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The Finite Element Method for the Analysis of Non-Linear and Dynamic Systems

**Prof. Dr. Michael Havbro Faber Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH Zurich, Switzerland
**

Method of Finite Elements II

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

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Contents of Today's Lecture

• • •

Motivation, overview and organization of the course Introduction to non-linear analysis Formulation of the continuum mechanics incremental equations of motion

Method of Finite Elements II

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

Page 3

Motivation, overview and organization of the course

•

Motivation In FEM 1 we learned about the steady state analysis of linear systems however, the systems we are dealing with in structural engineering are generally not steady state and also not linear We must be able to assess the need for a particular type of analysis and we must be able to perform it

Method of Finite Elements II

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

Page 4

Motivation, overview and organization of the course

•

Motivation What kind of problems are not steady state and linear? E.g. when the: material behaves non-linearly deformations become big (p-Δ effects) loads vary fast compared to the eigenfrequencies of the structure General feature: Response becomes load path dependent

Method of Finite Elements II

performance (failures and deformations) of soils .g. overview and organization of the course • Motivation What is the “added value” of being able to assess the non-linear non-steady state response of structures ? E.verifying simple models Method of Finite Elements II . assessing the: .Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Page 5 Motivation.structural response of structures to extreme events (rock-fall. hurricanes) . earthquake.

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Page 6 Motivation. overview and organization of the course • Collapse Analysis of the World Trade Center Method of Finite Elements II .

overview and organization of the course • Collapse Analysis of the World Trade Center Method of Finite Elements II .Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Page 7 Motivation.

overview and organization of the course • Analysis of ultimate collapse capacity of jacket structure Method of Finite Elements II .Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Page 8 Motivation.

overview and organization of the course • Analysis of ultimate collapse capacity of jacket structure Method of Finite Elements II .Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Page 9 Motivation.

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Page 10 Motivation. overview and organization of the course • Analysis of soil performance Method of Finite Elements II .

overview and organization of the course • Analysis of bridge response Method of Finite Elements II .Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Page 11 Motivation.

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Page 12 Motivation. overview and organization of the course Steady state problems (Linear/Non-linear): The response of the system does not change over time KU = R Propagation problems (Linear/Non-linear): The response of the system changes over time MU (t ) + CU(t ) + KU (t ) = R (t ) Eigenvalue problems: No unique solution to the response of the system Av = λ Bv Method of Finite Elements II .

overview and organization of the course • Organization The lectures will be given by: M. HIL E13. Faber Exercises will be organized/attended by: Jianjun Qin By appointment. Method of Finite Elements II .1. H.Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Page 13 Motivation.

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Page 14 Motivation.J. 1996 Method of Finite Elements II .ethz. Prentice Hall.ch/fa/education/FE_II The lecture as such will follow the book: "Finite Element Procedures" by K.ibk. Bathe. overview and organization of the course • Organization PowerPoint files with the presentations will be uploaded on our homepage one day in advance of the lectures http://www.

overview and organization of the course • Overview Method of Finite Elements II .Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Page 15 Motivation.

overview and organization of the course • Overview Method of Finite Elements II .Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Page 16 Motivation.

overview and organization of the course • Overview Method of Finite Elements II .Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Page 17 Motivation.

λ ≠ 1 If this is not the case we are dealing with a non-linear problem! Method of Finite Elements II . λ = 1 ⇓ U ∗ = λ U.Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Page 18 Introduction to non-linear analysis • Previously we considered the solution of the following linear and static problem: KU = R for these problems we have the convenient property of linearity. i.e: KU = λ R.

because we performed all integrations over the original element volume that the B matrix is constant independent of element displacements the stress-strain matrix C is constant boundary constraints are constant Method of Finite Elements II .Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Page 19 Introduction to non-linear analysis • Previously we considered the solution of the following linear and static problem: KU = R we assumed: small displacements when developing the stiffness matrix K and the load vector R.

large rotations of fibers rotations and large are large. Green-Lagrange strain Updated Lagrange Cauchy stress. Almansi strain Total Lagrange (TL) Second PiolaKirchoff stress. but fiber strains extensions and angle changes between fibers are small. stress strain relationship may be linear or non-linear Large Displacements and displacements. stress train relation is nonlinear Large Displacements and displacements. stress strain relationship may be linear or non-linear Method of Finite Elements II Total Lagrange (TL) Second PiolaKirchoff stress. large rotations of fibers rotations but small are large.Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Page 20 Introduction to non-linear analysis • Classification of non-linear analyses Type of analysis Description Typical formulation used Materiallynonlinear-only (MNO) Stress and strain measures used Engineering strain and stress Materially-nonlinear Infinitesimal only displacements and strains. (UL) Logarithmic strain . fiber strains extensions and angle changes between fibers may also be large. Green-Lagrange strain Updated Lagrange (UL) Cauchy stress.

04 ε L Linear elastic (infinitesimal displacements) Method of Finite Elements II .Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Page 21 Introduction to non-linear analysis • Classification of non-linear analyses σ Δ P 2 L σ = P/ A ε =σ / E Δ =εL E 1 P 2 ε < 0.

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Page 22 Introduction to non-linear analysis • Classification of non-linear analyses σ Δ P 2 L P/ A σY σ = P/ A σY σ −σY ε= + E ET 1 1 ET E P 2 ε < 0.04 ε L Materially nonlinear only (infinitesimal displacements. but nonlinear stress-strain relation) Method of Finite Elements II .

04 Δ ′ = ε ′L Large displacements and large rotations but small strains (linear or nonlinear material behavior) Method of Finite Elements II .Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Page 23 Introduction to non-linear analysis • Classification of non-linear analyses y Δ′ y′ ε′ x′ x L L ε ′ < 0.

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Page 24 Introduction to non-linear analysis • Classification of non-linear analyses Large displacements. large rotations and large strains (linear or nonlinear material behavior) Method of Finite Elements II .

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Page 25 Introduction to non-linear analysis • Classification of non-linear analyses P 2 P 2 Δ Chang in boundary conditions Method of Finite Elements II .

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Page 26 Introduction to non-linear analysis • Example: Simple bar structure Area = 1cm 2 t σ E = 107 N / cm 2 ET = 105 N / cm 2 u t R σY E 1 1 ET σ Y : yield stress ε Y : yield strain Section a Section b La = 10cm t Lb = 5cm R 4 3 2 1 ε Y = 0.002 ε 2 4 6 t Method of Finite Elements II .

002 R 4 3 2 ε Section a Section b La = 10cm t Lb = 5cm t u t u t εa = . εb = − La Lb t 1 2 4 6 t R + tσ b A = tσ a A t ε= t σ E (elastic region) t t ε = εY + σ −σY ET (plastic region) Δε = Δσ (unloading) E Method of Finite Elements II .Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Page 27 Introduction to non-linear analysis • Example: Simple bar structure Area = 1cm 2 t σ E = 107 N / cm 2 ET = 105 N / cm 2 σY 1 ET σ Y : yield stress ε Y : yield strain u 1 t E R t ε = 0.

002 ε t ε = εY + Δε = σ −σY ET (plastic region) La = 10cm La = 5cm 2 4 6 t Δσ (unloading) E Both sections elastic t 1 1 R t R = EA t u ( + ) ⇒ t u = La Lb 3 ⋅106 R 2 tR .σ b = − σa = 3A 3 A Method of Finite Elements II t .Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Page 28 Introduction to non-linear analysis • Example: Simple bar structure σ E = 107 N / cm 2 ET = 105 N / cm 2 t t u t u εa = . εb = − La Lb t t Area = 1cm 2 t u t σY E 1 ET σ Y : yield stress ε Y : yield strain R + tσ b A = tσ a A t ε= t σ R t 1 E (elastic region) t Section a Section b R 4 3 2 1 ε = 0.

σ b = − ET ( − ε Y ) − σ Y La Lb t∗ t R 4 3 2 1 0.02 ⋅106 E / La + E / Lb t u Method of Finite Elements II .002 ε t ε= t σ E (elastic region) t La = 10cm Lb = 5cm ε = εY + Δε = σ −σY ET (plastic region) 2 4 6 t Δσ (unloading) E Section a is elastic while section b is plastic 3 section b will be plastic when R = σ Y A t t 2 u u σ a = E .1 0. εb = − La Lb t Area = 1cm 2 t u t σY E 1 ET σ Y : yield stress ε Y : yield strain t R + tσ b A = tσ a A R t 1 t Section a Section b R 4 3 2 1 ε = 0.Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Page 29 Introduction to non-linear analysis • Example: Simple bar structure σ t E = 107 N / cm 2 ET = 105 N / cm 2 t u t u εa = .9412 ⋅10 −2 1.2 t EA t u ET A t u t R= + − ET ε Y A + σ Y A ⇒ La Lb t u= t R / A + ET ε Y − σ Y R = − 1.

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Page 30 Introduction to non-linear analysis • What did we learn from the example? The basic problem in general nonlinear analysis is to find a state of equilibrium between externally applied loads and element nodal forces t R − tF = 0 R = t R B + t R S + t RC F = t RI F=∑ m t We must achieve equilibrium for all time steps when incrementing the loading Very general approach includes implicitly also dynamic analysis! t t t V (m) ∫ t B ( m )T tτ ( m ) t dV ( m ) Method of Finite Elements II .

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Page 31 Introduction to non-linear analysis • The basic approach in incremental analysis is t +Δt R − t +Δt F = 0 t +Δt assuming that t +Δt R is independent of the deformations we have F = tF + F We know the solution tF at time t and F is the increment in the nodal point forces corresponding to an increment in the displacements and stresses from time t to time t+Δt this we can approximate by F = t KU Tangent stiffness matrix Method of Finite Elements II ∂tF t K= t ∂ U .

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Page 32 Introduction to non-linear analysis • The basic approach in incremental analysis is We may now substitute the tangent stiffness matrix into the equlibrium relation t KU = t +Δt R − tF ⇓ t +Δt U = tU+U which gives us a scheme for the calculation of the displacements the exact displacements at time t+Δt correspond to the applied loads at t+Δt however we only determined these approximately as we used a tangent stiffness matrix – thus we may have to iterate to find the solution Method of Finite Elements II .

t +Δt t +Δt K (0) = t K . t +Δt F (0) = t F Method of Finite Elements II .Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Page 33 Introduction to non-linear analysis • The basic approach in incremental analysis is We may use the Newton-Raphson iteration scheme to find the equlibrium within each load increment t +Δt K ( i −1) ΔU ( i ) = t +Δt R − t +Δt F ( i −1) (out of balance load vector) t +Δt U ( i ) = t +Δt U ( i −1) + ΔU ( i ) with initial conditions U (0) = t U.

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Page 34 Introduction to non-linear analysis • The basic approach in incremental analysis is It may be expensive to calculate the tangent stiffness matrix and. in the Modified Newton-Raphson iteration scheme it is thus only calculated in the beginning of each new load step in the quasi-Newton iteration schemes the secant stiffness matrix is used instead of the tangent matrix Method of Finite Elements II .

t t t +Δt t +Δt Fa (0) = t Fa t t +Δt Fb (0) = t Fb t CA . Ka = La Kb = CA Lb t ⎧ = E if section is elastic C⎨ ⎩ = ET if section is plastic Method of Finite Elements II .Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Page 35 Introduction to non-linear analysis • We look at the example again – simple bar ( two load steps) ( t K a + t K b ) Δu ( i ) = t +Δt t +Δt R − ( t +Δt Fa ( i −1) − t +Δt Fb ( i −1) ) u ( i ) = t +Δt u ( i −1) + Δu ( i ) with initial conditions u (0) = t u.

6667 × 10−4 < ε Y (elastic section!) La u = 1. Fb(1) = 1.Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Page 36 Introduction to non-linear analysis • ⇓ We look at the example again – simple bar Load step 1: t = 1: ( 0 K a + 0 K b )Δu (1) = 1R − 1Fa(0) − 1Fb(0) 2 × 104 Δu = = 6.6667 × 10−3 1 1 107 ( + ) 10 5 Iteration 1: (i = 1) (1) 1 (1) u = 1u (0) + Δu (1) = 6.6667 × 10−3 = = 1 (1) 1 (1) a ε u = 6.6667 × 103 .3333 × 10 4 Convergence in one iteration! 1 ( 0 K a + 0 K b )Δu (2) = 1R − 1Fa(1) − 1Fb(1) = 0 Method of Finite Elements II u = 6.3333 × 10−3 < ε Y (elastic section!) Lb 1 1 (1) b 1 ε 1 (1) Fa(1) = 6.6667 ×` −3 10 .

3333 × 10 −2 (1) ε a = 1. ( 1K a + 1K b ) Δu (2) = 2 R − 2 Fa(1) − 2 Fb(1) ⇒ Δu (2) = 2.0067 × 10 4 Fa(1) = 1.2 × 10−3 Method of Finite Elements II .6667 × 10 −3 1 1 107 ( + ) 10 5 Iteration 1: (i = 1) (1) 2 2 2 1 u (1) = 2u (0) + Δu (1) = 1.6667 × 103 ) − (1.333 × 104 ) Δu = = 6.Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Page 37 Introduction to non-linear analysis • We look at the example again – simple bar Load step 2: t = 2 : ( 1K a + 1K b ) Δu (1) = 2 R − 2 Fa(0) − 2 Fb(0) ⇓ (4 × 104 ) − (6.3333 × 10 4 .3333 ×10 −3 < ε Y (elastic section!) ε b(1) = 2.6667 × 10−3 > ε Y (plastic section!) 1 (1) Fb(1) = ( E T ( 2ε b − ε Y ) + σ Y ) A = 2.

45E-03 9.55E-02 1.17E-04 2.70E-02 1.79E-02 1.93E-02 (i) Method of Finite Elements II .32E-04 4.90E-02 1.Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Page 38 Introduction to non-linear analysis • We look at the example again – simple bar i 2 3 4 5 6 7 Δ u (i) 1.45E-03 1.86E-02 1.58E-04 6.76E-04 2 u 1.

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Page 39 The continuum mechanics incremental equations • The basic problem: We want to establish the solution using an incremental formulation The equilibrium must be established for the considered body in its current configuration In proceeding we adopt a Lagrangian formulation where we track the movement of all particles of the body (located in a Cartesian coordinate system) Another approach would be an Eulerian formulation where the motion of material through a stationary control volume is considered Method of Finite Elements II .

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Page 40 The continuum mechanics incremental equations • The basic problem: ⎛ δ u1 ⎞ δ u = ⎜ δ u2 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜δu ⎟ ⎝ 3⎠ Configuration corresponding to variation in displacements δ u at t +Δt u Configuration at time t + Δt x3 Surface area Volume t +Δt t +Δt S V Configuration at time t Surface area t S Configuration at time 0 Surface area 0 S Volume 0V Volume tV x2 x1 (or 0 x1 . t x1 . t+Δt x1 ) Method of Finite Elements II .

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Page 41 The continuum mechanics incremental equations • The Lagrangian formulation We express equilibrium of the body at time t+Δt using the principle of virtual displacements t +Δt τδ t +Δt eij d t +ΔtV = t +Δt R ∫ V x3 ⎛ δ u1 ⎞ δ u = ⎜ δ u2 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜δu ⎟ ⎝ 3⎠ Configuration corresponding to variation in displacements δ u at t +Δt u Configuration at time t + Δt Surface area Volume t +Δt t +Δt S V Configuration at time t Surface area t S Configuration at time 0 Surface area 0 S Volume 0V Volume tV x2 x1 (or 0 x1 . t x1 . t+Δt x1 ) t +Δt t +Δt δ t +Δt eij = ( τ : Cartesian components of the Cauchy stress tensor ∂δ u j 1 ∂δ ui 2 ∂ t +Δt x j + ∂ t +Δt xi ) = strain tensor corresponding to virtual displacements δ ui : Components of virtual displacement vector imposed at time t + Δt t +Δt t +Δt t +Δt xi : Cartesian coordinate at time t + Δt R= V : Volume at time t + Δt t +Δt ∫ V t +Δt f i Bδ ui d t +ΔtV + t +Δt ∫ Sf t +Δt fi S δ uiS d t +Δt S Method of Finite Elements II .

t+Δt x1 ) R= t +Δt ∫ V t +Δt fi Bδ ui d t +ΔtV + t +Δt ∫ Sf t +Δt fi S δ uiS d t +Δt S where t +Δt t +Δt t +Δt fi B : externally applied forces per unit volume fi S : externally applied surface tractions per unit surface S f : surface at time t + Δt t +Δt δ uiS : δ ui evaluated at the surface Sf Method of Finite Elements II . t x1 .Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Page 42 The continuum mechanics incremental equations • The Lagrangian formulation We express equilibrium of the body at time t+Δt using the principle of virtual displacements t +Δt x3 ⎛ δ u1 ⎞ δ u = ⎜ δ u2 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜δu ⎟ ⎝ 3⎠ Configuration corresponding to variation in displacements δ u at t +Δt u Configuration at time t + Δt Surface area Volume t +Δt t +Δt S V Configuration at time t Surface area t S Configuration at time 0 Surface area 0 S Volume 0V Volume tV x2 x1 (or 0 x1 .

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Page 43 The continuum mechanics incremental equations • The Lagrangian formulation We recognize that our derivations from linear finite element theory are unchanged – but applied to the body in the configuration at time t+Δt Method of Finite Elements II .

∂ xj 0 t +Δt m . n x ∂ 0 xm = t +Δt ∂ xn Method of Finite Elements II .g. j ∂ t +Δt ui u = 0 .Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Page 44 The continuum mechanics incremental equations • In the further we introduce an appropriate notation: Coordinates and displacements are related as: t xi = 0 xi + t ui xi = 0 xi + t +Δt ui t +Δt t +Δt Increments in displacements are related as: t ui = ui − t ui Reference configurations are indexed as e.: t +Δt S 0 i f where the lower left index indicates the reference configuration t +Δt +Δ τ ij = tt+Δttτ ij Differentiation is indexed as: t +Δt 0 i.

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