.. Dynamic Equation of Gradually Varied Flow. 91). :".Jb:. H = z + d cos e.f "" :. 1 in Fig. 92. The depth of flow is the same whether the vertical or normal (to .. The velocity distribution in the channel section is fixed..l1nel bottom So = sin 0 = dz/dx. (215). B.=~~. Taking the bottom of the channel as th!3 x axis and differentiating Eq.or simply as . (91) and solving for ddjdx. Hence. the channel bottom) direction is used.= a1~~ssuEled po§.t _ .: of the w[.ds. that is. Consider the profile of gradually varied flow in the elementary length dx of an open channel (fig. The pressurecorrection fact. 43) are expOl18ntial fUllctions of the depth of flow. The depth d is measured from the bottom of the channel. 91. . (32) with respect to the length :1. 11'1 case of notable air entrainment. less than . The slope of the channel is small. This is the general differential equation for gradually varied flow. which is measured along the x axis. . the energy slope Sf = dH7dx. 91.. No air entrainment occurs.218 GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW 'l'HEORY AND ANALYSlS ' In addition to the above basiQ assumption.itive_if i~e8cena~n the direction of flow and negative if it aSC§Jl. the water surface is paranel to I . the gradual/yva7'ied:'Jtow eqttation.4 FIG. C..::. dx 2g and the slope of th~ ch~. D. . 2.. .d in ft i z is the vertical distance of the channel bottom above the datum in ft. It is aSllUmed that 8 and ex are\ constant throughout the channel reach under consideration.. the velocity. (212)] is equal to unity . referred to hereafter as the'dY1iamicequa:t~Q'n. . 3. Derha. '!""'~. 'I~ . Thus. at the end. " t where Ii is the total hea.. ex is the energy coefficient. F. the following equation is obtained: ..:. (J is the bottomslope angle. and V is the mean .~~ i Y'~>3'" . the following aSEum:ptions will also be. lJ. The channel is prismatic.tion of the graduallyvariedfiaw equation. d is the depth of flow section in ft.Sf (92) '( ( + (V2) It shouldJ?e n(jte<Uliat the slope i~fined as the sine of the .. In other words.or cos IJ [applied to ·the depth of. velocity of flow through the section in fps. .of gradually variedflow. E. the slope of the water surfcLCe is equftl to the bottom slope r So if ddjdx = 0.. . the flow section" Eq.. so that: 1.distribution coofficients are constant. r . the channel has constant alignment and shape. sl~le .so if dd/d..hese slopes in Eq.. using Eq. The roughness coefficient is independent of the depth of flow and constant throughout the channel reach under consideration. used where further simplification is necessary in subsequent discussions: . ... dH = dz + cos edd (91) Ct d dx cl. l It should be notEld that the frictional loss dE is always a negative quantity itl the 'direction of flow (unless outside energy is added to the course of the flow) and that the change ill the bottom elevation dz is a negative quantity when the slope descends. the computation may be carried out assuming no entrainment and then corrected approximately. t..rld the channel bottom is taken as the x axis.:..
The symbol Z..llic radius of the section. 67) .. Thus Eq: (92) becomes .~. (97) This is anotber form of the graduallyvariedflow equation. (93) will be used in subsequent discussions. (4. ddjdx. which is computed for the discharge Q at a depth equ~l to y of the gradually vUl'iedfiow. ~Y = So 1 . Now. The symbol Z simply represents the numerical value of VA3/T.)ad term may be developed as follows: 1 form.r(K. the velo~ityhf. Eq. (95). . Eq. (97) and (912) in Eq.ual to the bot_tom slope. The value of Z.OJ cos 8"" 1. 1 . The notation K represents simply the numerical v!).u1d ~~t)9._'!h. ~ . 1 .vo.:..Sf (93) In: a In most problems. i . 220 GRADUALLY VARIED. expressed in terms of the conveyance [(. (910). which is computed for Q at the depth v. used herein should be carefully distinguished from the Z in Eq. FLOW . d "" y.i~icalfiow computation for discharge Q at depth Ye. and . Dividing (010) by Eq. loweling when del/dx is negative. velocity and hydra1. where (J is a function of X.hel'wise.lue of the conveyance at a depth yof the gradually varied flow. this slope at a channel section of thegr!ldually ~al'ied flow is equal to the' energy slope of the uniform fiow that has t). There are other popular forms of the graduallyvariedflow equation that can readily be derivea. = 0.. (915) '\ The term Sf inEq.. an~q . the energy (64)./Z)2 (913) where Z. such as dy dx = . . rising when dd/ dx is positive.(Kn/KF So 1 . The coefficient a has been [./J()~ (914) where r So/ S. substituting Eq. \ . Since V =Q/ il.e . (93) represents the energy slope.. and cld/dx ~ dy/dx. (910) may be written (911) where K" is the conveYfllCe for uniform flO'w at a depth y". may be written (9l0) Suppose that a uniform flow of a discharge equal to Q occurs in the section. According to. is used.1 + ad(Tn/2Q)/dy dy _ So . The value [(" is t~e conveyance computed for Q at the depth yAas if the flow were r. the change in velopity head would have been expressed as (I(Cl V2/2g)/dy. Ot. wonh:l have been added to the denominator.2 2gdy =  aQ2 dA gA3 dy'=  aQ2T gfP (94) Z = VJP/T. as if the flow were considered critical. the channel slope is smaH. (95) and simplifying.the :first assumption in Art. where IX is a function of x. Otherwise. Q is constant.x . (96)' for Q in Eq. I . (93). Sf So = Kn~ d (V~) a dy \ Since 21} = aQ2 dfi. and dA/dy '1'.onsideted uniform.i i. This Kn should be distinguishedfro}n K in Eq.(Z. (9~1l). the energy slope is When the Mann~ng formula (98) When the Chezy formula is tiseo.ssumed to be constant from section to section of the channel reach under consiciel·p. a term d sin (J(d8/dd). THEORY AND ANALYSIS 221 the cbannel bottom when. is the section factor. The term ex d(P/2g}/dy ill the variedfiow equation represents the change in velocity head. the slope angle 0 has been assumed constant or independent of x.n.}~!!~~~~()jJe . or the ratio of the channel slope to the critical slope at the normal depth of discharge Q (Art.4:) gives (96) ](2 (912) Substituting Eqs. .(Kn/IC)2 dx . accordingly. 91.tioll. the above may be written d (V2) a aQl =  ely \ 2y gZ2 (95) Suppose that a critical flow of discharge equal to Q occurs at the section.:rJ. For small .. Sf = Vi GZR (99) . is the section factor for cl'.. In the abovH equation.
The corresponding flow must be supercritical.. the first case indicates y > y" and Y > Y. A horizontal slope is a zero slope.(Zo/Z)2 l· . Yn = 00. dy/ilx is s T:~ ::s:c:.e:e:rese~L~b~~t~cal 0\ > y > Yo this equation indic. vVhen the water surface is parallel to the bottom of the channel.' dy (IX = . > Yet and a uniform sllpercritieaIflow if Yo > Yn = y. Eq. ' The flow profile represents the surface cUI'Ve of the flow.ining. that the flow is subcritical in a rild channel.. When the Chezy formula is used. > 0 and 1 . (917) 2. is the cntic!1r discharg. dy/d:!: is negative aild Eq. (913) gives two possible cases: 1.(K n/K)2 The first case indicates that Yo > Y > Yn._. 92 expresses the longitudinal surface slope of the flow with respect. a ackwater curve. Characteristics of Flow Profiles. a channel of subcritical slope).(Kn/K)" > 0 and 1 (Zc/Z)2 (Z.I. and it occurs i:n a mild channel if Yn > y.s or profiles of the water surface of the flow. dy dx Since the values of K and Z increase 01' decrease continuously with the depth y. The values . the second case indici.(1('. 1 .1tes two possible conditions: ~7'd' <'I "ac<'O' J. cha.1. a channel of supercritical slope)." r ~I 1 .stair. [\nd ' .222 GRADUA. In a channel of horizontal slope.1 . (913) fo~ hOrizo\ltal channels may be written dy _ (Q/K)~ dx . the value of K.. dy/dx = 0. if y > y. 1. of I( and Z in this eauatiori 1)..he depth of flow approaches the top of the conduit (Art. .". As y > y" the flo'N must he subcritical.45) if the depth decreases in the dil'ecti'on of flow.. the channel is considered prismat'ic. 8./Z)~ <0 1 The term" backwater curve 11 i$ used primarily to indicate the longitudinal surface curve of the water backed up above . For wide rectangular channels. If Y > Yn > y" the sUDcritlcal flow must occur in a mild channl!l (i.(Kn/KP < 0 and 1 (Z. It can therefore be used to describe the characteristics of various flow profile. depth equal to y. > Yn > y. Qn is I. and Eq. .ve extended its meaning to include all types of flow profiles. :Following the description in the preceding article. 0:. For a backwater curve. On the other hand.1·discharge at ~. or steep (supel'critical). A nonsustaining slope may be either horizontal or adverse./Z)" <0 > 0 .called a positive slope. dy/dx is positive.'OY". after reaching its maximum value. that the flow is superCi:itical in a steep channeL 'Slffiiiarly. dam or into a tributary by flood in the mllin stream.Q~/C2A2R .. thus. Tbe flow is a unjform critical flow if y = Yn = Yo. and.LY VARIED FLOW THEORY AND ANALYSIS 223 where Q is the given discharge of the gradually varied flow at the actual depth y. . sQor:lo? flow with ve. will decrease as t.ection of flow and a dmwdown curve (Art.tes that ~ V > Yo.! <0 and 1 = <:: 1 '0 (Yn/V) 3 1 _ (yjy)3 (918) 93. Qt" So = ~ (911) gives Kn = 00 .. 70r purposes of discussion. ~..re assumed to increase or decrease continuously with the depth' y. and the rest of the notation is as defined in this article.he nQrma. It 'will represent a backwater cUl've l (Art... or Y == yn. When the Ma11n. 1 . (913) gives two possible cases: 1. to the channel bottom.aQ2/ gA2D (916) where D i~ the hydraulic depth.(K n /K)2 2. the second case indicates Y < Yn and y < yo.ny authors ha. 9E. and Eq.ing and nonsusta.ing formula is used. or ~ince K . Eq. > Yn. 6~3). For a drawdowll curve.e. Ma. 45) if the depth of flow increases in the dil. (919) Considering Un 1.' A sustaining or positive slope may be critical. An adverse slope is a negative slope that rises in the direction of flow. This is true for all opeilchanmil sections except for conduits with a gradually closing top. it can be seen that the flow profile is a backwater curve if dy/dx is positive and a drawdown curve if dy/d~: is negative. F'or simplicity.:t a depth equal t·o y. In such conduits.. A sustaining slope is a chai1l1el slope that falls in the direction of flow. 1 .. which indicates a uniform now. . The dynamic equation of gradually varied flow developed in Art. (913) is used for discussion. .nnel slope may be classified as sv.. C is Chezy's resist~nce factor./Z)2 > 0 2.. e second case represents a supercritical ~.0. ~ = Q. ~s shown as positive. mild (sllbcritical). Ulliform subcritjcal flow if y = y . and Q. thus.draWs1oWl~\::::e~ :~~:e~o_yac.e.Hence. Similarly. > !I and in a steep channel if y.(Z.1 So . a sustaining slope is always positive and' may also be ./ K)2 = 0. the subcritical flow must oceur in a steep channel (i. (913) gives 1 .
at or nep. In fact. the Chezy C is tak~n 1M! an imaginary Y!l.. '1> l) yn lin > >u> "> y.riably positiye. A 8ubcl'itical flow in which y > y~ 2.ducal Uniform~ 11> y.. introduce large errors.ter Ba. when y = O.>0 C2 C3 j ] := Parallel to 1). it is important to recognize the theoretical behavior of the fiow profile at several specific depths. When Y = Yn = Y" the flow is uniform and criticaL . In this case. ~ hydraulic jump or drop in flow profile may occur. This means that the curve \vill make a certain angle with the bottom. Eq.relitlcal 8 lpexcri. the flow profile is bent to produce such great curvature that the parallelflow assumption' for ~he definition of gradually varied flow will.u{"ve . When y = Yn. Points of Inflection on Flow Profile. (913) gives two possible cases: I 225 P . that that the flow pl'(jfile will be vertical in crossing the criticaldepth line. that is. Therefore. Supercritical *11". 'lin> !I II' . K" :must be imaginary or [(Hi must be negative [8]. C.. as noted. dy/dx is positiYH. >y. (\)13) cannot be used to describe or compute accu!'aiely the flow profile near the critical depth. 11 'lJ~ channel bQttom en tlcnl II. .t'l fill !In.en.o keep values of A aud. and .ellY formula.the flow profile is 3. may be used for explallation. 11. <0 '* > lie >11 'D.nnel.a Zone 1 I Rela. that the flow surface is paranel to the bottom of the channel.l' the criticaldepth line. When y = <0. Eq. TYP8 of fiow Zone 3 'i : None Non~ i None Horizontal S.)3 for y = O. I B . > 0 None y. Eq. If the depth of flow is ch!mged suddenly from a low stage to ll. ThUll. B. The value Un hw. that .kwnt. Discontinuit1{ in Flo'/j) ProjjJ.tioil : ~. an indeterminate form co /00 for dyjdx. > 11 Bll. Eq. By the Ch. Deaign:.t. positlve value. When Y. is imaginary.ld be a point of inflection pn the flow profile when y: < y. However. K = CAR~' and K' . It is apparent that there shou..! ! 1i> (lIA)* None 8ubcriticnl (lin)' >!I > Y. l'epresentinga discontinuity iIi the flow Profile. 1 In fact. '11> 1I. dy/dx is negative. 92 and 04. For the subsequent discussion. (913) shows that dy/dx SD.. or SD < 0. [12] have .ckwa~er Supererltjoal Sub.wdown 1:1 'I Subcritieal i SupercrhJcal ! SubcrlU".:.224 Gfu\DUALLY VARIED FLOW THEORY AND ANALYSIS TAllLE 91. the value of Yn cannot be easily expressed.value of Yn is physically . Eq. of. Then the Ch.'J« > >y Dra.1 Suberitir. it can be sh~wn that dy/dx == So(y. it can be shown that dy/dx becomes infinite. Yn Backwater ~ Subcrit. > 8.the flow surface is horizontal. depth very close to the channel .ll occur. for So' ilegative va. In the second case. y. th. Consequently.QFILES. then a hydraulic drop wi.revealed that this point of inflection is at [l. (913) seems to produce. the flow may become so curvilinear or rapidly varied that the theory and equations deve~oped in the preceding artiCle become inapplicable. >!I I/n Bllckwn. Mild "12 Drnwdo\itn NJ 1. Eq.':zy iormlila./y.ckwJlter Supercritical Steep 81 182 I 133 . . Behavior of Flat/) P1'Ofile at Specific Depths. > >!I y. also been \lssumed to be positive [10J. If the depth changes from a high to low stage. A.tive [9]. A supercriticaJ flow in' which Y <Ye i Oha.= C'A. that is.ti.ors l'egard Un as ~ega.I<lJ'e· j I j In the first case. < Vii' Mathematical investigations by Gunder [11] and Mouret. For a wide rectangular channel. for negative values of SD.n~raJ typO I of c.io~ I 1'.. (913) indicates tMt~= co.. < B. impossible because a uniform flow call never occur in an adverse channel. 1 Some auth. This means that the curve is vertical at the channel bottom. By this equation. Eq. TYPES QF FLOW In a channel of adverse ~lope. Rand llJnce 1/n must be negative.. It should be noted that. it can be shown that the theoretical behayior of the flow profile at or near y = 0 depends on the tYIJe of uniformflow formula used in the computa. a finite positive .icul 8. high stage in crossing the criticaldepth line. When y 0. Sup.8. When Y YG.'R.R inY!l. I ' Zone 1 Zone 2 Zon.'s: . (917) represents the slope of flow profile ii the Manning formula is used.tion. Since Ie.. Some special features of the theoretical flow profiles are' as' follo". in parenthe3es is uaumed a. 0 H2 > Y>...lue in order t.lue of K'.1) to VA and 'JI4 Zone 2 I y~ G. drawdown curve. If the Chezy formula is used. (913) shows that dy/dx 0.e.'1 i y" ). Eq: (911) indicates that.r <1.: (Why'?) The above discussions are summal'ized ill Table 91 and in Figs. IN PRISMATIC CHANNlliLS I I 1.l 1 11• > > I" Adver•• A2 A3 J.~) S. Critical 8.is signifies unifonn flow. a hydraulic jump will occur. ami the flow profile is a backwater curve.
and the shapes al~e shown in 92 and 94. and A for adverse slope. 9a).n t flow profiles were first given by Boudin [14].:. " o ~ . . A3. S3.l 1 ~'0. (Fig. Since the profiles near the critical depth and the channel bottom co. pool level (Art.:. Th. 02. Of the thirteen flow profiles. • This point of inflection occurs because the profile must have !J. 02.i£effll: fia w It should be noted that a continuous flow profile usually occurs only in one Llone..i/~ f~i~ " I FIG.LLY VARIED FLOW THEORY AND ANALYSIS Downstream pooll&>e i 227 Yn I None ! r. Classification' of Flow Profiles..rvhere the letter is descriptive oithe slope: H for h/)l'izontal..r.wj&a0 ' _ 2. of gradually vari!)d flow..he normaldepth and criticahiepth lines divide the space in aehannel into three Llones: . 93). < I I I bottom. types according to t. _ _ _ .he nature of the channel slope and the zone in which the flow surface lies. and A2.S2.nsitional profile and then bend forward tangent to the downstream .nd c!llSsification of diff~re. 81._.... Zone 1.226 lD GRADUA.. ~. M2. 11/ for mild (subcritical).~ 94. space below the lowel' line Thus. of . The space between the two lines Zone 3. 0W//////////''''''#~ Yo I~ 7/%! L~T/lP/7/. 96).. These types a.ived that a comprehensive description a. It is beliP. The general characteristics of th~e profiles are given in Table 91.1 Similarly.·_.w. 1113. twelve are for graduJ1lly v~d Bow and one.. CI..re designated as H2. Classification of' flow profiles.'I. 0 for critical. C3. 3 For the given discharge and channel conditions t. 92. horizont.:~ . . H3. S for steep (supercritiCal).!1·1~ E1 c ~ _ . 1 It is believed that the question points of inflection was first discussed by Merten (13).Theoretical points of inflection on now profiles. and where the numeral represents the zone number. Ml . . . Y l.nnot be accurat~ly defined by the theory of gradu '~ Yh='ic~ ! i ! 1 _ . . MI. "  . FIG. The space . is for lltl..al slope in crossing the tra. Mouiet found that another point of inflection exjsts on the flow profile when V"> y" > y.sLNone Vi 0.W7_'.  rYo _______ "\ 1. .. the flow profiles may be classified into thirteen different.bove the upper line Zone 2.  \13 .
. Examples are the . This means the. The beginning of the profile. So > S. it is the most important of all . the farther downstream the profile will begin. Therefore.h less than the normal depth..B. they are shown with short dashed or dotted lines.. depending on the t.lld terminates with a hydraulic jump ut the downstream end.228 GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW ~l r THEORY AND ANALYSIS' (0) 229 ally varied flow.. Rince dy/dx = Sn as y c:Q. Examples of the M3 profil. fl. This type of profile usually occurs when a supercritical flow enters a mild channel. Examples are the profile at the upstream side of a sudden enlargement of a callul cross Stctioll (Fig. 94b). M P1'ofiles. S Profiles. The "11 pt'ofile the most well. where the pool level is shown both above and below the criticaldepth line (F'ig.. 94c) and the profile in a cana'! leading to a reservoir.. 94(3) and the profile after the change in bottom slope from steep to mild (Fig. thus the velocity would become infinite.since dyJdx = <0 for y = y. The upstream end of the flow profile is tangent to the normaldepth line. with its end tangent to a: vertical line at a depth equaJ to the criticald~pth. If the depth of submergence at the down. Typieal examplea of the 1111 profile are the profile behind a dam in a natural river (Fig.. . SQ < Se and Yll >Y•. and the downstream end is tangent to the horizontal pool surface. although it cannot be defined precisely by the theory. ThiS profile oeem's when the downstream end of a long mild channel is submerged in a l'eseryoir to a. at either a verticalangle slope or all acute angle. the flow profile will terminate abruptly. and y" < Yo_ The Sl profile·begins with a jump' at the upstream and becomes tangent to the horizontal pool level at the downstream end. Various flow profiles are discussed below. sinae dyld:r: = 0 as Y Yn.How profiles from the practical point of view. At this end y = 0. An MZ profile occms when the bottom of the channel at the downstream und is submerged in a reservoir toa dept.ype of uniformflow formula used (Art. If the amount of submergence at the downstream end is less than the critical depth. since dyldx = 0 as y = y. 94d). 93). . known backwater curve. greater depth than the normal depth of the flow in the channeL This flow profile lies ill zone L The upstream end of the curve is tangent to the normaldepth line. A. J / /" / dy!d •• + :~ .stream end is than the critical depth. the theoretical upstream end of an M3 profile can never exist physically. 'The theoretical upstream end of the profile will intersect the channel bottom.e are the profile in a stream below a sluice (Fig. creation of a hydraulic drop.. depends on the initial velocity of the water._~~  C'_ The 11£3 profile starts theoretically from the upstream channel bottom. 94f) . The higher the velocity. 94a) and the profile ill a canal joining two reservoirs (Fig. then as much of the profile will form as Jies above the water 'surface in the reservoir.
l1 the normal slope. A Profiles. is not reaL The /12 and A3 profiles are similar to the H2 and H3 profiles.938yo where yo is the diumeter of the conduit (Art. When hha Ghezy fot'mula i~ used J Eq.ing cases of ]. The positions of the depths y" and y. formed between an issuing supercriticoJ flow . (Fig. It will increase first to the value of full discharge at a depth yo' less' than the full depth yo. Thereafter. The H2 o. Within the region of IJ ya' and y = Yo.eep 8lopes.the normal. Assuming a wide rectangular channel. d profiles of flow behind a dam·in a steep channel (Fig. C P1·ofilcs. but no H1 profile can actually be est. 941.nd H3 profile3 correspond to the 1lf2. and d shows these fol' mild and st. since the value of y. Examples are the profife on the steepslope side as the channel slope changes from steep to milder steep (Fig. E. since it starts upsti·eo.) and on the steepslope side as the channel slope changes from steep to (Fig.. 9:4g) and in a steep canal emptying into a pool of high elevation (Fig..' and Y. since y . Profiles in Conduits with a Gradually Closing Tflp. In general. charge. So and y ..and the normaldepth line to which the profile is tangent.ablished. = y•. These profiles the transition conditioi15 between Ai and S profiles. these figures . 95a .'. Examples are shown in Fig. but that its corresponding lower normal depth is less than Yfo' and Yn. Flow profiles in a closed condui~. and that below a sluic~ with the depth of the entering flow less than the normal depth on a· steep slope 94l). Figure 95b. A profiles occur infrequently. (918) will show that the two profiles are horizontal lines.. the normal discharge will increase as the depth of flow increases.shows the variation of normal discharge in such a conduit.' The A 1 profile is impossible. respectively.For nny conduit with a gradually closing top. 94m and n). S~ < o. 95. These are the limit... C.. there a. 95d is . 8 0 0 andy" = 00 • . H P1·ofili3s. the corre. 940' and p.and 11{3 profiles. 64). the lower normal depth y" and the upper or conjugate Following the principle used in the preceding paragraphs. .m with a vertical slope at the critical depth and is tangent to the normaldepth line at the downstream end. . the depth Yo'·"" O. F.re two possible normal depths for a given dis. Examples of H profiles are shown i!l Fig. fll the case of a circular conduit. greater than .. . c. is infinite. 94k). itorrnal depth y . namely.Eq.. depths y.f profiles when the channel bottom becomes horizontal. (917) shows that C1 and C3 pl'ofiles Iwe curved and that the Clprofile is asymptotic to a horizon tal line (Fig. Examples are the profiles formed on the downstream side of an enlargement of channel section.. 94h). The S3profile is also of the tra!Jsitional type.. Further increase depth of flow will decrease the discharge eventually to the full discharge at the moment when the flow surface touches the top of the conduit. it can be demonstrated that four types of How profiles are possible for a given slope [1519J. and the channel slope is considered mild.' are assumed constant in \ I in FIG..m at a depth Yn *.. Consequently.230 GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW THEORY A~D ANALYSm 231 . sponding critical slope should be less th!l. D. The C2 p7'ofile the case of uniform critical flow. It shuuld be noted that the critical depth in Fig. .82yo and y" * = O.1 . the discharO'e will reach a m!)'ximum value Q.. 94q and r. It· is usually very short and rather like a transition between a hydraulic drop and uniform flow. The 82 profile is a drawdown curve.
since·theflow is generally rapidly varied. 2. 1. The flow profile in ~ long prismatic channel with a constant slope:has been described in Ar~... M. 9·4.~y ~".se s\O?e 11 FIG... CI . slope ~' I I I (n) (s) . 96.~~.~~~~~~i... This channel is equivalent to a pair of connected prismatic channels of the same cross section but with differen~ slopes.. A.( [ 232 (a) GltADUALLY VARIED FLOW ~l .~. 9(3.~_.::::=: ____ _ . ~.. OPe I Cl' Depending on aownst ream Depending ~ (f) ':::::.._:~mp (tJ Sfs e ' ~ ~ • P .'_... .nnel with Ii Change in Slope. .:::..~ . have 0...ld slOn .  '0 con~?: I Thlck lines indicate water surJoce FIG.... B. ~e / ~~'''" Milder slope I Cr' JlicG/ ~ ///~~~~~~~:. ~.NALYSIS· 233 ~l ~_.. ___ .~ .. downstrecm 'lIl '\:\ ..Jump ..:. slope .~" . Twenty typica. . This procedur~ constitutes a very significant part of all problems inchannel design for gradually varied flow.:. ~ (q} . MI Dependinc. hreak in' 9":5./oPe (>. Critic 01 s~ /. Pi'ismatia Channel with Constant Slope.:: ~" .yout.. It enables the engineer to leatn beforehand the possible flow profiles that may occur in a given chann~l la. Adverse.... THEORY AND A. :3 . I em) ". (P) ~.. Typical examples shown in Fig. theoretically. ~... Analysis of Flow Profile.. Profiles of gradually varied flow in a long prismatic channel with bottom slope..l flow profiles in a long prismatic channel with a break in'slope are shown in Fig."_/:.. ". In passing a critical line.. Howevel. ."'.1~~'LEGEND I " 1/ 1171777Tmn.' The profile near or at the critical depth caml0t be predicted precisely i:ly the theory of gradu. the flow profile should.'1:. on downstream .a~e ". C"\ "'" ~:). ._ . . 94 shduld be helpful in determining the type of flow profile in a given problem..oe '! '::""~~\\':~ Mild. 9·6 (Continued). Slo.~ . Prismatic Cha. Flow'"profile analysis is a proQedure used to predict the general shape of the flow profile. ..:':'.~lly varied flow. t2.:. some special features should be mentioned.!.:. These profiles are· ' selfexplanatory._ _:..
At the control section. aompute the curve represellting the sequent dep~h of the M3 profile. throughout the entire channeL ' 3. for each reach.I """""ntu. 5. typical profiles described previously (Art. . the jump will occur in tHe dowllstream channel if the normal depth i~ this channel is comparatively smalL When the slope of the downstream channel decreases and. shown by dotted lines. H the computed level does not agree with the given pool level. The exact location of the jump will be discussed later (Art. a hydraulic jump is usually crsl:'. ARTIFICIAL CONTROL SECTION. trace in each reach a continuous profile. for jn.y be obt. The exact location of the jump will be disclissed in Art.ge. required sta. which is the horizontal asymptote of the )12 profile.ained by correcting the posit. and plot the normaldepth line.ion for the length of the jump. UPSTREAM CONTROL SIWTION.s tho~e for upstream control U. 4. then repeat the computation with another assumed discharge until the computed level agrees with the given leveL 5. 94) should be found useful.s~ance. because the flow will approach th. s. Th":l normal and critical depths of the flow in a channel have been Sketch ~he possible flow profiles. may occur at any section in the channel and its position cannot be determined easily. The artlficil.el with Seueral Changes in Slope. at which the control depth either is known or can be determined.. In the iowennost reach. because the lVIl or lIlZ curves will approach the normal depth at the upstream end. 4. The position of the profile in each reach can be corre~tly located with respect to the normal~ and criticaldepth lines.and ]. D. There are three types of cont. B. accordingly. and plot the criticaldepth line. shown by dashed lines.bove '~he break of the ehannel bottom and may be different from the depth shown in the figure. 157. the control depth (see also Art. Plot the channel profile with all exaggerated vertical scale. Various types of flow profile are sketched irl the ugure.2 :flow must pass through a control depth which may be the critica. W'"'!.vhich a uniform flow can be established far upstream and downstream. First loeste the possible control sections..234 GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW THEORY AND ANALYSIS 235 vertical slope. the normal depth. or any other known depth. Starting D. This occurs in any steep reach at the upstl'eam end. Thecritical depth therefore. In crossing the criticaldepth line.C.eep reaches occur in succession. Then.:~ . For the same reason. • The term "control section" used here has a. throughout tile channeL . strea.. Locate all possible control sections. the critical depth may not occur exactly a.m reaches is apparent.icaL r C. the flow profile has to pass the critical depth soniewhere in the reach. C. The formation of the hydraulic jumps in th~ rnidtlle and down. and artificial con~rol A.re shown in Fig. (2) spatially 1 Actua. it may raise the flow surface at the upstream control. In this discussion factors arc assumed constant.to assume a discharge and to determine to which case q to t the profile should belong. 96g and l). 9Bq to t). If the downstream end of a mild channel terminates at a free overfall. When several st.ream channel conditions but by the elevation of the upstream pool level. Since the flow is usually rapidly varied when the critical linej the actual slope of the profile cannot be predicted precisely by the theory.t.'""_'" !Lnd ~. the discharge is fixed not by upst. A more exact value for the position of the jump ma. compute the flow profile in the upstream direction and determine the pool level.eil'. 2. When flo'''' is super critical in the upsi:. the hydraulic jump may occur either in the upatl'eam channel or in the downstream channel.l depth.t the control depth at each control section.ream portion of a reach but subcriticaI in the c1ownst. broad meaning.rol section: a. In nonprismatic channels and channels with spatially varied flow.(3 profiles should be computed first.h as a v. the analJfsis of flow becomes complicated by the fact that the control section . 3. Compute y. for each reach. Typical profiles (Fig. Upstream control also occurs in long mild reaches. The procedure of analysis is . !H3) are illustrated for long channels in . 97.lIy \ the computed critical depth is somewhat behind the brink (Ar~.. Prismatic Chann. dam. 91. 157). This occms at a control structure.. Compute y. for instance. the normal depth increases. g. If the upstream channel has an adverse slope (Fig.The intersection of the sequentdepth curve and the lYf2 profile gives the approximate position of ~he jump. the control section is at the upstream end of the uppermost reach.els wilh Spat£ally Varied Flow. b. If the downstream water surface is very high.l con" trol in this e:<ample is a sluice which b~ks up waler to form an 81 profile on the 'upstream side. It refers to any' section at which the depth of flow is known or can be controlled to !l.ream portion. but the determination of their exact positions requires further con~idera...tion. f 45). 34). the control Section 'may be assumed at the brink where the depth is crit. sur.. the J'{2 . In some cases (Fig.ted in raising the wat. For this purpose. such n.either the Sl or S2 profile.C . . 1 Also depending on relative roughness and shape of the two connecting chan' nels.. depel1~il1g upon the relative steepness of the two slopes. since the flow in a steep channel has to pass through th$ critical section at the upstream end and then follow .et surfa<. the jump will move upstream. .C.e from a low depth to its depth. This occurs at the downstream end in any long steep reach. downstream control D. eventually into the upstream channel. Nonprismatic Channels and Chan'n.ga). DOWNSTREAM CONTROL SECTION. Then.. 1 In case {I.For such channels the general procedure of analysis is as follows: 1.e normal dep~h at the downstream end. or sluice gate. Consider three different channel slopes for three types of :low: (1) continuous flow in aprisrnatic channel (Fig.
98b). Method of Singular Point..)2 F2(X.O.vas first applied to flow studies in cha. (915) be represented by two functions.. For a comprehensive treatment of flow profiles. and extended by Jaeger [241.nel (middle view of Fig: 98a). M2 . • flow critlca/ 1ICoi I I Steep ~ varied flow of increasing discharge in a prismatic channel (Fig. . CrJ t i co I 'C. De Marchi [25].l f'. Homrna [26. E E _Z Mild slope FIG. = artificia.. 98b). = downstream control.ubCritical flow ~ ~t Critical' U I'.nuels. 1 At this ~oment.C. 97. At any moment.ransfer of the critical control section occurs almost instant.. In the first .(Q/Q. flow 1.)2 = F 1 (3:.~_:~_ flo". in either prisrnatic or nonprismatic channels with constant or variable slope.. the critical control section will be transferred from the downstream end to the upstream end.:~~~". and any section in the reach is. use has been made of advanced mathematical approaches.type of flow.~~ Critical control section I [s Upercrj~. .y) or (9~20) Then. FI~. a.Exa. U. Location of critica. 96.C...L conirol section Critlcol % .nnels of variable slope by Masse [23]. (922) Hence. . Accordingly. dy dx = " leD l Superr:rir'cal '. 2 See another method of anillysis by Merten [20.C..l c'ontrot section.1. In the seeond and third types of flow.. = upstream control. 96). Sol. or ~~ (921) (a) (b) and The solution of Eq. the flow downstream from the control section is supercritical. 2 One a. and (3) continuous flow in a nonprismatic channel having a constant'slope but varying cross section (Fig.236 GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW THEORY AND ANALYSIS' 237 a. control. channels with small slopes will be considered.a . and others. .. (a) Flow in a prismatic channel. the normal depth coincides with the critical depth. Let the numerator and denominator of Eq.. The determination of the control section will be described in the next article.pproach is the use of the theory of the singular point .mple 91. and the flow upstream is subcritical.y) 1 .aneously .211. . !S b control section . Analysis of flow profile for . the transition of the state of flow will take 'place gradually from section to section as the critical control section moves upstream.oming a sOC!tlled transitional depth (Art. I ~. Iwasa [29]..Escoffier [28]. Critical control sedion I Critlcol control section I [. A. during the' time of transition' (middle view of Fig.27J.:!. The method based on this theory has been further discussed. For simplicity of discussion. or .ical flow takes place throughout the entire length of the chan.(Q/Q. 98b). the flow changes from sub critical to supercritical as the channel slope varies from mild to steep. It should be· noted tht1t the t.. bec. The preQeding analysis of flow pl'ofiles was given primarily for prismatic cha. All channels have a free overfall. set each of these functions equal to zero. D. therefora. (921) Fi = 0 will giveQ = Q" or y = y". At the instant of transi": tion/ the crit. (b1 flow ill a nOllprismatic channel or spatially varied flow. This theory was developed by Poincare [22] but ... 98. a critical sflction .
' . The slope in the intermediate reach II is variable and may be expressed by SD = 3 1 + U'..L .. . Study of flaw profile ill 8. Such a point is known in matheraal. it is independent of change in discharge.' .~..lue can be cvnJuated by (d ). and the profile FI 0 should be below F\ ~ O.DUALLY VARIED FLOW 238 Fl = 0 represents t.. this section lies at the intersection of the curves FlO and F 2 = O.. which is a depth known as the tra. To determine the slop~ of . . Since the transitional profile is defined by the condition that Qn Qr.~ •. Since. At point P. In THEORY aND ANALYSIS 239 nonprif:lmatic channels.. =11' ..y/d'.normal flow ' profile Y (923) .. Eq..:::. __ Reoillo w profile passing F. b\.1. I F2:O Of criticalflow profile Transitional profile otherf!ow profiles r II The above discussion can be illustrated by a simple example.'" l. a flow profile must be hori:z.ontal'in crossing the transitional profile. _______ '/ j / l I ~~. P 2 0.throJgh Pond osymptotic 10 Eq. It is fictitious because U1~iform flow in nonprismatic channels is unrealistic.nsitional depth. = Q or y. unlike the normal and critical profiles.. The slope of the water surface at the singular point is equal to the limi~ing value of the indeterminate formd. where 3 1 + ax = t~e above equation bec'omes Eq. (922).. the reader must try to see clearly the differences between the transitional. Fl 0 I'esults in a fictitious normalflow profile.j thl. in which U is a coefficient.t nc~ asymptotic fa F. Q< is independent of the channel slope.r.!. its position is fixed by the channel characteristics but.. the two profiles may intersect. l Yl A .:::.'. In reach III the flo\.. say at point P (Fig. I dIStant from the channel bottom.lus. .C " B ' ' .. there exists a critit... Eq.. . area between PI = 0 and F2 Since t. :. an indeterminate form.ics as a sinfjllla1' . . ~... critical to supercriticaI according to the change in slope from a subcritical SI in reach I to a supercritical 3 3 in reach III. 2 The curve representing this depth is called the lransitt'onal profile.::. .l. = y.' ' " If' " If" tLLZ \ \' \ / .the water surface at the singular point in the [ ._. ~ . / " Flow p(o/ile pcssinq th(ouoh P .he transitional profile is defined by Qn = Q" its equation can be shown to be OsHed by Masse [231 qtw.. ~~. I I y (925) At the critical section. ohannel of variable slope.... :. = y. point....1 \ FIG. By the differential calc·J. This section can be determined by the simultaneous solution of FI 0 and F~= O. The cl'itical depth can be shown to be 3:.. however..:al section. . = % if this form is COllv"ergent."'1'"" .:.acterntic dept)" whleh was first applied by Mouret [12J und later was discussed' by Lazard [301.I.. the profile PI ashould be above F~ O.:Oor quos.. Hence. and critical profiles_ At the singular point. . (924).t is. since at this point Qn = Q.. 99). Graphically.*""". y Y.". At ~his stage of the discussion. Consider a wide rectangular channel 99) in which the flow changes from sub.he normaldepth' line in a prismatic channel. the concept of the criticalflow profile is valid in channels. 99. At other places where Q~ = Qo = Q. The flow profile under consideration is shown by the heavy full curve in the shaded 0 in Fig. the profile F2 = () is equi In prismatic channels"F l = 0 &'ud F2 0 represent two pa:rallel lines. In fact. .·O < I ~.nnel~. is supercritical. In reach I the flow is subcritical' hence.. Ii1 nonpJjsmatic channels. that is. of variable slope. (9~20) dy/dx %. : 1/. .l.. Similarly. Yn= Y<. .. (920) gives dy/dx 3 D.'I.:__:. the fiow profile passes through the· critical depth. normal.. Also known as the chq. Somewllere in reach II. hence.' 'I' t I l .F .. the' transitional profile must pass through the singular point.sinorma! flow. When Qn . Q. dx /. .. the critical depth is constant t~roughout the length of the channel. ~I ~. at which So = a critical section exists. A flow passing through this profile at the singular point will change its state from sub critical to supercritical or vice verJ'la. (924) Considering a unit width of the channel.GRA. 99. this limiting va. to uniform ch!l. ' / 'j I : @. represents the criticalflow profile.
910. Simultaineously.tical profile EFG and the downstream gate toi give the subcritical profile H I. 1J: ·(~§o) 3 dx = 0 c (926) This equation has two roots opposite in sign. P =0 singular point.mple wiw:! suggested . hm'v'ever. The upstream gate has been adjusted to the sti.les defined by a. and become asymptotic to the two profiles that pass through P. to F. or FI = O. • its height is finally reduced to zero. as shown in Fig. OP D is the profile passing through P but not. see [23]ll. I P represents a singular point. the. 0. In 910. llnd EFG and HI al'e other profiles not passing through p. I . == 0. The flow profile through P but not asymptotic to PI =0 is not the profile of the flow under consideration.~ingula.= oriticalflow profile.r point. (926) "till define a. because a. wi. 910. However. . and T . SUCh a pI'olile.l flow profile. The other root of Eq. pass through Pi = 0 with a hydraulic jump. o~her flow profiles.l. which do not pass through will intersect the transitlona.. I I ~ where the profiles are plotted with the ordinate Y representing the distance above a horizontal datum and the abscissa X representing the distance along the "datum. Saddle Spiroi FIG. for example. the pool . The result will produce four types of flow profile that can be .! profile with a horizontal slope. is adjusted to keep the discharge constant. Since the r_ow in the present probJeCljl changes frorn. very slight increase in level in the profile P D will entail a change'from the profile CP to the proille AP and the space between the two will be filled with water. f .percri. is unstable. Army Corps of Engineers.. ·Illustration of flow pro.~I 240 GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW I 241 Iu3 these operations are carried out. Nodal Vort •• FIG .. F. In this way the profile CP D is realized. this flow profile is evidently the profile of the flow under consideration. singular point.ream until THEORY AND ANALYSIS prese~t e~ample by Eq. 911. F. the followingequntion can be obtained (using Manning's formula): 2 dY) ( dx • I I 108 0 (d Y) dx . F. 8ubcl'itical tosupercl'itical. In this case.\gh P but not asymptotic to F • .th depth decreasing in the direction of flow. APB is'the profile through P and asymptotic to 0. A general solution of the condition dy/dx FdF2= % for any kind of channel can be aohieved mathematically by the method of singular point [31]. Flow profiles around El. C() . F.usethe profile EF to app~oach OP as limit. types. (923).nd [28]. asymptotic to F 1 = 0. the flow profile that passe~ through P and is a~ymptotic to FI 0 indicat 9ll eo continuous How: changing I For further discussion.S.· .by Mr. . flow profile also passing through P but not asymptoti'c to £1\ = O.developed theoret. such a profile may become real under some other circumstances. The p0s4ble flow profiles pre$ent~d in the example of Fig. For simplicity.. upstream gate is now raised slowly to cl). a : I This exa. Escoffier of the U. = quasinorma. spiral.5. F flow profile passing through P and asymptotic.. . the downstream gate is !ow61'ed to cause the profile HI to apPlioach PD as a limit. llrallsitiomu profile. the jump GH is forced upst.. At x = ± this profile is ttsymptotic to the profile of the quasinormal flow.l The four types are known as the saddle) noda.ically around the singular point. Other profiles. y n . F' = flow profile passing throl.. As tpis is done. The negative root will define a flow profile through the singular point P. 99 are of the saddle type.curv6 for Fl = 0 is not shown)n Fig. and vorlex. 911. The tmnsitionfrom one to the other takes place by means of the hydraulic jump GH.
the. and the slope of the flow profile is horizontal.'. the condition Here . In the spiral type. and " Z = A·. When So > SL.cussion. When the slope is close to the limit slope. it is appal~ent that the flow is always subcritical and that the corresponding b'ackwater profile is of the' M1 type. take the .2 which has belm defined as the depth at which Q./· This discharge may be called the transitional discharge.case of the backwater behind a dam as an example. According to the definition of the tranl?itional depth.iSo = Q/VU.he equation.242 GRADUALLY. = Qc."" 0 indicates a discontinuous flow 1 changing from supercritical to subcritical in a channel with sligMly concave bed (8 1 > Se > 8 a). 912. When So < BL (Fig.. the above equation becomes 2. Flow pro..• . therefore.22RY. A general solution for the transitional profile in all four typ~ h<LS been given by .sseg through P and is asymptotic to Fl . and Qb.K = L49AR%/n. for a given slope B~. ' I . I . Escoffier [28J.__ _ "1 1 . both of which are transitional discharges. I I I J For purposes of dis. VARIED FLOW . flow profile that passes through the singular poiut is the point itself and has no hydmulic significance. the transitional discharge shoilld be a normal discharge and also a critical discharge.. and slope. . This equation contains no discharge. • See [f2]. (913) to 8 0 and simplify t.1·. respectively. whit::h is greater than the limit slope BLI there are two possible critical discharges. In this case. [II)]. Q. or dy/dx = B. [28] to [30].ined by a criticalslope curve..S/o pe //. Equate the right side of Eq.the 'upstream normal flow changes to tbe downstream normal flow at an abrupt tr'ansition formed by a hydraul~{l jump. In the nodal type. A little more may be said about the transitional depth.he tranllitiOlial depth is independent of the actual discharge. I will depend further on the magnitude of the actual discharge Q with 1: respect to the smaller and larger transitional discharges Qo and Qb. t.. ' (928) s S UncriticO/. 97. (d) fi' A. The Transitional Depth. 912a).files expla. . !In = Ye. the condition depends as follows on the relation of Bo to lh._ _ a I ~ \ ) Let K" = Q/V8o. l Ii THEORY AND ANALYSIS 243 . 58 and 912). " _=. The actUal discharge is designated by Q and the corresponding critical slope by Be. say. PAl FIG.fIT. Referring to the criticalslope curve discussed in Example 55 (Figs. I ' ( (oj . Z. Then. then (927) 1 . and [32] .. the flow profile that pa. It is evideilt from the curve that. It is logical to say that there is a certain discharge Qt that occurs at the transitional depth Yl.T. = n~gD This is a theoretical condition for the establishment of the transitional depth. ' . In the vortex type. the.: It indicates that the transitional depth depends only 011 the channel geometry. roughness. the transitional discharge can be represented by a point on the curve.flow profile that passes through P a!ld is asymptotic to F1 '= 0 indicates a continuous flow changing from super critical to subcritical in f1 channel with slightly concave bed (8 1 > Se > S3).J from sub critical to supercritical in a channel with slightly convex bed (8 1 < Se < Sa).
0,,)
244
GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW
.1 , '",
THEORY AND ANALYSIS
97. f?ketch the possible flow profiles in the channels sbown in Fig. 913.
\"."
j
245
I"
i
t'
i. I
J
(Fig. 912b), tIlen So < Se and Ye < y" < Ya < Vb. Since So < Sc, the flow is sub critical, and the profile should be of the 1VI1 typ~ . However, the profile will contain two points Ta. and Tb at which the slope is horizont.aL Bet';veen these two points a p(')int of inflection apparently exists. The depths at the two poihts are transitional depths Ya. and y~. If Qa < Q < Qb (Fig. 912c), then So > S,and y. < Yn < y. < Yb. Since So > Sc, the flow profiles are of the S type. However, there will be a point Tb where the slope is horizontal on the Sl profile and a point T a where the slope is horizontal on the 83 profile. If Q. < Qb '< Q (Fig. 912d), then So < S, and Y. <Yb < Yo < Yn. The transitional depths will intersect only the M3 profile, and the backwater profile will be of the ordinary M1 type. B. When the slope is fo.r r;.way from the limit slope. In ihis case, Q. and Ya are relatively very smail, and their existence is practically insignif]cant. If Q > Qb, the flow will be sub critical and the profile will be of the M 1 type. If Q < Qb, the flow will be supercritical and the profile .will be of the S1 type. C. When Ihe. slope is very large. In this case, the large transitional discharge Qb is considered to exceed the maximum expected discharge (see Fig. 68). Thus, the flow is supercritical and the profile is of the S1 type. The highest point of theS1 profile is very close to the downstream end. The above discussion was developed for the case in which the point L of the limit slope is below the curve of maximum expected discharge (Fig. 68a) and in which the channel sections !1re rectangulal' or trapezoidal or similar to such forms. If the point L is above tbe curve of maximum expected discharge (Fig. 68b), the larger l;ransitional depth of the flow will be greater than the maximum expected depth, or Yb > Ym, and the larger transi~ional discharge will be greater than the maximum expeeted discharge, or Qb > Qm. The foregoing discussion, however, remains valid as long as the actual discharge Q does not exceed Qm. If Q exceeds Qm, the discussion has no practical meaning. Similariy, the flow profiles remain t,he same, but the useful part of the profiles will be where the depths al'e less than y",.
If Q
PROBLEMS
91. Show that the wntersurface slope S" of a gradually varied flow is equaJ to the slim of the energy slope S and the slope d~e to velocity change d(", V'/2g)/dx. 9 c 2. Show that the graduallyvariedfiow equation is'reduced to a uniformflow formula if du/dx ... 0, 93. Prove Eq.' (9·14). 94. Prove Eq.: (915), 95. Prove Eq. (916). 96. Prove Eqs. (917) and (918).
< Q.
LEGEND:
~
Criticolc\eplh line
   Noqnaldeplh line
FIG. 913. Channels for Prob. 97.
EI.1274 EIJ272 :s2 EI.f270
The vertical scale is exaggerated.
..
xjEU266
[=
I
v
.+j.500'~.t<I.FIG. 914. A channel profile for Prob. 98.
(""I'/;":~:;::(
''''11'//''7777,,,1
I
I
98. A rectangular channel (Fig. 914), 20 It wide, consists of three reaches of different slopes. The channel has a. roughness coefficient n = 0.015 a.nd carries a discharge of 500 cfs. Determine: a. tbe norma.l flnd critical depths in ea.cb reacb
I
)
,:1
"
246
GRADUALLY VARIED
~'LO"'Y
THEORY AND ANALYSIS
247
b. the possible (low profiles c. .the distance ;~ troln the outlet of the channel to the poiht where the backwater curvs terminate~. The .backwat,er curve is assumed. to be a horizontal line.
99. Prove Eqs. (924) to (926). 910. A change in slope from 0.0016 to 0.0064 occurs in a wide rectangula.r channel. (Fig. IHI). The length of the transition is 10 ft, and the slope in .the transition rea.ch is So = 0.0016 + 0.00048::, where x is the distance measured from the beginning of the change. 'The channel carries a discharge of 100 crs per unit width. Assume that a = 1 a.nd n ~ 0.02. a. Determine the control section. b. Computethe slope of tho flow profile nt the contrqi section. c. Con~truct the tro.nsftional, normal, and critic!>l proliles .. d. Construct the renl and some other possible flow pI·oliles. 911. Show' that the graduallyvaried_flow cq\!ation for flow in a rechar.gular channel of va.riabli!. width b may be (lli:pressed as
=
S.  Sf
1  ",Q'b/gAJ
+ (",Q'ylgA~) (dbldz)
...._........
(929)
All notation has been previously defined.
REFERENCES
1. J. B. Belanger: sur Ill. solutionnumiirique de quelques problemes relatifs au mouvement. permanent des eallli: courantes" ("Essay on the Numerical Solution of Some Problems Reletiv~ to the Steady Flow of Water"), Cn.rilianGoe\lry, Pa.ris, 1828. . 2. J. A. Ch. Bresse: "'Cours de mecJl.nique appliquee," 2e po.rtie, Hydraulique ("Course in Applied l\'Iechanics," pt. 2, Hydraulics), Ma.1letBachelier, Paris, 1860. 3. Boris A. Bikhmeteff: "Hydraulics 'of Open Channels," appendix I, Historicnl and bibliographical notes, McGrawHill Book Cr)mpany, Inc., 'New York, 1932, pp.299301. 4~ Charles Jaeger: Steady flow ill open channels: The problem of Boussinesq, J Ot,rnal, lnetitution of Civil Engineers,. London, vol. 29S0,.pp. 338348, November, . 19470ctober, 1948. 5. Charles Jaeger: "Engineering Fluid M.echanics," translated from ~he Germa.n lly P. O. Wolf, Blackie & Son, Ltd., Glasgow, H,56, pp. 9397. 6. F. Bettes: Nonuniform flow in channels, Civil Engineering and Public Works Review, London, vol. 52, no. 609, pp. 323324, March, 1957; no. 610, pp. 434436, April, 1957. . 7.•(Allen: Streamline and turbulent flow in open channels, The.Lond(}tl, Edinburgh and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal Science, ser. 7, vol. 17, pp. 10811112, June, 1934. S. Hunter Rouse and Merit P. White: Discussion on Varied flow in open channels of adverse slope, by Arthur E. Ma.tzke,. Trallsadion.s, American Society of Civil Engineers, voL 102, pp. 671676, 1937. 9. ShermanM. Woodwa.rd and Chesley J. Posey: "Hydraulics of Steady Flow in Open Channels," John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1941, p. 70. 10. Ivan M. Nelidov; Discussion on S~face curves for steady nonuniform flow, by Robert B. Jansen, Tra.nsa.ctions, American Society of Civil Engineers, vol. 117, pp. 1098~1l02, 1952. .
0;
11. Dwight F. Gunder: Profile curves for openchruloel flow, Transadions, American Socieey IJj Ci.il Engineer", vol: lOB, pp. 481488, 1943. 12. G. Mouret: "Hydraulique: Cours de rneca.nique appliquee" (It HydJ:aulies: Course tn Applied Mechanics "), L'Ecole Nationalc des Ponts et Chaussees, Paris, 19221923, pp. 447458; revised lIB "Hydraulique giinerale" ("General Hydraulics"), cours de 1'Ecole NatiQnii.le des Ponts et CtwLusseesi Paris, 19271928. 13. A. Merten: Recherches 'sur Ill. forme des axes hydra.uHques dans un !it prisma.tique (Studies on the form of fiow profiles ill. a. prismatic channel), Anna!e.~ de jl.:l18socic:Ucm de. In(16nieuTS Bortis des ~cole8 8pec.iales de Gand, Ghent, Belgium, '101.5, ser. 3, 1906. 14. M. 'Boudin: De I'axe hydraulique des coms d'eau contenus dans un lit prisma.tique et des dispositifs reaiisll.nt, en p~!l.tique, Bes formes diverses (The flow profiles of w.ater ill a prisma.tic ch!1nnel' and actuI'1.1 "dispositions ill various forms), A nnales des trcwaux pu.bliqucs de Belgique, Bru~s!'<l!;, vol. 20, pp. 397555, 18611802. 15. Pierre Koch: JuStification de l'etucle rationnelle du remous dans les aqueducs de forme circulaire, ovoide <iu IIna.logue (Justification of the ra.tional study of backwater in oinmln.r conduits of ovoid or similar shape), Annall13 d.s P(}tl/s e/ cJlIluGs,les, pp. 153202, Sep~emberOctober, 19~3. . 16. L. Gherardelli: SuU'equaziOlle del mota permanente ill alvei prismatici (On the cqua.tion for steady flow in prismatic channels), L' Enerllia eleUrioo, Milano, vol 28, no. 4, pp. 185189,April, 19tH. 17. Gianni Formica: Nota sui profili di dgurgito delle correnti permanent! gradualmente variate· defluerrti in galleria cilindriche (Not.e on ba,ckwater curves of gradually v1l.riedsteady flow in cylilldrico.! closed conduits), L'Energia eleltrica, Milano, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 480491; August, 1952; repdnted as Istiluto di Idraulica e CostrU~ioni idrauliche, ilfi!ano, Mp'lrIorie II studi No. 97, 14 pp. 18. R. Silber: Sur Ill. forme deJl courbes des remous en gal erie COl~verte (On backwater curves in closed condui.t), cxtrait· des Comples rendu.s des s~ance$ de I' Aoo.demie .des Sciences, vol. 235,pp. 23772379, June 22, 1953. 19. R. Silb~r: ":fl]tude et truce des ecoulements permanents en canaux et rivieres" ("Study and Outline of Steady Flow in Open Chnnne~s"), Dunod, Paris, 1954. 20. A. Merten: Thoof<lmes fondamentaux d'hydrnulique fiuvia.1e (Fundamenta.l theorems of fluvial hYdraulics), Annales ,de I' A8sociation des Inglnieurs sOTtis des Ecofes Speciales de Gand, Ghent, Belgium, ser. 5, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 200210, 1912. 21. L. J. Tison: "Cou:s d'hydrauliquc" ("Hydraulics"), Uriversite de Gand, Ghent, Belgium, 1953, pt, n, pp. 170182; 22. H. Poincare: Memoire sur les courbes definies par uno equation differentielle (Memoir on the curves defined by a differentia.l equation), Journal de malMmatiqul!3 pures et appliq1J.~es, Paris, vol. 7, pp. 375422, 188L 23. Pierre Masse: Ressaut et ligne d'eau dans les cours d'eau apente.variable (Hydraulic jump and flow profile in channels (If variable slope), Revue gencrale de l'hydrau!ique, Paris, vol. 4, no. 19, pp. 111, January, and no. 20, pp. 6164, April, 1938. 24. 'Charles J!1.eger: Erweiterung der Boussinesqschen Theorie del! Ahlliisses iu offenen Gerinnen und der Abflilsse ilber abgerundete Wehre (Extension of the Boussinesq theory of flow in open channels and over a roundcrested weir), Wasserkraft und W~serwirischafl, Munich, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 8386, Apr. 15, 1940. 25. Giulio De Marchi: Sui cambiamento di regime di una correnti Iineare a pelo libero in Ull alvea. di sezione cost·n.nte (On the transition beLweell 5upercritical and sub critical conditions in freesurface gradually varied flpw in a cylindrical che.nnel), L'Enerflia e!ettrica, Milano, vol. 27, no. 0, pp.125132, March, 1950; reprinted as Istiluto di Idrau!ica 8 COllt1"urioni ldrrJuliche, Milano, Memorie es!udi No. 82, 1950.
'
......
.~
I
(
:
',~
248
GRADUAl;.LY VARIED FLOW
I
!
I
\
r
\
26. l4asashi Hornfill.: "General Hydraulics" (in Ja.panese), vol.'l of "Applied Hydraulics," cdiLcd by Masashi Hommil. and Tojiro Ishihara, Mal'uzen, Tokyo, Bi58, pp. '10811 I. 27. Masa.hi Homma and Sukeyuki Shima: On the flow'in a. g~adually' diverged open channel" The Japan Science RevifIW, Series I, Tokyo, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 253260, 1952. 28. Francis F. ,Escoffier: Transition profiles in nonuniform cha.nnels, Transactions, American Sociqty of Civil Engineers, vol. 123, pp. 4356, 1958. 29. Yoshiaki lwasa, Hydraulic signifi~ance of tl'B,nsitional be,haviours' of flows in channel transi~imls and controls, M8mdirs ,of Ihe Faculty oj Enftineering, Kyolo Uni~e1'$ity, Japan, vol. XX, no. 4, pp. 237276, October, 1958. 30. Achille La~ard: Contribution. A I'etude theorique du mouvement graduellement vo.rit! en hydraulique (Contribution to the theoretical study of gradually varied fiow in hydraulics), Annllies des ponls el c.hausseeil, vol. 117, 110. 2, pp. 185219, MarchApril, 1947. 31. Theodore von Karman and Maurice A. Biot: "MatltelU!l.tical Methods in Engineering," McGrawHill Book Company, New York, 1940, pp. 150158. en regime permanenV' 32. :E. Crausse: "Hydraulique de.~ (lllnallX ("Hydraulics of Open Channels with Stea.dy Flow Regime"), Editions Enolles, l"aris, 1951. .
CHAPTER
10
METHODS OF COMPUTATION
, 1
!
i
f·
i
The computation of graduallyvarjedftow pl'ofile7 involves ba.sical~y the oolution of the dynamic equation of gradually vaned flow. The mam obTec Ive o. e com u..,itl.lOn lSO  8 "ermme the shape of the flow profile. Br~a y elassif1ed; tl1ere are three methods of comput!ttioIli namel I;h. graphicalintegration method, the direGtintegra~ion met cd, and the step. method. The development and :proce({ure of several typical meth~ ods will be described iri this chapter. 101. The Graphicalintegration Method. Tpjs method is to integrate the dynamic equation of gradually varied fiow bya graphical procedure. Consider two · channel sections (Fig. lOla) at (a) · distanpcs Xl and X2, respectively, from· a chosen origin and with corresponding depths nf flow Vl and Yz. The distance along the channel floor is
Xl
.
=
,'"
['". dx =.lY'dX dy dy
y.
(101)
o~~~~~~~~~~~~Y
I
Assume several values of y, and (b) compute the corresponding V!11ues FIG. 101. Principle of the gl'.!Iphicalinte· .bf dx/dy, which is the teciprocal gration method. . the rightside member of a grad. . uallyvariedflow equation, say Eq. (913). A ,Curve of y against dx/dy is , then constructsd (Fig. lO~lb). Accbrding to Eq. (101), it is apparent that the value a!. x is equal to the shaded area formed by the curve, the y axis, and the ordinates of dx/ dy corresponding to Yl and' Y2. This area call be measured and the value of x determined.
of
249
.''"
250
GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW'
1
I
,I
!
I
MlllTaODS OF COMPUTATION
251
(
This method has broad applicatIon. It applies to flow prismatic as . well as nonprismatic channels of any a.nd slope. The procedure is straightforward and easy to follow. It may, however, become very laborious when applied to actual problems. A relatively simple example will be given as an illustra.tion.
Example 101... A trapezoidal channel hnving b "" 20 ft,'z = 2, So = 0.0016, and' !l. discha.rge of 400 cfs. Compute. the backwater profile created by a dam which backs up the water to a depth Ilf 5 n imm'3diately behind the cam. The upstream end of the profile is assumed at a depth equal to 1% greater than the normal depth. The energy coefficient 0/ "" 1.10. Solution. Following the solutions of Examples 42 and 62, the critical and nonnal depths are found to be·y, ",; 2.22 ft and y.. 3.35 it, respeotively. Since y. is.$reater than y. and the flow startswitb. a depth greater than Yn, the flow profile is of the 21(1 type. The section factor Z, = 400/VIJ/" 74.0 an:! the conveyance 1{n = 400/ ,/0.0016 = 10,000. . For simplicity; the channel bottom at t.he sitE' of ~ho dam is chosen :l.S the origin and the ~c va.lue in the upstreltm direction is t!l.ken as positive. The C'lmp11tation of dx/dy by means of Eq. (1l13) is given in. Ta.ble 101 fOf various values of 11 varying from 5 it
in
.
K = L49AR% = .::.:..c.:....;;..,~~~__2~.~32_3 = 20,800 . n
!
\ ,
290.2. 1  (74.0/290.2)1 . = 760 1  (10,000/20,800)'
n "" 0.025 carries
Yalues of yare thon agr:.inst the cor~tlspondi~g values ofax/dy (Fig. 102). The inore~nents in area AA are planimetered and listed in the table. According to Eq. (101), the cumulative va.luea of !lA should give the len6th ;r; of the flow profile. Finally, the backwater profile is obtained by plottingy against x (Fig. 103),
"OOT
I
I
\ .
"ot
6,000r

\
j
T<l.BLE
101.
COMPUTATION OF THE FLOW PE!OFlLEl FOR EXAMPLE
101
0/
Br
GJiAPRICAL INTEGRATION
Q
400 cfs
n T
= 0.025
So = 0.0016
R
R~;,
y,
l(
2.22 ft
!/n = 3.36 ft. .
= 1.10
v
5.00
I
5.000[
"
A
Z
d:t:/dy
AA
x
40.00 ag.20 38.40 37.60 \ 36.80' 36.00 i 35.20 i 34.801 34.40 34.20 ! 34.00 1 33 ,88 33.76 150.00 142.08 134.32 125.72 119.28 112.00 104.88 101.38 S7.92 96..21 \14.50 93.48 92.45 33.68. gl.aO 91.12 33.60 33.44 89.78
4.80
4.60 4.40 4.20 4.00 3.80 3.70
I
i
3.60
3.55 3.50 3.47 3.4\1, 3.42 3.40 3,36
3.54 3.43 3.31 3.19 3.08 2.96 2.84 2.77 2.71
2.68
2.65
2.63
2.61 2.60 2.59 2.56
2.323 i 20,800 290.2 2.274 11t,230 270.4 2.221 17,770 251.5 2.167 16,360 . 232.3 2.117 15,050 214.5 2.052 13,750,197.5 2.006 12,550 181. 0 1.972 11,910 . 173.0 1.944 11,350 1155.0 1.929 11,060! 161 1 1. 915 10,800 157.3 1.904 10,600 155.2 1.894 10,440 153.0 1.890 10,340 151,7 1.886 10,230 150.0 1.872 10,000 147,0
760 79:! 155 155 836 1(;3 318 913 ' 175 493 1,000 191 684 1,140 214 8913 1,430 257 1,155 1,750 l!,\} 1,314 2,260 201 1,515 2,770 126 1,64.1 3.480 /156 1,797 4,520 120. 1,917 5,990 i 158 2,075 7,930 139 2,214 10,760 187 2,401
I
d,
d)'
I
I
I
'MO~
I
4.000~ i
I
200i
',OOor
o
0
I
I
. 151011
1 I I II
to 1 % greater than Ii. or 3.40 ft. columns of the table are
For insta.nce; when !I
5.00 ft, the values in other
rm
T 40.00 ft A "" 150.00 fP R '" 3.54'ft
2.323
!
IINI::!I 11 II I I I
",I t:::1 ~I ~!
4
I
I
I
(\J
<.0
..
t<i
r'l
5 Y

r<i
. FIG. 10~2. A curve of y vs. dx/dy.
\ 1
;:; ., 252
GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW METHODS OF COMPUTATION
T,uiLE
253 ..
102.
EXISTING METHODS OF IN1.'EGRATING THE G&A.DUALLYVARIEDl'LOW EQUATION
Ye6.r of puhll
InvOBtigo.tor
catioo
Type 01 cba"nel
Effect or change iu kinetic energy
Veloeity formula
Mnu mptions rOr· . hydra.ulio expon.ents.
Refer'cnce
1848
1850
Dupui. Bresse Gr... hof
R1iblm~nn
1875
l!;il!(!
Broad'tee. tangle Broad rso· . tangle Br?ad ree
Ignored Oon.idered Con.id,..."d
Ohby eM.y ebhy·
N  3, M = 3
JV"", 3. fyf = 3
tiJ
i2J
[31
l~]
N = 3, ftf  3
N3,M=3
1896 1900 1912 (1932) 1914
FIG, 103, An .llf1 flow profile computed by the graphicalintegration method,
1921
Cb~.y Ignored Brond ,... •• tan;:le Tolkrult~ Considered Cilhy I Broad para· bola Masoni Common Tee"' C"".idered CM.y '"ng)e Bakhmetefl All eh"pea Con.idero.d CMz:!, by.teps C1l{)·nBo.~ Senafl'nnak. Broad reo19:nored 23.7~'1IFJ.TlIS~~HI!J Ehrenberger ~angle
I
'"ngl.
N = 4, M  4
lSI
(5]
N=a.1I1=3
.It:; c: UH
Ii,S)
I~J
BIltic16
It should be noted tllll.t, when the depth approaches the no~mal depth, the incremental area varies so greatly with the change in y value that it becomes difficult to pirmimeter. In such Il. c.tl.Se, the area. may be computed by assuming it is a trapezoid. For instnnce, the incremental area between y '" 3.42 a.nd 3.40 is t,,1  (7,930 + 10,7(0)(3.'12 3.40)/2 187. .
I
I
22'.1~'1I:·uSil>lJ
Approximate trApezoid
Ignored
CMzy
1928
1930 1938 1947
1~51}
_.Ji2ns~.:"!l.l:l~~..~.!!~~tioll ame~a bl~jQJnath~ma.ticaLintegrati.o.n.
The differential equation of gradually varied flow cannot be expressed explicitly in terms or y for all types of chn.nne! cross section; hence, a direct nnd exact integration of th., e~llation is practically impossible. M..fl.PY. ~~~.!;l,!IlpJ.s. Jt~YJL_hrum_ma.dlL _i;l.~r to solY~t..~.~~ig.g,!Cl.r a few special cases or to introduce as~
102. Method of Direct Integration.
1954
Broad reoConaidered C'1lQ ,?3"lj tangle Seboldiaeh IIras.d r~e· Ignored CB m 8' . tangle Mononobe AU.hape. 1 COlloli'idered OIl~S'" Le. Ail Conoidered Manning VQn 6egll'Olrn All Considered Manning KeifurClm Ci.rc~lnr. but Con.idered M .. nning .he method mAY be ex· tanded t.o other 3hB.pea KotallY
I
N ~ 3.5. M = II N = 3.552. M n= 3 N = 3. HI, M: = 3 [{:t . ol" A,.1R. where  is a varilll}le and dll/dz = eonet N  3.;1. 1>f .8
0:::
•
[IOJ
1111
(12]
N=2+2m.~13
P
1£
UI;OD"\ A.!c
:rv~
tt
tf°M:t
K:
tt
AI
Z2
cc lI CO I.l,at
1%
lIS1
[14.15] [16]
(17)
K.:
ct lI'~1
1JJl
None
Table_~~~2.~iv:~s_::\...~~.~~~X ..~xi~Hrlg methods of dii'eJ:;i.integ.I:aJ:.i.c>n, .. /
arranged chronologically.'" Although the list is incomplete, it provides !l generarJile}iofUie deveTopment of the dil'ectin tegration method. Note that most of the early methods were developed fOl~ channels of a specific cross section but that later solutions, since Bakhmeteff, were designed for channels of all shapes, Most early methods use Chazy's formula, whereas later .methods use Manning's formula. . In .the Bakhmeteff me~hod [8] the channel length under consideration is divided into short reaches, The change in the critical slope within the small; l'o.nge of the va.rying depth in each reach is assumed constant,1 and
,
the integration is carried out by shortrange steps and with the aid of a variedflow function. In an attempt to improve Bakhmeteff's method, Mononobe [13] introduced two asllumptions for hydraulic exponents. By these assumptions the effects 9f velocity change and friction head are taken into account' integrally without the necessity of dividing the channel length 'into short reaches. Thus, the Mononobe method affords a more direct and accurate computation procedure wherebyresuH.s, can be obtained without recourse.
in kinetic energy the friction slope, or r in Eq. (914), i3 a.ssUI;ned cOMbnt in each rea.ch. Since an increa.se or decrease in depth will cha.nge both these fa.ctors in the sa.me direction, their ratio is relatively stable a.nd canbe IloBsumed constant for pralltical purpose!!.
to
1S
I In the Bakhme(eff method, Eq. (914.) is used. The coefficient r in this equa.tion a.ssumed cOlUltllnt in the reach. Thus, it ca.n be shown tha.t the ra.tio of the change
254
GRADUALLY VARIED FLO","
METHODS OF COMPUTATION
255
(107)
to successive st.eps.· In applying this method to practical problems, it has been found !.ha,t the first assumption (see Table 102) is not very satisfactory in many cases. Another drawback of this method perhaps lies in the difficulty of using the accompanying. charts, ."hich are not sufficiently accurate for pl'actical purposes. Later, Lee Tl4] and Von Seggern [16] suggested new assumptions which result in more satisfactory solutions. Von Seggern introduced a new variedflow hmction in [t,dclition to the fUllction used by Bakhmeteff j hence, aD additional table for the new functicn is necessary in his method. In Lee's method, however, no new. function is required. The method [18] described here IS the outcome of a study of many existing methods.' By this method, the hydraulic exponents arE; expressed in terms of the depth of flow. From Eqs. (610) and (46), /{,,2 = Gly"N, /(2 = G,yN, Z.2= C2y,M, and Z2 = C2 y M, where G, and C2 are coefficient,s. If the;3e expressions are substituted in Eq. (913), thegraduallyv.aried .' flow. equation becomes
(102)
where
fCv,J) ';", . f" 1 dv
)0

J
V
This is a variedflow function like F(u,N), except that the variables u and N are ;'eplaced by v and J, respectively.l . Using the notation for va,riedflow functions, Eq. (10'1) may be writt.en
\
I.
x
or where
x
=
=
t
[ 11 
F(u,N)
, 'M J + G:) N Fev,J).1+ canst
(l08)
( 109)
A[u  F(u,N)
+ BF(u,J)] +
1t =
const
J
=
A
=~:,
B 
_ (y,)M , J y"N
Yn.
't,
N
N  M+ 1
. .
and where F(u,N) and F(v,J) are variedflow functions. By Eq. (109), the length of flow profile between tVTO consecutive sections 1 and 2 is equai to
. 'j
I
\
L
= x~
=

Xl
A! (u,  u,)  [F(u2,N)  F(1I:"N)]
Let u
=
yly,,; the above'equation may be expressed fOl' dx as
dx
+ B[F(U2,J)
 FCli"J)] I (1010)
~ ~: [ 1 
1
~
ltN
+ (~:)'{ 1U~:;N ] dtt
(103)
This equation can be integrated for the length ,; of the fio,v profile. Since the change in depth of a. gradually varied flow is generaIJy small, the hydraulic exponents may be assumed constant within the range of the limits of integration. II:_. ?~I1~e ..U!.e _hY'dra~lic eXQonentL1l<re not}ceably deE~ld§}nt O}l ~jn the limits _Q,f ~l.vell rea:.c::h, the reach shoul<i Qe....§l!.b,dividlill. foy )ntegrf),ti::m; tl:!.el} .th~ J.IYcir al1lic e~p.o12~!lls Ln_ e~gl:j~e~J~~9_h may be assu~~consta.nt. IntegratingEq. (103),
where the subscripts 1 and 2 refer to sections 1 and 2, respectively. Equation (1010) contf~illS variedLflow functions, and its solution can be simpiified'by the use of the variedflawfunction table, which is given in Appendix D.2 This table gives values. of F(u,N) for N ranging from 2.. 2 to 9.8. Replacing values of u and N by cOlTesponc!lng values of v and J, this table also gives values of F(v,J).
This transformation W:l.S also performed independently by Levdlg]. 1,. " , .The prep:l.ration of ~uch a table wr,s undertaken !LId performed for the first ;time dUrIng 19141915 by Lhe Hasearch Board of the then Russian Reclamation Service under the direction of Boris A .. Bakhmeteff, then Profes:;;')r of General and Advancc'd . Hydraulics at Polytechnic Institute Emperor Pet.er the Great, St. Petersburg, Russi:l.. It was s8.id that the work had involved a long and tedious procedure [8]. In the turmoil of the Russian Revolution in 1917, the table so computed becaIne umwailabl e; so the task·of computing was done over :l.ga.in by Professor Kholodovsky and partly by Dr. Pestrecov. The reeomputed table was more precise and complete, covering a range of N from 2.8 to 5.4. This table was published in 1932 [8l When Bakhmeteff becELme Professor of Civil Engineering at Columbia University. In the meantime, in the U.S.S.R. iIi 1928, the unavailable table,oopied in handwritten form, had been published in a second edition of [71 with values of N equal to 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.25,3.5,3.75, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, and 5.5. Methods of computing the variedflowfunction tahle a.re explained in pp. 303305 of Bakhmeteff's book [8J. An error in printillg should be noted in that. book; that is, a nega.tive sign shoulci be placed in front of the ent.ire rightside member of the equation printed neat the bottom of p. 305. Table D1 given in Ap'pendix D is an extension of Bakhmeteff's table to almost triple its original 5iz!). It was prepared by the author in 195~1954 for teaching purposes at the University of Illinois, and was published in 1955 [18].
1
x= sy"o[u  )0 1d~t1~. +.(1I,)'1f }o UNu duJ + canst f" N Yn ("1·  UN F(u,N) =
(104)
The first integral on the right side of the abo,re equation is designated by F(u,N), or '
,
)0
fu ~ 1 : UN
(105)
._.
(
which is known as the variedflow function. The second integl'al in Eq. (104) may also be expressed in the form of . the variedflow function. Let v = U N1J and J = N I(N  Ai 1); this integral can be transformed into
1
+
fv. )0
U N M
1 
UN du
.'
=
J f' N )0
dv
1  vJ =
.J
N F,v,J)
( 106)
./
\
.. ''1'.
I
I
L
256
J
GRADUALLY, VAllIED FLOW
METHODS OF COMPUTATiON
, ,
257
~.,,..:~ In computing, a flow profile, f,!rst the flow in the channel is analyzed
( (Art. 95), and tho channel ,is divided into a numherofreaches. Then, the length of each reach if! computed, by Eq. (1010) from knmV'll or assumed \lepths 8.tthe ends of the reach. Tile procedure of computation is as follows: '1. Compute the normal depth y" and critical ,depth Yo from the given data Q and So (see Arts. 66 and 44). ' ' 2. Determine the hydraulic exponents Nand M for an estimated average depth of flow in' th~ reach uuder considerl1tion (see Arts. ~3 and 43). It is assumed that the channel sectivn under consideration has approximately constant hydraulic exponents. 3. Compute J by J = N/(N  M + 1). 4. Computc values of U = Y/Vn and ,1> = uN/J at two end sections of the reach. 5. From the variedflowfunction table in Appendix D, find values of F(u,N) a.nd F(1),J), ,6. Compute the length of the reach by Eq. (1010); The above procedure is illustrated by the following examples:
Example'1O2. ,i,rith reference to the chs,1l11EJI described ill Example 101, compute the length oC the backwater profile extending frorn the dam site to an upstream .'3BCtion where the depth of flow is 1 % grea.ter than the normal depth. Sohaion. The given data are Q = 400 cis, b = 20 ft, Z = 2, So = 0.0016, a = LID, and. n = 0.025. , 1. FOlIo'wing Example 62, y,.= 3.36 £to Following Exa.mple 42 with a = 1.10, y, = 2.22 ft. i '2. The depth at the downstream end of the backwater profile is Y2 =,5 ft: At the upstream end, the depth is Yl = 1.01 X 3.36 = 3.40 ft. The average depth may be to.ken as 4.20 ft'3.nd ylb = 0.21. From Figs. 62 and 42, the corresponding hydraulic exponents are fonnd to be N = 3.65 and 'llf = 3.43, 3. The vnJue of J = 3,65/(3~65  3.43' + 1) = 2.90. 4. For each section, values of H and v are computed, as given in the second and third columns of the following table:
Example 103.
b
= 20 ft, z =2, So = 0.0036,
Water flows from under a sluice into a trapezoidal channel having '" = 1.10, andn ,= 0.025. The sluice gate is regulated
TliE
TABLE 103. COMPU'i·.uroN o~
FI..OW
PROFILE FOR EXAMPLE
103 BY TIiE
I
,
Q =,400 cis n
y '~!
:
=
O.O~ 0.0036
DIRECTINTEGRATION MET,BOD
'"  1.1Q
y;
2.22 fty. = 2.57 ft

I
1_
11
F(1_,N)
0.979 0.917 ' 0.756 0.627 0.511 U.404 O.3D1 0.200
, F(v,J)
0.962 0.888 0.699 0.552 0.431 0.319 0.219 0.132 0.055 0.000
x
20:6
L
~
2.22 2.14 1.B7 1.60 1.33 1.07 0.80 0.53 0,27 0.00
0.831 0.800 0,700 0.6')0 0,500 0.400 0.300 0.200 0.100 0.000
I
0.792 0.755 0.638 0.525 0.420 0.;315 0,219 0.132 0.055 0.000
0
20'40
188 161 134 102 71
2
IB 45 72 10i 135 i63 1BB 200
43
18 0
0.100
0.000
to dischllrge 400 cfs with a depth equal to 0.55 It at the vena contr~ta: C~mpute the flow profile. If a hydraulic i ump occurs at the downstream end, suartmg Wlt~ a depth of 1.6 ft, determine the di,stancl; 'from the vena contro.cta to the foot, of the Jump, SQlulion. From the given data, li. = 2.67 ft and y. = 2.22 ft .. Smce y.. > y" the
channelsiope is mild. As the depth of flow issUing from the slUIce !!;ate ls.1ess than the critical depth, the flow profile is of the M3 type. . T ' Considering aflilverage depth of 1.61 Ct, the hydrauhc exponents are I\ 0= 3.43 and M = 3.17. Thus, J .. 2.72, N IJ = 1.26, lind (Ycly~)MJ IN = 0,442,. ' : . Table 103 'shows t.he computation of the flow profile. For convenUl[lce m mter
l
\

..:...   ..: ___ !!.D~L.
~
 ...  .... 
  
.
'Y
'U
I
I
v :
}i'(''',N)
5.00
l.488 },012 : 0.476 •
,
1.6'25 0~ 1~0'2131 . 0,1.5
I
I
F(v,J)
3.40 DiL ...
I
I
1 025 0.B77
I
1'
[.293 1,080
,
5, The .variedflow funct.ions k(lI,N) und F(v,J) are obtainbd from the table in Ap~(lndix D ancl given in the fourth and fifth colmnns of the o.~ove table. 6, In Eq. (l09), A = y,./So =: 2,100 and B = (voly,,)MJ IN F 0.197. The length of the backwater profile is" thereCbre,' i . L = 2,100[0.476  (+0.877)
+ 0.Hl7
X (LOBO)) ;" 2,395 ft
l
I
1
\
258
GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW
METHODS OF COMPUTATION
259
polating values af F(u,N) from the varietiflOlv,function.tablervalues of u are assigned at regular inter',:[LI:<. Values of x are thereby computed by Eq • .008), in which the constant is assun1cd equal to zero. The last column gives the length of the profile measured from t.he section untler considera.tion to the downstream enu, where the profile terminates theoreticlLily at the critical ciepth. . The computed flow profile is 'plotted as shown in Fig. 104. The a~tual profile betwee.n the bluic(!gate opening and the computed profile is uncertain and,hence, is . fitted in by eyc. The distance from the gate opening to thllsection oi the vena contmcta is known as thecontraciion distance. For a sharpedged sluice gate, this distance has been assumeu equnl to approximately the hl:igl:t of the gate opening (Art. 157). If a hydraulic jump starts off at It depth of 1.6 ft, the distance from the jump to the vena contracts. would be about 130 ft, as shown. Example 104, Determine the profile of flow in a wide rectangular channel, using the Chezy formula. Solution. Fol' a wide rectangular channel, Fig. 4:2 gives M = 3 and Eq. (649) gives N = 3. Thus, J = 3, v, = tI, and Eq. (l08) becomes
x =
As the depth of flow varies from 5.00 to 3,4,0 ft, an average value of'y = 4.20 ft may be assumed for the evaluation of Chezy's C. For a wide' rectnngular channel, Eq. (57) gives C = 75.13. Since y. = 3.36 ft a.nd So = 0.00113, A = 2,100 and B = 0.715, Eq. (1017) gives . x == 2,100[u  0.7151"(n,3)] + const (1019) Assuming a constant of zero in Eq. (1019), the computation of x is as follows:
y
I~I
I F(t':3~1
X
.
5.00 1.488 ) 0.260 \2,720 3.40' 1.012 t 1. 360 . 80 '
The length of thB backwater curve is, therefore, equal to 2,720  80 = 2,640 ft, about 10 % larger than the values determined by the previoLls methods. .
~
[
tI 
(1 ":,::)
_ 1:1'
7,
1"(u,3) ]
+ const
. (1011) Mathe(1012)
where 1"(1<,3) can be found i'rom the variedllolI·function t.able in Appendix D. matically, 1"(u,3) is integrable, or .
F(u,3) = )0
Channels of Nonsustaining Slopes. When the n,bove procedure is applied to cImnneJ:; of adverse slopes, the slope of the channel bottom may be taken as negative. Thus, Eq. (93) becomes
(u
1
du
11'
113 
n
(u  1)'
+ g +1
_ _1_
V'§ cOu
.H,2l~
Y3
+1
dx = 1 +
x =  y" S~
dy
S~
0'.
 s
d(V2j2g)/dy
(1020)
The corresponding equation for the flow profile can be shown to be
This integra.tion Wi,S lirst performed by Dresse [2]. A determination of the flow profile by this solution is,therefore, \videly known as the Ere.sse method. The critical and no~mal depths in· a wide re~tangular ohannel m ...y be expressed, respect·ively, by .
[~  j(U ~ _
(l
I
+ 1tN
N (y,)M r"u+MduJ + const Yr.,}o 1
UN .
(1021)
.
Ye =
'\Jg
31qi
where the varied~fiow functions for adverse slope~ are
F(u,N)_s,
=
(101:3) (1014)
and
.317
Yn = "C'So
where q is the dischargl'\ per unit width of the channel.
Ye
3
Thus,
(1015)
and
F(v,J)_s,
=
a u lf  N }o 1 + uN du
r
j.~
ra
.
1
+ UN
J
d1t
(1022)
=
N }o 1 + vJ
r
v
d!,'
(1023)
YR3
= g
G'So
Substituting this·expression for Y;/Yn', Eq. (10"11) may also be written
x =
.
~0 T u L
x
=

(1  C'So) 1"(",3) I +const
g _
(1016)
(1U17)
or
,.f[u  B1"(tt,3)]
+ const
where v u,Y!f and J = N/ (N' 111 + 1). For evaluating these functions a t.able [18jl has. been prepared which is Table D2 in Appendix D. Accordingly, the length of flow profile betwe~n two sectiqns 1 and 2 may be·expressed by Eq, (1010), where A = 'y,,/So, B = (y,jYn)MJjN, and the variedflow functions are replaced by those for' adverseslo pes.
Example 1.06.
~,., ..... '1<
' 1
\
where 11 =y,,/S, and B = 1  C·So/g. The lengdh of flow profile between twoconsecutivc sections of dcp'ths?l' and y, is
L = A.{(u.  UI)  B[F(u.,3)  1"(uI,3)J)
Derive an expression for the flo;w pl'ofile ina horizontal channel.
is
(919)
Il.
z.... Solution. For horizontal channels, So .= 0, and'the differential equation
dy
(1018)
Example 100. Solve El(ample 102 by the Bresse method. Solillion. , The Bresse method is derived primarily for an infinitely \Vide rectangular channel. . When this metho9. is applied to channels of other crosssectiona.l shapes, the solution is therefore very approximate. .
j
I
c7t/.
d2
= 1 
(Q/K)' (Z,/Z)'
Since the critical slope S,.is defined as the 'slope that will produce a discharge Q :at
.!

(
I Tables of varieq.flow functions for adverse slopes. with limited range af the hydraulic exponent N hiwe also been prepai'ed by Matzke [20J and others [2IJ.
\
\
I
!.,
260
GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW
METHODS OF COMPUTATION
261
normal depth equal ' to the critical. depth !I' (Art• 67) , the d'ISC1 ' , !IS ~arge may be expressed
Q
=
K,
VB,
pMN ,
' (1024)
=
for the range of Yl to Y2; let Me be the M vaille at the critical depth Ye; and let M be the average M value for tpe range Yl to Y7. Thus, Eq. (913) may be written
1
r
\
Substituting Eq. (1024) i(l Eq. (919) and letting (K.jK)' = ( /)1'1 (Z,/Z)' (yJy)Dl, and p = y/y" . " . y, y ,
~:!! '" S
dx
'1  pM
' pH+\)
(1025)
Let 1t = y/y"Nn/N and, hence, ,dy berBduced to
__ y"N"IN __ So
=
y,/J,IN duo
Then, Eq. (1027) may'
Integratinll a.lld solving for z,
_ y, (
X 
R
pN.lf+1
N _ M
+1 
N
+ 1 + ~onst
(1026)
dx
r
1 ;  1t~r,I! 1 _ _ _ _ , (y/1'IM)M    du ' 1  UN y"N .. !N 1  'UN j
l
(1028)
This equation can be llsed for the computation of the length of fJ/)·v fil' h' zontal cha.nneL ' . ~ , pro e In a Orl
,
It sh ou~ , b e llotec1 t h at ld , the assumptIOn of COllstnnt hvdraulic exponent<: l'n Ihe £0' • . J . ... ~ v • legomg d' ISCUSN
Channels with l'a'I'iablc Hydrauli ETponen'". • v. "
Following a procedure of integration and transformation simibr to that applied to the solution of Eq. (103),
x = ~
y N"IN [ 1. 
F(u,N)
, + (y,M'IM)H J F(v,J)'] + c.onst ~>.fN N
(1029)
log K
l
o
'"
~:~
r I I
N"2tonli
18 ,.,/
where u = Vly"N,,{N, V = u NIJ , J = N /(N  M 1), and F(u,N) and F(;),J) are variedflow functions. If the hydraulic exponents are consbant, or N" = N and Me = 111, Eq. (1029) obviously becomes Eq.
(10·8). The length of the flow profile between two consecutive sections of depths Yl and Yz can be computed by Eq. (1010), except where A YnN.fN ISo and B = (YeM,IM IYnN.IN)!':J IN. ChanrLeis with Gradually Closing Crown. For channels with gradually closing ero\vn, the hydraulic exponents are variable near the crown, and the m'ethod proposed r.bove may be used. For more accurat_e results, however, the integration of the dynamic equation maybe performed by a procedure of numericp.l integration. Such a procedure has been applied to circular c,onduits hy Keifer and Chu [17]. Let Qo be the discharge of a circular conduit, flowing full at a depth equal to the diameter do of the conduit and having the energy gradient equal to the bottom slope So, and let Ko be the corresponding conveyance.
+
I I I
log Kn
I I I
I I I
I
log Ze
,8 el
!
I
I I
I
I
I I
I
I
! I
I
I
N
I
I
I I I
,., " ".
2
I
I
I
_
.
log Y
'.l.:cJ_LL "'>.
log y
!2E£
"''''''' 0>".
0>
.>..>.'»
. ..2
01
2. .2 52
CJIo OJ. OJ.
~~~'r;u~i~'e~;~~::~~~~iC plots of depth against Z and lIf, respectively, for vari[,ble
)
sion ~s sa~isfactory in most rectangular and trapezoidal channels. As ~escnbe~ mArts. 43. and 53, the hydraulic exponents may vary appreciably with res~ect to the depth of flow ~vhen the channel section has abr~pt changes m crosssectional geometry or is topped with a gradually closmg crown. In s~ch cases, the channelhmgth should be divided "into a number of reaches III each of which the hydraulic exponents appenr to be constant. ' ' Referring to Fig. 105, it is assu~ed th:;Lt the hydro.ulic exponents in the range o~ depth from YI to Y2 of a reach ~re practicaJlyconstant. Let N n be the N value at the normal depth y,,;'let N be the average N value
Thus,
(1030)
For a uuiform flow in the circular conduit with a discharge equal to Q of the actual flow, Eq.(911) gives (103'1) Q = Knv'So From the above two equations the following may be developed:
i 1
\
262
GRADUA"LI,Y VARIED FLOW
METHODS OF COMPUTATION
,
263
where (ICo/KF is evidently a function of y/d o and, hence, can be represented by fl(u/do). Ji'r"omEqs. (\)4) and (97), the following may be written:
0:(.221' ZC)2 = 'qA3 (Z
=""Ci7 q(A/d o2)l
aQ2
T /d o "
=
aQ! (Y) ([;Sf. C4
(103.'3)
applications. The direct step method I is a simple step method applicable to prio:matic channels. Figure 1O6illustrates a short" channel reach of length I1x. Equating the total heads at the two end sections 1 and 2, the following may be written:
where (1'/ d o)/ g(A/d 0 2 ) Sis appa,rently afunction of y/d o and, hence, can be represented by hey/do). Substituting Eqs. (1032) and (1033) in Eq. (913) and simplifying,
(1034)
(1040)
(1041)
x _ do [ (v/do
 So}o
dey/do) 1  (Q/QoFh(y/d o)
~)o
or
aQ2 (v/e.,
Ia(y/do) d(u/d o) ] 1  (Q/QoFfl(y/d o)
+ const
(1035)
where E is the specific energy or, ass1_unillg cr.l = a2 = a,
where and
.(x _aQ:~ y.) +"const do' (y Q) .(Ii/d. dey/do) X FI do' Qo =}o 1  (Q/QoFh(y/d o) Y = F? (X, R) = f.(u/do) dey/do}  do Qo )0 1  (Q/Qo)2!t(y/uo)
x =  do So
T ."
V2 E=y+cr.2q
(1042)
(1036)
FIG. 106. A channel reach vation of step methods.
fOl"
the deri
=
. (1037)
(1038)
(v/d
o
In the above equations, y is the depth " of flow, 'V is the mean velocity, cr. is the energy coefficient, So is the bottom slope, and S,is the friction slope. The average value ofB! is denoted oy Sr. When the Manning formula is used, the friction slope is expressed by
(98)
These are the variedflow functions for circular conduits, depending all y/d o and Q/Qo. They can be evaluated by a procedure of numerical integration, say Simpson's rule. A table of these functions for positive slopes, I prepared by Keifer and Chu, is given in Appelldix E. The length of flow profile between two consecutive section3. of depth "Vl and Ya, respectively, in a circular conduit may be expressed as (1039) where A = do/So and B = cr.Q2/d o• 103. The Direct Step Method. In general, a step method is chal"acterized by dividing the channel into short reaches:and carrying the computation step by step from one end of the reach to the other. There is a great variety of step methods. Som.e methods o..ppear superior to others in certain n~spects, but no one method has been found to be the best in all
5
The direct step method is based on Eq. (1041), as may be illustrated by the IDliowingexo..mple. .
Example 107. Compute the flow profile required in Example 101 by the direct step method. . Solution. With the data given in Example 101, the step computations are carried out as shown in Table 104. The ,,&lues in each column of the table are expln.ined as foll<JW5: , Col. 1. Depth of flow in ft, arbitrarily assigned from 5.00 to 3.40 ft Col. 2. Water o.rea in ft' corresponding to the depth 11 in col. 1 Col. 3. Hydrn.ulic radius in ft corresponding to 11 in col. 1 . Col. 4. Fourthirds power of the hydrauli~ rn.dius Col. 5. Mean Velocity in fps obtained by dividing 400. cis by the water area in col. 2 CoL 6. Velocity head in it Col. 7. Specific energy in ft obt,ained by n.dding the velocity head in col. 6 to the depth of flow iI) col. 1 ~. : '
1 First suggested by the Polish engineer Charnomskil (22] in 1914 and then by Husted [23J in 1924.
If So = 0, then Q, = 0, Q/Q, = "", and the variedflow fundions hecome meaningless. If S, is negative, Eq. (1030) shows .that Qo> is negat,ive. Since the actual discharge Q must be positive, (Q/Q.)2 bee"omes" negative. Thus, the integration procedure must be done for negative values of (Q/Qo)l in the two variedflow functions.
1
"
, t
;
!
,
£.
, >, f"
,
,~
i
.: ,
.. /
\
and" = LO. Length of the reach in ft between the consecutive steps. In such c'ases the distance between stations is given.ter than y •• .n car~ied to exceed the length of the eulvert.his niethod it is convenient to' refer the position of the water s\:rface to a hQrizontal datum. V' = 4.g I. . 11 .l ~ I 000000000000000 _ ~ ~ <01 !:::.wrong direction 'tend inevitably to make the result diverge from the correct flow profile . In nonpril'lmatic channels. The Standard S!~Jl_~et~9d..t of the previous step Col.. Th~ fiow profile thus computed is practically identical with that obtained by graphi~l integration (Fig. pipe were fiowing full at the outl'et.he arithmetic mean of the friction slope just computed ill col. 103). Sol'utian . 13. equal to the difference between the E value in col. Differe.. Friction slope computed by Eq.l't dischs.S shown in Fig.:E~~~~g. . 4 Cbl. Table 105 shows the computat. The flow profile is of the 82 type. is raid./1 _ ~ ~ ~ • ~!::: • C'I') ~ ~ '~r ~•~ • . This depth is fOHnd to be 2. ~ • • • • • • ". ~ MO'~ M::'t.. 107. 9 and tha.81 ft.~ M '" gj "/ ""' Jl:'i 3/ . and the procedure is to determine the depth of flow at the stations. the control section is at the e.tll.. and the corresponding outlet velocity is 19.''..l".~. the step computation should be carried upstream if the flow is suhcritical and downstrea.025 and with V as given in c'o1. Since y.p 00· r. > y". the.. 250 ft long.ecifi~ energy in ft. 5 and R~i.. ..in col. that the depth of flow at the outlet can be interpolated. Distance from the section under consideration to the dam site... The computation is carried on by steps from station to station where the hydraulic charactel'i3t~cs have berm determined.x + Yl + ~2 (104:3) . (1041) or by dividing the value of b.012. Thill method is applicable also to nonprismatic channels.. 104. 'Example 108. C"I.02 with a free outlet. 107.ntrance. . so. water will enter the culvert at the critical depth !lnd . computed by Eq. which is selfexplanatory.nce between the b0ttom slope 0.D C'l Col." ~I .:tt 0 ~ e.g ~ .Fronl tl:e data.~ ~ ~ g.~j. 10...1 ~' ! I rt. .:S~~~~8~g~c::.$~::g~. 8. it is generally necessary to conduet a field survey to conect the data required at all sections considered in the computation.tion has be~. It should be noted that. As shown in Fig.E ic col. the hydraulic elements are no longer independent of the distance along the channel.I C'\tNC'lMC"t')C"t')MM~~~'''.. Col. elevations above the. the fio\v profile. . in either tpe direct step method or thE'l standard step method which w:ill be described in the next article.~ . Aver~ge friction slope between the steps. This is equal to the cUlmllativ~ sum of th~ values in coL 12 computed for pr\lvious steps.e the flow profile if. . Step computations carried in the . 8 by the vahle in col.METHODS OF COMPUTATION 265 1 ( f ~ ~ 21 1 ~ '""""! ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~J NMl!"Jt.ion of. Such a procedure is usually carried out by trifl..thereafter flow: at a depth less than 'Y... In Fig. I J '<! ~I J ) I .60 ft .nnel slope i~ steep.01 ~I .rges 232 ds. (98) with n "" 0. A 72'in..0016 and the average friction slope CoL 12. the watersurface .l and error.. 7 and that of the previous step CoL 9. on a slope of 0. the outlet veloCity would be only 10 fps. The computed profile is plotted Il. I 264 = So t.. In natural channels. Comput.m if the flow is supercritical.! ~ . The comp\. 11.(') . the chr. if the. ! .I C"I . datum at the two end sections are Zl { .IN(QC') t I ~ €I ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~.4 fp3.. reinforcedconcrete pipe culvert. In explaining t. n = 0. 106.35 it and Yn = 2. Plotted also in the figure is the energy line indicating the variation of energ:' along the culvert.. • '.1I Note that. Change of sp. ~ r: u:cr: ~ c ~ 00 00 00 J:. culv. equal to t.. but grer... ~•~ ~ ~..
t loON 0') ) .!.. 1""""1  ... which ma. Substituting the above expressions in Eq. 0'> t:' ... r~~epends mainly on the velocit. The standard step method is best suited to computations for natural ..."'.1""""11""""1 Therefore..".q. k is about 0. For prismatic ~uTai'Chailiiels) the eddYloss is practically ~'Ie = O..NiBma~ic~...1""""1 ~ ".. ..". For apphcatiOilto natural channels.t..1""""1'_. howevelJ. ~O)OC"lC:OCf...tcr:. ~ t C'~ ::g~g~~ ~I ~ ~ \OMtnHMC'O~t:OO OlI""""l~tO':I. .tI"". I"" A: io...£is!!latic channel..METHODS OF COMPUTATION IJ) C'J 0 ~ 267 (10. For abrupt expansions and con}. .ttOtO~ ~ ~ ~ ~....r<o<o<o1 COtn tttO.. .....en: .. respectively...hod of evaluatin edd' loss is available.....een: described. may sometimes be cOll03idered part of the friction loss and Manning's 11.i~£9 in the cor.y head change a.. ... .. °° '" .actions... the following may be writt. h.!..t'..£l1annels. + hI + h. I ...Q"'d'I<!:l tn 00000000 o:JcqO~LOtK:.... For graduzHy COl1vel'gmg anddivergll1g reaches...~ C\l N C'l I Z56 " I This is the basic equation that defines the procedure of the standard step method... 4Jl.."'IfI "dt r:v'l cr:. NM and The friction loss is o l .r...(cnl.. .. lOG}.in computing _!}l> I~.) (1048) \ J to I 1""""11""""1. "'1'1 jC'~ 00 1'""'1 0':1 11".O CO Q ..B. + v 000000000 1""""I0l~U"J"'IfIC'I~t OON~tM"l~ •• * •• •• 0')00<1:><0<0000'" 00000000 OO..l ..... .. C1:I. = 0 to 0.~ill be used in trw following 'example in order to ~ the iI1ustration and to' aUows_oml?J!.. For convenience of computation.. may be properly increased..... " ( .tl. g g .l r: .44) (1045) 0 1""""1 cno:.~PI h~. \I') <0 0 .. .......p method... The total heads at two eUd sections are ..."'\t)~"""<j' I'" 000000000 .lN~~. .= Z2 + 0:2 2 + 11.. .1 andO... (1040).. Eq.risoll with reSiiItSobtained by the other methods that have b.. I f .ltC*:loC() ..:><O\I') .....l~Ot jN N .O. . ...oCtlO)"'IfIO 1""""1 1""""1 <1 H CO"'lflCON~I""""ICOO O(O<Ott<:OlQO . or k(~aV2!2!l) where k is a coefficient. '<"' t. ""dI 1""""10':1 LO 0 0 cqr. The elevation at....r... Compute the flow profile required in Example 101 by the standard str... .....OcO (0 tt"o 0000 00 where h. As~ume that statiollS along the channel are j1x~d at the distances determined in the solution of Example 107...2... (1049) ( A: t "" tCOCOO t....nputatiol1. C'1 C'l 0:1 ....Otn Lf') "'IfI C"I C"J to ~ ~""""'I""""II""""IOOOO O':IM"'lfltO"lCCflr r 00000000 where the friction siope S/ is taken as the average of the slopes at the two end sections...~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ <0 t. (1046) becomes HI = H 2 I ~.. .I""""1. ·and 1100 <'> <0 "" .. Example 109. Oo>oor.c l'o . .. the dmnsite is 600 m. 1'""'1 1""""1 .n ..Lbe appreciable III nOI1.5.. .OcO ('> 0 ~ 0 .1 + h.. V 12 )12 2 (1046) Zl al 2.I (1047) .. No rational met.. 1""""1 j c. <'l 00 I ~ ~ M~ Cl ~ '1"""0000000<:'1'"' M cq...an example will be shown later (Art. I QC'lOmo\l')oaor<b ~ ~ "rr<1:>. is added for the eddy loss. en co CI'J 0 00 c..qt 0 1""""1 t' to to ~ f..o 1""""1 C"J O.l'.... or as Sf... lllay be expressed as 11 part Of It... N ~ ~ 00 ~ c. ..
. Col.. .1JC'I.sJ. hence.from the clam site times bed slope).re t... Since the elevation of the darn site is 600 m...80 ft. 106.0 a 0 0 0 000 : f6 ~ '[3. 15 of tli __ previous reach. . a number of flow profiles may have to be computed for the same discharge with different assumed lSI' £! ''.I I Solution."" i:>II .co ~ ~ t.. this will be verified or rejected on the basis of the computations made 'in the remnining columns of the table. Average friction slope through the re~... Col.. as shown in Table.Q ~ ".l ~ ~ co ~ oci.. approximately equal to the arithmetic mean of the fdctloll slope just comp'.. Hydraulic mdius in ft.r0000000 00 '=100000 (O(()tD~ot. Sectionidcnbiiied by stiJ. that is........ equal to the difference ill station numbers between the stations CoL 13.... new trial value of the watersurbee elevation is assumed.. (!:I co oC"t ~ to co 0 C'\ lO It:I u. ~ 8'~ ~ g ~ f::: ~ ~ ~ ~ + + + + + + .:cr. This is computed by Eq.. 0 0 0 09°.n col.lted i...":J.. The computed now profiie is practically identical with that obtained by the gl'aphicalintegmtion method shown in Fig...I ~ . CoL 3..0 N C'l C'1..Vfl..ch between the sections in each' step.oV":l~Oe::tl~CO[.) C"".l to the given discharge 400 cf" divided by the wa. equal to t. Water area corresponding to y in coL 3 CoL 5.~~~~.. l' from col.1""""1 C'1 N N I""'"'f _ I 1""""1 :00000000000000 1 i i + ! r ~!::.. Eddy loss in the reach.OOO . with n = O. corresponding to the velocity in col.:Qtt~t.155 X 0.1·0 C'l t...O(QtOtO~tOtOt.048 .. Fourthirds power of the hydraulic radius Col. l~.... 9.~.." tcotc. and R~~ ]rom coL 9 CoL 11.. The computatiDn may then proceed to the next step..+ + + + + + + + + o . For instunce.~~~~~t2~~..::.tersurface elevation at the station.1ds ' to agreement is the c!!rrect 'watersurfuce elevation....... + . (98)...I. IQ lfJ <0 c..~MN~"". 6 .. conesponding to the waters'll'fll.::tt C'f':l 1""""1' m co u:. several flow profiles.1.. For the first step.JMer)~~~. IX) Lr.ttoi' area'in col. ~ t.......a:: ~ C"l ~ 10 C"t c::: a a a C'l 00 co tn r. In previous articles methods were described for.. 12.. . 5....I 00 00 C'1 .I. Depth of flow in ft. by adding the values of hI and h.. ' CoL 4. FYiction slop~ computed by Eq.. . Ilnd so on.. Col. Friction loss in the reach. 0 0. 10.qt.tt ~:.. If the vallie so ohtained does not ng'ree closely with that entered in col..he procedure with that of th~..I Cl M .. Computation of a Family of Flow Profiles.oIoocn~O":IC":IO":ImCJ) 8~g~~g~f. M . Il.r.$ J ! ell ~I g :g~' c....C"l U") co ~ co O"l .'1 C'l cr" C""....:1'1 *.. 10 and that of the'previous. An example of this type of pro~lem is the determination of the economical height...step . M ~ to 00'::: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ..!"""'4 ~ co lfJ M t.~~~~g~f2~~~~t. Velocity head in ft.1.or a family offiO\v P1'0 files.. ~. 5 Cnl.' profile.. 13 and 14 to the eleva~ion at the lower end of the reach.~'~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ g ~ ~ ..: ~ . equal to the sum of Z in col.tt~~ 0 co C'l N ctJ 0 o 0 C'f':l t. where the initial elevation is indeterminate and.. this elevation ...I_"""f~.4 C~ ~ ~ (.I 0 00 11"... a .I~~C"'\ .. 2 and the velocity head in col.. determining a single fio. Ele\·ation of the total head in ft..ce elevation in col.. equal to zero Col.I ~~. nnd the height of the dam is 5 ft.he product of the values in cols... 4 CoL Ii...J C'o':: .~!2g~. 103.. ] j and 12.tion n'lmber such as "station 1 55:" The location of the stations is fixed at the disto:nces det~rmi!led in Exampie 107 in order to compa.. Col. When the trial value in the second step has been verified. (1047).U') L"':) t.268 GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW i ) ...s. 1. 2..S.O~5.... 2.I . in cols..) lfJ tn L. it becomes the basis for the verifieation of the trial valu~ in the 1I1lxt step..D~tO~U'::I l M~MMe.and so on.00 m.must be given 'or assunled. Frequentl:)'. (1049). are desired fOl' various cOnditiolls of stage and discharge. Total head computed by Eq.C"l 0 00 M C1 ~ H.o to lO lO r..3~~~ f . .:~~ u)~~".. 15..)~~NNC'1~C'i"l~~ ~ E is C"l ~ .. Length of the reach between'the sectioll.GOO.. The step computations are arrauged in tabular form.1 ~ ~ CC (r"  ~C'1NM~e. A trial value is first entered in this column.i ~ 269 . L~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ M M ~ M ~ M M M . C"t ~ co Lt':l O"J M 00 ~ r. which is found in col.D~tO ..[ I . direct step method...~ co tf) 00 ~ I.. 7.q.. Mean velocity equ!l. eo"J: lfJ co OJ a .0016 = 4..~ u. Values in each column of the table are explained as follows: CoL 1.) M C"". 7.... the first entry is 605...~~:MMMM~~MMMM 105. until agreement is obtained.of a dam.. or 605. 8. The value that le. corresponding to 1J in coL 3 Col. 0 0') It)~M'''''OOl. the depth of flow at station 1 55 is equal to \Vatersurface elevatioh minus ehvation at the dam site'minus (distance.) 000000000000000 lC") a...
or in a river with a tidal estuary for different tidal elevations.. l j l 0. each curve represents the rehttionship between the watersurface elevations at thebeginnillg and end sections of a reach. may be obtained t'ithel' by shifti!lg the curves horizontally (Fig. it call be shown that the velocity head Friction slope for Q" 400 cis FIG. When 11 number of flow profiles are desired fOI' different stage and discharge conditions.inst watersurface eleva. 109) required in the colnputatiol1. 1010) may be prepared after a few flow profiles within an expected range have been computed by any method. B.tion. 108 and 109 have been computed. ft 1. and and the friction slope vary with the square of the discharge. When the discharge of flow in a channel varies. 10g). 1O~8. 108).d and friction slope will change. 109). Therefore. From cOllsideration of the Manning formula and the continuity of flow. cana'! t. CUI'ves for othol' discharges.0 5 FIG.05 0. 108) or by shiftthe abscissas (Fig. after the curves for one value of Q. For instance. it is best to construct curves showing the geometric and hydraulic elements (Figs.trm1m for different stagps and discharges in the main river.gainst watersurffICe elevation. In the diagram. in Figs. C'um'Js of Geo'l11£tric Elements. The distance by which either the curve or the abscissa should be shifted is determined by the square of the ratio of the !lew to the original discharge: .1 Veloci~y 0. AnothEll' example is the tracing of flow profiJes in a tributary :. Plot 'of velocity head aga. and the friction slope in logarithmic scale can be plotted against the wateL"surface. then . 1O1l.wo reservoirs for changing reservoir elevations and 1lariable The following are some timesaving methods which may help in the computation of a family of flow profiles. when the elevation at section 1 is plotted against the elevation at section 2 for the first reach 12. for general use in the computation. elevation (Fig. GRADUALLY VARiED FLOW METHODS OF COMPUTATION 271 initial elevations. provided the curves are not extended needlessly beyond the expected range of the watersurface elevation. Such a diagram (Fig. and the watersurface elevation will be affected. 108. say 400 cIs. The Leach Diagram. Considerable time can be saved itl. the computation by interpolating values fnim these cur'Tes. or in ll. When a hrge number cif flow profiles is required for the same discharge but diifel'ent stages. the velocity hea. a diagram develop~d by Leach [24J may be used to advantage. A. Thus. the velocity head in logarithmic scale can be plotted against the watersurface elevation (Fig. Plot of friction slope IJ.5 need. say 200 and 800 cfs.270 .
and necessary geometric elements A and R for each of these watersurface elevatiofL'> are determined ./" MlllTHODS OF COl\:fPUTATION 273 (1053) the cur~e fOl'. the corresponding values of these functions can be obtained by. The diagram is const.wd. In irregular r. 'This procedure is the same as in the standard step method. and curves of Z1 + F(Z'l) and Z2 + FCZ2) l1re plotted against Z for each section (Fig..nd (1051) (1052) It can be seen that functions F(Zl) and F(Z2) are proportional directly to the squares of.y be computed by Eqs. the value of . For simplifythe IdentdieatlOu of the curves.'ent diagmffi must be prepared. in Eq. In the computation. measured upstream from that section. fol. the term h. (1()"'55) and (1056).6. (1050) isi zero. :. should be computed for each section.ssumed 1mbal elevatlOll can be determined. (1045) in Eq. elevations at sections of oddnurnber are . the flow profile for any a. a method developed by Ezra.tersurface elevation are selected.red. For any other discharge under investigation a diffe. renc? 1. 104....and tabula~ed.m is recommended if flow profiles Iorthe same dlScharge are required fOl' val'ious initial st!Lgcs.lull of 1C is determined first and the value of Sf is then computed by Eqs. (25) may be used.ud " n ( Q)2 1(1 (1054) (1O~55) .6.82 = (!l)2. It should b€! noted that two values. In computing F(Z2). ere. represente~ .MINATlON OF WATERSVRllACE. . In computing F(Zl) of the section." '" '0 if: " 505 .crion ot !iclioo$ 1~~. The E'l:m lIfet!. ':Vltn the . In artificial prismatir. values of C/ P /2g and SI are determined at each section for each of the selected elevations. For given values of Q and n. For each chosen section in a charulel under consideration.22Rl~~ 2 V 22 ~ ~2 = 2.x.. The Ezra method gives a graphical solution of Eq.6. (1053) and (1054).'" Q " ~ . as described in Art. For any other disQs.x is the value . since it will be shown that the same value of . and vice versa. Similar method':! have also ' been developed by others (26281. This will be shown in Example 1012. 1010.ownstream section is the:refore equal to Z 1 + F(Zl) for the next upstream section of the same reach.. F(Zl) .22R2~i 2 2 81 a.ND CONST1H)'C'l'ION OF Z + F(Z) CURVES. 1014).x is the value . The Le!Lc~ diagram for flOWpl'ofile computatlon when a large numbel' of flow profiles are reqUIred for the same discharge. and F(Z~). channels.2 606 . be ." each section' with Z = ZI = Z21 values of ZI + F(Zl) and Z2 + FCZ2) are computed. The effect of eddy losses may be included in the value of the roughness coelficient n.00 and fonowing the dotted line in the direction of the 'arrows the corresponding watersurfaue elevations Il(. the following equation may be wntten: '. several values of \Vi:J. subsequent sections can b~ obtained easily.6.' I. ELEVATIONS.he corresponding vl1llleS of F(Z) are then computBd by (la51) and (1052). There are two major parts of this solution: L COMPUTATION . 5.i 607~ J GQar . muit. • ~ul:lstituting Eq.Xd measured downstream from that section.dlagram thus prepo... the friCtion slope Sf 1l10. at each section Zl = Z7 = Z./ QF. The Ler.by abs~i8sas and those at sections of even number by ordinates: . this rule ensures that values. the v(. of ax will common to sections at both ends of any reach. C..iplying the functions by a factor (Q. (1046). t. Taking the initial elevation as 605. I 606404~c*~~!~____~I~____~ 606 607 W'ater3urfoce ele".6.. The resulting ~alue of Z2 + F(Z2) for a \:l. In other words. .o!. (1050).hannels.272 l< GRADUALLY VARIED FLO'lT . (1050) 'o/here !l. DE'rEP.x is used on both sides of (1050).. ! ! r I I and n V1 '8 1 = 2. C u . " 608 FIG. When flow profiles for various discharges are desired for different initial stages.. the value of. Now.ructed for a discharge of 400 cfs.. ' For each section. 1(2 ~ . thus.ch diagm. 2..the veIQc1ti~s or of the discharge Q.2 as shown in the figure is obtained..
provided the computation is carried in the right direct.al section. the standard 'step method is recommended. ! ( . the flow profile in short reaches is very close to that of a uniform flow.ion..: .. For supercritical . .. the flow profile should be traced in a dowllstreant direction. and vice versa. The application of the Ezra method will be illustrated by examples ill Art. is then added to the value of Z2 for the lower one of the two sections.a include the reach length between sections. The Standard Step Method for Natural Chll1lnels. where a flowprofile computation should start. and water area. 2. but slightly modified by local channel irregularities . 4. if no elevatiol1 is known within or near the reach under consider~tion. This knowledge is ) . When the velocity head is small.' In the table.. th~ following information is generally required: 1: The discharge for ". the corresponding. it necessary to plot curves of k(a V1j2g) the elevation Z for eil. The geometric elements at various channel sections along the reach for all depths or flow within the range expected.v ag~ee if the distance from the distant section to the initial section is sufficient. making it pos~ible to estimate the water area and wetted perimeter within a moderate range of wat.he time the step computation has been carded to the inith. First of all. . . By t. 106. may be expressed as k{O'V2/2g). Hence. the term h. Starting with the value of . Accordingly. the flow profile is traced in a downstream direction. 108. therefore.wo sections. tracing the desired flow profile. If eddy losses are not included in the roughhess. be obtained previously for h. from the plotted k(a V2/2!7) curves for these elevations .ersUl~face 'elevation. it has been fOlll1d that the smaller the :value of Manning's n.or he'in the reach. wetted perimeter.. i + I + .?I Ji'(Zl) at the initial section and taking this value to the Zz F:(Zlz) cw've for the next downstream section. The channel roughness and eddy losses at various sections. The column for remarks is provided to indicate the limiting features of the cross section.y be obtained by a hydrographic surveyor from a contour map of the channel bottom. I + ·1 l + + is . The difference ka:{VN2g. may not be knovm ina natural stream.ry the computation upstream . . 1012) and to interpolate their values at different elevations. In computing a flow profile.flow. Other dat.lsection. For a practical and precise Bolu tiol1. ~ I . For flow in most natural channels at a normal stage. The comput. the procedure is similar. jf. the elevations will be correct. If this is not available. In flowprofile computation. 3. For subcritical flow. an arbitrary eleyation may be assumed at a distant section far enNlgh away. from the initial sect.. it will be convenient to construct curves of the geometric elements (Fig.nnel having the average geometric and hydraulic characteristics of the natural channel. A convenient method of recording these data is shown in Table 107. watersurface elevation is determined directly. the flow profile is determined in an upstream direction.ion. an approximate solution may be obtained by either the di!'ectintegration method or the direct step method. the procedure of computation should be modified.flow. above or below as the ca'se may be. Thel'efore. ~he step method can be carried even in t e wrong direction wH~ resulting in serio~ ~rr~rs. The watersurface elevation at tho control section. the value of Zz F(Z2) ClLn be obtained from the appropriate Z2 + F(Z3) curve. and the correction for eddy losses should be deducted from the value of ZI F(ZI) before this value is taken to the Z2 + F(Zz) curve. The resulting value is taken to the + F (Z 1) cun'e for the hight'll' of the t. and the corresponding corrected watersurface elevation is determined. where k is a coe. the cross sections are identified by number and river mileage in conformity with the map in Fig. the corresponding watersurface elevation is determined. For subcritical . the flow is subcritical and downstream if it is supercrit~ The wa.a ma. use of the step computation in this connection offers a special advant:1ge.fficient described in Art.vay from the initial se(ltion through whieh the profile is decircd. however. the qomplltt.rt from an assumed elevation at a sectiOl) far enougli a~.hlg with a given initial watersurface elevation at a down:. such as the side slopes. al~ is always advisa Ie 0 ca. Values of k(aV2/2g) may. watersurface elevations for two consecutive sections are determined in an upstream direction by the procedure described O.ch section. For apparently gradually varied flow. a smallest possible n value should be selected in the computation if knowledge of the longest possible flow profile is required. If the step computation is started at an assumed elevation that is incorrect for the given discharge. These dat. assuming a prismatic chp. The standard step method has many obvious advantages in application to natural cfU'.1 " 274' GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW METHODS OF COMPUTATION 275 . 1011.llllels. If flow profiles for different discharges are contemplated. The two values usuall. the longer will be the profile. channel width.tersurface elevation of the iiiltJ. This procedure is J'Elpeated from section to section.'lumed elevation at the dista. the resulting flow profile will become mOl'e nearly correct after every step. Star!.tream sectioll.ed elevation at elle initial section is the correct elevation if the second computed value agrees with the first value..ntsection. T'~2/2!l). For supercritical flow. Entering the curve of ZI F(Zl) for the next upstream section with this value.. A check may be made by performing the same computation with another as.ihich the flow profile is desired. ! I i ~~. 104.tion may sta. However.
0 '" ~ :0.040 7l!. "<l .J '" U '" E OJ ol 0 lD ovet :12 + 80 4. 0 .E:>: ". 1 " r£.l i BUllk 1 on "~f 3.I J I a <Il t: ~ >:: q 4 H:'L9 Channel ltO l.00 Bridge '750..!!~ " ~ '" \:...U5" 48...ions.:.h slue3 Lovee IonS bo~h sides .J <:> w Z ~ ~ ~ > . k Ch..~ .. 11 for location or iltu~1':l. 880 1.... 1 +W B9 92 II bnr.3 Left overb~nk' . 38.520 2 +IH 23 + 72 2. 1: Distance tlP. MlSsounr Mo.50(. 11 i RigMoverbank 3SS...020 Levee 1 on 4 47... ' ~ "0 >:: ol 01.aOO DaL<k 1 Oil "' I ~t I f Cl I I o~ I .020 Le"'egl on <1.00·4 700 Levee 1 on 3 I{ansfls Riv~r 54() ".r .2 Loft... 0 ..550 ~'..5 Left DVc.. '"" " Channel 1.4 + 10n3 X 1 "t:l b.29()f 460.95 746. KANSAS CITY. 57 + 40 62 I.. 8. 3 pier slIrtt\eas t t >< <=: 2. S8il 2.5 :3 745. TAIJULJ'.430 ·Fllirfax 384.nk Ch3une~ I 720 3.010 1 levee . OJ u . 0 . 3 Left ovor· b~nk 178 1.2 Lef~ over 720 2.) e .310 490 640 34.29 5GO 1. o·~ b '' ~ r:Q <5 Chfll\nel 84.SOO Bank 1 on 1 I :< .400 · ..57 125 216 .. I'il ' :: 0 " . 2.1'ION OF DATA FOR. cor ~. ..300 Bauk 1 on 1 'C "" E c: " c: 0 .0S0 1.: .il00 il 37S.. 0 Missnuri Ri\~3r " ~ E2 "E ~ ~c: ..·!iS50utL RivQr 840 :.600 5...16.E :> .. " i. ::: ~ c: .~ Le\·c.. seot.7'+40 1... 1 0:1 3 but.... 1 745 ." AND KANSAS RrvEns AT <0 'Q 'Q " " .D bank Channel I.320 3~.! tj ! TABLE METHODS OF COMPUTATION 277 107.200 0+·61 l "'~ .er~ (291.060 . .:: .a.:. 10.. f...700 Levce 1 on4 5.:I 7. 6 378.ttcam from l1i!etion O.nnel 1 + SO Hi t ' 2 1.080 720 W .. .~ " ~ 0 ' '" It..080' 47. U..27G Levee 1 .". Chllnn~1 1.ur· {iLea. eyer· br.. t See Fig.nk Channel Dike 44 + 50 5.." ]~ .S.: Lev •• 1 on. Army Corps of Engin.0 0 " 0 E " t:: "" 'o" > " '0> .1 1 .
1. values.. a largest possible n value should be used... p.. 3. o . FLOW important in cert.. Section number in conformity with the plan of Fig.. The column headings in the table are explained below: Col.• I j :!: ..e co '" !.. Mo.re shown in Table 107 for given watersurf!t. however.vn in Table lO~p..£ " p.. The eddy losses may be estimated separately and included in the computation:· Some~imes.M "":. the geometric elements are to be estimated from such data. 0 . '" . (U. 1O~1l Col. Water area. ¥o... design discharge of 431. in the problem of improving a ehannef for navigation. .:toverbank and mainchannel areas..25. .. it is convenient to raise the value of n and thus cover the effeet of the losses.O. ... 1011... "... The computat.. Compute the flow profil..C.: I'" I"" I t ...0'" '" .. The plan indicating the locations of the cross sections is shown in Fig.. 0 '" .~ 0 iii '" ~~ " . 0 ~ .:. .of 752.!! 00 II 0> 8 0 0 " ". Since the navigable depth should be greater. have been modified to suit the present purpose.1 of Missouri Riyel" at Kansas Cit:!.25 at... '" ~ X 0> h' §§§ xx X <OM '" <1l0"O:.:l Some numerical· . The geometric elements of these cross sections a.. t". . '" ~ Ii M '" '" ~ ~ . .. ) plan and data used in this example were obtaine..S.000 fi2 . for which M. 1 The d ~ o· ~l . . " :. however. ·0 ~. 0 0 0 '" 0 ~ '" '" '" _. 1012..5. The initial elevatiol1.ekwatel' effect due to a dam.ain engineering problems. 5. :::: I <0 "" ". For other elevaLions."'"" 0 '" '": 000 "" . Solution. Col. '" 0 0 . . designates the main channel section and L. in the Missouri River near Kansas City.. A and R vs.. .Ce elevations . .. Example 1010...... l .. 0 r .d from [291. Watersurface elevation...j FIG. ~ ~ .. c:.0 c: 0 0 0 Oil 0 '" '" 8 . the area is determined for each subdivided area from Table 107 or from a curve prepared as shown in Fig. For instance.!:: 278 GRADUALLY VARIED. the shortest possible profile will indicate the lowest depth of Howat a given channel section... Subsections." ..0 ~.. ~"'I~ I ( J 1.58.. At elevation 752. such as the determination of the bu. 2... section 1 is subdivide'd into le.:: gj . 0 ' ~ j ~ '" o..000 ds. \'liatersurface elevation for channel section No. 4. for example.:! :6 :l .ions are tabulated as sho'.. Army Corps oj Engineer•. .. c: 0 . .. River mileage above the mouth of Missoud River Col. designates the left overbank section Col.. .j > " ~ ... .77. ~I ". . for a.. 1012. .hen knowledge of a'shortest possible flow profile is required. On the other hand.!:: '" A in 1. seotion 1 was estimated from the rating curve of the Kansas City gaging station on the Hannibal Bridge at Missouri River mile 3. than a oertain minimum value. ".
resistance factor and therdore IS given !I IIame of resistance'modulus by PavlovskiI [21.~. Above section 5. The general losses are included in the friction loss cOlIlputed in . of the hydraulic radius in col. 4 should be assumed again until a fair agreement is reached. that . 1151. The velocities shoold be computed for the divided discharge. . 6.h ea d ch n. = F /L. the watersurf!lce elevation in col.nges' d ue t 0 back"'ater effect are also neglected. = [431. be computed by Eq.that ft. . (1058) may be written.t section 1. For the computation ot' watersurface elevations at sccHons1K.63 . at the entrance of the KansaB River to the Mi.rge of a uniform flow by the Manning formi. This is estimated at. such as rising and falling of stage.col. Col. Length of the reach between the sections.d channel sections are assumed equal to unity. i7. the difference in river miles between the sections as converted into ft Col. lL The value of I(} / A' Col. The friction slope Sf in a short reach of length Linay be expressed as .F S.rg [311.1 X 100)]' = 0. form similar to Bq.000 ds divided by the water area in col. Friction loss in the reach. CoL 21.000 cfs) and the 1{ansas River (81.Q~ = 1. which is equal to (Q/ K)'.9 AR>1 (1059) n where the velocity. 9. Eddy.tained.]. that is.. 5 to col. It is assumed ~hat the general rosses due to contraction.1 !his equationC8.dding the SUIll of the losses hl in col. whicl~ is also the watersurfaee elevation at the beginning section of the next reach. be. find bend are included in the friction losses coniputed from the selected n values.h. th!lt is. 19 e. 15. 12..nd h. whi~h is equal t.e. Average friction slope through the reach between the two sections. 18 ' Col. Wetted pcdmeter. the procedure of computation is the same as that described in Art. 20. 14 Col. that' is. the product of the slope in col. 65. Friction slope. 1013). can be avoided by using nomQgraphs.l: be used ill the flowprofile eomputntion if the stagefalldischarge relatlOnshtp for uniform flow in the reach is known. 12. + h~2 L hvI (1057) 'where F is the fall in water surface and h'J2 ' h~1 is the change in velocity. If hvi .hVI is zero~r negligible" then S.. Velocity head ' Col. and the fall for a dischrLrge Q.10 X (1).required flow profile is ob. in col. 19. 14. the corresPQnding value of Q/ v'F can be read from the curve. however. (1060). The division of discharg. 6. !lIl suggested by Stron.nd (1059) I '1.000 ds). thestagefalldischarge method ~ay be used.280 GRADUALLY VAlli. see Art.0. However.000220. expansion.000/ (290. the arithmetic mf!fLn of the friction slope just computed in coL to and that for the previous step Col. 20 to the total head in the same column for the previous section. The procedure is repeated for each reach until the complete .o the sum of thc elevation in col.tla is Q = l. 21(.ED FLOW METHODS OF COMPUTATION 281 Col. When flow profiles of a stream in its natural state. 5 by the wetted perimeter in col. (1058) u. 10. . the wetted perimeter is determined from' Table 107 or from Fig. ' . when added to the watersurface elevation at the beginning section of the reach gives the watersurface elevation at the end section of the reac. Col..e is balled on a hydl'ologic study of the drainage basins of the two rivers. .or 11 selected reach may be determined froni.subdiviLh.'ge is divided between' the Missouri River (350. The Stagefalldischarge Method for Natural Channels. . which is e~luar to the section discharge of 431.13) = 0. Col. S. The value of Manning's n.lIn a similar method devel~ped by Rakhmanoff [341 a term F /Q' is.(jeve1"!:. Thus. CoL 13. Energy coefficient for nonuniform velo~ity distribution. Twothirds power. Tne coefficients for the .s accordingly. resulting in a sta. ' Col. souri River. Total head.IF C'urve (Fig." L'r = Q/v'F (~)Z (1060) 107. From Eqs. Col. When any watersurface elevation ~\t the_beginning section of the reach fS given. and the normal disch[J. are available for a number of discharges. obtained by dividing the area in col.1 1 Reference (30) describes the socalled Grimm Tllethod. loss in the reach. If the value so obtained does not agree closely with that entered in col. 10% of the increase in velocity head.49 A R* /n Col. the dischaJ. Mean velocity. ~vhere Q/ y'F is called the discharge for 1ft fal!. records of observed stages and discharges Cfable 109).lso developed' by others [3034]. Similar rnethods'have been 'n. head. us 7 in lieu of d Q/ ~F. 7. lB. for section 1. From col.us~Q/. IS. 1012. Total head. this method has the advantages of simplicity and economy [29. 1110. The 1C v!Llue is the total value for the section under consideration. without backwater effect. : The stageversusQ/v'F curve is generally cOl~structed as an average 'curve for varying river conditions. ' Col. :For elevation 752~2p a..' Hydmulic radius. This term has the nature of /J. The conveynnce K = 1. 15.05 ft. and corresponding values of Q/y'F are plotted as ~bscissas. It requires a trial computation which. p. an additional eddy loss at the C1mfillence is expected. which is obtained by t1. 8. 17 and the reach !ength in col. and 7. 7. i. 4 and the velocity head in col. 19.or 0. 5. '6. it may be assumed .~~ _4RH (J)'Il (~ys (1058) For a gradually vlLl:ied :flow with backwater effect having a' discharge Qz and a corresponding F r in the same re!wh. The computed fall. The stages or watersurface elevations at the beginning section _of the reach are plotted as ol'dinates. The stLlgefalldischarge relationship f.
the. the . Values OfQ/IFinl.tion for the change. the difference results primarily from the neglect of velocityhead changes in the presentmethod. By (1060).350 ". 2 and 1 1 ·Col.ll in ft. sta.. in 755 752. as reflecting recent channel changes. the stagefall discharge method is more· satisfactory for problems . 4 and F is tilE. .25.n be obtained for reaches of large rivers 50 to 100 miles from the measuring station.flow condition during the measurements. Fa. such as the changes in channel roughness. The data arid cornputa tions for the sta. levee bteaks. the plotted points 20re often scattered. 1.. or stationary. Eq. This example is taken from [291 with modifications.ge versus discharge for a Iitfall! curve are given in Table 109.and overbank flow .geversusQ. 3 .. compu~ed by the standa. c I 740rr '0 . th~ required watersufface elevation at section 5 is 753.offset by the inaccuracy of theresults.' i crt 745 I ~ ~i~ ! ~.. ··1.\/ifi col. to the elevation at section 1. . satisfactory results ca. should be drawn through the points. vF curve (~'ig. E:x:amplelOll. the fall between sections 1 ancH is equal to (431. or vice versa.:er. For this' reason. which is equal to the differ~nce between elevations entered in cols. The computation may be continued for subsequent· reaches.' . 1013. any abrupt change in hydraulic elements of the channel section will produce a. and shifts of cha.nnel controls.this va.65 ft. By making proper allowance for variable conditions.. Other factors that should be considered in constructing the curve are the relative accuracy of individual discharge measurements. conditions affecting the stagefalldischarge relationship. 5.ce cle\'ations at section 1 as listed in col. In this case. which contains the following headings: Col..12 0. as 5hown in Table 1010. data of doubtful accuracy should be rejected./F =33~. Btidgej i!lds Col. if known.000)' = 1..g 725 3. Bridge located about 3. This is about half a foot lower than the elevation. Compute the watersudace elevation at section 1 of the Missouri River problem in Example 1010 by the sto. Solution.. Owing to these varying conditions. The data required by the methOd are often .282 GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW METHODS OF COMPUTATION 283 fluctuating stream bed.90.. The watersurface elevations are available from stage records for gages located at sections 1 and 5. whether rising.OOO i5 obtained by extrapolation. > I I I '0 735 .25 \ ~ 750 : I~lf. Discharge per Ift faIl. The discharges have been observed at the A. complete flow profile is requil·ed.8J3. These data are tabulated in Table 109. A . iriwhich the velocity is well below critical end decreases in the downstream direction.. this advantage.th'e discha. eorresponding change in the curvature of the curve.o00 lJ~its FIG. Where sufficient measurements are available. In general. For a we. However.S. aquatic growth. The reach from section 1 to section 5 istakea as the first reach.les. ice.rge in col. 5.at. and the existence of substantial local inflow between the stations. 2. This method is used most advantageously when a number of discharges corresponding to known stages. a value of Q/ .re desired in a stream.is usually.000 ft downstream from section 1. and effects of wind. where Q:is. 720 715 0 1 r~! 50 100 o I [. 1 of the ta.000/ 355.bove or below t. The stageyersusQ/VF curve may qe extrapolated !].."" .B. a correc. giving consideration to the varying conditions. construct 0. a. ~. " \ e.Q(V'F curve for Example 1011.wI L~ I I I 1 I I ISO I 200 I 250 I 300 h _ _I ". is suggested for the computation if a.tersurfaceelevation of 752. A tabulation.ble and the CQl:responding values of Q/ . should be made in extrapolating the curve. ~ '" 730 "": ~ 0 ' . and a smooth line. Howe. The stagevs. 4. Ad'ding. representing the average condition of thechannel.tersurface elevations at section 5 Col. the more recent meaSurements should be given greate: weight. or Q/ y'F. falling.lue. Recorded wo. Using watersurfa.. Recorded watersurface elevations at section 1 Col. fa.ll in col. because the effecl of the change in velocity head 1s ignored in the present method.0bserveddischarges..I I 1 ..gefalldischarga method.he range of the observed data by extending the curve at its ends in accordance with the general trend of the curvature. 3.rd step method.··· . .n those required by the standard step method. 1013).:! expensive the.
which is equal to (Q/[()~. 16.200 105.) curve for the next upstream section 2. However) if a precise computation..000 165. erme la/.' Channelsection number Col.x" is the.2 730. .200 111.8 1.7 726.) and F(Z2) for Q = 500.30U 7'6. • e eva.14.2 724.9 0. where S.6 0. River mileage CoL 3. where S.2 731.6 723. 1014. FII. =~2 (Q/ . ' . 1 5 River mile 377.BLE 1010. 20. 21. AND COMPUTATIONS FOR S·rAGEvs.UOO 97.. 10 Col.4 D' h al'ge.d~ired. They are in very close agreement with those obtained by the standard step method. 2.".Ced in the direction shown by thc dashed line in Fig. The corresponding initial wutersurface elevatior. ISC cfs I Q I VF !~5) (4) I 0.G 0. lower value in col. values from cols. 1014) to be 754. 3 ' Col. .he appropriate curve· (Fig. 17 Col.000 cfs may be obtailled by mUltip1ying the corresponding values in Table 1011 by (500. at least.3 734.' .8 730. the corresponding waterslUiace elevation is found to be 752. m. + F(Z . which is equal to the sum of the value in coL 14.). 15 and C.3 729. the stagefall.90 .he values of Z in col.8 736. t..0 725.1 725 6 726.9 1.0 1. The values of F(Z . Three elevations are given for each section. no.25. Mo. ·1 and F(Z.000/431. ConiPUTA'I'I~N OF THE . + F(Z. 14 and the value in col.000 157. 15 and ClXd is the upper value in col.8 731.hl". Sum of the values of Z in col. '\Vatersurfa.. 18.100 69. the value of ~..000 cis and lC is from col. Contiuuing the procedure for other sections. The ~zra Method for Natural Channels. I n can e carne out B effects of velocityhead changes and eddy losses. the .0 1 0 0. Value of ..200 76. as described in Example 1010.65 r 335. The initia. F b . and the value in col. These columns correspond exactly to those in Table 108 for the standard step method.000 113.65 753. Cols. Th. The computation'is tabulated in Table 1011 with the following column headings: Col.01. The da. d fol' the subdivided reaches..tersurface elevations a.discharge metho~ can be use.0 726.900 52.' If flow profiles for a numbel' of discharges or stages are desired. and the values of ZI + F(Z.900 45. The first step is to compute value of Z + F(Z) from the given data.. The resultiug curves are shown in Fig.LLnrSCHARGE IIfETHOD at Kansas City Mo' ~ections 1 to 5 f) + ". Sum of t.lGEFA.30. 16 _ ('.1 I 33. 4 and F(Z.500 76. Value of S.13 727.000 141.lue Llx.40'.6 735.d most advantageously for a simple and economical but approXlrnate solutlOn.9UO '19.000 85.400 49. 3 Col. Example 10·12.600 45.eelevation determinat.2 728.000 25. 5 and 6.0 0.tior.8 731. at the intermediate sections 2 to 4 rna be obtaln~d by breakmg up the reach 15 Into four short reaches The profile 1 . is the 'value from col..11 ..000 104..25 1. ClXd/2. t d' . It is assumed that eddy losses are included in the friction losses.000 113..0 1.) in col. sections 1 to 5) Watersurface elevation.15./F) + .) 38.0 1.p is to plot curves of Z F (Z) against Z for each oross section.000 326. and the lower va.6 725. Example 1013.34. and those in the bottom row arc for the leftoverbank section.n initial watersurfaae elevation of 752:25.000 cis. Taking this value to the Z.2 730.3 735.) in cols. 105 should provide more satisfactory results.. respectivel}'.000 22.4 727.000 141./F F.espectively.655 ..lons " .000 ds) I Length of reach ~ratersilrface elevation I i + Q/.curves can be drawn for each section and the .000 97.:. M.000 156. 20.3 728. 11 ft (3) Section 1 (1) 724. e III. ' .. Value of F(Z./2.58 378. The upper value f>:Cd is the length of the downstream reach from the selected section. &t section 1 was estimated from the rating CUrve to be 752. . The third step is to determine the watersurface elevations from the Z F(Z) curves.6 736. 1. and 21 of Tl1ble lCl11.000 ds. Ii) The second stP.ta required for the computation by the Ezra method are given in Table 107. The rcsults of the IV atersurfac.s.1e values thus obt~jned are tabulated in.7 737. 10·14. including the .. To be continued if desired' . }'rictioii slope. I 10.Q/YF CURVE USED IN EXA~IPLE 1011 (Missouri River at E:ansas City.3 Section 5 (2) 725. S:)/u.000 1... DATA. 5.600 36.8 ..9 1.·100 49.8 725'. '.' T~.0 722..~ at th ..ce elevations. TAllLE 109.1 1. 19.) in coL 18 Col.72. 4.284 GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW METHODS OF COMPUTATION 285 If .l watersurface elevation at section 1 is 752. which is equal to the sum of the va. using .6 745.. the values are trD.) and Z.000)' = 1. Valu~ of F(Z2). is the value from col. Length of reach in ft. is the length of the upstream reach.65 THE ST.000 ' 258.in col. .7 746.cols.. The values in the top row for each elevlltion al'e for the mllio cha!lnel..' FLOW P'ROFILE FOil.a.. F(Z~) is found from t.ion are tabulated in Table 1012. 752. Generally.0 O. " . the Ezra method described in Art.7 732.5 to 14. t:. EXAMPLE (Missouri River Sea.. is required.. sectlOns may be obtained by in'erpelt'Ion. Determine the w!). 3 and 4 of Table 1013. Solve the problent in Example 1012 for a discharge of 500.e stageversus} Q/ v 1.800 10_11 BY + TA. The discharge is 431.8. . 17.cbmputat'o .300 35.. = 431. where Q = 431. At section I.t sections 1 to 5 of the Missouri River at lCansas City. for a.. three elevations are seiected for eaah section to provide at least three points for plotting each Z F(Z) curve.100 66. CoL.l.' CoL 4.9 1. Solution..x.atersurface elevati~m.
11.900 7411..Hi M2.151 (l.3111.46 1.78 0..13 0. Mo.34 . K A' Ie' +F(Z.11 ~ 754. 0.·u. ~g O.oJ 1.1.11 0.AT10N OF Zl + F(Z!) ANn Z2 +F(Z.65 154.) FOR l:i:::CHtI'LR 1012 (conli'n"lJ.55 755.10. COMPUTATION OF Zl + F(Z.l 0..t I.) 0.12 753.24 1.13 1..71 7.~.58 .5J 0.onr'" x I 0.431. f 0.. 3:~c.70 753..orovl:t'U!.. .~I""·.TA.45\ 753.Q50 11 H'OUI. COMPllT. ~ 1.00 1.) FOR E:u.11 753..46 753..80 0> co I~i !..t ..BLE 1011.~4 754...54 0.111 1.62 752..04 754..66 1.O.B3.71 0. + jt'(Z.90' O.M ~'..341 1.000 cfs) A p R I R% ".00 755: 27 752 ..58 0. Q .61 753.. + F(Z.27 0.90 0. 1 753.15 ·0.5u 751.~ 75S.93 0. 11..:~• .5·.39 1..78 0.08 i 0.39 754. .6 4.1 7. no._.12 .MPLE 1012 (Missouri River at Kl\llsas City.LJII)<..62 In~.10 ..g3 754.55.7il J 0.&3 ...80 I' 753."'5 0.83 0.ed) 8ee.< TAllLE 1011.21 l.31 755.) AND z.l~ 1. "" co l 0.54 .
21 . '2 3 4 5 li77 .'iPUTATION OF THE FLOW PROFILl:l FOR EXAMPLE 1013 BY THE EZRA METHOD.) F(Z.43 752 753 754 2 752 (3) 2 3 4 5 • 377 58 377. Z F(Z. FIG. (4) z.754 755 Z2+F{Z21.41 75G.82 0. 1015.68 754. . the point Bf Bud. 752 753 754 752 753 754 1.) z..15 764. 4 ~ 754 " . 1 755 756.34 gives the wrresponding intercept A'B' in Fig.56 755.59 755. straight lines Z = Z may be drawn along with the Z + b'(Z) c. For example. 'Curves of Z + F(Z) for Example 1012.65 . [4 754.288 TABLE GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW METHODS OF COMPUTATION EXAMPLE 289 1012.93 .{16 754.78 75<1.94 1. 1014. as shown in Table 1011.000 cfs can be plotted.:: :.. Q = 500.:: . River mileage Z.40 755. referring to the curve for section 2..73 752. COMPUTATION OF Z + F(Z) ~'OR EXAMli'LE 1013 . 1015 for the same elevation but different discharge.9. + F(Z. EDrn LOSSES BEING INCLUDED IN 'I'HE FRICTION LOSSES (Missouri. .. COMPUTATIOl\ OF THE FLOW PROFILE THE EZRA METHOD FO~ 1012 DY (Missouri River at ICan~as City. Q Sec.) I 1 .) 754. + F(Z.8G 755.) (5) (6) (2) 752._~ The Z + F(Z) curves a. 96 1.30 752. 377.80 1. + F(Z.25 . the intercept AB between the line Z "" Z and the curve for Z+ F(Z) is "qual t{) F[Z) for Q = 431.73 0. 78 1.) .93 2.33 378.lso be'obto.14 754.49 754.58.05 75:1 754 1.. + f(Z.20 755.78 377. 70 1.38 7154.80 755. the Z F(Z) curves for Q = 560.33 378. Mo.70 753 21 754._. Curves of Z + F(Z) for Example 1013. '" ~ 1.41 754. 752 72 753.18 ..73 75 1L36 755.59 2. I 'ffatersurface elevation Z.22 756.83 755.20 753.83 752.34 0.75 754. River mile Z.84 754.05 ~ OJ 753 5 75ZL____~_____L_ _~~L~ 756 755 754 Zl+F(Zll.1 378. 86 754. From these curves. These can o..83 7fi3.11 1..29 1.56 755.41 754. no.83 0.ined by a simple graphical metbod. Mo.00.08 753: 94 754.75 0. Mo. 754. .78 377.73 0.31. 752. B multiplied by 1.80 755. no. + F(Z. COI. = 500. (Missouri River at.~~756. + TADLE 1014.11 755. In this manner.) z.22 2.65 754.49 lAO 2._. the required watersurface' elevations are determined.41 2.000 cfs at the watersurface elevation of 754.78 0.urves.re then plotted (Fig.G8 754.~ OJ . 1015).. '' . This intercept A. .78 753.83 755. ft ~ + F(Zd z.82 753.43 75~5~===== 3 752 753 754.000 cfs) Sec. River at I(an5fis City.97 753.000 ds) I Watersurface elevation Z.08 1. hence. Q I = 431. It ~ no.Kansas City.: o 754. In Fig.20 755.ft 756 FIG.000 cfs) TABLE 1013.94 378. 1014.ft 753 .83 754.36 2. .
.... C"') o~ . respectively. + F(Z. Y'/2g and 0. the .()1J)'U') . Curves of Z + F(Z) constructed for Example 1012 (Fig. ..t. Y'/2g are then plotted (Fig. + F(Z...... 1016. C'l OJ ..l • <.89 (see step 3) and 0...jI ..{)UJtI"J ttt.. '" :g .....t....tersurface elevation is tabulated in Table 1015.. '" '0 Il'l '0 C 753 :fi~~ :r.laY2/217 is 0. 1016)... ... 00'00 · 0000 ~\ .t4"J NNM..)r O. Starting at section 1 with a watersurface elevation of 752.jI"'N.a ~ I~~===I ~ ~ + ..) curve for section 1 as 754.jI It..4 ~ 0.a ]~ ~c... .I ... N' N' t.:N~. and: the value of " 0.t. Solution... 1018 to be 0........16 (see step 10).1' If) It) FIG.....5aV z/2g I __ + ~ tOtlQ"ItI .. + F(Z. Taking the value of 754. . rJl ~ + ..jl ~:I.8 c a .. t~lorcooo ~ a I~l~ .. tt \fJ~OOOM C"Ir~. ". 105)..5.t. ..< c . The corresponding values of 0.Y'/217 is 0.t.78 (see step 9) and that of 0.....CJlQtClJ) t...72 (sEle' step 7)..9 '" VJ " u . Solve th(.14 (see step'2).:. 0 JS lJ.r::~G~ '"""~ For O.. . ..t. '" ".e 'curves are used to correct for eddy losses.5..::..!1. The computation for the determination of t. in which the numbers in parentheses 755 if..5"..LC IJ) ~tO> ~ ""....'. Since the r.I::t' to l..value of Z. problem in Example 1012 by treating the eddy losses separately. It is assumed that the values of the roughness coeffident n do not include the effect of eddy losses and that the latter is to be computed ILS 50 % of the change in velocity head when the velocity head is decreasing downstream or as 10 % of the increase in velocity head when it is increlLsing downstream.10: Y'/2g are found from Fig.. .. The:..~ ~~ e:5~~~:g ~~~~f.25 (see step "1 in Table 1015)... .t.. + F(ZI) curVEl for the next upstream section 2 (see step 6).jI Nt~~~ Example 1014. as ' .. the corresp6nding watersurface elevation is 752... V'/2g and 0. • tL.6 ka VZ /2 9 \ o.8 (/) t 0 .jl...14 to the Z. c ~ ...la 291 ~.....18 (see step 4)... ~ .I llJU")I.1.) is found from the Z..:::.I 0.... 10H) are also applicable to this solution.t S ": ~... (J)(/)Ul vl~ NI~ ~ c 5 c 0 C1 U) " I 752 " o 0.j<.2 " 0. The curves ~f 0.<.he wD.? .I~tC'J indicate the order of the computation steps..290 GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW ".I'd'ttG .. t.0" t'...f.!'. I .r:! lO l.)..j<". . . ~ ·11 " c c u u (/) .q.. C'lM * .t :8~£3~ <QoI C'l ' C'.::.Vz/2g r~ ~ C"l Cr') .() L. explained previously (Art.t l I 754 I .fI .n. Eddyloss correction to be applied to Z... g+  tttr• .
OlG9. b. 103. The standard step method 1011. The gr[1.. . Show that the condition for the existence of a point of inflllction on the flow profile may be expressed as (l0G2) 103. . The gro. The gmphicaiintegr.phicalintegration method b. The d. Complete the computation of the flow profile in Example 105.t section 1. The dire~t step method . The flow in the upstreo.k ln grade c!U\. on h el is !UlSLlllled uniform. Solve Example 108 if a = 1. to 0. 'Tlte directiutegration method c.18 0. The direct step method d.using: (t. = O. . compute the flow profil" 'h'~ the depth of ~0\V is 10 n.using: + const . = 0.p method = :c = _V. may be axpressed ns \. The The The The a.1).02 (see sLep 11). than the normal depth. If the sl~pe of a challn~l ha~I~~..mple· 10tO.S " bre~. d b. Solve Examp:". to 0. c.phicalintegra t iol1 Ineti10d . a. d. r2 _ 3M: + Y =.vatersurfllce elevations at all sections over the reach nre obtained. The directintegra.m sec lon'~ e o l .16. criticnl section. Use: ' a. The directintegr!l. Complete the computation of the flow profile in Example 102. If the cha. 102.nnel cescnbed III rO. PROBLEMS 101. 1013.ard step met.00 tG on t.DUALLY VARIED FLOW \ velocity is in~ren. (it:)3] v \ 1012. d. com pute the flow pro f. ustng: gmphicali·ntegr!l. ' P b 108 is horizontal.(1063) i a.tion method directintegratioll method direct step method stand~rd step method " . Compute the flQw profile in the chl\unel described in Example 101 if S.) Curve for section 2 with this value. 10a.rcak to tt BI downstrenmside.sing downstream (or decreasing upstrenm). Solve Example 101 by assuming a of c< on the shape or.16 (see step 13).~. and exnmine the effect of the vahle \ ! b. The gra. h' ectioiJ roperties described in Exa. 2. . U ~<l. The graphicalintegration method' . o. Show that the flow 'pro file in a wide horizon tal channel.74 (see step 14). Use: section where the depth IS 1 % glea er an . The b. the "'atersurface elevation is found to be 752. t' from the control section to an upstreu. The. c.ndard step method 10f)' A free fail instead of the dam controls the depth at the downstream end of the channel described in Example 101.) a.4. 1 .nd correcting for the eddy losses accordingly.ch~nnel. • a. he section properties described in Example 109. Use: a.2.OOlo. The direct step method.01G9 011 the 101 has a break 10 grade changlllg hOI • th downstream side from the l. The directintegration method c.flow profile in a frictionless rectangular channel ma.14 (see step 2) which was previously found to be the value of .02 to 754. In order to include the effect of this eddy los5.m c ann .phicalintegratioll method· 1~O. using: . the eddy. The Llirect step method .' The directintegration method 10. The standard step method . The direct step Inethod d. Assume that the profile starts Ilt the dam site at a depth of 5 ft and terminates upstre~m at a . + F(Z. Solve Example 103 if S. The sta. the . The directintegration method c. d. 0..0. Compute the flow profile from the control to an upstream section where the depth of flow is 1 % less.'!y" + const ~) (1061) "there C is Chezy's resistance fa'ctor. The The c.0016: 1016. the flow profile.tion metno. Show Lhat the . 108 by . Repeating thll !l. I :c = "'uC' (v .hod 106.y be expressed' as 10~.6~ on th~ upstream side.lglll. Solve Example 103 if So = a.critical depth. Solve Example. The stancl.the method variedflowfunction table (AppendiX D) . 'The standard step method . . If the slope of p..tion method c.graphicalintegration method b.lue is 754. hOffi · the downstream side frOIll the b:'eak to" fii .a. downstream Sl d e.0159 . flo~ ~ro ~he ontheenorInal depth.bove procedure a. The resultIng v!l. U~c: 1014.16 = 0...METHODS OF COMPUTATION 293 292 ) GR.The c. \ I \ I a. nnd compare the result with that of Prob. . d. using the 1017.103 if S. of numerical integration. The standard step method " .h~vm~ to. 1014 if So = 0. Solve Prob. add 0. compll:e the. The d. 001G on the upstrean1 sidl'.107. .ation method b. Referring to the Z.\le 10l hll. The grE1phicalintegration method directintegration method direct step method standard Ilt.los8 is 0. c.10. . The direct step nwthod d. The graphicalintegration method direc tin tegration method direct step method standard step method \ i . + F(Z. .
1021. pp. Tra11. ~. . 429442.nd P. Keifer and Henry IIsien Chu. Hydmulics Division. ligne d'eau et calcul des remous (Graphical determination of backwater curves). Engineering NewsRecord. no.).. A prisma. The flow profile between the reservoir a. . pp. 232234.. 119.· 18. 2. 6.:.. 3. vol.. 1024. L"o.ila. Chertousov.nd pro. 4.ried F10w in Open Channels "l.035. 1956.ch: New metl10ds for the ~olution of backwa. Ar~hur E. 23.n by Samuel Shulits.. vol. Berlin. Boris A. gesellschaft. Ven Seggern: Integra. determine: ll.ckwater and dropdown curves. Closing disoussioll by Buthor. HYl." McGrawHill Book Company. 1022.500 cfs. Aug.nd 75 it \i'ide in the reach between a downstrea. 1928. vol. no'.t. vol. Tolkmitt: "Grundlagen der Waaserbaukunst" ("F'llndamentals of HydrauHc Engineering"). 22.tion graphique de 11\. J.ulic Structures"l. 3549. 1947. The energy line in the spillway 1020. LeipZig. thesis. Backwater functioIls by numerical integrlltion. no.ique appliquee.1 earth spillway with 3: 1 side discharging. 1. GO.. M. 27. Ruhlmann: "Hydromechanik" (" Hydromechanics "). N. Leiptig and Berlin.merno· go dvizheniia zhidkosti v otl.\\ . 1. 103. Ernst & Sohn. American Society of Mechanical Engineers.rytykh kanalakh i r\lslllkh (The hydraulic exponents of channel. Munich. Silvester and Alfred pa. American Society of Civil Engineer~. 11l50. no 24. Grenoble. vol. En(rineering NewsRecord. 3.king up reach 15 into four short reaches at tho intermediate sections. determine: a. 2d ed. New York. method given in this chapter.ried flow in. Ming Lee. TnL7l. 24. vo\.vw. E. and E.Liol1 of gradually varied flow. no.. G. 1957.S.:artie.::wman. 16. no. 105. Hahnsche Buchlumdlung. The friction loss through this spillway measured in it c. 71.} Teubner Vcrlags. Naples. Ven Te Cho~': Integrating the equn. . Paris. 1921. 24. Armin Schoklits!:h: "Wasserbau" ("Hydra. Keifer a. Ezra: A direct step method for computing. 373379.000 ds. Bulletin Se7ifUl No.ncis F. 1st ed. 17.·' chines"). Hydraulics}.ting the equation of nonuniform flow. from the reservoir. Dec. Hydraulique. 1321. 1. 92.. 15. Boris A. pp. November. 1863'. April.Sashi HomrolL. Ame"ica'il Society. University of Illinois.. pp. pp. MalletBachelier. 82." pt. pp.D. E. Petersburg. Hanover. February. Carry out 'the computation in Example 1011 by brep. 5th yr. D. pa. 10. 3. June. 1932. pp. paper 838. Ph.d.. 115.per 955.l Course on MD. American Society of Civil Engineers. 50. 1954. Robert Baumann: Gradually varied flow ill uniform channels on mild slopes.s(!clioM. 8. watersurface profiles. La Houil. Manning's 'II. a. Allan N. The flow profile in t.nd the control section b. "Gidravlikll. voL 81. Paris. Dupuit: "Etudes tht\oriques at pratiques sur Ie mouvement des eaux" ("Theoretical and Pmctical Studies on Flow of Wo. 83. pp. pp. 1924. . 26. 1.500 cfs. U. 922. A. corrections on p. p. A prismatic tntpe20idal earth spillway with '3: 1 side slopes and a bottom width of 75 Jt is discharging 1.\ Hydraulics").. 1914. American Society of Cilri! E71gineer. 25. tmnslated from the Germ2. :&Scoffier: Graphic ·calcula. Journal.he spillway . Discu'isions by R.nd Henry Hsien Clm.vnomernom Dvizhenii Zhidkosti v' Otkrytom Rusle" ("Vo. Harold E. Babbitt. Transactions. 1025.per lOlD. Gosenergoizd3. 26. 7188.dy nonuniform flow of water in open channel> with straight." 2e j. "Corso . 28.l. pp. pp.1921. 82. Solve Example 101 by the stagefalldischarge method.88492. 1914.nnelsof adverse slope.R. Josef Frank: Graphische Berechn'lng von WasserspiegelLinien (Graphicll. Moscow.1 j . 1950. F. Transac&·'or. no. paper 1177. Dec. Engineering Experi'lnenl Statio'!). 136. The spillway h!ls Il horizontal bottom upstream from a. J. 10. M. Baticle: Nouvelle methode pour la d6termination des combes deremous (New method for the determination of. 768770. 14. 1925.0. backwater curves). 189S. November. Dresse: "Cours de mecat:. 23. no. Arthur A.J·shauskago Polittkhni. Inc.ctica. Solve Example 101 by the Ezra method. 1900. Ming Lee: Steady gradually va. iV[3. University of IUinoUl. 12. Clint J. 404. 4. Warsaw. 21. 11112. Chuu. 719722. The bottom of tlie spillway is horizontal and is 200 ft long a. Husted: New method of computi\lg bo.71l.. Raytchine a. Tashkent.mple 1010 by the standard step method. Leipzig. American Sodelv of Civil Engineers. Philipp Forchheimer: "Hydmulik" (" Hydraulics"). Trudy Va.934. voL 82. E. 13.294 GRl.tic trapezc.a. HY3. M. U. SOlve the problem in Example 1011 by the stagefall~discharge method for a design discharge of SOO. HY2. 1955. pp.b. 102. 1938. I.ter)J). 1880.saclioM. 1919.n upstream distance of 100 n. uniform channels on mild stopes. 1875..: SpetsiahlyI Kurs" ("Hydraulics: Special Co Ill'se i. 1st ed. 19. 1937. no.of Civii Ell!Jineers. 16.lined trapezoidal cross dec~ion). no. no. CharnomskiI: Zadachi na ustallovivsheiesi" neravnomerlloie tecbenie vody v otkrytykh ruslakh s priamolineinym i trapetsoidalnym pOJlerechnym secheniem (Problems on stea.DUALLY VARIED FLOW METHODS OF COMPUTATION 295 1018. vol..a. is . 5. yol.m critical control section and the upstream reser. 20. critical control section for a distance of 90 ft Itnd an advene slope of 10: 1 foro. New York. 651660. vol. vol. Solve the problem in Ex::o. Masoni. Using any method given in this chapter. vol.S. 2. Le Genie civil. MatzkfJ: Varied flow in open cha. Wasserkrafltmd IVasseT'lUirtschafl. Manning's n is estimated to be 0. MayJune.sii (Herald of Irrigation). ProceedillflS. H)46.035. Josef Kazeny: Berechnung der Senkungskurve in regclmassigen braiten Gerinnen (Computation of surface curve in uniform broad channels). A. pp. '(01. 1955.ncke. 2<1 ed.ter problenL~. Bakhmeteff: "0 Nern. 9. voir. Using any .di Idraulica Teoriea e Pratica" (" Course of Theoretical o. J. 23. 2. Fra..le blo. vol. 15. Ch. Apr. io~ a design discharge of 500. Open Channels. Urbana. NagahQ MonoDobe: Bacltwater and dnJpdoWD curves for uniform channels. and their application to the theory of nonuniform flow in open channell. Solve Example lOi'by the Ezra method if Q = 500 cIs. H)56. "Theoretische Maschinenlehre" ("TheoreGic~. I. 1952.ch~kago lnslitu. pp. April. 132.ida. vol.l calcu . Russia. Levi: GidraV'licheskie pokaz!1teli rusla i i1th prilozhenie k teorH nerl). American Society of Civil vol. 453462. St. no. 7. Discussions by Clint J. 950989.tion of ba. 120. pp. 1023. 28. . 16. 2d . Engineering NewsRecul'd. J. D. 1857 .OOD cis. 1860. H. Transactions. 515516. The elevatio11 of the pool level in the reservoir 1019. V. Chatelain: Determina. 17. anel Kolupo. June 27.R. Robert Y.ckwater eliminates solution by trial. 'Vestnik lrrigat. p. 1957. (tr Course in Applied Mechanics. Bakhmeteff: "Hydraulics of.j i I 1. Alva G. REFERENCES 1. Grashof.
. N. 187. 32. . assumed to remaincon~tant.Ilt YI. .nd C0l15tIJ. . 1928 . . A. Chabert: "Calcul des : b ..l'iables. Several flow conditions may be desci'ibed as follows: 1. Aug. 6. owing to a constant pool level A i while Y2.". no. IOns of . .fiuctuates..LY VARIED FLOW . A. .ulle 1939 ' . U' .. UNIFORM FLOW. the depth of flow Y2 at the dovvnstream end. E7!.ls reference gives several methods .' . c we1Zen/iche Bauzeitung. U:S. he 01lto Stale. 111fT. E. . . . 0 ' .£.t t' f .1 I:J. and the discharge Q of the canal. . 1952.. 111. I ."nOS. The corresponding normal discharge Q" is indicated on the ddivery curve. p. The depth Yl is I I FIG. 9 M 19~2 nqmeenng klanual for Civil lYorks 30 C I " " 1Iy. J. ·of the . When a cana. Open Channela.l connects two reservoirs . ~t I ]ation of water flow profile ) S h ' . . . no. 1930. . 31 . Also shown in Fig. ' rue Ion a curves of 11lBtituta (Transactions. s. d' U. this problem was discussed by Bakhmeteff [lJ. CXIV ehap. June 7. A rmy Corp~ of En' ine/?7'S p~atlOn 0: backwater curves in river g CDnsinlction. R 111. Rakhmanoff: 0 po<troenii I" '" k' h PP . 297 . computing backwa~l' curves· Civil . The relationship betwe~n Yz and Q is shown by a eocalled del1'very cW've Q = f(Y2). Delivery of a canal with subcriticl!.e\~ ork.""'" . SCienlHic In8~itl ztstn~ Nauchno1I1dia r atsionnogo 35. C n cour os e remous'~ ("Cal' 1 f nrves"). 23. E . 100. H. 102. mque 2d M 1'd western Conference of Fluid. 5. D. enn ( n the can. This is the caSE in which th~ water level at the upstream end oUhe canal does not change (li'ig. 111 are the flow profiles for various conditions of Y2 and the corresponding dischat'ges Q.Min hopen c. Stemberg: Thc nomograph as ' . . de a7IJ~. . ngmeer· 34. vol. 1l~1). .: .'PP. 1!J33.n 119· 8.. Sherman M. ' nqmeermg NewsRecord. namely. Septemuel'.nwers1ty.' h . . .." .ee general cases. .. . E .Backwater of Bowprofile computation i I d" . urJmm. Paris 1955 " cu. having varyill. Hydrologic and hydraulic analysis' Com t · r channels... : 6571.n\ y svobodnoI p()v~rkb t' dl' kh ny' Vo d oto k OV pri ustanoV'ivshemsi d.. B'ullet. vol. '. The Cl1SI3S are clMsified according to the condition of three v2. a aJ'd . with Its smface represented bya straight line an parallel to the channel bottom. .tic canals with subcritical flow under thr.g levels. ' . lny xper'ment Stal'io.the depth of flow Yl at the upst~eam end of the canal. pp . 29. the discharge of the can'al under variou~ conditions of reservoir level is called the del1'uery of the canal. lIes. Case of Constant Yl. L.1941.Y: PRACTICAL PROBLEMS ! t r I I 0..103_107.e OJ ee amaI20n). . I i I' CHAPTER I i 11 . Delivery of a Canal for Subcritical Flow..{Jineeririn vol 9 110 6' pp 365· 36 (ln J In. ree sur ace [or natural streams at ste d fl ) I . no. Woodward and Che~ter 'J Po' '.Baclcwll~er slopes above dams E ' . Bakhmeteff has treated this subject for prism:3..nnnnel hydrau'·· P rocee d' " T· .pt.John Wiley & Sons I~c y Hydraulics of Steady Flow in . 902. Th.l flow IJ. 33. 21.I· 296 GRADUAT. "Yhen Yz = YI = ij". nc u lllg some whICh are not diacussecl. determLned by level B. the ~ow is uniform. .". estestven_ i f a viZ.. Zi\\jch.ditiuns EYl'oUes. in this book. Jones: The QIy'Fteoh' .
B Case of Constant yz... 112. I ~I' . When Y2 < y". whlle ¥l fluctuates..niform. It will be seen that this is true in most practical cases except for very Ehort or very fiat canals. required . the depth Yz and thp. discharge less than Q...' . r. it may be assumed tha\ the maximum. FLOW OF .1112 type.. For the determination of the maximum discharge.. 112.. shorter. the lellgth of which exceeds the length df tbe falling ID~~ . or Q. the portion NCoi the corresponding delivery cllrvewil! be practically vertical. UNiFORM FLOW.0 ~.r I .l. for practical purposes.1. canal of nottaosmall SoOpl! . vg. the flow is u. apparently. . . determine the corresponding YI. FLOW OF MAXIMUM DISCHARGE. it is assumed that the end point d of the limiting 11{2 curve is loeated at a depth O. conslonll 1 z Deli. I c . a trial computation is required. When Y2 > 11". The corresponding delivery curve Q = fCYI) IS shown III Fig./(yzl "1 I. nb is parallel to the channel bottom.the longer the profile. If t. the discharge will rema'in the same. When Y2 is equal...section 2. For Y2 > Y.ted on the delivery curve. the fiow will l:everse its direction . . so that Qm. the maximum discharge QJD. is the conveyance of the cross section with the depth Yz equal to YI and where So is the bottom slope. 113. Referring to Fig. 2. cane. 1..fl PROFILE. . 'I I cu"~: o. where I{.he watel le~el at 'the 'downstr'eam end of the canal. The procedure is first to assume a. and the dlschar~e Qn corresponds to point N on the delivery curve.. This discharge._UJ__ . 1. reducing the slope will have an effect similar to that of making the canal ~ . is const~nt. As long as L > L'. or the depth Y2.298 PRACTICAL PROBLEMS GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW 299 l \ The value of thi~ discharge is Qn = /(" v' So.. For this reason. beginning from Q" and going upward. d ! 0""':'" MZ"p'orile \ ~ J _ t k' I ~%~ . The lower limit is. 113. The Y2Q relationship can he determined by the procedui'e described above for the lIfl profile. is eqtwl 10 the normal discharge.. it becomes evident that the portiori NC of the curve' is very steep. as indica. For any intermediate flow between these two limits. ~ ~Ti J . possible discharge in a long canal or 0.x will be pra. . Then. The upper limit of this curve is a horizontal level.. and vice versa. N ! : I 0 0 . is.cticaUy equal to Qn. or difference between the pool levels. is equal to the critical discharge at section 2. FLOW OF 1112 PROFILE.__ l . Therefore... '0"'°< ~ FIG.' then no change in Yz between Yeand Vn will affect the condition upstream from the point dj that is. This is the case In whICh t. 3. the discharge will reach its ma. making Yz = Ya in each case. where Zo is the section factor of cross section 2. The flowprofile equation indicates that the length of the flow profile is :inversely proportiOlial to the bottom slope. and then to compnte the corresponding depth Yf. corresponding discharge can be determined by a trial flowprofile computation.. the delivery clirve can be plotted..1 Fro.I1 type. to the critical depth Yo of. = z .= I ! ':. The value of Qn IS equal to ) '!' r. The lower limit of the 1111 profile is.. since the head. evidently. Delivery of [1. The discharge that makes YI equal to the given d'epth at the upstream end is the Qm . the critical flo\y surface ac.l 01 __ ' . exceeds Qn by only a very small amount.ximum possible value.99Yn. a free overfall at that depth will occur. canal with subcritical flow and constllnt y./_ _ . The procedure is first to take a series of discharges.~I . Delivery of 3.. that..:.ery ~.l1. Consequently. is zero. the smaller the slope.he downstream pool level B falls below the depth Ye. If the length L of the canal is greater than the length L' of the limiting J1'2 profile. the flow profile is of the 1]. the flow profile belongs tQ the . : 4. at this condition the discharge is zero. indicated by az. since Y2 cannot be le~s than Yo and tlw head is at its mfLximum. From the delivery curve. the uniformflow surface an. When :111 = 'yz = Yr.. the flow profile.
.D1:ALLY VARIED FLOW ' I K" . The resulting curve CN P is known as the Qconstant curve.Y con t f m . consequently. However. c .. 300 PRACTICAL . decrease. of The curve 15 t e curve on 1 · r g _ .while the pool levels at the two extremities of the canal fluctuate. For any point on this line. ~. Calle of Constant Q. ll? Delivery of l\. For any depth Yl varying between Ymand Yn. and the surface is a straight line ab palaIlel to the char~nel bottom. . . the water area increases as the depths increase. FLOW OF 1\12 PROFILE. because it would sill1ply raise the flow profile mb to the position shown by the dashed line m'b' and.. is the conveyance of cross section 1 with dept.2 fthe discharge the point C 011 this curve that makes V2 = y. the difference between pool levels and hence the head. FLOW . 114). canal withsubcritical flow and constant Q. and the is less than Qn. The lmve"t possible limit for YI is y...nt and equal toa given value.where Ie. as a product of them'e[j.J. = y". .Yhn. UNIFORM :now. The coordinates Vl and Y2 of any point P on the Qcollstant curve 101 [l. whereas the discharge. The~o. As this c0nditiol1 ilS approached."x b:llt greater than Q~. at sec 101.the flow profile is of the JlII2 type.'3t possible position. . the flow profile. Several auxiliary e:urves have also been constructed to make clearer cert. the flow profile belon'gs to the 1\{1 type. 3.n be determined by the Manning formula for a con~tallt discharge Q. files are sketched. 4. Q 1/1 .l depth for the given discharge Q. at this condition the flow profile is horizontal and the dL':!charge is zero. the flow is uniform. 1. the Qcconstant curve apPl'oaches this line asymp 0 1(\a y 1'0 when both YI arid Y2 become vel'Y large. The Qconstant Curve. of the JJ12 profile is a'b'.. Referring to Fig. where LIe is the section factor at section 2 for a depth to Y2. 2. . This normal depth 11". where Y1 V2 :.lue of (J •. a se. d' t S T from the orilrin O.. discharge at section 2. or agiven discharge and on which Y1 is the corresponc :n Q. 114. rr.. FlO. position 112 approaches Yl + SoL as a l~mit. cu. For positions above ab.PROBL'EMS 301 GIL'l. and the velocity. require an increase in the downstr~am depth ·Y2. d ItlOn Y2 .. or the upper limit of the lJtil 11proffil e.FLOW OF 1111 PROF'ILE.ain chamcteristic features of the Qconstant curve. belongs to the 1112 type. This line is the locus of the normal depth for all discharges.• ~ is equal to the critical discharge at section 2. ' t ' . This is the case in which the delivery of the canal is constant.OF . "Vhen YI = y. at 2 for It is apparent that 112 cannot be less than Yo 0. The upper limit of the 1111 profile is a horizontal line. The Z line is a straight line drawn parallel to the lh~e fl. various possible flow pro.c . For Rny depth 1:/1 < Y".. 3.. at this position y~ is equal to the critical depth corresponding to the given discharge Q. the discharge becomes maximaL Any depth Yi > Yrn is out of consideration._ . the left SJ..· ~ which is the norml1. The 10we.V. }I'. . and the discharge is less than Q. or velocity of flow. FLOW OF M"l PROFILE. ThIS hne represents the the Y~ aXIs at a is ance I)J. at this. wh'lch y is equal to the critical depth y. the flow profile belongs to the Ml type. C.£ sectIOll . ' .fow of Maximum DischaTge. . Q H"'l1ce the Qconstant curve termmates at 2 for the given dIscharge. When YI reaches a depth Yn< that corresponds to a clitic111. For positions below ab. .h Y1 = Y2 and wher~ Su is the bottom slope.'Y2 . The N line is a straight line drawn from the Qrigin of the coordinates and inclh1ed at an angle of 45 with the coordinate axes. .312 PROFILE. or Zc iii. 2: .om a point on . H +l . . The Qconstant curve intersects this line at t?e point N cdrosshse~ IOn L tion ept . The relationship behr~en the depths Y1 and 1'2 for const~nt Q can be plotted (J:"ig." enee.. cnn still be kept consts.
I t .[ _I o  t ______! __ ~'~z . be .DUALLY VARIED FLOW PRACTICAL PROBLEMs 303 \ given discharge Q ·call. the jump will move upstrecun on the en CUl've. Several important problems related to such applications are described below. 112.:::::::~ ~ c~~·=tt. /1.. Knowledge abollt the delivery vf a c<onal. so that an ultrarapid flo\\" develops.•o:. If t. In most cases. A study of unsteady How in canals is beyond the scope of this chapter. and the entrance acts as a submerged weir. cb l l of the SI profile. In the meantime the flow profile reaches its theoretical limit.[ I . Delivery of a Canal for Supercritica\ Flow. PTr). 115). which is simply equal to the discharge through a weir: B. In designing 11.l with supercritieal flow. then the flow is no longer steady. 116). is i .· 0 FIG. sueb as the claShed lines. a general chart can be obtained. 7. t:. Dischm·ge.tions.ns of a smooth drawdown curve of the S2 type. Flow. When the taihmter level B IS less than the outlet depth at section 2. From there on. 1. Change £n Depth Due to Changing Delivery. it is often necessary for the engineer to anticipate t. canal. representing. III practical calculations.ed slope ~ . because 'the maximum discharge will be practically equal to the normal discharge.l'ge. 8teep canals are usually short. The type of flow profile developed in a steep canal depends on the tailwater situation.nd as required by the service channel (Fig.= J ·. gradually ciiminishing in height.:::::. has useful it I . of the jump becomes zero when it reaches the critical depth at e.aken as the practical limit of the tail water stage.1ated to Canal Design. the flow in the canal is unaffected by the tailwater. When a canal is designed to deliver water from a reservoir of constant pool level to a service chanilel at the downstream end. I 302 GRA. andYn is the lowest possible stage in the canal. _ I ._. all possible flow conditions in the given canal.rge at section 1. Problems Re. the jump will move upstream maintailling its height a~~d form in the uniformflow zone nb.~' .flowprofile computation. I I I II I I ::. The height. such as the raft and log chutes th~t are used ~LS spillways. that i:o. greater than the critical slope. J 16. ~ .determined by a .he fluctuation ill depth of flow due to any possible change in delivery.. 2. As a yule. When the slope of the canal is steep. /' i=. when a. As the tailwatel' level rises further..file. Delivery of a cana./=~~~f~:=~'F r~\~: . Canal design for variable sel'vice discha. the delivery of the canal is fully govel'ned by the critical discha. wi~h a subcritical fiow. When the tailwater level B is greater than the outlet depth.he tailwater. This. the tailwater willl'aise the water level in the downstream portion of the canal to form an SI profile between j and b' . except where the canal is very short or where the bo~tom of the canal is unusually fiat. In designing such canals.y . Asthe control section in a channel of supercritical flow is at the upstream end. 113. such as the Manning formula. until' reaches point n.pplications in the hydraulic design of cana. producing a hydraulic jump at the end j of the profile. Geilerally. A.through the critical depth near point e from a convex to a· concave shape and approaches the normal depth by mea. The relationship between the depth and discharge can be obtained easily on the basis of any uniformflow formula. the'hol'izontallil1e Cb'" may be +.. =. The flow profile passes . the flow upstream from the jump will not be affected by the tailwater.[ I .. However. the drawdown curve en is comparatively short. the normal depth made equal to the depth required for passing floating craft 01' for allowablescouririg effect.s been discussed in Chap. the canal can be designed for a uniformflow condition._' ! ! 11> U Service discharge = Q Omin Ome. 3. By plotting a series of Qcconstant curves for various discharges. In practical applicf. [ FIG.uation in depth can be estimated easily from the delivery curve of the canal for the given range of fluctuation in discharge.ls. as described in the preceding articles.. the flow in the channel becomes supercritical (Fig.ily' Conal bof!om of jncrec!. the discharge in th·e canal should meet the variable demand. The procedure of canal design for uniform flow h::).) 1 \ . when points C and N and one or two other points are locatcd. falls into the .// / I~_ . 115. Be~ond this limit the incOiriing flow will be directly affected by t..he canal is too steep. This wi\] avoid the compntation of bUlb" and will also provide a margin of safety. This fluc(. the Qconstant curve can be drawn in smoothly.
'304 GRADUALLY VARIET. or other literature [21. A. ~ Al 'V2g(V. C.~ to Qmi. caused by the variation in the service discharge demand. "Yhen the canal empties into a reservoir. par. FREE ENTRANCE.nd Q can pe deteimined.utfiow is accompaiied by a hydraulic drop (Fig. . When the entranc~ is regulated by a sluice or some other device (Fig. is the head loss due to friction and may be expressed in terms of thE) velocity head at section 1. of section 2. In the pl. This energy. h. and the delivery curve will change in position from ZNC to ZN'C'. the depth YA. OUTLET. Y. at section 1 is criticaL. TIlUS. 3. the delivery of the canal was related to the depths '!it and Y2 at the ends of the canal. The problem is simplified by the fact that the rf'.. v~ .onsidered. that is. Hence. It is apparent that. 1.> Io'LOW P~ACTICAL PROBLEMS 305 • case of constiUlt Yl. For any given condition of YA.y between YA and YI mny beset by judgment or may depend on 'the design of the entrance. the depth 1h is independent of the In most pract.. carried with the flowing water.. the depth Y2 is equal to the critical depth y. the losses in entrance structures may be found in some hydraulics textbooks. A curve representing this relRtion can therefore be constructed. B. Elimination of Hydraulic Jump in a Steep Canal . Outlet and Entrance Conditions. 116 will explain how the fiuetuation in the downstream end depth.{ '~ Yt) (115) FIG. the depth YA would he given as constant. the term h.. The method is 'simply to increase the bottom slope of the canal.lation between Yl and y. irrespective Qf the poollevel position B.icularly when . When water enters a mildslope canal freely (Fig. a hydraulic jump will develop in the callal (Fig. For example. (al = C'2 g (113) where. for the same range of Q". TI i ~ (112) For subcritical flow.4 1 = .hydraulic jump is objectionable and dangerous. in which the l~pstream depth is kept constant while the dOWllstream depth fluctuates. + ay g = Yl . =. As pointed out in Art. handbooks. lI15). the flow. Outlet and entrance conditions. the fiuclu:1tion in depth fJ.{ is practically fixed. which is uSltaliya small quantity arid can be ignored. 111. 2. REGULATED ENTRANCE. A iJ:l Art. 117. 117a). Jc: . 115). is given. 117d). an amount of kinetic energy equal to a V z2j2y. however. . the reiations.ical problems. the relation between Q and Yl can be established by Eq. By means of this socalled inflowdischargerating c'Urt1e.ctical computations it may be ignored.t. Such a.. the pool level should be higher by this amount than the depth at the outlet of the canal (Pig. can be redlacec1. The delivery curves in Fig.y. in' Art. . . in the C[l.YI.~ Al . o. irrespective of the entrance friction loss.2(Jh.se of the constant upstream depth.. instead of YI. when the tail waterpool level is higher . . upstreampoollevel position A. In pl'fl.25 for a wellrounded entrance.. 112. is a coefficient which has an average value of 1. If the o. 1 OIl Dat~ . vc: v'2Yh. the depth YI is related to the static pool level A by the law of energy. l Solvili.g for TIl from the above equation. is usually dissipated entirely in eddies and whirls. ~= 1 (114) The delivery of the cana] is equal to (b] Q = V 1 . VI .among YA. is expected tO'be restored as a potential energy. but the conditions that accompany the'inflow or outRow of the water were not c.y' is reduced and becomes lestJ tha~ fJ.VAl (111) where aY A 2/2g is the velocity head of the npproaching fiGw. 117b) and if YB<Y2. increases th~ normal diseharge. The ditTerE)llCe fJ. The relation between the depths Yl and YA can be expressed by . YA '= Yt + h. + h. C.n th~ critical depth in ~ st~ep canal.This .tho. and Yz may be taken equal to YB. 117t). For supercriticalflow.eceding artides. 111.
w11ich is equal to the difference between the two station llumbel's at the two ends of the reach CoL 3. base wid th of 25 ft. may be usad.5 ft.= 1 and n = 0'.!lsition and the channel were designed to carry the design flood of 6. The theory and analysis of gradually varied flow ii1 nonprismatic channels has been discussed previously (Art. This station was considered to be a 1 2 to this design.n is placed at the upstream stat.angula. 4 to 16. shouid be noted that the depth of flow computed in this eXD:mple has been car. 119.ded'to more decimal places than would be necessary for practical purposes. would occur at the relatively narrow base width of. its position may be determined by the method of singular point. Station number Col. practically all canals and flumes require some type of tramition structure to and from the waterways. it is likely that standing waves would appear as a result of the lateralboundary changes (Arts: 173 and 174). :the Douma formula. From station 11 + 45 to st.93 ft.000 cfs. Do\vnstream of station 13 /' 95. From station 10 + 45 to station II + 45 the walls converge on circular curves to a base width of 60 ft. ! I I i s' Tailwaler B Fro. with the fo!lcwing ' headings: Col. 1. the step method is recommended.his probiem the flow is supercritical. I I . In this computation. (215).200 ds. Under normal desiglt and .014 in the computation. For the computition of the flow profile. the tr:l. Computation of Flow Profile in Nonprismatic Channels.he upstreail1 reservoir to a downstr~am pobl. theoretically. 92. It. 2.50 the walls convei'ge in a straigh tline transition to a. The data for this example are taken from [3]. dOWllstremn from the control section if it is supercritical.ow is mathematically complicated.ation 15 + 82. 'Width of the channel inft Cols. this section is equal to Yo . S.'he wide inlet sill would provide maximum sill elevation for retention of debris with ininimum height of dam.200 cis with a minimum freeboard of 1. For additional information. Same ns the st. there is a jump o'f zero height. Design of Transitions. Bakhmeteff [1] suggested that the design of a neutTalizinO' Teach (Fig. A spillway channel. except t.306 GRADUALLY VARIED' FLOW . The function of such a structure is to avoid excessive energy losses. 1 A procedure for computing the flow profile in steep chutes with a correction: for air entrainment has been proposed by L. . but it is performed by trial and error. j I I 115.000 cfs with 2.eps from cols. The control for this discharge was designed to occur at theinlet sill station 10 + 45.". Solution. and the channel invert would be banked through all curved reaches to maintain uniform depth of flow. The integration of the differential equation for the flow profile of such a :fl.he resulting value of AX entm:ed in col. as will be seen in the following example': Example 111.base width extends from statio'n 10 /. The invert slope was designed such that control. The assumed depth is considered correct when .200 ds.installation conditions. the spillway channel for' a design discharge of 6.95.2 = 3.has been designed tentatively for La Tuna Canyon Debris Basin at Los Angeles County. The 140ft . mum probable flood H). 118) might be a solution. Elimination of hydraulic jump by Bakhmeteff's neutralizing reach.me as that applied to a prismatic channel. I i l I PRACTICAL PROBLEMS 307 the canal is a raft chute or some other structure intended to transport a floating raft from I. According toa corresponding case of Cl profile in Fjg. Compute the liow profile in. 113. 95). Length of reach in ft. 114.2007140)'/32.ation 13 +. The critical depths at other stations may also be computed. The transition in a channel is a struct. The computation should proceed upstream from the control section if the flow is sub critical and.00 to the sill at station 10 + 45. the lines are theoretically horizontal.rea of the flow. In this reach the bottom slope of the channel is made equal to the critical slope. Calif.ion 10 + '15.5 'ft of freeboard to st. For a simple correction.the depth of flow y is assumed and entered in col. the flow will be subcritical. If the control section is uncertain in a given problem. for the COIl trol sectib. the channel starts with a 140ftwide rectangular concrete section. as shown in Fig. This procedure is introduced because an additional variable for the channel width is involved. the tailwatcr lcvels will be approximately horizontal lines l \vhich intersect the surface of flow in the canal without causing any disturbance.. or critical depth for 19. The procedure of computation is practically the sa. Eq. The flow profile thus computed should be corrected for air entrainment for highvelocity flow occurring at the downstream end of the channel. The computation is arranged in a forin similar to that used for' the direct step method. The channel alignment below the transition would provide for transition spirals. because a relatively large freeboard WQuid be availo.ure designed to change the shape 01' crosssectional H. In t. The spillw~y transition was developed to' carry 19. If the' computed depth happcns to be greater than the corresponding critical depth.! 'When a highvelocity supercritical flow occurs in a noriprismatic channel. Use ex .hat an extra column for So (Col. 1.'l' (6. At the point of intersection. waves would have:no adverse effect.idthwould mini9 mize the formatlOn of large waves produced by the rapidly convergmg walls. Establishin control at t~is narrow w. 16 agrees with t·be length of reach in coL 2. The channel below the transition consists of a.' ' According 'When the Chez).r concrete section with a constant width of 25 ft. 4 at each step. The coinputation of the flow profile is given in Tnble 111. the following is extracted from this reference: The spillway was designed to pass the maxi. For a design flood of 6. formula is applied.55 ft at stati?n II + 22. The critical depth RI. Hall [4].ble. to safe distance downstream from the dam for the release of spillway flo"/s.OOO cfs with the maximum water surface 5 ft below the top of the dam.'rect. 1 to 12 in Table 104. 14) is provided since So is not constant throughout the whole channel length under consideration.
855 142.9 7:1 7.g.05 13.88 0.22 5.0 .26 6. 4.0 3.42 3.0 11 + 22 12.0 22.0 4.1788 0. .1 13 + 95 62. 0800 I 0.00G8 1.44 5. 6.1788 0. FOR i!:XA.9 10+73 8.21 23.0800 0.0764 0.74 .75 v.0800 0. ci .0064 0.0 I I:~O. Canyon spillway.). Sf i AX ~~ .0049 0.04 8.0 8.0157 0.O 4.0 :l.68 10.OUl9 0.45 3 .90 7. PROFl~£ \.0800 0.0487 0.0078 0.0 12.78 5.35 304.33 43.52 3AI 3.0 4.D052 0.MPLE 111 (La Tuna.5 25.0330 0.8 40.04 4.61 33 .5 35.0800 o .27 13.'19 0.0 :1.75 10.5 05Z 141..90 5.0.0 2.09 20..0042 0.60 2.0 .()58 133.0532 0.1 10.0058 0.58 393.61 + 5. 36 0.0800 0:0054 0.04 .7 11 + 45 2:J.4610.43 8.5:1 0. .0045 [ 0.85 15.8B 35.0751 0.0742 0.3 I 3.35 21.04 :34. 1G 3.0 100.80 0.0 14U.0322 019 0.89 31.1>'" SPILLWAY ~'' C1> ~ .S5 4.57 2.0 6.8 61 2 G3.0722 0.0800 0.87 I 2~..!)1 .0 .5 7.87 348.03301 0.0 23.0290 8.0. ~~ .399 135.(2!_~L 1 I I b )j A I R l/}i V a:V'/2g 10 + 45 550.29 3.2 15 + 20 62.8 12 + 01.j?.0 60.62 32.0 62.75 2. debris basin.746 0. 36.1266 0.55 5.~ > '~" ~I.948 138.41 I 2~6.41 29.0 3.72 44.45 30 09 3&.22[4.5 22 5 45.75 3.54 0.0 2.82 3.60 6:44 7.5 50.53 1.200 cfs) So .0 120.0 3.36 3.71 371.~.13 47.!l 14 + 57.0 1l0.00 0.5 15. Q Station (1) .6 0.n) I 0.62 201. 0. COMPUTA.0330 0.0056 1.0 4.83 3.42 3.36 3. SPILLWAY FIG.97 2.5 1 62.0330 0. 0026 I O.1599 O.38 37.1) 12 +70 62.34 43.8 2.9~ 10 + 51 {50.GO 0.5 40..92 5.33 4.32 35.27 32.00 20.89 I 6.0442 0.08 (UO 3.5 [ 30.71 17.23 44.79 11.0408 0.0030 5.88 3.0 4.8 13 +'32.'" ~I~ ~ ~I.050 lag 5 15 + 82.0381 O.0300 0.0755 0.')0 3.0473 5.3 123 J71.89 0.28 35.O 3.72 3.5 62.0374 0.54 10 + 5S 417.51 2.70 45.~~= 0.0S 11+10 70.3 .70 3.004.817 1:1l.98 0.2 80.4 62. GO 0.0278 O.0 3.9 15.11 0.2 ~ 10 + 95 12.1407 0.0800 .11 0.0736 0.0060 0. Tentative design of the spillwa. li88 0.87 5.0800 00758 0.5 62:5 55.0572 O.20 46..0078 0. Lo~ Angeles County} CaliL. M.5 62.5 62.33 3(l.llLE III.0018 0.48 114.003°10.'l'ION OF THlil FLOW PROFILE IN A NONl'RlSMATtC CHANNta.0 320.14 9.65 7.0032 0.0348 0.0774 0.0042 0.0 CJO 10 + 83 1)0.67 9.' .S 40.0222 0.11 11.0088 10.07 0.61 0.80 19.0 11.y for a.0 13 10 46.72 6. 119.97 3.0043 .48 10 I. TA.81 2.0 10.0 3.O~30 0.28 1200.
tailgent to the flume sides n.. For inle t. known as the recovery of velocity head. . 1. ( mticle. therefore. Transitions betwee. '~his in terms of the change in velocity head between the entrance and exit seetions of the structure.15 0. and to provide safety for the structure and waterway. . For the same 1'e<1. This loss usually has very little effect on the transition flow profile and may be ignored in preliminary design..ves and other turbulence. should be taken when the transition is designed in erodible channels...... typical designs for an inlet transition from canal to flume and for an outlet transition from flume to canaL The design of the inlet transition \viJ( be described in EX2.t appreciable change in depth of flow generally occnrs in all t..0.. 0. [6].25 0. For more complete information. Straight. the sake of economy... The essence of such a design has been di~cu8sed earlier (Arts. 116. The cylinderquadrant transition is essellti~Jly a pair of circular wings or vertical walls. sidei'! of the canal. "Yhen the transition is designed to keep streamlines smooth lind nearly 'parallel and to minimize standing waves.. However.y' in·water surfnce for outlet structures may.ccompanied by a conversion loss known as the ouae/loss.. and their values should be calculnt. The energy loss in a transition consists of the friction loss and the conversion loss.'5pectively. Department of Agriculture [5] has tested a cylinderquadrant trnllsition as a substitute for the expensive warped structure. .he difference in velocity head and c. For outlet struGtures. plus a small oonversion loss known as the inlet lOllS.5". and standing waves may occur. Squareended type. Cylinderquadrant type . such as the Manning formula. the velocity is reduced. Figures 1110 and 1111 show.reamlin\3d warped structures.n Canal and Flume or Tunnel. FI·€f.. designed in straight lines. On the basis of the performance of existing structures.l1sitiol1 should be given special consideration..10 0.30 0.30n..ypes al tr'<)'llsition. with the top edges of walls and the intersections between wa. Sharp· angles either ill the \vater surface or in the structure that will induce extreme standing Waves and turbulence Should be avoidcd.. . the theory of gradually varied fiow may be used in the design. The rise t:.. Simplified straightliM type ...boQ.nd curving through 'a qual'ter~urn to mClet the . the water surface must always drop at least a full difference In betvveen the velocity heads. only when a close control of water areas and velocities is unnecessary and when excessh:e wa. ! 'oNhere co is a coefficient of outlet loss.y become appreciably gren. For. B. If the change in depth or width is very rapid the flow may become rapidly varied.ed or properly assumed in the design. The average safe design values of Ci and follows: Type of Transition Co that are recommended are as I I Wal'ped typ'e. The drop Lly' in water surface for inlet structures may there ... the freeboard in tl':J..... is usnaily s. Further simplification of an ela.20 0..rped walls and floors . the trend.. re. The form o{ transition may vary from straightline headwalls normal to the flow of water to very elaborate s!:. Proportioning.. a..30 0.20 0.. 0..50 0..30+ ..borate form is permitted.st in part. the expanding flow in the outlet transition often presents special hydra. 35 and 38) in connection with the applicf. A.'l·d. emphasis is on design practice. at lea.. structures.. The design of the outlet transition may follow the same general steps. so the velocitydistribution coefficients ma. the reader should refer to [2]. the entrance velocity is less than the exit velocity...nd [7J. .Caution in this respect. welldesigned transition the following rules for proportioning should be considered: ... be I?xpressed as (1l7) 1 . .. and inlet und outlet transitions between canal and inverted siphon.'elocity may cause asymmetry of flow and thus develop SCOllr at places of highly concentrated velocities.ter than 1. It should be noted tho.:1 :no GRADUALLY VARIED :FLOW PRACTICAL PROBLEMS 311 eliminate cross wn. i fore be expl'essed as (116) wher~ £'h. ve action or turbulence ~ould not be developed. _. This rise in water surface.. line type . . is t.. Bureau of Reclamation [5J has been toward simplification.. hence. is a coefI1cietlt of inlet loss. uneven distribution of . For depth of How over 12 ft. .uIio behavior that should not be overlooked..S. the distribution of Yt. The comnion types of transition are inlet and outlet transitions between canal and flume.. . of practice in the U.in order to lift the water surface. Furthermore.. _. the 'following features have beim found important in design..mple 112. however. The friction loss may be estimated by means of any uniformflow formula..nal and tunnel. 75) may be used. the U.ttioll of the ellergy and momentum principles.. _.locity in the cross section can be extremely uneven. J '" .75 C. ApproXImate rules for freeboard estimation for lined arId unlined canaLs (Art. LO/Mes.. The conversion loss is genemlly expressed . . The optimum maximum angle between the channel axis and 11 line connecting the channel sides between entrance and exit sections is 12.. Straightline headwalls are usually found Ratisfactory for small structures or where head is not valuable. inlet and outlet transitions between ca.S. ·For a. . In all expanding flow. 2.
018 "'6.315 V'3.~~~~~f~~~~~.Y VARUJD FLOW f ! PRACTICAL l'ROBL:fj)M!. (After J.0. Hil14s [2].Ripfop if r~~ui. HYDRAULIC PROPE RTIES FJuma 5'0..01 4 $'0." '" '" 51.98 Q'314.40~~~~~~~~.014 V'5.'°.0 0.0009 . 57..ed FlO. I :+ o o on ~ " + o U"l C ..) (Alter J.~_Je Q c :.0. 312 GRADUALJ."'0. Hinds [2].. 313 '~ 51.) ) .2 0 ~f.5 PLAN PLAN \ " I~~~~~~~~~~~~ iii< N '" W CD SECllON ON CENTER line Top 01 bonk SECTION ON CENTER LINE SECTION DO ..+7"'I~' .n T +.FACE PROFILE + '" oJ o '" cO 1'1 o + + + '" + LJ" '" " 0 ll'l HYDRAULIC PROPERTIES Hume Canol + '" WATER SURFACE PROFILE + + + r'1 + + + 5. lllL'Typica! design of au outlet transition.0009 ...30 o " '" I :.r.00039<'. + 0 oJ WATER SUR.~.24 Ci'315.
Drop in water surface. the transition' should have been proportioned to avoid the jump on the basis of negligible t.tion of the channel bottom.l'abola is made equal to half the drop. The friction head.bolas. The side slope z =' (Q.117 = 0. The drop from it to t.ion head in ft Col. bottom width of 18 it and side slopes of 2: 1.ight line above the computed water suiface at an distance of approxima.na.mplilatio'll of the Flow Pmfilc Inch. For the type of stl'uctul'e under contemplation.s !l. Hind¥ [7].sition. . Solulion. equal to the cumulative v?Jue of t!.l and the flume arc given (Fig. Tot. DeterminatiDn.. including the Ilffect of the ch~. The computation ]" shown in Table J 12 with the following heo. A number of sections are then aele(.dings: Cd. After construction.. .ngent to ea.icn. to It rectangular concret'l flume 12 it {} in. LlO X 0. are obtaine.rn.10.5" with the 'axis of the strnetlll·e. The l'ecommend<3d heigl'lt of lining above the witter surface for a discharge of 314. ~ketched plan tV. After t.y 4.5b)/y Col. Elimination of H ya7'auUc Jump.l huving 8. where the /lOll' prolile will be computed and the stnlctund dimensions determined.480 ft. The piau m~}' be chos@ either ~rbitmrily or by trial untilsatisfactory reslll!.. This length in the design is found to be 50 1 .ST . The change in velocity ft: * Thi.240 ft. an objectionable hydraulic jump was observed inside the tunnel.014 for all sections the tmnsition If Col.a.5 cfs divided by tbe velocity in the column CoL 7. neglecting friction. equa. 8.bly less than the assumed vahle..! friction slope. 1112). . the parabolas should be tangent to the water surfaces' in the canal and the flume. or 0.:mg the transition. obtained from the cross sections or the sketched plan 1110).553 . straight line joining the. Til'. Assuming thnt the conversion loss i~ distributed over th" entire l~ngth of the transitiQl). From this line the elevation ZL IS obtained. however. thel'efOl'e. a transition.al. head from l' . two equal pll. the inlet loss be safely assumed to be 10% of the change in velocity head. a slight change in th<! elevation of waier . In the libel'!11 altowance \v'as made ~Qer9Y line energy rne energy line d water . Water area in ft~. that...he arbitl'lirilr 6kf:tched plan for'the tral.) Col.udace at a.n~ted by Hinds [7]. In an example illust.y heDel. The tolal drop in \I'Dtel' surface from A to C. ' Col. A and C.l to th~ d~"charg~ 314. the transition losses were found to be practically negligible.436 ft.98 fps is equal to tlk. hQwever.cr by dividing value.ch other o. The watersurface elevation.nd consumes useful energy. 1. 1112. The choice of a proper shape for the plan is a matttlr of judgment .[ . equa.flpw. is OA80 ft. the theoretical flow profile'may be u. For a.is fOl~nd to be satisfactory.\nd hori~ollt.st. wide.from a segmental canal to a circular tunnel wus desigrled for flow from one subcritical flow stage to anothej· (Fig. The flow profile thus obtained should be free from equal to 57. The design procedure~ involves thll following steps: ' L Delermimr!ian of the LmgU. I I I I in . smooth Itnd continuous .aT + 0. computed by Eq.0.436 0 .' It is required to design an inle:t st. so the actual normal depth of the floY! the tunnel entrance was cOl1sirler::.bout 12.l1ncl friction. 13. Half the bottom width in It.)!. Existence of hydraulic jump in a transition may beeomeobjectionable if it hindel's the flow !\.d. in proportion'{'o the change in velocit.. When the transition leads [rom 'a supercritical flow to a sub critical flow. 9. small deviation of these water surfaces from the horiwnt. The design discharge is 314.~ example is taken :from [2J. but !l. 2.the velocity head in the preceding column Col. The elevation of tile top of lining.Ul'd Dimerl$ions.. Change in velocity heo.ion of flow. flow line !It the two ends of the transition will ma. The hydrauli9 propert. . pillS the drop necessa~y to overcome channel fridiOn. 2. = 0. 7]). Col. eqtHI.nce between stationli. . hydraulic jump may be avoided by carefully propor. Cumulative frir:t.r J. thet'Afol'e. J 4. 1 by 1. or 5 ft. equal to 'the dist. 4. respectively. The dt'pth of flow ill it.!.t point B . De(enlll:rmiion of Situct.<. Hydraulic nlrliu& in ft CoL 11. 6. Strictly spellking. As a result. 3~ Cc. vo.ke an angle of a. Number for stDtioll1.y head. given POlot may cause an r. It shOuld bG lloted. 15.1 ail".41 objectiona. equul to L1 ah.h. Col. 1110). The elevr. A faulty transition design. Actually.ructure connecting an earth ca. Since the structure had already been constructed. COl. !.hemidpoint B of the antisymmckicill reversed p~\.sswlled 11.l to Z .ies of the cana. obtained f"om the.'Zhf.IJ. ent~ring the preceding coiumn . ' Col. 10. and a safe coefficient of roughness was used to determine the depth of flow in the tunnel. of t!.The total in water surface is.ble irrllgularitics. (Af!. a.' if not.5 cis. 12. tioning the transition dimensions (Example 34). Example 112. CoL 16.foce Tunnel FIG. the total drop in water surface is. the.re obtained.tely 1 ft. (98) with n = 0. 5. multipliedby the avernge of the friction slope of the section and that of the preceding section Col.5/.lf' in col. Neglecting the chnpllel frietjoll fol' the time being. Ii. CoL 3.y ')B t\:tered.bout 1 ft (Fig. The length of the transition is detllrmined so that B.314 GRADUALLY VARIED FL01V PRACTICAL PROBLEiHS 315 D.ge in the dimeMions of the skucture.tructnral dinlensions may be dlJf. of the Tra:ll.5 cfs is o. thus increasing the friction and bringing the normal depth up to above the critical depth. Draw a strci.l:Jes of tll~.t~d a!. or 0. of fhe Flow Profile Neglecting Frict. the plan ma. Half the' top width in ft. Veloci(" in ips corresponding to . th~ s.[11 velocJ.'l1:tion.ppreciable chltr.diug Friction.ermined ns given under the following headings of Tnble 112.ransition losses.0. equal to A/CO. the hydraulic jump was iinally eliminated by bolting cross timbers to the channel bottom. .l!y spaced every 5 ft aud lneiLsured in the direct.2.at is not important in ~he present example.715 fpl! to 5.) for tramitions and friction losees.
Transitions between Canal and Inverted Siphon.l to ZL Zo Col. In the design of an inlet transition.~c.n inverted siphon.5W to nearest 0. In the illustrated design. There no data ll.5 6h. 2. The method of deaign is similar to that for the transitions between clmal and flume.5 in.rreL For long siphOlls.:e beeI~ carried to the end of the transition.ce.icable to construct. the inlet may not necessarily be sealed. In the design illustrMed (Fig.: A smooth flow profile is thEm assumed. Computed value of half the width atthc top of the lining.. .8 the walel' seal.ly below the .:. 11 hydraulic jump may occur in the siphon barrel. is taken as 1. the lower end of the tmnsition strictly in aCGo!'chnce wi th the hydraulic computation. equa. whichever is greater. the following special features of design are recommended by the U. The recommended value ~f the water seal is between a minimum of L111hv and a maximum of 18 in. 19. Generally.tf.l?CIt:lO\. The depth of stlbmerge~ce of the top of the siphon opening is ImolVn 11. .ion and passing through the point at the headwall set by the above computation. the velocity at the headwall is computed.y caused llyl. and the totai drop in water surfo. neglecting friction losses. Height of lining.1 t. OI. Howe vel'.PRAC'l.ve the top of the 8iphon opening set slight.vailable for determining the best form of the flow profile. Consequently. tangent to the water sUl'fac~ in the canal at the beginning of the transit. It shotlld also lie noted that the seal IT\ay make it impract.ically allows the flow barely to touch the top of the siphon opening. and the resulting operating condition will be un'favorable.deqllate nmount of seal depends upon the slope ilnd size of the siphon barr~l. Figure 1113 shows a typical design of siphon inlet and outlet tra)1sitions between canals !1Ild v.7.l'l""1t:I +++++++++++ 00000000'000 11. It should be noted that use of the minimum value in a welldesigned transition theoret. in It.h.5W ZHL + 0.S. O. it is generally desirable to hll.'ICAL PROBLEMS 317 CoL 18. beyond tl.t)0U10 OO _ _ (\l<:.lis the conduit flom is simply extended smoothly to connect with the floor of the siphon ba. computations ha'. Col. An u.l"'. 20. whereas use of lal'ger values up to the maximum provides :\ senl of water above the top of the opening. Bureall of Reclamation [6]: 1. or 1. In the design illustr"ted. are 316 ."Yhen this is the case. is u3ed. ul). a large and steep barrel requires l1 large seal.he introduction of ail' into the siphon. equal to O./')OI. This practice will minimize possible reduction in siphon capacit. the computed bottom elevation a short distance upstream from the inLet headwall nuty be altered arbitrarily to meet the practical requirement. After the seal is determined for the inlet structure. 1113) It seal of 18 in.cpprQacliing normal water surface.der certahl conditions.50 . a slmpJ:e parabola is assumed.
0 be useful.o a certain fraction of the normal depth. the backwater curve extends indefinitely in the upstream direction.I I { \ "\ Sec. the theOl<etical rise in water surface from the head wall to the enrl of the transition.. and possible change iiI reservoir level. c '::l " e "0 . This can be at a place where the depth of flow is equal t. l ...m or downstre~.:.. The end point defined in this way generally shows an upstream movement when discharge increaBes. a socR.. 318 1 .~ given problem. Increase in channel roughness usually results in dowllstre. t.l (0 '.. the end point of the backwater curve may moYa either upstxea. .neglecting recovery snould be equal to the total' cha.er cttrve (1111 profile).un movement of the end point. length of the flow profile.tic pool level in the reserv.ge. to the reservoir increases.oir at zero inftow intersects the channel floor.. In field studies. effect of tributaries.:l Ii) C . This curve represents the locus of the upstream end point of the backwat. +' 0 .PRACTICAL PROBLEMS 319 0. ::1.J WI' > .:. Theore~icalJy speaking. . As the inflow. 65 i=5: +0 <.at) begins t. 118.9 . thel'efore. This point is determined simply by cye observation from the druwing of flow profiles. depending upon many facto!'s. It is often necessary to the probable damage caused by backwater due to an obstacle in a say a dam. Backwater Effect of ii Dam. To study this problem.nt and when the channel is prismat. hence. UI Z 0 c. sueh as condition of the channel. IU W ~ tr t) ~ ..) m .ic and has a simple cross section.o cause dama. . dependlng on the 112. For practical purposes. however. J c. shape of the cross section.· .. When!1 freeboard is allowed. The fio'''' profile in the illustrated design is made as a simple parabola. It is apparent thi"~t the backw8. the upstream limit of the bnckwi1ter 'effect should be properly defined in ol'der to meet the particular need of th. ~ :§ " Z r.' ~ . The presence of flood plains has !l. the end point rilay be selected at the place where the rise in water surfH. When the reservoir level is kept consto. presence of flood plains. it is most likely that the end pl)lnt will move in a downstream direction as the discharge is increased. similar effect.:' 0 a. siphon velocity is high and the transition il3 steep.<. 3. study of the backwater effect ...'l1l.. I . ISland [9) for further discussion.nge in velocity 'head LlI. 4. 0 I 'I: t.:! C! :.. the bottom slope need riot be tangent to the slope of the closed conduit at ~he headwall as it was in the case of the iulet.lIed back~vater !'!lwelol}~ wrve is usually found 1. In the desig'n of the outlet structure. U. !1bout 1 % higher thun the nor111al depth.2. the end point is at 11 place where the dept. or y = ·1.01Yn. it has no npstreiln1 end point. Prior to a.ture of the problem.:: 9!. :.n approximate point of tangency of the nonnalclepth line to the backwater curve is often taken as the ena point. ::> 0 . unless the. since its effect is to reduce the .. In the design of the crutlet structure.ter envelope cUl've starts at 11 point where the stn. a.h is equal to the normal depth plus the freebonrd. h~ t '" (. however.
the aid of f1ow~profi)ecomputations. the division of flow between the two channels may be determined \Viti).13 = 755:06. The friction slope at each cross section is computed fol' the discharge of 81. If the dividfld flows are supel'critie~\l. using thA average of the friction from cross sections 5 to lK in the Kansas River and from cross sections 5 to 6 in the Missouri River. hence. 1O1l). proceed upstream from the d~wnst. Since the flow is subcritical.'elocity heads.10 ({l. lll·t Solution flow passing an island. and division of flow may be roughly determined from the following I'elations: Q1 1(1 vs.000 cfs from the Kansas River is combined with 350.000 cfs from the Missouri River to give'a total discharge of 431. it is neeessary to determiQ. respectively. tor channel Na. In Example 1010.HJ. I· i Wo!ersurface elevation at Discharge in chonnel No.1: = 755. the hydraulic elements.2 (bj id fOI' FIG. The velocit)~ head at cross section 5.!qual if the assumed qivisiol1 of flow is correct.05 755.000 cfs.me for channel 2. equal to Q2 Q Q1. In this example. the control point will be at A.320 GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW PROELE:&!S 321 119.. a dischi.The friction head loss hJ is then computed. Cross sections lK and {) are located immediatelyupstl'eam fromthe confluence of the two streams (Fig.000 cfs at cross section IK and fOl' 350. 1114b) fo1' several assumed sets of :dischal'ges Ql and Q2 of different proportions..· river and its bributary. In the case illustrated it is considered that the flmv throughout ·all channels is subcritic!Ll. therefore. and Q = Q1 + Q2.. At high velo'cities.19 . SVhen the flowprofile computation is carried upstream through the confluence of r.000 ers at cross section ().G3 0. Q2 = K2 VS. The procedure for solving this problem is' illustrated in 1010 fOl'the confluence of the Missouri and Kans&s Rivers. Flow Passing Islands.land to u point A where the flow is divided. is.eam point B Where the divided flows unite again.ble 108. the computation should (a) .05 ft. This value is divided between the cross sections 6 and lK corresponding to th9 dischal'ges of 350. the elevation at point A corresponding to this correct division of flow may be obtained from the plotted c. division of flow will depend on the entranee condition of the divided channels. The initinl watersurface elevation at puint B may be determined from the curve at this statiori for a total discharge Q. River Confluence.dashed line bisecting the coordinate axes. When flow in u stream is divided by a long island (Fig. A ct. compnted for 11 total discharge of 431.000 cfs f. this is estimated as 10% of the increase in velocity head from cros~ section II{ to 5. The computed watersnrh1ce elevation at point A tor channel 1 is then plotted against the sa. or 0.: Thus. equal tohJ h~ + H = 0. . From this curve the correct discharge Ql may be obtained for the correct elevation. it may be assumed that nil flows ~\re uniform.000 cis. l1l4e). Then. The total energy in cross section . The pl'Ocedure is to assume nrsta set of discharges Ql and Q2 for the divided flows such that the Sum ~f the discharges is equal to total discharge Q. the two computed watersurface elevations at this point fOl~ the channels should be \. ancl total heads are computed separately at the two sections.e the watersurface elevations immedIately uostream hom the confluence. and the error il1~olved in the estimation may become quite appreciable. . In Tr.13) 0. . Subtracting the velocity head' from this value gives 755. . be dl'a\vn (Fig. Q i poinl A from compuletior. eddy loss is usually high.0.0.l1d 81. compute flow profiles in the two ch:mnels each side of the i.10 0. therefore.5 is. Th~ above method should bli:flpplied to sub critical flow of relatively low velocities l1Qt exceeding about 10 fps.. The corresponding discharge in channel 2 is..urve at which the curve is Intersected by a. The problem of riYer confluence may be further illustrated by an exam~ + + + . At the confluence.U've may. During the normllJflow eonditioll.000 cfs immediately below the confluence. which should be equal to the assumed watel'sul'faceelevation ab cross section lIe. 1114a). the eddy 10sses'al'e high.. therefore. 1110. :Since the flow is divided ~t point A. The dashed line represents the condition that the two computed elevations are equaL In the meantime) the computed elevation at point Afar chfml1el 1 is plotted against the discharge Q1 (Fig..1 . .rgeof 81..
At the final steadyflow condition. and also a reflected wave which travels back up the Ohio.IS . At the final steadyflow condition. ')\ FIG. flow involved ill the [I.ce of flood initiation becomes Y2. ThE:. Downstream in the Mississippi River. Now.180 be obtnin<3d:byassurning Q2 at the beginning l1l1d ~heclr. Assuming 3. 1116).he channel ent.re all equal to Yi at x = 0. 50. the backwater effect in a long sr. using the Junction of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivel's (Fig.upstream. and tina. 1 FIG. frictionless channel.il a correct valLle is obtained. the assumed Yi is the correct value.eam from the junction and to such that' the Ohio River rises rapidly at that point from the initialnormal depth Y... Ii solution may 0. and the Lower Mississippi Rivers are. Yn2. SOl.hell I .~ssippi. the 'Ohio. 111. or Ql = Qnl.3 call be computed.ta the normal Qnl. the following conditions are evident: (1) the discha.ream resulting from even fairly large discharges of its tribntaries aoes vel"y far . The loss at t.. which travel both upstream and downstream in the JVlississippi River. to Ya. new vulues of.a flood wave is assumed to initiate in the Ohio River at a place L initiation of flood Upper Mississippi River Lower Mississippi River flow condition is expected to develop. respectively.'le and can be verified easily by a camput.rance is negligible. PROBLEMS 111.nd 200 cfs. Yi should.322 GRADUALLY VARlED FLOW PRACTICAL PRDBLE. miles upstl. n2.. but the flow may beasslimed to remain uniform.rge in the Upper Mississippi River remains the same. Otherwise.measured from the junction along the channel.~tiol1 of the Froude numbers. 1116. which is the usual COl. and (3) the Slim of the from the Ohio and Upper Mississippi Rivers is equal to the discharge in the Lower Mississippi River. Ynr.. steady b:l('. is the dista~1ce . 100. Qn2. This is a trialanderror solution:. construct the Qconstant curves of Yl J(y~) for Q = 10.'J. and Y2 ~are ilow known. . L on the coordinate axes. at thifi time the depth at the pla. S02.rylng surface levels (Fig. Therefore. By assuming a value of Vi> Q3 may be comp:lted un1t. or QI + Q2 Q3. as follows: the normal depths. nI. the channel slo'pes. If the computed L agrees with the given L. the leng!. The wave of the flood thus originated will move down the Ohio River to the junction and CI:eate new waves.kwater curves will be formed in the Ohio and Upper Mississippi Rivers.bovementioned problem is considered to be subcritical. 1115.nd Mississippi Rivers. As a general rule.323 pIe given by Sto~. and Soa. a eteady ~T y. and n" Fwm these da. After n certain time. to a final maximum depth Y2.h L 01 the backwater curve' can be computed. A rectangular channelS ft w'ide and 500 'ft long connects two reservoirs of va.ing finally for either Vi or L. and Q. the depth will change from Y1l3. where:r.:m' [10]. (2) the depths of the three channels at the junction n. I Point of floDd Since YiJ Q~. but ~he depth far upstream in the MissisRiver remains Ynl. 150.. a. the backwater curve in the not Upper Mississippi Riyer should be l'elatively short. be assumed unt. The initial conditions of the uniform flows in the Upper l\::Ii. A junctiDn problem of the Ohio a. 1115). Profile of It CMlld ~T Ya 11 for Prof. . and the roughness coefficients. The point of flood initiation is shown at:l.
48 ft2. SolvePI·ob. The bottom width of 75 ft ill constant from Sta. range of diEcharge varyiag from 0 to 2. d. Compute and construct li bnckwater envelope curve for the backwater' caused by a 5ft dam in the channel described in Example 101.1.e hydraulic properties: A = 01. A trapezoidal earth spillway with 3: 1 side slopes is 190 ft long from the reservoir at Sta. for 0.5 ft/mile.. SQ = O.mple 111 for Q = 19. 0 + 8!J ane! . 113 if the downstream depth:v~ i.yzg b.89 ft.oidal channel connecting two reservoirs 2 miles Ilpart has b = 50 ft.rge is computed· by L\ weir formula Q _ 0. Assuming a variable y. lTIaint(Lined constant and equal to 6 ft (Fig. Eq. Length of the neutralizing reach f.7 £p8. ll17. 116 if the reservoirs are 2. The upsireamdepth V.nd canal are the same as those described in Exnmple 112....oa.01Yn ~.).500 ft c. elevation of pool level in the res. 1117)... 1932. 113 if the upsLream reservoil' depth Y II ia Dlaintained con~tant and equal tc B ft. and A = 38.20 % between Sta. The (lvCl'nge velocity should not exceed 14.5 ft. The bottom slope of the spillw!l.25. Revle\v the design of nil O\lt..g poillts of the chan7 nels equal to 5 in. and 8 ft.l)sition from Ilume to canal (Fig. in Prob: 113.000 cfs. A dil!charge of 1.OOOS. Boris A. 1 + 90.000 fti II> = 40 ft. 11.3 % between Stu. 800.~ a width of 75 ft c. 1 + GO to Sta. 113. GiYen th. 1. and 11 "" 0.\harge \'5. The·bottom of channel2 is on the llverage 'about ::l ft lower than that of chollnel 1.004. fr = 1~ n = 0. 114 if the downstream resp.324 GRADUALLY VARIED FLO. is to be built between levels A.. Friction loss in spillway between the reservoir and the control sectioll ror I. the width of the I. 1110. G. 1115. Solve EX:ll. 1118.ervoir c. = no o. The fzee ·entranoe is wtlllrounded. 0. Determine the following items by the Manning formula and by any method of flowprolile'computation as described in this book: a. /). z = 2. llll). COllstruct the delivery curve Q = f(ytl for Prob. R = 2.Frob.ny. The dischal'ge should be kept below 750 ers.8' ? ~':~ FIG. lJ4 if the reservoirs Me 2.ower l\{ississippi Riv~r = 2. . 4. A rectangu~ar ra.4 b·y". All rivers are assumed to have rectallgular channels. Assuming the end point at a depth equal to 1. 113.ft. Solve . 1111.l hettd.lizing reach e." McGrawHill Book b.000. 4. 1121.75 ft. Slope of the steep reach 1120. 0 + 80 and St. c..014 for the circular siphon ba:reL 1119. chute 20 ft widc. as descril::ed by Bllkhmeteff [lj. 1 + 90.l. 113). 111"{.rt..ld equal to 6 ft (Fig. and So =.' = Yn~ = 1/ ... 0 + 00 to the downatream critical control ·seetiol'!.ce between the dividing !lnd joinip.03..035 aml a tot'll drop of water surfa. 1 + 90. Manning's n = 0. The entrance discharge .riable depths !/t and y. The flume r.200. The entrance depth y. respectively. curve of Y.Y between Sta. Solve Prob. = n •.025.let tl'll.000 ft.03.J) for ·Prob. 1. 1115. The roughness coefficient n = 0. compute the divided uniform flows . New York. Bakhliletefi: "Hydraulics of Open Channels. 0 + 00 and Sta. = 0.. 1114). So = 0. 143215. Construct tbe delivery curve Q = f(Y. and 1. Slope of the neutl':J.'e: L The'ta.l to 2. or C.. 5. 117. The bottom of the spillway is horillontal . :l. =1. 1116. 119.ilwatm· fluctuates by 8 ft. 1 + 00. condition. C. 110.500 ftapart..500 it ap:. pp. 6. 1 + 00 is ad verse..800 crs in the spillway .a. 111).stead).0012. at Sta. 1113). between Sta. COl'rect the flow profile computed in Example 111 for air entrainment. l. 115 if the reservoirs !lre 2.rvcir depth YB is maintained constant and equal to 6 ft.000 cfs. and is .. 1. 2. in Prob. 0 + 00 is 95 It wide and conV'erges unifol'luly t. Length of the flow profile in the trnnsition teach Compo. 0 00 and Sta.l(.t Sta.500 it llpRI't. and B(Fig. 1 + 00.gain (Fig.25. and L = 50 miles. 112. frcl~board of 5 in. The depth ill Lhe steep reach is kept to a minimum nav'igl1ble depth ~f 2. construct !l.i. Construct the d'olivery curve Q = f(y. Length of the !'iteel' reach 1114. il6. 113 if tht: reservoirs l\re 2.part.t a depth equal to Yn plus a.52 it'..nd H is the tot. Construct the delivery curn Q = f(YB) for Prob. Assuming n = 0. 1112. Assuming the end poiilt n.l where b is the channel width a...500 cfs . against Q". Th~ bottom of the'spillway at Sta. . Construct the Qconstuut curves of YA = f(vB) for Prob. Assuming v1l. The design conditions .~.5. the widths of the Ohio and Upper Mississippi Rivers = 1. 3 = 20 ft. R = 1. The chnnneis are later joined !J.0225 fa! the canals. nnd n = 0. (215). n. the following data are assumed: Yr. REFERENCES 1. 118.000 cfs is divided between two rectangular channels exoavated in rock. 111. Curve showing dis(." PRACTICAL PROBLEMS 325 I I. . Determine the junction deptl\ and the flow profiles ill the rivers after the flood flow approaches a . S03 = 0. Channel 2 is 15 ft wide lend 150 ft long. Review the design of ihe siphon inlet and outlet transitions (Fig. . 1 + 00 and Sta. Wi~h reference to the problem shown in Fig. 1113. Sulve Prob. 114. is mnintoined consLant !).13. A tmpe. discharge of 1. The entrance discho.. . Channel 1 is 10 ft wide and 200 ft long. Inc. construct the Qconstant curves for·dischal·ges having tile normal depth equp.500.nt\y he eomputed by Q = 3bf]1. SOL = So.49 ft/mite. The flow p::ofiles for discharges of 600. Determine: + n. A raft chute for PI·C'b.
he backwater pro(ile for steady flow in pi'isnl:t~ic channels. 381. 1957. Furthermore.til1lly variedflbw hydraulically inefficient. Flow with Increas~'ng Discharge.oker: "Witter Waves. Spatially (gradually) varied flow. Transactions.1954.00 (450) ML. New York. Scobey: The flow of water in flumes.3].pply Paper 1164. but physicl1l circumstances sometimes make the lise of lltlch structures desirable.Favre [2. the differential equation of the flow has been \ntegm. Theoretical and experimental studies of the . U.ics. pp. IV of "Pure and Applied Mathemat. ~'s previously defined (Art. Ameriwn Sodetv oj C.vever. En!1ineering EXpcTl:lI1cnl Stalion. vol." Interseience Publishers. 85. S~alldi6h Hall: Open channel flow at high velocities. the momentum equation will be found more convenient than the energy equation in solving this problem. has a nonuniform discharge resulting from the addition or diminution of water along tbe eourse of flow. Wa.lriflow velocity in the direction of the I1xis of the channel.1928. and others.nsadions. Julian Hinds: The hydraulic jump and erit. ' 7.ls. was developed by . U.Tln<:. ' '3. Julhtrl Hinds: The hydraulic design of flume and siphon ~ransitions. prismatic and nonprismatic. an appreciable portion of the energy loss is due to the turbulent mixing of the added water and the water flowing in the channel. pp. appendix I of CanalS and related structures.um content of the flow. Forchheimcir [8]. with increasing dischai'ge is different in certain respects from that of s'imilar flow with decreasing discharge. DepC!1'lmenl oj Ag"ic7l!t1l7'e.'3ch [9]. 2. As ftres'ult. 1950. 5. including a friction term and a componentof.rainment of air ill flowing \\'flter: a symposium. Citril~i [7].1n D.flow were also made by De Marchi [6]. vol. 10341040.pplwtent No. Bulletin Series No. 4. 22.tion of t. L. no.ke channels designed for such Bpn.(L oj Reclamalion. A substantially correct form of the fundamental differential equation for spatially varied fiowwith increasing discha.. Mitchell: Sf. . G. 45G461. In most caEes.ical depth iu the design of hydraulic S~r\)ctllres. U. WallD. the theory has cOi'ered a variety of problems. J.S. 327 . Geolo!!ica. In this type of . J. pp. Inc.3.1'ch.. A. The methodG developed by Hinds and Favre are applicable to any channel. A more complete equ:Ltlon. the two types of spatially varied flow will be discassed separately.ce M. no. Li also treated prismat. "C. Willi"'ffi D. Engineering NcwsRsClJrd. the high energy loss seems to mz. X. Nov. Design Su.j I .vil Works: Flood Con~rol in the Los Angeles Area. this mixing is of relatively. Mitchell: An investigD. the hydraulic behavior of spatially varied flow.n1Lal. 46.326 GHADUALLY VARIED FLOW 2.liJ(l. CHAPTEIt 12 SPATIALLY VARIED FLOW i i 121. ho. 1920.S. 12). lOS." vol. Techniml B1t/lelin No. 51. 1952. in Ent. Because of the resulting high and uncertain losses. Schoklit.high magnitude and uncertainty.ler Su.nsford and WilliD.agefallclisoharge reiatioils for steady flow in prisma~i~ ehfl.a. vol. De~ign and Cons/rllction . St. 8.1. 1943. 10. vol. pp.3. . TrcT. Fred C. 1933. the hydraulic behavior of a spatially va. 1. vol. Virginia.ic channels of sloping walls.S. 92. From a practical vie~vpoint.rge was probably first established by Hinds [1] for the design of lateral spillway channels. 2228 and plate 10. La. 14231459. December. but the procedure requires 8. For prismatic rectangular channels with ulliform 'illflow throughout the channel length. 13941447. The added or diminished water will cause disturbance in the energy or moment.ted by Camp [4] and Li [5J.spatially varied flow. Basic Principles and Assumptions.rlcd flow is more complicated than that of a flow of constant discharge.~il Engillec". America" Society of 'Civil Engineers. Bure(1. pp. 25. For~ Beh'oir." TIl[) Engineer School. 303.. Therefore. lViD.ph I13. University oj Illinois. 1949. pt. paragro. Hrdraulic design d!\1. E206. In practical applications. step computation with successive approximations.18urvey.
The sidechannel spiilway (·n the Arizona side of Hoover upstream. type of spatially varied flow may be treated as a flow diversion where the diverted. Theoretical and practical studies of the floYI were also performed and advanced by Favre [2. BUTeau of Reclamation. The effects of these cm'rents and of the accompanying turhulence cannot be easily evaluated. however.dflow equation in the next ::uticle. . The velocity distribution across the channel section is constl:U1t and uniform. The effect of air entrainment is neglected. The slope of the channel is relatively small.. Nimmo [20].lly.ined by De :!vI.121).tic. that is.arahi [16] as resulting from the f8. Schmidt [2426].sary . A. This theoretical investigation was fur~her vedfied experimentally by Gentilini [18]. proper values of the pressuredistribution coefficients may be introduced. Frazer [321. Therefore. B.lted a rising and those by Coiemnn and Smith. In the derivation of the spa. 1 i problem' anllIytically by assuming the energy line to be parallel to the spillway crest and to the channel bottom and also by assuming the flow profile illong thl'l spillway crest to be linear. if necp. may be curvilinear and deviate greatly from the parallel~fio"T assumption if a hydraul.t flow was sllbcritical iil Engels's but supercritical in Coleman and Smith's experiments. In such.281. 2.y crest. 3. can be ignored. SPATIALLY VARIED FLOW . (U. the velocity distribution coefficients are taken fiB unity.tiallyvarit.ry.nnel for the purpose of diverting or spilling excess flow.ng the spillway crest is essentially constant and that the flow profile is curved. The flow is unidirectiona1. 5. the use of the energy equation will be found more convenient in solving this problem.I Forcl~heimer [15J has approac. This confusion \vas lEIter expla.S. Noseda [2123]. 121.! 328 GRaDUALLY .<. a dropping flow profile along the spUlwa. the followin. 4. watel. Flow with Increasing Discharge. rising in sllbcl:itical flow and dropping in supercritical flow. Mostkow [27. The Manning formula is used to evaluate the friction loss due to the shear developed along the channel wall. the flow is parnlleL The flO\y at the o. Collinge [31]. The lateral unevenness of the water surface.17J proved that the energy head alt.rately for flow with increasing discharge and flow with decreasing discharge. This type of structure is usually a long notch installed along the side of a cha. if necessary... Allen [30J. De l\farchi [16.Ct thu. there are cross currents present in the form of spiral flow. as a result of cross currerlts.rge. the momentum passing section 1 p~r unit time is 1» g QV where w is the unit weight of water. does not Ilffect the energy head.. Refening to the lateral spillway channel in i22. . Theoretica. but will be included in computations if the momentum 'pl'illCiple is used. and V is the veloc. Actually. If the slope is appreciable.vAniED FLOW I '. Fundamentally. The pressure in the flow is hydrostfl. Qis the discha. This concept has been ) \ 1 i FIG.g assumptions will be made: 1.19]. Laboratory tests on such structures w~re first made by Engels tI3] and by Coleman :and Smith [14J. A correctioll.. particularly in l::tteral spill way channels. cases. Ho\\'ever.) verified by both theory and experiment. 6. The theory of spacially varied flow with decreasing was probably employed first in the design of lateral spillways or sidespillway wehs. Ackers [29]. Flow with Decreasing Discharge. may be applied to the computed result when necessary. flO its effects on the pressure head and on the force on channel sections are negligible. 329 from the study of flow in roof gutters [lOJ to the design of washwater troughs in watertreatment plf1nts [11. and many others.c drop occurs. however. . proper values of the coefficient£! may be introduced.. corrections for these e~ects may be applied.12] and of sidechanne1 spillways on dams (Fig . that is. 122. . on the contra.. The discussion is given sepo. Dynamic Equation for Spatially Varied Flow.\1ed th~ Engels's ex~eriments indi~f.utlet.
. +W sin f) FJ (121) Neglecting dV dQ and substituting in thc above equation all expressions for external forces expressed previously. .equal to the ullit hydrostatic pressure at the centroid of the water area A multiplied by the area. the momentum "' . 1= aQ2/ qA2D ( I . The momentum change of the body of water between sect.'\LLY VARIED FLOW SPATIALLY VARIED FLOW 331 Similarly.' . or .+dA + dA d'".1 The frictional force along the channel wall is equivalent to the pressure due to friction head multiplied by the average q. an energy coefficient can. Analysis of spatially varied flow. component of W in the direction of flow is W sin f) = :: ~. or the discharge per unit length of the channel. dy = "f! . be introduced in the equation..)Si dx = wASf dx If. .2QqjgA 2 (124) dx 1 . dy Se Sf .Jo S/ne' .t1 + ~ dA dy Let W be th€ weight of the body of water between the sections. the above flqua(So . term containing the product of is dropped.[Q dV w ' (V g ' + + dY) dQ] " = P1  P2 . or . dQ in the numerator. _.lgA 2 (125) dx. hf Sf .he external forces acting on the body. GRADU.2aQq. = dQ/dx..ions is equal to the friction slope SI mUltiplied by the length dx. Similarly. equal to ' . where slope So is equal to sin IJ and th. dy So . Since V = Q/A and V tion becomes ely {J + dV 2 . the total pressure on section 2 is ~ (Q (J + dQ)(V + dV)  :!£ QV f! ~o [Q elV g + (V + dV) dQJ .Sf) dx The friction head between the two l3ect.. .mtials of higher order.iolls 1 and 2 is.""'.. . The total pressure on section 1 in the direction of flow is . section 2 per unit time is ~ (Q {] + dQ)(V + dV) where dQ is the added discharge bet\veen sections 1 and 2.So(A + J1: dA) dx = w8 QA d..)dx (Q + dQ)/(A + dA). V dV 1( Fro. u.330 ity. V (122) + A dQ ) + (Se . or = wiA where z is the depth of the centroid of A below the surface of Row.. The P2 w(z + dy). 122.+ Q Q) A AdA ( 123) ax where the friction slope may be represented by the Manning formula as Neglecting riA in the denominator and dA. !Lnd D is the hydraulic depth. Neglecting the term containing diffel'. and sjmplifying.S.o. which is equivalent to the moment of A about the free surface multiplied by W. therefore. w(z +dy)A The resultant hydrostatic pressure acting on the body of water between sectiolls 1 and 2" is p.Sf . where the product of the differentials is dropped. where dy is the difference between the depths of the two sections 1 and 2.rea (see Art.Q~/gA~D where q.P z =  w A dy Equating the momentllln change of the water body to' all t. 54) J or Ff = w(A + Y2 dA. V(2A dQ. Ifnonunlform velocity distribution iu the channel section is considered.
AJ dx CiQ2 (126) Differentiating this equation with respect to' x.Example 12~1..da. It is apparelit that F. Eq. y. = S. At the outlet. l When q. ('J!)3 y.?. For each value of ~/L.. = 0. Eq.. It should be noted that this equation differs from (125) only in the coefficient of the third term of the numerator. '124) and simplifying. (128). and Q. In this problem the ru. The inflow is ulliformly distributed along the channel with a rate of fl. the :!low is critic". the term containing dQ may be dropped from Eq. where Q. Followa . a ?' .procedure similar to the derivation of. of the .uatream andy aallllot be less than'll •.aQq. b'y. (w dQ dt)(a V2) IJw(A d:c) This is merely a practical interpretation. which lul. Derive the equation. therefore. _~ Likewise.+1:11 2q. (1210) gives the above equation may be reduced to r ! dy _ So .X. (125). (1214) where depth y. = O.te of inflow is '1. Analysis of Flow Profile.. Let z . flow' proceeds dov. dQ = <i. . ThUlS.CtQ2/gA~ c 11..s the. VARIED FLOW 333 : I i ' This is the. (1210) becomes ( 1 +_1 2F.. is in the form of n Frqude number oi the flow at the outlet. x = L lIud 11 Yo. the energy coefficient is' used because the friction slope Sf is evaluated by a formula for energy loss.dx + y + 2g112 a (2Q dQ 2Q2 dA) 2g A2 dx . a simple example will be given first./L. Q. Thus.H (11)~ v. + dy + dx (127) Noting that dJI/dx = Sf.dy dx where I: is an integration con. this equation becomes the dYnlimic equation for' gradually varied flow of constant discharge. because the energy in flow rous~ dealease a.d L is the channel length. (125). the resulting equation will be identical with Eq.JL_ y. In applying this principle to spatially varied flow with incre~sing discharge. ~ (1211) (128) and Eq. For channels with sloping bed.r lateralsplIlway chan.g.be the distance of toe bottom of the channel section above a horizontal datum (not shown ill I~i. Soltttion. 123. (12~8). In 11. and Fa can be computed from tbe knowledge of y. such as the MaIming formula.nel hus a freeoverfall outlet. hbwevel'. A horizontal rectangula.! = ) (dA) (dY _ dx. 1 are true solutions. (121). spatially varied flow.y conditions of the flow profile. Now it is interesting to know [33] that the momentum principle can also be used for the derivation 'of Eq.taIlt which may be determined by the bOUl. 122). This kinetic energy per pound of water is equal 'to mass X velocity2 g X unit weight of water X volume 1 ). flow profile. When free overfali occurs at the outlet. per unit length of the channel. dynamic equation for spatially varied flow with increasing discharge. only values of y/y. the energy principle can also be used for the derivation of Eq.. (129) / I dlI _ dz dx . S..1 which is' the dynamic equation jorspat'ially varied flow with deer'easinu _ _. Eq. . is the dilscharge at the outlet an. and This ill a linear differential equation of the first order. The above example illustrates spatially varied flow in horizontal channels of rectangular cross section.Sf . Similar analyses can be made for channels with parallel side walls having irregular bottoms and for channels with sloping side walls. Flow with Decreasing Discharge.GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW SPATIALLY.' = (1213) '. ignoring the friction [ass. equation is gb'll' x' . . (1214) wilIgive two real positive solutions.x/by.'dx and Q = <i.3) 1(LZ + lJ2'1. dz/dx = So) dQ/dx TdiY dx = q.l.1 . then A by and V Q/A = <i. is the critical depth at the outlet for Q. the energy principle is directly applicable. discharge. Also. Let !The the chaunel width. Substituting these expressions ill Eq. However.luA2 dx. In discussing the analysis of the flow profile. Theoretically spealdng. the energy due to the added discharge dQ per elementmy lellgth d:r: should be added to the total energy the course of the flow during the time interval dt.hc analysis of this type of spatially varied flow. (126) and differentiating) the resulting equation will be identical wit. tIH') total energy at a channel sectiou is H = z Adding this term to the right side of Eq.. . ~he depth Yo ill determined by the downstream aurfa.' The genera! solution of this (1210) ~.ce elevation. B..s no theoretical basis. When the outlet is submerged. a momentum coefficient should be used in the equation. no momentum is added to the water. = L The equation of the flow pre file becomes 11 %.h Eq..For t. (1212) where F. with decreasing discharge. F. (125). However.
The hydraulic jump will fo:m only if the outlet is sufficiently submerged. the flow profile l cn. '124. spatially yaried flow in channels of sloping bed .mp .lso be computed bra gra. Types of spatia.4]. section a distance x from the upstream end of the channeL The value of F can be computed from Eq.'). when dF/t1:x .:> 0. G Value of G FIG. the channel.nalysis can be. FIG. (1213) by replacing F 0 with F and L with x. L The profile can a. Since the flow is subcritical.~ shown in Fig. the control section will be shifted into. F. As the jump occurs. Region A. This region: represents the condition' where the flow is subcritical throughout the channel but where the value of F will first· increase as the flow proceeds downstream. The results of. an. It consi. less than unity. and the value of G SQL/y. This is represented by the line dividing.d then decrease. and only the value of y" is of interest in determining the channel dimensions.s been found that super critical flow occurs when G is greater than approximately 1 + F. for trio.phica. (After This diagr8. GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW 335 general explicit '"rtuatio:1of thefhw profile such as Eq.l method developed by Ca./Yo for region A have been computed by numerical integration and have been plotted as solid lines (Fig. W. Fvr rectangular channels. the water 8urfac~ recedes in the downstream direction. that is. dF / dx > O. ' Regicrn C.s the condition where flow is sub7 critical throughout the channel and where the value of F increa.n be computed directly by the method of numerical integration (Art. regions A and B in the diagram (Fig. as shown .. the depth of flow at any section is greater than the critical depth. lZ·4:SO"luiioDs for channels with sloping bed and par:>ilel side walliJ.sts of fOUl" regions. This region represents the condition at which there is supercritical flow in the downstream portion of the channel and a hydraulic i:ump in the channel. this n. It h(l. The symbol F l'epresents the Froude number of flow at a.m indicates the relo. channel of an arbitntry sec~ion. In region A. the line dividing regions Band Cis G "" 1 + F.rn i. (1212) cannot be obtained. If no hydraulic j\lmp occurs in the channel..ngular channels.by means of numerical integration. the clbgra. as the flow downstream. 124)) starting from a known control depth of flow. H. The dashed line in each channel is the criticaldepch line. Li [5] hns performed an analysis of. Li [5]. It been found that the line di:vidregions Band C can be represented approximately by G = 1 + F •. reaching a maximum 'value . 123.lly varied flow as determined by F.This region l'spresent. This line indicates all the cases in which the maximum value of F reaches unity.' The diagram is shown for [\..tionship between the Fl'oude number F. Values of y.. . summarized in a general diagram (Fig.her words. and the flow condition is governed by the upstream depth YU' In ot. and the elevation I~ . it is G '" 2. nnd G. The computation was made on the condition that y"jy. 12··3). G < %(1 + 2F. 123). representing four conditions 01 flow. 124). 1.)' . .se!. ~ 1 at x/L = 1It cnn be proved that. For channels wIth parallel side walls. which requires trial adjustments~ Region B. 1 I ( i I by the dashed line.SPATIALLY VARIED FLOW 334 .
nd 8 "" 0. ' +" 11 ~g V' = 11 + 2gb'11 Q' 2 (1215) For a spatially vaxicd flow with decreasing discharge.!we water areas. Dimensionless flow profile in compute the flow profile below the Btipercriti!\a~ reaches in a sp .' SoluiiOn. Th. A~s. ). however. : For details. draulic jump. [28). There arC va. FIG. 96) may be Example 122. Region D. dE/dx = OJ or. the effEctive head on ro. the energy loss in the process is negligible' and. Channel with a bottom rack . Qy( dQ/dx) dx = !lb'y' Q1 (1216) where 'dQ/d:!. minimutn depth wlll force the jump to move upstream into the channel.e actual iflaw phenomenon is lather complicated. device. (After W. .lJel bars 01' perforated screen.?5.volume of wa~er required to transport. 126) is E =. A dimensionless flQ~" in the sllpercritical reach ('[.ck is usually made of parll. 126) and derive the equation of the . (1215). thus. is obvio'Jsly the discharge withdrawn through a length dx of the rack. the value of Fa is not determined by the depth of su'bmergence. 1.( \ of the \. and 124) was obtained by numerical integration on the condit. say.ck openings i« nearly vertical (A. and the oondition of flow Ifill be represented by region C. the channel may be' an "intake" to withdraw'w{l.rater surface at the outlet will not affect the entire flow profile. 96).condition Fo. [26j to.! withdrawal. til1!lyvariedliow cht." to reduce the .s of such 0. For exo.with decreasing discharge. the method of singular point (Art. mer.~ig. from Eq. the' effect of friction has This has been verified as justifiable for the design of wash)vater troughs and sidechannel spillways. say. In the above a. Equatil:m (1216) is the general dynamic equation for the flow under consideration. equruto the depth neeeSS1J.enting the increaSe of !/Y horizontal channels.ion of a millimum depth of required to prOdtlCe a hydraulic jump at the outlet. 'The flow profile upstream from the . The flow in a channel with bottom rack is a case of spatially vaded flow . 125. i~l The disc. respectively. From experiments.* ' $LJ 15] has computed curves repre:. (b) complete withdrawaL ra.ck is practically equal to the specific ellergy E. the speoific Bn"rg'y at any section of the channel (Fig..RIED FLOW 337 . relmitof friction in 'For an advanced theoretical analysis of spatially varied flow.) . I .nd a change in direction of the flow from inclined eyentually to vertical.ter from. and [34J to [381.t this is true of as those composed of a perforated screen and that tile corresponding energy is approximately equal to thE velocity 1 There hav~ been many investigations o~ this problem. The limiting value of G that will keep the flow in a steady condition has not determined. This region represents the flow. This Jnllllmum depth 'is . The ra. When the direction of liow through the (a. of the critical section and the section a distance x from the upstream end of the ch~nnel) has been computed by numei'ica[ inte~ gratioll. :MostkQW found tha. when the direction of flow through the ra. in a loss of energy e. below). the flow .lming '" = 1 !l.small slope with a bottom mck (Fig. Li [5). the flow will impinge all thfl sides of the openings.. A depth of submerge'nee greater than this. 126. jump cannot be determin!ld froni the : value of YO) but it can be determined from the critical depth yaand the position of the critical section Xc.t which there is supercritical flow throughout the downstream portion of the channel but where the depth of submergence at the ouMet is not enough to create a hydraulic jump in the channeL Thus.336 GRADUAIJLY VARIED FLOW SPA. see [21J to [23J. the specific energy can be considflrcd constant aiong the channeL' Thua.) Partin. On the other hand. Analyze the flow in iii rectangular ch:wuel . or a "skim.nnel of sloping bed and critical section and. H.ck openings makes . For effluent channels around 6ewngetreatment tanks. ' • This assumption was found to agree with the experill}ents [21J.rious application. (0' dll.TIALLY VA. The positi'on of a critical section in the lateralspillway channel can be determined by the method of singular point (Art. This curve can be used to FlO.lent depth. particularly *'hen the slope of the rack is tll.vill become unsteady. .nalysis.ryto set the downstream pool level at a seq). When the slope of the channel is extremely steep or when the value of G is very large. The dividing line between regions C and D (Figs. fish. 123. above the hyparallel walls.flc\v profile. the effect of friction may increase t~e upskeam depth Yu ~s :much as 10%.n appreciable with the verticai (E).of .ken into consideratiqn. Mostkow 128J found that this is true of racks such as those composed of parnllel bars.harge through'the rack depends upon the ei'fective head on the rack. a mountain torrent.mple. ill which A" and A .
338
GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW
SPATIALLY VARIED FLOW
hea.d of the flow over the rack. It may, therefore, be Msumed that the effective head on the racle is [lqual to the !!btic hee.d, or the depth of flow. over the rack. A. }I'or VeNieal ,"'low lhrough Ih~ Rack. In this case the discharge through a length ax of the rack may be expressed by
(12.17)
'1
SUbstituting'Eq, (1224) for ~dQldxand Eq, (1218) for Q in Eq. (1216) and simpliiying, dy 2ee ',/iJ[1?=Tj) (1225) ;h "'" 3y  2E Integra.l.ion of this aqUlltion gives the eq1!ation of the flow profile as l
l
where ~ is the ratio of the opening area to the total area of the rack surface and c is the coefficient of discharge through tb:e . From Eq. (1215), the (Iischarge is
I
!
x
or
=
Q
by
(1218)
I
1
x =
~ }~
[
~ [~i sinI EO
C051
(1  2lt)  % "VE (1 1!_)] + 01 /!J. E ~ E
(122B) (1227)
J~  % ~~ ( 1 .. ~) ] + ~2
'E!l)  ..,',. (. 1 i sm'~
~
1
Substituting Eq. (1217) for dQldx and Eq. (1218) for Q ill Eq. (1316)~nd simplifying,
(1219)
I
The integration eon.stants in the above equ:1.tion may be evaluated by the condition that 11  !II and x = O. Then, when 11 = 0, Eq. (1226) wi!! give the length of the rack required for!!. complete withdraw!l.1 of the main flow througll the I'l'l.Ck, or
E 
.c
[v ~1I1 E
/1! 
( 1  
2Y ,)
E
+
(1228)
tntegratioll of this equation gives tlle equation of the flow profile o.s
TM'J>Trjm"
x=
For !I
=
<c .E
J1
(1220)
a.ll
Q.
flow
y, and x
= 0, the integra.tion
cOI~stant is determine<;i from Eq. (1220) as
A and B described above, the entraDce to t11";' reach of the rack as (I. broadcrested weir. Thus, Q, = c'bE"', where " may h!l.ve value of 2.80. Also, Eq. (1213) gives Q, = bYt V2g(E 1h) and Thus, the discharge of. a partial withdrawal from the :nain Q.. = Q, Q" or .
(1229)
C
=
(E/ec)(ydB) \./1  1/dE. Thus,'
x =
~ (!L! .,; .E
y
E
(1221)
Wilen y = 0, Eq. (1221) gives the length of the rack I'equire,d for e. complete with~ (\iawal of the main flow through the rack. or .
E
EC
(!L! E
(1222)
By Eq. '(1218), the above equa.tion may be reduced to
L,
(1223)
. where QI is the discharge through the ent.ranceto the reach of the rack and is also equal to the wit.hdrawal discharge Q" through the rack. B. For Incl:ined Flaw IArough Ill.e Rack. In this case the discharge through a. length dx of the mck may be expressed by
_dQ_.eb
ax
(1224) .
For a complete withdrawal of the main flow through the rRck, it is evident that Q, = c'bE,·6, from which .E = (Q,/e'b),', Thu8, E may be computed if the incoming discharge Q" b. and c' are given. , 'The v~lue c of the coefficient of dischll.rge throug;h tho mcl. cpenillgs actually varies considerably along the rack. For fJx"mple, typical values dcf,ennined experimentally were found Lo vary from 0.435, for a grade of 1 on 5, to 0.497, for a horizonkl.l slope of the racks of parallel bars; and from 0.750, for Il. grade of 1 on 5, to 0.800. for a horizontal slope of the racks of perforated scrsnns [271. III general, the value is higher for racks of screens than 'for racks of parallel bars. The value is higher for horizontal racks than for inclined racks. The local value increases as the; ftow depth on the rack increases if the bars are parallel to the direction of the main flow bilt decreases with the depth if the bars are in transverse direction, ' The n.nalysis of this problem may be further extended by considering t,he effects of the streamline curvature, the nonuniform velocity distribution, and the bottom slope, and by classifying various types of the flow protil€s thus created. In general, there are five types of flow profiles, which are similar to those to be described in the neXt exampie, It may to note that, when a critical state of Row exists OIl th·" upstream side of the rack, the critical depth will occur u.t a. section somewhere upstrea11l frOl:n
Q",
~ Equat~on (1226) is given by Mostkow [27J and Eq, (J 227) by Noseda [2Il. THe tw.,' equatIOns are·mc.tbematically idellticll.l. The relatitlnship between the integra . tiol! constants ill 0 1 = Ot ,..EIS.c,
1 This equS:tion may also be derived by:means of Eqs. Eq. (1217), ~he discharge through the ratck of Eq. (1218), Qw = Q,,. Q = by, V2g(E 7 !II)  by two expressions for Q.., Eq. (1221) is obtained.
and (i218). By .cbz V'iiE, By Eq'tating these
+
'.
340
GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW SPATIALT,Y VARIED FLOW
341
Thus, assuming
_''T~
{OJ
the entrance section. This phenomenon is, therefore, similar to that of a free overfall (Art. 34). The ratioYliV" of the entrance depth to the critical depth decreases \I'itll increase ill the value of • and of the rack slope. Typical average :atios vary from 0.70 to 0.90, which correspond approximately to the valuGs of VilE frGm 0.47 to 0,60. ' Example 123. Analyze the ftow through a side weir in a prismatic horizontal rectangular channel.l Solution. The tlow th;:cugh a side weir is a case of spatially varied flow wit.ll decr~asing dischD.rg~ (Fig. 127). According to Frazer [32j, the foHowing five typm; of flow profile can be produced:
consta.nt, or S, = So. Since the channel is horizontal, So = Q. a = 1, Eq, (128) gives an equatiou identical with Eq. (12"16), or
Qy( dQldx) dx = .Ilb'y' ~ Q' dy
(1216)
The discharge over ailY given length of tho weir can be computed by a weir formula,
~..!!!.
dx
=
_
dQ "" cV2a (V  s)1.' dx
(1230)

'J'ype a. CritilJ~j conditions a.t or near the entrailce with supercritical flow in the weir section, the depth of fiow decreasing along the weir (Fig. 12~7b) Type b. Depth of fiow greater than critical at. the entrance with subcl'itic,ll flow in ttl''! weir section, the denth of flow increasing along the weir se~tion (Fig.
127c)
where c is the discharge coefficient and s is the height. of the weir sillll.bove the bottom ofth~ channel. The sill of the weir is pa,'allel to the bottom of the channel. EquatiQn (1218) also is applicable to the present problem. Tl1us, the discharge at any section is (1218) Q = by /2U(B  0 where b is (·he width of _the channel and E b the specific energy. With Eqs. (1230) and (1218), Eq. {1216} becomes
ay
(e)
Type c. Type a flow at the beginning of the weir selJtion \vith a hydraulic jump occurring in the w'Jir sect,ion, and type b flow after the jump at a lower specificenergy level owing to jilin p losses (Fig.
12"7d)
ax
2cV(E  y)(y  s)3
=
II
311  2E
(1231)
Integrating Eq. (1231) nnd solving for ."
x=
~ F (1) + canst c E
2E  3~ ..JE  y _ 3 sin1  IE  Ji Es Vs'V y  s
WiLS
(1232) (l233)
===tl ~:'. YIJYJ=:=::::J~J2 .
j ,'
7'ype d. Depth of flow less than critical at the entmnce with supercritical flow in the \veir section, the depth of flow decrell.Sing along the weir section (Fig.
127e)
where
P
(1)
\E
=
F(y/E)'is a variedflow function which
first solved by De Marchi [16J.
'l'ype e. Type d flow at the entrance section with a hydraUlic jump occurring in the weir section and type b flow aiter the jilmp a.t a lower specificenergy level owing to jump losses (Fig. 127f)
124. Method of NumerIcal Integration. This method wj1J be applied fir.st to fl, flow with increasing discharge and then to a flow with decreasing . discharge. A. Flow with Increasing Discharge. Considering the differentials as finite increments, Eq. (121) may be written
The last two types of flow are possible if the approach fiow is 5upercriticaL Iu a conventionai analysis, it is assumed that tt,e velocity through the side w~ir is in general at right !Ingles to the weir. This aSaumption is more satisfactory fo'r FIG. 127, Variolls flow pl'ofilesalongaside subcritical flow than for supercritical weir. flow. In supercritical flow the velocity will be high and the angle that the overflow' makes with the weir will be smidL Consequently, types d and e cannot easily be analyzed succe~sfully. Furthermore, the discharge in types d ~nd. e flow is controlled upstream, where additional consideration in the analysis is required. In the present problem the specific energy along the side weir may be assumed 1 For detailed studies of the side weir, see [241 to [271 and [2D I to [32].
~ [Q 6.V + (V + t..Y) 6.Q]
w
lo"Y
Ady
+ wSo !o~%
. }o
A d:1;
 wS, (Il.'l: A d:c wA 6.y
+ wSoA 6.x
 wB,A 6.x
(1234)
,,,here A is the average area. Since the discharge varies. with the finite increment of the channel length, the average area may be taken as A = (Ql + Q%)/(V 1 + V 2). Also taking Q = QI and V + 6.V = Vz and simplifying,
342
GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW
TABLE
SPATlALLY VARIED FLOW
343
124
The dl'OP in watersurface elevation between sections 1 and 2 (Fig .. 122) may be expressed by
121.
COMPl.rTA'l'ION OF CRITICAL DEPTHS FOR EXAMPLE
dy'
=
dy
+ Sodx
+ So c.x
(1236)
COllverting the differentials to finite increments,
  2  ;;)1'1'2·jl0'.,.. 92 '7'68 1     1 69
(~) (~) I (~) A:~T
4 48 6 I 78 8 112 10 150 12 192 14 238 16 288 18 "342 20 400 22 462 24 528 26 598 28 572
II
:;
I
(~;
(7)
1.52 2.52 3.33 4.01 4.63 5.22 5.76 6.29 6.82 7.31 7.81 8.29
t;.y' ,." l1y
(1237)
I.'
I
Substituting Eq, (1235) for l1y in Eq. (1237) and introducing !l,n energy coefficient a for nonuniform velocity distributbn,' the drop in water surface is
&~'=O:~(I~~r~+Q~2)(6V+ ~:6Q)+Sf~.1;
I
I
(1238)
This equation can be used to compute the flow profile of a spat,iully varied flow with increasing discharge. On the righthand side' of the equaUon, the first term represents the effect of impact loss and the second term represents the ·effect of friction. It is interesting to note that, if c.Q and Sf are zero, or QI = Q2, then this equation ,vill be reduced to l1y' = a(V22  V I 2)/2g, which is the energy equation for flow of constant discharge, neglecting friction. The procedure of numerical integration is iaustn,.ted by the following example. .
Example 124. * A trn.pe~oidlLl lateral spillway channel 0100 fl long is designed to carry a varying discharge of 40 ·ds/ft. The cross section has a bottom width of 10 fl and sid~ slopes of H: L The longitudina.l slope of Lhe channel is 0.1505, starting at an upstream bottom elevation of 73.70. Assuming n = 0.015 and a = 1, compute the flow profile for the design discharge. Soltdion. The Erst step is to determine the control section frQf\l which the Row profile c'omputation can start. The control section !nay be determined by the method of singular point. (Art. 96). In this example,. however, a method developed by Hinds [11 is·.employed. The corr.putation is shown in Tables 121 and 122. Table 121 shows the computation of critical velocities and discharges correspond~ ing to a number of arbitrarily ASsigned depths, shown in col. 1. The critical velocities in col. 5 correspond to the. critical velocity heads in col. 4. The hydraulic mdii are also computed and reco.rded in this t~ble for use in computing friction lo;;~e.s. Table 122 shows the computation of the drop in'water surface necessary to ma.intain a flow at the critical depth throughout the full length of the channel. The column headings are explained as follows: . Col. 1. Distance of the station alO1'lg the channel, in ft Col. 2. Increment of the distance . Col. 3. The inflow discharge, equal to x times 40 cfs/ft . Col. 4. Sum of the discharges Ql of the previous station and Q, of the station under consideration
1 The use of an energy coefficient instead of a momentum coefficient has the same reason given in Art, 12;J. ... This example is taken from [11.
I I
1. 7 t 2 44 18 '3.11 20 3.75. 224.36 24 4.95 25 5.541 28 5.11 II 30 6 67 32 7.22 34 7.76 36 8.31 38 8.84 1l.. 16
I
10.49 12.52 14.15 1.5.53 16.75 17.86 18'.88 19.82 20 .71 21. 55 22.34 23.12 23.84
504 978 1,585 2,330 3,216 4,252 5,440 5,780 8,284 9, 960 11,800 13,820 16,020
I
I
I I
8.77
9.25
~~~~~~
~
TADLE
122.
COMPUTATION FOR THE DETERMrNAT!9N OF THE CONTROL S::;:CTION FOR EXAMPLE
124
" ""I
,0 (2) ::~~I·
Q
(3) I .j.(4) (5) (8) (7)
I'Q·+Q,ly, I
v,'!V,+v,
AQ
(8)
11·:1 R, hi .oV
(9)
A'l'l:lly'
(10) 1 (11)
(12)
(13)
(14)
1
I
0+ 10' 10 0+25 1.5 o T liO 20 1 + 00 50 1 + 50 50 2 + 00 50 2+50 50 3+00150 3' + 50 50 4+00 50 1
400 l,pOO 2,000 4,000 8,000 8,000 10,000 12.0001 14.000 10.000
400 3.4 '10.01 1,4GO 5.2 12.5 3,000 9.2 ' 14.91 5,000 13.5 1 17.6 10,000 16.9119.31 14,000 1 19.7 20.61 18,000 '122 I 21.B: 22 ,000 242/22.4'[ 26.000 25.2 23.2 30,000 28.0 23.8 1
10.'0 22.5 27.4 32.5 36.9 39,\1 42.2 44.0 45.6 47.0
400110.0 .... 2.25 RuO 2.5 4.2.5 3.41 1,000 2.4 4.9l 4..i0 2,000 2.7 ·B.77. 5.63 2,000 1.7 5.21 5.53 2000 1.3 4.33 7.23 2'00011.0 8.74 7.S3 2:000 0.813.30 8.H 12,000 0.8 3.04 882 ' 12,000'10.612.7319.25
Q.03 0.05 0.08 0.16 0:16 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15
4.30 4.30 4.99 9.29 6.93 16.22 5.37 21.59 4.48 26.07 3.90 29.97 3.45 33.43 3.1.9 3fi.52 2.88]39.50

)
I
.·1
1
1
\
Co\. 5. Critical depth in it, interpolated from Table 121 corresponding to the discharge in col. 3 Col. 6. Critical velocity in fps, interpolated from Table 121 corresponding to the discharge in col. 3 Col. 7, Sum of the velocities the previous sta.tion and in the station under con·· sidera.tion Col. 8. Increment. of discharge tlQ = Q,  Ql Col. 9. Increment of velocity t. V = V,  V, Col. 10. Drop in water suriace due to impact loss, or
t
in
(1239)
1
i ,
J'
,
344
GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW'
0""U'.l"''''' ....
~C'lC'40000
Col. 1 L Criticl\\ hydraulic radius in ft, interpolated from Table 121 corrc;:;pond'ing to the di.schmge in col. 3 Col. 12. Friction loss, be.sed on :&t. (98) with n. 0.015, V from col. 6, and R from coL (ll), Since this is ll. minor item. compared with tlie impact loss, it may be ignored if desired. Col. 13.. 'The I,ctal drup in water surface 6y' Ay,: + h, CoL 14. Cumulative drop in water llurface Thecumulati:"e drop in water surfaee is plot~ed as the heavy dashod line in Fig. 128, starting from !l.U a.rbitrary eleva.tion 120' ft from some station at x = 10 ft. The critical depths from col. 5 of Table 122 are then ptotted from the dashed line?s ShO'Uil by the dotted line.. It is a.pparent that this dotted line represents the bcttom of II
Oischor~e In cfs.
000::>""0> ....
~ C"l'~ ~
CJ)
trtl.Ce'to
....... M (,,', \0 ~?"'"' M 1""""! ........~ 0 0
~<6u:ice>~
000000
C'3 .......
COOMC~OO
rl~O{,O
..
.
..
:::g:s~~g
oeoco
1..... ~'l..... C'\I N
~<.OtOtOu?.i
NQ ....... OOCO
1_ t""'
Ci)C:~"""'~(D
~~~~c:
~~t"CeoOCJ
c,otttC()
r
~~ ....... .;~
"'t'tlCO<oCOID
\1:1 C'l 0.
co r
....... 1.C"OO\Qot'~' ct)
r..:::;
en
a
r:Q
lOC";It.OC'fllO
~~~L.)~c..i H
.
'
N¢'l~NC'1
....
(0
O'J ':"')
00000
....... N C"1 'C'1
~_8~~~g_
c,~,
100
en
OM¢'tt(H
~'0l'Q)
00
,
90
t!l
~
l"':'c.i
~ C')
.... "'lOU'.lCO
I
I
L
~
,$
m
O~LOC"lt'OO...i
00000 00000 L..":) 0,.. ... 0_ 0_ "'00,""
c:.
...... _N
jt\~~~
l",",OOCi)t"('I':>~r~
:;i'>o\;l'j"'I':TI
.......  ....... M
· .
. . . .
~ '1""""1 ~
lJ")
N
0
0
000
a
a
.......
0
~
. N
'" g ',B .,., '"
,.0
>.
l'_,
oo(>?.;f:1
~
 ' t
OiIct~r
,....~NN
<oo.ncQU")04?
~C)C'1'C',C'll"""'i,....c
'" e 8
~.....
I<o~."',_1
C"?X>Il""""'.MtOr¢I~ «: 'ZO t' ..! t 'di
DislonCi '.1:0ng
c~onnel
length In It
,
F~G. 128. Computation of tlow .
;rome for EXllmple 12.4.
t:;:;
] 1·, ~
~
~8:;;;;;
e
:3
. fictitiolls channel in which the flow at the givl'..rt dis~ht\rge condition is critical at e~ery section throughout the full length of the channe!. The c!l.I.Shed·line is. the corresponding water surface. A tangent parallel to the bottom of the actual channel can be drawn to the dotte~ bottom line of the fictitious' criticalftow channel. The point of tangency, at Iyhich the two bottoms have the same slope, gh'es the location of,the critical'section, which is found at Ste.. 1 + 64. It is evident that the slope required to ma.inta.in critica.l flow to the left of this section i~ greater than the actulll slope ~and that to 'the right it is)esa, which is the con<;lition ne'cessary for the formlLtion of.!l. control. If more than qne point of tangency is possible, the one giving th'e lowest position of the ta.ngent ,viii be likely to control., It is:also p08~ible to ha.ve two or more control sections with'hydraulic jumps 'between. : Having located th~ control section, the tlowprofife comput.ntion can be carried: ou,t as shown in Table 123. The computation proceeds upstream from the control section for the subcritical flow in the upper part Qf the channel and downstrenm for, the
1'1
J3
....c
'§
,..... ............................ .,. . . 1'00"""',.....00.,.....1 0
t.Ol"o:c:r;C'!~~
CO..:ttM""t'O'l,....tC'1~
g8g~~~~~ r...: ~ L..j ~. ci ~ ~ cO
1:
Ol.OCf')"I:t' 1..... (,0 CD
M~M~
a
'.;s
~
;....
1;'
.,.... ~ ....... C'1
CO ~
....i
::l.
W.
'"
<:orr.~tC).jooco
~~~~c:~~~
·OOtOOI'..Ot~
"'ttrLOC'<laO
000000
....... 1;'¢'.1rc,1LC";l
O~~OO~M
~,""cQ¢'lN1"""f
· '"
• to
++
'<"0 '" 0
OlQCO tOC'l"""'O'
<f'
(Q
tQ
0000
0
L..":l 0
++++ 0000
345
+
++++
C'lMM~
346
GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW
SPATIALLY VARIED FLOW
347
supel'l~ritical flow in the lower part of the channel. ' The procedure of computation is the same.as thnt explained for Table 122, except that the wllterourface drop /J.y'
in col. 4 is finally (Obtained when it agrees with the computed Ay' in col. 17. This is shown for the computation at SLa. 1 + 00. In cols. 3 and 5 are elevations of the channel bottom and the water surface, respectivelJ. 'The value of Ay~ between :z: = 1{l and x = 0 cannot be computed, but it is arbitrarily fLssumed to be twice the velocity head at X = 10 ft. The final flow profile is constructed as shown in Fig. 128. The accuracy of the computatior.. will depend on the length and' number o(subdivisions assum<ld.
B. Flow 'with Decreasing Discharge. For spa,tially varied flow with decreasing discharge, an equation for numerical integration similar to Eq. (1238) can be obtained. Referring to Fig. 122, the velocity and disr:harge at section 1 are as.sumed as V and Q and at section 2 as 11  t. V and Q  t.Q. The momentum lost because of diminished discharge may be taken as w t.Q (V  Q V /2)/1}. Adding this lost momentum to the momentum at section 2, and following the procedure described for the flow with increasing discharge, the equation for numerical integration can be shown to be
(1240) Owing to the variable velocity distribution in the channel cross section, the value of the energy coefficient may be very high. According to Schmidt [251, values up t.o 1.30 have been observed at the beginning of the spillway, and even higher values were found at the end of the spillway crest. By experimental study, Schmidt Was able to develop an adjustment procedure to correct fOI' the effect of the nonuniform velocity distribution. The value,of 6.Q in Eq. (124:0) is the discharge over the spilhvayper 6.xof the crest length. :Nfany formula.'3 have been proposed for its determination. For practical. purposes, the formuh\ for. the regular weir of similar crest shape may be used if the corresponding discharge coefficient is reduced by 5 %. 125,' The Isoclinal Method, For a simple but approximate computation of a flow profile, a graphical method suggested by Werner [39J may be used. By this method the spatiaIlyvariedfiowequation iIi any form is plotted with y against z for different values of dy/dx aspararneters, i'esulting in a numb'el' of isoclinal curves (Fig. 129). Starting from the depth at the control sectioll C, aline is drawn with a slope (= 0.03) equal to the average value of dy/d.'1; (= 0.05) indicated by the isoclinal curve passing through the control depth and dy/dx (= 0.01) of the next isoclinal curve, which the line interdects at P. Starting at P,' repeat the procedure to determine P', and determine similarly other P9ints of intersection. ,The flow profile is the curve joining all the points of; intersection. Actu
ally, this method can be applied equally well to any type of variedflow equation for flow in prismatic as well asnonprismatic channels. 12":6. Spatially Varied Surface Flow. An important type of surface flow encountered frequently in engineering, problems dealsvrith runoff from a plane surface as the result of rainhdL Apparently" this is a problem in spatially varied flow with illcreasing discharge and can be treated as such; it may, however, be very complicated, becoming a threedimensional problem if the surface is CUl'vedin space, as in the case of a road pavement that has a cambered transverse profile and a longitudinal slope. The theory of SlHl,tially varied flow was first used in sudace flow by Keulegan[40], and the equation thus derived wa.'3 applied
1
1
I I
')
i
x, II
FIG. 129, Comput,2.tion of flow pro51e by the isoclinal method.
to experimental data by Izzard [41]. For flow on a Toad surface, a comprehensive analysis was performed by Iwagaki [42]. For practical purposes, all approximate equation for discharge of surface flow is generally assumed, s11ch as
\
q
=
leY'"
(1241)
whereq is the discharge per unit width of the flow, y is the depth of flow at the point of outflow, aild k and, m are constants. At equilibrium conditioll, the discharge q at a point x distance below the drainage divide is
q = xq*
(1242)
where q* is the constant inflow dne to rainfall excess, or s,upply rate, per unit area. The rainfall excess is equal to rainfall minus infiltration and other losses that will not become surface runoff. Combining the above
.'.
.~
..
i I y.
348
GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW SPATIALLY VARIED FLOW
349
two equations and simplifying,
y
(1243)
This is the eguation for the flow profile, which is generally applicable when x is not too iarge. The value of k has to be determined experimentally since it depends 011: the surfaoe charaoteristics, slope, type of flow, and viscosity (in the.case of laminar flow). The value m depends on the type of flow; it is approximately % fqr turbulent and 3 for laminar. For tmbulent flow, the differential equation for the surface flow, from Eq. (124), may be written . dy dx
(1244)
3. The depth is theoreticnJly constant when the transverse profile of the road is a parabola with its vertex at the crown, that is, when n = 2. When the road surface is formed by straight lines connecting the crown and the' that is, when n 1, the depth becomes smaller near the crown and greater toward the sides. 4 .. The effect of the longitudinal slope on mean velocity and friction velocity is to increase the l11.ean velocity and the friction velocity of the fl0W. This effect is greater near the crown of the road for larger nand greater neal' the sides for smaller n.
'I"here F2 V 2 /gY. If the raindrop momentum is ignored it can be shown that the coefficient 2 in the numeraotor will becom~ 1 [of. Eq. (128)]. For analytical studies, the profile of the surface flow can be computed by the method of numerical integration. The control section of the flow profile can be uetermined by the method of singular point or by a criterion developed by Keulegan [43]. For laminar flow on a road surface, I wagaki [<12] has performed a.n elaborate matherna~ical analysis, in which the continuity and momentum equations are applied to n, threedimensional element of the flow .. By consielering a, general case in w.Uich the velocity D,nd depth of the flow do not change in the longituuinal direction of the road surface. he was able to derive a differential equation as follows: '
~.~.
L 
;Fm. 1210. Cross section of road for surfaceflow analysis.
5. The effect of the longitudinal slope is practieally negligible \vhcn this say, less than 0.002 under the normal condition of slope is very H/L 0,02. 6. In order to minimize erosion due to raindrops on unpaved road surf!:we, the iongitl2dinal slope should be kept as small as possible. To maintain a unifol'm gra.de of erosion, a cross section witl1 n = 1 is ·IJl'eferable;
PROBLEMS
121. A rectangular washwater trough 20 it long a.nd 1.32 ft wid~ l)<1rries a discharge at· a slope of 0.065 to a. freefall outlet. If the measured upstream depth is 0.34 ft, I)ompute the discharge by means of the chart in Fig. 124. 122. An formula for calculating the discharge capacity of rapid sandfilter washwater tronghs,has been developed by Miller [Ill by asSuming a parabolic flow profile at a maximum discharge. The formula is
ely
where and
Fl
ilx  F~
(1245)
(r)"l
 g;;2
p
6q.2X
!.
1 I·
I j
The notation is given in 1210. The transverse profile of the road H{x'/L)1t. Equation (~245) was then surface is represented by y applied to a numerical example, and fio,,, profiles were computed by the isoclinal met.hod. From this investigation, the following conclusions were obtained: 1. 'The flow profile is independent of the longitudinal slope of the road surface. 2. In case of natural runoff, the flow profile is approximately representeel by the .curve dy/dx· 0 except for the part neal' the crown of the road.
Q "'"' 1.91b(y..
+ L tan 8)
(1246)
where b is lhe width of the rectangular channel in ft, y .. is the upstream depth in H, L is the channel length in ft, and IJ is the angle that the channel bottom makes with the horizontal. Using this formula, compute the discharge required in Prob. 121. 123. A rectangular washwater trough 30 ft long is required to ·cal'l'ya discharge of 8 cfs, having a free fall at the outlet. Design the trough for the least o.mount of material required fOT theconstl'uction·(neglecting the end wall and making the total wall and bottom wall of the channel a minimum). Assume:
a. A horizontal channel a. That the channel has a slope
I
350
GRA.DUALLY VARIED FLOW
SP_~TrALLY
VARIED FLOW
351
124. Compute el;e flol\' profile in Prob. 12~1.
Assume
a. A horizontal channel b. A channel with slope equal to 0.0(35
125. Derive the equation of the flow profile in Example 122 if a is not equal to unity. 126. A horizontal bottf)In rack made of perfor:ttcd screr.r, is. designed to divert water from a channel . . Determine the length of the rack req1:lired to withdraw the total main .fioll' of 26 ds from the channel. Given:. = 0.5, e = 0.8, c' = 2.80, b = 3 ft, and y,/E = 0.60. 127. Solve tb.e preceding problem if the rack i~ Illade of pam!lel bars. 128. A side weir is ased to ciivert the excess of a storm flow of 75 cfs from >\ 'ISin.diameter sewer. The sel'!er has a grade of 1 in 400,a iull·flow eapacity of is cis, and an unrestricted outlet. The dryweather flow is 5 cis. Detimnine (a) the height of the weir sill, and (b) the lengt.h of the weir, assuming a = 1. It is ,.Iso assumed that tile top width of the water s.re:t is const2.nt and equal to the diameter of the sewer; so the equations derived for recta.ngular channals can be applied. 129. Solve the preceding problem if '" = 1.20. 1210. By converting increments to differentials, show that Eq. (1235) is ident.ical with Eq. (124). . 1211. Determine the control section in EX!l.mple 124 by the method of .~ingular point. . . 1212. Demonstrate analytically tha.t Rinds's method for the determmatlOn of control section is identical with the method of singular point. 1213. C~mpllee the flow profile in the channel described in Example 124 carrying a varying discharge of 50 cfs per foot of ch!l.nnellength. . 1214. Compute the flow profile in Example 124 by the isoc!inalmethod. 1215. Verify Eq. (1240). 1216. Shol~ that the flow in a rectangular prismatic channel with a lateral spillway may be expressed by
Q
= b \) (Hy' 
,zy
1/3) ~
(1247)
where b is the channel width, y is the depth, H is the constant energy head in th.e spillway section measured above tile channel bcittom, and a is the energy coefficient: 1217. Artificial rainfall of a constant intensity "qual to 3.6 in./hr is applied on a concrete pavement ha.ving a slope of 0.0'.1 and a roughness coeffkient n = 0.025. Compute the flow profile, ignoring the raindrop momentum. Assume that:
a. The lower end of the pavement is a freefall outlet. b. Ther~ is a dam % in. nigh at a dista.nce of 5 ft from the lower end of the pavement.
REFERENCES
1. Julia.n Hinds: Side channel spillways: Hydraulic theory, economic factors, and e)cperiment.al determination' of losses, TTansactions, American Society of Civil Enr;ineers, vol. 89, pp. 881927, 1926. 2. H. Favre: "Contribution o.l'etude des courants liquides" ("Contribution to the Study of Flow of Liquid "), Dunod, Paris, 1933. . . 3. E. MeyerPeter and Henry Favre: Analysis of Boulder Dam spillways made by Swiss laboratory, Engineering Ne1J)s7Record, vol. 113, no. 17, pp. 520522, Oct.
.
25, 1934.
4. Thomas R. Camp: Lateral spillway channels, Tmnsactions, Am.eric<l.n Society of Civil Engineers, vol. 105, pp. 6C6:6i7, 1940. 5. WenRsiung Li: Open channels with nonl1niform discharge, Transactions, American Society of Civil Engineers, vol. 120, pp. 255274, 1955. 6. G. De Marchi: Canali con portatll progressivament.c crescente (Chs.nnels with increasing discharg~), L' Energia dettriea, lIfilano, vol. 18, no. 6, Jlp. 351360, July,. 1941; reprinted as Is{.it,~to di ldra1LlicCL e Costruzioni ldrauliche, Alilano, Memorie e stlLdi No. 45, 1941. 7. Duilio Citrini: Canali rettangola,ri con'portata e larghezza, gmdualmente variabili (Rect.angular chaunels with gradually va.rying discharge and width), L'Elwrgia elett)'ica, l11ilano, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 254262, May, and no. 6, pp. 297301, June, Hl42; reprinted !IS lstiluto di Idmulicc e Costnlziorii ldmulicite, MilaM, lvlemorie e stud·, No. 52, 1942. . 8. Philipp Forchheimer; "Grundriss cI~r Hydraulik" ('IOutlin~ of Hydra.ulics "), Teubner Verlagsgesellschaft, Leipzig and Berlin, 1920, pp. 9395. 9. Armin Scholditsch II Handbuch des Wasserbaues" ("Handbook of Hydmulic Engineerir.g"), SpringerVerlag, Vienna, 1950, vol. 1, pp. 136142. 10. K. Rilding; Bcij: Flow in roof gutters, Journal of Research, U.S. N ali[t/~al B1l1'eall of.Standards, voL 12, no. 2, pp. J93213, February, 1934. 11. C. N. Miller: An appro:o::irnate·formula for calculat.ing the design capacit.y of rapid sand filter wash watel trottghs, app<mciix B in J. W. Elhns: "'Vater PurificnLiQn," McGrawHili. Book Company, Inc., New York, 1928. 12. M. F. Stein: The design of wash water trou~;hs for mpid sand filters, J01lTnal, America.n }Vaier WOl'ks Association, voL 13, pp. 411415. Discussion by Clifford N . .[I.liller, pp. 415417, 1925. 13. Hubert Engels: Mitteilungen (HIS dem Dresclener FlussbauLaborat.oriUll1 (Report of the Dresden Hydraulic Laboratory), Zei(8chrift des Vereins dB!ltscker lnr;o7t1:citre, Berlin, vol. 6!,l, nn. 24, pp. 362.:s65, Jun~ 15; no. 25, pp. 387390, June 22; no. 2(3, pp. 412416, June 29,1918; tlnd vol. 64, no. 5, pp. 101106, Jan. 31,1920, also Forschllllgm,.beiten auf dam Gebiete des I 1!>JenieuTwe~ens, Berlin, nos. 200 and 201, 55 pp., 1917. 14. G. S. Coleman and D(~lilpstcr 'Smith: The discharging c~"pacity of side weirs, lnstil.ution of Civil Engineers, LondO'll, Seleeied Engin~,;ring Papar~, No. G, 1923. 1.5. Philipp Forc·hheim.~r, "Hydraulik" ("Hydraulics"), Teubner Verla.gsgesdlschJ.ft, Leipzig and Bm'lin, 3d cd., 1930, pp. 406409. . 16. G. De Marchi: Saggio di teona del funzionamento degli stramazzi lateraJi (Essay ·of the performance of lateral lVelrs), L' Enc,.gia electrica, 11:[ ilano, vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 849860; November, 1934; reprinted as I stitllto di ldraulica e Coslruzioni ldrauliche, Milano, Mamorie e studi No. 11, 1934.. 17. G. De. Marchi: Profili longitudinuli della superficie lib era delle correnti permanenti lineari con port,a.ta progressivamente crescente 0 progressivumente decrescentf! entro can ali dt sezione costante (Longitudinal flow profiles of linea.r steady flow with increasing discharges or d"creasillg disclIarges in prisma.tic cha.nnels), Ri~erca scieniifica. e ricostruzion.e, Rome, nos. 2 and 3, pp. 202216, FebruaryMarch, 1947. Also published as Des formes de la surface libre de courants permanents avec debit progressivement croissant (ItI progressivement decroissr,nt dans Ull canal de section constante, Revue g~ntrale de I' hydraulique, Paris, vol. 13, no. 38, pp. 8185, 1947. 18. B. Gentilini: Ricerche sperimentali sugli sfioratori longitudinali (Experimental researches on side weirs), L' Energia elctt1:ic~, .Milano, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 583595, September, 1938; reprinted as lsti/'4/0 di I draulica t; Costruzioni ldrauliche," :Milano, Memorie e studi No. 65, 1938. .
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pp. Proceedings.ioni IdmuliciJ.: Operution and design of bottom int. pp. Willil1Ln Frazer: Thc behavibur of side weirs in prismatic reCltangular chdnnels. pp. 13. vol. 1957.i No.water surface Il1 channels wi. June. VEE Verlag' Technik. pp.tional A. 24.terintake gmls).ys for regdating diversion canals. H.nd flow. Chardonnet. Favre: Sur ip.u 37. 1957. BerliIl. ' . Determination of critical depth III sp[l. J. Die Wasserwir!schaft. ' . . Wasse"bau.0. vol. Memorie e 8t1l(/. no. 4. 570580. 4749. G'renoble 9th Yf . 11femorie e stud'i No.'il Engineers. SeptemberOc:tober. 132. Instil. P. Milteihmg 41. La Houdle blanche.terale (On the laws governiilg the flow in :CDnduits with iaterai disciwrgej. .cks. Noscda: Corrt!!'. 6. pp. February: 1957. pp.pacity of side weirs] Proceedings. The Harjue i955.. defluenti su gl'iglie eli fondo (Steady flow with graduallydecl'easing discharges on bottom intake mcks). 5780. no. Transaclwns. Tecfmische Un'ilJel'si~{. Proceedings of the !lid Midwestern.. La Houille blanche. pt. 42. Milario. and Banverlag GMBH. pp. vol. 6.. John WilEam Allen: The dis~harge of w~. 19M. 32. vol. illemo1'ie e St'lldi !'lo. 270287. ' 22. HydTa11Zics Div'ision. 3. GreIloble.nalysis for the Tirol weir).. 1956. Proceedings.Y v ARum FLOW SPATIALLY VARIED FLOW 19. Giorgio Noseda: Correnti perinanenti con port. E. pp.dessous (Discharge passing through a bottom griq). 0610. London. December.ti permanenti eon portat<t prllgressivament. reprilltecl as Istituto di Idmul'ica e Costr. fUr das TiTOler Wehr (Hyc\J'aulic B.~ioni IcZrauliche. physical Union. Dte Bautechmk. 1957.il.ses d'eau du type ':'en dessous" (Theoretical study of bottomtype waterintake grids). London.n Geo. Wilh. 1~.23. American Society of C~vil' Engineel's. January.1 results). 1\'h\1'tin Schmidt: Die Bel'echnung von Streichwehren (Computation of side weirs). 156r1584. 39.protection of canals by lateril spillways by Harald Tults.!ituio di Id"a'ltb!ca e Cosln. 3. pp. 45.' i b' I' I ' .Uy decl'eMing discharge on bottDm intake racks: Experims:nt!l. Gl1~ot: De Watervang met liggelld rooster (Channel with bottom grid)..e decrescente.I ! ~ 3. vol. June.3. eleU'ricu.'l1tion of Civil Engineers. Jl.ake Tl!. 1955. 34. vol. type "en dessous" (Study of bottonl'type W[I.LlI/·ic Hesea'rch. 1950. Martin Schmidt: Zur Frage des Abflusses liber Streichwehre (Dlseharge \lver side weirs). H. l!'. '. 1954. defiuellti su griglie di fondo: Riee:c!1. 33. De Inveniimr in Nederll. 20. Giorgio Nosedo. Grenoble. 1I1'iiano. gOlOl] 1956. L'E?w·yia eieUriCll.(J. Izzard: The surfacepn)file of overllJ. 1944. vol.gineeTing Experiment Station. pp.. Hl56. pp. no. 31. Amenca. . 10. r l"'filatl. Yuichi Iwagaki. Japan. Kyoto Ur.Y2. Arnorican Geophysical Union. no. Journal. 92.. Grenoble. 130. VEB Verlag Technik. G. Vincerit Knight Collinge. Instit'lliion of Givil Engineers. 1952. 1955. 13. May 30. paper 1077. hoceedin(ls. pp.tl. Intwno. Conference of Fluid Mechamcs.565588. vol. 29. 83. M. 21.to. 1956. " . 6. 9th yr.U Be1'l'inCharlaUenb1Lrg. The Ohto State University. 31. .b~e flow. no. 569574. February. vol.. 12th yr. sperimentale (Steady flow with gr!l. 27.ie7ll0lrS of the Faculty OJ EngmcBring. vol. 1'I~ynareli: Etude des gri1~es paul' pris~s d'eau cl.s lois regissant Ie nlouvement des flu ides dans les conduites en . February. 1957.e. 4.e '((niverselle des mines. Tmnsactions. 1928. 110. Josef Fr~nk: Hydraulisch~ Untersucbungen. 8th yr. ~. VI. }'. pp. Berlin. ETl. 343·351. vol. vol. and G. 25. W. January. . 955959. Mostkow: "Handblch der Hnlraulik" (" Handbook of Hydraulics ").ersity. 1956. 2.ndschIndie. pp. 5. H. Martin Schmidt: "Gerinnehydraulik" ("Openchannel Hydraulics"). 40. Ven Te Chow: Discussion of Flood . . A. P"oceedings of the 6!h Genei'al 'Meet'iny. no. Ins/itut jiil'. Liege. Berlin. Institlltion oj Civil Engineers. Berilll. Werner: Wasserspiegelberechullg von Kana~en el g elC lmagSlg?l' Bewegung lind veranderlichcl' Wassennenge (ComputatIOn of . 4151. . London. 502512. 250269. Inslitu'ion. 1957. 41. no. 305328.:7.her. . Nimmo: Side spillwo. no. La H ottilie blanche. 23. 1954. 30. Septem. G. 13914:. H. Bulletin 149. . JulY~ 1951. NIostkow: Sur Ie calcul dcs grilles de prise d'eaa (Theoretical study of bottom type water in~ake). (1. l{euleg[l. pp. Alilano. DeT Bm!~llgenieuT. pp. progressi'lamente dec\'escente. 21)4208 and 213221. 1957. Garbis H.of Civil Engineers. 251252. May.th steady flow aad variable discharge). charge avec }l.pp. February. 1. 26. 'no. 3. . vol. no. Teprinted as ]:. April. Wiesbaden.Stuttgart. 'lransacltons. C. repTinttd flS Ist'Unto di ldm'alica e Cosln!. 3. (J59968. 1941.u: Spatially variiLble discharge over a slopmg plane. 1937. pp. B~uvard: Debit d'uIle grille pat en .pp. Peter Ackers: A theoretical consideration of'aide weirs as stormwater overflows. Kurjtzma~ll and M. J.36.. September. Cl71 to Cl7ll. Michel A. sel'.)2 GRADUALI. !lIilano.duo. 35. London. 288304. pp. '1Celliegan. R. 33..ssociatio'n of Hydrl.~'ion'i Idra1l/i"h6. 12. no.all y varw. .. Orth. pt.56. 18819B. Proceedings. vol. 110. Giorgio. Theory of flow on road Eurface. La Houille blanche. 290291. 28. 38.1953. pp. pp. 1944. 1939. Rev1.: The discharge c!l. pp. 8. Bouvard: Jt~ude theorique des grilles de pri. L' En~r(riu. Amel'ica.n Society oj Ci.<lducLioll Io. 33.J. VI. M. 1[).ter over side weirs iIl cireular pipes.
_ _ L ." ~ ~ >:l t1 ~ ~ ~ 0 l.  . .""l .~ S l:"'C ~ "d > )~ ~ >I .
nd rollers that may occur in rapidly varied flow tend to complicate the flow pattern and to distort.a theory is used for uniform flow and gradun. '. primary role in a gradually varied flow. does not n. In such cases.h hydrostatic preSSUl'e distribution is known in classic hydraulics as the Breslie theory. even wit.er ~uea occur in l'fI.::.. The CUl'vatUl'e of the flow is so pronounced that the pressure distribution cannot be assumed to be hydrostatic..ew of the contrast 'vithg~aried flow. For rapidly varied flow of continuous fiow' profile.e. the flow is actually confined by one or more se.pply to rapidly varied floW'.he far ""'""Lr. ___.lly broken. 2. of course.tion in flow regime often takes place in' a reln. fiow occurs in a sudden~transition structure.nd potentialflow condition [14].e.aration zones I:ather than by solid boundari!""" 132. The rapid varir. eddies.y become so abrupt that the flow profiie isvh'tua.pidly vD.. When changes in wat.ssic hydraulics has shown that a mathematica.ruct. Th~th~ that assumes a parallel flow wit. the boundary fric:tion.ively short Accordingly.. cln..1 such . frictionless or nODviscous) n. of which the hydn\ulic jump is an example.pidly varied flow of discontinuous profile. characteristics of the flow are basict\lly fixed by the boundary of the st. rvi. Characteristics of the Flow. The change in curvature mn. cases lU~"iS1UU''''''1"" 3. a.h continuous flow profile. This theory.l equation of the flow can be established on the hasis of an inviscid.. CHAPTER 13 INTRODUCTION 131.rnamic equutioll for gradually varied flow (see Exa. 357 .t..ried flow I t. _.ively small Lmd in most.lly varied flow.· . ApproachtontheProbiern. I' I O. \Vhen rapidly vllJ'ied. the actual velocity distribution in the stream.mple lO4). which would play r. resulting ill a state of high turbulence i this is ro.(i.). is comparat. 'Eieparation zones.ure as well as by the state of the flow. the following characteristic features of rapidly varied flow should be noted: 1. A direct 1 Thill is 50 called because of. Rapidly varied flow has yery pronouncedcurvaturB of the streamlines. the early contribution by Bresse to the solution of the d.
Modern approaches to the solution of an inviscid potential flow often resort to a graphical method ~r to a ilUmericnl method of approximation. MayJune. and the problem is solved by the energy principle. and geometry. 237242.umen (On fluid motion in rotational vacuums).rd the various phenomena of mpidly varied flow as a number of isolated cases. 9. 23.i I i . 207.lysis for ra. 1877. E..tom slope. and Chio.e . is on Boussinesq's backwater curve with varying bot. 293295. pp. Alden Foster. Mtmoi"es presenMs par di~'er8 savants d l' Academia dss Sciences. 8. vol.ctions. pp. H)30. SpringerVerlag. America. Switzerland. Paris. John S. 1937. 61. R"uue ge. 1680. 8.. Campbell. way. saux courn. Barillon: Note sur les ravons de courbure intervenant d&ns la construction des reseaux hydrodynan~iqlles (Note on the radii of CUl'V'ature invol~ed in the COIlstruction of hydrodynamic networks).tion . thi!orie des.8}. .technique in fluid mechanics.'imerican Society of Ciliil Enqinee"s. '1945 .pidly varied flow with continuolls profile can be found in many hydmulics textbooks an::! in the references listed here.ory general solution of this type of problem has not yet been obta. 1903.. VienllR. according to thl') principles of energy. 110.nd a.. Paris. no_ 2. Sectioll B2.th. 3d ed. voL 24. pp ••111415. of these the method of relaxat. pp. some permanent flows with curV'sd filaments). pp. W. 1956. REI<'ERENCES 7. 4.ture of the flow filaments into consideration. 1934. pp. no. Differential equations for steady flow. Fnmz Prasil: Uber FHlssigkeitshe\\'egungen in RotationshQhll'i!. The abovementioned theories and methods of am. La Honine ~:anche.ty of Civit Engineers. taking the curva. Grenoble. H.IcNown. 41. 3.11ill prir_ ~Elthe theory of Fawer [6]. Bln. Lane. In the following chapters. SpringerVerlag. 22. Philipp Forchheimer:" Hydraulik" (" HydraUlics "). thesis. Berlin.5: J.G. 1953. 2d ed.nerdZe de l'hydrauliqu. Serre: Contribution a l'etude des ecoulelllents permanents et variables dans les canaux (Contribution to the study of permanent and nonpermanent flows in channels). 11. '''l'echo. which was first suggested by Prasi! [9] and later genel'alizerl BarilIon [10]_ There are many numeTical methods. r. pp.. no. momentum.nd 229. 282283. B. have long ago come to l'ego. J. pp. cllt'ved flow 8Urrace~ and the problem IS sOlved by the moment. C. pecember. vol. 4647 e. the curvature is assumed to vllry exponentially with the distance from the channel bed to the free surface. 650669. In·the classic theorll of Boussinesq [5]. pp_ 2!il:236.I 358 RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW INTRODUCTION 359 solution of the mathematical equation will require further knowledge of· the CUl'vatUI'C of the flow. O. 510514. 18.. 1953. Charles Jaeger: "Engineering Fluid Mechanics.ntes (Essay on . 110. and flO. 233237. 1953. 120130.· vol. pp. Despite such developments. 1. . 374388. analysis. H. Schweueiisc/le Buuzeitung. no. Lausanne. 1936. 83. ·Also.efore. London and Glasgow. 1913. Prangoi:. pp. a satisfact.c!i01tS. 3. sec. is on Boussinesq's backwater curve with uniform bo·ttom slope. and W. 10.n Soci. 1926.· Price: The flow' net and the electric analogy. F.. . \:\rolf. pg. Universite de Lausanne. 8th yr. . October. the curvature is assumed to illcr'ease ~arly from the channel bed to.l treatment .the theory of water flow). E. no. and sometimes by dimensional. 2. ther. the experimental results are to be used empirically. 249251. 12371252.201). Ltd.ische Hydrodynarnik" ("Technical Hydrodynamics "). each requiring its own specific empirica.e. 213. Transa. p. 25. ·no. 1878. Civil Enqinael'in{/. taking into account the effects of stream curvature} are developed a.ivelYJ whenever possible. trpicai problems of rapidly varied flow are treated mOl'e or less in this. surface with undulating bot. Fawer: :Etude de quelques ecoulements pernHLnents a filets courbea (Study of j . The physical aspects of the flow will be int. pp. Josef lCozeny: "Hydraulik" ("Hydraulics"). voL 120." translated from the German by P. 2. Construction of the fiow net for hydraulic design. vol. Leipzig and Berlin. A popular graphical method is Row!let £malysis [7. 6. Boussinesq: sur Ill.ualit~f. TTil1tsQ. :6.el'preted fJ. In most cases.ined. 830872. Teubner Yerlagsgesellschaft. JuneJuly.ckie & Son. 21.Shun Yih: Appli~tions of the relaXll.. ZUrich. 230237. EnYun Hsu.ion [11) is hi~quently used. Practical hydraulicians. 1955_ .pplied to the determination of /low profiles. no..tom.
02(10mp exp (lOrn) of ) ! principlo.the nappe.ravel ~ vertical distance y equal'to ) / . According to this Energy liM where it = gH /21)0 2 C05 2 8. In time t.\ch Bow.603 0. Numerous tests on nappe over a vertical sharpcrested weir have been made.S the basis of design for the roundcrested overflow spillway.208.411 0.IH > 0. indicated that th~se equations ~re not valid when x/H is leS8 than ab011t 0. and Justin [2.y be assumed constant.t'e acting on .57 . 0. the nappe surfaces are theoretically parabQlic.tan 8. for h. In the same time t the particle will t. lower surface of the flmv nappe over a sharpcrested weu·. = 0425 + (l25 t (14[») B C D FIG. . The shape of the flow nappe over ashal'pCl'ested weir can be interpreted by the principle of the pl'ojectile(Fig. that is. Eliminating t from the above two equations. additional data for verification are needed. For high w. it is assumed that the horizontal velocity co~por. . equations apply ollly if the approach flow is sub critical. For xl}! < 0.jr~stcd weir by the' principle projectile.~ j. The characteristics of flow over a weir were recognized early in hydra.ent of the flO\. . Blaisdell [5] has developed the following equations for the constants ill the general nappe equations: A.tlon of the velocity Vo with the horizontnl. t. equal to • x voi cos ( J . and IJ is the angle of mChno. and D = 0./H ..559. Consequently.150 1. a particle of water in the lower surfl1c~ of the nappe will travel a horizontH.4. Bureau of Reclamation [1].l distance .lso the simplest form of overHow spillway.5.45 ~ (148) 0. 141. Creager.O. dividing each term by the total head H above the cl'est.y is constant anu that the only fOl'ce acting on tlie nappe is gravity.055 . the general equation for the upper surface of the nappe is (144) The above nappe equations are quadratic.irs. the preSS1ll'e within the nappe in the vicinity of the weir crest is actually ab9ve atmospheric because qf the convergence of the streamlines. . the vertical of the nappe l' m~. The sharpcrested 'weir is not only a measuring device for openchannel flow but a. the velocity of appro[\. (141) ~"h~reu~ is the velo~ity at the point where Xi = 0.' from the face of the weir. It should be noted that tJie above theory anq. the profile of the spillway was determined in conformity wi~h the shape of the. and C = c' / H. 141). For supercritical flow. which makes the principle of the Pfojectile invalid. .1.i whers 0' is the value of y at x = 0. the constants become .425. hence.150.and expressing the resulting gellentl . +C (143) 141. C' is equal to the vertical distance bet'ly'een the highest point of the nappe and the elevation of the crest. 0. B = . forces other tha~ gravity a.S. and of Ippen [4]. profiles over S!larp. or F > I. is the velocity head of the apPl'o.. Adding a term D T / H to the.ch is relatively small and call be ignored. Thus.. B 0.3]. apparently.above equation. Y = voi sin !J + Yzgt + C' 2 I (142) where m h. of Hinds. Derivation Of nappp.he· 360 . Experimental data hays. The Sharpcrested Weir.2. and h. OVER SPILLWAYS k = A (liY+ B . 8illce the horizontal velocity component is constant.5 and that.equation for the lowel' surJace of the nappe in dimensionless . C 0. I CHAPTER 1 t f FLOW OVER SPILLWAYS 351 14 ( .0.terms. On the b'asis of data of the U. FLOW.ulics fl.
14. reduction of pressure beneath the nappe due to the removal of air by the overfalling jet.ny hydra. 2 Th.175.4011: (1411) ". Hickox [l1J developed the following equation giving the quantity of air required for aeration in cubic feet per second per foot FIG. Crest Shape of Overflow Spillways. ca.1ngated weir or spillway. for 1.rpcrested weirs. (2) change in the shape of the nappe for which the spillway· crest is generally rle"igned. N = 2.27 + 0. Many experimental formulas for the discharge over sharpcrested weir have been developed. .135 \ 1 0 '1. By· the critical depthdischarge r.tory investigation of nappe shapes. the adoption of such a profile. 633) . . p is the reduction of peessure in feet of water to be maintained beneaththe nappe. see [71 a. The effective length of the weir may be computed by L = L' O.\ .(1413) tion below the n2.rge characteristics of sha.ppe.~1 2.ompanied by fluctuation or pulsation of the nappe.~lics textbooks. For one end contraction. .c/ " I 0 0. This means a. When 110 contractions are present nt the two enus.~NH (1410) . see [6J. (149) is approximatety . usually occurs in overflow spillways and measul'ingweirs. (f = O. as already described in Art.) ! I C = 3. (::\) increase in discharge. the tIpper and lower napp'e surfaces are subject to full atmospheric pressure. H nappe. From 1886 . sometimes ac('. and (4) unstable perfoi'rnance of the hydraulic model. N = O.era. The critical depth of the section is approxim.1 RAPIDLY V AllIED FLOW FLOW OYER ·SpiLLWAYS 363 nappe profile becomes essentially a function of the Fl'O(lde number rather than a functiol\ of the boundary geometry as described above [4.I \ ) C = 5. 142. however. Insufficient aeliationbelow the IFor a genera) description of shnrpcrestedweir experiments and formulas. e. For further studies.lues of C are as follows: .lues. . generally kilown as the Bazin profile..077 Intermediate values can be interpola. N == 1. of the discha. Hickox [Ill. (A/tel' G.nd [81.2).tcl1Uling the velocity head. is. This reduction of pressure will calise undesirable effects. and H is the measured head above the crest. The ratio is represented by a dimensionless value (1414) where y is the height of the opening below the gate in it and H" is the head on t. The first mathematica.~la tiol1snip. For If Ih greater than about 15. 01'.i (149) where C is the discharge coefficient. IVIeasurements by Rouse [4. the basis of experimental studies on spillways with gates (Fig. In the preceding article the ovedalling nappe is considered aerated.to 1888 Bazin [12] made the first comprehensive lahoni. the weir becomes a sill.he center of t. . Experiments have shown that the coefficient C' in Bq.6 +h (1412) The transition between weir and sill (betw~en Hlh = 10 and 15).te the condition of fun aeration.225 0. L is the effective length of the weir crest. where L' is the mea~ured length of the crest and N is the numbet· of contractions. Dashed lines indica. The. p: 532] indicate that this equation holds up to Hlh = 5 but can be extended to H Ih = 10 with f~Lil' approximation. Early crest shapes were usually based On :i simple parabola designed to fi~ thE.[0.202 . Aeration of the Nappe. CLHl. According ~o a wellknown weir formuia of Rehbock [10]. 141.5 0. the top of the gate...~ured head in ftover the top of the gate . should cause no negative pressures on the crest. trajectory or Hie falling nappe. Under I 0. p. and C is a coefficient depending on the ratio of the discharge beneath the gate to the discharge over . The va.ient C is where H is the mea.ted from a cUl've constructed with the above va.ately equal to H + h.he gate in ft. EXlJerimental of length of weir.68 1 ( H)!.2 Q =.use of Bazin's data in design will produce a crest shape that coincides with the lower surface of an aerated nappe over a shmp:crested weir. .n tie found in ma.. 142. For two end contractions. has not yet been clearly defined. it oan be shown that the coeffir.here h is the height of weir.rge formula. that. H.51 . 143. Theoretically. which may be very obi ectionable if the weir or spillway is used fol' measuring purposes.! Most such formulas can be expressed in the general form.5+ I 0.! analysis on discharge of weirs was performed by Boussinesq [9]. and the discharge is controlled by a critical section immediately upstream from the sill. the coefficient C in Eq. (149) remains approximately constant for sharpGrested well'S under varying heads if the nappe is' aerated.220 0. setup for studying fi. such as (1) increase in pressure difference on the spillway or weir itself. however.e derivation of Il theoretical weirdischa.
pr~. .gcr profile [21 based on t"e U. The development of the WEB standard shapes is described.. . The dl~charge over a spilllVay can be computed by an e~ttation in the fo:'m ~f Eq. (149). . (3) the LClnBDavill projile [l4J Q!lsed on the U. Colo.. [18] .S.mterpolating from the plot the required values for any given slope wlthm the plotted range. 836 1.rted in 1936. 1. For practical purposes. the U. WES 254.'!! on the..· profile [13) developed from a mathematica. The WESstandard spillway shapes. ..pproach flow.his infol'llll.l extension of Ba.ys will not be affected materially by such details.:8 (1) the CreG. is negligible.S. .tn from Di!mer tests [II.s were conducted in the Bureau's Hydl·ll.s developed coordinates of nappe surfaces for vertical and various slopefaced weirs. provided the modification with at least oneha.936 3011:2 . .810 1.emi profile l151. avoidance of negativ6 pressureS should be considered an objective.~e1"lDa.ge...000 3· on 1. This information is indeed invaluable for accurate an[\..pillw2.. 2...lf the total head H.lGion can bo usedrnore simply without essential loss of ace\U'acy. A"my Engineel's Wa. [11.. Bmeau of Reclaniatioll dfJ. . 'From [20]..ensive experiments on the shape of the nappe over a sharpcrested weir wete conducted by the U..tion data.. .. .) (U. . The values of J( [. negative on such a profile cannot be avoided. . This is because the vertical velocities are srrmll below depth and the con:esponding effect on nfl. WES 4152.S. . in [21]. ConsequeJ1'~ly... however. .. there exists friction due to roughnes.850 1.nd n fl. surfi1ce of the I.11bove values the correspqn~ing slopes a~ld . .364 ( RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW FLOW OVER SPILLWAYS 365 \ 1 I I actual conditions.' Fort Collins.. as shown by the dnshed lines in The shape of the crest n 1. FIG. . The upstream face of the spillway crest may sometllnes be deslgned to Eet back.. and many o~her profiles for design purposes have been proposed. nnd the test. . The main project WIlS sta. 873 ~ EKamples of othel' wellknown pmfile.939 3 on :1. Army Corps of Engineers hn. along with such other fadors as maximum hydl'aulic efficiency. He is the design head e:cch~din(J the velocity head of the [\... • See..ver tests.. . 143). t4) theSci·. Colo. Experiment Slatioll. (1416) . (2) the modified CnilJ. 143 . 1.Y.· Hydraulic Design Charts: IllI. t. and IC and n nre parmneters depending 011 the slope of the upstream face.. Hence. Bure!L\\ of Reciall1aLicn data from Fort Collins tesLs'[l] and the datn of Bazin [12] . . Bureau of Recl:1mation. how~ver.ndal'd shapes at its Watel'ways Experiment Station. designated as the WES lltandal'd spillway shapes.. approximate values of I( and n may be obt~ined by plotting the .s rleveloped sever<11 sta.i. 1.3 can be by the following eq llntion: y (1415) where X and Yare coordinatei. n. Such .S.. thrQugh modifications that wiil be described below: On the basis of the Bureau of Reclama.ulic Laboratory in Denver. .iH's data. Earliee experiments conducted by the Burea.re given as follows: Slope of ups/rem" fave K For intermediate slopes.u were performed in H)32 at the Colorado Agricultural Experbllent Station. the Bazin profile hus been variously modified. (!l) the J)¢ Marchi profile [17J. The presence of negative pressures will lead to danger of cavit<1tion dama. (5) the SmetmtCl Ill)]. . see \19]. a.l. ..cticability. the Bureau hn. . .nd economy. vertically below the origin of coordinates.S. stability. In selecting a suitable profile.he highest point of the crest.. and· 1117 to 1119. Discharge of the Overflow Spillway.. Ilor spillways designed for the WES shapes. l From 1932 to 1948. ext. 2 On the basis of experimental data including B".nd Scimel11i [15].776 VerticaL .zill'S.l of the crest profile with the origin ::It t. For" good of various wellknown profiles. . . the equatlOn IS . The former are usually referred to as the Den. the btter as the Port Collins tests.ppe profile.ge.. . and (7) ~he Escande profile.lys(3 and precise of SpillWity overflow sections .•.
is the total energy head on the crest in ft.2 crest / 0. tIle. for the approach . vertloal upstren..0 ..arre. By the discharge equation. the approach velocity will have appreciable effect upon the discharge or the discharge coefficient and.ta flJ.e.).3 1. . Sol. . In low spillways with hiEd < 1. H.\ 11:7""'1 FIG.. tbe C. 145. S equatIon tHe plotted as shown in Fig. 145. Axis of 0. ( it] and the height of the dam is h "" 120 17.3...00 C/Cd in which Cd 4. ' ) The approach velocity is V = 750001(250 ' 20) . .6S u 15 1.0 (Fig.98 0..:..sect!O? havmg a. The crest shupe a ! .velocity head is negligible) the coeffidentof discharge C has been found to be Cd.) profile.1 .02 lot u . ..m face and a cres~ length of 250 ft The d .03 1. Model tests of the spillways have shown that the effect of the approach velocity is negligible whim the height II of tho spillway is greater than 1.~ f tl shupe t d b hi . e_evatlO n ls.gn 1 000 0 d h' . Undel' this condition and with the design 1.5 fps. .7 "= 982. to show the effect of the approach velocity on· the relationship between I r .ion and the shape of an overJlowspill. . ' Th e ares!. ' ' I I . (14 15). 0 = /4. head (that is.8 f t .Est shape IS expressed by}' X 1•• s/23 C d' .17.. 'inclUding the velCl()ity head in the "pproach chani1el.~ 17....5'/217 = 0.95' r Hd " 17.cted approximately for the effect of the upstreamface slope ~y m?itlplymg C ~y a correction factor obtained from the attached chart 111 !lg.n be used a~x:am~le 141: Detcr~ine the crest elevat.70 a 0.90 0.dlng Ha .RIED FLOW FLOW OVER SPILLWAYS 367 whel:e H. effect of approach velocity is negligible. For spIllways havmg sloping upstream face.. I .1 and H. O. . . 144) based on the data of the Waterways Experiment Stl.tion [20] cn.04 1. . Hd.o:! 1. Design of an overflowsp.8 0..".6 Ha~veloclty head 0..03..7' v ::' '.03.\sSltffiing a h'19l · fow l 1 way.7' 0.lIways d€.2 Point of to. = 4. .1CY X=35. = 17. the effect of . upon the 1U1PP'.366 RAPIDLY VA. 983. ll~nce. B . 0 1._ 3.00 23 r. 880.80 0. and the COrrespondng :e OOlJ as.33H. consequently.33. the value of a can be c. IS eIg . I 0.03 FIQ.54 8..!~ld and C/Cd for spi. i I ' t h d' H' a.the design head is Hd _ 17.. 144: Hlladdischarge relation for WESetandard spillway shapes. y Eq.2 H.0 1. h/Hd greater thanL33 and H.1 ft.5 Ha 0. E1.. approach vclocity is 'bl d Over BpI n(:goalgx 2"Oa)n ~ d = 4. . .99 0.' X ~ = 2.4 .E c: .at 1000.. e ups ream water surface at design discharge is at El ...: total head in~ll.si~l1ed for WES shapes having vertical upstrea.3i~~.an t 0 avera~e channel floor is at EI.!.l!MIl.. where Hd is the design head excluding the approach velocity head. I l' 0 r 1 8 •.u = QICL = 75 0001 .7 = 1023 ft Th' h' ht' IS greater thai 1 33H d' .. ThIS correction was developed from the Bureau of ReclamatIOn da.. IS a ':" 2. as.illway section: 0 •.4 HdI_ 1  Hdd design head e~clucinil Ha H.S 1. l~ .9' Y=:32. 14~) . oor Ina""s 0 1e compu e y T. 14~4. Thus. . discharge 15 75 000 cfs Th t .95 1.' A dimensionless plot (Fig.01 of EJ. d! an .m face.85 I 0.
B'T this method. Bradley [22] has developed ~. however.' The higher value of HD is approximately. .imensiorus recommended in the chart of Fig.dley [22]. it may not be equal to the actual design head used by Bradley or defined for other profiles.. The profile of the given spillway as. and CD is the corresponding FlG..O~ 1.ll about twice the height oLthe spillway above the upstream bed. 146. lower nappe of flow that 8. the design head: (t1fl~r J. including tho approach velocity head. of the crest.S Vi :. Model experiments indicate.ic. applies to spillwttys with overfal! suppressed. ThllS.alues of lIo $ould be used. The spillway. 1 A method for the sawe purpose is also proposed by Bra. I ' . 11 method 1 suggested by Buehlel' (23] may be used. Buehler [23J. p. For higher heads.·)0 !. Br. ''" " universal curve (Fig. This head is the' design head.~ ~/ OAI~:'::I~I 73' • HodlOplOi distance from the cr~st in U FiG. supported by date. . it should be noted that II D is the theoretical design head of the standard profile for which the Brudenell eqtmtion was developed.ed from a chart (Fig. design head. curve of the spillway can be 0. It can be used to coltlputeapproxlthe'mting Clll'ves of most overflow spillways. d (22]. from 29 exIsting spillways.117:~~l.2~~~1 C/C D • The term HD is the design I I 015 0. 0!l the upstream side. the H D values that give the best fit may be different on the upstream and downstream sides. the profile of a spillway is shown by the dashed line on the chart. coefficient of dil:charge.0 ru o 3< .1'. '6 t O. 45 ft. but the spillway shape 18 given.0: lis assumed for the straight pOl·tioll of the downstream spillway surface. that the design head may be sufely exceeded by at least 50%.: u a. 146. FQrexample.0£ th~ spillway sudacebdow the crest section depends ~n the stability requireme.B I tation may develop [4.ut and 011 the features of the sti. !'. I\ f 140.nd 0.lso operate under other heads.cbll1puted. F01' a.d curve'in Fig . the giveri profile to existi'ng profiles of known dischll. . must a.lation . 535J . and it may become so low that separatlOn ~lr flow will occur.) .95 1. The term overflow spillways for other than the He is the total head other thaD. !.: spillwo.90 Q. C = 3.368 RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW FLOW OVER SPILLWAYS 369 upstrCftm from the orir~in of ~!le coordinates is constructed accordin~ to the d. Rating of Overflow Spillways.5. The design of the straight portion .Y.Cge coefficient. of dischai'ge for heads otherthah . 1"0. Volue of Ihe 'Olio clc o head.6 For spillways designed for WES shapes. a rating . harmful cavi1. 143. (He)V'12 (H17) where H. 147.. 144 I can be used to deten:nine the coeffiI I cient. The valtte of HD may be obtaiu.grees closely with .) vertical upstl'eam face.. ing discharge coefficient this curve i~ well supported by tests of some 50 overflow spillway crests . the design head.nd7 ard profiles. given profile. the spillway profile.ys designed for other '" shapes. 147) showing the standard profiles. on the other hand./H D p.' based on an equation derived by BrudeneU the c~e:ffici6nt of discharge is computed by the ~q'. In using the Br:dley curve. The higher of the two indicated v. I ~ . 146) showing the relationship between FI . above atmosph~ric but still les:i! th. this Inechod DJs . . . Such spillways are often found in earth dams. the pl'essu~e w~n be lower than atmospheric.y :3hapes for different valuesof H D • (After B. is all operating head and HDis the theoretical design head. Stand~rd spillwa. N.desiglled or built is firfit drawn on a piece of transparent paper on the same sc:ale as the sto. b~yond this. however.80 O_BS 0. therefore. This is rile type ~f spillway the fiow over which is affected by downstream cha~mel conditions' it odcurs when the'downst:ream slope i~ flat and the approach depth is shdllow..of variot~s shapes and operating conditions. and C i~ ·the corre~pon . then the value of Ii D associated with the standard profile that gives the best fit is selected. either lower or higher than the design head. . Coeffident of discharge of . the curves given in Fig. This paper lS laid over the chart. head including the approach velocity. it is necesilary to' know the coofficient of discharge for the design head. The dashe. Aslope of 0. for a standard profile havh1g a .~dley . ThE:. The spillway in such a hase is usually so low that the design ::I head is greater thp.8 I.. c '" o 40~4~4i~4~41 . For lower heads the pressure on the crest will be. which genel'ally procbuces s. If this coefficient is unknowl1.97 JJ. profile of an overflow way can be designed fol' one head only.Iing basin at the toe of the spl11w!l.anl~ydl'ostat. .
... (1417). and H is the operating head other tha:n the design head.370 RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW 1 FLOW OVER SPILL'\. 149. hence.4 0.o give highly'accurate at all but very low heads. 1.X/H.410. to alter the effective crest length of the lSpillways.QNO PlERS. .0 0. 1:210 o. conditions with and without piers.i'iE OF BAY W1Tii 'tYPE 2 I'lER5~ 1.2 '0.n"'ou. Upper nappe profiles fill' three gate bays adjacent to abutments are in Fig. the computed discharge may be as low as 8% below the actual value.4 0. It should be noted that the upper nappe surface is exposed to the atmosphere and.S21i 0.. Hydraulic Design Charts 11111 to 11115 WES 954.000 '0.) .208 .s. LO 0.0. 1.972.465 '* BUild on C\Y 801 test::. .215 ' 0.2 0.4 0. Effect of Piers in Gated Spillways..d excluding t. 0. The effect of the piers is to contract the flow and.6 0 .O'OAlI 1.6 0. 269[ L~~!~l:~ 0. (U.465. At low heads of 5 ft or so. 1.6 0.ctical purpOSGS.071 0. 1.4 1. The upper nappe surface for slt'ping upstream face should have a lower elevation than that for vertic.2 for 1 These tests are d~signa.681. o. Army En[f<neer:.244 0.0.8 i 1. • Baaed on CW 801 t •• 1rs for negligible v. The effective length of OM bay .he velooity head. 122 0.. 14..102 1.230 . Waterway/! Expel'iment Slation. The tenn Hd is the design he!'.0 1.4!lol=t:or::. 1.0.210. n!\ppe profiles of flow over WEB spillways with a._'_ _L_I~.1.ch.151 '10.10. f?r negligible velod~y COORDlNATl!::S FOR Ul'PISE NAPPE Al.29{j 1.2'r. U1>?ER 1 371 N A.0 0..of a ga.944 0.0 1. result..019 0. N is the number of side contractions l equal to .8 0549 LO 0. The uppernappeshape only the ideal cases.8 of a. 0." The information given here is from [201.looioy .893 O.50 11:1 IRa .194 0. l 1 '0.PPln W'J.0.15'<. Upper Nappe Profile of Flow over Spillways.ted as II General Spillway TestsOW 801. .215 1.689 0.L.0. 0.'1.tiOll.240 1. COO1lDINATEB FOR UpP£n NAPPE A~ CENTER Ll.S. ~:~ I.2 1. both the Bradley and Buehler methods have been shown ~.300. 1.1 .6 Q...2 0.0. For pra. the flow is aerated and the surface becomes wavy and unstable.g .PJ.'.2 0. 1413.460 0. .ll . Hence.4 0. Figure 148 shows the shapes and coordinates X r.2 i1.320[ 0. 147. 2 0 >220 1. tainter The WES shapes for high overflow spilhlrays with vertical by the U.9115 0.015 0.2 0.nd without piers. As s.580.821 10. The shape of upper nappe profile of flow over 8 spillway crest is significant in the desigu of spillway abutment Ivalls and for the selection of pivot elevation ot. however.810.847 1 I 3Sfj o 1.185 iOA75 0.ted spillway may be expressed as ' L = Lo .6 _ _. upstream face have been investigated. 0..0. .°.I'AYS COO. showing the abutment effects on the nappe profiles.81"..2 0.11.hence.00 : HIll. c 1. coordinates given in Figs.:.' 'I l 1"1 1. 0.lsed safely for spillways with sloping upstream face for which the actual data are not yet available. ' H IH. subject to alteration due to wind and air CUlTents and the absorption of surroupding air. of apprnne h.'1.2001 0.'1. and for three different head ratios.425: O.7551 0.4 0.5$1 1.71)5 0.075 0.4 .S. fo].nd Y of the upper nappe profile obtained from such tests for negligible approach velocity.0 0. 0.O.33 }'iil.J 0.4 1..8 1. (1418) > No Pume •.!l3.002 1. 0. Profiles for intermediate head mtios may be interpolated .569 1. K is the pier contraction coefficient.810.4 1..103 0g5O 0. 0. 148 and 149 where air plays little or no part..0 0. 3n 0.2 iI.865 0. 0.011 0.8.6[0.0 :0. Piers are needed to form the sides of the gates in gated spillways.G 1. 0.1.484:.21 FIG. the given coordinates may also be 1.470 1. Upper.2. 0 0..6.upstream face. the rating curve of. 1 where Lo is the clear span of the gate bay between piers..218 0.610.6 0 1.5 and 0 occurs all the upper. !J.O O.4 0.SS9 1.al model tests. using model Army Engineers Waterways Experimant Sta.6 I 209 0._ _.nappe profile along piers when the discharge is high .0:. Owing to thecontrac~ion effect of piers..6 1. Y/ X/lid Y/H. also excluding the velocity head.:Tn Using the chart and Eq.821 0.ft'O!NATE'~ Fan. =!..015.J(NH.055. X Ill..7051 0.172 .01. 0.145 l. both methods fire sufficiently accurate. a spillway of given profile can be cumputed. pronounced hump between X/Hu.258.4 :"'0.. According to comparisons with actu.4" 0.2.UO :0.
0 Fie.0 I Left abutment I '11I Bay No" 1 ..5 2. ._.l..5 axis OVERFLOW "SPILLWAY CREST i2=~3t.. J.5 10 "x ._.:.0 LEGEND" Left side of bonk .. (U.... 2 1.5 2.5 0 " 0.0 L _ ._'" 1.._ _" _ _'_'J.5 LO 0..L_·L. Army Engineers WaterWIlYs Experiment 8to.l..2 l....:.. ]49.L....0 1.. ):: 1.:.Center line atbay Right side (>f boy on pinE> 0.5 1 .0 APPROACH CHANNEL AND ABUTMENT EFFECTS FIG..a L...J_' i..i.5 2. 0...205 Hd Boy No.078 rid .. o.Left side of bonk center line of b\"y Right side of boy Profiles ore bosed on pine flot model tests "'«""' i Soy No..ch channel and abutment effects.L_ _L.5 X/lid LO 1.0 1..) x'C .0 0..5 UPPER NAPPE PROFILES APPROACH CHANNEL AND ABUTMENT EFFECTS a 0..5 f+~f oxis OVERFLOWSPI"LLWAY CREST i. Upper nappe profiles of flow over WES spillways showing appro!l..S.5 X/Hd i.51+++.5 a 0. 149 (continued)._>. " 'r 0.L_ _L. UPPER NAPPE PROFILES 1.lio:l1._. " .5 1. LEGEND ~===:::J~0.5 BAY" NO.
such an ideal profile is generally modified so that low pressures will develop under the design head. . pier nose for spill ways of the liVES sha... which had negligible velocity of !l.0 LI. the pressure on the spillway crest may be accurately determinedanalyticnny by a numerical method. For practical reasons." ' t ~ ~ .erways Experiment Station has conducted tests (General Spillway Test cW 801 [20]) on different forms of. 13c2. 1411.yS (i. As the spillway must be operated under heads other than the design head.the adjacent gates are open. Assuming a twodimensional irrotational flow. LI.re open. blunt noses to 0.l More exact determination of the pressure. These values apply to piers having a thickness equal to about onethird th8 head on.LLL~O. ' I ff(.the effective length determined by the above equation should be l. 1410. The [(value for the roundnose pier plotted against the ratio of He/ Hd with variable distances upstream from the crest is shown in Fig.. he abs~nce of adequate data. Under the testing conditions.ch depth of flow. The discharge cpefficient." I . the crest when all gates n. is assumed the same in both gated and ungated spillways.~o3 i ! I \ .LL~ ~o~~L~LLL.cent gates.374 RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW ~ I~ each gate bay.035 for round noses.67Hd. and the operation of the adja. .04 for thin or pointed noses and is 0. the pressure will increase under the lower heads and decrease under the higher heads. the pier'contr[Lction coefficient fOl. the roundnose pier with various approach depths is shown in Fig. ~saJJ uo poa~ JO O!'O!..pe.J (/)tJ> wl!! a:u (/)z :r: <\l u:: z 'E .ctical procedure for the r!l\axation method appFed to the problem under cDnsideration is given in [25]. W " . ~ ' LI. I I i . is the total head on the crest including the velocity head. On the basis of these tests. 1411).te J( value given by Creager and Justin [3. from Fig. The approxim~.1 for thick.. "u a:: a:z W wo Q.e. and H. " <! S:: tl ~ :. the pressure on the spillway crest under the design head should be theoretically nil...Overflow Spillways.ta are applicable to high spillways and to the condition that .I I i J I t ~~.. >ofQ g~ u 3" W 1 Il:l H «z u e>O U ff we:: « .S. however. If the spillway profile is designed exactly in the shape of the lower nappe of a free overflow.r §E5 w i!'. 120] r1lnges from 0... The pier contraction coefficient varies mainly with the shape and position of the pier nose. the approa. n.5 times larger.Army Engineers Wat.. The he. '" . these values become roughly 2...nd the adjacent gates are closed. 'graphically by flownet analysis.. however. 148. or instrumentally by an electronic analogy.. a roundnose pier is recommer. <\l .pproach.~~~~JJJ~~~~~~. however.. In comrl1lting the discharge through gated spillways. When one gate is open n.ded for general use with high heads.l 375 . will depend upon model tests. A pra. Pressure on . pier contraction coefficients for other nose shapes for low spillways may be obtained by proportioning from the data for high SpillW8. ~ 0 I.lsed. The U. 1412. t I . I PH/'H 'poal{ uo!sap o. The effect of other nose shapes 011 the contraction coefficient is shown in Fig.. See references given in Art.ight of the test spillways was 6. :::. these da. III . p. For low spillways with appreciable approach velocity. the head condition.
FFICIENTS EFfECT OF APPROACH DEPTH 0. '0 ~ 0 '" 0. (u.rm!l EngineeT8 Waterways Experiment S!atiot~ [201.5 2.s.(erwa.) of the \VES spillway..2 Hd rod <. tinny Engineers Wn. 2.0.J:.ffi' ~ 1.1 face of spillway Coefficienl of pIer contraction..10 Coefficient of pier contractIon. (U.J:. 1412.~ "0 0 . Coefficient of contractIOn for t'] Ie TOUD d . "iii '" "' c: 0 . 0 Type I Type" . .. • FIG. WES 4153...0 \. Coefficient of contrMtion for piers of various nose shapes in high d:l.t:f .<> u 1 c: '0 0. 0 0.ms with the 'nose located in the same vertical plane as the WES 4153.0 Ratio of horizontal distonce to design head I 0.!? 1:1 . ups~ream Hydt(~u1ic . 1.0.5 r..2 ..R CONTRACTION COEFFICIENTS EFFECT OF NOSE SHAPE FIG. "" ~ ~ <> 0 c "0 . 0.6: 1.4 1.0 :L 0 :L " ~ 0. r".05 . 0.yli ExpeMlrtCnl8talian ['2(lj.O O.0 .5 Hd rod.5 1. '" E ~ . '0 0 ''" " 1 'PIER NOSE SHAPES ~I J "15 tr Note: Pier nos~ loi:ct~d in somo plone as upSt"eOr.) . i5 0. 0 \1\ .'.05.J:.Dose piel' in lbw dams.c: C . ".S i ~ . K . 1411." Axis of \1 'reO qt=:r Type 2 pier 0 .~ .4 ' a. H!ldra1~lic Design Chart 1222. A.g Il:.J:. face Design Chart ) 11:. K HIGH GATED OVERFLOW C"lESTS PIF.2 1ii :j '" ~ 0 O...2 LOW GATED QGEE CRESTS PIER CONTRACTION COE. 0.5 u '~ 1.el Ij~ a:: I I ! \ I I I ! O.5 \.Z :r:.0 l' "~''"T'~' .. . '5 <II c Hd ~ design head .S.5LLL 1.
' . " '.6 o.33 r..2 0.4 0."./ a 0.h overdesign is an acceptcd procedure.S. V f 0. Bureau of Reclamation tests of pressure on a 1 Actually..glneers Waterways Rxperiment Station [20].\ The pressure distributions on a spillway crest with and \vithout piel's under three different head ratios. Crest pressures on WES high 'Jverflow spillways. over the spilhvay.S. r'<>H!Hd·i.6 Horlzonto! distonce Dasign head \Hd I .3 j!i o.'.QO ""'" 0. 1413). 1... ~ iO 1'8 \ \'''' '\ 0.". as in high: dams.. tests for ungatad WESshape crests of vertical upstream face and of U. i 1'"\ 1 R· 0...2 i 0 \ I J ~ »..1r 0..4 \ 0.. KIKa" 0. .j 378 RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW FLOW OVER i:lPILLWAYS 379 . On the basis of OW 801." ~ \ .."  \ H/Hd .1 ~1 ~ r\V ".4 K +H!Hd"1.00 ....S.4 '" 0. . the effect on structural stability due to this pressure reduction COIDpensated to a large extent by the moment of the horizonto./ 0.! .2 t 0.: Dota tJosed on CW 60! tests \ i'~ )5 ! Nole: Dala based on CW 801 !esls FIG.2 .ulic Design Chart 11116. the effect on stability· may be worth considering.. Ca) No piers.5 0.S Horizontal dislance (X) Design head Hd 12 I R~0.5 Hd I. The pr'essme teduction on the upstream face of a vertical weir has been determined both theoretically and experimentally by Harris [26).4 ~1~TYPe2Pier{Fi9. HydrClulic Desiqn Chart 11116/1. The usual method of analysis by assuming straightlinepressllre distribution nea~ the crest.s (1S.0 '1. are shown in dimensionless plots (Fig. particularly for high dams .o." .. I r. !.~ 0.<.'" ·t1. I ! I b~50 /v ~:~ '" ~Ii~ w ... where the moment arm is lon·g.) Because of the conversion of static to kinetic.ed)..2 l ( r< r V I '). (U. ..0.1 l. . Cres~ pressur9l! on WES high overflow spillways (continu.'.' ~.. providing an additional factor of safety. Army Engineers H'ale)'u'ays Expe"imenl Slation [20]..~ ..14_ln1·J+. I i ... energy as the water flows. WES 954.. .".33 l . the hydrostatic pressure on the upstream face of the spillway crest is actually red\lced.4 0..0 \ ". . 0.50 / M 01 ~ 1\ .5 0.l component of the nappe pressure on the crest surfaqe. .2 Hd I I ~ . l' ~ I~ I IV Net. Hyd1'rJ.4 l r.I~ 1. (b) Along center line of pier bay.. i'. H/Hd· I .2 i". Army 1!l11. .6 0. but.I I 1413. .2 hJ o _t__ 0. . This reduction in pressure is not appreciabl'e. FIG.. based on OW 801 tests uf WES shapes [20].3 0. Pressures for· intermediate head ratios can be obtained by interpolation . .' .. >. (U. wiD result in ovel'design of the spilhvay..\ 0.~.' Suc..r.' . [ is I . 1'113.2 0...'.) 1.. . \ t· ".) .2 c:. WES 355.
es on WES high ovel'fi~\\' spiHwo. g!\te. it is llsed to control the surface eiev!ltibn of the water upstream. the gate acts as a sharpcrested weir. and the head is measured o. Al'Il'Y Engmeers lVate1'7l1aYs Expel'tmellt Sin/ion {20] HI'dl'ClL:iic Dcsif!1l Chm"t 11116/2. Bradley [27]. '" v. (U. . The drum gate is a hinged g!1. .te which floats in a chamber and is buoyed into position by regulating the water level in the chamber. 801 F.0.m lip of the gate..L~ 3. the control point is the highest· point of the gate surface.2 .ys (co/!t"'~lled). and the head is measured above this po}nt. WES 355.4 3.380 RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW FLOW OVER SPILLWAYS 381 shul'pcrestecl wdI' under the design head.line drawn tangent t. (After J. 0. This angle is considered posiwhen meastive when it is measured above the horizontnl ilnd ured below the horiz. Drum Gates. C FIe.bove this point. Crest pressur.· For negative values of 9. I 1:) Uj '" 0 /JJ li:.149.) Note: dota based on CW . " c ~12 ~ .S.'ig. actmg hOrIzontally at a distance of O.161Hd it below the top of the crest.Cufl'es for determination of tIle discharge coefficient of drum gates.'2 '" Ol '" '" a:i 104 I .5 Dischorge coefficient.o the downstream lip of the.. 1414.) . ' U I .f Rotlo. . (c) Along pletS. The rmgle e U. Hr" ! 3. Primarily. the gate !lcts as ~ curvedcrested weir.ontaL For positive values of 8. the drum resembles a weir with a curved upstream fa(.t i. the control poil'l. N. .~ the downstrea. the horizontal and a . the resultant of the reduced pr~~sure is f?~lnd t~ be approximately 12. As a measllring device.9Hd 2 lb per unit length of the spIlLway. 1414) is formed between.!G: 1413.e over the major portion of its triLvel.
tL ~R. however. Flow at the Toe of Overflow Spillways. especially when the gate is in a raised llositiou.:cr:. and the condition of avera... L is the length of the gate.ntetpolation of theratiI~g curves of the gate.SH) .i  i! ow.~ ri Tr I .. the discharge through the gate may be expressed as Q = CLH.. 1415) was prepared to show the a. The dept.: J.. For this reason. &. and Yl is the depth of flow at the toe. Bureau of Reclamation [29) has studied the I 20 30 1 70 1 i 80 90 100 1/0 I I ! r I 120 130 140 f 150 160 170 Valocity (V).rif d. fJ. 1414) where C is plotted against fJ with the r. and the depth of approach.8. . become impcrta.g to the energy 10s8 involved in the flow over the spillway. but it woulcJ. and H. ~. and the cOI'l'espollding dashed Ime III the family of curves IS based on Bazin's data [12J. fps FIG..6 to 1 on 0.:. 8f . is equal to or greater than twice the head on the gate..Ys under various heads. Laboratory investigations have shown that the flow' ever this type of gate call be completely defined by H.0. 1415) may be compllted by . . 1 By reasoning ~d experi~ellts it is sho\"n that the deviation of the actual velocity from ItS theoretical vahle beconles larger when the head is smaller and the fall is greater.I I I .. The theoretical velocity defined by the Bureau is V.:rIi II II I "" 440 . ~rII 12C :f XI 80 40 0 0 ==::= + H"  Yl) (1419) .17 I ! " if NL1/. The discharge coefficients in the regi011 between. i' ! i /1 'l  : I f I I lit 1.:: :I: . The magnitUde of the actual velocity depends mainly on the head on the spillway crest.. a chart (l~ig. / '/ / IiI/ I / I I II J V IV I ! I If I/. the chart in Fig. It is felt that this. measured below the highest point of the gate. at the toe of spillways with slope5 1 on 0...c. The theoretIcal velocity of flow at the toe of an overflow spillway (Fig. ' ~1: :r: I 11 01 I 1/ I /1 I . On the basis of experience. theoretical analysis. . is the total head.h of approach.lr as a parameter. !I / Y//  I I.6 = 150 and the gate cOl1lpl~tely down clln be obtained by graphical i. I Bile [28J lor fUrther 'information. Owif). . and a limited amount 'of experimental information obtained from prototype tests oil Shasta and Grand Coulee dams. and the spillwaysurface rouglll1css. the radius r of the gate.!.0 15°... The comput. 1410. :.he future. ...:.' This condition is well satisfied by most drum.. chart is SUfficiently accurate for preliminarydesign 600~ 560 L I ! I II 'i J I 1 I f ! I I I II I 520' T.ctual velocity at the toe of spillw3.6 (1416) where C is the coefficient of discharge."1. I .8. V2g(Z.. although it can be refined by addition~l experimental information which may become available in t.:1: 1 N!.382 RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW FLOW OVER SPILLWA·YS Since the d!'um gate acts as a weir. .l From the result.tn!+ ~'.. has very little influence on the flow behavior when the appro!'. 383 relatiOilship between the actual velocity and a theoretical value.>L~. I10 ~ j' I 40 50 60 II I I 17 / . The curves extend dowmvard to f) =. the friction loss is not significant on steep slopes. using data obtained from 40 hydraulic models of existing drumgate structures . Therefore. ~I:q '''ll~_ . The results of this study are showl1 by a family of curves (Fig... W' T z I ~ ! I I where Z is the fall. 1415...ch depth.it. the coefficient C may be considered to be a function of He. ~ . Curves for detennination l)f velocity. # :'7.a()n II I JI I' ! il i! II i.. o.atio H.. or vertical distance in ft from the upstnam reservoir level to the floor at the toe. Therefore.II I I .r II ~I x .6 to 0.ge surface roughness.nt if the slope were small. Experiments by Bauer [30J indicate that friction losses in accelerating the fiow down . =. I . fal1<" slopes from 1 on 0.. When H.l 280' 240 :>n() .ation of the ratmg curve when the gate IS completely down is the snme as that for a spillway with an ungated crest (Art: 145). C. O.. is the upstream approach velocity head.. I! ~ l+. normal friction loss in fl0W with welldeveloped turbulence.  . the fall. V2(!(Z . of various sizes and scales.s of this study.~. the U.the face of a spillway may be considerably less than the .:gate installations.. and 1'.1/!i 1 I ..s.fJ 1 '/ I ! tnlr4. Bradley [27J has made a comprehensive stu.dy of the drum gate. the actual velocity is always less than the theoretical value. the slope of the spillway surface.\ pUrpi)SeS. . t~e ~ate becon:es a straIg~t inclined weil~. H .lr . 360 ".
tiel'lneCantales. \Vell. This was fin. Bureau 9f Reclamation [l. To be thoroughly effective the bucket should be t[~ngel1t to the foundation or neady so.YS 385 1415 i. thus dissipating a large amount of energy.t proposed by Coyne [32. For fb.Cltory for R 10(VH. The centrifugal pressure may be compnted by Eq.. however.33].at the toe.'''''' in the form of a large specially shaped lip or bucket 'which throws the whole jet flow into the air.ir.jump spillways are ill5tailed in Ca:.known ski.  1 See [34] to [36] for fmther information.fj. accurato flow meMurements. still more precisely.. 14~12.mld be equal to the centrifugal pressure plus the hydrostatic pressure corresponding to the tai!water depth.vhen the tail water is higher than the crest. Studies on submerged Iound~rested w~irs are useful however. 1411. . Popular methods :11'C design of a skijump spillway. may be estimated approximately by the following empirical formula: .".37J. by rnodel tests.6H+EiJ (142u) where V is the velocity in fps of the flow :1t the toe fl.. : In this design.lly designed as a cUl'ved bucket [31]. the spillwaybottom slab is also the roof of the power house which is built against. l' Ag1e.nt of the energy in the jet is dissipated in the air.bucket pressure and the maximum sidewall pressure sh. .ccurately by flownet analysis or by the relaxation method. Submerged Overflow Spillways.l1d 11 is the head in ft. measured in feet.) (CDuT/esy 0/ P. Spillways and weirs are sllid to b~ slJbmerged .384 RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW FI. the flow cho. As subflow. 'The jets from the two spillways mllY meet and collide in the o.\ld Cltastang Dams in France. dissipator. .jump spillways.QW OVER SPILLWa.void the danger of scouring should be takeli. Figure 1415 shows a typical skijump spillway.Extensi ve studies on au bmel'ged roundcrested weirs have be~n performed by the U. 1416. l un of Fl~.. having considerable disturb::mce immediately do\vnst. The slab is heavily reinforced in order to ta\l:e the lon. NE YRPI C.~ not !1pplicable to slopes finttcl'than 1 on 0. Each of the last three dami has two ski. .. and use of a hydraulic jurr.6. The Skijump Spillway.lIs back into the river channel a.:p as an energy .S.4H+!&. Els.llgn of low ov~rfiow dams which may be occasionally subject to submergence. safe distance from the dam. for they will furnish iuformationneeded m the de~.nges its direction . is usually unstable .telo do Bode Dam in Portugal. (28) for known radius of the bucket and velocity of the flow .I In these studies: ~he tlow is classified into four distinct types according to the fiow condItIOn 1 Other wellknown studies are reported in [38] to [401. ll. the problem nmy be analyzed by the method described in Art.ds due largely to the centrifugal pI'essure of the jet acting ori the spillway toe. 114. The flow leaving the toe of a high overflow spillway is a highvelocity jet. can be made more ~. or.{Z. the downstream side of the dam. Determination of the bucket pressure. P. Bart. Unless the· downstream approach is resistant to such scouring.eam. The skijump spillways of l' Aigle Dam. The radius R of the bucket. !lond the Mar~ges. The design . At the end of the sloping spill W[\y surf&ce. the surface at the spillway toe is usm'l.tter slopes. rather abruptly and therebjr produces appreciable centrifugal pressures. Saint. but in any case the in.1. In this type of spillway the toe is "''''. exclucHng approach velocity head.. in the design . on the spillway crest. measures to D. The results of such determination ve indicated that theclIect of the bucket ·curve on pressure actually extends even beyond the ends of the curve. utilization of submerged taiIwater as a bl'ake. In order to create a smooth transition of the flow [Lnd to prevent the impact of the falling watar from scouring the foundation. Danel.t a. containing a Hnge amount of energy capable of causillg heavy scouring. such a spillway or weir is unsatlsf3.
14 0. .OS3 0.. drowned hydraulic jump.~ .:'"~~~~. \Jll  I I. \I II _ I I I \ no \~ I ~ I \ I ::: '" i" <II Ul"l1 I:.201  I+...1 . (e) ftow with!l.. .S.562 +d Y'>iI~+·+·.He 0.513 l.:. 1 .~""" I.0 3 4 5 6 (d) 4 5 6 .53 0.:..pproaching complete submergence. 1~18.:i2.='" ". (Selected (a) Supercriticn..14 1. I' I .=""'¥~trc::.. ~~:d 1.5~ hd . Bureau of Reclamation data [1J. (b) flow involving hydraulic jump.14 0..~ 2..$55 1..75 o 2 :3 4 5 6 4 5 6 X/He (0) 0.[ flow. 2.b '" \ \ .j:. . ~ ~. b .796 ::..1. 1.... \ \ (" VI \ *" b :::00 .".tv) from U. ..) Typical pressure (dashed lines) and surface (solid lines) profiles for flow over submerged overflow dams. @o.142 2.. ~ I • T.~~*""~"<"l'<"""']~""".l1.> 0..) Ul~ (J) rrln1 ~ ~ n1 2.'+<~~""""'''i''~'"""".049 0. (d) flow a... FIG.
tigalions. will be required fo. 20 ft high and 60 ft long. Hydraulic Design Chart 1114.' aeration beneath the nappe to (1 389 pressure reduction of prevalent on the dowl1strel1m apron. Il1c.1J." John Wiley & Sons.5u.l liow. fOJ: operating head equal to 0. expressed in percenta. or accompanied by a drowned jump with diving jet. (1) snpel'critical flow. CompuU! ~he upperm.d of 14. Example 14l. Determine the rating curve of tlHil spillwl!. assume (a) no piers and (b) six bays fOl'med by WES roundnose piers.e. 1945. 1412. measured in cubic feet per 1 2 RE. 1411. 14B. 1<118). 358361. I 2. and that the r(~duction in coefficient is affected essentially by this ratio o.ds.n overflow spillway without eud contractions.. the jet is on the surface. alld Joel D. is built as a. The genera. ' . 145. have been presented in a chart for the four types of flow mentioned abov€.tion. H~12. Determine'the wall lIcigh'. For values of hd/H.7 it of wCltel' were observed. Justin: "Engineedng for Dams.otalload on the weir.he highest point 'of the gate surface and the value of (J may be determined graphically.he spillway in the preceding problem has a profile shown by the dashed line in Fig. In the chart (Fig. for folU' types of flow (Fig. and (/» the hydrostatic load acting on the weir. discharge VB. 143. The cross section BE in the upper righthand corner of the chart shows the variation of (hd + d)/H.ppe profile of the fiow over the spillway designed ill EXl1mple 111. B~Lreat' of ReclamatiDn. This chart in a slightly modified form (Fig. The drum gate for P~ob. at (h. + d)/H. the reduction in coefficient is [1ffected esseu~ia. When the head is 20 ft above the crest of the weir and the nappe i$ completely aerated.lly by the ratio ad/H. Detecmine the pleasure on the crest of the spillwn. less than 0..ndis practically independent of hd/lI. 1.te the depth a.nd velocity of flow and also the radius of the bucket a. compute (a) the nappe profiles.t the toe of the spillway dp. A vertic[L1 sharpcrested weir. or supercritical.. Juliall Rin. elevation of the hlgh~st point of the gate suna. is the total hend above the crest. and d is the tailwil.)'. The typical pressure and surfa. tho flow of type 3. 2 it? Compute the load 0'. and (4) flow approaching complete submergence.. How much air..s for the overflowdam seetion designed in Example 141. 1411)) 50 ftlong alld 20ft in. 146.10.signec. BO'l.0. 144).Ys formed by WES roundnose piers and a maximum operating head 35% higher than the design head. They aTe useful in the design of spiJlwaysfor stability. New 'York. procedure is required for the determination of the value of C.. [41] to [4. high overflow spillway. occurs in. 144. at hdill. ' 149.y designed in Example 141. the indicated on the cimrt. Estima.u of Reclamation's test results on this reduction.oe. AD o. The BUl'eA. Other regions for transitior1D.48. detennJne the rating curve. Creager. If the channel floor is at El. for low 'ratios (h. 1417) was further checked against other datal by the u Army Engineers Waterways Experiment StatiOll. From (::JOJ. A drum gate (F:ig. Subcriticr. pt: VI. curVe. chart is also applicable to t·he determination of coefficients for WES .l in Example 141.*7. H. 880. Would a hydraulic jump be possible at the toe of the spillway? PROBLEMS H1. voL 2.ce has a slope of 3 on 2 instead of veriic!J. for values of hatH. assuming six b!l. 1414.erflow spilhvay of unknown profile designed br a total hC!l. U.I and other data remain the s".33 times the design head. Determine the discharge over the spillway section designed in Example 1"1 if the spillway has six bays formed by WES roundnose piers.FERENCES t 1. pp.00. 1. Hydraulic Inve. on the other hand. = 0.shapes under submerged conditions.er!ltioJl of the spillway described in the preceding problem. WEB 4153.l + d)/H.1 the weir after this aeratiol1. and other data remain the s3me.. and 1.ce proiiles for. Dat.J + d)/ H" the flow is of type 1.). Under this condition.78. Determine the rating curve of the gate: i. Bulletin 3.ne. is FIG: 1410. or flow of type 2. determine the spillway section required ill Example 141.S. .. assuming"'!):!:! piers. 990. I . Determine th.J is the drop from the upper pool to the tail·· water elevation. and no Jump occurs. negative presSure~ under tlie nappe of 9.5 ft has a crest length of 64 ft and a coefficient of discharge equal to 3. During te~ts on the o.. If t. The cross section AA shows the variations of ha/H.ter depth. Prob.lues oi (h. greater than 0. ' 147. A trialanderro. 975. (2) su bcritical flow involving hydraulic jump. 1410.ge of the discharge coefficient for unsubmerged flow (Fig.radius is installed on top of!l.lder Canyon Praject Final Reparl$. Determine the rl>ting curve' by the Beadle. Compute the increase ill the t. The position of t. given iI.0 instead of E1. (3) flow accompanied by a drowned jump with diving jet. Submergence of spillway or weir will reduce the coeflicient of discharge of the corresponding ullsubmerged flow. submerged spillway flow are shown for different values of (hrl + d)/li.l flow conditiollS are also shown. determine the spillway section required in. l!!2. For large 'm. 1948. Studies of crests for overfall da!llll. the flow is of type 4. near 5.y developed ill Exarnple 141.10.. 1417) h. These were selected from the data of the Bureau of Reclanul. William P. 143 if the tailwater elevation is at El. discharge of the spiihvay designed ill.0. 2 It was found thltt the.! pattern of the curves shows that. 1413. and A4/H.388 UAPlD!wY VAlUED FLOW FLOW OYER SPILLWAYS secoD~. If the upstream fa.
II.para&e no. 613614. .. 29.. 49. BQussinesq: "Theorie approchee de l'ecoulemellt de l'eau sur un d8\'el'. paper 1345. pt. pp. ·]:. International Commission on Large Darns of the World Power Cbnfcrence. Brater. William J. vol. 1951. August. and associated appurtp. John C. 19. no. 9th year. 362363.)w over terminal weirs n. Calvin Victor Davis (editorinchief): "Handbook oi Applied Hydraulics. Hyd"aulic~ D·iviGion. 1905. Rehbock: Discussion on Precise weir measurements.9. sp.tiques de l'ecoulement dans Ill. Bl'adley. 1952. 115. Carter: Discharge characteristics of rectangular thinplate "'eirs. Dec. 9~82.in t:f.. 'Hh ed. 16. HYS. P"oceed. Hickox: Aeration of spillways. pp. 15. Rating curves for 110w over drum gates. American Society of Civil Enginee1'S. no. vol. JOIL1'1lal. W. 21. chap. Hudl'aulics Division. American Society of Civil Engineers. William P: Cre·ager: "Engineering for Masonry Dams. 194215. JulyAugust. Giu'lio De Mn. Carl E. Bu. Traut'~ine. Editorial review entitled Development of dams in France. William P. 11431162. pp. COYM. 26. 31.obert B. Tranlluclio1lS. Harris.S.ye\' on steep slopes. 185. U. . vol. Army Corps or Engineers.Shington. vol. 105124. VDJ. Lane and Calviu V.. 12121233. Auroy: Les eV2. 23. Inc. McGra"'Hill Book Company. 253289.. 231244. merican Society of C1:vil Enoineers.India. Bulletin 22. 164. A. EngiMel'8' Club of Philadelph. pp. Tran. New Delhi. lCindsvaterancl Rolla. American Society of Civil EnOl:neers." revised by Ernest F. Blaisdell. 1951. Engineering Expm:"!enl Station. 293305. no." 2d ed.nd controls. 95. 1932. U Ene?'gia eleUrica. vol. Transactions of the 4th Conqresson Large Dams. 25. by Emest W.· A. seL 6. 3. n. Nov. 109. 259310..923. 1:67. J ollrnal. A. Anton Grzywienski: Anti~vacuum profiles for spillways of large dams. 1891. E. J. GanguE and S.. 393148. separate no. 19. 1619. . Spillways and Streambed Protect jon Work~! by Emory W. pp. 1950. Inc. Milano. no. vol. Obolensky: Etude de quelque~ caracteri. . 119.zin's data were reprinted almost eutirely by G. .ger and. 15.er rouurled crests. vol. 1949. 571950. 5. International Commission on Large Dams of the World Power Conference. 1935. 93. Hydmulics Diviiion.. Charies 'V. 1. 4.ia. 7. WlI. CongresS1. pt. pp. pp. pp. American Society of. vol. of Chastang Dam). 1890. 1954. 10. liTigation and Power. H.. "oJ. pp. PI'ocecdings. July 18.1. vol. H. p . India. by D. 185194. . 7 vol. 445520. K. Univen":t!! of W(Jahington. FLOW OVER SPILLWAYS 391 . pp. December. 2. 12. pp. 1st h~lfYl'" pp. vol. ser. New Delhi. of ihe Central Board'of Irrigation and Power. 1954. partie aval des evacu!l.no. April." 2d·ed. Ba. McGrawHill. p.57.. pp. .Y. 9. 32. by Freel W. January.C. Bauer. 3. August. vol. N. "Handbook uf HydrE:. vol. BIL1'CaU oj Recla.nce~. 22. Hydraldic Report. Joseph: N. N. Engineering. 2. des pants at chaussees. Schoder and Kenneth B. 1'01.tions for overflow spillway discharges. Engincering Ne1ll8Rec01'd. no. paper 1452. 1890. vol.3. Escande: "Barrages" ("Dams").~oi. Transa. Journal. P:oceeding~. ser. 1893. pp. New York. 17. 1U). M. • 14.S.J i i 390 RAPIDLY YARTED FI.57. 16 pp. . New Delhi..paper 1453. T. 403420. Brudenell: Flow o." John Wiley & SOllS. 1950. paper. 2d haHyr. Harrold: Discussion on Equn. Paris.tienneCan tales (Dams and hydr. 1894. Transa~ 20. 28. J. E:andaswamy and Hunter Rouse: Characteristics of fl. A.nd W. Smetana: Etude de la surface d'ecoulement des grands barrages (Study of flow profile of hrge dams). 119. 1954. JansGn: Flow characteriRtics on the ogee spillway.. 7. American Society oj Civil Engineers. 83. pp. 7.· J. 1929. 1898.4143. 4274. Hyd3fl9. American SoCiety of Ciua Engineel's. pp. English translation of the first part h~ Arthur Marichal and John C. 6.ms and hydroelectric power stations in France. 1888.~ac1.. Paris. 2. no. 482. Inc.cimemi: Sullo. 2.ions. . Barragesusines de I' Aigle at de Ss. 249357. 481511. pp. 1\)50. Boo Buehler: Discussio'l on Rating curvp. 26.3 for flow over drum ga&es. 1954. 19. Ettore S. G. 2d halfyr. K.Book Company. Douma: Discussion on De5ign of side walls ia chutes and spillways.onaZ Documents 41*6 and 4147. F. 30. Fred W. nQ. 49G588.. 7. pp. 113. B1(. Hye. Civil Engineel·s.refJ.Mo. no.194i. La Houille blanche. pp. Paris. 1. Miss. Sec.'!. sec. 80. January. ' .. vol. energy dissipators. Bradley. 421428.~er.nd sills. . 13. K. Y.: en mince paroi at sans contraction latentle" ("Theoretical Approach to the Flow over a Knifeedge Weir wit. 1'36. vol. 1st halfyr.ndardization of the relaxation tl'eatment of systematic pressure comput[l. January. 119. E. vol. lIIemo·ires et documents. Paris. lB.. ings. . 106. 19. U.(The spillways.. 8. 1955. Trava1~x.. Ross N. 7.rol. Tmnsa. 25. 35..hout Side Contraction n). no. 1954.. ser. Davis. vol. December. 1952. Blaisdell: Equ!\tion of the freefallIng nappe. August. Revue generaLe ·del'hydrauliqlle.sulle dighe tracimanti (Experimental study on overflow dams). L. VIII in Hunter ROllse (editor): "Engineering Hydraulics:" Joh!'. March. . vViley. pD. American Society of Civil Engineers.teurs de surface (Study of some flow oharacteristics in the downstream part of spillways). .tion.dions. no. Am"'ican Society of Civil Eng·ineers. 1954.on of the freefalling nappe. 1930. Proceedtngs. 3S.: Turbulent boundery la. New York. A. Wat. 16. 1928. Annalide?: lavori pubblid. 259263. 1952. Loudon. pp. D. 537556. 1952. pp. vol.. Inc. J. An analysis of the weiI' coefficient for suppressed weirs.erways Experiment Station. & Sons.l. Justin: "Hydroelectric Handbook. revised in subsequellt years. paper read before a joint meeting of the Insti&ution of Civil Engineers and the British Section of the Societe des Ingeuieurs Civils de France. vol.l D. 661f·8G. Albany. 645731. 33. Elevatorski: Trajectory bucke~type energy dissipators. vol. Proceedings. June 1. vol.rchi: Riccrche sperimentali . 14." prepared for OlIiGe of the. July. and ser. 111. 121164. Hermann & Cie.S. Crea. New York. vol. Jr. 'l'few York Sta/e 1l1~se141n.Jor.u of Reclama. March. 11. 9. 1553.. 4. vol. Research study Qn soilling basins. John Wiley & Sons. Gumensky.. no~ 4. Yicksburg. 1892j and voL 10. H. forma delle vene tracimanti (The form of flow over :weirs). . 1937 .. Transactions. American Society of Civil Engineil1·s. Inc. pp. H. Pl'.lletin 85. P. 80. 34. Th. tions of the 4th Congress on Lal·gs Dams. pp.. no. 15.OW f. lQOOj o. 7.s Uti barrage de Chastang . 46.cuateurs de crue. American Socie(~ of CivaEngineB1's. 1929. 364368. Pro I l . 1907.. 4. U. pp. 83. 1948. Trcnsaction. April. Hlf. pp. 1947. 187'209.itre and S. pp. Chief of Engineers. 624. Roy: On the st. . 7.mation. New York. pp. Rafter in Report on special water'Supply investigation. 1944. HY4. Coyne: Latest development of do. vol. Horace William I\:ing.Cilms.ulics. Engincering Monograph No. no. 1957. pp. TlJrner.oplants of Aigle and SaintEtienneCantales). l51264. Proceedingl. by Joseph N. . 2c1 halfyr. pp. R. pp. '1'h~ Journal. 7. 5. 12.. ?p. pp.nd Hydro[ogy of the State of New York. 8a. Grenoble. Rome. BradlEY: Discharge cQefficients for irregular overfall spillwaYB. . No. 27. 2d quarteryr. 34. 1955. Bazin: Experiences nonveiles sur l'ecoulement en deversoir (Recent expcrim·ents on the !low of water over weirs).i I \ . .&i. 6. 7. "Corps of Engineers Hydraulic D'"sign Criteria. 1896. IppeJJ: Channel transitions n. 110. pp. Annc!le. 9.
Army Engineers lVaierway.'l' DiVi8jon. 1\)5B. The results thus obtained. POlljf!. E. characteristics of I'lllbn:terged spillways. " ~~\).' . Ferri':' day and Merriman (1894) [5]. the jump may become so pronounced that.it is der Wass6rsprung. W(ltel"S'llP1I1V CLnd 111''i~'Q.. 1900. Nebbia (1940) [20]. however.te University of Iowa. . 4875. 1 This led [3] (1828) to distinguish between mild (subcritical) ::md (supercl'itical) . II. The hydraulic jump was first . 43. Master's thesis. June. Flol'idp": Model investigation.u of Redamalion. Safranez (1927) [12]. Iowa City. and o. The hydraulic jump is also known as a.jump in Italian is named il sail a di Bidone (the jtimp of Bidone).S. 15~8). Morgantown spillWay. slopes. it is used (1) to dissipate enel'gy in water flowing over: dams. Febru:::ry. originally uniform flow.)'] Pressure distribution on downstream face of a. J. coefficients and formnl!\S. 42. Bar Shan.nc.l' level in the ~ The experit'nellt was made ill Paris in 181. the. results were quoted by many writers. Vicksburg.ineers. =For a. Report of the Board' of Engineers on Deep Waterways.tive to submerged dams. . in 1818. U. . 1950.am (1958) [2'1J.25]. POl./. Forster and Skrinde (1950) [23]. U. Blaisdell (1948) (22J. Outstanding contributors to OUI' present knowledge about the hydraulic jump a. Army Engineers Wliterwaye Experiment Station. Citrini (1939) [19]. 2 The theory of jump developed in early days is for hOl'izontalor slightly inclined channels in which the weight of water 1. Univers'ity of WisEn!/ineeri"g Blation. see [.lTier in. I 44.n Society of Civil Enrr.ther hydraulic structures mid thus prevent sCQuriug: downstream from the struotures (Art.17.luclecl in the analysis. sta:n."1 the jump has little effect upon the jump beha:/ior and hence is ignored in ~he analysis. Smetana (Hl34) [15.1ke (1936) [17). Woodward and RiegelBeebe (191'7) [9]. Master's thesis. 'Arnerica. .lion Paper 200.S. p. Kennison (1916) [8]. 1. lVIis". III honor of Bidone.tiic LabonJ.published report.y and lock a.16J. Practical applications of the' hydraulic jump are many. submerged weir. . CHAPTER 15 JUMP AND ITS USE AS ENERGY IHSSIP ATOR 151. Horton: Weir experiments.pproach. 1(och and Carstanjen (1926) (lOJ.l1uels encountered in engineering problems. 1. see (251. ) 1 I M3 . Bulietin 67. 41. pt. i\I. Escande (H)38) [18]. Gibson (1913) [7]. an Italian. The Hydra1!1ic Jump. it must be i. lIl). the weight effect of water il).! S1:11!8y.14]. nual Memera1Ull/lI. U.S.s Experiment S'(. J. Speciaf tests. Llndquist(1927) [I1J.nd Bazin (18fi5) [5]. . 19:'*9. pp. Bradley] Studies of flo'\v characteristics.lyry Repor! 182 HH5.S.. it is called Ie ressm. since he had observed that in steep channels hydraulic jump is fre~ quently produced by a.tll~ul'a1 a. N. Sta.tment of the sllbject. 1952. 1928. Einwachter '(1933) [13. 2340. Bm'ec.nd pressure relo. Hydm. Glen Nelson COltl The ~ubmerged weir as a measuring device. 291..tdique .2]. pp.I J. Bakhmeteff and Mat.nd thus maintain high wate. Geologica. Colorado Agl'ic. hycil'Alllic . discharge a. Rotlse. lCindsvatel: (1944) (21]. 8iM. In French. Fort. Spillwa. R.S. and Nagaratl'l. 37. abundant studies 'were made and the. and mallY others. Jim Woodruff Apalachicola River. Darcy. For channels large slope. For a mathematical trea.nd Mechanical College. ' ' 40.a. 392 RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW ceedings. J oul'nal.8 and re'pul'ted the following year in [11. .di1lg wave.. " ' 38.1 hlldra. U. b!l. 1951.~ experimentaU}' by Bidone [1.o"D"f'i".!lio~ :i'cch. OolliIlS. applied to most cha. In German. Board of Engineers. Mal'.(2) to recover head Dr raisethe water level all the dovvnstream side of a measuring flume El. 1907. U. compreltsnsive review of the studies 011 hydraulic jump. December. voL 84" no.reBresse (1860) [4].
Relation between FJ and y. ~ 18 rt~r il ~ 16~4+~+~74'] ~ 14 11I'++1I<trtr rtt"TlV++II+I11. and ado.I. Bureau of Reclamation (34. 4~~+7L~l+r'I'''+1 2 17't.· irrigation or other waterdistribution purposes. but the downstream wa. the curve in Fig... design for hydraulic jumps. z .J \ V f o L. ~ ~: .394 RAPID!.f+l . A hydraulic ~"'" jump will form in the chan:nel if the ~ . For Fl = 1.7 Undular jump 'depth 1/2 satisfy the equation (321) 1 . a series of small rollers develop on the surface of the ..___ Froude number Fl of the flow. see [29]. and (8) to remove air po./m7/..~.. The device is intended to increase the effective head.pron and thus reduce uplift pressure under a masonrystructul'e by raising ~he watel' depth on the apron..' 2.. For jumps :in closed conduits. According to t.vnstream :'i7~/'/I/m/ff&///.7 to 2.ll oscillating jet enteririg the jump bottom to surface and back again with no periodicity. This jUIl'Ip may be called a weak Jump. ..l (5) to indicate '15.. see [33J. Types of Jump./I. V anons types of hydraulic Q .. there is:J..· the water surface showa undulations.5. since the effective head will be reduced if the tailwater is allowed to drown the jump. 1"1' 11. • jump. Hydraulic W~%'?///ff).Y V AEIED FLOW HYDRAUUC JUMP AND ITS USE AS ENERGY DISSIPATOR 395 channel fo).5 to 4.'_'_'_. .cillali~g jump jumps on horizontal floor are of severai distinct t.. found very useful in the analysis and '.jump.F IG. 151.. and hence no jump can form. see [30J and [31J. the flow depth.7/#"W~.'l"///.~&.0 that a gaging station may be located. The velocity throughout is fairly uniform. such as the eJiiistence of supercritical flow or the presence of a control section ::. I I r I++jY+r 6 f+. 4.5. (6) to m\x chemicals lIsed for water purification~ and so forth [28J. the flow is critical.j1+8F'1\ Y.+II+++lrt~"i F{ V//9Y.ter sur.'. Each oscillation produces 1 FOT hydraulic jumps in trape1:oidal channels. (4) to increase the· discharge' of a sluice by holding back tail water. and the jump is called an undulm' J·Hmp •."_" i' o '"_~~"_'_~_L __~ 10 12 14 16 18 20 2 22 FIG.. YI.2... these types can be conveniently classified according to the Froude nnillbel' F I of the inF.5 Weak jump has been .ckets from watersupply lines and thus prevent air locking [29J. I I 0 r~Ir" tI/fj+++t~I_Ifl 12 8 t / I 4 5 B I/ .5. Jump in HorizontalRectangular Channels. I l I ( I 1 I "'·"1 .·for a hydraulic jump in a hQrizontal ~ectangular channer..long the channel."..I//I////&/Ih' F. special flow conditions.Y//'/II//.2= ~ (.jy. For Fl = 1 to 1. 1 This principle hRS been applied by Saugey [27] to an interesting device known as fall increaser...ypes. 15~. This equation may be represented by 0'/7/I/./..y ~ . This c'.' 4. .5 Os. For FI = 2... and the energy loss is low.. face remains smooth.J?~ ./)?'/m/////. .1?/.'L72..7..erified satisfactorily with Oscilialiog je 1 many experimental data and will be Railer ?. the energy of flow is dissipated through frictional resistance [l.lrve' F.l For supel:critical flow in a hodzo'utal rectangular ch~nnel.a'7. (3) to increase weight on an a. 151." 15 7 3.0 Steady jump coming flow (Fig.W/'///'//'/I7$)'/7#/ . in a 'yaterpower plant during periods of flood by holding b!\ck tail water from the outlet of the draft tube by a hydraulic jump. (7)" to aerate water for city water supplies.32).!t'.:~"".S. as follow's: For FJ = 1. 152).he studies of the U.35]. . ..and [...59. resulting in a decrease in velocity and an increase in depth i n · ' the direction of flow. For a general treatment of nonrectangular channels.
Several bf1sic characteristics of the hydraulic jump in horizontal rectangular channels are to be dis~ cussed below: E'nergy Loss. Experiments have shown that the tral1sition from annndular jump to a direct jump takes place appro:dmateJy D. The above dlscusslOn applIes to hOrI .ed damage to earth banks and ripraps.Ft Fw. of Yl El where hi/El is the relativ8'he1'ghl. 3. such curves will show clearly the formation.y be noted: 1. efficiency. Cha!:a. the downstream extremity of the surface roller and the pl)int at'which the highveloci. resulting in a channel are functions of F 1.396 RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW HYDRAULIC JUMP AND ITS USE AS . The energy dissipation' ranges from 45 to 70 This i llmp may be called a steady jmnp. Expressing each term as a ratio with respect to. rel2_tive height. The loss of ellergy in the jump is equal to the LHJ. The jump action j. All these ratios can be . The characteristic curves will provide the dcslgnel' with a general idea about th~ range of conditions under which the structure is to be operated.~ rougb but effective since the energy dissipation may reach 85 %. involving a jump below the FOl'instan'ce. the initial specific energy. 2. ydEJ.Vl.II F12 + 8F 12 +2 3 (152) Since the relative loss. 'With reference to these curves.5 to 9. The ratio of the specific energy after the jump . is .9. The relative loss is equal to 1 Ed E 1 . .73. TIlls Jump may be called Em.2(2 + Fl2) This equation indicates that the efficiency of a jump is a dimensionless function.ximum relaLive depth yz/E1 is 0. and relative initial. When Fl 1.t its best. Veiues of . hi El = .t'this point Fl = 1."u as the relative loss. or hi = Ya .to tha. For Fl = 4. very commonly in canals. the changes in all characteristic ratios become gradual.0 and the highvelocity jet grabs intermittent slUgs of \Vater rollmg down the front hce of the jump. thcy c['.the relative seqtwnt depth. The maXinmltl relative height J'4/E1 is 0. which occurs at vrf El = 0. in the design ofu sluice gate.t before t. VdE 1 is the 1'elativeinitial depth. jump f~r diifelel:t gate openings under a given head.E/E 1 is kno. When inol'eMes. which OCClll'S at Fl 27~ .ENERGY DISSIPATOR 397 I a~large wave ofirregul/1. The jump is ' wellbalanced and the performance iS3. This jump may be called a . . For example.slronq j11mp. and sequent depths of a hydraulic jump in a ·horizontal rectangular F 1. depending only on the Froude mnnber of the approaching flow.shcnvn to be dimensionless functions of F 1.73.:e! for mi!Gs doing unlimit. Effic'ienc'!J·.of the. The action and position of this jump are lea.!"'! " " in specific energies before and after the jump. and set of characteristic curves (Fig. can tra.4F 1z + 1 El = BF. . this also is a dimensionleas function F 1.above for the various typea of junip are not clearcut but overlap to a certain extent depending on local conditions. 15~~1:.n be plotted. 153.The difference between the depths after and before the jump is the he£(!ht of the j11mp.t sensitive to variation in tai1wate1' depth. It can be shown that the efficiency is Ez (SF l 2 + 1)'1> .0.. He1:ght of J1~mp. It can be shown that the loss is (324) The ratio 6.8.4 and F1 = 1.cteristic curves of hydnwlic jumps in horizontal rectangular channels. For F 1 = .he jump is defined as the efficiency of the iump. and a rough surface can prevail. generating Wlwes downstrenm.o:. the following interesting features ma. oscillating jump. Basic Characteristics of :the Jump.r~period which. the flow is critical and YI Yz %E1 • 4. !t should be noted that the ranges of the F'roude number given . . The m!:.507. 153).ty jet tends to leave the flow occur at practically the same vertical section.
2 ' I 'It is possible that at least part of this discrepancy is due to.( I ·1 ! I '. :3.' this curve ma.S.tely to jumps formed in kapezoidal channels. Since the jump in the latter case .he matter has Jed to the belief that this disagreement is due to the scale effect involved in B8.__. For horizontal nomectangular channels.37J.red.!m.s nOG faithfully reproduced in the model. . Furthermore."" =i r I I. the jump will occur in a horizontal rectangular channel if the initial and sequent depths and the approaching Fl'oude number 8atisfy Eq.'P ~::. jump occurs in a supercritical flow when the depth changes abruptly to its sequent depth.!.e rough SudClce 1 j IS 20 lUI'fIP4fTlP Sleady lump s. 156.'rlacp. or L/yz.' lurbulenr. The length of a jump may be defined as the distance measured from the front face of the jump to a point on the surface immediately dowIlstream from the roller. however.ommendations of u. (Bt. Length in terms of sequent depth y.Vlo. but the scattered data failed to define the curve8 B. L/Y2 is desirable. In the absence of' adequate data.35] obtained from six test flumes.J c:ofloilior. . rL=i ROII. 154. (321)... Perfect agreement was found between the yJ/E 1 curve and the data. This theoretical condition is generally used to locate the position of a jump. Bl!rerwof BeclallwUon [34].tion [34.illtlliJiCj I f.. .lorizontal channels./E1 curves and the data was good for high Fl values. regulariflY or a fairly :flat portion for the range of wellestablished jumps.·7 f.'..r curves for jumps helow a fr'ee overfalL The profiles shown by lVIoore rise more rapidly at the beginning than do Bakhmeteff and lVIatzke's proiile".E/E l recommended by the Bureau is shown by the dashed line (Fig.e only A~''P'Ob''T .CCUmtely forF l <:..... F::' !.s. but it has been investigated experimentally by. In comparing this curve with the wellknown BakhmeteffMatzke curve [17]. I + r~~ ~ /.)' f. Bureau of Reclama.shows .. \ I Bureau of Reclamation data [34. how . Location of Jump. a~d the engineers of the U.E/E l curve and the data was f!lirly good except for PI < 2. 154 was cleveloped primarily for jumps occurring in rectangular cha. give values of yl/ Eland hi / EI about 3 to 4 % greater than the experimental values. L/Y2 (. Moore's length of jump was about 20% longer than that shown by the BakhmeteffMatzke curves.sed all dala and rer. This length cannot be deter': mined easily by theory. many hydrauliciaus. The experimental curve for t. A curve of FI vs. Moore at the California Institute of Technology 140}. IS FIG.~ may also be pl'epa. IJ I .vas formed downstream from a regUlating sluice.'. ! F"V.398 RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW l r HYDRAULIC JUMP AND ITS USE AS ENERGY DlSSIPATOR 3[}9 zontal rectangular channels.n. Length of Jump.r~ yll . 1.bly the best. who found that these curves. . Knowledge of the surface profile of a jump is desirable in designing the freeboard' for the retaining walls cif the stilling basin where the jump takes place.) The experimental data Oil length of jump can be plotted conveniently with the }<'roude number PI against a dimensionless ratio. pronounced disagreement was found.xperimelltal data. Theoretically speaking.£.~~i~19b~i. For a closer estimate of the jump positi()ll. The agreement between the yziE l and h.Y2 VI~'''''''''''''''''''''' ?:?r" /~/.I 4 T ~tld\llor 1/ li'eolOS(. L/(Y2 .etion wn. The plot of F 1 vs. It is believed that this is because t. L/Yl. 7 I I6 1 ~ 1/ L II Y.S. The curve shown in Fig. I I I i I I lC IS 16 11. b "I ... The agreement between the E2/El or t.'.y also be applied approximEl. Swit~erland [381. Bakhmeteff and Matzke at Columbia University [17).'I'I// /. Araviri in Russia [391. .ion in the jump wasIlot registered properly by the piezometri"c measurements for Bakhmeteff and Matzke's data. ' For practical purposes.p. Among them Safranez at the Technical University of Berlin [36.jump per lotm:Jnt. This scale effect means that the prototype ::I..8esl perto~rnOl1ce 3 6 jlimp I I I 1/ I" I I I ! Sirang. Hydraulic. as shown in Fig.'1'.35J. 153). '"l . the EUrface' profile of a hydTaulic Jump can be rcpresented by dimensi6nle:3s curves for various F 1 vaJues. of jumps in l. 154) based on the experimellt11] data of six test flurries has been prepared by the Bureau of Reclamation... The theol'e~ical curves for y2/ Eland hi/ E 1 have been verified experimentally by Bakhmeteff and Matzke [17].he nonhy?rostaticpressllt'e distribut. the scale effect of the testing model (see next article).. Bakhmeteff and Matzke [17J have found that. ' On the basis of their e.. the plot of Fl YS. Moore [40] has developed simil8.55. The Surface Profile. It is important also for determining: the pressure for use in structural design.. \Y6ycicki at the Federal Institute of Technology in Ziirich. Investigation of 1. similar curve.. I I i I I I I I ! I ! I I I I I I ! I I . 155.Fig.nnels.khmeteff and Matzke's experimental data.s I 3 o T 2 I I I I I I /I I 9I I 10 I II I 12 . because the resulting Qurve. because experiments have shown that the vertical pressure on the horizontal Hoor under a hydraulic' jump is practically the same as would be illdicatedby the watersurface ~fi~. ' 15:"7. 5 II . for the resulting curve can be best defined by the data.yD. I The characteristic curves were also checked with U. lack of agreement may be caused by a difference in the velocity profile of the shooting flow entering the jump. L/y I is probn.
opening. conti"acta. ENERGy 'DISSIPATOR A' • 401 ever.• ke (lata [17J. Slllce . 0..5 ijl'l<:>f7"7''b''0. the length of the jump can be estimated.ively.. .4 ij. by.the .nce EF measures the length of the jump. cil'cular orifice is located approximately at a.in front of t~e sluice.¥.=4.) { J. The rule of half orifice diameter was originated by Weisbach [421. 1'Ol~·~nI J 'i F. jet that possesses a vena.tfMal .ween the curves A'B and CD can be found equal to the length of jump.8· .!L to the sluice opening is usually short.I"IA+~t 1 3 x 4 5 7 8 /h j FIG. HYDRAULIC JUM? AND...drowned out. 1 This rule was first used by Agroskin [41J. 0. increasing the downstream water depth or raising the curve CD. By trial and error.' . It is baseq.98~ CIJse A F. the horizontal distance EF is equal to the length of the j'Jmp corresponding to the dept..... a horizontal intercept bet. By c "~ .400 RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW·.. iug this distance.A"l'++ F l ' 8. ' 5 ./CI:t'7"+''<++ ~.. 0.. 10. there is.92" I F. For instance.. drclliar orifice and that the 'lena contracta in the flow fro'm lJ. 156. the issuing flow from the sluice will form 0. from the vena contract.. The downstream depth may be raised to such a height that the ju~p will eventually be ...09.. The above discussion applies also to the lo!!ation of a jump fOI'med at the foot of a weir 01' overflow spillway.":.. if the length of the jump were not taken into account in the analysis. The profiles A Band CD c.6 ~ 0.hyz at F..o 1. it can be s£en that. resulting in an error represented by F'F.. distance I)f half an orifice diameter from the orifice. '1'he distance L. When there is a hydraulic jump below a sluice. Fl.1 f. . It becomes apparent thHt the jump will fOl'm between G r. Case C F1G. l ~ Row from a sluice correspond. respeet. F . In case A..3 ltl'f7'tr:.an easily be identified as of J\lI3 and M2 type.5.nd F. (Based on Bakhmeic. +tCase B . 15. Location of a hydraulic jump. 0. The following will illustrate the locaGion of a hydraulic jump in three typical cases (Fig.. .63 0..9 0..~:. It may be noted th~t... Hegitrd. depth at F is sequent to the depth at G und the distll.=2. i 1 ) the position of pI.a generally adopted rule which stc'l.. ITS USE AS. The curve A'B is a plot of the depth sequent to AB.S to onehalf the flow from a. the length of the jump should be considered. Decreasing the' downstream depth PI' lowering CD will move the jump downstream. DimewSlouless snrface profiles of hydraulic jumps in hOl'izontnl channels . t~e jump can be moved up~tream.the jump would have been considered to form at the upstream ]Joint F'. on the assumptions that .53 ~A.rjI. The methods of computing these profiles are discussed in Chap. 156) : Case A shows the jump below a regulating sluice in a mild channel."+nl)Y1rj .tes that the vena contracta is located approximately at a distance h from the sluice .
I:. r. The loca.. the jump wili start to move into the mild channel: In this case.J:VBs are not precisely identica.' Theoretically. I oV o 100 1"10.10 [using Eqs.1". For simplicity.I> is equal to. If the depth Yz is lowered. from Fig. In this example .PIDLY VARIED FLOW . . If the depth Y2 is greater than'YI'. Lo.04 tor IX = l.le 103 if the flow downstream .tion of the jump is the same as that for case B if the jump oecur" in the sLeep region. 37.will Ocettr in the steep region.70 ft. Example 1.0 ft.dually varied.1 15·7. V~/2g and the curve F = 13Q. Lly.nd the downstream flow p::ofile CF D (equa. the barrier will be crossed by a standing swell in the form of a single undular surface rise which will not be followed by further undulations..Sln. The E curve and F curve for the determination of jump location. Increasing.52 and. .6 X 2. the jump .tue of fJ may be ~tima.Qrm but gra. Below the sluice.ted as 1. .. (26) and (27)). is assumed that the flow is uniform in the channel except in the reach between the jump and the break. the discrepancy is so small that it cnn be ignored. ~ . the curve of sequent' depth A'F'B co~respondirig to tile curve of initial depth AGE ClJ. Now. determine a horizontal intercept IJ between A'P and CO that is eq. 157 and following the method described in Art.by the specificenergy and specificforce CU.. However. because the aqtua. I FIG. From the given data. ~E'~_ ~ye ~. Then the surface curve OC is of 81 type.\ I { ! . Case C shows the jump behind an ove"fiowban'ier. The jump may occur in either the steep channel or the mild channel.• 1 £:'!£.s described in case A.the depth Yl' sequent to the approaching sllpercritical depth Ill. ! II . . eCf'el:\.61. as ShOWll by AGB in Fig. the computed critica. the jump can be located a.l depths indicated .! to the nOl'ma.tion. also an approxima.)ate the hydraulic jump in Examp.l.l to L = 3. from the jlllnp is uniform.6. 154..g the heighb wiIi move the jump downstream.is uniform: If the How downstream is not unif. . . When the depth at the barrier is less than the sequent depth y/..t the intersection F' of the downstream profile with the curve A'F'B should be taken as 'iI" This i.n be determined.)00 6 400 ~ B 500 I i '.t E (instead of F/l.~ p~. 158. Solution. InComputing the spenificforce curve. the va.use the length of jump should be based on F a. .67 = 9. however. = 3.1gA + fA. I y 2~ 1 if I 1/' L 1 \/ !I / I .t changes from steep to mild.. depending on whether the downstream depth Y2 is greater or less than the depth y/ sequent to the upstream depth Yl. The initial depth of flow at F' is then found from the M3 profile to be 1. M3proI1l..e . ~~Cc»'  4 / /:/' /.. 2 200 4  I 9 10 Scale (Dr E 600 Scole (." F ::. then the depth a. bR~ . The line A I P indicates the depth sequent to the line AR.· n is apparent that a jump HJ will the section containing J..1 402 CIUl6 RA. becs. 158.. the position of which is as yet unknown. Location of a hydraulic jump. the . a jump will form if the depth at the barrier is greater than .the channel since the flow downstream.pecificenergy curve E = lJ + C!I. is 403 I < i 5f.\ B shows the jump in a channel having a break in the bottom slope tha. lOwing to the difference between. which. The length of the jump is therefore equlJ. approximately to less than y/. The (l/ll'responding F = 1.._ ~. At this point there is an approximation involved.l depth lJ1 should be at F.. the OOrmal depth of flow in . it. the M3 profile has been computed in Example 103.ldepth line in this example) interSect at P'. i i I I I ! I I  i I i I \1 '. I I I JUMP AND ITS 'USE AS ENERGY DISSIPATOR.. the height of the barrier will' mOYe the jump upstream. of the channel may be constructed as sbown in '157.ittl to the length of a jump. Using the curves in Fig. ." and 13.l The curve A'F'B a. . """. is as yet unknown .
nd Y2' (=: Yl) will satisfy (321).eourprotection PlU'POS~s. for further iniormatioll 011 the design of stilling basins. This is possibly the safest case in desi~w. the jump will recede downstream to a pomt ". y). to the depth Y2 sequent to YI.ioned above can be checked.~ shown in Fig.pPI:oximations menf. or sluice. The bottom of the basin is p~wed to resist scouring. because the position of the jump can be most readily fixed . Since the location of the jump is determined. CjJSi! I: Yz ccse 3: yi .oose rubble bed or. apr~n. 159) that allow a hydrnulic jump to form dr}wnstream from the source (such source as an overflow ilpillway. the n. The hydraulic ju~p used for energy dissipation is usually confined pa. and for it quickly reduces the velocity of the flow on a· paved apl'on to a· point. Energy Dissipators. 1959. stabilizes the jump action.. the stilling basin is seldom designed to confine the entire length ofa free hydraulic jump on the paved apron. becoming a submerged jump. In this case.404 RAPIDLY VARIED ']i'LOW ''''P HYDRAULIC JU "'. In designing a stil:ing basin using hydraulio jump as energy dissipator.6 ft iq found uetw". the jump appears to start at a dis. resulting in severe erosion. Such verification seems unnecessary.pron immediately a. the design is no~ efficient. tance of about 140 it fronl the. 158.pable of scouring the downstream channel bed.m the ourve A'fi"B and ·eF'D. some device to control the position of the jump is alw!1Ys necessary. for it improves the dissipation fLU1ction of the basin. vena oontracta. The hydraulic jump will. [4S). 159. be aVOlde~ lD deSign. will take place either on the . Jump Position. repelled from the . In practice. Case 3 represents the pattern in which the tail \V£\. therefore. chutes. a. The control has additional advantages. for little energy will be dissIpated. which will increase the tailwater depth and thus ensure a jump within t. For .i intercept EF equal to 9. the jump will be forced upstream and may finally be drowned out at the source. " 158. because such a basin would be too expensive.' . Consequently. The purpose of surh control.AND ITS USE AS ENERGY DISSIPATOR . As a result. the values of F\. This means that the tailwateI' depth in' ?l1se '1 is decreased ." by E. Case 2 represents the in which the tailwater depth y{ is less l For sinlplicity. One big objection to this pattern. . This case must.tions 'involved in the theory aud other aspects of the prohlem. There are three alternative patterns (Fig. Elevatorski. hydl'iLulic jump is a useful means of dissipating excess energy in l3upercritical flow. a hOI'izonta. (3~21) is again satisfied. Jump as Dissipator. From iL practical viewpoint. A. 1 A.ter depth Y2' is greater than Ya. a chute. and" Hydraulic..After the lrmgth of jump is determined. Its merit is in preventing possible erosion below overflow spillway:?. Effect of tauwllter depth on the formntion of a hydraulic j lInlp below a w"ir .han Y2.. . chm1llel. still m entIrely unprotected . and the jump will occur on a solid a.. Inc.he~Ld of the depth y 1. See [251.rtly or entirely to a chunuel reach that is known as the stilling basin. and more exact determination can be made by repeating the procedure if desired. [341. or a sluice): Case 1 represents the pattern iil which the tailwatel' depth Y2' is equal . however. if possible.here ~q. Unfortunately. the following practical features should COllflidered. because the jump. where the flow becomes incfl.llltted position. A. is to shorten the range . \iowel'er. As a result. Yz FIG. and in some C!lSeS increases the factor of safety.he protected apron. the lellgth of the' hydraulic jump will not be considered in the present discussion. New York. Mc'GrawHill Book Company. 405 . Consequently. (35). occltr between G and fi'. necessoria!: to control the jump u·re usually installed in the basin.t a little difference between the·actual and assumed values of the relevanthydrauliD coefficients may cause the jump to move downstreani from its esti:r.The remedy for the design is to use a certain co~trol in the channel bottom. is tha. this is an ideal case. t. This means that the tailwater depth in case 1 is increased. Oil account of the approxima.within which the jump will take place and thus to reduce the size and cost of the basin.
however. 2. owing to changes in discharge of flow in the channel. yi'toilwa:er depth . a jump rating curve may ~e constructed y~. little energy wilt be dissipatr:!d.S. Class 2 represents the conditions in whic. aitering of dimensiot's ma'y bring the jump into the desirable range. In the above discussion it is assumed that.5to4. 159 exists at all times and that a jump will form at the desired place on a protective apron at all discharges. Arrange" ments of baffles and sills to be discussed later will be found valuable as a means of shortening the length of the stilling basin. 153. . i. Another method is to provide a drop ill the channel floor.frequently encountered in the design of canal structnres.ter rating curve at low discharges but nt a lower stage at high discharges. . As the Fronde number inereases. thUd forming a jump at high dischatges.59 occurs at all times (i. 1510).h the jump rating curve is always at a higher stagetha. I ~ Cose 2 '~rJU~"p "'0 1 ~ Clfin g \' '"m. or greater than the sequent depth Yi.. the tail water depth is lower than the jump sequent depth) and that the jump will form at a certain place far downstream.' toilwcler rating ~ ~ : . 4.lf!cribed in Art. Conditions of thisolass are mrely encountered naturally. No particular difficulty is encountered in steady jumps. 1510): Class 1 represents all ideal conditions in which the two rating curves always coincide. 154.. alJd thus to lower the tailwater depth (Art.s difficult to handle. /. Class 4 represents the conditions in 'which the jump rating curve is at a higher stage than the tailwD.35J gives the following practical considerations: 1.. Because of the difference in the relative positions of the two rating curves. in other cases. less than. Tail'W((. An effective method of ensuring that the I i jump will occur on the protected apron is to use sills to create a stilling basin (Art. 3. the tail water is higher than the sequent depth) and that the jump will move upstream and will probably be drowned out at the Source. . 159). to show the relation between the sequent depthY2 and the discharge Q.e. In~.equent de'plh.s as low as 8. view of the various types of hydraulic jump df.e. The Ollly requirement necessal'Y is to provide the propel' length of a pool. The oscillating jump. Waves are the main source of difficulty. 1. This means that case 3 in Fig. .•r . 159 exists at all times (i. 406 RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW HYDRAULIC JUMP AND ITS T!SE AS ENERGY DISSIPATOR 407 B. " :::' ~ " :::' " '" " (. An effective method to ensure a' jump is to increase the tail water depth sufficiently high by providing a stilling pool. diversion dams. This means that case 1 in Fig. In most practical problems. Bureau of Reclamation [34. In such cases. This can be determined from Fig. Class 3 represents the cot'ditions in which the jump rating curve is always at a lower stage than the tail water rating curve. <>ilL ~ Coso. Consequently. The slope of the apron can be such that proper conditions for a jump will be developed on the apron at aJl discharges. Class 5 represents the conditiona in which the jump rating curve is at a lower stage than the tailwater rating curve fit low discharges but at a higher stage at high discharges. jumps in the 2.." >'C N <: 'C <: >. An effective method to ensure n jump is to provide a stilling basin for forming a jump at low discharges and to combine with the basin a sloping apron for developing a satisfactory jump at high discharges. C. Discharge Q Discharge Q Cose :3 Cose 4 Cose 5 .ter Conditions. the U. the tail water has a celtain fixed position. a tailwater rating curve is U!lUaHy available to show the relation between the tailwatcl' stage Yz' and the discharge Q. Baffle blocks 01' appurtenances are of little va:lue.5 Froudenumber range shollid be avoided. Fig. Discharge Q '" '" co '" " Disc horg e 0 '" ~ '" '" '" FIG. Leliavsky (43] has suggested that the design may be considered according to five different classes of condi tions (shown respectively by fLVe cases in .n the taiIwater rating curve. An effective method to ensure a jump is to build a sloping apron above the channer·bed level (Art. the jump becomes more sensitive to taihvater depth. For Froude numbel. .. whether its depth YI' is equal to. Classification of tailwater conditions for the design of scourprotection works. 5. The weak jump requires no baffles or special consideration. the tai~water fil.. a tailwater depth ~. ::mcl eVen outlet 'Yorlcs. ThiS means that case 2 in Fig. ~ I Tailwoter roting . 1516). If possible.. J'urnp Types.!ctuates. which is relatively short. All types of jump are encountered in the design of stilling ba5ins. I ·1 . 1510.. hence specially designed wave suppressors may be used to cope with them. '" "". In a similar way. In many cases use of this jump cannot be avoided but.
. number Fl or F of the approachingflo\~) the height 12 of the approaching depth Vl.t the toe of !I.ion. the control of hydraulic jump by s~lls can be analyzed by t. re"C~Ll weir.. d th dep! tIl y upstream from the Well'. Onthe other h!lD. . [45]1 p. In this case. . The hydraulic jump can be controlled or effected by sills of various designs..1 1 .' d h glf. 159.ULIC . cletermme ana Y .. A ~:!~~~~ ~:~i:S~:~:~:!~:.l1. of a (TivBJ.0 a ~ gh' er· the length of the basm " .over t?e :33 .d. 8. the depth Y2 upstream from the aill. the overflow will be thrown up and alit so th!lt it will strike a solidrock channel.) ~~:l~ati~ between the distance X fram approachmg dept Yl. The function of the sill is to ensure the formation of a jump and to control its position under all probable operating conditions. ff t th discharge over t he. an "uY2~iellt to ~nsure a complete jump.ollsidered safe for the down..d· The ratio is taken as constan sented by the ra:10 between. the lengt ._~. 6. .:I v:lue .er an . Interesting experiments [46J have shown that the forces acting on the sill in a jump decrease rapidly to a minimum as the downstream end of the jump is moved upstream to a position approximately over the silL The force then increases slowly to a constunt .. ul1su'bmerged conditions pteya~l . cannot be exact pOSItIOn of the Jump. This change in force on the sill is probably due to a change in the velocity distribut. such as sharpcrested weir. and the downstream depth 1/3 may be expressed as as . · . ~:) (153) This function can be determined quantitatively by model studies.ilwater is low. and) generally spe&king. since llonuniform distribution of velocity is· a characteristic of such rapidly varied flow. if any.trated theoreticn. A bucket of dissipator 1 may give comparable results at lower cost. the momentum in the nonuniformdistribution section is greatly increased.y by Bakhmetcfi [27]. For useful design information one has to rely upon e. b tween the well' heIght h an t e the appr~achln~ ~ow.Dl =. 0'. 1 . mtatyh' be a ee stream channel condit. t . . .alue f. in each tes~1 hav!llg a m~gn~tud~till~ basin should be made at lea~t In the deSIgn. Well' Cle} <.n can be repre." SENERGY DISSIPATOR 408 RAP'LDLY VARIED . ev I EniDRA. ".5~~ Or~inarilY. ~ ( F.mong· . d Sk 'nde [231 have eve ope a h an d th'Coretical analYSIS ' l' orst.s the jump is moved farther upstream. (A.not be retaining wall is required.t that iil pro• . As a result. 1 This condition was first observed by Bazin (see reference [12] of Chap. very dj'lep basin with high basin may . ~."h t the norm. Dimensional a::mlysis shows that the relations the Froude. (Fin. later demon:.if ~he ta.' . . . and ~. brcadcrested weir.. .m from the bucket and tend to mo~e bed materials toward the dam..nd Arts. 14) find . of ex )el'imental data 'd d th t the high bottom velocities :l I Control by Sharpc1'e$ted Wetr. d 1 f cally In the rno e s u YI . . .1 . On the baSIS d. T II.:'l. . however. . t. .1 • . pIovlded t a. an. a stilling basin using the jump a dissipator may no longer be the most economical dissipatiun device. X .: +O~..ter.i1water is high enough t:o submerge the bl~cket. at a safe distance below the dam. Control of Jump by Sills.1 d ·d'a. Because of lack of accurate of the velocity distribu" tim!.1. h' to the well: an e 2 " toe 0 f t e Jump. equa1.~perimental studies.'. 1511.1511) showing the relatIOns D.l. Experimental relal. Theoretically: speaking. JUMP AND ITS USE A " 409 . an o· . See [44). When the Froude number is than 10.ion from one end of the jump to the other.brupt rise and drop in channel floor. F hIli !lnd Xly~ for FIG. n (1) Froude numb ei'F 0 f .". The cost of the commensurate with the results obtained.l weir for known This pe~mrts an ana !~IS 0 . . the difference between the initial and sequent depths is great. ~~X:~ ~o...jler Fm'Bte1' "'Id Bhinc/e [23J. :Ii. f the effec. 1<110 and 1 4 .. 9 .l tailwater anproach and tallwater condItions. (2~ ~. thus preventing Eel'io~!s scour at the toe of the dam:. 'st. The 1 This is \Ipturned bucket provided a.. a d l t d this positio. however. ·scont~olled by the sill. the distance X from the toe aLthe jump to the sill..lons among. the theoretical analysis cannot predIct the quantitative result very closely..w X }i'<lr economiC reasons.FLOW greater than the sequent depth is advisable to make certain that the jump will stay on Hm apron. . . roller wiU form downstrelj.he momentum theory. If tlle ta. sp'illway to deflect the ov·erflow up :through the tailw!l.
this curve may be usecL as. Points lying to the right.Y3/Yl) lying above the line Va "" Yz represents the condition of Y3 > Yz in which the abrupt rise would serve only to increa. Yz h ( + ) ~. it ma~r be crossed only by a single undular surface rise. Laboratory expedence has shown that the highest required weir does not necessarily occur under conditiollSOf maximum discharge [20].de [23J.vation than an abrupt rise.se the dl'owllirlg effect.es the relation between h/Yl and F and can be plotted .allge of Thus.' . A broadcre.forced upstream and possibly drowned at the sonrce. In the diagram.667:F 2 (1 . so that the jump will be forced dO'wllstreal1l and possibly washed out.. is too high. + ya! YI }tIy2. if Ys < (2Y2 + h)/3.~ted weir has certain advantages in comparison with some other types of control. as the curve shown in Fig. and 11.) "hit for a broadcre~ted weir. provided stilling basin Yl < (2Y2 + h)/3. ift11e downstream depth is lower than the critical depth OIl wp of the weir.experimental range between the lines for Ya Y2 and Y3 y. 1512. Y{hen the weir is as low as this. Forster :and Skrinde (23J have found that this curve coinddes ·with the: experimental data for an abrupt rise with y~ = Yo for X = 5(h + Ya).ltions among F. jump control.d by the weir. that is. Points lying above and to the left of an interpolated curve represent the conditions under which the weir is t.h/Vl)' If the point lies within t. if the point lies on the corresponding hllh curve. It has greater structural stability than a sharpcrested weir and usually requires lower cost of exc[1. (321). B.!}'. and h/Yi of an abrupt rise for X 5(11 Ya). with its relative position indicated by the corresponding interpolated value of X/Y2. the jump is forced upstream with possible drowning as a . H can be reduced to = Yz II. . .l1ge of as determined from the diagram. (154) F'IG.F . ~ 2r~+1~~~~~····~············r~1 6 Values of F. Fora point lying wit.) + When a hydmulic jump is effecte. \ This is (317) except that 1" is replaced by 11" J .433 ~ 'H:. ControZ by Abrupt Rise. For design purposes.) 410 RAPIDlJYVARIED FLOW HYDRAULIC JUMP AND ITS USE AS ENERGY DISSIPATOR 411 a wide l. Despite the lack of furtherexperil .result. 1512. (l. hydniulic jump will occur. forming a standing swell (Fig. If submergence occurs. the position of· the point relative to the. From the experimental data. Forster and Skrinde (23J have developed a diagram (Fig. Consequent. it. a jump will form with X = 5(h + Va). Irthe point lies 011 the left and above the curve. YI. a point (F. (153) can be dropped.the discharge over a unit width of the weir can be written' q ·Since q mental data.2 . rise when Vi. In the diagram. so that the jump will be . Then. v. Analytical relations between F and Forslar and Skdr. i 4 . and the 2.he curves.. any point is represented by a pair of coordinat~s (F. illl Yz. For a br'Jadcrested weir.oo nigh.lvl in Eq. the highest required weir should have the largest required value of h within the expected l'3. 156).proportioning broadc. sImilar to that made for a broadcrested weir (Example 32).. (156) .rested weir as. Ya/Yl. is proposed that the curve X/Y2 = 5' in the diagram be used. This diagram the prediction of the performance of a given abrupf.oj This equation giv. Thus. corresponding h/y. and F the above equation (155) C . The conusing siste!lcy of the relations was verified by a theoretical the momentum theory. the tailwater iyillnot affect appreci~~bly the rela· tion between the head water elevation and the Thus.hin the . the rise.S1 1:.. YZiYl can be related to F (155) becon1es through Eq. curve indicates the effe6t of the abrupt rise on the flow pattern. 1513) showing the reh. = V IY1.of the curve repre'sent the c011ditiol1s under which the weir is too low. 7 8 9 (A/tel' 0. a guide in . Control by Broadcrested Weir. are known.
1511) for the sharpCl'ested weir may be .. Experin1antal and analytIcal Il:Dr~pt drop. Hsu [471. l \ Volue s of F 16~ (AJter . for an abrupt rise.) • 1 • Ie ..1/3/Yl) be first defii.w~~ . + v. .. This value should be used for the highest required rise. If the point is at the right of the curve. Experimental relations among F. FIG. By repeating this procedure for other discharges within the expected range of discharge. used..Y3/Yl) lies in the diagram below the line Y3 = 1'" then the normal downstream flow is sl. .shed out.~.412 RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW HYDRAULIC JUMP AND ITS 'USE' AS ENERGY DISSIPATOR Jump troyels upslreom  tH3 1 I jump will be forced upstream and may finally be drowned. the do\vnstream depth of a drop may fali in any of the five regions as sh9Wl1 in Fig. and 7t/y.10 f. (After E.. a drop in the channel flooi' must be used in order to ensme a jump.::. 1514tt. Control of Jump by Abrupt Drop.+j. and the design diagram (Fig. Forster and Shhule [23]. 1 . 1513) can be used to determine the necessary length and depth of stilling basin when V 1. so that the rise acts as a weir.led for conditions at or near maximum discharge and tha.t the corresponding value of hjyl be determined by interpolation . The control of hydraulic jump by sills is useful if the downstream depth is smaller than the sequent depth for a normal jump. . The uppe. i :1~qL___.lpercritical. and Ya are known.) i4n~~l 12 For design purposes. If a point (F. If the downstremu depth is btrger than the sequent depth for a normal jump. Yr. A minimum height.r limit of region 5 is the 'depth at which the jump ~"'++t.:s 5 ~"i3~. A jump is followed by a critical section cre..' OO~~'~"~~2~~~3 . V1 Y. This condition occurs generaUy at the end of the expansion of R supel'critical flow.'Lted over the crest of the abrupt rise. YJ/V I. I f I f ns among F Y'. the diagram (Fig. a largest required value of h enD be obtained. '" . and the jump will be forced downsti'eam toward the' abrupt rise and mayfinnJly be wil. Y. 1510. For Il. given appro<lching Froude number. f 7 +t1 4L::. of rise necessary to prevent the jump from being washed out can also be thus determined. The lower limit of region 1 is the depth at which the jump will begin to travel upstream. It is proposed that a point (F. the rise is too low.:8 9 10 F=vl/fol FlO 1514.YL. 1513. and lI'Yl or an a10' . ~.
The canal drop is sometimes designed with a contracted width like the Parshall flume.. developed by the U. The baffle piers are very useful in small structures with low incoming velocities.)2l 7't 1 .) j I \ I ( 1 1 For mOl'e info!'. In Fig. 1511. For designs .64] are as follows: L The length LB of the stilling basin for Froude nuinbers between FI = 1..5 to 4. The USBR basin IV. In important works or works that involve a lflrge number of stilling basins. and downstream depth. Their function is to dissipate energy mostly by impact action. Theodor Rehbock after it was developed from experiments made during 1924 to 1927 at the Technical University of KarLsruhe. [25J. It should be noted that these designs are only typical examples and applying them to stilling basins under t. The jumwandbasin length is reduced about 33 % with the us~ of appurtenances. Its function is to reduce further the length of the Jump and to control seoul'. the sill is usually dent::Ltcd to perform the additional function of diffusing the residual portion of the highvelocity jet that may reach the end of the basin.yJivl \ Y (158) . stilling basin. The SAF Stilling Basin. Germany.414 RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW. they must be designed to withstand impact from ice or floating debris.rge canal stnlCtures. This basin (Fig. because it was first patented by Prof.76.hat caution should be used entirely different design conditions.lJ . The leftside limb represents the condition corresponding t. and h/Yl are shown in Fig. upstream depth. and. These blocks also tend to stabilize the jump and thus to improve its performance. I I i HYDRAULIC JUjI.· however. in . The basins thus designed are usually provided with special appurtenances. . Such a drop is known as a fiumed drop. for region 2. Anthony Falls Hydraulic Laboratory.01' canal fall).drainage structures such as those built by the U. [34]. for use on sma.5. where high velocities make c!witation possibie. University of l\iinnesota. .lP AND ITS USE AS ENERGY DISSIPATOR 415 will begin to· tr:'L\'ci do "'llS cream .S. i These equations have been verified by experimen lcs. 1515. generalize. The USBR basin II. Soil Conservation Service. [43J. which can economically be built together witha crossing bridge and used as a meter or a regulator as well [50. The design rules summ[Lrized by the investigator Blaisdell [22.! Three typical designs will be described in the subsequent artides: 1. The sill . SAF denol. [35]. This is recommended for use on large structures such a. for FJ > 4. This is reCl)mmended for use on snutll scructUl'es such as small spillways. This diagram may be used for design purposes to determine the relative height of drop required to stabilize a jump for any given combination of discharge.7 to 17. Y./Yl.mation see [9]. 3. F2 = liYa/Y1 [(~ + l 1_ 1 J 1)2 l (J0. la. 1512. Evidently. either dentated 2 or solid. In certaiIl circumstances.5. each curve for a given h/YI has two relatively straight limbs connected by a short straight portion near the middle. The principle of the stilling basin applies also t. There are many generalized designs of stilling basin that use a hydraulic jump as the means of energy dissipation.ced in intermediate positions across the basin· floor. and [49J to [. or from both. or by model investigatiolls. For large basins that are designed for high inconl1 A simplified analysis and further experiments were also·made later by Moore and . etc. StillingBasins of Generalized Design. sills. is usually provided at the end of the . for region 4. 1 The rebtions among F. 2. producing 11 shorter length of i ump thail would be possible without them.es "Saint Anthony FalLs") W2.nce to the stilling basin. HSll [47J has shown that.o the design of a canal drop (. see 1591.nd to meet specific requirements.7 and FI = 17 is determined by LB' = 4.o rl~gion 2 and the right~ side limb represents the condition corresponding to region 4. This design reduces excessive waves created in imperfect jumps. which usually OCCll!' on canal structures and diversion dams. By applying the continuity and momentum equations in an analysis similar totlutt made for the broadcrested weir (Example 32). 1514.58J. (157) and. 1514.s large spillways.6063]. The intermediate region 3 represents an undular state of flow without a breaking front.S developed at the St. Army Corps of Engineers. j i· I \ Morgan [481. outlet works and small canal structures whBre FJ = 1. including chuteblocks. baffle piers.d desigll:> for the basins are often necessary fol: economy a. The jum. The dentnted sill or serrated baffle is also known as the· Rehbock sm. The reduction in ba~in length achieved through the use of appurtenances designed for the basin is about 80% (70 to 90%). which is a sti'ucture built to secure the lowering of the water surface of a canal and the safe destruction of the energy so liberated. The chute blocks ~Lre used to form a serrated device at the entrr. 'These designs can be developed through years of experience and observations on existing structures. ing velocities. the drop does not control the jump in these two regions. Baffle piers are blocks pla.S. The SAF basin. They are unsuitable.p is stable and the drop is effective for its desired purpose only in regions 2 and 4. lift a portion of it fr0111 the fioor. This is recommended for use with jumps of FI = 2.5ydF1G. Their function is to furrow the incoming jet and.
The top of the wing wall should have i1 slope of 1 on 1. wing wall should be placed at an angle of 45° to the outlet center li. L"SBR basin I is the basin· created by a· jump occurring on a flat floor with no appurtenances." RECTAN GULA~ STiLLING BASIN i DOWNSTREAM ELEVATION ' Fw. 8. . Wing walls should be equfll in height to the stillingbasin side walls.. The widths and of the floor blocks fOl'divel'ging stilling basins should be increased in proportiOll to the increase in stillingbasin width at the floorblock location. for 1.S.! because of its expeI)sive length and its lack of control.vARIED FLOW RECTANGuLAR STILLING Bil. Therefol'e. which is neceSS!1ry for Bureau use. The pel'forrhance of this basin in~icates that the jumpand.5 to 11. The height of the side wall 1lbove the maximum tailwater depth to be expected during the life of the structure is given by z = Y2/3. and by 'Y2' = (LOO FN800)Y2.8. Soil C~senlation Service [64J. This can be designed easily by following the principles descdbed in the' early D. \ I j. it (U. I l. in cons& .vith 80 % for . CENTERLINe: SECTION TRAPEZOIDA.the SAF basin. The distance from the upstream end of the stilling basin to the floor blocks is L11/3.l'ticles of this chapter. O. The effect Qf entirained air should be neglected in the design of the stilling basin. for F1 = 11 t'o 17. The floor blocks should.all than 3y/. From intensive studies of many existing structures and laboratory illvestigations.sin. 1513.~1e. No floor block should· be placed closer to the side v.07y 2.) 2. Proportions of he SAF ba. The. but it has a higher factor of safety. A cutoff wall of nominal depth should be used at the end of the stilling basin. 15. 4.S. USER Stilling Basin II.85Y2. with the appurtenances. II.Q 1f1. . The height of the chute blocks ::md floor blocks is y 11 and the width . by YI' = O.35}. 5.7 to 5.e stillingbasin side wail~ may be parallel {as in 1} rectangular stilling basin) 01' they may diverge as an extension of the transition sidl. RAPIDLY . such a basin is usually not very pructic!). be pbced downstream from the VjJ"~""'''50 between the chute blocks. USER basin IIi is designed for a pu~pose similar to that of the SAF basill. 10. i3.·1515. as compared . the SAF basin is shorter and more economical but. However. 12. various tYPElS of generalized design of stilling basin have been developed by theD. Bureau of Reclamation [34.5.'OR 417 .·416 . 7.SIN HALFPLAN HYDRAULIC JUMP AND I'rs· USE AS ENERGY PrSSIPA'J. The height of end sill is by c.F 1 2/120)Y2.:basilllength can be reduced about 60% . for F1 = 5. 14. and spachlg are approximately 0. g~ The depth of tailwater abov6 the stillingbasin floor is given by yl = (LlO .731/1. 'l1.) walls (as in a trapezoid~l stilling basin). . 3. 6: The floor blocks should occupy between 4{J and 55$ of the stillinghasin width. 'tV here y 2 is the theoretical sequent depth corresponding t.
."':.·.. i I ' :.pprotimate water surface and pressure profiles (conjugate depth = sequent depth). I j. +8F}..nation [34].i A.. .. 0'/ (J.. (e) recommended proportions. /Sj/ I 1 OJ/ '0/ . Bureau of Reda. / 2220 18 ~6 ~.. I :'/. L". I' I 17 . 1/...D2 . ! (dl 1 i 4 ~' ~ :0 II 10/'/ /. ~~ (b) FIG.5 I VI F "(c \ I~ I 1 (a] 28 26 24 1.l 18 20 iO ~ 12 14 16 F 1 V.. I i ! I I iir I I I / I \// i/// 1/ 0 1'/ /[ / ./ /// I 2 4 6 'S 10 12 14 16 F. (c) n.. 419 .<II..tgi).t.} / I / I?~ .lm W depth / . o 2r#" ) 0 ·2 "/ ! I 4 i 6 (3 . 1616 (Connn!(.' / Vj .. (b) minimum.1 /_M \~ .' ! i / 1<9. . . (c) length .£ I /. f~ . i FlO.S....b.7Q~ V I I . ~?~ '/ 11# .1 '< Mi~fml. '118 RAPIDLl VARIED FJ. "...ed)..j i 14 12 10 8 6 I / .of hydraulic jump. tailwatet depths.c= .. (U.OW i I I .) fa} Definition of 5j·mbols. 1516.sin II. Design curves and proportions of USBR ba.• ./gD.
2. In other words. provide a IDru:gin of safety of 80/0. . The tailwater elevation is at El. . tallwatel' depth or 1.Sins. WhlCh. USBR basin II was developed foJ' stilling basins in common use for hlg~~dam a.9 ft. 420 RAPIDLY VAlUED FLOW ilYDRAULlC JU¥P AND ITS USE AS ENERGY DISSIPATOR :Vlll ~e descl'lbed 111 Art. 1511lb shows that 2. j~hus. The miniImnu tll. = 7.8 = 35. respectively.~1(t eUl'thdam spillways and for large canal structures.l~ ~overned by the curve labeled "Minin~um TW depth. .::itud1es of exis~il1g in:dicate that most of the b.sin floor will be placed at EJ.illing basin II for th.15D 2 • In this deslgn a block is recommended adjn.516. the following procedure ma.1. USBR basins II and IV will be described III tillS and the next articles. the solid line gives the ratio of '['IV depth to Dl as 9. a model study of the specific design is recommended.y is 79 fps.voided in ail stilling basins. th6 li~8 for minimum TW depth for basin II gives TW depth/D. 1516b are gmdes dn1wl: for vtl.tio~l to utilize full sequent tailwater depth. the jump will become rough and uncertain its position. 1. .:\lP might canSe cavitation on· piel. For lower values. usually on high~dam s~dlways. . lilI:cit.s~t apron eleva. Thus. The rules recommended for the design are as follows: 1.re reasonably uniform on entering the jump. l however. Eosin II may be effec. de~lgn~(l for sequent.5. the depth of flow is 7. = 9. sill is equal to O. Example 152.13. provided thiS IS done pr'oportionally. Chute blocks can be incorporated on the curved face as readily as on the plane surface". 01' possible asymmetry. The operation of suell (l. but this will not change the flow velocity o.be approximately equal to D . HowBver." For design purposes. and the rilaximum . 3. 7. Adding 8% to this figuro.2 X 3.0. thus. the tobl fall will be 116.13. Entering Fig. The dashed lines in Fig. l It is recommended tqat the sharp intersection between chute and basin apron be replaced with a cltrve of reasonable i'adius (R ~ '1.bly.lS16.. The approximate watersurface and pressure profiles of a jump in the basin are shown mI51M.usins wer<. . The ba. larger unit discharges.7 X 3. HiHliJ with f\ = 7. The tnilwater d~pth a.bove Fronde number. a!e identical in this case.7 ft over the crest and !l.lion.i1wawl' d~pth D.8 ft. the stilling 37.llY inadvisable from' a construction standpoint.. eMh wall to reduce spray and mamtam desJl'able pressul'e. Reducing the .t which sweepout is incipient is TW •• = 9. If the chute is long and fiat.vidth and actually v3. 1415 with a h<..nd the Froude nuraber is 79/ = 7. there is a.tive dow::l to u Froude number of 4. provided the jet entering the basin is I'easonably uniform both in velocity and in depth. .Tet\ter falls.. . D.ZD~.I' I I . T~e height o~ chute blocks is equ!!.8 = 36. . the b!l. 1516b.to sequent depth... 1 or ." TillS curve IndICates the point at which the front oithe jump mo\'cS [l:\~Tay from the chute blocks. The length of basin can be obt~'l. for flows up M 500 cfs per foot of basin width. The slope of chute ":I1l'ied from 0. 1 in these tests. .) when th'l slope of the chute. 882. any additional lowering of the tail. tillS may be varied to eliminate the need for fractional blocks.ihvater line for basin II on Fig.te8 dl~ti1. Should it be desired to. the velocity of fiow at the toe of the spillwa. For g. Consulting Fig. water depth would cause the ju:np to leave the 'basin. resulting in an asymmetric8. 8. when the angle of divergence of the chute is too la. 1616e).8s.rge for water tp follow properly. .ad of 17. margin 'of safety of about 4 % can be' expec~ed for the I).". Also.aken for granted. ba.8v 1 The slope of the chute has little effect on the jump as long as the velocity distribution and depth of tiowa.0 X LOS l. the slope Of the chute does have 9.cent to each side wall (Fig. quene!!'. has ~ lower safety factor. USER basin V is us6d where struc~ tU~'al er. is 1.. Solt. ~ he ?nnclple of deSign for hydraulic on sloping apron improves the peiorruance in narrow b!l.n on the hydraulic jump in sorile cases. cOl1servaUve stilLing basin for with fall up to ZOO ft and.ppredr. In the case of 1111rrow basi~" whic!. W~:we supp!'esSlOll are recommended.. total fall of 120 ft.ined from the lengthof.e overflow spillway designed in Example 141. For additional safety.= 9. the Bureau recommends that f..7 .of a sloping a. 1.he sequent depth. plus ~n acl~led mctol' of sdety 1f needed. . !he Width and spacing should. of . 4.~e th6 lise . Actually.000/(250 X 79) = 3. The above rules . that would pro~uce u "sweepout.0 ft. !J.jump curve III 1516. The detailed and the data for COn1FJUtutiollS al'e shown in Fig.ill result in a safe.1 jump with strollg side eddies. The elevation of th~ basin floor ia placed at EI. 8~3.S ft 'or basin should be positioned again for a tail water depth of 35. but the lowcr values should not be.. .y be fol!owed. t.Sin should not be deSIgned for less than sequentclepth.e spacing. 920.jump is expensive and should be a.OZ4D. minimum safety margin of 5 % of be added to f. It is not lleCeSS::l. 6.l to the depth Dl of flow ent. the minimum width and spacing of the dentates is governed only by structural conside~·ations.. Pruportion a USBR llr..m end.' It IS adVisable to reduce the width and th. The heighc of the wI~th and spacing recommended is approximately O.0. No baffle piers are used because the relatively high velo?ltles the jUl. The slOPe of the continuous portion of the end sill is 2. Entering Fig.ering the bl1S111.2.6: 1 to 2.'!.13. in fact.5D l is prefemble along.sln contall1S {:hute blocks at the upstream end and a dentated sillnel1r the do:vl1stl'eo.l would involve only a few dentates according to the a.onOlll.::. The verification tests 011 basin II indicated no perceptible change in the stillingbasin action with respect to the s!ope of the chute preceding the basin. In fact this practice is ~s1:ltl. A· s'pac~ eqll~l to O.dous ratios of actUttl tailwaterdepth . the velocity maybe concentrated in one part of the flow section. On steep chutes the length of top surface on the chute blocks should be made sufficiently loug to deflect the Jet.. The .2 for F.Pl'Oll.9 ft.b?v~ rule.rv to the chute blocks and the sill dentates. As TW depth and sequent ta.
The length of the basin is made equal to the length of the jump in a horizontal stilling basin without appurtenances and. Y'P is the pool depth under the napp'e. which a. . 1518) will reverse its curvature and turn smoot. USBR. '.. VI is the depth at the toe of the nappe or the beginning of the hydraulic jump.13. 153). 1517. space' VI = mox. B1}.tr:on [34]. Pro. 9 i's the acceleration of gravity. the point B on the axis of the nappe at the height of pool depth. The number of chute blocks shown iil Fig. Rand [6l1J found t.hly into snperclitical flow on the apron. = 4. and th~ wicl~h anc1 spacing of the dent. The Straight Drop Spillway. For better hydraulic performance. 1515.54Do..Ui X 36. The position of the depth Vl can be approximately determined by the straight line ABC which joins th. Basin IV is applicable to rectangular cross sections only. The fact that these three points lie on a straight line was also verified by experiment. = 7. this problem by eliminating the w~ve at its SOUl'ce. wave suppressors. 1 This is Imlmllllll//TIIlI//IlIII/I?/dIlIII/llwm .ble to construct the blocks narrower than indicated. an. 152).35]. On the one hand. such ns the drop energy dissipator (Art.27 .9 = 154 ft.66Do.hat the flow geometry at straight drop spillways can.the stilling basin. li'IG. also equal to the l~ngth of USBR basin I or L 1 ). The aerated freefallillg nappe in a stralght drop spillway (Fig.5w Top 'surface on 5° slope where q is the discharge per unit width of the crest of overfall.j Fro.m achieved bv intensifying the roller. Tho functions are ~d = 4.tooth 'Hid Ih OJ D=L gh o 3 (159) .j 422 RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW HYDRAULIC JUMP AND ITS USE AS ENERGY DISSIPATon i I 423 The length of basin can be obtained by entering the curve in Fig. ' the sequent depth Y2 and the drop length La can be computed by Eqs. if the tailwater depth is less than 1 .: 2. basin IV (Fig. USER Stilling Basin IV.j. (U.I5IS.75D 1 ..' 1&15). liThe Bureau has also developed alt!lrnative designs to substitute for basin IV.22 h _. 1517 is the minimum required to serve the purpose.ISD" or 5 ft 6 in. and the impacttype energy dissipator [34.27 (1510) (1511) (1512) (1513) J Vv = 1 OODc·. oscillating jump WIll be produced in .ates can be O..2D" or 7 ft 5 in.L .ppears in the upper portion of the jump "(Fig.30Do.16.. i5H) is designed to combat. chus can be determined from the curve in Fig. The height" wid th. For a given height h and discharge q per unit width of the fall crest. and h is the height of the drop.5 to 4. be described by functions of the drop numL'61'. the distance from the drop waU to the position of 'the depth YI. Tllll~. and Y2 is the tailwater depth sequent to Yl. ~2 = 1. The Might of the dentated sill is O.e point A on the apron at the position of Yl. generating a wave that is difficult to dampen (Art. Consequently..5 p oce. 154 (i. (1510) and (1513). Based on his own experimentai data 1514. o Fractional  and those of Moore [4.portions of USBR basin IV. which is defined as 1. Flow geometry of a straight drop spillway.1 . 1516c with F..) ~!l = 0. and t." I . and the point C on the axis of the nappe lIt'the crest of the fall. When F 1 =2. preferably O.realt of Recla.S. and spacing of the chute blocks as recommended are D I. or L = Lll = 4. ~ ! \ I I I I where La is the drop length.0J and Bakhmeteff and Feodoroff [65J. it is desil'fl.ma. that is.5.o set the tailwatel' depth 5 to 10% greater than the sequent depth of the jump.e.. LID. with directional jecs deflected from large chute 'blocks. a hydmulic jump may be formed downstream. thus the dimension can be 3 £t 10 ill.
IS .35Jfor developing a soc!1. jig. . such as steel .UM:P AND ITS USE AS ~NERGY D1SSIPATOR . Later I1lVestlg~'LlOn~ were m:'de by Bakhmeteff and Matzke [74] nnd also by YameIl an Kindsvnt.~ . g is the graV'itatiollnl: acceleratIOn. J .S.mps in sloping channels or channels having ap?recla~le slope.rails. .tting Fl = wh~re Y. f IIydril. '..se:1rch. lBading to t. .a d'ownstream pool below the steep slop~. If the mils' are tilted dow·nward ~t nn angle of 30 or more.the open downstream end . 14l.ater I~l the Jump can be computed. t are IC. 2 . Case b shows the Jump on' an adverse slope. W is th. In the ~nalYSls of ~y:l1'auhc ]~. Thus the energy in the jet can be dissipated without ~'esort to t. the hydraulic jump will recede downstream. channel irons. The straight drop spillway is commonly installed in small drainage structlll'es by the U. Yarnell at the Iow!1Institute bf IIydralllip n!.n d (3 . . the jump will be submerged.ilable !!. Considering all effective forces paraLel to the channel bottom. the~momentum form:llas lor Jlll~pS. kn. is simply a rectlmgular box open at the top !end at the downstream end [6769].: if the grate is tilted upward. The length . If '~he crest length is less than the width of the approach challll81.hority in 1939 for all extenSIV<llnvestlgatlOn by l'Gndsvater. ~he Y~rne~l datfl. where Q is the total: dischnrge in cfs. ~se" 2 to 4 pI. By placing a gridiron or grate on top of the straight drop spillway. (314). and YlIS the depth of flow in th(~ canal upstream.e width ~f a space !n ft. enters over the' upstream end and two sides. shown III F' I'" 10 Case 1 is a typical form . the grate is selfcleaning. The upper surface of the free nappe may be represented by the general equation given in Art. P2 = O. (1515) Substituting Eq.5 to 4. however. the box by dikes and head \Valls.ulic jump in sloping ch11l1ne!s may occur I~l ::anous orms. The upper surface of the submerged nappe lllay be assumed as a straight line tangent ito the. This is a rare type of jump. hence wave action can be l'educed if Fl = 2. 1516. known as the box inlet drop spillu1ay. r ' I ) If In the above discussiun it is assumed that the length of the spillway {)l"eBt is the same as the width of the approach channel. a rectangulm~ channel of umt 'wi. 'ical functio'l that has to be cleterDlll1ed expenmentally. and. It~: believed that the solutions for the typIcal form 01 c_ase 1 a. and leaves through .separated into a number of long thin sheets of water which fall nearly vertically into the channel below. Storm runoff is directed to. which form slots pamllel to the direction of flow. Jump in Sloping Channels.dth is assuH). This scheme hai:l been adopted by t. the grate may be composed of a 'series of beams.ce of the free nappe at the point w~lere the nappe plunges into the tailwater. :VlllCh WI ./vgch.ecl by a factor Ie Thus.HYDRAULIC J.If the surface 'I' (. COIl t am an e m p l l " h I de Enrly studies on hydraulic jumps in sloping c anne ~ wel'~ ~~a by Riegal and Beebe [9J and by Ellms [72.(3llll) = P l  P2 + lYsin e .\~ can be used todel'ive a~l equation analogous to E~. Thus. own as drownedout Jumps.Service as a result of tests and anu. 1 The workBtal'tedi~ 1936 by David L.O~ horizontal floor cmmut be applied straIghtforwardly to Jumps on ~'P~l!lb floor As will be shoi. and no adequate experimental data are ava. Iowa. L a4. (b15)'ill Eq. or timbers.t the present moment.tI~al PU~'poses.5. P l = O. 1514). ' .o. (321). The spillway will still be effective if the submergence does not reach the control depth Oil the spillway crest. but It IS not common III • . common forms anci usually appear simply as jets of w~ter plunglllg m. . For pra. .73]. channel outlet.5'Wd I 2 cos 0. was interrupted by his death in 1937. It is.1Q WN V2gYl (1514) . ce 2Y2 g . therefore. 'a. le. if the tailwater depth is greater thanY2. the mOll'lentulll equation lllay be written (J \ ) !) .. The width of the slots is equal'to twothirds the width of the beams. . the momentum P~l!lCIP. F · neg IgI'bl e.lyses at the St.71].S. The simplest Ioi'm of such a structure. . applicable..424 UAPIDLY VARIED FIJOW . be taken. A generalized design has also been deve:oped by the. On the other hand.s unity.nd. were lent to the Tennessee Valley Aut.5wd 2 2 cos (j. ~s .. . the weIght of w. Iowa City. For the analysis of the jlimp of case 1.. upper surfn.lled drop energy dissipator as a substitute design for USBR basin IV (Art. " .l to consider the weight of water in the jump. ' .. On the other hand. III honzontnl chann~ls ~he effect of this weight is negligible.he U.. i I I I ! 9!!!. the {)ontl'ltction at the ends of tlle Spillway notch will be so great that the ends of the nappe may lane! beyond the stilljng~basin sidewalls and the eoncentration of high velocities at the center of the outlet may cause additional scour in the clownstrBam chnnnei. . Fj' (314) Q = lI1d 1 Tt2 = V 1d l /d 2. Buren. the overfalling jet can be . 425 r ) I) Y2.u of Reclamation [34. n.vn in this article.of the grate slots can be compllted by . important to design the npproach end properly by shaping the approach channel to reduce the effect of end contractions. the spillway crest may be finally submerged. profile of the jump is a straight line. It IS essentld.nd fo: t drowneclollt jumps nre mlltually. .er [75J. . In this desi5n. Anthony lealls Hydraulic Laboratory [70.ac t' al pI'oblems C'" ' .ed. N is the number of spaces.\ and (3 may . The discrepancy between the straIghtlme and actual profiles and the effect of slope may be cOl'l'ect. As the trtilwater level rises. .he Use of hydraulic jump. it can check the upstr~am water level but IIfay pose a cleaning problem. Soil Conservation Service.
The depth ratio y2/Yl or d2/d 1 oan be shown as a fUllCt~Ol1 of FI and 00 (Le.d 1 ) vary primarily with leI d h tl at G is a function of F I and 0. The dashed lines indic:Lte the parts where the curves are not well defined by the available data..516) IS .PlDLY VARIED FLOW HYDRAULIC JUMP . co •• 5 FIG. '1 'ty between the two equatlollS :8 e\ 1 en .J I \ I .426 simplifying. 'Nith Eq. sin 8) by t.n l ellee. 1521). The following rules for designing a stillip. and the U. ~ Yl = HC vi+ 8G2 '1) .t J( and L/(dz . Bureau Reclamation [34.f)).eI • H(V1 + 8CP  1) (1518) Co se I \6 17 Ie '9. G = f(F 1.on the experimental data of Hickox [77]. Bakhmeteff and Matzke [74J.l relll.l. R. or d.RGY DlSSIP. of .A. (1.16) . . (1518) may also be written (ZGZ + 1) ~ + 2G2= 0 (1510) (1517) . Since G = f(F1. The diagrams in Figs.with considerable' interpolation. case :} Cose 4 . these equations indicate that ddd~ l:md are functions of FI I.nnels.35}.ulic jumps in sloping channels./d J for jumps in sloping cha. . Eq. . . Similarly. 1520. (321).AND ITS USE AS ENF. HydT2.of the Bureau.8).nd fJ • I TI 'e is a general belief [70J th.. the solution of 10. or. (320). h.tions I::ietween F. are based on limited' experimental data .) IS appa.Reqiamatioll (Fig.:o\:rOR 427 (~y G _ Since d 1 = 111 cosO and d~ . Kindsvater [751.= Yz cos fJ. 1520 and 1521. F I o.sed .~e chart in Fig. ' Case 2. 1520. the relative length of jump L/ih may also be shown as a lunction of Fl aU. nevertheless they provide useful il1io. which is ba. Experiment!!.:l 00 and represented by curves based on the experimental data . lind lIz/Y.g basin with sloping apron or "1 ' j .' r'd t Following the solution . (320) for levelfloor Jump" a If Eq.. 20 FIG. SImI an ' ( . (1519) where ! ( 'I The above two equations ai'e analogous to Eq.S.: 1519. ltlv for Eq.rmation for practical purposes.
1 For original infonnlltion see [781 and [79J. depending on the qUlllit.) or seq'. say. if propel' tailwater is provided..05 and 0. Position the apron 80 that the front of the jump will form at the end of the slope for the maximum discharge a. The portion of the jump to be confined on the stilliilg basin is a uecision for the uesigner. The Froude number normal to . the next 8t~p is to be certain that the tailwater depth [1. • 1r. or (3 90. The average ovel'o./:I9d.i) f 428 ) RAPIDLY VARIED FL>OW HYDRA.l flow is deflected inward to the course of the flow by a verticalbounchtry (Fig. I I" I \.l When 8 = 0. .y of the rnatel'in.!'+I1) .l in the river bed and other conditions. The basic development of thi:5 subject was aacDmplisherl by Rouse and White . placed at the end of the apron.}NERGY DISSIPA.ngement that will give the greatest .rpe of the chute upstre:1mJrom a stilling basin has Uttleeffect on the jump u.le~t depth of jumps ill eloping chllnll~ls. hence it may be called an obl'iq(~1i hydra'l. 1522).22. the velocity normal to the wavefront if:1 V"I VI sill fJ w11ere V lis the velocity of flow before the jump. oblique jump becomes the familiar nydraulic jump in which I. Length in terms Bw'el:l1< of Redwnalion [34J.: :3 4 5 6 7 e 9 10 Ij 17 18 19 20 . onequarter.rS USE A. The Oblique Jump. economy for the mtiximum dischn. 5. This phenomenon resembles a normal hydraulic jump but with the ohange in depth occurring along an oblique front. Determine an n. A snlall solid triangular sill with a sloping upstream surface. FlG.TOR 429 (USER basin V) nee extracted fromrecommendntionsmade by the IT. The slc.nd tnihva~el' condition.S ]. 1522. sta. This is the governing factor and the only justifica. F.35J: ) : I 1. 1521. t.[SDI.#c j1tmp.nding wave is also known as the shock wave. isthe only appurtenanGe needed. the depth of flow '111 will increase abruptly to a depth Yz along a wavefront CD which extends out from the point of boundary discontinuity at a wave angle {3 that depends in magnitude on the angle of deflection (J of the boundary.ud basin : length available for energy dissipation are sufficient for.s long as the distribution of velocity and depth of flow are reasonably uniform on entering the jump. Section A'A '0 . Its dimensioas are not critical. onehalf. the most effective height i" between 0. When a supercriticn. FIG. Tho oblique hydr!Lulic ju'mp or oblique. .S. (U. This serves to lift the flow as it leaves the apron and thus acts to conUol scour. and the surface slope Chll be 3: 1 to 2: 1: 6 5 \ I ' 2l+I. .S. 15. upstre~llll i I I I ! I 1517.Se in :mpersoniv flow of gases. 4. 7..l1u1tion [34.rge condition. Bureau of Recla. by analogy to the C:1. Referring to the relationship of velocity vectors before the .°.ll apron is about 130 % of the length of jump for the U1:1xi::num discharge condition.iump in Fig.UL>IC JUMP AND l'. 6.10 of the vertical distance Qf the sequent tailwatel' elevation above the bottom of&he toe of the jump. 3. With the apron designed properly for the maximum discharge COll: dition.. f 1 2. and threequarters of capacity.tion for using a sloping apron.pron arra.. Oblique hydf/mJic jtlmp .he wavefront is normal to the direction of ftow. A hCll'izontnl apron will perform on par with the sloping apron for high Proude numbers.
. (3··21) call be applied. according to Art.2/tan «(3 .VOy. Ippen [78J has prepared a fourquadrant graph _ 1:'523) showing all relationships expressed by Eqs. F nl = V"l = ~gYl = Y 1 sin (3 ~gYI = F 113111 . Since no Jl1ornentum chfl. it is seen that a normal hydraulic jump occurs in this section and that Eq. and . (1521)..3F. 1523.vefront before the jump is. = tB. y.ion of an oblique hydraulic jump. /3. Substituting Eq.valls and intersections with other wavefronts will develop. Show that the {oilowing equation lIl[Lybe written for a hydraulic jump taking place in a.his equation for {3 in terms of Fl and e is practi(Fig.ngential velocit.n «(3 . 153).2tan 2 {3 VI 8F l 2 sin 2 f3 . (321). the ratio of the sequent to initial depth is Y. This gl'aph is 8elfexplanatory and can be used for the solut.0). the ta.'" 1 . Since the oblique jump is a normal jump across the section AA. Iteferring tQ Fig.. = tan ({3 .n 0 ~~~==~~~~~~ .13 is obtained: tan f3 (~1 + SF l ? t.7. (1521) and (152:3). Like~..I I I i I I I \ ' ~.2. and Fl =V.tingudUl from Eqs.in (3 . 0..i 1 il r' + (2. In practical problems involving an oblique jump. a direct solution of t. the energy 10:0:0 in the oblique j'ump can be computed by Eq. e are given. if vdvi < 2 (or F"I < 1.0) By the condition of continuity 'VI V"I = Y! Y. L "':'/:":.. It should be noted that an oblique jump will rarely oectll' alone in an 1 I FIG. normal jump. a relationship involving F 1. This' fact has been confirmed both experimentally and theoretically by It1pen [79J. therefore.1 .5t + l)(t + 1)1" + [D. Genera.8) Elimino. I \ + + This equation should produce the value of t3 if F 1 and..'(t + I)]r + 1)2 = 0 (1525) where . the oblique jump becomes undular.. 1522.n be written _ Y2 tan f3 (1523) Y. these two velocities shou1d be equal. Y2!YI' is usually small. because multiple oblique jumps due to reflections on opposite . lppen ~781. or V"I tanf3 (1522) 'V~. (324).l1ge takes place patallel to the wavefront. T.iy" CLnd F. horizontal trapezoidilJ channel (some of the notation is given in Table 21): .W + (I =  3F l ')(1 .. and (1524). (Allel' A. PROBLEMS 151.ies before and after the jump are VII = TT "i/t::m (3 and V 12 = V..'1 HYDRAULIC JUMP AND ITS USE AS ENERGY DISSIPATOR I RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW 431 the wD. (3 (1520)  Considering a section AA nOl'lnal tb the wavefront. Further discussion on this subject will be given in the sub5equent chapters. . cally impossible.. y.51 + l)r' + (1. Thus. (1520) for Fl in Eq. for oblique hydraulic jumps../y" 1 = b/ZYl.) _ _ ordimtrychannel.: 3) tfl. 1:!~ = 7Z( Vl+8F 1 2 sin~  1) ( 1521) This is the eqllation tlmt represents the condition for ~\:l oblique hydraulic jump to take place. However. (1523). the head loss may often be neglected in design.! relations among Fl"e. 'the above equation 08.1 2 I .
ny type of stilling b~sin. (b) . B."I.5 ~t above the spillway crestl Proportion the struchlre aSiSuming [l.ter depth is 10 ft.: First e.. of the i limp.e. n '= 0. ' .s structure for the given datu. . Design the st. Verify Eqs.3. (b) the tbeoretic~. Water flowing under a sluicc ga.208 ft m a rectnngularchannel J the sequent depth y.) .50Q it do\vnstream from the Y~na contracta. and (e) the ·dlstali~.a. . lIi~5. by Eq.nd COlll'pute El and E.m is assumed horizontal.'5Ullle F 1 . crest' may be i g n o r e d .nnel has a freeoverfall 01itlet.9V 1). and (d) the type of iump to be expectetl. .e of the Jump from the dam. After t.gular channel with n = 0. The normal depth of flow in the downstream ditcn is 4 ft.dcrested weir. Solve Prob. Derive an equation of the upper sLlrface of the free n!~PJle over n. 1514.0 ips and !1.illing basin for Exu. . and (e) abrupt l'ise. Discuss the development of an energydissipatiDn structure at the toe of the IOpillway under consider'lt·wn in the preceding problem.9 (i. = 5. four reaches. lli9. 1524. finally c!leck for Flo A gl'aph' leal solutIOn using specifiaellergi ancl specificfo. depth of 6 ft.59 fps and !II = 0. A canal fall 40 ft long and c3:i'rying 240 cis is designed to dissipate a head loss of 4 ft . Determine the location of thc jump. determine «(. .nd Eq..mple 152.61 for computing the discharge n. The loss of energy in the jump is 5 ft . a trialander'ror proeedlJl'p.432 RAPIDLY VARIED fOl" now . find the pussibility of developing a hydraulic jump in the channel. sufficient length. 1510.) the energy ioss in the jump.ergy line ·::. for the different tailwater conditions givcn in the preceding problem. Design the stilling basin for EX'ample 152. 1516.e. In a !'ec~augular channel with b = 20 'ft. The dit~h is 14 it wide ami carries a nniform flow of 330 cfs. ·1524. as shown in Fig. (32c1).'\Vater flowing over a low spillway of bl'oael width passes on toa level concrete apron at 12 £t below the spillw"y crest. 1519.nd So = 0. 164. A low dam which keeps 7 it of water immediately behiud it IS built at thee downstream end of the chanuel. 152.. but uncler flood conditio!lll backwater from a stream may mise the tailwater so that its level is 1..7777~.) . (c) Q = 2y'. A wide rectar.If ~he jump will OCCllr. Use' Eq. . all'. n. 5' 1612.. at each section fol' f'>E = 4 ft. Design thi. Design the stilling basinfol" Example 152 'on an apron with a slope of 0. A straight drop spillway is used io. (b) Q = 100y'.613 fi" Determine' (a:) ~he alternate . a ditch to cffcet a drop of 6 ft in t. (321) altd Y. A canal falL ~oss of 5 ~t by hydraulic jump. (. using a jump control by abrupt drop.heequation written a hydraulic jump.. .the basin to dissipate energy (i. 1525. Sh()w I. say.01 to llliid Se = 0. ~hen comput.82] has proposed ll. Determine the location of the hydraulic jump.illl'ater rating curve can be r~presented' by (al Q = 40y'.e y'. 1513. (150 and (152). is designed to dissipate a head Er.lie !ump heIght. I I ( /.des . (H1N'l': See Art. slwh as. Construot the jump rating curve at the 'toe of the spillwo. was 0. (HIN'!': The solntion requires.025 is laid with a change in slope from steep .15. (f) the relr. and the tailwn. Determine the iniLial and seqilent depths oJ a'hydraulic jump in" horizontal channel 30' ft wide lmd carrying 30'0 cfs. . (g) the lengt.raulic jump in Example 151 if the ch9.5 it and takes a hcad of 4 ft for the given discharge. and note tr. I I ! . 1520. 'fhe profile of the spillway crest is assuTIled of .tive height. 1511.lform flow IS 3 ft.slope ofl on 5 and diverges fr. using jump control by (n) sharpcrested weir.G) the energy loss m the jlllnp.04. . 1525. straight drop spillway. = 0..at h.:) the discharge over the spillway of the dam. HYDRAULIC JUMP AND ITS USE AS ENERGY DISSIPATOR 433 . Cd) the efficiency of jump. l' ~ l. .. 1511 if the sloping effect or the channel is'zonsidel'ed. providecl tile tll.pproach to the ~pillway is properly desiglled. if needed. 1521. The head over the SpillW!e}. Determine (a) the s~quellt tailwater d'lpth.l sequent depthJ (I. efficiency. Dad (d) Q = 9tJOy"'.s a crest length of 12. . Poggi [81. in a pa. 1517. for V. slope oj' 1 on 5. Solve Prob. and the velocity Head on the spillway .he contra~tion of the jet the flow has an average velocity of 8.) . The channei of the fall has a. In Bidon~'s experiment it was found that.. .of th'e jump).. (b) the length of the b~"sin required to confine the jump. 1524) ear!'ying 300 cis is Ie recklllgulal' channel having a WIdth of 30' ft.ce curves is also suitable. . I FIG. Determine the position of the hydraulic jump assuromg negligible channel friction and ignoring the effect of channei sLope on the jump. the depth ?I un. (HINT: Use the result obtained ill the preceding problem.he ditch grade!. If thtc backwater surface behind the do. . .Yl by Eq. 0'19) with C = 3. The depth oLuniform flow in the mild channel is 5 ft. 141. crest is 8 ft. J11 = ~. . i I ! : ! ! I 1~ 1 ! Ydv'ilih. (HIN'l': Divide the channel into.y be (152G) L . and (il) the type of jUlnp. Design the energydissipation structure. 1515. ·157. The spillway ha. The upstrenm a. '(e) ·the efficiency of the jump. ladder of cascades.h of the jump. SolVe) the precflrling problem if the steep slope is 0. Determine the loeation of the hydraulic jump. 168.d.oNing the same wideh ~3 the gat.om a width of 8 ft at the upstream end to 24 ft at th~ downstream end. (b) broa.depth. It. the actunJ velocity is equal to 0.::·r '" 777m7J7.y designed in Example 141.03. a FIG. (e) the effectiveness of . 166.rabulic channel mo.. (1419) for computing tbe depth of Ho\\' at the spillway toe with a velocity coeffici<mt of 0. ' 1523. 1513 ifthe floor slope of the stilling basin:is 0. Locate the hY.03. Hii8.(d) t'he relative loss. 1525. 163.hat t."YES shape.002. where r = Vo/lll and F'.te dischal'ges into a rectangular plain stilling basin h. .) lli~22. . Proportion an SAF stilling basin for Example 152. A ladder of caacf.. assuming a frictionless channel and ignoring the slope effect on the jump.10. . The canal fall (Fig.
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Bradley a~d A. . 5. J. \ r 43. DDnnelly: Hydra.l. 1940.kt (Tra~8IJctions...er.j:sota. 24. ·18. pp.64. 1\. ..IyrllUl. 1933: ' 38.~n$tlcs. J. Charles A. Maxwell Stanley: Study of stil!ing··basin Tmnsacl·ions.) Wechselsprung (Researches relating tQ the l~y?rauhc JUlllp}. India.It"eel'~n!l).~.' 436 RAPIDLY VARIED FLO'W HYDRA.paper 1260. Bames: Length of hydraltlic jump investig~ted at Berim."Hl52. abrupt. 108. Technical Paper 7. 1044. PrOCeed11lg8.cs Confer'ence. Vienna. Public. 1855.ud 813846. paper 110. 2. 57.lrogo ~nstt:1i'a G'l. vol. L I.se/'ualion Service. IalH". Technical Report 24. 10. no. Calvin Victor Davis (editorinchie£): "Handbonk of Applied Hydraulics. E. pp. 83. pp. pp. \)13926. and correcti(:>ns.t·ions..ulic jUnto) Wasserk~'(!Jt una IV~~e~. SpringerVerlag.paper 121H.rican Society of Civil Enginecr$.ory Reprnt No. . 271282. Ghotauk.rw). pp.c ReMarch Insl'itl. 1943. 55.nd S.:. . and Julian Hinds': "En~ineering for Dams. Inc. 52.. 42. aml sInnll spillw!l. vol. Hydral£lic L(tuor(t/. I. 1957. pp.011l!l1l bl1sl!lS pipe or o:Jen channel ou~lets no tailwatel' required (Easin VI) pap~r. Janul. New York. .. llY4. Ltd. pp. paper 1266.. Pilmlov: "Gidravlika'. 118. 1U55. December 1957 49. Sharma: "Irrigation Engir. 52.i?1V~s·'~n." American Society of Mechanical Engineers. L. Proceedings. also U. . May. 'Uni(leTsity of lawa.tulic jump at o.:m.. Proceedings.S. SteHns: 'rhe hydraulic jump in stanMrd conduits.ND ITS USE A. Fr<)d IV.arotekhn.cPhel'son and.Oaha~ez. V. no. June. JlO.q. 115. J o1<rnal of the Central Board of Irrigation.e. 337. Amp.cirschaft. New' York. 99. Simla. M~'. I. 61. 15. Bakhmeteff and N.~ at the b2. ISa.10. I zvestiia 1'S€$O'hlZnl)!io N aHchno. B. Lolld. Moore a~d Carl W. Ne\v York. Civil En". 31. Tro. HY5.c{iom.:. I. " Fl'eiberg. 114. Y. 816825. William . Tranzar. 11)52. 81." John Wiley & Sons." 'l'ennes888 Valley "lutho1'it1}. Berryhill: Stilling basin experiences of the Corpa of Engineers. Walter·L.. l\'IGGn'wHiIl Book Company. 0 etober. T. 195.. JacDhE. Civil and strllctural design. A. J 01<1''11(11.ll! C l. pp. I. 44. 12?. Shukry. 58. ~'orstel' and Raymond A. free overfall Tr(1HSaction$ Amen:c"'l Society of Civil Engineer~. ' . p. M.nua. and Lellingrad. Journal. Armin Schoklitsch: "Hydraulic StrUiJtlire.te of .ges de rupture de charge (The stlldr of en!Orgy dissipators with the aid of a.\ Engineers.ee"s. . no. 1951. i!mer'icm. Armin Schoklitsch: "H::mdbuch des WaSSel'balleS" ("Handbook of HydraulirJ 2.)1. N.ItCS Dwnton. L." John Wiley & Sons. p. Erl(:. '1950. and associated appurterUHH:es.le modell. 1933.1556.tudy of buckettype energy dissipat.. Ammcnn Society of CiLil Engii1. High d!lIliS. 34. 11)34. Soil Con~e""Mian Service.scande: L'Ewde sur modele l'Muit des OIIVl'!l. J. no. 7389. Hydrtm. 46. Report BCS·TP106. American SoCiel'l/ of Ci'vi! En!!ivol. ("Hydraulics") 437 v. Jo!mu. vo . 4.Ys (Basih III). 1. 57~i14. Wa. 13\131360.. : 47.h applied to the hydraulic design of large dams U. pap:r. A'llLel'ican Scciety of Cicil Engill. September.er. Bhisdell: The SAF stilling basin. I. o. Lenmgl'll. 1929. 57. ~Ol. Blaisdell: Straight drop spillway sLilling bo.d. 1935. U. E. 11)51. R. ' . SCS.S..Ttu:rIsactions.sin. .or :hElI ~~. . 120. EnYull' Hsu: Discussion on Control of the hydraulic jump by siils. 138. Skrinde. 1406.. 115.V. AIlUn:iotl Scie'atiji. S. 1:2.. 14215(). 1 in "Design of TVA Projects. JulIUS \Vels!Jach: "Die Experimentalhydraulilc" (" Experimental Hvdraulics "'. June. 1917.ers. SI. sluice gn. Amencan Society of Civil Engineers.neers. Dis311ssion on Control of the hydraulic jump by silla by Johu W. . Ralph 1\1.: The efficacy of fiool"siils uncleI' drowned hydraulic jumps. pp.n of an outlet fOI' hox' inlet drop spillwa. AntllOny FaUs Hyd7'alilic Laboratory.ru:y l~ given 1:' D~n?ld p. Research studics on s~illillg basin. Wo~e'~I(I. Fred W.~. voL llS. C. 1948. Inc" New Yol'l" 1~52.'. pp. no. no. 28.t Btati01!. and Porcer. vol. C. August.ings. 1955. pp. Hotik: "Irrigatioll Engineering. yoL 10. Forster Il. Justin. Boris '. Capacity of box inlet drop spillwn. Studies in Eng~'nlle1'infl. pp. . Agroskin. pp. pp. Donnelly and Fred W. U. 54. a. Soil CO'/!. CWll Enguzeenng. 25. A. b'SI~ and wOve SUppl'BSSIJI'S for canal structures.nd F. W.smallsca. l\. 35.. P1'oceed. Gg. A brter SlI1llll1. vol. November. 56. . T. Peterka: The Hydraulic design of stilling basins: Hydraulic Jumps On a hOI'IZOlltal nprQn (Basin I). Hydraulics Dunmon. 1957. Fred W.ULIC JUMP A. 10031006.merican Societ~ Ci~il En(!~lteeJ's.'ne' I . Jnne'. no . 121. Comet'jjet/·ion Service. 36. ' 10. B.1. A. H'ldr(wUc. 60.>. Skrinde.Ted!n':cal Paper 8. Inc:.]" pp. Donnelly. llncll11.ys. paper H05. July.S.ineeriug").luI. . Short stilling basins for sLn~ctul'es. no.ry. ' 45.~el'ing.'.ys. vol.14<19. G.l'Y. by Walter L. . H139. pp. 1934. 83. Anthony Falls Hydraulic Laoon:uo'''Y. paper 7tH. Donnelly: Desi. \ . Talwani a. June I. 1956. Lahore. Cenltal Boatel of l'rrigation. asserspnmg: Deckwalze und Ausfluss untel' eiuer Schi!tze (The hydraulic Jump: Its top roll and discharge through a.r. Cl'(l'\ger. Le Gdnio civil. }J. 2.f sua I I .gs.merimn Soc'iety of CiliU Engi. Wal'lloclc: Spillways and energy dissipl1tol's.'. BIltisdell and Charles A. Moscol".5285. 490523. vol. vol.nd diversiOIl dams ~Basln IV!: ?404.t~'d frolll the German by Samuel Shulits. vol.tt~r Rand: Flow geometry at stmight drop spillwa. 2(1)293.'l'P79. Moore: Energy loss at t. vol. 62. pp.ion' canal falls. no. Go~energ()lzdat.S. Ahmed. 2. 83. P. 1952. pp.ll. FreeIr. 65. vol. n '7 .. G6. SIlUll! outlet works.te) Warsaw 1931. ~' 1'1'!. 4857.1.. 00tub~r. 51. Jl1. 64. paper 1402. J. Socie/y of Civil E'lyf.l': Design of canal [ails.urt 1linge des Wassersprunges (Length of hydl'!l.heskogo pl'yzhk!lo (The cl8termina'Liolt of th~ l~ngth of the h}'dr~ulic jump). ProCttcdi'r. AP1'il. Morgan: The hydr.gu and others: Irrigat. HY3. . Ivan E. vol. 1957. 1937. 10. J oumal. Anwtn: Opredelenie dliny gidravlit.8. American Bociety of Civil Engtneel8. vol.ety of Civil Enyilleers.'1.' . Reparl.an (editor): "HydrauU" Laboratory Practice. . Mont~.'. .. 1945. Pl'. 2. Dmitriev. pp. 11154. no. 281288 !. 112.<ltC lYU''.50.sity of lI1inrtesola. 1£)20../low conditions. v' annll. 16.:ltion 10. American Society of Me0hunico. 1951. voL 83. 'l'iffunj': Labol'atol'Y reseal'c. Pmceel. 'Moore. Simla. 39..~eta. New York. RY6} pt. H. . B'((rea1t of R£ciamatiorl. Blaisdell and Chltrles A.. Pllnjab. Iudia. 59. em'th and hll'ge can~d S~l'llctures (Basin II). Dec. 37. Bulletin 32.9s. 113. Berlil". 1957. 262263. 1364l373. drop.9651. vol. FeodofofI: Discussion ali Energy los. John R. 53. A. I""iqalio'n and P01uer. pp. SI.. 1\1. vol. Charle. 1943. IC~rr: A s. paper g03. . 1949. V. 988991." RalOa Krishna. pp. vol.lld Raymond A. vol. 132. JOUI'fl.y. . Bulle/in 20." 2d eeL.ulic design of the bOl( inlet dmp spillway. PmceBdings of J!yelrauh.ge of free QI'erfail. Report SCSTP63. pp. Munich. 03.S EN:E[tGY DISSIPATOR 33. paper 1401. energy dissipatol's. '11. 1035. HY3. 1950.(l'. vol. 9. . .Iss/edov"lel. Hl'd399. outlet wO!'ks. Uni1lersity of J1fin1!. Uni. Joel D. Serge Ldiavsky: "Il'l'igatiOll and Hydraulio " Chapman & Hall. Hydmtlhcs Dirrisiolt. 4160. by John '. 3 ." tr!tnsla. . Amencan SOC'J. }Vatcl'way$ EXp€1'im. 11. M. Untersuchltngeu uh":r de.Del' BcmingenielL1'.ys uuder free and submerged .elrtmlics D'ivision. 429433. Stilling basin with sloping apron (Basin V).he base of 8.
1\)56. Difficulties in design often ariee because of the complexit. lSt paper of Highvelocity flow in open channels: A symposiulll.~ HydrauUc Laborcti. Am. pp. This pa. there are transverBe velocity components on the cross section.. PI1. Bakhmeteff and A. . vol. G.p. a unique feature known as su. T)'a1t8r. February. S~evens: Discussi. HH4. which deflects the particles of water from straightline motion. Cf1.·ions. Sel·.Uons. 113n9. Ippen: Mechanics of 5upercl'iticII! flow.per describes the laboratory tests. the cent::ifugal force acting on the flow around a bend produces.l'l 11:. ElIms: Computa. Il" W. 546. or bends in aligi1Hlent is unavoidable in the design of open channels. St. Spiral flo'w l'efersto movement of water particles along a helical path in the general direction of the flow. Furthermore. 601.i flow.tion of tailwater depth of the hydraulic jump in sloping flumes. Tmn~actiQns.w exhibits characteristic crosswavedisturbance patterns on the surface and thus exaggerates the superelevation.. W.s.paper Hyd. 72.llterican Society Civil Engineers.Sac{. ~ol. pp. ao. H/Sl. in addit. J.ober. I'D\. the velocity distribution in the channel sec~ions in the bend is very irregular and the coefficients a and fJ are usuu. Transactions. . Inc. I{indsv:tter. .a rise ill the water surface at the outer bank with an accompanying lowering at the inner bank. no. 162.ilfi/a.L~ti{}n. Spiral fiow in curved channels was first observed by Thomson [IJ in 1876. 76.78094. klnerican Soddy of ilIechanlcru E'?lgineers. 11411145.. Transactions. 33. 16.king. hence their analysis requires use of the Reynolds number as a pars. A.ulic jump in sloping cha.o1'lJ. >1 161. 75.s. Tl'anMcHon. nb.!l near the walls. 1944.t. (2) centrifugal force. Hunter Rouse: "Fluid Mechanics for Hydraulic Engineers. ". It. vol. . p. pp. Generally spe:l.no. Thus. In the study of subcritica1 flow.. the formation of cross waves is of major COMel'll. 82.l fio.anding waves. pp. vol.. pp.perelevation. DO.of the flow.er: The hydraulic jump in sloping channels.n on The hydl'3. Mila.. 1r OI. Tm1tSa. a340. 1928. Ellms: Hydraulic jump in sloping and borizontallbmes. which causes higher filarnental velocities near the center of 'the channel th. 121. hence their analysis willi'ely on the. B. SocictyoJ Civil Engilleel'S. r. . Fred W. It is believed that.meter. that is. 81. Nov.made [27J. The streamlines of the flow are not only curvilinear but also interwoven. .:. These currents are essentiaUy a friction phenomenon. Bruno Poggi: Sopra gli sco. Bruno Poggi: Lo scaricatori a scala di stramazzi (FiGW in a ladder of cascadtt. 1938. 600604. In ch!1nnels of nonlinear alignment" flows behave differently according to the state ." McGra.per Hyd. vol. pp.haren. 505. 3G. S"ptemberDecembel'. \ (. 1ft Arthur T. 10. Nature of the Flow. 1. val. Techniw[ Paper 15.wHHl Book Company. Since then many studies have been .lly far greater than unity. by Cad E. C. R. " 'I I I \ r \ CHAPTER .la di stramazzi (On the flow in a ladder of cascades). Tl·ClllSa. Arthur T.no. Tnl1lsaclions. A'II!eric(U~ 8ode/y of Cl:vil Enginee. 195(i. . vol. A merict1n Society of 111 echa!. Amel'ican. 30. 1932. Spiral Flow. vol. 1949. 1954. 11251135. 121.' A. November.' . 2682Q5.el'ican Society of Cioil Engineers. 116. \ ~ J . Amel'iccm Sociely of M echanicai Engineer". 50. 109.. F.s supercriticr. January. Also. ' 71.)' L' EnergiCt eleUrica.y of the flow around a curved path. 1044.ricatori a sca. E. KinJsvo. Dovneily: The box inlet drop spillway !lnd its outlet. 54. and (3) a vertical velocity distribution 439 \ J . resulting in spiral cmrellts and cross waves. 11071120.3. po.nnels. B. pp.use of Fronde number as a basic parameter. 22. ~ . pp. subcritical flow shows smooth water surface and slight superelevation.l·s.\ ~. pp. by Ca!'l E. paper Hyd. 60. 955986. 109. 2.j 16 FLOW IN CHANNELS OF NONLIN]!:AR ALIGNMENT 73. 1956.' . lppcn and Donald R. Hickox: Discussion on The h}'clraulic jump in sloping channels. 111118. New York. In the study of sl1percriticD. L' Ene1"gia elettric(l.clions. . est. 79. 80. The presence of curveI'. this phenomenon is due mainly to (1) friction on the channel walls. These trarisverse components will create socalled secondary flow in the plane of the croas section. the spiral currents are of primary inter. 26. vol. Harleman: 'Verificatio!l of theory for oblique st. no. Od. These waves represent the gravity effect of the free surface upon the flow. Kindsvater. ' . 77. Anthony PaJJ.:l"·af1.ic"l EngilLce7'll. Ameriwn Society of CivU Engineers. ' 74.ion to the major velocity component normal to the channel cross section. Mat~kB: The hydraulic jump in sloped channels. Blaisdell and Charles A. 1938.438 RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW Unive'l'sil!l of Minnesota. 109. American Society of Civil Engineers. .
Howi?ver.ny l1:1tuml rivers whel'e the ratio or depth to width is small (henc~. bend in a channel of subcriticn. It ca'n be ! I . which thus ()ontRin~ five l:oles. ho\vever. It is to be noted that.iation (j of the curve becames large.te~' profile. but clecreases considenl.bove the Ilormal line. longitudinal current.:t.l.~.t the midsection of the cm"'le. effect i~ pr[l.rying conditions of flow. The bDckwater profile is of the 1111 type. used components in different coordinate by Shulery [2]. Spirnl flow occurs in no. Fi'om the specificenergy curve of the flow in the Channel. . S%y decreases as the depthwidth ratio. Their direction rend position cha.l flow has abackwater effect ~imilar to that of a weir or dam.)' not exist at all ill a curved channel if th~ strength of the spiral motion is so weak that its. I . S~y decreases gradually with the increase of the radiuswidth ratio rJb mid attains practically its minimum l11n. the energy line and flow profile in a uniform cUl'v'ed chan.\I1\llg part is canjed over a distance L' in the down"tret\l11 channel BB'. .t is reached.aertam hole lI1' the shell of the sphere.o produce spiralHovv Me overcome by the complicated forces . Spiral flow exists in straight channels (Art. .'el upstream from A. 163. the kinetic energy of flow depends Oll the sqtmre of the velocity. the curved channel. it can be shown that a r1se of hJ in the energy line requU'es a corresponding rise in water surface by an amount /::'y which is greater than hj. Case 2 illustrates 8upercriticaL flow in. 26.e" the curve effect [I.nge from 0.nel may be show'l1 as ill 161. This term is defined as th.cked up in the chal'in. rtt low R of the approach flow. fio. This is the case in mo. Ca. it mfl.'itical flow in a curve bet\veen two tnngentch::mriels.ipg point m.t 7 c /b =: 3.nk l'oughne'3ses [6.'{ it B'. where they approach the inside wall with upward inclination. ptays only a minor pM'~ in t he energy lo.tural rivers as well as \11 artifiCIal channels [5].l flow lnduced by the centrifugal force is "Vary pronounced L1.ll be determined. Energy Loss. the spiral flow developed 1\1 the curve will for somE: distance dowllstream. Re. the spi!'f:.ce of the sphere so tha. reflUlting from bed and btl. the dil'ecti~n II.ge ratio of the mean kinetic energy of theJateral motion to the total ldn8tic onergy of flow at a given cross section. For the computation of the backW!l. For the range of 8/180 0 from 0. of this energy is dissipated ovel' the length of the curve.nge· gradually through the second half of the curve until the exi. . With the Clll've. The l'eml).tively 8m. Without the curve. 24) £. te~1Cl. the energy line at the beginning A or the curve is raised by [1. that. ~he following are noted: • 1.neand F is the mean velocity in the section.ppro!Lches the least amount) .w'3 n.pping n. is llmall) and where the forces teJ.Shukry [2] hn~ used a term known as the slre:nglh a sp'iral flow.ldepth line. .nvEllocity vector projected 011 the xy plD. .nd irregulaF the bend. where they h. The strongest lateral currents usually o. If the curve is followed by a long tnngent. In ordpl' to delilleate the magnitude and effect of the spilil\l flow in different curves under v(1. .a cht:l.t the· nOl'nml depth y" corresponding to the pal'ticuiar discharge.gnitude of 3. wuter must be ba.\. it is desirable to use a specially designed instrument that can measure dil'cctlv the velocity :lUch [is the pit~t.y. has a small br!Lss to.ch chan~lel and thus initiates spiral motion in the flow.nce. 2. \Yherei).red with the ellergy in the.resistu. IV!lHler [81. consequently. The slope or the energy line between A [md B' is gre~btel' than the bottom slope S~..gnitude (I. In oreler to I:aise. yeloclty vector of flow ca.I) where V.\11 f1.11 amount hr.nd ma. From the experimental results obtained by'Shukry for subcl'itic:11 flow l1round ~ liend in a rectanglllal' flome. . general direction toward the outside of the curve. aud the energy line meets the energy line for the normal flo'. 1 ]~!l. the start.5. S*u is compa~:(\tively.0. A major p[~rt.R ALIGNMEN'l' 441 which in the 'appl'or. 3. ulb increases.~ pe\'~ent!l. This rise in water surfa::e indicates that the presence of a. 5. Wflich extends upstream frorn A and is asymptoti'e to the norma. by rotating the sphere and with c!Llibration.w would occur :J. Thus. .t. In a curved channel. th~ strength'of the spiral flow at this section is (H.1.fel'rin o· to the channel cross section represented the xy plane in Fig.all comfH1. /::. increases as the de\. energy line at the point A a.ncl. the inerease in is ne::wly twice that for the ro.5 toLO. the. The actual pa.ttern of a spiral flow is cornplicatedand threedimensionaL In order to record th:o actual flow pattel'll. The centrifugal force is responsible also for tl~e superelevl1tiOl1 in the flow surface.t a.: The openings of the holes a:re strategically located on the'stlria.t the top enn to pel'lilit a rUbbertuhingconnecttrlll Wit" !l pl'e:~$ul'e nlanOl11ete~'" At t!le bottcm end the tube is bent inside a sphere (\nd then termmates a.7J. SZY The pitot sphere designed by ShukrYi has'five bl'llSS tubes encased ill a ·~asing stem.ightapproach channel with that generated in the curve. a clockwise spir~1L.a.ctically elimll1utedby the r.3 :welt IlS in curved channels. which is required for the How to revert to norma. The kinetic energy of the btel~al currents ill a curve is reln.se 1 illustrates the Imbc. It is generally knowr.cling t. a chM1Uel curve to the right causes a counterclockwise spiral.ss du~ to.bly by illCl'ensing R. The co::nplicate~ pattern of flow is caused by thB interference of the spiral flow ongmated m the strR. AccQrding to.h::mnel friction.y be set at A ~vith a depth eqtU11 to y" t.llnel curve to the left causes.s ~1.ppC\UI' close to the outer· 1'[.0 (straight channel) to 0.eh ~ub~ j. parallel to the axis of the channel. for a flow with all streamlines O. looking downstream.yis the men.440 RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW l<'LOW IN CHANNELS OF· NONLl:tP:£A.
.5~ .50 0.. \ .. starting at A.50 ReyllOlds' number R (multipliec by 10') toO 1..00 Clnd j~:0.30 0.I (b) PalOmal.:. u a to I 0.25 0..80 ~ ~ .0 \_. .75 Rotio of ongle of curval"r. Experimental parametric functions of the coefficient (Aft~r A. Shukry [2J.'''. !£=1.70 I ~l~"~ .2.20 1. ':. I I ( 0.50 ..t~ 0.60 ~ ...__~~~b~.. 'E 0.50 I Radiusbreath ratiQ !:b~ " 050 r1''''''1'''''".60 Ii"'''"++++~+tj Vi o 6 u '" O. 1. 113:2.. ~ u 15 0 L~.442 RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW FLOW IN CHANNELS OF NONLINEAIL ALIGl'It..'gy line is dropped by hi at B'.''r1 2.. 0.!fr.70 0. 200 2.30 Case 3 illustrates 8upercritical flow when the normal depth is only slightly below the critical depth.and then returning to normal afterwards.30 I+.o t:. Energy line and flow pl'ofile around a curve.. R (multiplied by 104 ) I 3.00 I 023456780 4 Reynclds' number R (mult:plied by 10 ) 1.ce l'is~s above the criticaldepth line.1EN'f 443 seen that the ellel.20 water slll'f3. .90 ! 1 ~~ g 0..y at B' . The wHtcr surface is raised from the normal depth.) of curve resist. 161. The total enel'gyloss due to curve resistance can be expressed in terms 0. 0. a hydraulic jump will be ~~~. incrensing t..00 ..f~ 0. ! . I ! 'iii 0.:! 0._~.00 it J t 1.90 110 Depthbrealh rolio FIG. 3 4 5 6 7 8 0.1.1 0 \'''~.~~r'> .10 : '\ 1 1.' R.. sothat an unClular jump is produced.. .50 ReynOlds' numbe. ~ 0.50 0. The wavy surface in the upsti'eam channel is due tothe fact that the water surlace is raised above the critical depth.nce.~ 0'10 '" ~ c: 0.1_.__~o~~J'__~ a'J. :3 4 5 6 7 B 0.L__"_ i I I . lJ '1/ Case :0 I I .10 .30 !II~"" .3 0.40 FIG. corresponding to the amount of encrgy dissipated in Iile curve and the downstream channel BB'.a. 2.50 0.20 f+".40 I ~ J.! ~ 0. . If the " 0.10 1 ___ 1_.
255 i By interpolatioll: (4)[(5)/(2)1 I FIG.80.. Example 161...500 55. . = 0.00 to that of u/b = Q. 16.245 (Fig. YA/b =.tU~:~: ~~els measured in cm (= 0.ooth curved channels. "~ "'0 I"~. A . 162. II I Ii ("'s$'O{) • \ I\ 1 ~ ~ 0 0/ ~I ij<~/ . Superelevation.275/0.~ made by Shuki'Y [21 (see [9] (tnd [lOJ for other studies) are shown in Fig. 1621> 0. ".00 0.239.00.') .230 = 0.00 1.30. of flow the.. ". Fumilies of curves for these parameters based all the experimellt. d f th inlet of the bend to the total angle fJ of· the ben .00 0.. ~ 1 00 can also be applied to other values of y/b.under vm'~~us C~ll" d't" .500 and y/b 0. ?'e/b.30.00' 1.' Now..OO.1 refers to conditions at the 77.. DETER~f1NA'rloN 01.tthe path of the thread of maximum velocity in ourved channel deviates fr0111 itsnormal course a section opstream from the bend.556 0.f.! R~o. The coefficient fe varies cOl1sider(tbly with each of the parameters R of the approach flow. }. 16Za 0.00. 30 i i j. 162c).'~0.80 0.00 and 8/180 0 = 0. \ (5) (6) 1. it oan be seen thn. ...ble 162. 0. t 'U/ b Hence fol' pmctieal pmposes.f~:"L1_.. = 0.tely the value of to in sm. 1 Remarks /":. .80. 162c 0.50 0. ~ ~~=:~.50.500: 55.'ater surface attains its minimum level.230 By Fig. the finally' corrected coefficient = 0.50 . 162b 0.80 0. keeping l'clb = 1. 1 9 1 IJ the two points n.200 : By Fig.. 0.e subscript . First. for R = 55.200 X 0.200 (Fig..30 1.230 and ~hnt.07'0==?O!~___t:\oO~ .!<:! a 7~ if. for R = 55.~3. Similariy. inletapproach section of the bend.. .80 1. measure rom e ' 1 1 ff t 1 b a i n g the These positiolls were found to be only slig It y a ec ec y v r. it is found that..point of maximum surface depresslOn cl and th~ pcmt I lOn::.l'C given in tenils of the ratios of theIr ang es .245 By Fig.' 1 t d (s given in To.50.8315~S\"I'e~. d (tl1C d" .I . The above procedure of interpolation is shown in Table 161. TABLE tal SURfACE LEVELS _~ _ ':I{\j'.239 X 0.~~ep 1_ ==_~~ " .8.: /b = 1. the puth almost touches the inside wall of the chunl1el and the .::'::::"_:'::. e'lual [~Y1aC. Table 162. The curves CM be used to determine approxim[. and 8/180°.500 r.275 By Fig. ~'iJOf. with TT A = and velOCItIes III em/sec (R 0.'! :I :~ 161. the conected coefficient = 0. pOSItIOn va uea or y v . The positlOllS of of separatlOll s . . ~ '" i ) \ .2·0 1. keeping y/b = 1. I' J d forward velo0ities in flow around Contour lin~~ ~~. j.239 :j3y interp"O!ation: (1)[(3)/(2)J 0.=~=:q. for R = 55. arO'lllld a curved chuimel are many [1114J. . y/b. Then.ion of y/b = l. keeping y/b LOO and relb = 1.::\55. y/b = 0. .Y h .terhr<eoffl\Jme PQ/:I':~~~~~~l~ 20 ./~/ 9 10 I s _~_Cer. say.55 fps).500. and 0/180° = 0. /1. .). For allY given c(tse. adjus~ing t.00 1. = 0. for R = 55.1 FORWARD VELOCITIES :) :. At point el. ::1L " y ~'.~ Step (1) (2) (3) (4) y/b 1. it is found that. Studies on the supen. Given R = 55.hiVl1.2'15/0.556.50 0. 163..__ ______ :__ . 164. .hlO gIves par~~e e l l ' f .275 (Fig./b 1. j.500 and ". 2b).00 and 0/180° = 0. "c/b = 1.' THE 'COEFFICIEN'r Ol' CURVE REsrSTANCE BY L~TER['()LA'I'lON ~\'\.v ere oc(t e . j. Beyond point el. fe is obtnined by first fixing its v(tlue with respect to two variables and then adju~tillg with respect to the third and' fourth vm·j(tbles.00.~. 162a). Adjusting the condit.556. and. L ~~~1Zz=::J= 5 (b) ~n 701 ~ ' 601 .26.lle condition of 8/180· 0. (Ajt6'l' ..500 55.3937 ill. .tion in water surface. Determine j" Sohltion.556. the path gradnally moves outward until it orosses the center line of the flume at the section that passes at.500 and 8/180· = 0./b = 1. 7'J~ 0".._ .50 0. For different bends . . \ . a throngh the separation poiut 3.556 I 0.500 55.) a 180 be:l~.: .444 of the velocity head: FLOW IN CHANNELS OF NONLINEAR ALIGNMENT HAPIDLY VARIED FLOW 445 fc 2g V2 (162) where l' is the mean velocity in the section and Ie is the coeffiCient of Clll've resistance. From the experimental results obtained by Shukry (Fig. it is found that.230 0.500 55.8 em/sec (= 3.500 and y/b "" 1. 00 II/180° R 55.50 to that of 8/180° = 0.. 163).
161.ny section and y the depth of flow at a distance l' from the center of curvature. the Clrcu Y = E !J 2 _.033 t 0.000 1.i 8d/ O [ e./8 = so/a !8.500 0.250 0.500 . {" V dT ri " (E  CZ/2g1· 2 ) dl' 1'.l .100 t 0. 1 where L is the channel length between sectiCYl1 A and the section COll~aining point. Thus. and J'i are./& T:.. 167 t 1 [I..00 6/180° (A) 0/180° 0.xinllun surface depression may be estimated by the assumption of a theor. the radial section passing through point d is (163) where v. RA1'ION (POIN'l' 8 IN }'IG.i~ = 21.Z5 0. 371 I 0.111 0. ret... 0 = 90°. i I ILOOO I I 1 I In the above equations 7'..30'1'880 0 . . C2 ) (166) 2(JT .is assumption holds as long as the flo'w is . 1 (B) I'c/b = 1.500 /8 .556 0 .926 0. NO'N.2 2g (164) \ For an elaborate ·ma.J  r. and C is the socalled circ'ltlat1:on constant in a freevortex motion.. Alter A.7 1. Let E be the speGiEiq energy at a.000 1. The coefficient 0.5 1. a constant = E . The velocity pond depth at any radius l' are then obtained by Eqs. Sf is the friction slope. Th.analysis by the l.e l' from the center of curvature.556 O. 000 0.111 I 0. d.mentf. t No separation..133 t 10.778 0.296 0. the position of point d is first deGermir.667 0. energy loss due to curve resistance.IS\) 0.etical freevortex distribution of velocity. LOCATCONS OF PorN~'S OF MAXUlUiI<i SURl"ACE DEPRE8SCON d IN FIG." !'" and E are given.aW' of freevortex motion see 1121.6137 1. a cons~ant 0.. (167).POINTS OF SEP .4 was found to be practically constant for any curve.185 0.pectively.446 RAPIDLY vARIED FLOW FLOW IN CHANNELl:! OF NONLINEAR ALIGNMENT 447 In using the table for interpolation. DOD 11.'.thematica.333 0.333 D. 9d/9 I I (J. _ _ _ _ __ _ .611 0.75 1.067 t' 0.051l 0.. The specific energy at.306 0. is the mean forward velocity.'> similar to that for f.00 3.l velocity in the curve at a ra.irve was greater than 90° ./6 .445 0.000 t iO.250 0 180 0500 0250 1061110. the outer and inner radii of the curve.h of the water surface can be shown to be (168) 1' .00.00* (POINT V. for an. 8S9 0.I I . Therefore. i63) "ND . 1 I 1. Thespecific energy can be c.. 044.'> showni in Example . 7.778 o 167 0..056 J t 1 0 .889 0.222 0.333 t 0.= :C.50. . Sl~ukry assumed that C varies lineatly 'with e from rV.4'i. For smaller angles. DOD 11.805 0. values (ExlUllple 161). the discharge i5 (167) I . reasonably accurate as long as the angle of the c1.00 2.111 0. 000 000 1.1'.'~__~~_ _ __ 'l'o  R Parameter = lD.000 . 000 0. at e = 0 to its full v::dl1e at.000 0.mbrr'itical.../e 1·8 d I 0.400 I O. (163) and (164).278 I 0.y angle e less than 90°.6'37 o. t 0.33311. . is the forward ftlo.ed with th~ aid of Table 162.omputed at any section A in the approach challliel by (169) I =  c l' where CIA is the energy coefnciept and II A. 163) FOR VARYING PARAMETERS. then . I the following expression can be written: v.  For the practical application of the above equations. the procedure i. which may be determined a.500 I~ = ~2. EXCEPT THAT y/b = 1.1'18 0.50 0. 1 (165) and the average depth of flow is Ym =~~.111 0.. f' (C/r) dT = _1~o  ~~Ti ~·o  ~ln To( ri C T./b 0.250 0.11le above m~thod was found to be. 1 I If Q.3:131 0.OOO t 0 .dial di'stanc./e I ed/B I 0. which may be either determined experimentally or computed by the M~nni:ng formula. the superelevation t.. Shukry [Zi. and h f is the. 7'. 000 I 1. 000 0. By the law oj freevortex' motion.500 1 IR = 73.000 t~ = 31. 833 1 0. I' 'The forwardvelocity distribution and the watersurface profile at the section of ma.00 0. TADLE The average forward velocity is 162. the r::onstant C can be determined from Eq. 000 1.500 1.lD 0.
17). It may be nuted that the cross waves in Fig. comprehensive $tudies of . which turns away from the flo\v.ection (Chap.. distuxbance region. which does not act eqmtlly on all stremnlines in the channel section."waue and a disturbance line or negative wavefront l (Example {aj 162)..y be determined by the method described below. This analogy was first noticed by Prandtl [16J. and Knapp. and a simple formula for sllperelevation can be obtained: V z 2b (1611 ) where b is the width of the channeL Applying Newton's second law to each streamline and then integrating the whole channel sectioll. fonniilg a disturbance pattern tha~ . In a curved channel. (16. I Cross waves ill supercritical flow iJJ. To facilitate the analysis of shocld wave in gases.l. The inner vIall..448 ( RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW FLOW IN CHANNELS OF NONLINEAR ALIGN?tENT 449 i lation constant can . 2. I I I The disturbance line OJ' wave angle created by an oblique bYi<iralJlic itlrnp is considered positive in order to distingilish it from the negative distlirbance line c>f W!lvefront d\IC to nn oblique expansion . and von Karman 1181 and then investigated experimeatally by PreisIVerlc [19J and others. is the xnean fonval'd velocity in [l. <::6ntrifug:11 action in the Cl1l've. as shown in Fig. were iIiterestecl ill'imrtrHy ·in applications of this ~tinciple to sttpersonic flow of gases. [2·11.. the specific energy across the wavefront can be ass limed constant since little energy dissipation is actually involved.problems by Preiswerk.he line Art coincident with the first positive wavefront AA'.iave. gra. and [27]. i .be multiplied by a correction factor equal to o+ (1 where iT.ssumed th.ter. The disturbance lines thus produced by both outer and inner walls wii! be reflected back and forth between walls and will interfere with each other. in any channel of nOIllinear alignment.u:.. Supereievation in CUl'vcd channels nuty also be detcl'l"nined less aCClU'ate but simpler formul!t8 which lire bilsed on the application of Newton's second bw of motion to the. will develop a oblique expansion .lults.nnels.' TT 2 1'. the transverse water surface can be shown to be a straight line. positive wavefront may be determined by the rnet. making t. which was lall"r applied to hydraulic . can persist for a .~.. a parabolic curve . La. ilnd othel's [2026). straight channal. the . all streamlines have a radius of curvature rc.he flow'.wa~er are' aualogolls to the shock waves In supersonic ·t!01V of gase. For detfliled de$criptioll5 of this method. 16. These wa ~res. 12) Woodward )4. will produce all.. he obtained the fol1o\l'.phical method known !\s the melhod of charactedstics. Rectangular channels of 1l01ltion angles of channel walls.. oblique h}'dmujc jump rmd a corresponding pnsitive disturbance lirie or positive wavefront l .... which turns inward to t.. the outer wall. 13) gives the best re!. The negative disturbJl..SD ~' 10 0 ' ~ g '.t { . B\lSemann [27J developed !l. Ippen. varying in between according to . For hrge deftectioil angles that create positive w~wefrOl~tsl however. These scientists.. and tllat. Hiab~ucbinsky [17]. but Ilone of them is more accurate than the freevortex formula (168).ed by the turning effect of the cUl'ved walls. 1517)..nd the negative wavefront by the method to be described later in Example 162. . For small deflection angles. such as those shown in Fig..~of [131 W(l..hiJd developed in Art. (16 .. Ippen. Using Newton's seconcpaw. distinctly. 164. the plism~tic alignment.S able to show that the trailS" verse surface profile is a logarithmic curve and that the supel'elevation is . In studying the de\~elopment of these methods it should be noted that. resulting in a dis~'~l'b::Ll1ce pattern of cross waves. Gras.. the Cl'osswaves mo.. Cross Waves. Assuming that all filamental velocities in the bend are equal to the mean velocity V. (Art. the reader should refer to [23J. Cross waves· Ine usually found in supercriticaJ flow ill channels of lIonlinear aEgnment and channels with nonpi'ismatic .nce Iille Ilctjlally only marks the beginning of a. Similarly. cross waves may be {bl formed in various pattel'lIs.ing formula for sllperelevation: Of the above three simple superelevl1tion formulas. defined Iiuc like the positive one. it has been found that Eq. 164.4b can be canceled. For large deflec. 5.consideral:>le distance downstream. 1517 fl. it is not a. 16.the subject! in hydraulic applications ware made by Knapp.151 l. . 164c. however. such as the infinitesiiru?l increment of the deflection angle in curved chn.FlO.tt the velocity is zero at the banks and has a 11l[Lximmu value at the center. for sm::dl deflection angles a·lld for large deflection that create negative wavefl:on'ts. are ci).
. .cave wall A C tends to deflect the flow.y and the surface' begins to rise again. 45. the initial distu~bance produced by the i~'ll1er wall is propagated along the line A'B. and (5) vertical channel walls.nd inner walls will not come j.1 (V/gU/l') . IN CHANNE(. the water surface along the outer wall starts to drop.lI. 165). . They will continlle to be reflected back and forth' across' the Chal111el. the cen tnd angle to the first maximum can be shown to be 8 . 58.ce is depressed lower rmd lower around AID until the point D is reached..yhich would otherwise follow the tangential direction. \ \ .o h£1 ve a Beries of maxima. . and minima of surface elevation. In the meantime. Consequently.l flow ina.vefronts AB and AlB affect each othel' and are 110 propagated in straight lines but in the curved paths ED and BC. (2) constant velocity across the cross section.~I ! 1 I I i ·1 j I I . the two wA. the changes in the angle of deflection and in the depth are gradual and small and. Crossw~ve patt.diaf line OC but slightly on the left side nnd right side of DC.\ I . This assumption applies also to the locations of the subsequent maxima. The two p'ropagation fronts meet at point B. it may be assumed that the points of maximum and minimum for each (J occur on the same radial line.cr COll. In order to simplify the computation of the watersurface el"vation 2 the following major assumptions al'eto bfl made: (1) twodimensional flow..n appreciable amount of . The reflection oC disturbance waves from the outer B. (4) frictioilleas flow.\. ·1 curvature of the outer wa. the error involved in the l15surnption is negligible. the water surface is raised higher and higher around the outer wall up to a maximum at C.t!l. such as DC for the first maxiphase ~um 'and minim um.the curve and thus continues to move in its original direction.. the< flow is unaffected by. 165. 30. Upstream from the bOWld. (3) horizontal channel. + 51 tan f3 2b (1614) a FIG. Thus. and the water surfa. . llllrved channeL where the wave ~\ngle f3 is approximately sin. . .tant because the wavefront is built up to a :mbstantial height and so the oblique hydraulic jump across. that is. On Uie imler convex side.1 . . . 'However.cteristios (23]. . Considering the supercritical flow in a curved channel of constant wi~th 'b and radius 7'.. 165). approximately at f~ngles 0.lly th~ locations of the first maximum and minimljm do not oceUl' exactly on the ra. begins to operate.ll starts at the beginning point. respectively (Fig. parallel to the tipstre!un tangent. TheOllt. After D the effect of the outer wall comes into pl!). (Fig. After G the effect of the inner wall.mdor supercritico. thus.o equilibrium 01' . 165). . can be represented' byde and 1 Actuo..0 RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW FLO. the first small disturbance caused by the . The e marks half the wavelength of the disturbance pattern. as will be Sh0W11 below by Eq.s. crmsing lhe surface profiles the walls t. Beyond point B. which an initial wave angle /3 with the tangent extended beyond point A. from the beginning of the curve. the front will consume a. For practical purposes. ~ A det&iled study of the complete surface contours is possible by means of the method of ch!l. tal1' (21". which is to lower the water surface. ary line AB AI. (1615).S OF:NONLINEAR ALIGNMENT 451 specific energy cannot be assumed COl).stop when they meet near the center of the channel. lLnd minimn.. A and is propagated along the line AB. For the curved outer wa. Assumptions 3 and 4 do not exclude the application of the results to sloping channels if the slope compensates for the friction. the flow tends t~ depart from the wall. 1 By geometry (Fig.
. 8m f3 eos fj 11 (1617) By eombining Eqs.the autc.tilll (.:tical usage.ined· dy V~ =  g tan (3 de (1618) .By Eq.lly render ass~ll1ption 4 invalid..e as the depth changes. (1622) to be empirical. vfiiY Substituting y for YI Rnd y I (161. the line ala represents the theoretical position of t·he wat~r surfacein the channel cross section if the channel were straight. (l616) becomes ely = .= .l'Ound the outer wall.y) vY de = v2E . According to Knapp and Ippen [21241.I .much simpler equation y= .1 Y \j 2E . 8 = '\/ . however. The distance . for e = 0. Similar conditions exist in other cro.3y '.1 tuu.he experimental investigations made by Ippen and Kn[1...6 . '''. the following is obta. the specific energy may be COIl' fHdered constant. (1521) bccomes l . even with the aid of a graphical c. sm . This length may be approximated by AG' 1 On the basis of !l. where the first maximum height of the cross wuve occurs at the outer wall.1 ..rdevntion.bout t::. should be the slowest.ri e may be replaeed by de.PP [21. indicate on the contrary tl\r. Since E = y + V2/2g.t the velocity around. (1620) may be written . (16~15) tind (1617).3y . or 6.5) depth Y I. Equ[1.1l.d by Ippell (23].lculilte the change in depth along th . In cross section GD (Fig../3· == . 1 (1621) This cqu[1. The integration constant Clll1 be determined by the condition that. Eq.. boing the deepest.I . . v u tan.~. and . Equ:.the superelevation. According to assumption 4. which actua.\e hydraulic jump of infinitesimal height dy. whereas f\long the inner W:L1l the velocitj"'decreases.. 1 In using Eqs. in other cross sections where the wave height is minimum at the outer wall.tion (1622) was. (HiH). it is rell./<. 452 RAPIDLY VARIED i"LO'" ~. hence." were subcritical.. Thus. In cros.rity is due to varyhig effects of the channel irictian. ~ walls at the begiuning of the curve.cross wave is prnctically offset by .tan e .= + const VF2 . Eq. Consequently. which h!l5_been found in good agreement with experimental d~ta covering considerable variation of the Froude number (even for F' eqtla\ to or shghtly less than unity) uud of the clepth.. l:espectively. the outer' wall and negative for depths a. Eq. Simibrly...h tan (f.. .3 '\ 2E .Ssumption 4 and. in the denominator is negligible compar'ed wit. line b' 6 the theoretical positioll of the water surface 011 the curVE: if the flo'.231. ' .. Since the author cannot discern here the rigor of the origirull mr.. According to t.h/2. thfj actual water 'surface is identical with 11.soned that a constant velocity may be assumed. The positioll el is lower than b' by ['. Assuming YI = 1/2 = y lor an obliq\.'3 sectio:l FG. therefore.. or highcr than b by about ('.de . For bro~d ~ppli~atians. Q tan..3S sections where maximum height of water stll'face occurs at the outer w8.tion (1621) is. t. involved and inconvenient for prar.V).. This equation ill believed to be tl'Ue only for supercritical flow in wide rectan"ular channels . ' .fiG along the wall represents a half wavelength. (15"~3) may be reduced to . ~~ I . Eq.111. since E='y + V'/2g must be con. Substituting this. It is believed th:. (1615).h/2. This equation can be used to cll.the .he water 13urfILce aSSUlIles (\. • 1'ile matliematicai derivation of the equation of this form was first made by von Klirman [18].. (1619) I I I The exact solution of Eq. ' I 3y 31 .viclth ratio of the channel. of the conservation o{ energy." ' .t this dispD. (1621) and (1622). effect of the disturbance . the velocity in any stl'eamline must chani!.~ r' (. generahzed equatIOn. expression for V in Eqs. tr.thematical derivatioll. (16~19) for 9 gives _ . this amount is Y?b/2TcY. ':< '.. above. The flow E1. the depth y is the initial . obtained by .h. r FLOW IN CHANNELS 'OF NONLINEAH ALIGNMENT 453 ely. Erigelund and MunchPetersen [28] have devel~ped . Ii. e is higher than. amount equal to half the supe. adequate results may be.ces assumption 4. Actual measurements. which rep!E1. derived from the assumption of constant velocity. i ! r I· t .long the inner Wl~IL The depth at the first maximum heights of the crosswave disturbance may be obtained by using the value of 8 computed by Eq.I ..1 .3y I + cons t (1620)* Sillce 2E' = y(2 + Fi) (why?).' 8 . Y = v/2g(E . the angle eis positive for depths along . V2 sin l g ( + ely for Y2.~tant. (1615) and (1618) and then eliminating fj by Eq.tion was developed as a result of actwd flow mensurements. Ii sec~ {f tan e =tan f3 . w(Lllli~lllains constant or even increases slightly. however. . he would rather consider Eq. which sustains a central angle 8. [ I I i 1 V Fl = F = .bn. and line e'e the actual water surfacc on the curve when the flow is supercriticaL It is evident that b is higher than a and b' is lower than a' by ail. the following is obtained: ely '2(E . where the minimum cro~sw(we height OCCll1:S at the outer w<.:. 1 (}5).6 8' +) 2 (1622) I ay (1616) For a small angle.h/2.y F~ .' a because the . position as if the flQw were in a straight channel.a by an amount eqlml to_about 6.. (1611).hal't such fl·S that develope.
ew disturbl1l1ce pattern.433 ) ( 1 Xl() + r. it may be concluded that the disturbance wave p.ergy. 166..' in 166.rn in the design of curved ch:J.l value of the continuously cha. the decreaS<! in deptil ma. is represented by the negatiVE! disturbance line. respectively. The l:esul'.veier. the configuration at an.llgnme::Jt..ht. Example 182. aud 8.ximum height on the onter wall at the point of tangency. whereas the positive disturbancll line represents the entire (li~turbande caused by nn oblique hydraulic jump. This is suggested in accordance with the behavior of spiral flow. F. can be represented by Eq.nging Freud" number. Dis the hydraulic dept. radius at whichthe . .l erosion due to spiml flow.l Froude numbers of the flow. . which will have a minimum wava height at the outer wall at the efld of the curve. the curvature suddenly changes to straight alignment. In general.l1!lsls. AI>. therefore.t. T is the top width in ft. has a wo.y be considered to "'J'. alluvial river bend (Fig. t where y is the ordiril1teot depth in ft.ttern developed in the curve. because it will give the least.! u(~pth can be shown to be ·. 162). The ll\lga~ive disturbance line marks the beginning of It disturbance region devebpcd by fin . F. the action of spiral flow will develop a tion in the bed.454 RAFID1JY VARIED FLOW FLOW IN 'CHANNELS 'OF' NONLINEAR ALIGNMENT 455 or b/tan f3 by that the angle AG' A' = (3. effect clUB to spired flow is minimi. a ratio of To/V = 3 is recolnmended. It lUay be noted tha. . . it is needed most on the outer bank at the do\vnstream end of t.nge does not involVe 'appreciable energy depths before and after the change ca.nd fina. the wavelength is 2b/tull fl.nce line rcpre' sents a rnore OT less sudden increase in depth becBuse it sigltlfies !L hydraulic jump. because they will increase frictional loss and letta to dllnger of serious locn. 40. thrilugh !L sel'ie~ of infinitesimal st. By Eq.nce . 16·6). if F. The depth of flow decreases in the fanshaped region of the wave disturbo.ctBl'istics of all oblique expansion channels of nonlinear A.nce delineated by wave angles (1. I i i i! SoluliQn. in contrast to the negl\tive disturbance line. Seclloo A'A I . :1: is the abscissa in ft.h in ft.velength and magnitude equal to that of the original disturbance pa. Oblique expa. The rehtion among F t . and {:J" measured with'l'eference to tbe initial and final flow dirac.= F. which osoillntes about the plane represented by has a wl:welength of2b/tl1n.ted by 'assuming a constant er. and J( is a coefficient equal to . (1625) I I. The wave angle of eRch SU(lCeCaing wa. be elimilmtecl by adopting curve lellgth~ of 28.ing disturbance pattern in the tangent is the sum of the original and new Th~ new disturbanGe pattern may.7//~7/A.6 and an amplitude of 112b/2TcU.35D ( .nlle[s. respectively.77/7:/7//?//t::::Lm7///. the initi".zed (Art. (1621). For disturbance continuing into thedowl1stream channel. The oblique expa.vlll1U~ . Each wnvelct may be sllcee1h. are give!l. positive disturba..eps or wavelets.turallaws.region. are. curves I are unde3irable in open channels.n~ion wave. can be determined.l1ttel'll.he channel in ft. a r.437 . 167) may be represented the following empirical equation: Mm?q#:.n be rela.·1 ( In til" disturba.T2 . (1615). Thus. The angular mnge in which the depth change takes place may be determined by (11)23). The size of the cOllfiguration is minimal if 'l'r/b is 3. wavelength is sti!! 2b/tan p. 'Thus. Reduction of spira. Fw.tians.. 0. The first wfl.\/0. the mtio of the final to . When bl111k protection is necess::I. and th. Since the depth cha.nd F.vclet.nt dEoflth. Thus.ngle {Jc (Fig.obEque expansion wave. and (1523) I I I x~ Y = 6. This can be used to cstimn. the primal':\. just to cllncel out the newly created maximum wave heif!.te roughly the s~lpercritica[flow profile ill simple curved chn.0 OF larger. In that equation.lvely represented by '" line of COllst!l. r" is the mdius of curvature on the concave side of't. In an alluvial bend it seems that the configuration of the channel cross sectioll is defined more or less in accordance with certain l1a. depends UPOll the loco.nsion wave occurs when the channel wllll is turned oute ward from the flow at all o.0.the tnitia. Des()tibe ~he ehal'l1.n~lels for subcritical flow. when F. This subject has been by many scientists and engiheers of river hydraulics since [29]. starting with a m<J. For a proper proportioning of the curve.he curve and to a lesser degree on the inner bank at the beginning of the CUl've. . flow is the mlljor conce. e '" 0 when F = Fl and 0 = 8.ll1.:J. In erodible ch!l.ry.' Design Considerations for Subcritical Flow.e tot!1l deflectioll angle ~. W2N6 where FI a.. According to the studies by Ripley [30]. Frain the above discussion..
:lCt~on of the flow. .. The eqtlatioll generally gives a 'width of channel at hydraulic depth about 20 % greater thfUl the actlJf.ter thn.he water area. gren. Hence. '168. shown III Fig.28 and the'value 1)f y thus compltted shouldbe in<. The r~sLlltb .. 5. The required cross slopeS. For]. the maximum depth is iI. T. the computed banking will be less effective under new flow condition:.1 width. Ea8e'TIumt Cv. IN CHANNELS OF NONLINEAR ALIGNMENT 457 I I . The best design is a SImple curve of radius To preceded nnd followed by a section of ::motlle!' simple curve whose len<tth is b/tnn {3 and whose l'aclius is 2)'.it. Eanking. .vill the designed flQW coridition.y given. 168. Consequently.oviring I'emarks shoulcl' be noted: .. Diagonct! . the radius r of the curve and the velocity Y.te nt or neo.5 % less than the computed value. Design Considerations for Supercritical Flow.jlel' R. The equation is very approximate j nevertheless. greater them 40 wher~!l..:reMecl 14%.ttern can be reduced by concentric vc. less than 40 tiInes the square root of t. On a crossover bar when the c:hannel is neitheI' on a curve nor in IIstrnight .456 RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW :FLOW.s il~ valid. The optimum sill angie .. O\ld it becomes impossible in channels ctl. (A.. For r.. B. 1. will inm'ease appreciitbly the cost of desigl~ and const·ruction with only slight improvemellt in flow Ch~LI'n.rily opern. has been develQped expet:imentally. O. 'bends are const.reach. in the absence of a..nding to shift the channel. This method is IVJt generally practicfl.nnel. the ivalue of riJ used in t. it will give satisfactory answers to many practiGal problems. . the equation bacome.52. hence. caA be computed by equati. 161. . 4. Fac~ors against lnmking include co.y be npp!i¢d to cU'rved channels not occupying the entire width of the wntenvay or to those at the river entrance created by a . An effective layout of the sills. The crigin of the cool'dillates for this equation is on the water l>'Urface' at n pOlut equidistant.) i \ 3.tly .he equation should be 40 VA. Other types.lTYing debris of sizes larger than the sllbdivided width.nes which divide the ehallllel width into a series of ml. The equation ma.r Center of Cur . K 26.. from the banks~ ~l1using :this equation the foil. By banking is jrneant use of a. Knapp [24J h~s suggested the following:methods to achieve this objective: A. ing compound curve will offel' 11 very desil'able solution for most cui'ved channels of 8upercritical flow. When the veloeity chiLnges.1' I I . The !:.The disturbance ir~ a simple cUl'ved oh"nne1 may be reduced by employing a compound curve. in such cases.bout 14.upel'elevation and disturbance pa. 107. curve. D. Empirical channel cro~s section at river bend. rt should be noted that the slope thus computed is good only fqr the velo('. banking.17. no further deepening of the channel seems ttl result from the increased curvature. excavation and possible siiting or erosion ~. Multiple Curved 11 anes.cterii>tics . . single curved jetty. Ph\ll of sill insta:llativn in a curved ch3. is . banking should be introduced gradually from zero to its full amount. that is.design of curved channels for supel'critical flow is to elimil11'te or reduce the superelevatioll and crosswave disturbance pattern.ng the gravity component [Llong the cross siop~ to the centrifugal force determined by i I. better method for determining shap~ ofcrbss section at a river beild or at a bend in a dredged c[mai. the major issue in the . 2. such as a spiral t. o FIG. Knapp [24]. of easement curve. te.l. VZ gr (1626) In order~o avoid abrupt chailges in flow condition. .ll about 110 VA.T1)e~.S sharper bends are destructive. 6.!'llctive and stahle when r. bottom cl'OSS slope that supply a l£\teral force to counteract the centrifuglll. In such cases. starting at both ends of the curve.StUs.'long the inner w[ll1 dUl'in~ low flows. o1vre FtG. is most suitable in channels which ordiM.ransition curve.l'l'OW curved channels. : . Diagonal sills installed on the bottom of the channel near the ends of the curve will prodLloe all effect correspondi'ng to that of im easement . '> .
Amel'ican Society of Civil Engineers.512). Puttu llaj\l. 465480. 165: Verify Eq . L.on.es renaw. 1/ pp. which is as follows: 0 o . Civ'. This method can be used as a remedial measure in channels which have been designed as simple circular curves or other un:=mtisfactory fOl'ms.~ deldscher I ngenieuTe. 16~6. A. 12. . iTi91783.i Cons6"unncy Distr':ct. 7.laius. 1927. Wittma.und Wildbachvcrbauungun (Theoretical principles for mgulatioll of rivers and t{)rrent. . R. 1937. pt. 151. The pronounced disturbll.956. REFERENCES where K is 11 ooefficient. . I. 751779.ts del' Tec/'.00 36.onnect two etra. 25. .'5ily convinced that the distul'bance will be greatly reduced at high d~sigl1 flows. Herbert.5 in. 7. p. no. ' . V Il.. pp. 162. result WIth the actuat cross section. B6ss: "Wasser und in gckrihnmten FIussstrecken" (" Vi' a. Proceedings.15. pp.00 1 . English tTll. vol.: in Gasen und ilberkritischer Striimuug in offenen Gerinl1en (A ap. H2.·t..1. May. G. TnlllSact·':oTl. vol.000 800 600 400 y 0. 1944.' What is the snpel'elevation? 164. PROBLEMS . Bmllo Poggi: Col'l'enti veloci nei (lanaIi in cm·va. Bal'cMey. 1937.nd winding of rivers in allu.society of Civil Engineers. (b) .l Repi. (1. 16S. Howe: Efferti'. vol.e cost. NEllV' York. Using Eq. p. 58.. . 14. where L' = b/tan p. vol. . and 1. PORCY. May. 9.ls). Pral!·::hl: Abriss de. Thompson: Existence of helicoidal flow. L'Ell. Royal Society of L01!rf. 1933. and 1'. no. pp. vol.ermine the superelevation in the preceding problem by (a) Eq.pUI)MIOn of nna. The distance Lus may be estimated by (1627) I I I 459 I I . Herbert D. de I' Acad. J. K. H.needll(J.00' 108. 1938. Munich. vol. Woodwa. T1·ansa. 1938. 4.170 44." Jobn Wiley & Sons. Z1ldch.00 74. Vogd Ilnd Paul W. vol. voL 115..p/.. Woodward: Hydraulics of the Mi!l.lcly on the flow resistance ill CllT\'cd open channels).Llogy of flaws of' a compressible Jiuid). Mila/Ito. = 15 in. February. 1031. May. l i (1628) l· Jallles Tholnson: Oil the origin a. that "is the half wftvelength of a channel disturb:?nce. is designed to c. 1932. (1613). no. 2. The flume is'12 ft wide and built of smooth concrete. Ci1iil EnfJ1.00 x y y '660 800 1. Dayton. voL 18.mi::schlm [nstitu.3 cis at a normal depth of i in. (1614). C. Vogel and Paul W. lI{Uleibngen des Hyd1'f.nd R. VieIVegVerlag. 11. Mar. a rectangular flume to turn. Lancefield: FibII' around a river bend inveRtigated. 8. pp. Nt'w York. pronounced distUl'bitnCe at low flows. 998999. 1~8 . pp. 1933. 1934. Jr. In accordance with the the length LU1 is 0. Pt.rial I. 1941. vol. July. Hinderks:' NebenstrBmungen in gekrilmmten Kaniilen (Secondary flow in Gun'eel can!l.:Hydraulic Stmctul'es.!?nie des Scie1!ce~. 5J. 17. 109. Ame1'ican Society oj Civil Engineer.. Germany.lght channele of the same width. 2.00 65.170 1. pp. (1611}. 1943. 1\J34. 3. pp.lj. Eixlgeniissi. of channel shape on.gen del' Fluss.30L' + b ! i I . maximum surrace depreSSIOn In the bend given in the preceding problem.losse5 in a canal bend. 5. compute the channel cross 8ec~ion at a bend in the MissisSIPPI Rl.n )). 16. no. SaHjiva. American SGciety of M'lchftnical Engine~rs.!l and P.a.: EnrJineering.nslaticn by Cla. 3. StrQmungslehre ("Outline of the Theory of Flow").~..00 55. (1625). Theodor yon Karman: Eill.00 38. Brunswkk. Civil Engineerinll. no. 4.logie zwischen tJbernaILlSt:l'o:mumll.9 and 1. Det~rm~ne the specific energy at the section containing. Bfll'lin. Berlin.g. A1I!. ca.iber den SCl'Omungswicierstll. Compute the WH. 1920. November. 4560. T '"' 2. 12. 15. 4." trallslated from the German by Samuel Shntitz. = 148.: Versuche i. 13. Thompson: Flow in ril'erbends.nischen H ochscknle Miinchin. Determine the bend loss. Assume 0: = 1. a. with rema. 258260. vol. Yen and J. pp. .(8wift flow in curved channels).che Teclmi~che HClchsclntle. DeLermine the approximate flow profile ill the curved channel given in Prob.. Riabouchinsky: Sur l'analogie hydraulique des mouvements d'un ffuidp. des rre1·~in.4.nce l1t low flows may cause uneasiness and distrust in an unexperienced observer liS he may not be ea. E. 1~1. 5£13618. 1934. F.!. 1876.. 195.00 24. Ahmed Shukl'Y: Flow arour:d bends in an open flume. Zei/.n angle of 50° wIth t1 radms of 250.0 alld n 0.erj where A.nd gekrummter offencl' Kaniile (St'. 1950.{ I ! \ l x 1. and possible cavitation at extreme highvelocity flows.s). vol. using the law of free YortE'x.seil and supercritical flow in open channels).dionli. 10. Blue.00 111. The major disadvantages of this method are mail1tenal1.1lchlift flZ' (l'lI. pp. and (e) Eg.rd and Charles J.['sr:r profile in the cross section containing maximum surface depression. No.01. noi'mo. Ye. 632634.IA'. Robert Muller: Theoretische Grundl:J.rrying 1.Eq. Dec..".s. I. 33.. pp. Inc. i)rai<tische Anwendung del' Ann. Ohio. pp.00 ZOO 200 400 ° 97. 5.':c(m . Tip.rni Rood control project. 18/300 ft.is~allcc to fiow in curved open dmnnels. no. Design the curvad channel for. FOt.ergia eleUrit.sign discharge is 350 cfs at a slope of 1 %.d Mec/tnnik. !f)5G. Springer'''erlr.000 1. Shenna.ter and Eedload Movement. p. Com. . Mockmol'e: Flo\l' around hends ill stable channels. 6. 18. "Hydraulics of Steady Flow in Open Channels.} cases. Cl:"n En!j1:neenng. L..340 it. :1. the value of J( lies between 0. .010 ft 2. Det.00 88. 161 If the approach channel carries a supercriticl11 fio\I' at a depth of 0.. jJ[itieii1.it. Berlin. 17. A 120 bend with Ii 10 In. 1834. 2613263.rence E.458 O! RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW I 1 I FLOW IN CHANNELS OF rWNJJINEAR ALIGNMEN'f I is 30°. vol.rsuchsanslalt fiLl' Was. 5.gelUandle M(lth~matik un. 49 after p. 110. 5.nd El'dbau. 63.erbau 1. W. compressible (On hydralllic anl.t~{le" de. Zeitschdfl. in Curved River Reaches "). Sherman M. C. The de.00 0. 4.167. 2. D. vol. H.logy between supersonic flow in ga.. as in the problem. 370371.1ll. ilIia. Tel'hn·ica. 71. Armin' Schoklitsch: ". Herbert D. H)9.820/ 19':12.rks on the flow around bends in pipes.
1 flow. 1877.clty f[~w in open channels: A symposium.. 268295. 27. 4. Euglish translation by S. 3473G3.imerican . 23. 1680. 20. . 116." . Tmn~'actions. . Tranaactions. etc. . M' arch.ss~i . Prank Engelulld aI).w m op~n chunnels: A symposium. f .~~~eIY of CWllBngmeers. Arthur T. vol. many examples have heen discussed. . No. feetangular channels. J 16. 1951.~.. .y . 1 of "Handbuch der Expellillentalphyslic.F/ By the continuity equation! Q = V\b1YI = Vsb. Amer.2 St(tie [/niU'Ts't'· of I~w'a J S'Lolluozes '!"L . ~.pidly varied flow through nonprismatic sections! is found frequently in v<trious . no. Take the horizontal contraction (Fig. . 22. i4). 326346. La H01!ille blanche.adel111sche Verlagsgesellschait mbH LeiT.7. B:I~el~~nn: "?asd~r:. and EnYun HSll: Design of c]lannel expallsior. T1'a'ltsactions.rat... . independent consideration will be. 25. method.(Application of the methods of ga. such as the broadcrested weir (Example 32). pp. Such a. BOllssin~sq: F. Proceedings of the 6th Interna/tonal (')on9 res s of Apphed Mecillznics. Ripley: . In previous chapters. does not evaluate theoretically the' effects due to uncertain £adors. New York. flow In open channels: A ~ymposium. 159 to 1515).ehe . however. or both. 461 1 . .. .iions. . sharpcrested 'weir (Art.'y CommtUe~for Aeronmtlics. Dawso'l: Design of channel contractions.1 Eng·ineers. pp. 35. '" r: ~:y E 'ngtnee'''. ' 30. The problem under consideration often involves an appreciable amount of turbulence loss.J '' J: sur ? Ru../. 1"ransaclions. and 11.l Engtneers.essary to resort to model studies or actual observationSO'll existing structures: Then the theory Cl1n be used to set up all empirical equation 01' chart in which the coefficients ani'to be del:ermined by experiments or from actual data. A study of high velocity flow in curved channels of rectangular cross section. Hllnte~' R.1nerican Society of Civil E'lUI~'neers vol. Robert T. Ip~en and J?hn H.l:actcd and expanded.01.P 2  Pi .dgenBssischB iechnische H ochsch~de 'Z~'rich .. . a p~actical solution of the problem can be achieved t. pp. and 33.ouse.. overflow spillways (Chap. . 2d paper in oS . 172) as an example.. channel outlet and entrance (Art. no. Y mon. 310). (Essay on the theory of . l!. no. This has been de'scribed in Arts. 1953. • Zig. pt. Rei~s as l'iuttOnal Advtso. pp. omUll"en m. R~bert T . pp. 38. 1 19. B1tl/etm 21. . V. CHAPTER 17 FLOW THROUGH NONPRISMATIC 'CHANNEL SECTIONS I HIg~lveloCity.al example is demonst.d Johs. Ippen and Robert T.. Knapp.s of sllp~reritioal flow.. sel'.lo. Ipj:>en: Ol:rvilineur fiow of liquids with free sur~.openchannel structures. '" 28. and momentum equations. . .mer. 3d paper In ~IJghveloclty Ro. 141). A. I. 90. 24. IV. ~ppen: GMwave Rnruogies in ope:l~challnel flow. . . 2.ht th60i'ie des eaux coltrantes. it is nec. KnapJ): I?esign of channel Cu\. Paris voL 23. A.. 116.d 935. John Wile' & Sons Inc. American So.elV l ) g = PI . vol. ..\l.jean SOCIety of 0. T"unsar. Kna~~alld Arthur T.ungell aus ~?1\. E. 149). 'I'echnicaI1l1emoranda Nos 934 .inchtde sudden contractions and expansions vertically. . 19'1D. 8Lh yr. Proceedings of the 2d Hydrm'/tcs Conference.can SocIety of C1Vl! E'Il{j!1lo.0.'s.ces at veloCitIes abov: that of wave propagation.ed in Example 32. 248·265. 1936. 423'140.s dynamics to water fl"ow with Ifree .mik" ("<?asdynamies"). 239 21. 01 . stilling basins with various controls (Arts.ves for slipercriliC!l. Such transitions (Fig.Qw (P3Y.1 to 117.g. 1] 6. ' • ar. Sudden Transitions. 29.. 22. Mass. Grenoble. In many cases. Transitions with the change of crosssectional dimensions occurring in a relatively short distance will induce rapic'ly vr. T. 464474.Relo.Ya. 36 to 38 i and a typic. Al. Fol' convenience 1 Gradu'ally varied flow through nonprismatic channel sections has been covered in Arts..a·)tsaclions.t1e. 1943.. 1951. For a more exact solution that takes all factors into account. pp. t reler Jcrllli. Bhoota. 531536. 4th paper 11111Jghve.ater flow). supplement 24. 113). discussed. 1051. pp. 2 Applying the momentum equation to sections 1~1.teiy of Cw.'1 d . energy.. dl'um gates (Art. pp. sevel'al significant cases 'which require. American Geophl sical U '. 516521. Z6. .. :~r~hur T. 1st paper in HighYelo~ity flow HI open channels: A symposIUm.Li~1I of depth LO cllrvaiul'e of channel'l. '. June 11. 17. vol. pp. pp. vol. illemmres VI'esentes par dl'OC7'S savants (i I' Academic des Sciences.' 19'~ I pp. Arthur T. 1927. In this chapter. 1ppen: Mechanic. 46). nsttb~t ~~L1' Ae"odllnam'ik. El'Ils~ l'reiswerJc: Anwendung gllSdynamischer Methoclen auf Wassel~t\.hrough the use of the continuity.460 RAPI~LY: VAlUED FLOW 0 19. MunchPetersen: Steady llow in cont. • . AugustSeptember. • The following discussion is based 011 a. ~rth~lr T. 17 1. lwrizonblly. Discussions on pp.ried flo. 'nf. 2B6325.s. submerged sluice gate (Prob. 1938. 207:)38. 400. H)38. Y . vol. 171) . 1951..tre!Ltmeut given by Jaeger [J3]. surface). A. criticalflow flumes (Art. Cambridge.
because they necessita.. Anl11ysis of a horizontal contraction. Region 4. The difference between the energies before a. 1 = 0. 173. the ana.nsions (shown by the dashed curves).nd after the transition is IlE Yl ar IlE Yl V + 2(1 .y. from supercritical to Flow is subcrit. is represented by the curve . Region 3. using bl/b l as a parameter.nsition passes./1/1. 172.his line.ieal discussion. The special case of ba/b 1 =:= 1.king. 01' a negative energy loss. Under these conditions. 171. All hyperbolas pass through the points (Fl . certain parts of the curves represent flOWE thatc!1lmot actually occur..1/(b a/b 1 )J (17 2) .ing the hydraulic jump in a prismatic channel. (Why?) Consequently. The upstream flow is supercdtical ill the regionaboye the horizontal line F 12 = 1 or F I = 1 and sub critical below t. 4. indicai.l1sition passes from subcritical to ! Horizontal Horizontal contrQction expor. Eq.!ysi. Fl2 I FIG.dictory to the fact that the flow always loses energy in passing through a traUl)ition. Region 2. having·the following cbaracteri:otics: 1. Fw.lline Ya/VI = bdh 3.1 (Why?). of sudden horizontal contractions (shown by the full curves) and expa. it may be assumed t11at Ff = 0.= 0. The family of CUl'yes thus plotted are Region 1. Flow through the tra. The curves are considered only for positive values of F 1 and Ya/YI' 2.icaL Flow is supercritical throughout the transition. I \ similar hyperbolas of a higher order.1J 2[(Ya/Yl) . using D. shown in Fig. supercrit.J 462 RAPIDLY YARIED FLOW FLOW THROUGH NONPRISMATIC CHANNEL SE<"'TIONS 463 in the theoret. and Y2 = Va • . t. 173. The downstream 2 flow is subcritical in the region below the curve Fl~ = (!Ja!Yl)3(ba/ b1) and supercritical above it.FIG.sion Vertical expansion .l!1 2(Y3hh)2(b /b 1 2 2 _.inst 1). which is contra. Theoretically spea. . representing four regimes..!L_J a 1)2 (173) (174) .5 (~) i(Ya) + 111 Yl L Yt .. four regions in the figure.he tra. (171) may be reduced to F 1 2 _  (yJ/Vl)[ (VJ/Yl)2 . Ya/YI = 0) and (Fl = 0. Flow through. are created: I I I I 5.lol as a parameter fQ. su bcritical.r~ + 2 1.. Plot of Fli aga. Sudden tra:'lsitions. where F 12 V 12 /gYl' This equation call be plotted as. lh = P3 = 1.ical thr"Otighout the transition.te an increase of 61\ergy. V3 2g 1 + F12 . Ya/VI 1) and are asymptotic to the yerticr.
were made by Formica [4].l measured flow (/lftet G. slight change in the items ill Eq. fh and . .00104 at narrower sections' and 0. fo~ the sudden expansion iildidates the position of the energy lme assumlng a == shows the computed values of the energy different section.. . +. the theoretically impossible flow may become actdally possible becanse tbe iJ. h are sown m '" .E is !L very small amollnt and callJ:e~dily be changed from negative to positive by I!. 0. 25 20 em 15 ® ® 10 5 I 1 0 a 35 30 E. the flow can be found to be impossible if the computed value of /::. (17~4).3937 in. .). 17·5. • .ICll.a.2Bl it. 172..d cannot be measured easily because of tdhea tUI1'~hule~t tcon~ " . a.00023 at wider sections and 0. Thus. velocity heu.. Typica. ~.TIC CHANNEL SEC'l'IONS 405 . fo!' expansions. however. e)cperiments' on varklUS designs . the.0. (assuming Y2 11 hori (175) 1 o Ilnd energy lines througll This eqtmtion is l'epresentei:! by the dashl"d curves in 'Fig. . .nd y~ could be YI > :liz > !ii.a [4. 25 em By i1 similar analysis. 174.' ~t 'I. VariolIs designs of sudden transitiolls [01' (Afler G.) In the 1 em = 0. ._.' . transitional section represents~ t he energy 1 flE The astens c S lOwn oss '. FlO.' dition: of flow. " enel'''Y lines represent t e11k Th" speCI ill e the c b .._. I.. .! reticallyimpoSSible flow: wouhl become . co~B?cient 0: at The ._ ) I (col1~rn. ""V' Near the section ~\'hel'e the tl'(1nsltlOll t. [i'cwmir.03532 cf. and the thEm. l"or' COli tractions. the following equation can be written for Yl): zontal expansion. . 1 Under actual cil'cum~taneell..e. For sub critical flow through sudden transitions. h l'lltel'Cept betweell the extended upstream and downstream h~els flIt t e . Formica [41. !LS shOwn in Fig. e vel" .rro\ver sections. Sub critical Flow through Sudden Transitions. hence.ssumptions made in the ab~ve derivation may not be true under actual circumstances. '.) ChELnnel .E is negative. ~=··4 ~ 4 FIG: 174.are not exact~y equa. .ctlon) h expansIOn flow profiles and energy 1·' f· Illes or . Similar analyses also be made for vertical contractions and expansions. 1 m ~ 3. channel slopl} 0.00096 fit narrower sectio11S.. Y TI CI Vtj'/. . I By applying this eq uatio!l to a certain part of the curves.00073 at wider sections. ."3 of the ~hannel for various designs of transItIOns.l to 1.464 RAP IDLY VARIED FLOW l<'LOW THllOtlGHNONPRISMA. 35 30 f'~ .1 mm for r. It should be noted. investigations on flow through sudden transitions will be in the ncx~ three articles. The loss !J.. 173. 'es pc. \76 . .vidti! 355 mm for wider sections an. the energy I' mes are strop IJr exten er ' . all 'fi encrny 1"'(5. that this discussion is intended to present a theoretical t'malysisof the phen6menon and to develop a classification of the flow through sudden transitions.actually possible..Tl1e t YdP11cn(I measured' _ '. 1 Is1 6.and ~udderl tr!)nsition~.! . lJegative energy loss would ~ecome positive. In real problems.
iJ .:j 71c '~~~ ~ """""..oe !.'\ ( f... 2S ~ .r../ {g. I 4} ...1 = 0.. ~ < < I . ~  ~: ~~ Vw40 45· 50 20 The head losses for various designs of trallsitions at different discharges are shown iIi Fig. f" :.'I :  ' !.. :=. 1.08 0" 25 Il . Head losses in'sudden transitions.. Fc>rmica [4J.6 ts..04 1.00 1. /' / 1.08 __.':1~" I .1.08 +~ .sudden expansions.11...tely by a process of reconvBrsion from kinetic to potential energy. A ""' B 1.c::..r I 466 I RAPIDLY VARIED FLO)V FLOW THROUGH NON PRISMATIC CHANNEL SEC"l'IONS 467 vhlues are apparently very close to unity immediately after the sudden contractions hut are generally higher than unity after the . 177..02 ~ 1. It can be seen that in general the sudden contractions have higher losses . ~ . .~"'" <f. . '" <J 5 a (06 1.04 1. ~ 2 \\ ". A process of' conversion from potential to kinetic energy is followedimmedia.i®···.l0 I 1.00 1.003 Sec1iqn '::l~*lllttB .02 LtO 1..08 a 1.. As a result. I I . (After G..IJf /vp. the energy loss in a sudden contractio~ may be "l ..=.. Again.00 1 F t ~.os 1.. .' IQ. (After G..t iI ..10 ~...) 113.06 . . much less energy than in a 'sudden expansion is recovered.02 1.02 1./ .~ 0.' '" ! . 1. .:"' . the energy loss in a sudden expansion can be reduced by gradua.. The differences among these three designs are evidently insignificant...L. W~ ~d • J1 f..than the sudden expansions..I >~ 91.. However. 174). the' energyloss in a sudden contraction of design I can be greatly reduced by modifying the sharpedged corners of the entrance of the reduced 30 35 q [1s"1 55 . This indicates that the flow in a sudden expansion is irregularly diffused. In a sudden contraction the flow is first cOlltraoted and then expanded...¥. I. Variation of the energy coefficient near sudden transitions..2 3 V Q ..03532 cIs.. 0  "lV' n.1 == 0.0'" 49 o:~jt1irttJt~1 tOO . r .00 'y "'}.~:====== FIG.04 .mica [4J.08 1. !.03937 in..1 0 rrr'~ channel...04 ~ .. C'" 41 .06 . '1.03532 I I (8 in Fig. 1..:..L_ 1. 10 I~ [ r r" ·1 L o = '.. FIG. 4 025. The lengt.V 6' ~r ..to 1.J:'''.J'~ Q = 15.:. 113..~ ~ I V f I. as in designs II to IV.F "1'..<~~. 176. 177.10 ..) ers and 1 mm = 0. ~~ o~ a 1. but this advantage may be nullified by such modifications as those in designs 6 to 8.06 f.. E ~ Bf.~~~ ~b 5 0 0 bed • I 9 h Sf1 1:=· "1f.. taf~.02 ~ '~. ..\i of the gradual enlargement of the expansion has a limit beyond which the. l'>..$0 1. gain in efficiency becomes insignificant. In closed conduits [5]. I +~ .04 1.lly enlarging the channel section or decreasing the angle of divergence 1 I ! 1.. Fo.
0. the crosswave patt ern ID!'. in it curved tranaitil..the entrance.~I :'27l~.[6].10 and. The cross waves in a contraction. ' experiof curved contractions. . cross waves similar to those developed in a curved channel (Art. ..symmetrical shock wl1ves are developed at points A and At at . are symmetrical with respect to the centerline of the' channel (Fig. Formica obtained the following average values of expansions: for sudden F. respectively.m. finally.681 :'. By applying these equations to open \ 'VI c' tOl AJ A FIG. Theanalytical study of the problem can be performed by the principles of the mechanics of supercritical flow described in the preceding chapter. reach the opposite walls at C and Ci. and. they ha. ~~) Generai dis~ul'bance patterns.he deSign E= (177) wherel( and € are coefficients.ve pl'op?sed a procedure of des~on for straight contractions... t. 17ga) . generally increasing with the discharge.e determiled. Contractions in Supercritical Flow.~e~igrL':"". 179.291 :A51 :.06.r' (17G) \ t FLOW THROUGH NONPRISMATlC CHANNEL SECTIONS 4G9 . V3~' E=K' 29 and in a sudden expansion by .) .) € channels. (Cou?'iesy of A. From an experimental and analytical investigation. however. 1 6 . Designs of skajghtwaU contractions.."e=_r_ _ __ • h hz 1 I" t ~~~~Of.. 178). ot the end of the contraction. Jppen. (b) minimum downstream distUl'bance.. ' . T.na.821 :. Along wall r~"l AI on 9 ce n Ie. When supercritical flow is introduced thro\lgh a contraction with symmetrical converging wa.5 ) . 165) will appear. for designs II to IV. wave angles {h. which will be descnb~d below.Ii.'. These waves extend across the channel at.. 17 3.468 expressed by RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW . Accordingly.10.". (e) . (After Ip~cn and Da.ically by the method of charactenstlcs (see first footnote to Art."'son .m velocities. mentally by model test or !'. Ippeu and Dawson FlO..' In supel'critical flow through a straight contraction (Flg. Cross wave.8. In the regIOns A!'W and A BG . For t. Note that.he channel.4~Accorcling to the experimental data obtained by Formica. af~er some· modlfic~tlO~.lls.. and VI and V3 are the upstream and downstren. negative disturbances are . 17.chema Ie profile. mter~ect ~t B on the center li~le of t.1yt. the' values of tel K for sudden contractions seem to vary in a wide range.871 ~. [6] h!1Ve found that straight contracticinsal'e always ~etter ~hancurv~~ contractions of equal length of contraction from the s~andpomt~f m~:I mum height.he flow proceeds through a new field characterized by the Froude number F~..}'b'. The approximate median value of J( for design I is 0.
cing F. b. (1524) can be use.. assume a volue of 9./y%.lines and watersurface contours for any expansion can be con'structed directly by the method of chameteristics first footnote. the diagram in Fig. 179b. or steep chute. these values do not neces3arily represent the actual flow condition in the required design. the analytical method ca. Design a straight contraction con!1ecting two recta.0 or even too close to 1. since. 16·5).. Assume y.nnel expansions in supercritical flow: J I J . sluice gl1te.n give only approximate results.nsion of rapid..ned y. '1 FLOW THROUGH NONPRXSMATlC CHANNEL SECTIONS I created at points D and D" These disturbances will result in more complicated disturbances dOIVnstream.ngular channels 12 ft and 6 ft wide. = 12. This vI111. Studies by Hom:ma and Shima . the length of the contraction is found to be 34.pproach Bow is 0.ight contraction with minimum downstream disturbances. . and (3) the pl'essure is hydrostatically distributed. .or (179) (178) I I 1 471 I 1 \ I I velocity from a closed condBit. A second determination using the same e = 15° and repla. FI .. b1y1V\ = baY~V! Q.8.01.the flow condition downstream ffia. Satisfactory desigl1 for the expansion is. is equal to 2.of practical importance.gram).V' = 2. In a good contraction design.e should not be less than 1.y. the procedure should be repea. .I 1 The above equations and either Fig. say. Separation of How in an expa./y. and F" respectively.lu(l of y'. Multiply 11. the letlgth of the contraction can be shown to be L By cOlltitluity of the flow. 1523 gives y'. If such an expansion is ll}ade to diverge too rapidly.. Example 1'11. 2. provided that F J stays well above the critical value. = 1.03. = 6.00). Art.70 . [7] indicate that separation of flow like that shown in 1710 may occur. the correct angle 9:is found to be 5°./1/1 by 1/.01j Eq. 1. (179) F3 = 3.ted by the negative disturbances origina. 1710.J FIG. spillway.ction is 200 cI3.ting from the points D and D'.3 ft./Yl= 1. Furthermore. 2: and take b. Generally speaking.8 pro· duces values of y. (178).1.nd the value obtained by the trial. From the geomeky of this situation. Now.. Since this does not a. the velocity of the approach flow jg VI 200/8. 1523 gives II1.50 X L35 = 2.ill ! I h ~ = (~)%(Fa) Yl.80 and F. 2. To reduce the length of the contraction.tion surfaces shown by the dashed lines act as solid boundaries within which the flow hail the characteristics to those in a channel of decre!1sing width.) LSePOrOliOn .50 and y. ' . high values of FI and low values of Ya!Yl will give a long contra.rer. 174.lue of Y3/YL seems to be bGtween 2 and 3. if local disturbances of gre'at wave height are produced by improper boundary geometry. If the divergence of the expansion is . C .gree with the Il. thus car. 1. I . surfoce  i . 1523 or Eq. emerges at high I L 1 too gradual.celhig off theoretically the newly created negative disturbances. divergence. . it is possible to minimize the downstream distu:rballces. (2) the energy loss due to boundary resistance is negligihle.. the advisable va.68.70 ft.r \ 470 RAPIDLY YARI:EJD :FLOW ". 15'. The separll. Alter several trials. Howe. either at the expansion or farther downstream. The 'value of 1/3/1/1 = 1. The depth of the ll.60 and F. With 9 = 5° and'F.y be complica. The Froude number Pi = 5. the first trial va. Rouse..S. 1523 (corresponding to vliv. which may be found useful in the preliminary design of ch!l. structural material will result. From both experimental and analytical studies. the walls may fail to confine thc flow. the major part of the flow fail to follow the boundaries. therefore.ction. by Fi 2. As 11 result.ulo1ion ' _ . new value of " until agreement is reached between the assm. ~ Eddies and circ. strealb. The best \\ray to study a particular channel expansion i:6 by cutandtry investigation through model tests. the diagram in Fig. Expansions in Supercritical Flow./y" . By Eq. Bhoota./y. Using an analytical approacb.35.d to design a strn.. the flow will be calm in the downstream channeL This is the situation shown in Fig.0l. The discharge through the contra.54.4 = Z3./y. Owing to these limitations. 5.01. provided that (1) the channel walls are vertical and the floor is horizontal. in the dia. . .80 4. a. Sa/uliano Since Q 200 crs and A = 12 X 0.8 ips. which is close to the assumed value..50 X 1. waste of.. and FI 5.77 from Fig..4 fP. This can be done by directing the shock waves to the opposite walls at D and D'. and Hsu [8J have obtained the following results.ted with lJ.Ssumed value (that is. Channel expansion in supercritical flow occurs frequently at places where flow. and take Fl = 5.
GeneraJized" expansion . When practical circumstl1nces permit. This form of expansion boundary corresponds approximately to the shape of the streamlines that" corifine about 90 % of the flow. fOI" (A/leI' ROllse. 1510).20 "'0.7000. In thisiol'm.801>0.ry analyslS of an abrupt expansion. Genel'!\lized surface contours 81OU. SECTIONS . . the most satisfactory boundary form for an efficlen~ expansIOn was found to be .. 1711) was devel?~ed.FLOW THROUGH NONPIUSMATLC' CHANNEr. z = ~ \b 1F 1 I( x )~' + 72 contou~Q (1711) for a mean ! I "I I: For" expansions designed fol' thiiS' form.) superc. howev~l'. the jump may be stabilized by a drop on the. will diverge indefinitely.. and Hsu [8). gen~ralizing the experiment!!:L data in the fllnctl~nal relatlOnshlp of Eq. so that the factor bdYI is no longer an essential vl1riri..experiments.al data for channel expansions may be expl'e:::sed by the following relationship:." " x 2. 2. For practical purposes.t\utli and FIs"1< (8J. b.) ) "~ ") r I I. Y1 is the depth of the approach flow F 1 is the Froude number of the approach flow. longitudinal coordinate measured from the outlet section and z is the lateral coordinate measured from the center line of the ch~nlleL ". 2.. channel fiool' (Art. a dimensionless diagram (Fig. b1 is the channel width. yet not so great as to cause an undue change in depth across any norm:]'l 3ection.5 value of b1iYl and for various valuesofF l l1re shown in Fig. As a result.F.50 ()O. 1712.ion of cross waves.0 ) VOiues of D. The generalization of experimen1.' b. (1710)] may be used for the prelimina.ming of this expansion is sufficiently gl'O.~0.itica. ! 473 . the surface I i in the boundary angle is sufficient to eliminate the format.ble.90 00.h 472 RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW . 1712.40 "0.hrough gra. To avoid dangerous asymmetry oIthe flow at ~he end of the ¢xpansion. . 1 0 i' I 1 "  \1 \. such disturbances" can be eliminated by a hydmulic jU1"l. Bhoota. I X z) (1710) where y is the depth of flow. 3 . 1711. contours for suphrcdtical flow t.lP M or near the end of the ~xpan sioH.30 eO. 1h y = f (b1F.(17ll). The boundary represented by Eq.. (tifler Rouse.lls with either an abrupt or a gradual transition.~ BI~oola. Th~s dl~gram. For abrup~ ex?ansions.dual to reduce the effect of nonhydl'Ostatic pressure distribution to a minirriun1.l flow through a1rupt expan FIG. the general iliCrel1Se 1iIf. " .60 1iI0." ". the divergent wal1s of the ~xpan sion will usuallY be followed by parallei wn. sllTfac.0 ~rG. 1. N cite that the begi. " . positive disturbances dQwnstream may be produced. () I . x'is the 1. From the .
The disturbance in the downstream chaimel may also be eliminated if the transition mentioned r.' The phenomeilOll is USUltlly so complicated that thc resulting fluw P.bove is designed with a wellpl:oportioned reversal of the wall curvature. through systeml1tic experimental investigation.he channcl tross section. rhe maximum permissible sidewall divergence is . energy E" of the nonmJ..)jSO Hlade tests on sunercritical flow t. depending on whether the slope of the constricted channel is steep or mild. 1714a and b).m water surface is dammed up to a. chlLn~el (a.l flow. and the state of flow.) channel width . Soil Conservation Service [9J has i. 2. by the reversid of the curvature may offset each other so that the flow is restored to complete uniformity at . derived by the method of characteristics. Figure 1713 shows the boundary curves of such a desigrl.hrough expansions in conjunction with the SAF stiiling basin (Art. 1714.N}\/EL SECTIONS 475 4. A constriction in an open channel cOl1stitutes a .ud ou~let of the constriction then act as a contraction and an expansion..s. pronounced backw8. however..developed. . • . may be at either the upstream or the downstream end of the constriction. F.ransition length.! flmv in com. b) in subcrlt. . The criticalflow flume (Art. Design charts providing information on relative depth contours. the constriction will disturb only the . they may be. curves merely represent generalized conditions. ! . The flow through the flume may be either free from or drowned I I 1 I! I I i . A pradi('. For a short constriction. 1714. A length of approach channel preceding the transition equal to 5YI is satisfactory.. the end of the transition. de~ermined by the b. = dowl!stream . parison with the energy E/ of the oritical flow at the constriction. 1714c). the positive and negative disturbances developed.. (d) . Constrictions. 3. Bhoola.I.1.tConstric!ion tern is not readily subject to any analytical solution. used as guides in preliminary design in order to giye as little angularity of the final flow as is consistent with the practical requirements of t. the constriction will induce a . The tests were made on transitions with straight fla. d) depending O~l the magnitude of the in sllpercritlc~.ring side walls. (e. ~: = 25 I' I I I I . depth greater than the critical depth. Generalized boundary ~urve3 for channel expansion method of chamcteristics. F':ra: 1713. I++a~b~++~ = 2+/b. !LIl En < E~ 81 profile..474 RAPIDLY Y ARIED FLOW FLOW THROUGH NONPIUSMATIC CIL\. 1512).ical flow.I . conditions within the transition were . A critical contl'Ol sec. If the [c) npstre!l.1 1.e heigp. respectively. (Aft~r Rouse.hr.1 in SF I if cross waves of excessiv. and Hsu [8].he constriction and will not extend the effect farther upstream (Fig. 1714d).1 _I 2 =_L_J 9 10 11 12 :3 ·4 5 6 7 8 Values of _x_ b.ter effect t. The use of the expQ. In snch a design. and 1 % channel slope: The major findings of the tests are: 1.Dsion ahead of a SAF stilling basin is economicl'Ll.). 1. . Constriction in uniformHolv may not exist at.tkm mayor FIG. The U. The flow through a constriction m:1Y be subcritical or sllpercriticaL When the flow is subcritic!I. i 17 5. the constriction itself constitutes a channeL The 'control section" when it exist. reach of sudden reduction in t. In the CaBe of a long constriction. extending upstream oni y for a short distance and then ending with a hydraulic jump (Fig. 46) presents a unique case of channel constriction. the constriction.al E" >' E~ solution is possible. where YI is the approach depth of flow. this situation is shown in Fig.~ .vater surface that is adj!1cent to the up_· stream side of t. ..S. the discharge. The effect of a constriction on the 110w depends mainly oil theboundnry geometry. . When the (b) flow is supercritical. and flow.t extends a long disjjance· upstream (Fig.{ [ . the surface tyill form.. The entrance !1.t are to be avoided. Although these ~"~'~~~~~~~~4££=3t'__~_~~5 I . b. 'I. 4.
and the spnc8s bt:tween the live stream and the constriction boundaries are separation zones occupied by eddying I I Section (OJ _ _ _ B . If th~ water surface drops below the· criticaldepth line M the constriction. The 101<gitudin::t.is gradually va. M: Woodward with the ~evelopnlent of this method for use FIG. however. Within the coilstriction. The othel· equn. prismatic channel of mild slope (Fig. method fOT determining flood discharges which has been very popular with Americn. A critical section exists at or near the neck of the flume only when the flow is free. I v.w development in the study of constrictions in subcritic<Li flow has been achieved by comprehensive fundamental research carried out at the U. 1715. An adequate approxims. and Tracy [12151.1. and separation zones nre created in the corners adjacent to the constriction.ural channels. [14].S. frictiollcontrolled flow in 1). Between sections 0 and 1. Illvestigations on the subject of flow through constrictions are many. Near the constriction at section 1 the central body of watel' begins to accelerate.cle distorted Oalum· (bl . 1714a.Y. ad'lpted to ltsstunptioll of zero friction . " Channel boftom HOlik [lOJ credited S. 69).L ne. Definitioll sketch of flow through CDnatl·iction.l water surface drops mpicUy in this region. the live stl'eam contracts to <\ width somewhat)essthan the nominal width of the opening. To reestablish subcritical flow downstream.ried. At the constr·iction.ile case usually encountered in practical problems.de by Lane [ll}.n engineers since 1918 or earlier.. (After l"}'(fey cmd Carter ((~) PIau. a hydraulic' jum{will be developed near the downstream side of the constriction. Snbcritical Flow through Constrictions. The method they developed· pl"(:duces more exact results for yariolls gi ven conditions and so will undoubtedly repbcB the conventional contl'actedopening method in . 1714b.s in Fig. the flow is rapidly varied.lly important method reported by Houk is tile slopea. 1715). the flow.476 RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW FLOW THROUGH NONP1USlIIATlC CHANNEL SECTIONS j. as shown ill Fig. de\~elel'ation occurs along the outer boundaries. In Fig. Carter. Backwater profile Normal profile ho'hj hOn'hln j /. by the tailwater.UC~'VW" (1) b (2) (3) Ccb T ~ 'Ln". it is'shown that the flow through the constriction is subcritical. 176. Datum (e) by the Mi"mi Consen'ancy District.tioll for the location of section 1 may be troken at a point one opening width b from the center of the opening.2 a backlvater of llfltype profile is first developed upstream from the constriction.e~lgineering practice.) loss. This is t. :. e. The contractedopening method. supercritical flow will occtu·. 1Vhen an [. The following two articles will cover the essentials of this new development. The first laboratory inv·estigation in the United States is believed to have been m[1.rea constriction is introduced to nn otherwise uniform. The method described here. (c) elevlltioIl. but most of them have dealt with subcritical flow. is based on the application of the energy and continuity equations to the· fiow through a constriction in the waterw[1. i715. The upstream end point of the bnckwater curve is assumed to be at section 0. This investigation dealt with simple constrictions of flows having Froude numbers slightly higher than those uSlmlly fOllnd in lll'.~~ It I ~ Live slreom Eddy zone (4) I ________________ ~__~ ___________L~__ ~I~ (0) I bo~ndory Constriction Note: horizontal si. . method (Art.rea. characterized by marked acceleration in directions both norma] arid parallel to the stleamlines. Geological Survey by IGndsvater. is not applicable to this case. (b) elevation. In recent years.
and nonh)rdrostatic distribution of pressure. eddy loss.(vN2g) + YJ. Fl> rIb. (Ya is + Yb)/2b.pplicable. This ratio is eq lIal to 1 . . Thus ~ 1 or 7n=O when there is no constriction. static pressure distribution. respectively: I pressm:e coeffici"~nts at 13ecl. the contracted f>tremn reMhes a minimum width at section 2. .. . . where the uniformflow is reestablished in the Jullwidth channel.4JTT. A coefficient of dischr.(T'N2g) . then the method described here is ina. OI/Y' = kl'(y~2/2g) + Yl where k 1> is a coefficient responsible for the nonhydro.ions 1 and 3. where ila is the water for the disclu. i r '. The effect of chamfers of the abutment is represented by TV/b and tl . = k. The related notatiOll to be used in the analysis is defined as follo. aaty. nonuniform distribution of velocity.. r'V/b. For a recta. in which [(IJ is the conveyance of the tUlcontracted ariproach section r at normal dischal'ge and [(b isthe conveyance of the contracted section: 3 which has the SHme normal depth and roughneils chn." Q where t.8.1& \ hi . The effect of channel contruction is represented by the contraction ral.l'acteristics as the approach :section. Over the whole reach from sections 0 to 4: encomp:1ssed by the backwater "ffect of the C012stricti on. The effect of Froude n~mber is rep.ion 3. it can be shown that C is expressible £l. the flow is gntdually varied.h). the total energy loss . 0'3 Yl + h.h equn. assuming a\' /c.l~ea (1714) . where r is the radius Of rounding of the entrallC~ corner of abutments for verticalfaced constrictions. the following can be writte~1: 3: 1112 0'1  2g + .ngular approach section of width B and a recta. where W is th~ length of wing wall measured ill a direction normal to section 3 and where' 8 is the acute angle between a wing wall and the plane of constriction.7J 1'al'io (J may be defined as 1 ?n.7:o ni.01' The discharge through section 3 is Q = Co.l to CA. . + hi 1.. which corresponds to the vena contracta in an orifice flow. (1713) and (1714) I··~~. Ljb] (1711) I h. the live stre&111 begins to expand until it reaches downstrea. (171G) This is a the(lretical expression.mOUGH NONPRISMATIC CHANNEL SECTIONS 479 "'[tter. .ftOOl' is horizontal or nearly so.rge.biB.'s: hd = eddy loss due to turbulence el1gend. For prac. 3. nearly critical or supercritical velocities may occur in section 3. 2. It is necessary to assume a di. Between sections 3. . Soh'lng Eqs.'3 a function of.is the same as that for