You are on page 1of 60

Prolegomena to the Study of Egypt's Economic History during the New Kingdom Author(s): Jac. J.

Janssen Source: Studien zur Altgyptischen Kultur, Bd. 3 (1975), pp. 127-185 Published by: Helmut Buske Verlag GmbH Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25149989 Accessed: 23/05/2010 05:44
Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp. JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unless you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use. Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained at http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=hbv. Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printed page of such transmission. JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.

Helmut Buske Verlag GmbH is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Studien zur Altgyptischen Kultur.

http://www.jstor.org

PROLEGOMENA TO THE STUDY OF EGYPT'S ECONOMIC HISTORY DURING THE NEW KINGDOM*

by

Jac.

J.

Janssen

This cussed 1975. never It is

is at

an

version enlarged the conference preventing Although never was in. and

of on

paper of presence it still be, a

originally History at shows complete at the

intended Cairo of of in

to the its the

be

dis was

Problems my to

January paper origin. subject.

Circumstances send not,

revised, meant

meeting traces survey

CONTENTS
I II Preliminary The Basic Remarks Elements 128 a 132

Geography

b Demography c Mentality
III Production a c d IV a Agriculture

135 137
139

b Mining
Crafts Transport Food 164

153
158 and Trade 161

Consumption

b Rations
V Special Subjects a b c d VI The Structure of the Slavery Taxes Money State

166
171 173 and and Prices Temple 183 177 180

Egyptian

Economy

" I would correcting remarks. like my

to

express as

English

my gratitude as well for

to his

Prof. valuable

Dieter

Mueller, suggestions

Lethbridge, and critical

for

128

Jac.J.

Janssen

SAK

I PRELIMINARY

REMARKS

Economic
the past

history
is as

of
yet

ancient
virtually

Egypt in based of as

history handbooks too

understood
What has

as
been

knowledge
presented

of

non-existent.

under gue deals ry of tary


nomic

this and

or

similar theories,

title

the on

largely evidence, Genuine production, of

consists or

of actually

va

unfounded technology discuss production


etc.

little proper.

with

instead such

economy the

economic the

histo

would the

problems factors,

costs

policy,
cycles,

interregional

labour, including and international

division trade,

price mone income, of eco features of

There

is

indeed the

material very literature in

on nature

the of

by Egyptians written ally upon of

subject their

available, civilisation their attention

the ancient although never have intention being the concentrated latter about: specific written as weil, type eco point do if

about

economic

matters, and

religion, written documents questions. and this view, information the order right to

administration. does be contain studied done.

However, from Apart

particular

information this from

nomic of

to only They have as yet has seldom is

been

cuments only In the the and

questions compensate egyptologists method. is both


and

by archaeological provided are put to it. for the have Since more
since

material

present been

lack inclined about and


for

of to the more
a

knowledge study detailed


aspect

concerning the problems by of Ptolemaic than


is

economy diachronic Roman

Egypt
periods1,

knowledge extensive
material

economy

that
more

of

pharaonic

specific

extensive attempted with similar general the Greeks fairly different the
1

for to

of pharaonic period facts explain occurring facts from anothei age. It may be, in will the for after field

one

times in This instance, Alexander's of have Likely the

than texts

for

another,

they them in of been their much may

have

practice that

by comparing seems to me the conquest to influence has With alter

unwarranted. on Egyptian particularly

economy

small,

they background millennia old Egyptian


I may to point in the Ptolemaic is for presented. a pharaonic the system Age is the book of

hardly

agriculture. been able as this

in be,

system.2
Dorothy J.

suggestion
An

Period, of Lack

Cambridge comparable

1971, material has

Kerkeosiris: Crawford, in which the material so far has prevented changed The between Wilbour the Papyrus

Egyptian one from as similar

Village village study and the

That

village. of land-ownership possible; cf.

XXth II,

Ptolemaic

Gardiner,

Dynasty 167.

1975

Economic

history

during

the

New

Kingdom

129

it the

has

to

be

proved, agriculture
as

and

that in
as

is itself,

only

pharaonic
written

possible with the

by help

a thorough study of all available

of

sources,

well

archaeological.

The

only the

sound of one

method period is It

in of

my opinion pharaonic

is

to

start

with

a the

economy which the but stand

material

New Kingdom. this the for in all

relatively may be tempting is On the

Egypt, rich and to

preferably to easy

study one

of from that

the

interpret, the oldest difficult be the

is,

evidence

details.3 of end times the of may or the to be

fairly other of in the all

with begin small and too it should from

period, to under com

hand,

a picture pose to the Dynasty from with of earlier caution.

economy the be for an XXth taken

period its facets. account, a word

to possible XVIIIth early material should be it

Additional though

into

used

Whether, land exactly has

instance, administrative meaning Hence,

agricultural MK text has question reliable The present is economy the studied, near like to and the

same studied.

in

a special type indicating in the function occurring to the NK documents is open shorter the period, the more

the

conclusions. attempts which available; what the Before results paper to show what of been; the material the subject what more subject, a general that in that the the for the study of NK

and

aspects have

have could

been already in be done I would

future. draw

attention

upon entering to two points of to be

however, character.

1 One of tory. Wilson


who has

has society From on in

not is the

to

be one

Marxist of the it

convinced forces

the

economic

structure of of his

decisive may and of


the to

preceding political Burden


of in order

be

clear cultural has

development influence has of the been few


pages It

the

economy

Egyptian his "The


conscious

Egypt11
problem1*, explain

been
and historical

history one
on

underrated. scholars
he is adduces apparent,

been evidence

several events.

economic

however,
3 I

that
certainly is of

the
do

basic
not suggest

knowledge
that

is
research As noms for des the has in Der this Weg 1962.

too
into an

small
the

for
economic I may funeraires

that.
features point

In describing
of the l'ancien study whether the main economy, periods. in the Old

Kingdom study empire of the the or 4 So, the

valueless. altogether Mme Jaquet-Gordon, Les BdE during of 34, Le the Caire NK

example domaines

out sous

important

egyptien, donations

and

foundation whether too, chapters

important Eberhard on the

domains funerary differences Otto, Xgypten. Ramesside

a comprehensive However, only Late could demonstrate Period a constant been element in between exist respect des Pharaonenreiches, the

particularly

Period.

130

Jac.J.

Janssen

SAK 3

thfe rise

decline of the

of

the

XXth prices a study for

Dynasty in of is the the

he

refers, of

among that material to

other

causes, As will

to be the

the

grain below, of the

middle available

period.5 shows

mentioned fluctuation The had For


tical stance,

that

documentation not other


events; it has

prices the

restricted has

been

previously Wilson
did any been

question studied. does


other asked

been

agricultural known for

products.6 some time

but

periods
nor never

not

mention
scholar. from what

any
So far sources

economic
as I the am

causes
aware,

of
for

poli
in

liberator

phara

ohs the with way

of war

the

XVIIth

Dynasty the

derived

the

economic

against from assume

which, and

according sources what that

How has Hyksos. to his record, did he pay

Kamose he for with a

strength to able been back assistance like of in be detail the

to

"pay" the

for fleet

build ennemy? of the the

drove the

In which

We may in such ship pay with What North, South from of be tory 2 The my
onic

later as of for its has

periods; that of the the land,

were rewarded they forth but this calls density etc. Other of his of the

fields, series

Madjoi?7 mercenaries

the

population could questions skilled How did influx the of

Upper raised:

questions the owner Egypt, how did Ahmose new the weapon horses?

services

highly

international been and of ever the the effect

technique? of the of during

chariotry, he provide

the for from trade

has certain.

re-opening cut been off such

products Mediterranean

"liberated" the - if the indeed seems far

the are

All

an the

answer. ultimate of the

They are result Nile point that


from

questions here only of in of a study general.

which Hyksos period, even without the still in order to show for

mentioned of the

beginning what may the his

Egyptian

economy

valley is we
our

second

conviction
economy

quite to have
more

a different be extremely
knowledge

nature. careful
of

Above in

I have

stated phara
times.

explaining

extensive

Graeco-Roman

Study teach to of
5 6 7

of us

the how to

latter

may

well

serve

as

source the the

of Nile actual

inspiration, valley. What Economic

and

can

do was various
The See

in be solved could problems warn rashly equating against

I wanted facts

periods.
274 of in: the f. Pan-Grave (= the ff. and Hofmann, III, cf. zur ff. Aus der

of Burden Egypt, ch. V c. below, the For immigration in grabungen Sayala, Pfannengraber-Leute,

Madjoi 1961, ZDMG, 61

People) Beitrag 1113 1969,

Graz

Bietak, Herkunft

Supplementa

1975

Economic

history

during

the

New

Kindgdom

131

There Although Egyptian to the


"peasant

is,

however, it may be economic

another still structure of what


The

source too it the early is cultural


social-economic

of to

inspiration draw an that

which overall ancient

seldom picture

is of

used. the

obvious

category
societies".8

anthropologists
systems of

Egypt belongs have called


these societies,

for can show them far still me

example states

in before

ancient the

China economic

or

India, revolution differences On the subsistence

or

in

the

caused common other

Afri developed higher influences, by Western features distinguishing are equally they which recently zone. to It seems to discover how

dispite from the removed existed,

their

fundamental world. primitive instance, these peasant in

industrial from for of the

hand, economies forest

the

African

that

they In general the to true

study solved economic it

societies

offers

means

so-called indicate for the that recent our of the the

which do not exist in the Western world. problems me that seems to would from egyptologists gain studying or whatever name may be used better peoples "primitive" of aspects historical economies, unsuspected On the other modern cultural of the anthropology.9 Egyptian connections but I do between think in as it that the may be Doubtless civilisation. ancient their possible seem to proves obnoxious the this I do holds not

subject economic there are

suggest and more will ficance found of open

Egypt study signi pro be, to be since modern it

peasant for eyes data. of to

alternatives hand, and odd

knowledge value little to blind world

the the

market-directed may

economy even between

tends Western

egyptologist him the fundamental 10 and ancient Egypt. to

difference

That the Cf.

this study also Morenz, the and

no actual occurs also where type of Raymond Fishermen. Firth, Malay use of the the for the defense of Prestige-Wirtschaft between primitive Primitive 1956; City, Garden im alten and

peasantry Their term Xgypten, p.

is Peasant 22. SBAW cf.

involved Economy, 1969/4, for

is

shown London

by 1946.

9 10

Cf>

Munchen

1969,

6 ff.
For Forde by ed. relation modern &n: in: economy Man, Tribal In Douglas, Mary L. Shapiro, Dalton, 23 f. Economies reprinted New York Culture and the example, Daryll and ed. Society, Peasant Economies, edition

Harry by

Oxford

George

1967).

latter

particularly

132

Jac.J.

Janssen

SAK 3

II

THE BASIC

ELEMENTS

Geography is no reason climate the to the role historian of usual of about for is the the influence

There of the

desert What and the in

repeat or the

platitudes the Nile needs

sation.11 physical 1

economic

actual

civili Egyptian the facts about

human

extent different fertility the

pharaonic geography of the cultivation in periods; of the

for example: Egypt; nomes the various

the of

soil

and

the

average

production

nomes; structure of the of cities the irrigation in relation system; to the

3 4

the the

exact function

5 These the
system,

countryside; the pattern and similar

of

settlement are its


trade,

and

its

agriculture,
of transport

questions which in
and

fundamental turn

development. for the the


etc.12

constitutes

understanding of the basis

of taxation

nutrition,

The

most

important by J.A. of of cereals the fertile and

contribution Wilson13, strip to of where arable

of he

recent discusses, in in

years

in among

this other

respect subjects,

is

an

article the the ity width ratio in

land soil and are "the the

various each of

modern them, their

infertile

provinces, their productiv population. of the Egypt


from etc. low

vegetables, the data for his study Although A.D. 1937 and since 1938, years
11

of density derived from statistics figures


is more vulcanic too for the or

for

ancient

are

A of

fact as its

usually earthquakes, history plagues, on caused

forgotten are of

is hurricanes, smaller no itself. in of the (in: less

that

such locust

influence those For 12 an

etc., the land by changes study before

Egypt floods, dimensions: obnoxious only course

less

free

eruptions, or too high population changes within and 75, ff.) in the

catastrophes The disasters

but the

inundations, a without landscape

The the the

permanent of the Nile of in: 1973, climate AJA 27

lasting are

valley. on the some the other

important

influence Bell, Juin

inundation 1971, 1-26. mentions On

Egyptian history In a recent article difficulties of he and himself

MK cf. 67, research what the

BSFE

Yoyotte Egypt. the JNES various

13

hand, Buto An

geographic demonstrates in the on

concerning be done may

pharaonic

attempt and Lower

Hierakonpolis to summarize Egypt is found

Geography geographical 228 ff. p.

despite of Egypt, in: features of

handicaps. ff. 209 1955, 14, nomes of Upper

1975

Economic

history

during

the

New

Kingdom

133

impossible broadest
in terms

to terms,
of

establish", (....)
population,

Wilson the

argues of

that

"nevertheless, sections
seems to have

in of

the Egypt

comparison
and

different

area,

productivity

relative

meaning irrigation population


drawn

for

In view past." - from basin system the density


modern

of

the

fundamental to perannual

changes irrigation methods,


the

in

the -, in results

and,
evidence

probably,
cannot

system in
very

agricultural
well convince

the
economic

from

historian It us seems with

without to more me not reliable have of

further

proof

of that as

their

validity will his

for be study stated15 is

pharaonic able of the to

Egypt.14 supply natural hori

improbable evidence,

geographers Butzer in he too

may landscape extent zontal his as the study


a

proved. the arable with that Balanstira what


an

Although in land Kaiser16 has taken and be

has

that

the

ancient at place

researches to the

together

least

region

development between

virtually some provide within historical this close

times

unknown, indications times in

el-Minya.

Moreover from the

particular cooperation of

demonstrates
and

may

expected

geographer

archaeologist.17

The

irrigation for studied here

its

of system own sake.18

ancient

Egypt

mentioned the material

above is

has still

never

been

Admittedly,

scanty,

but

a combined

may yield logists the Greek period. which,


14* It in

and philo by archaeologists, geographers approach our knowledge to is restricted At present results. of Dimitri the thesis Meeks19 I may mention Here with
that Universitas the und agricultural der

though
is to be

dealing
expected (see which vor-

the
the

landed
Tubinger 13,

properties
Atlas of the

of
Ancient

the

Edfu
Near East us

temple
at a III. Zeit, heutigen and ed. Geology by present reli Die

15

preparation able map on zum Studien Naturlandschaft Wiesbaden

friihgeschichtlichen wahrend Agyptens

255 will ff.) 1973, area the Nile along Landschaftswandel Vorgeschichte the chapter und "Die Butzer, Essays in

provide be will der der

with

indicated. Sahara

16

17

See 69. 1959, particularly das Alluvium" ff.). (23 Siedlungsraumes: See 66 ff. also In: 46 ff. and MDAIK 17, 1961, to Yesterday. New Roads in Ancient in: Egypt, 210 ff. London 1966, Caldwell, Joseph can the One Austrian also the researches of cite into the of geography of Orientalists the Delta, at Paris, about July Studies from based which 1973. in

Dynastischen des Schaffung Archaeology Archaeology, of Tell a lecture

excavators Bietak offered

ed-Dabca at the

18

Congress in Forbes, The section pertinent on antiquated based is poor, 22-30, evidence with Graeco-Roman Egypt in: which article LdX is I, in col. rahter GM texte 775 old ll, des ff. is (1913) seems 1974 donations

Ancient and

Technology combining The times. of to ancient Le

literature, pharaonic on the relate speculative. d'Edfou,

Leiden 1955, II, from material of and Schenkel,

mainly and does to au me

study

summary Willcocks Egypt, Caire

hardly quite

Craig, his while

19

Le

grand

temple

BdE

59,

1972.

134

Jac.J.

Janssen

SAK

during

the

Ptolemaic offers in at

Period, least

in some

its

terminology the irrigation and NK is Very


Egypt, men's all

details geographical reference material for Whether in this the text

and the

Egyptian of study situation of the

the

terminology a point of is as

times. pharaonic as reflected further research. known about


and

geographical those resemble

little
their settlements three may

yet

the
function.20

towns

and

villages

of
are

ancient
the work which

plan, at represent

extension el-Lahun, a rather

Exceptions and type since Deir they el-Medtna, are

el-'Amarna rare

no

peasant

communities. lesser soon of


too

The

degree, deserted. in
not

city uncommon

of

el-'Amarna since possess the it was

is

equally, built within

to a perhaps though a short and period the but town these

We further Abydos21
normal

some

Ahmose
were

and
Egyptian

temple-town
towns.

concerning knowledge of Medinet Habu22,

About and

living Ramsestown of

the

nothing
strative

as of the such quarters capitals our knowledge is insufficient, and as the nome capitals smaller cities such
We may assume that Memphis with

Memphis, we know and


its

Thebes23 next to admini


quarter

other

centres.

harbour

had

a population at Thebes. existed in trict that It is last Ancient Egypt25, same

of

craftsmen24, Kemp, in his describes the

and valuable

similar article Suburb and found

quarter on Temple of craftsmen other

has

probably and Town as and a dis

North land-owners was to

el-'Amarna

inhabited the the

by middle-class of settlement excavators touched the upon

suggests towns.26 correct.

pattern task of the to be

in

establish this i.e.

whether connection the


to

Egyptian is this is of the

A of

subject settlement
centres.

in

pattern and

throughout
An interesting

country,
contribution

spread
this

villages
actually

local

question,

its
20 21 22

first

discussion,

is

given

by

O'Connor

in

the

samme

collection

of

Cf. Cf.

Posener, Badawi, 68 J.

Op.cit., by Peter also the Kemp, sacred first

inaugurale, Lejon 56 f. op.cit., ff. and and 73 ff., Ruth Ucko, Tringham same lake 666. work, of Karnak; A cf. traces is known

1961,

14 f.,

and

Badawi,

Architecture and

III, Urbanism, ff. S.E.

55 ed. See of

ff.

in: Settlement Man, Uphill and G.W. London Dimbleby, of similar settlement is type Lauffray, the of about 174 note some 1971, the f. 12), talatat 566 f. 657 ff. extracted in: living CRAIBL quarters of 1971, of

726 1972, excavated 557 Thebes near ff.

23 2t* 25 26

For

archaeological

cf.

Leclant, Memphis, cf.

in:
For

Or 42,
a summary

1973, 408.
of in: what MDAIK and dockyard Prw-nfr 16, Urbanism scene in: 1968, (see from

Wall-Gordon, Settlement Man, Cf. of the Karnak:

reconstructed Lauffray,

from

the

IXth

Pylon

CRAIBL

1975

Economic

histroy

during

the

New

Kingdom

135

papers by of ween the

on

settlement papyrus

and he

urbanism.27 concludes the

Wilbour

Studying that there of and

the

evidence "a and

existed Ninsu scattered He also of

provided concentration bet con that po facilitate

agriculturists which stretched mainly distribution of the with

around

a region the of

nome-capitals a thin with of animals. is control well as can the

Hardai", population

cerned this licy the

pasturing the population in order to as

result the to only

suggests a deliberate and

goernment of its

agriculture raise be forced proved

collection these

Whether
research.

suggestions

surplus, are

labour. through further

correct

Demograghy a knowledge is essential state dynastic Nubian for of of for the the that of the of of and of its

Besides sition The

land,

population the the economy Egyptian rather of

present the the but has

demographic period is,

understanding studies unfortunately, has produced for

compo a country.

population this

during Recently respect, little

campaign itself Egypt done. the and Human of

a the

lot

unsatisfactory. material in

yet scope

been

except A complete paper; possible (I,

survey hence

the beyond some recent In an the article remains

present mention Evolution

very prehistoric periods of our knowledge would be I will out only point

studies of

investigations. 1972, who 161 ff.) there from has the appeared study in for a of the

Journal

by Mansali of preserved Gebelein rate mean that of

and at and the the and

Chiarelli28 Turin Asytit) Egyptian

concluded from are

human

cemeteries low This was


an

(originating that there woman from well


the

excavations indications

fertility would not

expanding,
was

population, that it was


between

the pharaonic during a demographic point fitted


resources

period. of view, as
and

to

it"
of

environment
the country

equilibrium

maintained

the glad
27 28

reproduction to see these


The of in: B.A. are

rate

of

its

inhabitants. confirmed
in Ancient of of the the New

Economic by
Egypt, Ancient

historians It
ff. ed. articles but results note of by the an D.R. in

would is to

be be

conclusions
Settlement

more

material.
681

Geography

op.cit., Egyptians, Most 1973). f.) paper, the

Reprinted and well collection on which can be

Population Chiarelli outside to

Biology (London the scope Nemeskeri

Broth

York, present 172

this conditions excavation

according to of use

(op.cit.,

demographers.

136

Jac.J.

Janssen

SAK

expected dence For usual, This


not

that in this region namely of

the field our the the

excavations of study.

at

Tell

ed-Dab'a

will

yield

valuable

evi

one

of the population is knowledge area between Matmar and Etmanieh, is fairly


hence

more

extensive of but Asytit.

than

south

part
especially

country
significant,

rich
probably

in

agriculture,
more or less

otherwise

representative.

David

O'Connor

has

recently

devoted times.29 explored absolute

an From area data,

article the has be

to number drawn

its of up

and pharaonic predynastic well in this reasonably not presenting although the regards of burials bers or his main not a relatively of knowledge NK cemetery as general in a dense the (near for

population burials a to table be

in discovered which,

he

may indicate

assumed

reliable high rate, from the could widest num

demographic specific population, circumstances Khawalid) those is ages are


a

trends.

period must of

however, Whether, a high mortality decided by the

be the

historian since

period.

Moreover,

still for the

provide in other respects. results the that


the author. The

evidence

which

unexcavated, our knowledge is poor is highly not

O'Connor is

Methodologically our purpose for


importance of

article

rather
and

the

important; of fault
of

complete

systematic

excavation

the The

Khawalid articles

cemetery mentioned

is are

obvious. quoted For not the yet size in order to indicate the type of of in

research ancient the

recently the

Egypt discussion

published. is time

a reliable

historical is

demography

summarized 4
value

1/231
to

concerning the most by O'Connor;30 inhabitants. and 7 million


economic historians.

This apparent readily ripe. in the Nile of the population valley between oscillate estimates likely Clearly this is too vague to be of

a different to demographic out quite approach point in ancient is no community for which there Egypt Undoubtedly as for as abundant workmen of Deir are that of the necropolis I want to Various scholars in their publications of stelae and other

questions. the data el-Medlna. epigraphical

29

O'Connor, Growth: and

A Regional

Population Implications, ff.

in

30 31

Anthropological London 78 1972, 82 f. calculated the merits

Egypt ed.

to by

circa Brian

600

B.C.,

in:

Population Mass,

Spooner,

Cambridge,

Op.cit., The figure to discuss

by of

JARCE in: Baer, the argumentation.

l,

1962,

43

f.

This

is

not

the

place

1975

Economic

history

during

the

New

Kingdom

137

material men,33

from and

the

site32 in his

have

reconstructed

knowledge the systematic vanced phic fertility


men's

Cern^ of the

subject. studies French that of the we will

posthumous It seems of be the able

study3** to me possible,

genealogies has largely have

of

the

work our once an ad

increased

particularly reached of the

stage,35 structure rates,


community

community, of
typical,

with age
even

genealogies to draw a picture evidence about and


quite

mortality the
the

demogra and work

distribution
was not

sex,

etc.
exceptional,

Although

study

would

provide

us

with

a point

of

departure

for

further

research.

Mentality be here nature time. to and I need the Egyptian and the that ancient etc., to mention of

It of

may life

superfluous and death, of every our

argue history, only

from known the

those to

Egyptian conceptions differed fundamentally some key-words well Maat, called by Morenz and multi thought and the general Buck); of Geschichte these civili terms

egyptologist: element of

conception ethics; stress typical

innermost

of plicity as against als Fest

approaches individuality

(Frankfort); art aspective a characteristic

mythopoeic on community (Wolf of and de

attempts
sation.

(Hornung); to indicate

(Brunner-Traut). aspect the

Each

pharaonic

If from

indeed ours, out

the it
matters

conceptions becomes
was

of highly
the same

life unlikely
as

and

world that
of

so the

fundamentally Egyptian
times.

differed attitude in
easy to

economic

that

modern

It

is

point

such of that

an the the

improbability; ancient concept but very in

to Egyptians of Maat what little

establish is and quite the

the

actual

economic matter. It may

conceptions be obvious has There unable


32

another emphasis

on

the

community

influenced has to
Apart London Torino See Torino A Cf. also 7,

them, as yet any

manner? study accepted


of B. Stele a in the

been mention
from 1970 1972. the

of

the

generally
reports Roccati, di at 71, pittori

theory.
Bruyere e altre

problem, In the

so

that

I am I can
Part 9,

following

excavation M. Una Tosi-A.

I mention: epigrafi del

and

di

BM Stelae, Deir

el-Medina, di Caire 1973.

33 34 35

Tosi, Torino of

stirpe 1972. BIFAO

Tebe,

Quaderno Period,

Museo BdE

Egizio 50, Le

Community Sauneron,

workmen in:

Thebes 1972,

Ramesside

205.

138

Jac.J.

Janssen

SAK

only between It is

attempt ancient a well

to

indicate Egypt and

in where, our time

my opinion, seem to be

possible reflected

differences in bristle the texts. with in

known

fact

that are of one

administrative too the numerous scribes out

documents

accurate incidental Egyptian in try man deben is is

They figures. carelessness attitude. the stated and one from the Giornale to of have 275 the As

example necropoli

to be explained by simply a typical and seem to reflect to an I may refer of so many vs. A, of were deben 9) ,36 fish, 400 were where one deben* supposed of no deben eighteen fourteen main exact measure, reason a fisher of and to 120 it

en

della

(17B, two quantities

delivered deben. context he in His that had

monthly 120 failed to

dues + 275

obvious

be

sufficient, Another copper of sixteen for of the 14,

5 deben

deliver

occurs example are valued at equal deben are 1 2/3

In line 65739.37 pCairo in lines of silver, but 1 kite while be in equal lines to 9 and 1 1/2 to terms of of kite.

being 1o ten 8-9 10 both The the

consequence. of deben and

copper

kit&, to stated is the of to correct

inaccuracy 16 or 18 deben we would values it.38 more try

copper find the

impossibility in means

express the the

silver

equivalent but the

whereas actual about The

making

Egyptians

appear

expression not to have

of

bothered

reason

for

this This

attitude realism, or,

is

to as

Egyptians.39 respect objects Another as or, usually rather, is to

sought I formulated eoncreteness of here

be

in

the it,40

"realism" vagueness respect economy. question to make economy.

of

the

with to the

(abstract) is one concerned, example taken what so of for was the

the

prices of the

and

with Egyptian is the

features discussed

problems granted, the function in the played profit the

whether, "profit", The

Egyptians of "profit" world same

attempted in their that in scholars ancient

concept seem to I doubt tainly


36

common that it

Western the was

unconsciously Egypt. force41; However, it cer

assume whether is not

making in several
pi. 29.

"peasant 140 ff.

part a dominating societies". indeed

37
38 39

BottirPeet,

Gardiner,
More

in:

JEA 21,
in

1935,

tions, Cf. Gardiner, than ourselves, less power

examples so that

the my Commodity e.g. Prices, frequent 1 3/4 the of corn sack of the is price The Wilbour 64: "The Papyrus II, Egyptians or to if we prefer turn the compliment abstract thinking.11 540 ff. rather force may 'Prestige-Wirtschaft

neglect same as were in our

of that greater favour,

small of 2

frac sack. had

realists they

of

* **1

Prices, Commodity The dominating demonstrate in

have

been im

his

as "prestige", alten Agypten1

Morenz , SBAW

attempts 1969/4,

to Munchen

1969.

1975

Economic

history

during

the

New

Kingdom

139

Of

course

the to prove. and and

Egyptians obtain But this

were them even is which

human by not

and

enjoyed matter

the

attempting robberies industry supply were largely or a coffin, this of the vide very duction
only a

illegal same the the

activities, as

possession as the profit of Prices, e.g. higher mostly to the to the of to the

of tomb

riches, in of

commerce,

demand, is

production stated to to its this in those is his have

implies the for and if been

application etc. market, sold for a price but or

making law the for

traditional,*2 due aquire took with etc. its


vague

a particular

object,

instance, a chair usual wish

than the

was the

seldom to

specific particular product, objects hardly

qualities, chair the the any

buyer the seller

coffin,

manufacturer

ability

buyer obtain costs time)

pride to pro at of that pro

latter connection (in

wanted with other

moment, since
very

There main
value.

component,

labour

words:

possessed

I do

not

suggest but it

that

Egyptians, of the economy. tion that

seems

That more
which

was entirely making profit to me highly unlikely was rather redistribution.**3 refer
can

unknown that it It peasant


that

to the in

the

ancient

was is

this

pivot connec by
are other

I once

to

the

study
our

of

the

societies
there

ethno-economists,

stimulate

awareness

types

of

mentality

in

economic

matters

than

that

of

the

modern

world.****

III

PRODUCTION

Agriculture of the but the most agree (to find be the New has to

Any

study with begin cannot One (the) less


picture 42 43 44 45

Egyptian important with its served ourselves

agriculture document editor by the in


agricultural

during

Kingdom Wilbour wrote: in

the preserved, Gardiner when he be of


finance".**5

Papyrus. MCould full, doubt

purpose we should
of Late

figures)

revealed a fairly
However,

possession

comprehensive
despite the

Ramesside

See See For The

below, below, other Wilbour

ch. ch. aspects

V c. VI. of the vol. Egyptian II, mentality, Commentary, one by 1953, 201. Edgerton, 118 ff. cf. below Two ch. V b and e. of 299 this ff. reviews 70, 1950,

publication one and

Papyrus, been have Fairman,

by

published, JEA 39, in:

important JAOS in:

140

Jac.J.

Janssen

SAK 3

and later to the studies devoted text46 commentary splendid is as yet far the purpose from clear and many details remain quite obscure. Here we cannot some of the outstanding do more than repeat as well as of others, of Gardiner out and point the conclusions, editor's major With lumns problems. its of enormous text A, (over length 25 of text B) texts surveyors the Faiytim in and we in to four 10 m) the Text and its over 5200 lines (102 the of the from km. co lon

Wilbour

gest non-religious field-work of the The north survey of

know.

is one of Papyrus A records the results in a in Middle length about

the during of August.


Here we

place II months

took

areas adjacent that is over Tihna, 4 of Ramesses year V, III 3ht, that is, from

Egypt, 140 of

late

23 days47, to the middle July

encounter

one

of

the

major

problems,

since

the

season

seems

to

be

unsuitable

for

survey, to was solve made


Fairman

as the

it

fell

into by

the

time

of

the

inundation.48 the assess based


summer

Gardiner ment
earlier

attempted itself

problem this

suggesting though
only

that it

(st)49 were rate 5 mc.51,


k3yt as

during were the

period,
that

was
under

on

measurements.

suggested50

areas

crop the is
of

surveyed. of assessment which


"arable

If

this in

correct,

it

would entries

also of

means
(i.e.

that
normal)

of the majority it was k3yt-land.


land" ,may not

explain normal

why domains

Gardiner's
be quite

translation
correct.52

The that ha)


**6

may be problem area the total seems


The most

connected recorded a
are:

with in

another text A of

raised (some the


zur

by

to

be

only

small

portion

17,324 total surface

Fairman, arouras of

namely or c.4750 the


des Neuen

Reiches, terres des 1970. Prices I.V. also **7 48 The Hence Doubted

important vols I et du

and

III,

Important of Land Vinogradov's his articles was survey the by date Baer

personnel remarks Ancient thesis, in VDI

Materialien Helck, Wiesbaden 1961, a la attache are also to be in: Egypt', an "autoreferat" 107 into 4 and 110,

and terre found

Wirtschaftsgeschichte Bernadette Menu, dans le Papyrus in Klaus has Baer's 25 ff. 1962, which

in

JARCE of 1969. the survey whereas

1,

juridique regime Lille Wilbour, 'The Low article seen I have not in one the date 1970. See lost.

Le

appeared first that the moment date its of

divided of (p. the

beginning note 40,

sections, of the 98), but the the

of the heading is unknown. he thought

being falls

before
after able **9 50 51 52 The for word

the
its a

inundation
culmination. in in note loc.cit.

Graefe
Whatever view of the

(in:

CdE 48/95,
correct

1973,

44 ff.)
in the For

argues

that
seems the

it

falls

survey occurs 119 see

Op.cit., For mo See

, however

(cf. below. Baer,

headings 45).

yearly of the

solution, variation sections.

unsuit inundation. see below.

four

meaning,

1975

Economic

history

during

the

New

Kingdom

141

districts like that that the and text it

covered B, was deals the also His dates of Mes);

by land were

the a

surveyors. specific by divine owned the

The

explanation

is

that

text

A, thought53

with

owned

of fields. category or royal institutions, fields which of this were

Edgerton and not

there record. mainly

privately evidence for from from the the

suggested included in is the meager In

existence Dynasty he could to draw

XVIIIth XlXth like

(pBerlin only

category 9784 and

scription In this

mention to it the as that the is not

pValenjay. word "cultivated it bears a more 3ht a cul does its iht so

connection used though in he

I would the is In text.

attention translates

frequently land"54

Gardiner aware of the Text

well the

iht

specific meaning. occurs several field56 but

Donation

possibility of Penne55 that iht legal,

expression simply as

times, implies

demonstrating some, probably

tivated derivative Whether, the or total whether

meaning,

ihwty**7 however, area is Fairman's


one, or

the

solution in

to text

the

recorded first

suggestion
whether

question A has to be - summer


both are

why

only

sought crops
more

a portion of in this direction, - is the only


less correct,

correct

alternatively

or

has mind based text The

to

be

that, on by the no

subject our knowledge Wilbour deals means

for

further of the the all

study.

Obviously

we

have

to

keep

in largely the

agricultural picture of kinds

papyrus, with landed

organisation may be distorted fields.

being since

of organisation in the Wilbour shown than indicate land, the

do more the
the

temple
same.58

as and their administration properties so that is extremely I cannot papyrus complicated, I will to the main lines. restrict my remarks the for institutions system lay virtually being

53 st* 55

P. P. ly

100 66. from

note 45). (cf. In an unpublished someone". Aniba text, Wilbour suggestion of into II, dating papyrus.

See

also article

Baer, he

loc.cit. once paraphrased not of 240) me accurate quite Ramesses VI, that quite Dynasty may Gardiner's is presented it is

it

as

"land

leased cf.

direct LD

Steindorff, The 229c. with the Helck's ohne

a For 101. pi. from the reign II, seems the such to XVIIIth

is an

facsimile, almost older term

III,

contemporaneous for for 172.746, "Domane the many etc.:

36

genauere occurrences 3howt 57 58 made

(Materialien Unterschiede" ihwt ifa)t) during some

uncertain, Urk. (e.g., correct. be comments by

although IV,

explanation based on

139 ff. Menu, of the A survey minor 240-293. but not

organisation, unimportant

modifications

Helck,

with though Materialien

II,

142

Jac.J.

Janssen

SAK

In to of

text general a particular which there

A deals type were of in

with

two

types There

of

domains, is first for

each the each (r

paragraph. most sections the authority temple even for a a or

corresponding normal domain,59 of ht) the of main one be tem of in

several or the

each being ples, the high officials of several charge The troller and has direct

under of

the

supervision state. One to different

official

may institutions.

domains, times

belonging

responsibility most (rwdw), only one

normal of plots

to is delegated domain separate scribe. When the is a minor temple no controller domain is needed. which sometimes one seem area. to be In in in rather this the far respect

a con one

A domain and

consists did may The

apart the

certainly

not be

constitute

organisation Middle Ages. names be of of no their

with compared themselves plots for as the

joined that of a curtis identified these though of the record. the the controllers, other type

are

"cultivators"

(ihwtyw), purpose of in assistants - whereas actual of the

European text by the seem to persons the Menu being of has "cultiva the ar

consequence acted

Mile

that they gued teurs-fonctionnaires"60 word The Ifywty main

paragraphs

indicates characteristic

the

field-labourer.61 normal its domain personnel, plots. figures, (in arouras), of both. (16 nhb is that as The the it was directly the

exploited figures field dicates assessment, of is

by in the

the

temple entries there area the 5 (450 the to

through the for by of the three

appears

from

separate red

followed the total and

of the description in of which first second are a rate three and that in of the 10 the text soil,63 rates (25 rates B,62 of

plot product 7

the There

third

the

assessment:

instances), has terms argued, k3yt, reflect

1/2 and

instances) correctly, occurring

instances).

Gardiner

doubtless tnl

with correspond which according


59 Menu reserving unity. (see

him

different

qualities

judgement However, I have hence 60 61 62 63 Menu, Op.cit., Note A 64-77,

the note for translation 56) p. 26, prefers rmnyt, "departement" an administrative foremost and for since is first "domaine" pr, rmnyt not that does I follow the main If in Gardiner's any imply renderings, for the sake of it is Menu's clarity. only argumentation; concerning too to keep; seems term awkward domain" Gardiner's "non-apportioning called particularly ff. is here used cf. LdX I, them after 77. as as a an term, term whereas it occurs in text Helck "normal domains".

139 that

y.3yt in other (and a different For See also Schenkel,

agronomical in:

documents) opinion, in:

topographical

Vinogradov, f. 779

lands". meaning lying "high 18-23. BECTHMK 4 (110), 1969,

1975

Economic

history

during

the

New

Kingdom

143

though higher The which him yield argued 10 khar will The

he than

was

unable k3yt,

to "normal

explain arable the be three the

why

tni, land". red

"tired

land",

was

valued

second

and

third thinks would

of to mean

Gardiner here. to This the

khar,e* the

figures and

are expressed I am inclined the plots and may Menu have is

in to

a measure

follow stated both about Below the plot. "appor The I to

that per the that it

that per

this

temples cannot

5 khar be but that

of majority aroura. Gardiner yield, is also the A is word

have been

total it

which too net

aroura," after type Menu of

argue second

indicates in of text the

for high revenues by their

taxes. of Gardiner headings.

tioning domains the Smw The put with There in

paragraphs" of this type

paragraphs on account of the to

called in

main the

paragraphs (n) main on the pS.e7

devoted

pS are called temples smaller sanctuaries

rmnyt begin

while pS,66 with the words

characteristic individual usually varieties

a name, are two I A,

stress is the the entries paragraphs their each holders, plots entry beginning an indication of his by preceded occupation. one of entries, three' I) in which (or, (Type and

of

these

one in black two in occur, four) (or two) Type figures ink, one always last the the first black 1 2/4. Moreover, red, figure, being or in Type I A the second is in the majority of the instances one, 3 or 5,68 either area indicates the in arouras. which
6* Edgerton is certainly the justified and without corn-measure is in in one the questioning single whether mistake the both that entries would 134) note a scribe basket would sign in be one khar in would It The to able type

tousesoiconsistently of and entry (JAOS dicates disappear, is, 65 66 subject So also 40 In as khar. these 70,

If he 303). 1950, the correspondence oip&, some while the of that further op.cit., the the the of the 30.

other, though in right suggesting between Posh the drawn (p.80, vso 5-8, to or these that the below

the indicating corn-measure the (see be is are below) incorrect. correct. said

conclusions argument

however,possible requires Baer,

Menu's

investigation. In pValenjay, was a

4 arouras the suchlike

yield

appears occur There 67 From the called no word of 68 211 Proved f.).

instances from in form

management of mention only it

assigned

papyrus entries "white the

nome-capital three of is clear

governmental centre cf. Gardiner,

in

administration, the heading. 39 ff.

centres; some rarer belong domains

"herbage" ph occurs by

and in

goats"

Pharaoh"

here belong Menu (107 ff.) In the sub-variety according recorded to after one I A is

headings. as well. after I A Menu, this the as they a that sign, same 5 J consist the

paragraphs Some of last more to person moment black

of types paragraphs same to the type, although called "Landing-Place of Gardiner (Additions, , which by J the number of the first of the

figures plots, a total

discovery are each area

separated consisting as given

indicates, of arouras figure, the plots measure of the

in the Even

belong of of local

to

and also

type which

measure

noted

actually 1 are possibly of 5

(Menu, 3 or

Hence 106). 5 arouras. 5 or. plots, each

majority fields

situation

small

portions,

because though 1 aroura. of

144

Jac.J.

Janssen

SAK

These or a

fields secular duties

are

tenures, for the

portions by granted state: military w), to be mean possibly The khar

of the

the

landed

institution

pharaoh officers,

property to persons foreign stable-masters, (131 tenants

of

a temple

special,

performing soldiers herds are mention women children in to figure), the but

(Sherden),Egyptians etc. The men, called of

soldiers(w tenures appear which they of of their The the may are

charioteers, hereditary "widow"; some alienable69 holders per its pay aroura area to being

Qnh-n-nlwt, tenants); not or on private institution

entries but, last indicated

former

at

least

theory, temple only first this The black one was of not

property. 1 2/4

a remuneration (the

a portion red figure.70 upon variety

fields,

portion

liable

depends second figures four

personal II) by is

circumstances characterized or only

differs,71 payment of the tenant72 by one the occurence

by the but whether is uncertain. of two

(Type

separated abbreviated

a dot,

assessed. in aroura. pay have square Since any been that

Moreover, cubits no

expressions most (from

of 6 to

explaining the plots 200), occur it temples. owners Most other I. the

followed IIA) by (Type reason the land for what of Type that of fields, are II are small being possessors small and priests, than the the kind domains for plots there is scribes holders of people Mile their and 1/100

measured of did seem even or of who Menu an not to

square

cubit the the

red

remuneration virtually could

figures to the

seems Those of of the them

proof

they

private sell them. to

that is, they belonged Ihwtyw, 3 and 5 aroura fields of the controlled has the management that they ,to me into than for two the fiscal

categories this in the is

Type of the received

Since

fields this is not

normal in

services, in type

suggested73 seems but it II is divided smaller it was

fields yet

payment

that

usually suggested
doubt. 69 70

being that

Why the area proved. a dot), the first parts (separated by is obscure; and Menu75 Gardiner74 second, to but that remains open purposes, this

Gardiner, The Egyptian per area had aroura

76;

71

For

a r*ate to use 1 2/4 of khar throughout preferred see the decreased Posh B entries; hence the and in (even below), one same as when was on which the the the result remuneration being paid, a lower on 1 2/4 amount aroura than field. khar entire the to per pay are 3 ar. the second the of 1/2 1/4 (15! (123), instances), plots figures

126 Menu, administration

ff.

1 (36),
(1), 72 73 75 while Gardiner, So Helck, explanation P. 138. P. Pp. 98. 102

or 2 (1);
numbers and 91, Materialien of type

for
Menu, IA

those
105.

of 5 or.:
than 1 are

1/4
rare

(181),
and occur

1/2

(315),
only with

1 (167),
large

or
plots;

1 1/2
cf.

higher

and II, 259, seems to me

Menu, less

123, likely

without than

adducing proof. of Menu. that

Helck's

and

138.

1975

Economic

history

during

the

New Kingdom

145

Leaving details the

aside I will

most

of

the

minor one

though rather

by

no

means

unimportant

normal

out only point domain paragraphs a line is stating

essential of amount

several

entries

followed pressed institution. khar gure the is of

by in khar,

that

a certain to"

In of entry. type are the usual type ex of grain, always

This always the 7

"appointed is called type

1/2

receiving

preceding institution may be

or secular temple (ps* n) another A. The amount of Gardiner by posh that the last red fi % of the net revenues, is, to devoted line. the In paragraph apportioning there the same appears amount a corresponding of grain. Here entry the last (Posh B),

figure as throughout two figures, in these there paragraphs; precede - the one area the total the first of the plot (in black) indicating same figure as appears in the normal in the domain entry paragraph its The product and of this the second (in red) quarter quarter. being mc. means to the amount 1 2/4 1 2/4 is equal of Posh A, at least when recording is 1 2/4, 1 2/4 The paid (Posh khar. explanation 7 1/2 % of B), of the the net in % is Posh-entries revenues return recorded dealt under
amount

what

may of the in

be

that to of its

one another

temple

(Posh

A)

a field hire the with

institution Conse for in the it

quently is income normal


was

probably 7 1/2 the of the

for

personnel.76 while paragraph, mention

apportioning there, of
deduced

institution

domain

paragraph
since the

the
was

heading
to be

the

paying
from its

institution
revenues.

necessary

If

this

reconstruction the revenues of

is the

correct, temples

it

appears and

that

the -

Wilbour and not

papyrus the

records
taxes!

institutions

So much this to be time

about the

text

A.

Text

B deals

(also?) of

with

land The

of fields

one

so-called on the well for be

fc/zato-lands land as of temples

situated lay is ones that, not

cials, Gardiner fields under


in order

as

priests. unknown reasons, in of

pharaoh. but put in The explanation one did

single are said high by that were the offi

type,

charge

of

run

suggested the risk they of


the

the put crown, All

might the personal


to ensure

cultivated responsibility
the production.77

one

particular officials
In accordance

year; on behalf
with

explanation

the
76 77

total

area
ff.

of

khato-lands
thinks

seems
that 123 f. these

to

have
fields

changed
were leased

continuously.
by one institution

89 Menu, to another Gardiner,

Gardiner

209). (p. RdE 6, in:

1951,

146

Jac.J.

Janssen

SAK

entries of red the dot)

of plots, red

text

by black indicating accompanied figures in some instances entries (the only preceded are added assessment. numbers actual indicating but
hard to explain.78

B are

the by

size a

The numbers

themselves

are

We now question represent

have for

to

face

the purpose

main

what or

of problem the red figures As stated

the

Wilbour been the

papyrus, recorded.

namely Do the yield in of of


etc.

the

have above, too low the

taxes seem Hence that production,

revenues?

paragraphs the plots. suggesting costs of


field-labourers

too

taxes and for high Mile Menu may have found represent that is,
animals

in figures the for total solution deduction sustenance


transport,

they normal of

correct after the

they

the the
used

net

revenues and
ploughing,

the the

seed-corn
for

and

the

The

also revenues the of the may record apportioning paragraphs stitutions. that rent Gardiner indicate the they thought79 paid to the owners the holders in theory, remained the which, temples the legal fields, status and of Menu, the of though holders, revenues In since means record that which temple this they that taxes, the not is of agreeing with the she entries Gardiner same as regards of generally the temples, the no contain the plots are

in by of the However,

opinion.80

although "revenues II A pose suggested papyrus Menu they only


solved.

speaking taxables".81 a problem, that this is meant to

connection

calls them throughout II and of Type at all. Gardiner but if the at all?

figures were not these were

taxed,82 fields recorded that is as the yet is

to think with

prefers were taxable concerned

why reason

mentioned that papyrus far

contradicts revenues.

they her opinion The problem

indeed was

from

Apart was in were this


78 79 80 81 82 S3 84 es

from

this that taxed.

doubtful the land Gardiner, has taxes

evidence, of the in argued to the the


Fairman,

however, temples the Epilogue that State. in

I cannot in his

find the

single Wilbour and temples hand, rejects is again

indication indeed the

recorded to

papyrus

edition83 period the other but so

Postscript,84 to pay obliged

the Helck, is

Ramessid on

view.85
Cf. Pp. Pp. Gardiner, 207-8. 129-132.

In my opinion
183 ff. and

problem
120 ff.

still

open,

much

pp. E.g., P. 199. p. 102 . Pp. Pp. 201-204 285-6.

102

and

122.

and

207-8.

1975

Economic

history

during

the

New

Kingdom

147

clear temple the

that

the

Wilbour The

papyrus amounts of and


Temple

contains grain royal


and

no here

lands.86 land-owning
relations

proof recorded

for are In
as yet

the the

taxation revenues words:

of

of

temples
between

institutions.
State are

other
unknown.

the

economic

It a

may list

be of

that temple There for arouras

the

Griffith domains with of

Fragments their of

(see separate grain the for

below), plots (specified k3yt-land

which

also

contain record or to as barley) the much. quite ex taxa

taxes.87 is recorded of

a number each and be the

khar

actually as emmer is equal twice seems

domain, for 20 the % of

which

number The tax

nhb-land the gross

("fresh revenues,

land") which various and

would

then

possible. planations bility Besides matters we 1) Of the Amun The will of

However, are equally the temples

text

is

badly That bold

possible. seems too papyrus

damaged these

other prove the

fragments a conclusion. texts about them all.

the are

Wilbour known,

several indeed

more to

too

many

discuss

agricultural Some of

them

briefly

describe 1-13) half the

here.88 Ramesses pages VII have been preserved. The recto records

pAmiens this text

(= RAD only of Xth

transport in the

was grain Some of the domains called


domains.

on domains from various of grain threshing-floors nomes and Xlth fleet of the Upper Egyptian by the temple. to the Karnak of Amun and its brought temple dependencies. may have been administrative "apportioning while centres, domains" others since probably they were

were
normal

after

The place
Amun.

verso in

records order to

the collect

movements small

of

two

(?)

quantities

from place ships going of grain from domains

to of

86

The "rent". tors. word the fields

same

opinion Whether the is of seem

is this tenants taken the to me

expressed correct is of in normal rather the a wide

by

Baer depends

(p.

41), the upon domains the rent.

though

he

calls

the

revenues

For "rent"

entries too, of texts

apportioning but sense, domain paragraphs revenues than in his

status of the cultiva legal correct be the it may if amounts of in mentioned grain half the yield of the

about

87 88

So, Most of

32 f. Baer, them published is translated cf.

by and Baer,

Gardiner

Ramesside

Administrative

Documents

(London,
important

1948) and discussed


remarks,

in his
discussed in:

article
Helck, 1,

in JEA 27,
Materialien 31 ff. 1962,

1941,
IV,

19 ff.
541

This
ff. For

group

by JARCE

148

Jac.J.

Janssen

SAK

Taxation Turin Papyrus = 1895+2006 12 of Ramesses XI yr. (= RAD 35-44) pTurin of the collection Record of large of grain scribe of quantities by the the necropolis two guards. Dhutimose assisted to the first by According came from khato-lands column the grain It was collected in of pharaoh. 2) some the under ly to towns west the the in south bank of of Thebes in of for 14) the and order mayor all among called terms One from income the (or gets in the to be of capital delivered western probably the itself, partly Thebes, intended. receipt in the of and Thebes to shipped to the granary partly The small which is direct verso

supervision necropolis, the of the year

and

which

was

(dated quantities

records

others by

probably The occurrence presents the grain polis, 3)

mainly grain same kind of of some

delivered

people technical

serious went

difficulties. directly it was 10447

temples taxes?)

papyrus. n Pr-C3, n p3 h it sk3) (imw, the general that impression to the necro and cultivators of the yrs. State. 54-55 II The each of from Ramesses II

foreingers Sherden

( 33w),

Wilbour

although

pBrit.Mus. of grain

(= RAD 59) to a statue of of Nefrusi of (XVth U.E. a small

Record the by

delivered

Ramesses nome).

neighbourhood two cultivators yearly 200

deliver 4) Gurob

(ihwtyw) khar. 89 L, to
it

domain,

grain of them

a place in was delivered due to

Fragments L is dated

AA and the
is

(= RAD 30-33) 67 of Ramesses


the texts

Fragment
From their

years
apparent

II

and
pertain

1 of

Merenptah.
to the ad

provenance

that

ministration are small and of


L is

of

the

harem

at

Miwer their It
its

occurrence
fragment

badly damaged the expression


conspicuous,

(Faiyum), exact nature sometimes


meaning,

but is

since obscure.

the

m ms,
exact

abbreviated
however,

fragments The frequent in to ms, the Wilbour

uncertain.90

Fragments
papyrus, 89

AA and
to normal

M deal
domains

with
of

Smw,
small

which

may

refer,

as

in

institutions.

The

quantity the

ly being same The mentioned apparently 90 Still, Gardiner Materialien the

proves revenues

that of 200

this the khar The so

cannot fields. an for Wilbour that note the 10)

be

an

apportioning also occurs no these 200 khar "interest"; in

domain, Hier.

200 Ostraca

khar

probab 82, 2

quantity,

iftwty, papyrus status

and pBologna
as

1086,
excessive. fixed relatively

25, while

in pTurin A,

2,
of of

3 (- LEM 122,9)
offers tljwtyw could

300 khar
for be by

are
this

amount,

explanation remains hardly rejected

obscure. accidental. Helck,

frequent 206,

occurrence suggests

II, (pWilbour 576. IV,

1975

Economic

history

during

the

New

Kingdom

149

Remains

(= RAD 68-71) Fragments a register in or near of fields the Xth U.E. nome, belonging to the domains of some smaller in Thebes, (rmnywt) temples dependencies seems to be a rough of the Amun temple. The document and is much copy91 like the pWilbour. the I <md III) However, (cols. larger paragraphs 5) Griffith of end with summaries The 16). recording is said to may which grain, be delivered been Gardiner, may to have the been granary domains. RdE to the 6, of 1951, the his 116 Assessor House of the ff.) taxes of (see Amun (I,

above). 7 and

grain The domains

have

apportioning in:

cf. 6) pValengay (= RAD 72-73; Letter of a mayor of Elephantine, khato( 3-n-it),02 concerning Adoratress The of states Amun, that which are are

probably on the ields supposed to

Chief

land under of

be

responsibility.

mayor persons they actually private has been to the Treasury. Here (3>iwt n nmfryw) for which "money" paid we may catch a glimpse of a type of fields not in any official occurring and about document mentioned the of which above, importance nothing
is known.

fields

The field 40 7)

mayor which khar, Louvre

also has,

states

that

he only

has

ordered been

the

cultivation

of 4 arouras

another yielded

however, has been

partly

inundated.

which Leather

delivered

completely.

Fragments document93 being in the 1 2/4 Wilbour

(= RAD 60-63) as recording in the papyrus. the case assessment of the of mostly small domains

A very plots, (type 8)

fragmentary rate the I and IA)

apportioning

317l9* pLouvre two columns the Each of one


khar.

cultivator,
The grain,

evidently
called

published a rwdw
imw, may

so since
thus

far the
have

records quantities
come

the

grain are
a normal

delivery 1000 and


domain.

of 1421

from

It

was

due

to

the Part

granary of it (2,6), is

of

institution. master for


91

Memphis, to stated

so have

that been is

it

may "taken left

have

been

secular

of seed-corn

the

army" (3,8).

another

quantity

to

by the quarter the cultivator

Obviously were noted wards. The I Wilbour the two

headings, down first, that suggest papyrus of rendering existence columns are

the

written entries, document the be a fair may "Chief more published fragments, by the

in

clear in

uncial cursive

hand

and hand,

mentioning being notes correct. 32, pi. note 18; 53. cf. filled of

the the

lists copy cf.

a very the of such may Baer,

rmnywt, in after surveyors.

field-by-field a document. not be quite

92 93 94

Gardiner's For The

Taxing-master" Spiegelberg,

loc.cit., Rechnungen,

Gardiner,

in:

JEA 27,

1941,

56 ff.

150

Jac.J.

Janssen

SAK 3

Several

more

documents could problems


texts which,

containing quoted,95 passed


until

evidence while most

for of the

the

agriculture minor offer


category of

be

of the study texts mentioned mention one


used,

NK above special
namely

over

here.
now, has

I shall
been

only
inadequately

the

donation the Where mentioned, that

texts.

certainly fields. are clear our periods point: this One

here is studied the most period important donation of Penne from Aniba,96 five different mentioning are described, their boundaries several fields adjoining providing us with study agriculture, I would of the size the present convinced documents may certainly they the a wealth of the of technical texts the single terms. will It further dates special data on from is donation

For

the

a comprehensive the about knowledge later the subject more than study of the the by the

NK.97

although to like plots, papyrus. has the is used in

majority one out with

comparison

provided for

Wilbour subject that there be probably

source

to

be

briefly has texts

mentioned. to from if not of early be studied a slightly for only much "abnormal recently stela one of is

Although from later the

I am strongly which

NK economy a group in the of

contemporaneous period sake of

discussion a situation

differing hieratic" referred of the Everot.99 most

comparison; from that of

reflect I mean the

pWilbour. from to and the which

group the

documents, dating to by Malinine,98 Publication urgent


there but lack

XXIst-XXIInd may be of added these in

Dynasties so-called documents

discussion interested

tasks

of

those

Egyptian

economy.
those documents dis

Of

course

are of

more room

aspects as well

to as

the the

NK

agriculture of written

than

cussed,

absence

are

the

reasons

they

can

only

briefly

be

touched

upon.

95 96

E.g.: the See wrote

pHarris Miscellanies,

I,

the etc.

Nauri Gardiner on it

Decree,

pBologna

1086,

various

passages

from

note 55. above, a short article

text the quotes never was which

97 98 99

231 f. and 295 II, ff.; Menu, to Kitchen BIFAO (in: 73, 1973, According on the stelae. donation et Textes de In: langages l'Egypte pharaonique. Also de called cf. "stele Legrain, l'apanage"; and in: Z&S 35, 19-23. Erman, 1897; Materialien

II in pWilbour and (111 f.) Cf.-also Helck, published. 118 ff. RdE 22, in: 1970, a study 193) Mme Jacquet prepares Hommage in: ZXS a 35, Champollion 1897, 13-16, I, 1972, 32.

1975

Economic

history

during

the

New

Kingdom

151

Apart may
it,

from have
however,

grain flax,
is

the

economically the raw material

most for

important textiles.100

product

of Evidence

the

fields about

been

extremely

scanty.101

Vegetables number as
nomic

constitute of kinds fields,102


are

an known. but

essential They may

part have

of

the

daily grown

food, in

are

been with

on

the

quantitative
extremely rare.

data

respect

large as well gardens eco to their

and

significance

Dates any
texts.

too other

an important played kind of fruit, of


suggests104*

part which
that

in there

the

diet,103 are several


were grown

perhaps mentioned
in

more in

than the
in

Megally

date-palms

gardens,

the times, of in be

inner so

courts that

of their

the

houses

and and

on

the

river was

banks,

as

in modern the for may hands them well

private order correct

persons to provide the only

production state and the its

commerce

institutions with barter dates. is

in mainly had to barter Although this the

dependants for this proof

at

present

pLouvre

E 3226. Still economic of wine another subject restricted vineyards? the Delta a the is of the its to viticulture, products. the the the temple oases? study, aspects organisation To what extent has and the well-to-do? indeed, It seems to me with of as its and the the

significance been of the to problems but

consumption Who were the suggested, these only ana to the

owners restricted other technical

Was and

viticulture

that not

require to also

special economic

attention the

viticulture.105

ioo

The Actual and of

significance woolen are referred

of

wool the

for have

the been texts

articles found (pBologna (cf.

of

clothing Lucas-Harris, 1094, l, l:

may n3

be

underrated. 146 SO; in paintings. f.) stela

garments to in 9:

Materials, Snw d3iw mentioned V, f.; and 798.

Ahmose-Nofretari Materialien Helck, Letters Hekanakhte do not below, sur second study quite IV le agree a. papyrus of

101 102 103 104

Cf. the I See Etudes this The

n Hnw). ifd 810 f. The of is cultivation flax V, and is shown tomb in reliefs frequently with Helck's in Materialien suggestion E 3226 thesis du Louvre is still Paris II, unpublished. in of the somewhat Fernande Paris the 1969, Ancient technical 396

part

the

105

Leipzig This may agriculture still the thesis

of Lutz, and Viticulture Brewing at is 1922, present antiquated. be the to mention a study place in general also which, though only comprehensive dans survey, l'ancienne namely

Orient, aspects is of

out-of-date, Hartmann's 1923.

"L1agriculture

fcgypte",

152

Jac.J.

Janssen

SAK

Although ding of economic origins technical to has its the been own

Egypt cattle,

was

first and

and

foremost and

sheep

goats,

a country of even of pigs, has decoration however,

farmers, was been not

the without

bree

much attention Recently significance. the while tomb of domestication,106 All of breeding.107 this, aspects economic presented rights. fields
These

to paid illustrates not this studied

the many up

does on been presents

add

function by Wilbour

of Helck108

domestic but papyrus, for has

animals. as for yet of


grain,

Material never

subject in

The

instance, cattle
and

information white
was not

concerning
"goats".109

intended
fields

temple-herds
to produce

and
if that

seem

exclusively the herds


grain,110

meant one
and

for to

the

sustenance that
kept in

of cattle
stables.

the

has
hence

conclude
mainly

personnel and goats

connected were fed with

with

Another is

problem as has home and it at

is the to in

that main

of

the

situation region,111 a large Egypt. have

of

indicated

pasture whether and sheep the

pastures. but even portion Cattle of was in of a

Usually if the this

the were

Delta

correct was rare Still for not

be

asked

cattle-herds not: numbers.112 a question the ex if domestic

Middle and is of

Upper may

certainly large

there, another which

goats

been

kept

problem

relative

importance may adduce the count

pigs,113 of the

excavations will carefully

settlements assemble and

solution

cavators
animals. 106 Cf. Plants H.G. little Africa 107 108 109 See Mile

bones

Peter and Smith

J.

Ucko

and

G.W. For

Animals, (307 ff.). See, vols),

London

Dimbleby, for 1969; the economic Epstein, 1971. Manuel V,

The ancient

Domestication Egypt of of I and

and particularly

Exploitation the

of article is of of thesis of by

history The Origin

value. (2

H. too, New York Vandier,

it Egypt pharaonic the Animals Domestic II, but also the

particularly Hartmann

chapters

Materialien Gardiner, vinced as well, Unless "sacks" possibility of his direction that

(note 105). 473 ff. III, 22 ff. I use inverted nh always the pf means older the

commas "goat"; word in Wt.

since ("goats") instances many

I it

am by will

no

means

con sheep

include

110

replacing the entries

111

a completely the and false present picture pWilbour a similar to not to actual but value and oipes their (for products point II to pLouvre E 3226, cf. in relation part by Megally suggested At present I do not 382 know of in this indication f.) p. any thesis, in the Wilbour papyrus. Kees, above, Kulturgeschichte, Ila) suggests which may from from the that be Deir that 18 large correct. ff. O'Connor areas instances of (Man, Middle of Settlement Egypt but were also have and mainly of had cattle, too Urbanism,

Cf., 695; used

e.g., cf. for can

112 113

This

occuring The information much influence

pasturing, be concluded in ostraca the

numerous

nh, (11,47)

by Herodotus on egyptologists.

el-Medina. were pigs

impure

may

1975

Economic

history

during

the

New

Kingdom

153

The

last

point the more to diet

I will

mention to be

is

the studied

significance, in honey Several suffice agriculture

a question of the of how

apiculture114 in connection

and

its

economic the role of

with

population. this little Egypt. kind we may know be raised, the but the above aspects will of

problems indicate in ancient

about

economic

Mining one has been gold varieties Several either a natural of are or the most of among gold ancient them sil d m,

Doubtless Egypt.115 "electrum",


ver. 116

mentioned an

important in the alloy

products texts, of

artificial

and

The

geographical The coutter.117 the Red in to the Sea, the

aspects

of

and

bearing gold latitude from the south, and can

have mining gold area is situated of divided of Qena in into the

been

studied the to

by Ver Nile that valley of

between the three north

Dongola ding of Wawat"

be

"gold Egyptian some gold of Kush". and "gold Although as tribute or as booty, the XVIIIth either Asia Dynasty, during came from metal the mining districts. of the precious certainly The technical but obscure. all mines the labour processes the econojnic We would together fluctuations required of the gold,
cf. LdX Leclant, 786 I,

indications

desert

correspon regions of Coptos", "gold was from imported most

of

mining like and aspects to that of and the that


in: ff. Nubia of Cf. are the Traite

and of

known,118 largely of

put

production out the yearly for know, instance, of each district and each mine production way it was is,
de treated words

refining the gold

gold

are

fairly are

well still

separately; amount of the


11Xf 115 116 117 118

the

through enlisted

the and

ages;

the

destination
For a survey, and in: section exhaustive Studies 7,

the

percentages
de a unity. gold Berlin the 139 cf. 1961, ancient ff. for l'abeille

for; paid the into going


V, Paris 1968,

biologie as

51-60, In, this For an

and Egypt discussion in 128 Ancient ff. also

indicating

graphical In: Kush See also

1959,

Egyptian the map Egyptian

Minerals, indicating Materials, op.cit.,

Harris, 32 ff. mines the on

Lexico 129.

p.

Op.cit., of the

Lucas-Harris, 228 Cf. ff. production.

Ancient

224 ff.,

Vercouttter,

organisation

154

Jac.J.

Janssen

SAK

royal among

treasury, the

the

treasuries of all of of the

of

the the

temples,119 quantities there vague. is Since function

and used some a

those to

distributed finance in of the the eco foreign

commerce; sources, nomic Egyptian


offer a

subjects etc. For though most

pharaoh; problems is rather it

these

evidence study of

implications society
few remarks

has

gold mining not yet been


the subject.

and

the

undertaken,

I cannot

in the gold do more than

on

The

annals

of of

Tuthmosis the Nubian

III

contain

indications districts in six

production record the Wawat in

administrative by Kush

regarding Wawat

the and

gold Kush. They those from

amounts four

delivered The

different

years,

of Kush in that average yearly production 15 kilogrammes, that of Wawat c. 248 kilogrammes. appears period the output of the mines in the is virtually Unfortunately, region Coptos are reasons to believe there it was much higher that unknown, although to Urk. to than that of Nubia. Tuthmosis III IV, 630, gave According - in total in the course of Karnak the of his temple probably reign or c. to which over 13840 kg., be added 152107 613 deben should deben, years.120 to be c.
of "gold of cAmu"121 mentioned separately for an unknown reason; to

gether amount also

152720 said to

deben have

or

c.

14000 in the

kg.

Moreover, of

besides

this

enormous

depicted so that god,122 It the came said the (Urk.


not booty 119 120 The his Cf. be

given a number of the that total this country unlikely; in the is

shapes

objects golden have been may could

is and rings, there lumps which to the the king donated least come kg. 15000 from kg.123 Nubia That for in 1784 the alone most if of is while kg. can
the

at not 265 of

is

obvious in Asia be 45 from 666).


was from

quantity

mines from to booty IV,

that is deben

c. produced the tribute year stated figures 33 to and

yearly.

it

Retenu,

instance, 34, 162,3 kg.


not all

55 deben been

Megiddo From such


all turned Wadi the

have

year or deben of
it

a total
if we god. is Kanais, Since (cf. stated

donation
assume that

15000
was

attained, that

more to for cf.

so the

over

gold temple

Mia,

instance, Schott, 948 f.

to

be

Helck, exclusive deliveries the mines.

Abydos; Materialien property to the of the ff. figure of king cAmu" Third

at

NAWG mineral

VI, the

1961, wealth

assigned Nr. 6, seems

175 to

by Sethos ff. have been 24)

to the

pharaoh here recorded

Morenz, have will to Vercoutter Karola

Prestige-Wirtschaft, the comprised (op.cit., Zibelius,

the of

total

output

121

The district und

"mountain near Volkernameh, 629 IV,

is,

according but 99. tomb 1972, in the

Cataract,

see

the I3l) Afrikanische

mining Orts

Wiesbaden occurs

122 123

Urk. A

comparable or 3339 deben stated to be have

of

Puyemre

(Urk. 36). pi. whether

IV,

may

doubted,

of dPm (cf. kg. to been given see but Davies,

I, Davies, Puyemre of Amun. the temple op.cit., 89.

526), namely This quantity figure is

36692 is also reliable

the

1975

Economic

history

during

the

New

Kingdom

155

Whether
Here we

the
may

figures
compare

are
them

reliable
with

is
another

a point
record

requiring
mentioned

careful
in a

study.
dedication

inscription the god and


bronze,

is

Amenophis to have said 3/4 deben


Since

of

III received gold the

in

the

Montu-temple 31485 1/3 deben kg.),


was of

at of

Karnak,124 electrum (= stones,


than

in

which kg.)

2865

25182
etc.

of
the

(=

2292

besides
less

precious
importance

Montu-temple

that

of For

Amun the

it

may

be

that

higher Harris Egypt and

figures

above

are

roughly

reliable. Here the to be

XXth

Dynasty of 1/8 of

papyrus gold kite the from

I provides and The most Nubia

information. together is said came the the from are to

donations yearly 569 deben and 6 by may total deben.126 the subjects III of 92,7 All also

said be

(12a,9). temple, of the

quantity of it in to

delivered which

Nubia, region.125 temple together to the

indicate

a decline donated

production

Coptos Karnak

Ramesses

deben,

while

objects golden the other temples received 232,7

to

received according

2464,6 papyrus

at gold with those the total larger with

the temples together a value or of 2557,3 deben mentioned gold usual which above one The production. of the production picture shows the unable which to
actually useless. Since

portion the

these kg. Comparing figures a sharp to assume is forced of decline a far Ramesses III kept that assumption in agreement for is not other purposes development of the power for reliable not we
Comparison

of the

the

political

during

the

XXth

Dynasty, matters Not gold only

although are we

increasing actual proof provide may or may to

this

in economic also clergy, of view may be slight. point

production, donated
recorded is quite

quantities
amounts gold

the

temples,
mean. the

the total figures concerning have been far than the higher are also uncertain what the
with seems the to modern have value been of relatively

production

abundant value
On Cerny the

during of gold
other has

the may

NK,

or been

at

least low in

during comparison

the

XVIIIth with
and was

have
silver

that

Dynasty, of other
expensive. 1:2,

the goods.

hand, demonstrated

was that the

relatively ratio

scarce, gold:silver

hence usually

while and from


124 125 126

that 1:120 Deir


Cf. Cf. Cf. 68b,

during

between*gold the

and XXth the


20-29

copper of

was

1:200

during

the to 120

XVIIIth the deben ostraca of

Dynasty

Dynasty. price

el-Medina,
I, pis.

Since, according an ox was 100 to

copper127

Karnak

Save-Soderbergh, Materialien Helck, 6 (2289, 4 deben)

127

(BAR IV, 386, See my Commodity

and 12 f. See also Urk. 1668. p. IV, und 211. Nubien, Xgypten 953 and 416. The recorded total VI, III, a scribal is as Breasted error, clearly note c). 173. Prices,

in has

pHarris suggested

I,

156

Jac.J.

Janssen

SAK

we may Moreover, (c. the some c. 76

state

that during

1 deben the reign 2 deben khar

of

was gold of Ramesses of copper, 4560 litres statement For the

sufficient III the

to price that

buy of

such 1 khar of data to III the

an

animal. of grain was lend

litres)

was of

equivalent perspective 570 deben not of such

60 to

or

Ramesses' yearly.

meaning of grain. These he donated that of Tuthmosis

1 deben

gold may

temples is at

gold

time for in that

there

present Modern

material would be

available interested mention but


in this

comparison. the the costs gold of gold production. has been of


labour.

economists for this


main

Lucas-Harris, revived
costs.128

instance, century
factor

early
The

was

discontinued
respect was

industry on account

the
Per

certainly

haps lation, The


and

in

ancient the total in the

times

the

Nubian being region


the

mines

were

worked to the

by

the

local

popu war

production Coptos
and possibly

delivered have been


categories

pharaoh.129 prisoners
also used

miners
convicts,130

may costs

slaves,
were

of
in

same

Nubia. although
far out

That it
in

would was
the

mean of course

that

the relatively

production to expensive

of

were supply

rather the

low,

miners

desert.

The

above

remarks

may

suffice

to

show

the

importance

of

special

study into useful

Egyptian account. The starting

of

gold list

mining of data

in

which up

the by

economic Helck131

aspects may

are

taken a

drawn

provide

point.

The So Sinai
the eastern output

other far as

economically we know the the NK,132

important Egyptians although


The copper completely main was

mineral themselves the


copper won unknown. at

found did may

Egypt not mine have


region places.133

in

was

copper. in the by
the total the

copper exploited
was again The discussing

during
local desert is,

mines
producing various

been

population. where however,

Lucas-Harris,

question, suggest
128 129 130 131 132 133 Lucas

out the relatively point of the production that


Harris, 226. 87. (op.cit.,

the

low consumption eastern desert

of

copper

and with that

together

Save-Soderbergh, op.cit., Vercoutter 188. Op.cit., were men. educated miners Materialien Cf. Inscr. VI, Sinai 947-967. II, 205. 7.

142)

argues

that

the

overseers

of

the

Lucas-Harris,

1975

Economic

history

during

the

New Kingdom

157

ot

Sinai

may for

have

been from in

indeed Asia Wadi

sufficient. and

There

is, the

evidence Recent Ramesside


here.

import excavations Period


as

the

an
far

important
as I am

Cyprus, though Araba that (Timna)134 suggest source the mineral to for has
the excavator has not yet

however, amount

ample is unknown. for be the sought


offered

However,

aware

any Timna of

estimate may have and the

of

the

total

increased melting sea-route of the

production our knowledge ore, along and which the

of

the

area.

The the may

mining indicated the

concerning excavator

discovery technical have

of aspects

the

but
obscure

influence

this

mining

district

correctly was transported to Egypt, copper on Egyptian is as yet economy

It
was

is
used

clear
as

that
a

copper

was

by
of

no

means
as

rare
the

during
ostraca

the

NK.
demonstrate,

That

it

common

measure

value,

may also in

not used several

be

decisive; for sale this

silver, purpose,

which at scrap the least

was

certainly the occurs

fairly early among had at the their

scarce, XXth Dynasty.

was But

until

contracts

copper On the and even lawsuit.


which

commodities disposal tools the sufficiently out


value.

of and the workmen exchanged, tools. of copper numbers large were property to expensive
were

necropolis other a

hand, tools
shows

most blade

of was

of be

the the

pharach, subject
registered,

of

single The
also

handed
their

to

the

workmen

carefully

In for as

general its to the

is industry total

seems

that

Egypt

possessed though wq or are

the

amount to Here of

of

(and quantities he

army),

unable

offer

copper required a guess even like to "The Burden

produced interesting that argues has been

required.

I would in Iron causes of the

mention of time decline

a particularly where Egypt"135 of the of XXth the the to

suggestion the beginning one since the of the the

Wilson of the

Dynasty

decisive

Age in the for the Hittite

NK, Sea

particularly Peoples

destruction of gold, What the

by Empire henceforth The the have So far

exchange certainly

question role of to

deprived their products further requires and just and after may

Egyptians (grain,

etc.)

possibility for iron. has been will

iron

during the the

study. the NK? The be are able to

exactly

consider as I see

problem written

archaeologists a solution. suggest in this respect.

documents

silent

134 135

Cf. P.

B. 274.

Rothenberg,

Timna,

London

1972.

158

Jac.J.

Janssen

SAK

About etc., mic as have well

other there value.136 as

mining is not Some the mostly which

products, sufficient of them, of

minerals, material such the as imports tin,

precious available were are

stones, to assess

building their

stone, econo

quantity

but the origin imported, unknown. too will Silver

been

electrum, decline
with the

in

the

of it may actually have been imported, part although was a natural of the country.137 The sharp product value of silver as compared the XlXth during Dynasty
of copper from 1:100 to 1:60138 constitutes an eco

value

nomic or

problem. whether it
as

Whether is
is

in to the

fact

it

means of
what

a rise large
extent

in

the

value of

of silver,
may

copper, is
have

due
the

influx
to

quantities
the government

uncertain,

question

influenced In and
and

the it are

depreciation appears fairly


as yet

of that data

silver.139 for The the subject economic will aspects require of much mining study

summary, minerals
more

scarce.
unknown.

material

Crafts

While rather their


occupations

our

the knowledge concerning extensive written documents and


such

classes ruling us little tell technical


working,

during about of the

the the

NK is craftsmen,

work

organisation.
as carpentry,

The

aspects
weaving,

various
may be

metal

etc.,

fairly
obscure.

well

known,11*0
in the such

from

the

actual
but existence

products
the of economic a

as

well
aspects of free

as

from
are

the
still

representations Problems

tombs,1*1 as the

body

craftsmen

for producing to the temples, of raw supply the been


136 137 138 139 140 1**1

the

the market, legal the economic function for prices is,


see 248. and my

position of the the

of

the

workers

attached the and never and

materials the

the were

workmen, established, little

way

in

which

temple workshops, cost of production all these have on the subject,

studied.
por tfie

There
sources, Prices also chapter Petrie,

indeed,
Helck, Wages

material
VI. Cahiers 106 ff. d'histoire

Materialien in

Lucas-Harris, Cf. Cerny, 905 See Cf., more It is material Neuen f. See below, e.g., up-to-date,

Egypt,

mondiale

l,

1954,

Commodity Vc. Arts and

Prices, Crafts in Klebs 1934. this in of

Ancient connection her "Die

Egypt, the Reliefs

London-Edinburgh invaluable collection und Malereien des

1910, of

and,

appropriate published Reiches I",

Lucas-Harris, to mention by Luise

Materials.

Heidelberg

1975

Economic

history

during

the

New

Kingdom

159

the
a few

reader

can

therefore
remarks.

not

expect

to

find

in

this

section

more

than

disconnected

The

most the the the

during not, on

comprehensive NK a class alternative

question of free

seems craftsmen

to

be

whether for

there a free

existed market either possible class. the classes, Un or

temples of

or those article

on

all that being the governmental attached pointed

working were craftsmen institutions, to members that those of silent of out142 by existence to be

dependent with the the in of upper el-cAmarna the lower

exception In a recent houses in which of

closely

the he

Kemp has were officials an indication

surrounded of the

saw the

free in

labourers. this matter.

fortunately The law related of

written

documents

seem

by the - has VI)


there

was a free whether there market dominated problem by the the governing and demand besides of redistribution system supply - for which are state indications indeed abundant (see chapter as yet never been
working

studied.
on their

Still
own

it

may

be
but

possible
that no

that
free

were

craftsmen

account,

market with In it were the

existed. prices the

The

question V c).

will

be

dealt

with

below

in

connection

(chapter economic to the the keep

estimating is important made by in


the

function in mind that

of

craftsmen objects goods will


.

in of

the

most

Egyptian use daily by

society certainly have


of

peasants royal or
of

themselves. temple
the

Luxury

made by
the

specialized

craftsmen
come into

workshops
lower classes

only
From

exception
ostraca

possession

were that it appears few craftsmen connected with only - of course were its this members themselves in community specialized - the most the tombs the metal workers. decorating important group being were Woodwork and basketry made by the consumers themselves. Probably Deir el-Medina the Apart times
to me

same

holds metal

true

for

the it

peasant may be

population. cloth and As


of

from

objects by

pottery

that pottery,
made centres,

were it

most seems
or

produced
an important there

specialized
question

workmen.
whether all or even

regards
it was

locally, at

whether

have

been

regional

national

least

for kind
142 143

particular of

types

of

pots;

that

is, An

whether answer
particularly seen in

we may to this
673

speak

of can

some

concentrated
and for 88.6). its

industry.143
Urbanism, existence 668 may

question
ff. X1&3d3iw of

Settlement Man, An indication (Hier.Ostr.

ff., be

the

phrase

Coptos"

160

Jac.J.

Janssen

SAK 3

perhaps ordinary It seems

be

found

through pottery in is

statistical found during was

and the

technical excavations.

household that weaving There it

analysis 1<*i# in

of

the

workshops.145

particular at least one likely of that this

concentrated that were a

temple its

and "sold" own to

other

testimony they

temple

and garments,14*6 The economic shop. of other

seems importance or,

production

of products in relation and

that

weaving In

workshops is completely I may of The time the

possibly, unknown. to two

independent

weavers

household

conclusion history vso.1**8 from the

refer

documents

of

importance 100561*7

for and

the

eco

nomic 1116 nfr the

period, namely pBrit.Mus. former contains records of of of other of Tuthmosis the yard. text, made joinery, mentioned is III Its from and sheds

the

royal some limited is,

pLeningrad of Prw dockyard light however, seems to such as on not record

organisation to. alluded The the manufacture ivory, hence The

economic about of the

function same period, was

objects

valuable part were of

materials which

ebony for the

and royal nomic there may be

probably workmen the of

intended

ships. function were be that

shop

obscure. is

mostly we All

Syrians. are able

eco the Again to state is, that It

royal workshops, further study in As relation usual, nothing the


etc. of offer chemical valuable

which of to the know these

a hardly two texts11*9 but not

conclusion. surprising to draw will allow much of this kind can and of the

conclusions expected.

economy, that there relative their their of

we

existed

royal its

but workshops, their production,


cost 144 of Modern Variations 129 ff.) production, methods

about position

importance, and personnel

dockyards size the payment,

and Chronology,

thermoluminescent ed. by Ingrid in this

and may

Absolute

analysis U. 01sson, respect. which study, 9,

(cf. For may

Radiocarbon Stockholm a 1970, tech practical be of importance 21 ff. and

145
146

of handling pottery nique for economic researches, SAK in: 1, Eggebrecht,

possibilities in an archaeological cf. 1974, Two Fairservis, 147 ff. Ancient are (in fairly fact,

in:

JARCE

1971-1972,

CF. Bogoslovski,
pTurin attached cit., Published de 2008t20l6; to the 100 ff.) by

in:
c

BECTHMKl (103),
. my

1968,
Egyptian

87 ff.
Ship's Logs, mentioned temple whether in products the the NK is merchants (cf. op. uncertain. 1116 B

147
148

who temples, were "selling"

frequently bartering)

Published

by Glanville,
Golenishchev, imperial cf. Helck, also mention Rechnungen, a

in:

ZAS 66,
Les papyrus

1931,

105 ff.

and 68,
no.

1932,
1116 For of 895

7 ff.
A et translation Sethos ff.

hieratiques St.Petersbourg ff. 890

149

l'Ermitage and comments, One may here cf. Spiegelberg,

St.Petersbourg, Materialien certain pi.

1115, 1913. time V,

V, account and

9,

the from papyri Materialien Helck,

I;

1975

Economic

history

during

the

New Kingdom

161

There necropolis

is

one

clear

exception at and Deir economic

to

this

rule, For

namely this the so of the

workmen life

el-Medfna. structure

community its settlement, and it is

the

of

sation, daily us with the area provide the agriculture, besides are an pose, what oe well informed150. community, the

ostraca that

abundant the must in only be fact and be of

material, sector stressed, a royal decoration from

organi from papyri at present, which was quite pur To may we

economy that with the royal the

about it

It

however, workshop of the life

exceptional namely extent applied

a unique tombs. there an found NK is

construction to parts

conclusions to other

drawn the

documents of

economic

open

question.

Transport the role of for related We do upon not

and

Trade

That very of

transport, the to it.151

mainly How

by economy

ship

along in what what

the from fact extent extent

Nile, the it

has large was is, the

been number however,

important documents

Egyptian for

appears

important to to and

uncertain. was

know, local

instance,

population

dependent shows 2008+2016 that other pTurin garments, regions. at Thebes since them in workshops the made transporting ship probably one of the dependencies to the August of Amun, Staff of the belonged were oil for bartered the neighbourhood Karnak of Memphis. in temple, a long-range was an exceptional trade within the such Whether country from occurrence commodities compared Another existed of
150 151

production

upon

products were which

or for with aspect as part to the

common,

whether

it

mainly

concerned as is its

luxury relative

goods

or

also

is uise, daily local production. of of royal


have

unknown,

significance

the the

subject and
been the by

is

the

question economy,152

whether e.g.

transport the or
from

mainly there

redistribution temple
studied

transport

grain
Various Period.

granaries
in my Commodity of first

(pAmiens),
Prices

whether
the Ramesside

aspects concerning collected Barry Excavations

Material has been Habu; Museum cf.

geographic in O'Connor

base the

transport, of part Ancient The a

particularly about study Harbour. 101 ff.

harbours, the Birket

152

An and David O'Connor, Kemp at the in: 'Birket Habu', Nautical and Underwater Archaeology Exploration See VI. chapter

Nile

International 3, 1974,

University of Journal

162

Jac.J.

Janssen

SAK

indeed supposition private nomy, by the

existed were merchants, with upper in the that the

a home correct, or possible class? of

trade in was all

of

any far it

considerable lay part the the of

size. trade the in

If the

the

latter of eco owned

how of

hands state estates

temple by

and

exception of Evidence merchants

of

trade

frequent those excluded the


scanty.

mention

service it was they is a Syrian

latter the the relatively may be - besides connected officials with high -153 of temples can not but the possibility be not the officials who were but personally trading controlled.
may be

private seen in

institutions
A possible

Clear
pCairo

evidence
65739,154

for

private
although

trade
the

is

example

merchan

dise

there

slave we are

situation.
the state merchant, or

Moreover,
so temple that trade.155

girl, not informed


instance too

which

could about
may

indicate the legal


be

an

exceptional of
of

position
an example

this

actually

The Xi156

existence recording

of

a commerce the sale of

in

articles wine the

of and

food cakes

is to

attested what from The

by seem the

pBoulaq to be

meat,

wholesale in the

dealers. temples,157 so

Very probably as Peet already

ultimately since of the

and consumed the bought as we know wine and meat far class. The possibility hence to

products has suggested.158 food may have did not that to be at their present

came

people the

offerings who

been

the to

well-to-do, diet daily were partly not to be

intended

labouring for lay The


how

belong the products managers, unique,


various

institutions, document
our

is

excluded.159
once more

seems

demonstrating
aspects of

defective

knowledge

concerning

Egyptian
153 15Z* 155 156 See my Published Helck1s

economic

life

still

is.

Ancient by

Ship's Gardiner, that 462) is

Logs, in: the

JEA

suggestion

ff., 21 , merchant

100

and 1935 ,

Helck, 140

Beziehungen, ff. Raia) may have

464 been 185 ff.

f., a

n.

7.

(called Melanges in the for date in dated of a to ff.]. preceding fasc. the is has of the the

Syrian To in this which is 30) only unknown of those whether of Some now ox on papyrus and

(Beziehungen,

58070, pCairo some may belong to me from known some of the remote instances). III. same 12 days in both Tuthmosis

speculative. quite in: by Peet published fragments made while day

unpublished a transscription names from Some and occur, the last

I, Maspero Museum Cairo Berlin of one

numbered 3ht

21367

Worterbuch, fragment XI (the year the 53, same (II year clearly

mentioned is a to be text

Another fragments others the certainly by 74, 21367 BIFAO pCairo

fragment bear seem same

pBoulaq to the exactly

is

XI, pBoulaq all belong the fragments

although to one would

document contribute

slightly to be our

different established. of f. indeed 76. and

as type nature, Publication the

157 158 159

are fragments also Megally, One fragment to belonging Op.cit., Another whether T have 194.

translated in: of the Cf.

Helck, 1974, (see

Materialien 161 the

knowledge 454 III, note) 1-2, House

economy. 682.[See IV, an

mentions

fragment as deliverer seen.

offerings (htp-ntr). also REA in: l, Weill', 21367 of mentions pCairo or as buyer of food

1925, of the from

Divine the

Adoratress, transcription

but

uncertain

19 75

Economic

history

during

the

New

Kingdom

163

Quite
Megally.160

a different
It

document
records barter

is

pLouvre
of grain

E 3226,
against

recently
dates by

published
traders

by
be

longing
state

to
commerce.

a department
Moreover,

of
it

the

Royal it many

Granary,
that the

being
government

an

example
was not

of
limited

proves

to its
seems

taxation servants.
to me

to

The
clear.

acquire text

the

goods

needed minor

for

redistribution but its

among main aim

presents

problems

I would for states Egyptian


that a very I

like present that it

to

mention subject. appears that


with including

one

further

the

In his from trading


him,

point discussion we know a


we the

what has
unless at other

importance outstanding the barter161 Megally structure about the of of state


would temples. activity,

of

economy
cannot loose as agree sense virtually

been

monopoly.
use the word

I am afraid
'state' that formally in

least

Moreover, was

trading,

every

economic

one

would

be is may

inclined of have slight

to

privilege pharaoh merchants,


rather

theologically to the importance the the right role


is

say

- conceived actual economic and state even in this

to

be life.

a royal The

so
small.162

that

granted in fact
At present

to of
no

temples the

to

private field
to

became
prove

there

material

available

that
the

this
contrary,

is

what
namely

happened,
that

although
trade was in

there
practice

is

also

no

document
to

proving
state

restricted

organisations.

It

is

with

regard their

suggested.163 bringing
"theological"

foreign to According as products


view according

to,

commerce Egyptian "tribute",


to which

that conceptions but


pharaoh

a royal this is
rules

monopoly

has are the

been always typical


A more

foreigners clearly
the

world.

practical scenes about


160

explanation of foreign

of tribute

the

role is

of

high

officials

in

whose in

tombs his acted


Paris

the study as

occur in
sur

presented namely
E 3226 du with vol.

by Merrillees that
Louvre, the II

Cypriote
Mounir Vols. published constitutes I Megally, (the by is ff. thesis at

pottery
Etudes transcription) the IFAO a mine present of

Egypt,164
le papyrus III and 53), to

the

officials

(BE 49 and information only known

(dealing while

3 vols., hieratic

writing) and

1969. are which

now

161 162

tancy, P. 384 my attached In

economy, concerning me in typescript. the text evidence 24. absence thesis under will has a of

(the commentary) administration

accoun

163 164*

out I pointed 103) (p. the government. Megally1s are in this mentioned although they more the documents by understanding to E.g., R.S. 173 Morenz, f.; Merrillees, also Prestige-Wirtschaft, The Cypriote p. 194. See also Bronze his

documents that name to in 1972, light.

proved special come

concerning indeed they (bnrtyw).

merchants existed, Perhaps

Age article

Found Pottery in: AJA 76,

Egypt, 281

Lund ff.

1968,

164

Jac.J.

Janssen

SAK

middlemen,
deed correct.

although

it

is

not

yet

certain

that

this

suggestion

is

in

More than ject, the valley sions Even _166 methods of

fertile these

for

the

advancement is he also types define the

of

our

speculations a method which concerning to attempts these his not seem about results be quite

approach in applied of foreign its quantity relations

of knowledge of Merrillees later pottery and date, are with by further which articles.165 found

economic to his

history main sub

evidence he from when win

in to

Studying the Nile draw on conclu figures. caution his

and

commercial

based outmost research

throughout in every confirmed sound, It would

formulated detail

the

quantification. clearly in to Egyptian other us

when

some measure since allow for particularly they be of importance for the economic history as well as local imitations objects thereof, were facts studied concerning with similar foreign methods trade. in hard

discovered order

countries, with

provide

IV CONSUMPTION

Food

The of from beer

daily labourers all is

food

of were

ancient mostly attest.

Egypt paid in

consisted these

mainly kinds of our there

of

bread as about a recent

and many

beer.

food,

Wages documents and

periods still limited. for the

Nevertheless, For the latter a


of makes

knowledge is now and mainly

bread

Helck,167
Max aspects, economic W&hren.168

former

slightly
them contains several in

older
a remarks are e.g.

technical
on them. the

by study one by
an con-^

Neither Helck is

chapter about the

economic Problems daily

though historian

interested

average

sumption distributed temples


165 166 167 168

of

the

population; them them or -; all?

the did the

quantities the priests

of

among receive

proportion

and beer bread offering and lay personnel of the of daily consumed in food

Cf. 1972, Cf., Das Brot

particularly lOl ff., e.g., Bier und in: im alten Geback

R.S. about Miscellanea

Merrillees Bronze

and

J.

trade Age Wilbouriana Berlin und Glauben 1971.

Winters, between l,

in:

Miscellanea the Aegean.

Wilbouriana

l,

and Egypt 127. 1972, Agypter,

Agypten, im Leben

der

alten

Bern

1963.

1975

Economic

history

during

the

New

Kingdom

165

the as and

form

of

bread fish, baked

and oil, and

beer

as etc.;

compared the in and the

with

other if

kinds

of

food

such bread a

vegetable, not beer of

quantities, households not for collected the brewers

brewed bakers -; others etc.

there of were, - did there exist with to

number or as yet state well

professional institutions? to several

connected answers by

temples these but questions as

Material has been

as

Helck169,

never

properly

studied. Helck loaves is, life or an the of suchlike, other method loaves, as has listed various in wants words for different Valuable types words merely into shape, in as actually fact offering

In his types the list occurred indicate bread. which bread, To be the added

Materialien170 of bread certainly in daily as "cakes" Also, of them is, that two as and

mentioned

NK documents. to know which

economist an ordinary which to that

household, are used to divide is, up the

which indicate words

indicate a quality.

a particular

categories, and which

fundamental far the are as

articles I know, of

of

food,

bread

and fruit,

beer, oil,

four and of

more fish.

can

Helck but their are the not

listed only economic dates,

evidence several

of

namely vegetables, a long series their is still Egyptian obscure. constituted used The line in the of

of

various as yet

types

fruit,171

names Best an

unidentified, among part of a of them the

significance which will were srmt.^73

known

have also

essential

diet,172 kind and being use, the of fruit

they though beer called is not

preparation division between of species different the food meat by most

special the former were in for

vegetables of kinds

known.174 sesame working it been oil

clear, always As regards oil, seems to (nhh) Fish main except the

large of which have

numbers also by the

been to

far daily since possibly,

class.175 was consumed

tion;176 have

belonged source for by the rich

of

important the popula will temple seldom

proteins and,

personnel.

169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176

Materialien Op.cit., Materialien Megally, Palmen, Helck, Helck, Commodity Helck, Wiesbaden the diet. 666

IV, ff.

64l

ff.

(bread)

and

680

ff.

(beer).

V, Etudes 28 ff. Das Bier, Materialien Prices, op.cit., 1970,

754 ff. sur le 32 f.

papyrus

3226

du

Louvre

II,

330'.

Cf.

also

Wallert,

V, 330 816 gives ff.

793 ff.

ff. im Alten value of fish

only

und Fische Fischkulte Gamer-Wallert, the little material concerning

Xgypten, for

166

Jac.J.

Janssen

SAK

It food each

is

of that of

slight have them

importance been within still consumed. the little From data, of his the diet

economically The of

to

determine to define For source

all

kinds the role there the

of of is, ostraca at least

is problem the population. the I have the main

this

unfortunately, of Deir el-Medlna. some tain for

material, these one texts being

attempted fact

being to collect that to is,

quantitative period himself of are each and fish also are

necropolis no less family or to an a

astonishing is recorded workmen than 92 of deben, 1/4

at have

a cer received

that

grammes There since and


cations

monthly, references

average similar in of

it

they is never
of the

throughout what stated


figures are

measured kind
uncertain.

quantity "bundles"

kilogramme of vegetables,178 of are


to

8,4 kilo a day.177 but size, impli


value

an

unknown the
the

vegetables
In order

meant,
estimate

of that

the the

evidence necropolis really the of obvious much more

from

the

ostraca were never

it

may

be

useful well

to off

workmen workmen

relatively having here workers of the the does too,

keep - as to that

in

mind strikes was the

their strike this

prove, so that situation It still not is

poor other that

information

collected of

opportunity not mean e.g. the

categories the nutrition

field-labourers. requires our material, - domestic discover their the data.180 most neglec

study.179

Excavators all by in traces

Egyptian may be able of food to as

population to add to they

only

animals It ted appears parts

carefully noting - but also included by that of nutrition

attempting is general

quantify one of yet

Egyptology.

Rations

Of

course

consumption

in

the

economic

sense

is

more

than

question

of too, for

food

only. as such dead.


they

In

a complete

survey, and -

other in

subjects Egypt

have

to

the

housing clothing, item Each separate


would exceed the

would
available

require
space

particularly a number
here.

be studied - the care lines


a

of

and
mere

together

Moreover,

description
177 178 179 Commodity Op.cit., a For Ancient 180 brief

is

not

sufficient
48l. cf. to the Saffirio's

to

indicate

the

role

of

each

article

Prices, 477. survey,

article York 1973, on 297

in: ff.

Egyptians, added bibliography Cf. the remarks by (Journees 4.

London-New article. in his Adams

Population See also and

of Biology the important the still

the

Kush

internationales

report d'Etudes

Ecology

meroitiques,

in Economy Paris 1973;

Empire

of

unpublished),

1975

Economic

history

during

the

New

Kingdom

167

within may the of first, Some Here be

the the

framework study of of

of

the

economy. prices, each

A more

commodity of

productive connected with the

way correct has

of

a discussion

approach of

relative the meaning for

importance prices,

For commodity. a number of however, of be value in discussed

the measures example, on the will material subject I would of like the to raise another economy Egyptians in kind,

problems which prices in chapter

understanding to be solved are expressed.

Vc. characteristic the documenta that

structure tion wages


wages

concerning were always


and rations.

Egyptian The it. paid

problem as well did there not being

reflecting as the bulk know no money. distinction

the of This

means between

Here nomy.

we Far

come more

across than

the in

most modern

fundamental western

aspect countries,

of or

the in

pharaonic modern Egypt

eco

for which our (food, the which left

that was

matter, the core

it

was of

not the

production structure economic pertains and its to either or

the

but

the (see the

redistribution chapter collection redistribution is, the system has relates


temples

VI). of

Hence goods among in

documentation etc.) by The the

largely state

organs economy,

their that

people.

direct

subsistence they know

the people produce goods we traces. all any Nearly


action of the state -

consume about the


also

themselves, economy
of the

hardly to the
in

economic

eventually

collecting There is,

products in this

distributing no difference respect, It is

and

them

among between

its the

(their) unskilled

servants. labourer

and the highest administration. and in


a

a definite this process


document.

all receive their in kind from the "wages" a typical feature of the Egyptian civilisation - that of its nature proof complicated every highly stage was recorded of collecting and distributing by goods official;

written

It

follows data

that

some the

of

these rations

documents (wages)
royal

relate of the

to

handwork, while
together

and

hence others,

contain
for

about;
relate

labourers,
are all

instance,

to

the

harem.They

too

numerous

to
order

be

discussed
to indicate

here;
various

it

may
main

suffice
points.

to

refer

to

a few

instances

in

From Miwer by

the in

papyri the

belonging

to the

the

administration

of fragments delivery court.

the have of

royal been

harem

at

Gardiner

Faiytim during 20 ff.). (RAD in the

NK several record the the royal

published the

Some to

apparently

made

harem

On the

garments other

hand,

168

Jac.J.

Janssen

SAK

harem lity while fish,

was of in mats

provided the one majors instance which

with of

fish, Southern (17,3-4)

which She the woven of

seems (RAD harem in oil.

to 15,7) its

have and

been Miwer in

the

responsibi 26,18), for

(17,14;

delivered, shops.

may

have

been delivery of the they

exchange Another document these the texts actual

records the (RAD 15-16) us more about the nature cance


to our

economy constitute

Although than about an

teach

of

the

various

goods

essential

signifi contribution

knowledge.181

Another recording but also among liveries in the

document quantities bread

to

be of beer of

mentioned grain Mariannu to divine

here delivered to from statues,

is

the to

pLeningrad the In^w183 categories Other entries may the it have

1116 of the of

A,182 harem,

and

distributed

various

them of

a number

Djahy. in which

people, record de standing written. was noted, text the it

offerings offices of the one of entry the the mentions granary

which

been was

administration the in that gods place. it of

Since office but

Prw-nfr Not It only seems to

papyrus seems that

deliveries to me that of

are the

also

requires concerning redistribution A roughly under the liveries


of etc. the

delivering a new study, the economic system similar title to


court,

institutions. since history in particular. of texts aus and has der are
mention

may in

prove general

be and

a mine the

information of the

problems

group

been Zeit

published Setis I.184 with


wood,

by the

Spiegelberg record de maintenance


garments,

Rechnungen bakeries royal


others, however,

Some daily

connected
fowl,

leather,

As the
181

stated main

above source

(ch. of

IVa)

the

workmen's about daily

settlement life

Deir during

el-Medfna the NK,

is several

information

They

are

to

be

compared koniglichen recording

with Hofes an

the instance Les

well aus der of

known 13.

pBoulaq

XVIII

182

des nungsbuch and l^5'-24*55') Published bourg, 620 ff. by pis. What

Dynastie, redistribution hieratiques.... comments, verso the cf. is

(Scharff, ZXS 57, the during in: de

Ein

Rech

51-68 1922, late MK. a Peters IV, (cf. IV, they of 633 of ff. 508 dates. ff. the

Golenishchev, For 15-22. was called 76). translates to be and this

translation by the s*n much

papyrus and editor

Helck, actually

l'Ermitage Materialien the recto to Wb

183

Parker, Helck its also

Fs Wilson, (loc.cit.) seems meaning baked bread 1894. with

by wider.

brewed of

18Z* Strassburg, Connected Duke of

Translation group

beer, and texts

"Muhle", although according notes Helck himself (p. some while record entries comments is by the Barns, by Helck, from JEA 34, Materialien the

that 63l) deliveries IV, collection 40

Northumberland,

published

papyrus in:

1948,

1975

Economic

history

during

the

New

Kingdom

169

texts
documents

bearing
are

upon
ostraca

the

provisions
as well as

delivered
papyri.185

to
As

its
regards

inhabitants.
to the

The
latter,

I refer the

to

the

verso della

of

the

Turin

strike and

Giornale

ostraca of the

included, way in which

necropoli,187 we are able the workmen we

papyrus,186 19078.188 pTurin a fairly both

some From

columns all

of texts,

to

reconstruct were paid,189 know the repeat

reliable

deliveries, irregular It seems the "wages". where; First, portant the two the part for the less points size of only the

while

also to

regular institutions what I have

picture rations and

delivering written else

superfluous may be briefly rations of an

mentioned. to the of workmen. 4 khar (it) more.190 firewood was and also for of The emmer most (bdt), the were are im

delivered ration of

consisted bread, gang

a monthly 1 1/2 khar scribe though The

grain of chiefs paid mentioned with

barley

beer, Other

while rations

and

the

received fish, settlement

regularity, numerous times.191 with water and

vegetables continuously

provided and wine, been tools


seem

meat Extra e.g. (mkw), pottery. provisions on festive were while delivered may have occasions, garments a year. once the government distributed Moreover, only provided as lamps these and oil for as well but all for the work, these,
to have remained state property.

It The

is

difficult

general well times, that they

quantify is impression for. provided made their

to

the that It

rations the workmen be

, except were, out most

must

pointed All

in grain. those for at least in normal - as mentioned above of their the its texts subsistence
or rather,

themselves

their

furniture,

tomb

equip on
for

ment, and, a community


the

possibly, almost life

basketry. completely
this

together for dependant


was exceptional,

reflect

administration.

In

how

far

how

large difficult equally


185 Several

a proportion problem, well off.

of though

the it

population seems unlikely

the

same that

holds other

true, workmen

is

were

of

which of

as

Community 186 187 unpublished 45 RAD, Botti and ff.

Workmen documents. II

yet at

unpublished. Thebes, BE 50,

Cf.,

e.g., 1973, which

the

notes refers

in to

J.

cerny, several

A of these

188
189 190 191

Peet,

giornale

della 455 460 see ff. ff. ch.

necropoli

di

Tebe,

Torino

1928.

In:
See For For

JEA 52,
my details, fish

1966,

81 ff.
Prices, op.cit.,

Commodity cf. and

vegetables,

IV

a.

170

Jac.J.

Janssen

SAK 3

Various the same

texts

concerning redistribution concerning instance for

other system, quarrymen. those but that it

categories e.g. Of to the the course

of stelae

the

population of Sethos

refer I192 of and the

to

Ramses

II193

by

expeditions, the administration, society. So far texts

Wadi also

personnel Hammam&t, were be the to for case deduce size in

the

would is

provisioned a modern from of the the

as of

I am aware the

pertinent
rations.19**

NK reliable

impossible evidence

the

The the

second provisions

point of

which came the offer goods and

I would which

like

to

raise

is were

the

question

whence for necropolis the food the

institutions of answers. royal also the the

maintenance workmen and and the the we

various at came least

can

categories some the but

workers. It

responsible For the appears the that royal

other royal more

from

treasury, from various

granaries the West of

storerooms,195 but we not

particularly Once bank. state In and conclusion namely

exclusively encounter here chapter refer to what that temples Hence source of

mortuary

temples,196 on temples

typical

Egyptian

cooperation

temple

(see I may

V d). still another with to the aspect the of the present sub

ject, It is the of walls the

the

question accepted of the

generally lay personnel group may is constitute

happened went they and the list

temple-offerings.197 and, the the the a study perhaps, extent temple and the

priests

sanctuaries, of

this

unknown. a of of the

though on offerings concerning respect outstanding

information In may for this be of for their

diet of

provisioning calendar festival while know Whether receiving


192 193 194 The Cairo

population. Medinet Habu offer studied for not

other they

similar have never

lists been material

material

contain they the offerings


Rock Stela of

I do

calculating know.

importance,198 as So far comparison. economic implications. of persons the number

34504,

from

Konigsnovelle, Something also refer contain review texts is

along to pReisner I, material important in: Or 36, still largely of their in scribe it the by 1-63.

East cf. Ram. Inscr. Silsile; Kitchen, I, and of the cf. year 8; Heliopolis Hermann, LXS 53 ff. II. and 10, Gluckstadt 1938, pi. can these lines be done for the In this MK. II and III, recently published the of the workmen no Unfortunately scholar has as

59 Die

ff. Agyptische I can

connection

article

concerning 351 ff.). so that obscure, 1967, meaning. ff. Turin the taxation

which by W.K. Simpson, MK (cf. Dieter Mueller's content the of these yet attempted to

195 196

a survey present Cf. Commodity Prices, The the grain collected workmen. recorded by the Whether of

457, the of

was

necropolis collected

papyrus Dhutmose from the

was ch. cf. (RAD 35 ff.; Ilia) and intended for evidently own revenues not is clear temple's Morenz, Thebes Prestige-Wirtschaft, OIC 1931-33, 36 18, f.

197 198

(see For Cf.

Ilia). above, the problem the discussion 1934,

"circulation" Harold Nelson,

(Umlauf), Work in

cf. Western

Chicago

1975

Economic

history

during

the

New

Kingdom

171

V SPECIAL

SUBJECTS

Slavery of on note the social economic of is slavery. not clear nor legal in this even would be without to the the NK

No discussion some we remarks to of a

Egyptian the role that it

history

have

Restricting what exactly which words

complete ourselves has been

legal instance of

position indicate slavery. the tends facts, to

slaves,199 and Bakir

in

status his

Although he covers obscure is certain

corresponding thesis200 has done the and of entire

a particular to our concept a lot to history, during indeed the

establish which ages. existed,


a care

in

work

Egyptian

eventual that
mention

changes slavery
of slaves

So much
but ful each

developments a particular
in the texts

type
still

possible

requires

study.201

Three their
as a

problems ownership,
whole.

concerning and the

slaves importance

may

be of

briefly slavery

mentioned: for the

their Egyptian

prices, economy

Material hard slave in to

for assess,

the

study since or (part pMayer slaves

of we

slave do

himself, 65739, female

of)

the NK is rare during not know what is always exactly Clear labour.202 his/her prices prices pBrit.Mus. 4 1/10 for slave 10052.203 and for
though into their

and sold: are first silver silver.


with

usually the noted two

pCairo instances respectively,

A, 8 and are sold one


any

In

the of of

4 deben 2 deben
comparison meaning.

in
too few provide

the
to at

third
allow least

a male
conclusion,

These
other

data prices

are may

some

insight

As

regards well fairly


slaves in

the

onwership even spread


possession

ofslaves among
of a

Bakir204 the
stable

demonstrated middle
an

that We know
a

it of

was

lower

class.
attendant,

the

master,

singer

199

Cf.

The Wilson, relevant article 1959. el-Mohsen e.g., holds II,

Burden in

of

Posener

Egypt, et in

187. al.,

For

survey de

of la

Dictionnaire

in slavery civilisation

Egypt

cf. egyptienne, 1952.

the

200 201 202 203 20i*

Paris Abd Cf., xhis and Cf. Op.cit.

Bakir, Cerny, particularly A

Slavery Community true Gardiner, f. 530 99 f.

published Prices, 200),

by

CASAE 18, Le Caire Egypt, at Thebes, 180 f. for the and of evidence 9874+75 pBerlin 27 ff. in: Z'AS 43, 1906, Pharaonic of Workmen

pGurob

Commodity (note

172

Jac.J.

Janssen

SAK

and

even

sandal-maker. of is

ownership ThSodoridSs205 to The the settlement

common

A particular aspect a community, slaves by evidence about workmen slaves The would

of if the the

the

problem suggestion slaves this

is of

the

correct; of necropolis

female support

attached suggestion.206 or hire of aspects of

may for

occurrence of is these

of

community

explain the

the

sale

"days" slavery Attempting society, necessary that there words: but no were slaves is,

people.207

importance

economic

obvious. to it assess to the me, for function as it, I have at least are of slavery once tried for within to the Egyptian

seems conditions

as

an were

industrial so-called which could for

system, "open lack for leave

absent.

slavery It

that the argue,208 on a large scale, seems that unlikely NK; in other

still fields, not

resources"209 with If this as in so

tilled

crops produce of labour. the production their fields the soil,

the during the available supposition a whole; to no the find

techniques, is correct, agricultural else others coercion such

were

population, where, as The the was

required to unable

order that

virtually system would ancl the social the

bound was be

to

legal

slavery

required. that in of of of Egypt luxury the slavery goods, slaves.210 of Most areas, of to the have war of was a only situation suggestion into brought them seem as Others and hardly
the numbers

conclusion

connected usually is the have

with re

households flected confirmed during belonged officials been and


use

by the

the by wars

production status number XVIIIth of the and

This

low of 61ite artists

prisoners Dynasty.

country and

the

to

to or for

the as the

conquered high-skilled activities seems


labourers211;

either

rulers may in the any

craftsmen. period been


hence

have royal to need


mentioned

used temple
them as

workshops,
peasants

building but
or field

there

205
206 207

In: RIDA 15,


Cf. Cf., Cf* There of his 217 that Cerny, e.g., J.H. are

1968,

92 ff.
175 in an the e.g., h^m to note ff. 202 and Gardiner-Cerny, The a who Linage, of slave Hier.Ostraca, 54,1.

208
209 210

201), (note op.cit. the listed papyri

In: JEOL 17,

1964,

141 ff.
Slavery that as Industrial social the his the remain. useful to remind not us and character do not provide categories. position royal niece economic System, of barber (de Hague did in: 21910. not his 38, is differ slave 1939, almost much as

Nieboer, indications of his In

Successor ff.). the e.g., reader

owner; cf., and married such circumstances aspects IV, such 1649,

nominated BIFAO

meaning

slavery

nil;

211

only Cf., the always with

It may be and I, pHarris passim. are a traditional statements of general are Even in accordance where with they reality. they the numbers information about of slaves of the various that

juridical Urk.

1975

Economic

history

during

the

New

Kingdom

173

are but be it In be our

low. since called has in

Perhaps they

their

most soldiers

important in when the we

function first attach

was

that

of

klerouchoi,212 very well

were slaves

at

least

cannot they place to this word the

meaning

modern the small,213 views.

languages. economic importance of slavery of result new during one should of is the NK seems may also the alter take entire supposed a decline obligations of all into to

summary, rather

present consideration

publication although For a more reliable such of as special and the legal terms

documents

population, to be corvee-labour of population by the

questions the meaning in

obligations for what possibility have caused the

usually that

(fc/O,21** a particular

also

the

imposed fields.

government

in

may period to secure order

special cultivation

Taxes

There

is

as

yet

only the der with Smw, the but

one

technical "Abgaben NK. For

study und

of

taxation in Helck.

in the

ancient first From col. fascicle 5 termes

namely Egypt,215 of the "Lexikon onwards for it deals b3kw, outside domains, soldiers by

lemma

Steuern" by

Agyptologie",216 the &3yt, that and

written period

Helck that

notes b3kw

four indicates

fcaxes:

deliveries of the

agriculture also deliveries and other and

by settled liveries "head-hand")


following

individuals; deliveries

stating deliveries Smw the fish); (e.g,. grain of a portion of the harvest grain of settlers; de fixed S3yt categories rare term lit.: the (or tp-drt, tp-dt with
upon

tp-dt,

connected
comments

special
the system

functions.
of taxation,

In

the
referring

columns

Helck

to

large

number and %t,

of "the
of the The as

texts, body
Sherden Syrian

while of

dealing

at

the

end

with

bh,

"corv6e

labour",
212 213 Cf.

taxpayers".
in slave the the in Turin and the "foreigners" a field-labourer. 1086 was certainly pBologna was 22. the different Whether situation seems to certain is not (cf. suggest, quite pWilbour in

the

status papyrus. Morenz, the MK,

taxation So, during 214 215 too,

Prestige-Wirtschaft, pBrooklyn 35.1446 in: on the Studies Toronto technical

Hayes,
For the

A Papyrus

of

the Late Middle


BiOr

Kingdom,
22, NK, on

New York
266 ff.

1955).
of (review Simpson, as yet unproved. Presented World as it is, certainly various aspects

pReisner The article to of could the

cf. MK hsbw, Berlev, whose remarks I), of be Redford in: F.V. Winnett, a called subject. cols. 3-12.

1965,

seem to me however, the Ancient Palestinian I4l ff., valuable it

Professor hardly present

1972, study

although

describes

216

Wiesbaden

1972,

174

Jac.J.

Janssen

SAK

The

first

essentially the

problem correct.

is

whether Is it

Helckfs correct for to

reconstruction combine is if deliveries

of

the

system and taxes

is in

way he did? a delivery, kind,


meaning. Taxes

Land-rent, but
are

it

is

instance, a tax not


imposed

in when paid certainly, that word bears any specific


the state in order to ful

contributions

by

fill state,

its as

obligations as well or by

to to

its

own

subjects, such by as the to to is

foreign

countries.

the including Other deliveries, temples, government, landlords, avoid the


about

head

of

the by com

either

individuals

institutions provided private taxes be in

may

be land-rent, etc.; temples, they are etc,

for services pensation taxes. Deliveries by to be called not also The


clearly

not are

persons order here


In lawsuits

misunderstanding,217 meaning
donkeys,

second
used

point
in

to
many

mentioned

of

b3kw,
for

a word
instance,

senses.

several word other should still is is

of used

which for the been

are the writer

recorded hire of of the

on the

ostraca animal.

from

Deir

el-Medina,

the

hand, have collects likely

letter to him

In pCairo that complains but to year". never

on the 58057,9,218 a donkey which for has this arrived instance one it In

surrendered (s*d) b3kw Helck's "its indeed own b3kw

before year

from

that from as "die

means

"taxes". it Produkten appears that his des 9 he whereas definition landwirt quotes according

Moreover, of b3kw schaftlichen pHarris


to Helck's

references von

Ablieferungen is not Sektors" 3, where


we would

aufierhalb

I,

12b,
system

correct. In col. quite corn is called b3kw ihwty,


expect the word %mw.

The

explanation

for

the

problem

is

of

course

the

extreme

vagueness

one ness
as

may be inclined, - of the Egyptian


anywhere else,219

from use
the

a modern of
Egyptians

point technical
used

of terms.

view, In
words

to the

call field
to

it

sloveli of taxation,

common

indicate

217

It may rent". 1962,

be Such 30, and

s*mw, apart seems indeed note Just 43). ambiguous Hier. our Lesestucke 86.

that

from certain in terms cases

"harvest", for the where be 8 and should III,

meant Saite

"harvest-tax" Period (cf. Baer,

as

well in: may

as JARCE have und

"lessor's I, been

218 219

vague Cf. Moller, Papyri, One may as such expression Testament juridal

the Egyptian as destinct Sh. Allam, the or in: a

terminology as possible. Hieratische of

Ostraka

Tafelteil,

as one out of several quote example a quadrangle area for of 3ht square of concepts Bleeker, religious to M.A. (Studies Beek), presented terminology cf. Theodorides, Textes

names

mathematical See the 1974, III, also of for World 12 ff.; 26 f.

triangle. in Travels

figures, the the Old the

Amsterdam, et langages

for

1975

Economic

history

during

the

New

Kingdom

175

specific occur
way to

concepts, in their

while general

even all-day
a

in

the

same It

texts seems
in

these to me

words that

may the
with

also only
taxa

meaning.
particular

define

what

meaning

word

connection

tion be
the

could expected
office

have to
of

is use
the

to it
state

start in a

with specific of

texts way. this

which Such
Now

by would
there

their be
happens

very

nature

may from
pre

a document
to be

tax-collectors.

served famous is has it and

at

least

one canon

document of Turin.220 for the

kind,

royal as almost been is so this for badly may

I venture economic the

namely to suggest of

the

verso that

of this its

the text recto

important the

history

the

NK as

chronology

of

that hardly damaged be the reason why it do more red ink than one of offering may taxes:

Egyptian a single has never a few

history.221 is line been remarks the

Unfortunately entirely to its legible, studied. contents. words to have, and lower offi in

adequately

I am unable From dicate in col. the use

to of

conclude b3kw

that (which by kind of

particular Ill, That may which 1-3, the follow seems from type of

kinds the latter from to td, taxes

following seems indeed S3yt, tax Sdyt

tp-drt. cials sdyt, it is

meaning suggested some indicates its occur used is use in in the

Helck) of

entries

by paid col. VI.222 in this indeed

Whether document indicates

derived

a specific sense only "to collect for (taxes)" still obscure.

a distinct

one should occurrences all collect of the from this papyrus Starting occur to be used in terms of taxes for different which types likely seem to be: texts. in this the Bilgai-stela,223 other respect Important some passage from the of the high-priest the Amenhotep,22** inscription
Miscellanies In each instance and from the administrative specific character documents,225 of the text the has pHarris to be I, taken etc.

into their to
220

account. true correct.

Thus technical The

the

Bilgai-stela and sense,

and the

pHarris here figures will


a

I may use the are at least applied


to comments, pi. 7

words intended terms


von Becke

in

be

Miscellanies226
RCT, 17; pis. for 5-9. a

too
For

have
correction with

the
cf.

Published rath, in: 468 too,

221 222

III, So, Clearly

by Gardiner, Z'AS 93, 1966, ff. Redford, 7 of

translation

Helck,

Materialien,

223 224 225 226

I5l. (note 215), op.cit. not does the contain publication the but bears 85+64 them, 2, while fragment only on fragment red col. The word (in ink) ding tp-dpt on this the second col. of plate begin. IV. Cf. in: Z&S 50, 1912, Gardiner, pi. I6l MIO 4, ff. Cf. in: 1956, Helck, pi. For E.g., imw, cf., e.g., III, pLouvre 6,ll E 7,1; 3226. V, 17,2-3; pChester pAnastasi

4 end

cols., of 34

as the

Gardiner lines of where the

numbered the prece lines

indicates

Beatty V, 7,8

8,6.

176

Jac.J.

Janssen

SAK

correctly

since

they

were

meant

for

the

instruction

of

young

scribes,

but such the


is

the as seal
less

figures that of

here the

are

fictitious.

That Amenhotep reliable in

an or the

Sennofre227
certain.

high-priest was quite

autobiographical that of the use of the

document, overseer of terminology

It

may htr

be the

of

value

to

refer their

here

to

a detail

which Helck is

shows states228

the

way that

in the

which word

Egyptians - most times with


be

used

written and
correct,

htri

terminology. - which deliveries,


the word also

connection
that may

taxes

other

frequently means "Soil".


occurs in

used

in

Although
several ostraca

generally

and from the outset el-Medtna, who were all their workmen, receiving were to pay still taxes. pharaoh), obliged from the Deir sake though tion, of equal and obligations rights their from wages would be become exactly by be the that unlikely convinced the opposite inhabitants. htri was thus civil the in

it

is

wages It

highly from is true

unlikely state the that of for

that (the the states, to taxa the

servants are

modern liable studying the

receiving this but

government, ancient that of in Egypt. the

In

evidence229 1o.tri is used not

I have for paid, may of and food the

workmen's namely

community deliveries

taxes,

received, The the

explanation "dues"

used workmen.

because But way the it

it

indicated seems also

possible, the that called state. adhered


"wages".

pharaoh against more in accordance and other they was even


obvious

"his" with

the received

Egyptian by

of

commodities were so originally closely were they


no modern

workmen by the others

thinking, were to that became


ever call

htri The to
It

since word them


is

"dues" connected distributed


civil

then when
that

paid with and


servant

the it

goods

actually
would

his
than

salary
ours.

"taxes",

but

Egyptian

thinking

followed

other

patterns

More the the or the


227 228 229 230

be could problems much debated point height land-rent, latter,


Cf. Ld'A Cf. See Urk. I, col.

raised whether taxes, in

in the the which the


536,

connection temples question instance two-yearly


11-13.

with were whether the

taxation, of

for

instance

of

various or,

exempt taxation,230 smw indicates taxes former and system, in which which is

rather, that whether


14-16 456 and

and
IV, 5.

taxation

530, Prices, Vd.

Commodity chapter

ff.

1975

Economic

history

during

the

New

Kingdom

177

supposed cordings
ages or

to of
not.231

have the

existed Palermo
In order

the Old Kingdom during according had completely Stone disappeared


to arrive at reliable conclusions

to in
we

the later

re

should

have and

to

know

more persons

about during

the

private structure to
ours.

juridical the NK, society.

status as well as is

of

institutions the

about clear, the

(temples) economic that we

of

the in

have
and

keep

Egyptian the mind

So much between

however,

differences

Egyptian

mentality

Money were of took

and

Prices

Coins as in

unknown the

in

ancient

Egypt,

but

there

are amply the

other shows. value

forms All of

of

money,

study Egypt

so-called in the was

place exchanged usually called is

"primitive" form of

peoples barter, while

commerce the silver or

commodities

grain, although The system is countries. Of the It

in quantities expressed was none involved of these and and is known from

of in

copper, the other of

transaction.232 peoples and

money-barter intricate fairly

poses

a number

problems.

measures rather of value, of account,or units three perhaps - is a weight in deben, measured of c. 91 grammes copper always occurs the NK. Silver until the first most usual years only during was mainly, not used while Ramesses III, exclusively, grain though indicate in they even to it This the the case the value of of cheap grain in in baskets containers that of example the place

the of to

were

as baskets.233 such It may be that objects as measure was preferred since of value are was carried, the grain and there which instances contain. way detail point
the of relation value -

indications the is quantity another is not

some it the

the

grain of to

could

price If this of the out

of

a basket be of

was correct, the

equal

would

"concrete" in only

thinking various some


between 1 khar of

Egyptians. of the

discuss I can
that a measure

aspects interesting
copper grain

Egyptian
mena. when 231 232 It the Cf. It dities copper, 233

monetary
seems, latter in: Schott, does happen for is

system.
instance, used Fs that as

pheno
and = grain

"price" Cf. Commodity

commo or occurs the of scrap among copper grain was valued in deben of the former In those instances usually exchanged. the total its value. the its latter However, never, equalling weight a transaction or copper never of consisted of only. grain Prices, Part II, chapter I (101 ff.) and Part III, chapter III,

71. Ricke, a quantity

2 and 3 (514 ff.).

178

Jac.J.

Janssen

SAK 3

2 deben at what the

of

copper of of

the

is

not

influenced Also,

by it

the is the

actual almost case ink and

moment kind

transaction.

price never of

of

the indicated

grain

quantities (it) corn is was of was that in is equally made, barley used

is meant. Elsewhere, grain are written of emmer (bdt) and as since the of figures value that simply always it in a measure

in in are red

actual of black

corn, barley where It

those in

black,

nearly seems that these

always barley

was no

meant.

possible, the measure and emmer the case by

however, of were value not

instances "corn". during and of the it

difference

being equal ages, use

probably is reflected

during preceding the indiscriminate

the values Although such XXth Dynasty, is this situation as a measure of

grain

value.234

Both dition the

phenomena in vagueness

mentioned matters, the

clearly while in of

demonstrate we have also to in prices that


a very

the to the

strong take abstract to baskets, the

power into

of account

tra

economic of

Egyptians way only from


was

relation

prices as object said

as bartered. above, or bronze

concrete their against not latter The appears but


objects,

thinking from the the


with

relation of the
few

also, deben to the

for
tools

instance,
or vessels,

fact

value
exceptions

of

copper
expressed

in

of be

copper. no costs of

Since

the

deben the

is

essentially price being and the

a weight, weight in of

there the ob

seems jects,
instances.

difference their

between manufacture

neglected

several

In view silver XlXth it and


occurred

of was

the

power The

of

the in

tradition relation moment to of the It


of

it

is

still

more

depreciated

Dynasty.235 seems to have the first


gradually

exact

copper the depreciation middle is equally


years,

somewhere

conspicuous the during is unknown, of Ramesses it whether


a definite

that

but II

happened of Sethos years


in the

between II.

of

the

reign
at

uncertain
or

course

some

moment.

In point

the

latter at

case

it

was

due

to

a decision

of the

the

government is as

and yet

would even

a monetary the beginning

policy. of an

without That
certain.

Unfortunately, answer. the


khar of

question

the

state
For a

indirectly
price expressed

influenced
in

monetary
grain,

system
the exact

is, khar

however,
content of

this
23i* 235

measure
Op.cit., Cf. above,

is
chapter

decisive.
II, III 9. b.

Once

more,

like

the

deben,

the

is

not

chapter

1975

Economic

history

during

the

New

Kingdom

179

an also turn

abstract indicates was

unit. an

It

was

divided grain

into container and we

4 oipS, of know to of a

and 19.22

the litres.

word

oip& The

(ipt) in an hin.2^& the have

actual into 40

oipe

divided

hin,

lawsuit 38 was

actual Although state been


the

0^p there society

-container is no itself, for


the

which evidence

appeared that

measure measure

concerning instead of 40 by may was


were

the

guaranteed this

responsible
case, since

it

local presented by the - it seems most likely


of grain to the

authorities, that

indeed
measured

deliveries

government

with the
measure monetary

the

oipS

(and

the

khar), the
this conscious

and frauds
means

that by
in or

so the

far

as

we

know in

throughout theory
of

country.237
was policy, uniform,

Whatever
and whether

officials,
the

the
a

practice not.

existence

For

appears collected which in has fairly

study to

of be a

commodity suitable the as

prices starting

the

material

from c. some

Deir 1250 sort

el-Medlna prices of prices obvious I have price-list,238 occurring one that but the

offered can be used from with number least

possibility a means of places data from

The point. to draw up comparison and periods.239 in ostraca a reliable the and base for

documents to reckon

other possible of

single It is

changes

measures papyri for

of

value, the study

large at community aspect The middle


long to

from the

workmen's of this

constitutes

of texts of

the from the

economy. Deir XlXth


for

el-Medtna and
some

the

date from a period between the mostly a time end of the XXth Dynasty, sufficiently
as to the movement of the prices.

allow

conclusions

It

is

here

that

we also

encounter of oil

a and

striking possibly the


such

grain, probably to a pronounced


sty,240 prices of

phenomenon. of vegetables, second


as

Whereas

prices bear witness XXth Dyna

of

fluctuation
other

during
commodities

half
cattle,

of

the

furniture,

garments

236 237

Gardiner-Cerny, in Nowhere One may

the

Hier. Ostraca, administrative the here 523 of prices has already during the from variations one too ff. slaves been

34, texts in

4.

Cf.

also

238 239 240

slightly 73 f.), Commodity Cf., For in e.g., grain Grain

compare differed although Prices, the this Prices

other any the measures another measure in

pGeneva measure of (cf. length, Graefe, indicates

D of

191,9. grain which is

LRL, (terny, mentioned. seem to have 59, 1973, policy.

57).

to region an "official"

in: JEA a central

mentioned established Dynasty"

chapter by terny (ArOr

Va. in 6, his 1934, article 173 ff.). "Fluctuations

Twentieth

180

Jac.J.

Janssen

SAK

and For

tomb an

equipment

of of
material,

the this

same

years

show

an

equally

clear once

explanation
offer

unexpected
since there

phenomenon242
the same situation

stability.241 more "primitive"


sometimes

economies

occurs. societies. of as

Prices Since

appear time, of

to by it

be far

far the in only were

less most

mutually important Egypt,

connected factor was of the hardly

than among

in

modern costs

the

production an economic fluctuated

manufactures was

ancient the

recognized products

value, since

which

they yearly by fluctuating or coffins, as furniture of the fields. Manufactured such yield goods on the harvest, on the not level. traditional dependent stayed price the changing costs It has not been that of living would recognized seems This of all to me to be the explanation require adaptation prices. for the stability of the commodity prices in general.

prices dominated

agricultural

State

and

Temple we the have come across did in they order

On various economic ducts what What etc.? principal For the of

pages functions the

above of

problems pay to taxes? be to

concerning Were and, total of the if

the pro so, in

temples:

proportion was the It seems

temple did economic to me of

made workshops these workshops

sold, the

contribute the of

of significance that the solution the economic of are the the

"circulation" these questions

production? the offerings, is one of the

duties economic Firstly, periods the

historian. temples one may refer of to two types of

function there have Nauri

documents. from all

decree,243
Elephantine texts, e.g.

which decrees, exemption examples For the NK I mention the Redesieh preserved. and the decree,244 preserved) (fragmentarily been
Remarks on Decree the of subject Haremhab. are to How be far found spread in other was and the

decree.245 pHarris I

the
241 242 243 244 245

phenomenon?
Commodity It may be of the XXth Kitchen, NAWG 1961, Kitchen, Edgerton, Griffith,

Do
Prices, obvious

the
530 that and I, I, 6, 13,

decrees
ff. it the 65 45 1947, 1927, has

reflect

a fairly

normal

situation

or

Dynasty Ram. Inscr. Nr. Ram. in: in: 6. Inscr. JNES JEA

consequences causes of its Schott, Griffith, and ff. f.

for decline. Kanais. in: Gardiner,

the Der JEA

usual

picture Sethos

of I

the

history Mia,

ff.; ff.; 219 207

Tempel 12, in:

im Wadi See 24 also ff.

193 ff. 1927, JEA 38, 1952,

1975

Economic

history

during

the

New

Kingdom

181

rather their far are The for be the do

exceptional? and enactment, they belong of actual part group side as of of for to

an

To what for the how

extent long after

were

really they In date? this of life

enforced short, and in in how

after how far

theological daily practice? is of life

sphere

they second no so

documents the actual

other abundant

a different quite in Egypt could but, yet

nature. our

Probably information some (the Illahun of

major in papyri papyri247). a posal


so that

collections Berlin246) It may amount be

households, temple are as of records or not yet in

unfortunately, unpublished studied we will from


some

that of
may

sufficiently the near future on


enable

(the have various

Abusir at our periods,


as

dis

large
a

material
even

the
us

subject
to draw

comparison

conclusions

to

the

development to
suggested,

of

the

Egyptian raise
to conceive

economy the question


of

through

the

ages. indeed, as
economi

Returning
usually

the

NK I would
we have

whether
and temple

state

as

cally duct of that respect of

distinct of church

entities.

Is with

not its

this

dualistic

view between to recent opposite,

too the

much two It

the

pro

history European from and state, are sufficient to that and as the

antithesis Ages to the

the

Middle

times? at

powers seems with do not

there

indications tQ reconsider

the

least

taxation, there temple, only


than

suggest state

was

no it

real may

difference be in
realised.

problem.248 between the religious

I certainly the economic concept has had more

functions of practi

but

that every

pharaoh
cal

high-priest
usually

sanctuary

consequences

In seem of

order to

to

adduce

some the

material mutual

list

number of both

of

observations powers in the

which field

demonstrate

penetration

agriculture,

The was

control in of the the

of hands

the

apportioning state of local domains of

domains officials;249 the

of

the

main

temples of

Some high

"normal"

temples

were

in

charge

officials;250
inventory by Fifth of the 679 papyri in Kaplony-Heckel, de Cenival: London and of Urbanism, Agyptische Hieratic 1968. 659): administration". Le regime 244 ff. "at times the 100. temples Papyri Handschriften in the British I

246 247 248 249 250

An

(Wiesbaden, Published Museum. a Cf. emerge Gardiner, Menu,

1971). Mme Posener-Krieger The Abusir Series. by Kemp as just Wilbour 53 ff.; (Man, one Papyrus Helck, Settlement branch

and Papyri,

remark clearly The op.cit.,

39 II, Materialien

government Menu, ff.; II,

juridique,

182

Jac.J.

Janssen

SAK

The

established pharaoh on temple ones, fields,251 ed his so predecessors, few fields


temples;252

new

domains, and

normal

as

well

as

by hence
mortuary

allotting in recorded

evidently their the

liquidated to fields belong in of all

apportioning others establish own to the foundations; older

his

pWilbour if not

The

khato-fields, of lack workmen king, a single if

property since e The the not

in several, though a temple, were on tilled or other causes of labour of Deir partly scrap amounts indeed of el-Medina,

behalf endangered being

instances possibly pharaoh the cultivation; in the service we to to the of have

were

paid evidence

although the through that from the the

temples,253 was temple total of its

whereas allowed taxes

detract state That


workshops, documentation

the

delivered temples not


etc., It

paid (yet?)
may seems be

taxes. known
due obvious to

similar

facts
transport, preserved.

are

from
the that

other
deficient relations

fields

of
state between

economy,
of the

temple significance stance, the

and

state for

new require the history of

study, of Egypt that

the in

result general.

of

which There

may is,

be for

of in of its

wealth

a suggestion of temples, constitutes

Gardiner particularly one of

that the

a disproportionate of Amun at factors evidence more

Karnak in to

growth with the refute

dependencies, of the- XXth thesis,


a simple

decisive

decline this than


simple reality.

but

I have Dynasty.254 the circumstances


of temple insufficient versus

no seem

convincing to be far
state to would explain

complicated
as complex

scheme are usually

suggest,255 the always

schemes

251

The of a

pharaoh domain That the

settled founded both

klerouchoi by domains Ramesses

on III

temple for to the which temple. hand as

fields criminals property records a few of

5, (pAmiens whatever of Amun may

4; this be of

in

5,3

mention may ships

mean). from of 252 253 254 the

nature temple

Helck, op.cit., in existence Cf. harvest

belonged of the entire text, to granaries the of 221 On the other f. a fairly 458 was the long ff.

exactly concluded by

transport these shows. papyrus The

grain

foundations

remainded the of Der

for

Commodity Prices, of khato-fields Egypt (quoting of

time, In the 297. very

pWilbour Turin taxation Cf. also

possibly Burden

recorded. Wilson, Otto, a of Egypt, Weg des cautious). speaks of

Gardiner, 272 f.

Pharaohs, though

Gardiner, Stuttgart the directly causes 200: und

Agypten. he

Pharaonenreiches, des Volksvermogens" mention 255 Cf. Otto, it among op.cit.,

197, ^1958, administered of the fall eine

the by the XXth oder bestand".

"gefahrlich but temples, Dynasty. theoretische

Teil grofier not does von

"dafi

"geistlicher"

"weltlicher"

praktische nicht Gewalt

Trennung

1975

Economic

history

during

the

New

Kingdom

183

OF VI THE STRUCTURE THE EGYPTIANECONOMY

What as

has this study a separate subject

to attempted unconnected with than one

do, with

namely

to

deal as

with a whole,

the is like

economy in that aspects a study of fact of

impossible, particularly Far more ancient Egypt. there constituted of life the economy without cannot useful be in

respect in modern indivisible

society to a civilisation societies

the

various

religion, research, to rated

account into taking a transitional more than any that it enables us the to

unity.Therefore, other aspects, stage special have as the a whole. structure

particularly in scientific and problems to be incorpo In other of the

pose results

apply special into the the


as

methods; of is
of

ultimately the to
the

words:
economy

study aim final


an aspect

history Egyptian draw a picture of


entire civilisation.256

The is It

only Morenz' seems

extant small to me

study book that

of in this

Egyptian which point he of

economy describes

as it

a facet as a

of

the

civilisation economy".

"prestige

various and
the

relations on

between the

economy other hand,


Morenz'

view, though on one hand is


most

certainly and most suitable


pages

revealing to
are

government,

personality
economic

not

the
successful

religion detect
in

structure.257

those

which
strive

he

explains
prestige,

the

funeral
so that

cult
what

as
may

a manifestation
seem to us a

of
waste

the
of

general
wealth

after

appears the In other

to

be

in

fact

happiness

a people
so

logical as well

and as

even

rational individual somewhat


becomes

means desires overstressed


to mean

to

every has

acquire to acquire. the


more

sections,
of prestige,

however,
that

Morenz
it

concept

actually

no

than

pursuit A purely vancement


that the

of

happiness. point knowledge


is to

economic of
best

of

view in

would this field

be

more of

our

productive It studies.
economic

for looks

the

ad

likely
as a

approach

conceive

of

the

structure

system the
256 257

of

redistribution,258 being reciprocity,

which found
7. almost of as a

is

one

of more

the

three

possibilities, peoples,

others
Cf. It

with

"primitive"

Morenz, also is is

Prestige-Wirtschaft, from obvious for to by blame. Morenz which

insufficient, science 258 Recognized

that the material every page course not Morenz but the state 14.

available of our

was egyptological

dominant

factor;

op.cit.,

184

Jac.J.

Janssen

SAK

and

market

exchange,

the

system

of

modern

societies.259

Of

course,

in

every relative is in the

developed

society

all

three may the

systems differ.

are

which importance dominant factor in a relatively state by the among this the

widely western part its of

present, as Just so

but market

it

is

their

exchange was being re

world,260 the production organs of various

redistribution of in the country to be its

Egypt,

large

collected distributed It is from

through a fairly large most that sphere of goods the temples point role easily.

order of

number of and our their

categories come, to

servants.

documents

either or their

collection distribution function of From the

among the this

economic of of find explains


cept of

transport It population.261 is best understood of of view the problems circulation the kingship

recording central magazines, seems to me that the as a as the of section special the taxation offerings redistribution than the con

this

system. or temples their the


prestige,

such of system better

economic most

solution central

Moreover, of divine

position
even in the

economy.262

How was is

far the

the

range for
By

of

the

redistribution it there
very recording

system subsistence to
written

extended, economy

that of material
mostly

is,

what

relation

between which
their

and

the

the

a problem
the

appears
nature the

be

hardly
documents of rent

any

peasants, in our
belong

documentation. to administration,

dues

and/or

taxes,

trans

port etc.263

of

products, They and do his not

decrees show

labourer his we even


was

family,

own house, know about these


always

making him is

daily the grain eating most of his himself derived by the from views

concerning much of the

special life he

rights of himself

temples, a peasant or has grown, of in daily the tombs who


that

of

lawsuits, field building What -

objects pictures of the


class

use.

were
a

mainly influenced
of the

tomb-owner
-264 and

though himself
type of

member

administrative

259

Cf. Polanyi lecture

Commodity c.s., for and of the

Prices, though

558,

with with to the

the

literature certain Egyptian

quoted aspects, economy.

there. constitute

The

studies stimulating

of

overstressing

260

Reciprocity birthday aspect E.g., workmen, I do not approach

everyone dealing is Restricted

marriage the modern and to better

presents, Welfare its servants,

personal while etc., State.

sphere: gift-giving redistribution

in is

the

form an

of important

indeed

261 262 263 264

court the want is

administration suggest suited excepted, Guglielmi,

letters Perhaps Cf. Waltraud

the the royal harem, including necropolis the and the (scribes), army temple personnel. that are views but that of Morenz' my way wrong, to the major solve problems. as the Hekanakhte demonstrates. correspondence und Rufe Bonn Lieder 214 and Reden, etc., 1973, passim.

1975

Economic

history

during

the

New

Kingdom

185

document
figures.265

reflects
In how

an
far

ideal
the

situation,
picture from

never
these

providing
representations

us

with

reliable
can be

wrong
and the

may not

be

seen
on

from
ostraca

subject
and account

such

as
papyri

dress.

Both

the

actual
that the

objects
work

texts

demonstrate

man was make us

always he

clad indeed may

in

loincloth

believe;

misinterpretations we will whether of economy as For it the

be

possessed numerous. to in a draw the

only, a galabieh Hence it is a picture life of the

as

the

pictures to

would Similar

(mss).2ee open of the

ever

be

able

question structure basic peasant system and in all

functioned

workman. its aspects

present, seems the only

study possibility.

of

the ordinary redistribution

265 266

The

same

holds Prices,

true 249

for ff.

literary

documents

such

as

the

"Satire

des

Metiers".

Commodity