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Foreword Meet the Developers
And the Developers are...

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Perfecting a Killer Idea
Brainstorming Techniques Be the First Be Better, or Different

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12 14 16 18

Building Your App Around a Service

The App Store

Getting Started Your Product Definition Statement Choosing an Application Style The Approval Process How to Craft an Effective App Store Listing Dealing with Crashes, Errors, and Bugs The Benefits The Challenges

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24 24 25 28 30 36 39 42 48 52 58 64

Making a Development Decision
Developing Your Own Native App Hiring a Developer Developing a Web Application

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Quick Guide: Creating an iPhone Optimized Site

The Importance of Simple, Sexy Interface Design
Apple’s Human Interface Guidelines Why Is Sexy Interface Design So Important? The Interface Design Process Crafting an Irresistible Icon Design Kits, Interfaces and Icons

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67 69 72 77 80

Learning to Keep it Simple and Iterate
Iteration in Action

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Pricing Your App Right
Breaking Down Your Revenue The Pricing Dilemma Advertising Options

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APIs and Frameworks 120 121 121 124 125 126 127 128 130 One Piece of Advice Words of Wisdom 134 135 The iPhone Developer Survey Part 1 – Business and Company Part 2 – Developing Apps 141 142 148 The iPhone User Survey Conclusion Credits About the Author 158 165 166 168 . Word of Mouth Top Notch Support and Regular Updates Conquer Your Stage Fright 97 98 101 102 106 109 111 113 115 117 Useful Resources Apple’s Documentation Books Screencasts Podcasts Blogs and Websites Forums Conferences Development Libraries.2 The Perfect Promotion Mix Perfecting Your Website Quick Guide: Creating a Video Demo Generating Launch “Buzz” Reaching Apple’s Top Lists Go Social With Your App Connecting With Users Advertising vs.

000 iPhone users. Good luck. At the time of writing this. Unfortunately. Many developers struggle to achieve great success with their application. Opening up a marketplace for software developers to target the iPhone®. This book won’t give you a killer idea. craft a stunning interface. this guide will equip you with everything you need to successfully become an iPhone app entrepreneur. and it’s a tough market to succeed in. and in-depth insight from a handful of incredibly talented iPhone developers. iPod touch® and iPad™. Developers have the ability to easily reach millions of users through a central marketplace. 2008 to much fanfare and drama. If you’re wanting to strike it big as an app entrepreneur. despite the occasional success story. nor will it teach you the ins and outs of programming for the iPhone. and many are leveraging that opportunity to make thousands of dollars every day. What it will do is provide you with all the knowledge and technique you need to spot a great opportunity. The potential for success has proven to be phenomenal. over three billion applications have been downloaded. it has rocketed to success over the past two years. and I hope you enjoy the journey! David Appleyard AppStorm Editor . it isn’t enough just to have a decent idea and some programming knowledge. Drawing on survey responses from over 1. get the most from the App Store.FOREWORD The iTunes® App StoreSM launched on July 10th. make smart decisions about development. the fact remains that becoming an overnight App Store phenomenon is difficult. and promote your app successfully.

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MEET THE DEVELOPERS Before we get started. you’ll encounter interviews with sixteen people who have an intimate knowledge of developing for the iPhone. Over the next few pages I’d like to introduce you to a handful of the most talented and successful people working in the industry. designers. and App Store entrepreneurs who helped to make this guide possible. Throughout the book. I want to offer a special thank you to the developers. . who generously gave up their time and expertise to contribute to this book. Their insight is remarkably helpful for starting out on the right track when developing your own application.

com Glasshouse Apps started out with Barista and Cellar. a brilliantly unique RSS reader. as the name suggests. a web design and development studio based in Leigh-on-Sea. Essex.. . and developed the popular iPhone game “Balloons”. By far and away the best note taking application for the iPhone. Michael Johnston & Fred Cheng – Simplenote simplenoteapp. she has worked on a number of beautiful iPhone applications..6 Meet the Developers And the Developers are. An expert in iPhone UI design. and knows everything there is to know about programming and development! Sarah Parmenter – You Know Who youknowwhodesign.com Sarah is the talented designer behind You Know Who. a wonderful way to take simple notes and keep them synchronized between multiple apps and services. two unique applications to help you make a great cup of coffee. and to manage your wine library.com Dave has years of Mac development experience under his belt.com Simplenote is. Graham has seen recent success with the release of The Early Edition for the iPad. Graham Clarke – Glasshouse Apps glasshouseapps. He runs a number of different Mac user groups. Dave Verwer – Shiny Development shinydevelopment.

com Attic is a slick music controller for all those unplayed albums that are collecting dust sitting in your iTunes library. Devin Ross – Attic atticapp. a popular Basecamp application for the iPhone. Tariq Zaid & Adam McNamara – Select Start Studios selectstartstudios. 37signals have over three million users and a passion for keeping things simple. Devin has some interesting information to share about promoting your app. David Heinemeier Hansson & Jason Fried – 37signals 37signals. Another of their applications. An expanding ecosystem of companion iPhone apps have sprung up over the past few years.com Meet the Developers Bjango create wonderfully designed apps both for the Mac. Their unique illustration style and interface design sets them apart from many other developers. iPad. including iStat Menus and the incredibly useful “Consume”. . and iPhone. AppNotify. collaborating with other developers. provides an additional way to add push notification support to your iPhone.com Developers of a range of online business productivity software.7 Marc Edwards – Bjango bjango. and they seem to have an endless stream of fantastic ideas. Joshua Tessier. and working with the App Store.com Select Start Studios are the developers behind Headquarters. and 37signals have recently taken the plunge into the App Store themselves.

Ego. and Icon Resource.com Meet the Developers Sebastiaan runs Cocoia.broadersheet. beautiful products and innovative projects. These include Icon Designer. His creation for the iPhone. blogger.com Garrett Murray is a developer. They’re renowned for gorgeous interface design. and general all-rounder. and automatically login to your favorite websites.com Dustin is the developer behind the delightfully designed “Wallet” for Mac and iPhone. Dustin MacDonald acrylicapps. Ramp Champ. the company behind apps such as Twitteriffic.8 Sebastiaan de With cocoia. It . you should. a personalised newspaper for your iPhone. podcaster. seamlessly sync it with your Mac. a company that creates novel. Lee Mallabone – Broadersheet iphone. Gedeon Maheux – The Iconfactory iconfactory. an icon design service responsible for some of the best Mac app icons.com Lee Mallabone is one of the developers behind Broadersheet. filmmaker. and addictive user experience.com Gedeon works for The Iconfactory. If you’ve never tried any of their apps. Garrett Murray ego-app. offering beautiful stats for a range of web services. is any web designer’s best friend. Wallet offers a central place to store your personal information. a site for learning how to design icons yourself. stunning icons. and Frenzic.

Dave Howell – Avatron avatron. . yet easy to use. human interfaces by striving to achieve the perfect balance between form and function. from architecture and fashion to education and software.com Sophiestication Software is a small software design and development company. a Javascript framework for iPhone development. David Kaneda – Sencha sencha. Recently. raised the bar for iPhone application design and software quality. and Broadersheet learns what topics you’re interested in. He currently works as the creative director at Sencha.9 Meet the Developers provides news from around the world that you care about. David created jQTouch. Sophia Teutschler – Sophiestication Software sophiestication. from the sources that you trust. which is run by Sophia Teutschler. and the founder of Avatron – a leading developer of popular applications for the iPhone and iPod touch. downloaded by over one million users in its first two weeks. Sophia loves to create simple. Avatron’s Air Sharing application.com Dave Howell is a six-year veteran Apple engineering manager.com David Kaneda has nine years of experience designing in a variety of fields.

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With hundreds of thousands of applications available on the App Store. A well thought through idea is everything. .PERFECTING A KILLER IDEA So you want to launch your first application. Often the first hurdle met by developers is how to come up with a successful idea. Solve someone’s problem in a simple fashion. or solve an existing problem in a really fantastic manner. how do you come up with something original? Or how you can you execute an idea better than everyone else? I’ve heard many people say that ideas are ten-a-penny. I don’t think this theory holds a great deal of weight. and you’re on the road to success. Most of the really successful applications available today either offer something completely unique. and that it’s the execution and persistence that makes an application successful. or entertain a user in a completely novel way. we’ll explore the tips and techniques you can employ to craft the perfect iPhone app idea. In this chapter.

. and various iPhone apps are now available to help solve them (Tipulator1. and Ego3 respectively). These ideas are not just odd concepts chosen at random. Although you may find that an idea just “comes to you” at the time you least expect it. how do you come up with new ideas? 1 2 3 http://www. I asked Bjango: As a company with several different applications. brainstorming and proactively considering new ideas can be a worthwhile task. It would be good to have one central place where all this information is automatically downloaded. but they aren’t much use when I’m out at the store. Each is a real problem faced by many people.com/tipulator/.12 Perfecting a Killer Idea Brainstorming Techniques I’ve often wondered how developers with a huge repertoire of applications constantly come up with new ideas.com/. Here are a few examples: • • I always struggle to calculate a suitable tip to leave at a restaurant. then consider how they could be solved with a suitable iPhone app. problems and annoyances you face on a daily basis. • Logging into a number of different services to check all my website statistics takes ages. they have a few tricks up their sleeve. I wish there was an easier way to do this automatically. As it turns out. http://redlaser. This is the type of thought process many developers go through. http://ego-app. Price comparison websites are great. Perhaps begin by listing the challenges. It would be great to have a way to check prices online using my iPhone.sophiestication. RedLaser2.com/.

We keep a long list of possible app ideas. hopefully others will too. If I’m not inspired by an idea. and which to drop after the brainstorming stage: I try to start by thinking of ideas that inspire me personally. and The Early Edition for the iPad. It’s the simple notion that if there’s something we need ourselves. including Barista and Cellar for the iPhone. but if no one else is. It’s critical the best ideas are the only apps you produce. Glasshouse Apps have three successful applications in the App Store.13 Perfecting a Killer Idea Most of our ideas are born from necessity—the result of a lightbulb moment while trying to do something the hard way. You might be passionate about the wing span of a mosquito. Once I’ve established a few initial ideas that I think have merit. It’s important to have a big list to work from. it’s time to do some research and make sure there’s a market for it. . so you don’t end up working on a dud idea. Concentrating all your energy on a specific niche and offering a valuable service for a select few people can be equally successful. and I’m only pursuing it because I think it might sell well. then you’re fighting an uphill battle! Even if you think you have a brilliant idea and a solid market. I asked the developer how they chose which of their ideas to take forward for development. There are notable examples of developers ticking all the boxes and then falling dramatically short of their own expectations. The former offers advice on how to craft the perfect coffee. as even a small app can take a month to develop. success certainly isn’t guaranteed. and the latter gives you a virtual “wine cellar” in the palm of your hand. it’s going to be harder to stay motivated down the track. It’s also important to remember that you don’t necessarily need to focus on solving a problem faced by every iPhone user.

you don’t always need to wait for a completely new product to take advantage of this. as the opportunity to have your application available to coincide with the launch of a new device is an incredibly rare one. Fortunately. Hardware and software upgrades often introduce new features that give developers an opportunity. Aside from the unprecedented opportunity of offering our own application on the very first day of an entirely new category of device (which was incredible). I asked the developer how important it is to be the first to market with a particular type of app: We saw it as quite significant to have The Early Edition ready for sale on the launch day of the iPad. . and generally less “clutter” available for that particular device. or the first to utilize a new platform or hardware feature.14 Perfecting a Killer Idea Don’t assume that the first idea you take forward to development will be your main success as an App Store entrepreneur. This type of thinking is important. With the iPhone and iPad now available. The Early Edition was one of the first RSS readers available for the iPad. Launching on Day 1 gives your application a huge advantage. as there are far fewer competitors crowding your niche. It takes time to understand what works and what doesn’t. and early adopters were downloading it from the day the iPad App Store opened. it could be a while before a completely new physical piece of hardware is released by Apple. Be the First Being “first” gives you a huge advantage on the App Store – whether you’re the first person to release a particular type of app. having The Early Edition there on Day One meant that we were on a level playing field right from the start. so be prepared to experiment with a few different projects before you stumble upon one that really takes off.

With something like maps. or opens up new functionality for developers to exploit.15 Perfecting a Killer Idea One such new feature in iPhone OS 3 was the ability to access the iPhone’s iTunes library. Attic developer.html. saw this as a great opportunity: When iPhone OS 3. Devin Ross. Apple had already made a great player for your entire collection. . People already have music on their iPhones. I came up with the concept of Attic. I then set my mind on creating something that could be a worthwhile application. but the multi-touch gestures and the shake notifications. so I knew I had to make my app achieve a specific goal. you need your own map information. I spent a lot of time looking into the new additions to the SDK. I initially made a simple application to explore not only the music API.com/technologies/iphone/whats-new. After looking further into the API. For people like me that like to listen to entire albums at a time.0 came out.apple. Writing that application helped me learn a lot in many different areas. Apple regularly adds new hardware and software features. this concept was exciting. I investigated the new APIs like maps and mail composition. The music API was appealing because the data was already there. Documentation is always available well in advance of a new software update or device being released. I watched the Apple developer videos on the ingredients of a good iPhone application. That application turned into something similar to the photo flicking apps on the App Store where you can throw around and rotate album covers. My product definition statement read as such: “an easy to use application to find albums in your library that aren’t played often”. Here’s an example of the new API features available in iOS 4 (formerly known as iPhone OS4):4 4 http://developer. so it’s worth taking the time to see whether you can spot a new opportunity.

It was all about the style and execution of the concept. less functionality than many competing devices. The same is true for application development. or Different While important. The first version offered. you can look for a page such as this and brainstorm a list of application ideas that weren’t possible previously. Many developers have had huge success in well-established niches simply by solving a problem better. being first certainly isn’t everything. It’s a regular opportunity to be “first” with a completely new type of app.16 Perfecting a Killer Idea Whenever a new software release is announced. The iPhone itself is a wonderful example of this. . if anything. Be Better.

and is a pleasure to use. I asked them whether they thought a successful iPhone app needs to be a unique. Rather than offer a full Twitter experience. very few are of the same level of quality as Apple’s own bundled software. One company that has epitomized this simple approach in the web applications space is 37signals. Most people don’t have problems all that complex and if you can just make some part of their day better. Another application that executes a small piece of functionality in a wonderful way is Birdhouse. or more efficient. you’ve probably got something. whether on the Mac or iPhone. Dustin MacDonald. retains a simple interface. Although there are now hundreds of thousands of third-party apps on the App Store. or more fun. then no. It’s designed for people who like to put thought and care into their use of Twitter. choosing simplicity over new features time and time again in their software. Most “killer” ideas are simple solutions to simple problems. Focusing strongly on the user experience can be a great way to ensure your app stands out from the crowd. but it quickly established itself as the best-in-class due to the thought that went into its design. works reliably. Something we’ve always tried to do. Birdhouse is simply a place to work on draft messages and publish (or unpublish) them. With . the developer of Wallet. takes this approach to differentiate his application in a very crowded niche: One obvious thing that I think a lot of developers miss is putting time into crafting a great user experience.17 Perfecting a Killer Idea Tweetie wasn’t the first Twitter client for the iPhone. “killer idea”: If killer idea means something awfully clever. and has seen great success in this simple niche. This functionality works because it places emphasis on only one task. It’s phenomenally difficult to develop an application that includes all the necessary features. is to reach for that same quality experience in our own apps. Most people buy Apple products because of the fantastic user experiences they provide.

offering a familiar structure and feel (in this case with the Contacts app). this meant simplifying our app down to the core features. Sophia Teutschler. it’s about reading articles and consuming knowledge. Building Your App Around a Service With the huge surge in web applications offering high quality APIs in recent years. Groceries. I never do any brainstorming – ideas just appear to me out of the blue. and polishing the app with great looking icons. Google Maps. Articles will never be the Wikipedia App with the most features or the lowest price.18 Perfecting a Killer Idea Wallet for iPhone. Yahoo. PayPal – the possibilities are endless. Quality always makes the difference. Articles is about retaining focus on the actual article content. Amazon. but most of the time these apps offer such a terrible experience that I’d rather put time and money into making my own version of that idea. Flickr. I’m sure I’ll add new and clever features in the future. Twitter. the developer behind Articles. elements. Tipulator. Often there is already “an app for that”. No other app does that in my opinion. many iPhone developers are seeing success from building an app around an existing service. feels that the approach of “being better” can be enough to give you a successful app: I make Apps that cover functionality that I miss on my iPhone or iPad. It’s not an app to “manage” Wikipedia. but only those that fit into my vision for the app. Facebook. that’s just not the point. and animations. and a several other great iPhone apps. . I don’t force myself to come up with new ideas.

But I think the most difficult challenge is to provide additional value to your users without overwhelming them with pointless features. a dashboard for a single project and the ability to manage multiple accounts within the application. easy to use launchpad to help you get to work. When we were building Headquarters.19 Perfecting a Killer Idea 37signals makes a range of productivity tools for businesses. software that is perfectly suited for use on the iPhone. it’s simply not enough to take that information and put a pretty face on it. you have a simple. They’ve encouraged developers to create applications around their software. As a . Rather than building another Basecamp application that simply exposed all of its data on the iPhone. and regularly promote these iPhone apps to their users. Select Start Studios. whether there are any unique challenges to building an application that offers an iPhone front end to an existing online service: Building on top of an existing platform is always a challenge. I could talk about how the underlying API may one day change or disappear all together. remain in the loop and stay focused. It was obvious that we needed to clamp down on a small set of features and make those features as close to perfect as possible. The results speak for themselves. To accomplish our goal. I asked the developer. we focused on three (and only three) major features: a dashboard that combines data from all of your projects. we decided to focus the application on users who want to “get things done” and cut out anything that was superfluous. Nor is it very appropriate on a mobile device. we had to make the tough decision as to what goes in and what does not. Rather than having an overwhelming application. or I could talk about all of the small implementation details. This is mainly because Basecamp has an extremely rich API that provides access to a wealth of information. Headquarters is one such iPhone app built around the 37signals API that provides a mobile interface to Basecamp. Although all of that information is valuable.

Relying on another third party for the ongoing success of your application always involves some risk. but the associated benefits could certainly make this risk worthwhile. Another possibility is to build an application that interacts with the desktop in some way. Synchronization is another important aspect of your application to consider. and a potential avenue to help promote your app (developers are often happy to help spread the word about apps that use their API). And rightly so. A few apps do this through a local Wi-Fi connection. in that there’s not a lot of direct competition. I guess that could be seen as an edge. the apps that formed the core of iStat Server. Bjango’s flagship app can connect to the desktop to provide real time statistical and performance information. It was such a big project that I’m not sure we’d want to start from scratch again. I asked them how they feel that this gives iStat an “edge” over other applications: iStat for iPhone is fairly unique. it’s taken us years to develop iStat Menus and iStat Pro on Mac OS® X.20 Perfecting a Killer Idea result. and is bound to increase development time and cost. we left out a lot of features from our initial release but each feature we left out only improved the final product by making it easier to use. One application in particular that takes this approach is iStat. Developing to connect to the desktop is nothing to be taken lightly. fewer issues with how to handle storing a user’s information locally. others though a cloud synchronization system. You’ll have an existing user base with their data immediately available to them. especially when interacting with several different devices. I asked the . It comes with a new set of challenges. The advantage is a unique pair of applications that are far harder for others to clone.

it’s an avenue worth considering when generating your killer idea. We also have the advantage of simplicity. Simplenote and Dropbox set a high standard for how well this process can work. you’re far more likely to have a unique position in the market. when done well. then it hasn’t been implemented as well as it could have been. and we’ve learned a lot. If the user needs to initiate a sync or watch a progress bar as it occurs. I suppose we’ve been doing this for a while. Synchronization. I’m not sure how much time has gone into that part of our service. an app with particularly robust synchronization. It’s hard to say why other apps might not seamlessly synchronize as effectively as Simplenote. Whether you’re connecting to another web or desktop app. We can focus on improving speed and reliability rather than adding and maintaining long lists of new features.21 Perfecting a Killer Idea developer of Simplenote. . and it’s worth aiming to emulate their seamless process. as we are always making improvements. It’s by no means perfect. I think Simplenote’s synchronization can still be improved quite a bit. how challenging this is to implement: The basic idea of synchronizing data among different clients and services is not that complicated. should be as transparent as possible. Having said that. If you manage to succeed in creating an app that turns a user’s iPhone or iPad into a useful companion to another service. but in practice there are lots of little things that can go wrong.

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The App Store has been the subject of much discussion over the past few years. there’s certainly a strong argument for fully understanding how the App Store works before diving in and launching your application. pricing. it’s worth taking a broader look at the App Store platform and how you can start the process of developing your creation. development. Whichever camp you fall into. and promotion. and to make the most of what the App Store has to offer! . and a difficult entity to deal with. Others feel that the opportunity to list and showcase their app in a central location makes it far easier to reach their user base. Some see the closed marketplace as restrictive.THE APP STORE Before we move ahead to the specifics of interface design. and a closed store is but a small price to pay. in order to help you avoid a few potential pitfalls. In this chapter we’ll be discussing this whole process with developers. controlling.

24 Getting Started

The App Store

To start developing for the App Store you’ll need a Mac running OS X, and you will need to register for the iPhone Developer Program with Apple. This allows you to download the SDK to build your apps, test them on your iPhone, and submit them to the App Store. Registration is free for those just wanting to experiment with development. You can access all the guides and videos from Apple, but testing your app is restricted to an iPhone simulator on your Mac. If you’d like to to test on your physical iPhone and move ahead to officially release your app, you will need to enroll in the standard program which costs $99 a year. Once you’ve registered for the Developer Program, you are given access to all of the information Apple has produced to help you develop iPhone applications. Download the iPhone SDK and Xcode, then you’re ready to get started. Apple has an extensive set of “Getting Started Documents”5, which are vital reading if you’re going to be developing an application yourself. These are the best place to start when learning about the technical details of iPhone OS development – something we won’t be going into at length in this book. Another important document to read is Apple’s Human Interface Guidelines6, which walk through the different requirements of the user interface design of your application.

Your Product Definition Statement
Before you dive in and start designing, it’s important to take a step back and come up with a product definition statement. Apple defines this as a
5 6 Getting Started Documents: http://developer.apple.com/iphone/library/navigation/.

iPhone Human Interface Guidelines: http://developer.apple.com/iphone/library/documentation/ UserExperience/Conceptual/MobileHIG/Introduction/Introduction.html.

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audience”7.

The App Store

“concise declaration of your application’s main purpose and its intended

Consider the list of your app’s features, and what makes this set of features stand out. Also think about who your users are, when and how they would use your application, and in what way your interface can reflect this. Your product definition statement should take all these elements, and combine them into one simple sentence. For instance, a statement for GarageBand could be “an easy-to-use music composition application for amateur musicians”. It’s also important to include a picture of the person you envisage using the app – in this case, “amateur musicians”. When you’ve nailed a product definition statement, you’re ready to start investigating some of the other requirements and demands of the App Store.

Choosing an Application Style
Apple’s Human Interface Guidelines for developers talk a great deal about the importance of selecting and sticking with a particular “application style”.8 These dictate the type of software you’d like to create, and fall into three categories: 1. Productivity Applications 2. Utility Applications 3. Immersive Applications We asked Sarah Parmenter about the importance of “positioning” your app into one of these categories, and whether it should be something that developers consider from an early stage:
7 8

http://bit.ly/bm6XTj. Three Application Styles: http://bit.ly/9okLIx.

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The App Store

It is hugely important. By positioning your app in the appropriate category from the start it will make it easier for you to define and establish user interface decisions right from the off. Each different “type” of app has some clearly defined user interface guidelines, and so getting this right from the start has to be a very simple but necessary rule. This is a great place to start when defining what type of market your application is aiming to reach, and the three different styles each come with certain recommendations:

Productivity Applications
This type of app is focused on the process of organizing and manipulating detailed information. They’re generally used for fairly important tasks, and organize their interface and data through a hierarchy. Although the purpose of these apps is usually fairly serious, it doesn’t mean that Apple wants you to design a boring piece of software. Their interface guidelines state: Seriousness of purpose does not mean that productivity applications should attempt to appear serious by providing a dry, uninspiring user experience, but it does mean that users appreciate a streamlined approach that does not hinder them.

software that provides a single purpose. and requires a minimum of user input. This can be used “at a glance”. and shows another characteristic of utilities – a set of preferences being displayed on the “reverse” of an information panel. Utility Applications The second category of applications are utilities. Anything not changed regularly can be moved to the iPhone’s “Settings” panel. A useful tip is also provided relating to settings. namely that anything that needs to be changed often should be located within the app itself. The example provided is that of the Weather application.27 The App Store Mail and Photos are examples of this type of software. letting you swipe between different items to access them. It’s unusual to “drill down” through a hierarchy as you would in a productivity app. Information in a utility application is generally fairly linear. .

The Approval Process Discussion surrounding the App Store approval process is always ongoing. In such an application. with many developers frustrated at the lack of clarity Apple provides over why certain applications make the cut.28 The App Store Immersive Applications The third and final category contains applications that immerse you in their content. Immersive applications give you the greatest freedom to explore an original and innovative application design. Apple uses the example of a virtual spirit-level: An application that replicates the experience of using a bubble level works well in a graphics-rich. while others do not. This could be a game. . the user’s focus is on the visual content and the experience. as in a game. but are also usually the most complex type of application to develop. full-screen environment. even though it doesn’t fit the definition of a game. not on the data behind the experience. or a utility that has a full screen interface.

with the main factors being bugs or regular crashes.com/iphone/news/appstoretips/. privacy infringement. This will no doubt require plenty of reading (and likely restrict or modify a few of the grand ideas you had for your app). 85% of new apps and 95% of app updates are approved (or rejected) within 7 days. but will avoid frustration when you come to submit it. Aiming to uphold and improve the core experience of the iPhone certainly puts you in Apple’s “good books”. This is where a good understanding and application of the Human Interface Guidelines will serve you well. and use the time wisely to start working on different promotion methods. Ultimately. In theory. and take on board any advice received from Apple’s team of reviewers. and “avoiding applications that degrade the core experience of the iPhone”9. At the time of writing this. and (b) an App Store executive review board exists that determines procedures and sets policy for the review process. inappropriate content.apple.10 Be prepared to wait a little while. Make sure that you submit the absolute best standard of application you can. it’s best to accept that the approval process is a necessary frustration. 9 10 http://www.apple. A few things Apple has released are that (a) at least two different reviewers study each application so that the review process is applied uniformly.com/hotnews/apple-answers-fcc-questions/. Apple is fairly efficient at approving applications. App Store Review Status: http://developer. . Reviewers look for a variety of different things when assessing your application. as well as reviewing applications that are escalated to a higher level. and is a solid step towards having your application approved.29 The App Store The best way to ensure that your application makes it through this process is to ensure you stick by every guideline given in Apple’s documentation. How Long Does It Take? The entire process of application review seems to be shrouded in secrecy. use of unauthorized APIs.

Screenshots 7. Title & Description Icon Links What’s New 5.30 The App Store How to Craft an Effective App Store Listing The way in which you put together your listing in the App Store can have a huge impact on the success of your application. Your listing is made up of several parts: 1. 4. Rating . Price 6. so we’ll offer a few tips that should help you craft an effective listing. Most developers aren’t also skilled in writing sales copy and producing a compelling pitch. 2. 3.

possibly because they don’t have the specific keyword of “camera” in the title. You simply can’t expect that anyone will read all your text. Here’s a great example of this in the official Twitter for iPhone app: . you should do that with all your copy. rather than trying to pad it out with related keywords. it’s worth making the first paragraph an accurate description of your app’s core functionality. for instance. so make sure you pick the 5 best hero shots. Focus on creating a brilliant app. so be short and straight to the point. It’s your one chance to craft a compelling one paragraph sales pitch. and crafting a relevant listing rather than over-including certain keywords. I think your app’s images are more important than your description. brings back plenty of relevant applications with “camera” in their application name. incorporating these keywords into your application name itself can’t hurt. In fact. Bjango have a few interesting tips to share on this topic: In the current App Store. rather than a quick summary of what’s new in the latest update. In iTunes. A quick search on the App Store for “camera”. only the first paragraph of your description is shown. With this in mind.31 Title and Description The App Store Aim for a title that contains your application name. That said. A few equally excellent applications (such as “Hipstamatic”) appear lower down the results chart. Trying to aggressively optimize your title or description to achieve a good search ranking is predominantly a waste of time.

. Links iTunes only shows three prominent links in your app listing. and one to a license agreement (shown within iTunes itself). and the icon is your only piece of graphical branding visible in search results. and makes it very clear what to expect when using the application.32 The App Store The copy used here is simple. and so avoid receiving negative reviews and bad publicity. indepth change log of every technical alteration since the previous version. and focus on the main changes with a particular release. People choose apps based on their visual appeal. Write concisely. to the point. attractive icons in Chapter 5. and go to the appropriate pages. An easyto-use support system can ensure you’re able to help our users in a timely fashion. What’s New This is your opportunity to draw attention to the new features and fixes in the latest release of your app. Icon Your application icon is arguably one of the most important marketing elements to get right. Users aren’t going to read a technical. one to a page offering support for your app. It’s also worth thinking carefully about support. We’ll be offering plenty of tips on how to design bold. The obvious advice would be to ensure these are correct. One to your company or product website.

static images of your app: . Too high. Too low. This is another topic we’ll be covering in more depth in Chapter 7. Screenshots There’s no way to offer a video demo of software on the App Store.33 Price The App Store Pricing decisions are important. and don’t be afraid to edit them with annotations to show what exactly is going on. Pick screenshots that clearly illustrate the main features you offer. so a selection of (up to) five screenshots is your one chance to impress users with the design and functionality of your application. One option is to stick with simple. and you might put off potential buyers. Take a look at some bestselling apps to see a few different examples of how you can approach them. and you’ll struggle to break even on development.

34 The App Store Another is to incorporate more than one screenshot to show more functionality: Rating The final element of your App Store listing is one that you have little to no control over. and often acts as a huge influence upon potential buyers – your rating and reviews: .

That said. and ensure that time is dedicated to offering support and assistance to users (however frustrating they may be!) Obviously this becomes considerably harder as your application grows in success – it’s impossible to please everyone. Who knows if the majority of customers even read the description or just look at the screenshots. While it’s no doubt possible to an extent. How much is hard to tell. do everyone a favour and don’t bother. Devin Ross isn’t quite sure just how important ratings are in the big picture: Ratings certainly have some role in whether customers will purchase the application. There have been various examples of people trying to game the system. . all the time.35 The App Store The best way to earn a good rating is to create a bug-free. and something that you need to get right in order to persuade iPhone users to pay for your application. and bump up their rating artificially. If you find that your application is receiving a high proportion of negative reviews. The notion of App Store ratings can be a challenging one. it’s a sign that you need to go back and take another look at why people are struggling to use (or not enjoying) your software. post fake reviews. high quality application.

because customers are more likely to inform themselves of the product before purchasing. offer a great level of support. How Important Are Ratings? We asked our readers how important ratings are when deciding whether to purchase an application. word of mouth – is far better than investing all your energy into a perfect rating. Errors. you’ll more likely meet their expectations. test. If you truly believe that your application is good enough to succeed and sell well. crash-prone application is obvious. Application bugs are obvious reasons for getting lower ratings too. then promoting it through official channels – blogs. Make the most of Apple’s “ad hoc” distribution network to gather . Treat your customers incredibly well. A higher price can mean higher reviews too. and only 9% of people either said they were “not very important”. test. Test. competitions. and Bugs The first way to avoid a buggy. It turns out that they are fairly important! 48% of people classed them as “very important”.36 The App Store A few things developers can do to get higher ratings is to educate customers better before and even after they purchase the application. If they know what the application does before they purchase it. 43% found them “a little important”. Dealing with Crashes. and you’ll reap the benefits in the form of positive ratings and reviews. or never used them.

This is undoubtedly skewed by our “iPhone enthusiast” reader base. file an update. 34 . That nature of the App Store means that it takes time to fix bugs. we found that 34% of users update their iPhone apps to the latest version every day. and 16% just once per week.37 The App Store a group of beta testers who are happy to push your app to the limit (and. it’s interesting to note that over a quarter of your users might not install your crucial update for over a week! Less than once per week (11%) Once per week (16%) Every day (34%) A few times per week (39%) Chart 1 P. and wait for approval. Even after that process has completed. but even with that considered. a user still needs to login and download the update you’ve provided. crucially. report back to you). How Often Do Users Update? In our iPhone user survey. 40% complete the process a few times per week.

I can’t protect against those issues. it becomes a support nightmare. and give it negative reviews and ratings. The system status indicator was a way for me to more easily report issues to users. and when they happen I can’t fix them immediately due to how the App Store approval system works. so that users felt less abandoned if something went wrong. which I was aware of and working on (or which I couldn’t do anything about at the moment). Garrett Murray implemented a fascinating new feature called the “System Status Indicator” in a recent release of Ego. After a while. you may find yourself dependent on the uptime and stability of another web application to keep your users happy. This is always a risk. Twitter has an outage. Often. it can make things difficult. to notify people when a problem beyond his control was occurring: The biggest hurdle with Ego is that it relies on 3rdparty services. . Google changes their API. there will inevitably be problems you cannot control. as errors that are not your fault may be attributed to your application. People don’t realize (or willfully ignore) how Ego works and when something happens with a 3rdparty.38 The App Store If your application relies on third party services. It takes at least a week to get a new version released just in approvals alone. et cetera. when your application deals with other companies’ APIs.

Let’s explore a few of these benefits further: A Single Point of Distribution Dave Verwer is clear on what he sees as the main advantage of the App Store for developers: The main benefit of the native App Store is the complete ease of distribution. You have a method to communicate with users. The possibility of featuring your app within an active ecosystem of users and developers is very appealing. That process was an incredible step forward from apps on previous mobile platforms. there’s no doubt that it brings a whole range of benefits. I ended up having to use it only a few days after it was released in Ego 2. I absolutely love that I can tell someone about my app and they can do a quick search for it and have it installed in a minute or two.0. Although implementing something along these lines will certainly take a little longer to develop.39 The App Store In fact. and it can make supporting and promoting your application far easier. . The Benefits Despite many people complaining about the constraints and challenges of working within the App Store. it’s a great safeguard. letting them know about problems beyond your control. People were immediately gracious about the feature via Twitter because they suddenly knew what was happening and when it would be fixed.

The App Store One way you can help to make this even more obvious is by including an “Available on the App Store” graphic on your application website. let’s face it. This has become the universal indicator that your app is available through Apple’s marketplace. you get paid. and people know exactly where they’ll be taken after clicking it. the user knows that the process for any other software will be exactly the same. A Fair Commission Rate As a developer. In the past. handling payment. before the iPhone the urge to do so was much lower). and promoting it through the App Store. you had to deal with carriers and other nonsense. if you wanted to sell applications for mobile phones (and.40 The App Store takes away any ambiguity of where and how to download your application. it’s fast and you don’t have to deal with any of the payment nonsense. Dave Howell feels that this is the major benefit of working with the App Store: . Garrett Murray also appreciates the infrastructure of the App Store: The App Store created an entire market overnight. You submit your app. you receive 70% of the selling price of your application. it sells. After purchasing their first app. The other 30% cut is taken by Apple in exchange for hosting and distributing your application. The App Store is a fantastic infrastructure for getting your application out to users. Developers seem to have widely accepted this as a fair rate – and rightly so.

As a software developer. With such a large audience of users.11 Apple recently showcased a handful of apps that had resized their display controls for the “Retina Display” and implemented iOS 4 features early. Free Promotion Another benefit of the App Store is the possibility of free promotion from Apple. Garrett Murray had a little insight to share into how important this promotion can be: 11 http://daringfireball. some testing. Having all this managed centrally takes away an unnecessary burden. downloads. import duties. the primary advantage of Apple’s App Store is that people actually buy apps in it! Five billion of them so far. For only 30%. having your app featured on the iTunes homepage (or in some cases.net/linked/2010/06/25/ios-4-gallery . returns. One great way to help increase your chances of being featured is to integrate new software API features as soon as they become available.41 The App Store The App Store removes all of the transactional costs of selling software to consumers. for a reasonable cost. and a shopping storefront. localized sales in over ninety countries. in TV advertising campaigns) can be a great boost for sales. And compared to other mobile app marketplaces. including: credit card transactions. the last thing you’ll likely want to do after perfecting your application is to start working on a payment and licensing system. no more than traditional software distribution margins. Japanese withholding. no doubt boosting their sales to owners of the latest iPhone. Apple takes on a lot. direct deposit. VAT. international administrative overhead.

It’s best to be aware of these at the outset.42 The App Store Ego was recently featured in the “What’s Hot” section of iTunes. But when Apple features you. That’s not too bad. you take what you can get. During the week it was featured I sold about four times as many copies each day. closed ecosystem such as the App Store. considering Ego is a very niche application and during the time it was featured the only iPad available was the non-3G US-only version. of course. I think if I had been featured after international or 3G release. The Challenges There are. challenges when working within a large. as having a strong knowledge of the difficulties you may face will allow you to tackle them head on. it would have been even higher. .

visible amongst thousands of others. an attractive interface and icon. Frustrating Approval Process As we mentioned previously. your chance of survival is slim. If you’re not charting or being talked about. and rejections usually happen for justifiable reasons. and remains. and the problem isn’t as rife as you may think: There have been a handful of ridiculous decisions made by Apple with apps being unfairly rejected. one of the main criticisms often leveraged towards the App Store centers around the approval process. Dave Verwer. but the vast majority are approved with no issues at all. All these come together to produce an application that people download. feels that much of this is hype. Bjango echo this as the main difficulty they find when working with the App Store: The main challenge would have to be visibility. With so many apps released each week. it is very rarely a terminal situation. however. If your application is rejected. and igniting wordof-mouth promotion. good ratings at the outset. It’s no secret that there are hundreds of thousands of apps on the store.43 Standing Out from the Crowd The App Store As you’d expect. It’s a combination of a great idea. one of the main challenges is how to ensure your app becomes. talk about. along with what you need to do to fix the problem. and gradually push up through Apple’s rankings. Apple recently gave some statistics on this and the most common reasons for rejection are: . it’s difficult to ensure your app has time in the spotlight. Apple explains what they are. There’s no one way to do this.

Your application crashes! This sounds really obvious. Do beta test your applications before submitting to Apple. the developer of Broadersheet.44 The App Store 1. Tracking How People Use Your App Lee Mallabone. None of these are actually going to be a permanent barrier to your application approval. private APIs can be removed and worked around using standard functionality. Apple can easily check for these APIs and will reject your app for using them. While the private functionality may be very tempting to use during development. Be as accurate as possible here and do not make your app sound like it can do more than it actually does. believes that the biggest challenge on the App Store centres around tracking app usage. there are now tools built into Xcode that will do a preliminary check for them before submission to Apple. Your application doesn’t work as advertised. and your application description can be easily edited to be accurate. but is one of the top reasons for app rejection. just in case. On the . Common problems here include things like not testing the application without an internet connection. and not testing with access to location services being denied by the system settings app. 3. It is fairly difficult to use these APIs by accident but. 2. When submitting an app to the store you are asked to describe what the app does for the iTunes store listing. Your application uses private APIs. This is really easy to avoid. Crashing bugs can (and should!) be fixed.

They were collecting user information without consent. offers a set of APIs that you can integrate into your iPhone application. this is an incredibly simple task with various services offering in-depth analysis. Many of the best tricks for online marketing are hard to achieve with the App Store as you can’t add your own tracking code to pages. and Apple moved to block this with a change to their terms and conditions. A few solutions are available if you’re willing to take the time to integrate them. Apple recently took a hard line on a few companies that inserted tracking code into various applications to monitor usage. so you have to make your best guesses for the first release and gradually refine your app’s keywords and listing over time. You can’t know for certain what people are searching for. and you have no data relating to how many people have looked at your app’s page. you don’t see referrers. . Not so on the App Store: The biggest challenge is probably the way that the store’s closed nature acts as a black box when it comes to marketing analytics. the popular website statistic tool.45 The App Store web.google.12 This is certainly worth doing if you think it will provide valuable feedback. Google Analytics.com/mobile/analytics/docs/. 12 http://code.

4 .

it’s worth hearing what our experienced developers have to say on the matter .MAKING A DEVELOPMENT DECISION As I mentioned in the introduction. You can program and develop the application yourself.the choice isn’t as clear-cut as you may think! . Before you dismiss any of these. There are countless other resources. you have three routes to consider when launching your application. the aim of this book isn’t to make you a technical coding wizard overnight. outsource the development to another company. books and websites for learning Cocoa Touch / Objective C and understanding the process of programming for the iPhone (we cover plenty of them in the last chapter). or choose to bypass the App Store altogether and launch a web application that’s viewable through Mobile Safari (the iPhone’s web browser). Whether or not you’re a programming guru.

48 Making a Development Decision Developing Your Own Native App Let’s start by clarifying that this option isn’t for everyone. There are a few differences in the iPhone SDK that take some time to get acquainted with. or something that seemed fairly straight-forward? Starting development for the iPhone with Cocoa Touch felt right at home. only to launch with a bugridden piece of software. developing your own iPhone application would probably be a bad decision. before giving up and hiring a developer. The best case scenario would be that you’d invest a week of time into understanding how iPhone development works. Dustin MacDonald has been developing using Cocoa for over seven years. We asked him whether the expansion into iPhone development was a steep learning curve. If you’ve never heard of Cocoa. . making the transition to iPhone development is likely to be a very pleasant experience. Coming from a desktop world. but nothing exceptionally steep. The worst case scenario would be to struggle through a frustrating development process for six months. I think the biggest overall challenge is learning to fine tune your app for a device with significantly less resources and horsepower than a Mac or PC. and feel uncomfortable with the acronym “API”. but good optimization matters much more on mobile platforms. If you do have a basic understanding of programming. it’s about ten years behind modern desktop machines in terms of processing power and available memory. As powerful as the iPhone is. don’t know what Object-Oriented Programming is. Many developers have become accustomed to sacrificing performance for easierto-use APIs.

a significant amount of my code just worked without any changes when I took it to the iPhone platform. Java. craft a beautiful interface and hire a developer to implement it. consider focusing on promotion and contracting out the whole process of app development. Ruby. During the first few months after the initial SDK release. Really if you have experience with any modern.49 Making a Development Decision This is an important consideration. If you’re a marketing whizz. . Play to your strengths – if you’re brilliant at designing in Photoshop. What was not so easy at the outset was finding documentation on iPhone specific subjects. I also asked Dave Verwer about this transition. If not. this option could well be very straight-forward. or anything similar. The main lesson to take away is that if you already have experience programming. as – the documentation and tools are now excellent and getting better all the time. object-oriented language like C#. Even better. then you are going to have a head start learning your way around Objective C and the iPhone SDK. Everything I had learned about Mac development made iPhone development seem very familiar. it’s going to be a steep learning curve. Python. performance will be a huge consideration. and if you do decide to develop your own application. and he agreed that the experience can be a fairly straight-forward if you’re used to developing for the desktop: The basics of moving from Mac development to iPhone are very easy. we all had a very steep learning curve. because noone really knew how everything was supposed to work. This was not helped by the tools having a few bugs in them! Luckily that has completely changed over the last two years.

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Making a Development Decision

Is Developing an iPhone App Going to be Fun? This depends upon how much you love development, and how passionate you are about your idea. That said, a huge 75% of the developers we surveyed said that iPhone development was more fun than their previous job. It certainly looks promising!

If you do decide to develop a native application, there are several advantages to be realised over a web app. I asked Dave Verwer about how a native app excels over a web app: It all comes down to look and feel, really. Using the native user interface elements is going to make your app feel much more like the standard apps that come with the phone. This is important because consistency is going to help people know instinctively how to use your application. They have already been trained by using all of the standard apps that came with the phone. There are web frameworks that emulate the standard iPhone user interfaces in HTML and CSS such as Phone Gap or jQuery Touch. I approach these with caution. They are generally very good, but they are unfortunately unable to get all of the details right in terms of the standard user interactions expected of apps. Where embedded WebKit and HTML5/CSS really shine in iPhone applications is within the content areas inside a native application. Using the standard iPhone controls from the iPhone SDK for navigation and combining this with an embedded browser for the content area can often be a good compromise between native and web apps.

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How Long Does it Take?

Making a Development Decision

Our developer survey asked people how long it typically takes them to develop an application. The results were varied, but most respondents said that it takes between 100 and 250 hours:
1,000+ (4%) Less than 100 (19%)

500–1,000 (9%)

250–500 (22%)

100–250 (46%)

Chart 1 P. 46

Whichever approach you take to development – but particularly if you develop an application yourself – testing is vitally important. You need to take the time to iron out bugs and perfect functionality before publishing your software. Dave Howell from Avatron offered a little insight into how they approach this process: We employ your garden-variety development cycle. As three of our employees are ex-Apple, we borrow some best practices from Cupertino. We have a full-time quality assurance manager, a tester, occasional interns, and an army of external beta testers.

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Making a Development Decision

We rely heavily on source code control and bug database tools to manage our tasks. Our full-time tech support technician runs our external beta program. And of course our engineers do a lot of testing before submitting code changes. Near a release, we implement code reviews. For our beta testers, we seek a mix of technically adept power users as well as smart novices. If you have the expertise to develop your own application, go for it. You’ll save a great deal on development costs, and have invaluable knowledge about how your application is put together. If the thought of opening up Xcode makes your stomach churn, don’t worry. You can still enjoy the benefits of a native application without any programming knowledge whatsoever.

Hiring a Developer
The second route is to hire your own developer. There are plenty of incredibly talented programmers out there who could do a fantastic job of taking your idea, sketches, and graphical mockups and turning them into a finished application. You’ll need to gradually build up a good working relationship with a developer. You could look at this process as a one-off transaction, but in reality you’ll want to continue working with the same person in the future for feature additions, upgrades, and bug fixes. Spend time getting to know the work and personality of a developer before embarking on a new project. I asked Dave Verwer for the advice he would give to people looking to hire a developer for their app: The best advice I can give here is to put as much thought as possible into what your app will do and how it might do it before asking a developer for a quote. When a developer considers a new

The best way to avoid problems like these is to remove ambiguity from the outset. as there are quick ways for developers to implement standardised user interfaces within an app. You don’t need to have a degree in art to do this – just a pencil and some imagination. Sometimes the developer will add on time (and therefore budget) for the inevitable unseen features and problems that will be uncovered. place them in order on the table and start to think about how the user will navigate through your application. Just start drawing out screens on separate pieces of paper and laying them out on a large table. Draw and Prototype The second step is to start to plan out your app on paper. As you draw the screens. ambiguity in the description of what the app needs to do makes the estimation process much more difficult. Also look at some of your favourite other apps – not specifically with the same or similar functionality to the app you are intending to build – but just think about software that you enjoy using and get inspired by how it works. Using these standard behaviours is also a great way to get a vast amount of functionality for free.53 Making a Development Decision app from a client. or they will underestimate the effort and subsequently find themselves trying to squeeze your development into an unrealistic deadline. I would suggest the following: Become Familiar with the iPhone The first step towards designing a great app is to be as familiar as possible with how the iPhone itself works. If I could split the ideal preparation for planning an iPhone project into a couple of key points. . User interface consistency is very important across the iPhone platform and being familiar with the standard conventions and behaviours that are used by other apps will let you think in the correct terms.

54 Making a Development Decision Also. and thinking about them in this way is a really useful exercise to understand user perspective. This might seem like a daunting task. and he feels that it pushed the application into a different league: I had Attic at a point where I could have released it to customers. Mobile apps are very different to web apps or desktop apps. but putting time into thinking about how your own app might function will let you plan all the little features that don’t appear when thinking about an idea at a high level. Devin Ross worked alongside Taptivate when developing Attic. but it’s the only way to ensure your vision is created exactly as you want it to be. . You need to spend time and effort considering exactly how you’d like your idea to be realized on the iPhone – right down to each individual screen. it will give them far greater confidence that you have thought through the app. I saw Taptivate had 13 http://shinydevelopment. try and fit the data that needs to be input onto a screen using an iPhone design template (mine is freely available13). This will lead to them being better equipped to give you a significantly more accurate (and probably cheaper) quote. and that there will be fewer unseen expectations or hidden features. there’s no reason approaching someone else for advice should be a bad thing. Take pictures of all of your pieces of paper and use them as part of the information you provide to the developer. If you do these things before contacting a developer.com/blog/iphone-screen-design-template-pdf/. but I wasn’t happy with how everything worked. Obviously the developer will work with you to do actual designs for the app. The key aspect to understand is that the interface comes first. Even if you’re a competent developer.

fee.com. It’s a simple website to navigate. The same can be true if you’re a developer with experience in a certain language that’s unrelated to iPhone development. We still had our design team specify what we wanted and how it should work. there are a huge range of resources to help you find the right person. If you’re going to take the former route. Sure. one of the best websites we recommend is TheyMakeApps. so it made sense to reach out to them to see what they could bring to the table in any regard. and let developers apply. and numerous other factors. This type of collaboration can work well if you’re happy to bring in some advice and expertise from other people who have succeeded on the App Store. and well worth taking a look at. If you do decide to go ahead and hire someone to develop your application for you.55 Making a Development Decision a hit with Postman and Voices.14 This is a directory of different companies that design and develop iPhone apps. 37signals worked with Overcommitted on the development of a companion iPhone app for their Highrise web application: Our core competency is building web applications. Despite being a software company themselves. . There are two general approaches to take: (1) look for developers already advertising their services. Building Objective-C powered iPhone apps is a different ballgame. They helped change the way the application functioned in a way I had imagined but never realized until they came along. 14 http://theymakeapps. fully sortable by location. This could be a particularly good idea if the process is completely new to you. but the Highrise app was separate enough that we could source it out and get it done. or (2) post up an advertisement for your job. any programmer can learn anything.

Some are free. GetAppsDone GetAppsDone. and others charge you to list the project: 37signals Job Board jobs.000 unique visitors a day and adverts priced at just $99 for 30 days. there are a number of different job boards where you can post a position. .com With 2. CocoaDev cocoadev.56 Making a Development Decision For the latter route. It currently costs $300 for a 30 day advert. Listings you post are also shared via their iPhone app.jobcoin.37signals.com There are always quite a few jobs on offer at GetAppsDone.com/categories/6/jobs 37signals have a dedicated section for posting iPhone developer jobs. you can reach a large number of developers for a small payment.

Used by developers across the world. development. with both iPhone and Mac OS X development jobs. Guru is another widely used place to find a freelancer.57 TUAW tuaw. eLance is a cost effective way to source a developer. and also helps you manage the project as it goes along. Relatively few people paid upwards of $10.com Similar to eLance.com/jobs Making a Development Decision The Unofficial Apple Weblog have their own job board.com A marketplace for finding a freelancer to work on the development of your project. Craigslist craigslist. eLance elance. How Much Does it Cost? When asked how much it costs to develop an iPhone application.org Although derided by many. For those that pay for their app development. Guru guru. Craigslist is still a valuable resource for those looking to find work and is a great place to post adverts. These people are obviously doing everything themselves – interface design. the total cost was centered around the lower end. many respondents noted that it’s simply an investment of time. . and promotion.000 for their application development.

and runs in the iPhone’s Mobile Safari browser.000 – $50. 53 15 20 25 Because our survey was targeted at developers. Developing a Web Application The third and final option is to develop a web application – an app that is hosted on the internet.000 – $10.000 $1.000 – $25.000 $1 – $500 Just my own time 0 5 10 Series 1 Chart 1 P.58 cont’d Making a Development Decision Series 1 $50. or investing more into a better polished and functional application. is not distributed through the App Store.000 $10. we expected to see that many people would be able to produce iPhone apps for a relatively low cost – investing only their own time. It’s clear that you have a choice of approaching development in a thrifty fashion.000 – $5. .000 $500 – $1.000+ $25.000 $5.

many people still prefer the web interface of Gmail and its custom interface. Lastly. There’s a massive range of web developers out there which can help in finding talent and getting a job done quickly and inexpensively. and be available to a rapidly-growing majority of mobile traffic. you can deploy your app with no approval process. the biggest gain is just that it’s a web app. David Kaneda offered some insight into the circumstances when a web application can be more suitable than creating a native app for the iPhone: A great deal of the apps currently on the App Store could be recreated using web technology. There are a variety of benefits that go along with doing so. You’ll never quite recreate the responsiveness of a native app. which I believe will be the largest rival to the iPhone for near future. It’s also possible to save a web page to your home screen. like the ability to also serve your app on Android. make live updates. HTML/CSS/Javascript is a more common skill-set than Objective-C is.59 Making a Development Decision Mobile Safari is a very capable web browser. supporting an array of emerging web technologies such as CSS3 and HTML5. If you choose to host it. One example of an iPhone optimized web app executed particularly well is Gmail. This makes it far easier than you may expect to create a web application that looks and feels great on the iPhone. Likewise. Although the iPhone has a built-in Mail client. barring most games. and access it as you would a normal application: . but it could be a great option for some projects.

and 42% of people didn’t have one at all.apple. Awareness (at least among our readers) seemed high. with only 4% of people answering “What’s a Web App?” 15 http://www.60 Making a Development Decision It’s worth mentioning that Apple maintain a regularly updated directory15 of iPhone optimized web applications that can provide plenty of inspiration for ideas and techniques. 21% had just one. . how many users actually use this functionality? We found that 34% of people questioned had more than one web app on their home screen.com/webapps/. Do People Use Web Apps? Although the iPhone is perfectly capable of running web apps to an almost-native standard.

. 56 Obviously the main hurdle to overcome when taking this approach is your application interface. or create an entire payment system within their app.com. The goal is usually to mimic the iPhone’s native interface as closely as possible. 16 http://www.61 cont’d Making a Development Decision What's a web app? (4%) Yes – More than one (33%) No (42%) Yes – Just one (21%) Chart 1 P.phonegap. David Kaneda highlights a number of other inherent difficulties in making your app with web technology: One big one is monetization: Web app developers need to wrap their app in something like PhoneGap16 to get on the App Store. so the user feels that they’re actually using a local application.

David feels that this isn’t necessarily the case: I think Apple has done a great job guiding WebKit and also creating the most powerful mobile browser in the world. wrap their app in something like PhoneGap. This is doing great things to move the web forward altogether. YQL17 also provides a fantastic service for this. more robust touch events. or again. beyond some of these stumbling points. It’s worth re-iterating the downside of this development approach: your application is not listed in the App Store.com/yql/. At any rate. providing a robust tool for making JSON requests to normally REST/XML-based APIs. with a lot of emphasis on HTML5/ CSS3.62 Making a Development Decision Another big stumbling point in web technology is the unavailability of cross-domain requests. This is a fairly important 17 http://developer. There are lots of features I’d love to see in Mobile Safari: accelerometer access. offline storage. Luckily. It’s easy to get the impression that Apple doesn’t value web apps as highly as they do native software on the App Store. But Apple has a limited team and they do make great strides with the browser on a regular basis. they obviously put more marketing focus behind native app development. it’s quite impressive what is possible with web technology. 3D animations. as it brings them revenue. and Apple does not handle the payment processing and distribution for you. That said.yahoo. as it is providing one of their key arguments against allowing Flash on the iPhone. camera or contacts access etc. . and cross-device compatibility. they’ve been forced to put a renewed interest in the web standards recently. Developers are forced to either stick with JSON-based web services.

com/p/iui iUI is a Javascript and CSS framework for creating web apps which look and act like standard iPhone apps.com Spice up your iPhone websites using JQTouch.63 Making a Development Decision factor to consider. If you want to create an application for an existing user base (if you already run a successful web application. For targeting new users. the JQuery plugin for mobile web development. A number of different Javascript libraries have sprung up for helping with the development of web applications. for instance). it’s likely to be a greater challenge than the native route. as it would be difficult – if not impossible – to reach the profitability and popularity of some of the bestselling App Store software.com As David highlighted.google. PhoneGap is also an excellent solution for turning your web application easily into a native app. this approach could be a good one. iUI code. . and they are worth taking a look at for help when putting together your application front-end: JQTouch jqtouch.com/iphone An ingenious bookmarklet from Manifest Interactive helping you to build and debug iPhone websites. PhoneGap phonegap. iPhone Web Developer Toolbar manifestinteractive.

• • In addition to these.com/tutorials/tools-and-tips/learn-how-to-develop-for-the-iphone/. userscalable=no"> <link rel="apple-touch-icon" href="iphoneicon. Nettuts+ published an article18 that offers a great insight into this.png"/> • The first of these removes the standard Safari navigation bar.64 Making a Development Decision Quick Guide: Creating an iPhone Optimized Site Although we aren’t delving too deeply into development in this book. . and the controls that are usually present across the top of the window. These needn’t be present if you’re designing a web app that has its own set of controls for navigating around. This will have Apple’s glossy overlay placed on top of it. and is well worth taking the time to read. The third and final declaration tells the iPhone where you’ve located an icon file that will display when the user saves the app to their home screen. I thought it would be useful to quickly go over what you need to include in a webpage. and ensure that everything is well optimized for a touch interface. but if you’d prefer for this not to happen.tutsplus. 18 http://net. you’ll also need to consider producing a stylesheet that accommodates the iPhone’s screen size. you can change the name of this declaration to apple-touch-icon-precomposed. The second prevents the user from being able to zoom and scale the interface – usually the case in websites – which makes the page feel far more like a native application. to ensure that it will function correctly on the iPhone. It’s simply a case of including the following three declarations in your HTML page. somewhere between the <head></head> tags: <meta name="apple-mobile-web-app-capable" content="yes" /> <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width.

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a highly talented interface designer with plenty of experience to share.THE IMPORTANCE OF SIMPLE. you may have less control over the interface than you’d think. Apple exerts a surprising level of control over the style that your application should adhere to – it isn’t just a case of opening Photoshop and creating something pretty. Depending upon the type of app you’re creating. interface design is all-important. We’ll also be talking to Sarah Parmenter. SEXY INTERFACE DESIGN As I’ve already mentioned. and there are plenty of developers to profile in this section who are doing a great job. .

ly/bvPM2b. and it’s clear to see what an enormous role interface design plays in the success of failure of your project: Perfectly Crafted App Store Listing Low Price Great Interface Design Unique Idea 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Irrelevant Not So Important Quite Important Very Important Chart 1 P. Sexy Interface Design Apple’s Human Interface Guidelines We’ve already dipped into the Human Interface Guidelines19 when looking at different “types” of iPhone application. and it’s the most important guide to read before you get started thinking about your application’s interface and functionality. . The results speak for themselves.67 The Importance of Simple. 61 19 http://bit. These walk you through the process of planning your application at the outset. and move on to offer recommendations for the style of interface you should design. Just How Important is Interface Design? In our developer survey. we asked people how important they feel each of these four characteristics is for an application to be a success.

com/20100607/steve-jobs-at-d8-the-full-uncut-interview/.68 The Importance of Simple. Gorgeous interface design supports this process. accessibility. it’s incredibly important not to make the interface design itself the end goal. Sexy Interface Design You’ll learn about the use of metaphors. and users expect a beautiful appearance that promises fun and encourages discovery. Your application is designed to serve a purpose and help the user complete a task. direct manipulation. An immersive application is at the other end of the spectrum. gestures.allthingsd. its appearance still needs to integrate with the task. It’s a measure of how well the appearance of your application integrates with its function.ly/ckTjGS. Apple has a great explanation:20 Aesthetic integrity is not a measure of how beautiful your application is.21 His response? “If you need a stylus you have already failed. An interface should. and different elements of the iPhone user interface. first and foremost. so that they provide an internally consistent experience. make this task simple and enjoyable to achieve.” Apple are strongly committed to the idea of a user’s finger being the only pointing device they need: 20 21 http://bit. and what this means. Steve Jobs was recently questioned about handwriting recognition systems using a stylus. . Although an immersive application tends to be focused on providing diversion. http://d8. Be sure you design the user interface elements of such an application carefully. One point worth highlighting relates to aesthetic integrity. For example. When placing focus upon “sexy interface design”. while giving prominence to the task by providing standard controls and behaviors. Apple’s guidelines also explain clearly how you should use gestures in an appropriate manner. a productivity application should keep decorative elements subtle and in the background.

Read it cover to cover. and they give users a sense of immediacy and connection to the device that’s impossible to achieve with an external input device. fingers can never be as precise as a mouse pointer. and fully understand before you begin designing the functionality and layout of your app. Why Is Sexy Interface Design So Important? Let’s move on to consider why interface design is actually so important. and creates a thoroughly unique look and feel. and whether the extra effort paid off: With Headquarters. or the dexterity of their owner. I asked the developer if this involved a great deal more work than using the standard iPhone UI controls. then get started. . their shape. use this to your advantage? Headquarters steers clear of the standard iPhone interface elements. read it again. I can’t overstate how useful the Human Interface Guidelines are to read through. Sexy Interface Design There are real advantages to using fingers to operate a device: They are always available. and how can you. When designing your interface. In the context of a display screen.69 The Importance of Simple. Why are we drawn to attractive application design. regardless of their size. it’s important to remember this fact. such as a mouse. as a developer. we actually went through about three or four different designs before settling on the one you see in the app today. Apple specifies different size requirements for areas of the interface a user can tap on. they are capable of many different movements. However. and you’ll want to follow these to ensure your app is usable. fingers have one major disadvantage: They are much bigger than a mouse pointer.

Although developing these custom controls extended both our design and development cycles. but I asked Graham whether he thought it could work equally well on the iPhone: My gut feeling is that real life metaphors can work well at any size. Two great examples of this are the tabs on the dashboard and the custom navigation bar we use. Glasshouse Apps. Sexy Interface Design In the end. . took the approach of crafting an interface that mimicked a real-life newspaper. But more importantly. they were definitely worth the risk and the effort. we found that the application simply looked more polished and pleasing to the eye with the dark.70 The Importance of Simple. but because people liked how the screens were laid out. Despite these two controls being completely alien to the iPhone platform. We received a lot of great feedback on the interface – not only because it looked good. the developers of The Early Edition. with the high level of customization we were able to integrate completely custom controls that wouldn’t stick out. It just depends on the suitability of the object you’re alluding to and how seamlessly you can integrate it with your app. they fit in really nicely and they open up the ways a user can interact with the screen. sleek design. This makes perfect sense on the large iPad screen.

Sexy Interface Design Many applications use this idea of metaphor – designing something on screen that closely resembles a physical item. Any interface design that makes you stop and say “wow” usually uses some form of metaphor in one way or another. had something really interesting to say in this regard: I think a great interface and app workflow is crucial. It’s also crucially about how it works. It is. it’s the only thing a user sees. After all. realistic texture. important to remember that “design” is far more than just how your application looks. Marc. . as are the sticky notes found on the Dashboard of OS X. but the user can’t actually see that. You may have a world class app backend (which is also important). or it could be more subtle – a gorgeous. from Bjango. It could be something as obvious as the newspaper above.71 The Importance of Simple. Apple’s Notes application is a good example of this. They only see your user interface. of course. for instance.

everyone’s involved. then you’ll probably be able to work on the positioning and layout of these yourself. When we’re mocking and testing different layouts.72 The Importance of Simple. If you expect the layout to include mainly standard iPhone controls. Design certainly isn’t just the role of one person. Sexy Interface Design Now might be a good time to mention that we consider design to be the way something works. They go hand in hand. as well as the way it looks. It’s more about structure than colouring in pixels. The Interface Design Process You have a few different options available when approaching the interface design of your application. .

by all means explore how you could design the interface yourself. If you have experience in this area. Sexy Interface Design If. an interface designer could go a long way towards turning your app into a success. Sarah Parmenter. This offers a good insight into how the process could work if you approach this task yourself. One such designer. I produce this as a Keynote presentation and design screens with notes and annotations on each document so that the client has something to either pass on to their developer or use as reference. you’ll need to think about hiring a designer.73 The Importance of Simple. Although this sounds expensive. walked us through the process she takes when designing iPhone applications. If not. it is a choice that’s worth spending some time on. on the other hand. you want a more customized user interface. there are plenty of great interface designers who specialize in working with iPhone developers. even if I haven’t been commissioned to do so. or what to expect when hiring an interface designer to craft your application’s UI for you. . and carefully considering. as there may be tweaks and adjustments that could be made to benefit the user that the developer has not thought about. I nearly always go through a wireframe stage. If you want your application to really stand out from the crowd but have no design experience yourself. Though the cost of hiring an interface designer will vary depending upon the experience of the designer you hire. I generally get sent a beta of the app to test drive and make notes on. someone fairly talented may well charge a few hundred dollars per day.

74 The Importance of Simple. Sexy Interface Design .

I find that explaining design decisions rather than just sending them a screenshot is always a better way to communicate. .75 The Importance of Simple. Sexy Interface Design I almost always start on paper and then move into Photoshop for the actual design elements. I then move these back into a Keynote document and annotate the screens again so that the client understands why things may have been designed in a certain way. it can be a bigger hurdle than you’d expect. Once I have crafted the UI. There are unique challenges associated with the interfaces of mobile devices – even if you feel comfortable in Photoshop and Illustrator. Designing an iPhone interface isn’t simple.

but this doesn’t mean that they can also design a beautiful interface (in fact. how large different interface elements need to be). The latest release of the iPhone has a far higher resolution screen (960x640 pixels) at greater pixel density (326 ppl) than we’ve ever seen before on a mobile device. Whether or not you choose to hire an interface designer. and spend time thinking about minimum hit size (and correspondingly. Sarah had some great tips to ensure that you approach the process as well-prepared as possible: I receive projects in all kinds of phases. then try to do as much of the groundwork yourself and simply hire a professional as a consultant for an hour or so to check over your work and suggest any changes. This means that graphics will use more pixels for the same effective artwork size – something your interface design should take advantage of. All of those mentioned require varying degrees of work and budget allocation. the way in which different pages interconnect. Sexy Interface Design It isn’t just a case of putting together a screen full of pretty graphics. You also need to consider how animation and movement should display. it’s vitally important that you give this stage of the process the time and investment it deserves. I get clients who just have an idea for the app. so a developer would need to be sensible when approaching a UI designer as to what their budget is and how they want to spend it. .76 The Importance of Simple. If you do decide to hire an interface designer. I get sketches. how the interface should adjust for different orientations. If you are unsure of what you are doing. this is hardly ever the case). You may have hired an incredibly talented developer. full wireframes and then betas of apps which need some UI help. and on a shoestring budget.

and it’s a good chance to inject some UI beauty and texture. instantly recognizable. and it can be a very challenging process to get right.77 The Importance of Simple. you’ll need to start thinking about producing an irresistible icon. rather than trying to include text within the icon. You also need to produce a 512x512 version of your app icon that Apple are able to use for promotion if they decide to. study them. Renowned icon designer Sebastiaan de With had three pieces of great advice to share on this topic: First off. attractive package.ly/caLQqX. and learn their style and the constraints 22 http://bit. look carefully at how Apple designs interfaces and icons. Sexy Interface Design Crafting an Irresistible Icon After you’ve perfected the design. Redraw them. It’s best to stick with a bold image that conveys your application’s branding. Achieving this in a 57 square pixels is no mean feat. It’s impossible to overstate just how important your app icon is – it’s the one element of branding that appears everywhere. functionality and interface of your application itself. Apple has a few suggestions surrounding icon design that they like developers to follow:22 This is a place where branding and strong visual design should come together into a compact. . Try to balance eye appeal and clarity of meaning in your icon so that it’s rich and beautiful. This can include a greater amount of detail than the smaller app icon. and needs to clearly convey what your application is all about. and clearly conveys the essence of your application’s purpose.

You can always hire a designer if you feel the need. There are a billion possibilities. Second. it’s a good idea to hire a designer. A gold star if you chose a concept that was delightfully simple and appropriate in your first swing at the icon. who has a distinctive style across all their application icons: I find designing app icons difficult. go design. and it’s fun to dive in and see what those are! Sebastiaan also had a few tips regarding whether it’s a good idea to attempt icon design yourself. Done? Start taking stuff out. Although that’s advice that we haven’t taken ourselves. Steal that spot. yet uniquely yours. I think my only tip would be to find someone who’s a great icon designer and pay them to do it for you. descriptive. Sexy Interface Design the designers imposed on themselves to make designs fit in and achieve a consistent result. let some designers take a look. But don’t take that from the designer guy. have some fun. or hire a professional from the outset: Generally. by all means design for yourself. front and center. Always consider consistency with the OS. If you make sure your design is simple and feels ‘native’ to the iPhone or iPad. It’s such a challenge to sum up everything your app does in a single. it can be the difference between ending up on some screen or on the home screen. If you’re capable and can be brutally honest in judging your own product.78 The Importance of Simple. memorable and beautiful symbol. . you can see how much fun you can have in those little rounded squares. What can you remove? Even more? Take it down to the basics and then some. This sentiment is echoed by Bjango. Something that is focused. If you’re unsure of the quality of your design work. Lastly.

and you’ll need to provide various resolutions for their different devices (iPhone. . Make sure you fine tune for all sizes. but also plenty of detail when the icon is shown large. too. and the high resolution iPhone 4). You’ll definitely need to fix and tweak your final 57x57 pixel (iPhone) or 72x72 pixel (iPad) home screen design. Sexy Interface Design If you really have to design your icon yourself. then you will probably want to ensure you have a prominent colour. Apple specifies a number of different required sizes for icons.ly/c4f64Y. iPad.79 The Importance of Simple. a recognizable silhouette and something that works very well at small sizes. These are outlined in the following table:23 Apple’s Icon Size Requirements Description Application icon (required) Size for iPhone and iPod touch (in pixels) 57x57 114x114 (high resolution) 512x512 29x29 58x58 (high resolution) 512x512 50x50 for Spotlight 29x29 for Settings Size for iPad (in pixels) 72x72 App Store icon (required) Small icon for Spotlight search results and Settings (recommended) 23 http://bit.

Sexy Interface Design Document icon (recommended for custom document types) Web Clip icon (recommended for web applications and websites) Toolbar and Navigation bar icon (optional) Tab bar icon (optional) 22x29 44x58 (high resolution) 57x57 114x114 (high resolution) Approximately 20x20 Approximately 40x40 (high resolution) Approximately 30x30 Approximately 60x60 (high resolution) 320x480 640x960 (high resolution) 64x64 320x320 72x72 Approximately 20x20 Approximately 30x30 Launch image (required) Both 768x1004 (portrait) and 1024x748 (landscape) Design Kits. . sliders and graphics you need to quickly create mockups of your apps. others are great tools that can help with wireframing and getting your ideas down on paper! iPhone GUI Design teehanlax. Interfaces and Icons In this short section.com/blog/2009/06/18/iphone-gui-psd-30/ This brilliant Photoshop GUI kit comes with all the different types of buttons. we’re going to share a series of links and resources to assist with your own interface design.80 The Importance of Simple. Some of these are pre-built templates that you can use in Photoshop or Illustrator.

com/gp/product/1430228237 For those of you who prefer to sketch out your applications. iPhone Stencil Kit uistencils. Icon ‘Shine’ Kit notlost. Saves time.com/2008/10/iphone-icon-shine-kit. iPhone Sticky Pad uistencils. You can then stick your designs around the office and create flowcharts of your apps. . These sketchbooks come in various different styles and sizes for different devices. iPhone Application Sketch Book amazon.html Easily recreate the glossy icon shine using this clever kit.com/products/iphone-sticky-pad Design your iPhone apps on this sticky pad that ties in with the above stencil.com/products/iphone-stencil-kit A brilliant little stencil with all the major buttons and shapes you will need to create quick and sharp mockups of your iPhone apps.com Quickly put your iPhone and iPad app designs on paper.81 The Importance of Simple.com/2008/11/26/iphone-psd-vector-kit/ Smashing Magazine brings a much simpler iPhone GUI for those of you focusing on straightforward applications. this book provides 150 templates at 1. looks great. App Sketchbook appsketchbook.5x zoom. Plenty of room to jot notes and wireframe in style. Simply drop your flat image into the kit and it layers the shine over the top.blogspot. Sexy Interface Design iPhone PSD Vector Kit smashingmagazine.

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They suggest that you should launch an application with minimal features. grandiose idea for your application. and consider producing just that. It’s easy to add new features as they’re requested. Even if you have a huge. beginning with a basic feature set is certainly the best place to get started. . Apple actually advises this approach in their developer guidelines. This cuts down on development costs and ensures people understand clearly what the core functionality of your application is. Determine the bare minimum of what a user would be satisfied with. but execute it phenomenally well.LEARNING TO KEEP IT SIMPLE AND ITERATE Most successful apps tend to approach a fairly simple concept. but you’ll encounter far more resistance if you try to remove something that a few dedicated users have become accustomed to having available. and then work on the basis that the most oft-requested features should probably be included.

rather than a half-assed product – is a good way to develop. especially when building upon an API: When creating larger. 37signals’ philosophy seems to be that keeping a product simple at launch – building half a product. We’re working on another app at the moment that’ll go even simpler still24. it’s very limited in comparison to their website yet it’s a fantastic application. your apps or any of the extra stuff that Facebook has added over the years. it’s always important to remain focused on adding value. more complex applications.84 Learning to Keep it Simple and Iterate Iteration in Action This iterative process has been used by many of the most successful applications in the App Store. . Select Start Studios completely understand the importance of starting simple. it focuses on what’s important to the platform and it does it remarkably well. It allows users to make posts. see other posts. 24 This turned out to be “Sketch”. but it’s my personal belief that if there are features that are not helping the users accomplish their primary task then these features are in the way. you just don’t have the patience for complexity.com/draft. They took this approach when developing their iPhone application for Highrise. it’s even more true on a mobile device that the app has to be simple. upload photos and a few other small things. I think if anything. so that we could wrap it up and get it out quickly. and feel it’s particularly important when developing for a mobile device: The Highrise application we built for the iPhone omits a fair amount of stuff. a straightforward sketching/drawing app for the iPad: http://37signals. It’s easy to throw in a ton of little cool features. When you have three minutes of downtime to do something with your phone. It doesn’t let you access your games. If you look at Facebook’s iPhone application.

25 Eric Hope – User Experience Evangelist. Apple states that “an app must solve a user’s problem clearly and elegantly. I started with three. my initial focus was to cover the few services I wanted right off the bat (FeedBurner. You’re not making any money if there’s no product out there earning income. Apple (via Sarah Parmenter. Garrett Murray started out by only offering statistics for a handful of web applications and services. I built the core app with growth in mind so it would be easy to add new services down the road. With Ego. Most successful projects focus on one simple task. now Ego supports eight. helping the user complete it as easily as possible. This is especially the case when you take into account the volatility of the App Store – it’s much better to get a product to market and to add functionality than to sit on it for a year without a release. FOWD London 2010) .85 Learning to Keep it Simple and Iterate In a similar vein. which is exactly what I’ve been doing over the last year. release early.”25 Stripping away all the unnecessary clutter is the absolute best way to achieve this. when launching Ego. And there are several more to come over the next few months. Mint 2 and Twitter). The App Store is full of examples where this process has worked for a developer. As the old adage goes. He’s gradually increased the scope of the application over time: There’s definitely a benefit to starting simple. release often.

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and many examples exist that show this approach works. In this chapter.PRICING YOUR APP RIGHT Pricing is a tricky concept. Just take a look at Apple’s “Top Grossing” list. each of which has its own advantages and disadvantages. Fortunately. If you believe that your application offers enough value. Different companies take wildly different approaches to pricing their apps. and have equal success aiming for a high price as compared to a lower price. the App Store has given developers the option of many different pricing models. . we’ll investigate which choice might be right for you. and can be very difficult to nail the first time around. don’t be afraid to charge more than a couple of dollars – people will happily pay.

Apple pays you on a monthly basis. You’ll also need to generate at least $250 worth of sales before Apple will release a payment. and Apple takes a 30% cut in exchange for handling downloads. With this in mind. it’s important to understand Apple’s revenue breakdown clearly. Be sure to factor this in. you may need to maintain a server that is capable of powering any community features you implement. As I’ve mentioned before. and distributing your app. Whether this is through direct sales of your app or advertising – the motive is usually the same. several thousand simultaneous users is still going to pose a problem. and plan carefully so you aren’t left with a huge hosting or bandwidth bill. the way that revenue sharing works means that you receive 70% of all sales of your app. so will the demand placed upon the hardware that you maintain yourself. credit card processing. payment processing. For those of you considering the web app route.. As your application grows in popularity. etc. it’s worth mentioning that the process of deciding how to price and sell your app can be difficult.88 Pricing Your App Right Breaking Down Your Revenue In all likelihood. it’s important to consider what the ongoing costs will be of running your app. Although Apple handles downloads. Even if this is just a simple database. David Kaneda had the following to say: . Before you pick a pricing model. or decide to give away your application for free. bandwidth. you’re getting into the App Store business to make money. so be prepared to wait a little while before the revenue from your sales reaches your bank account.

Charge for your application outright One of the predominant models on the App Store is to utilize both of these options – offer a free version of your application. and still get some return on our investment. Those who do. This is the iPhone equivalent of a “freemium” model – giving away a certain level of functionality for free and tempting users to pay for the full . It really is the best of both worlds. The Pricing Dilemma Broadly speaking. there are two options available to you when deciding how to generate revenue from the App Store: 1. Twitterrific is great. and an ad-free commercial version with additional features. or who want to directly support our development efforts. can purchase the adfree version. Most web app developers are currently using PhoneGap to get their web apps sold in the App Store — they could obviously create an entire repeatable payment system to go along with their app (as most desktop web app makers do).89 Pricing Your App Right Pricing is a universal challenge. to web and native alike. Many people don’t have any problem with viewing advertisements and for them. Give your app away for free and generate revenue from advertising or inapp upgrades 2. This approach is taken by The Iconfactory with Twitteriffic: We took this approach because we wanted to get Twitterrific into as many people’s hands as we could. but I’m not sure how comfortable people are with mobile web app subscriptions quite yet.

is priced slightly higher than the “baseline” standard for iPhone apps which is which is around $2. 44% sometimes try before they buy. In this respect.90 Pricing Your App Right experience. and draws them in to purchase the full application to play further. and only 4% “usually just purchase” the full version. Wallet.50 in North America. pricing becomes something of a marketing technique to persuade people to “try before they buy”. 52% always download the freebie. It’s important to understand that price alone doesn’t need to be the key motivator to persuade people to buy. It works in all manner of different niches. but particularly well for games.26 26 http://www.com/archives/average_price_for_iphone_apps_keeps_falling.readwriteweb. If you’re confident enough that a free trial of your application is the best way to persuade users to buy. at $4.php. This goes some way towards showing the power of this marketing method. for instance. . you should go for it.99. Do Users Download Trials? We asked our readers whether they download these free application “trials” before purchasing the full version. Giving away one level lets people get a feel of how the game works.

99 App Used Often High Price $4. the type of person using it. they might not even take a look.99 .99-$4. Of course. The trick is to ensure you charge a price that considers both the functionality of your application. people have also become accustomed to fairly low-priced apps in the App Store. I think most reasonable people are willing to spend a little more for a higher quality application if it’s something they’re going to use a lot. Here’s a general idea of how you could think about these factors affecting price: App Used Rarely Older / Professional User Young / Casual User Mid-Priced $1. We didn’t want to scare these people away.99-$4. and how often they will use it. That being said. In general. our biggest immediate audience is those who use the Mac version of the software.99+ Mid-Price $1. and whether people are happy to pay more for higher quality applications: Pricing really depends on what your app does and who you’re trying to reach. For them.91 Pricing Your App Right I asked the developer what their main considerations are when deciding on a price.99 Low Price $0. so it was important to still price Wallet competitively with other standalone apps.99-$1. price isn’t too much of a concern. there are also a significant number of people who buy Wallet for iPhone yet don’t use the Mac version. If the price tag is higher than $10. With Wallet. They’re happy to be able to buy an app that lets them sync over and access all of their important data on their phone – something they’re likely to use every day.

There is.92 Pricing Your App Right Avatron take the approach of putting themselves in the shoes of their customer: We look at it as our customers would. A few people had never paid for an app. One third of all our respondents had paid a maximum of exactly $9. If you take a look at the top grossing list. based around an advertising-supported free version. People are absolutely willing to pay a premium for apps that provide value to them.99 or $10 for an application.99 apps. Simplenote’s pricing model is particularly interesting. and a yearly subscription to remove advertisements and unlock premium features. What would we be willing to pay? And like good MBAs. What Are Users Willing to Pay? One of the questions we asked in our iPhone user survey was “What is the most you’ve ever paid for an iPhone app?” The results were interesting. we “maximize demand curve utilization” by experimenting with prices and studying price elasticity. it isn’t packed with $0. the option to do something slightly different. By far the most common response was around the $10 mark.58. suggesting that a large majority of people are happy to pay a respectable fee for software that really helps them solve a problem. The overall average was $14. of course. This was done in an effort to move beyond a traditional pricing model: . and a few had paid up to $100.

. and you actually have a great deal of flexibility on how to charge for your application. This is far from the case. We’re working hard on the next major version. The more people we can help. over 80% of respondents. We need to keep growing. you’ll want to consider the different types of advertising available. and you need to compete for their hard-earned cash! Advertising Options If you choose to take the approach of giving away your application for free (or at least offering a free version). the results of which aren’t entirely clear yet. it might seem that the App Store has a fairly strict “paid or free” approach to generating revenue. the more motivation we have to keep improving the service. Users don’t have a limitless budget. But we’re thinking bigger.93 Pricing Your App Right We were experiencing some measure of success with a more traditional pricing model. What is the Usual Weekly Budget? One final question we wanted to ask our readers related to their weekly “app budget”. spend between $0 and $5 each week. and the more potential we have as a business. On the surface. Around 15% spent $5-10. and only a handful spend any more than $10 each week. This was a risky move for us. Just how much are people happy to spend on software each week? An overwhelming majority. It’s very motivating to have an impact on people’s lives. and could probably have maintained that as a profitable small business.

the iPhone SDK 4 lets you easily embed iAd rich media ads into your application that are dynamically delivered to the user’s device. Here are just a couple to consider. iAd debuted in the iPhone’s latest operating system update – iOS 4. and are paid on a monthly basis for any advertisements sold. and others through different means. Google / AdMob – admob. You set the system up. and Apple handle filling the space with an advertisement. and there are many different advertising companies competing for your business. in effect. They . of course. You can integrate the service into your app.94 Pricing Your App Right Mobile advertising has taken off in a huge way since the iPhone rose to popularity. You are.com Another advertising network. you receive 60% of the advertising revenue generated. As a developer. Various others still exist – some on traditional impression or click models. we’ll take a look at it first.com As this advertising platform is provided directly by Apple. Apple keep the other 40% as a payment for finding advertisers and handling payment. is AdMob. recently acquired by Google. Apple wanted a way to integrate advertisements within applications so that the user doesn’t need to leave a particular app and visit a website after clicking an ad.apple. each taking a different approach: iAdSM Advertising System – advertising. a direct competitor to iAd. If you’re a developer. The agreement and breakdown is fairly simple.net One advertising platform that has found its way into a number of wonderful iPhone apps is Fusion Ads. not limited to using Apple’s advertising system. Fusion Ads – fusionads. This is.

though. and focuses mainly on designcentric services.95 Pricing Your App Right display their advertisements in applications such as Byline. Simplenote. This is an “invite only” advertising network. pay for an ad-free app. 88 I'd rather pay for an ad-free app (37%) If you were hoping for an easy answer. . Textie and Trackthepack. which re-enforces the choice of many developers to offer both routes. Offering an advertising funded app. might be the best solution. or whether they didn’t mind: I'd rather have a free app with advertising (27%) I don't mind (36%) Chart 1 P. It’s good to know about. and worth keeping an eye on if your application falls into this particular niche. with the ability to turn off advertisements for a fee. if they’d rather have a free app with advertising. sorry to disappoint! The results are incredibly evenly split. What Do Users Think About Advertising? We asked our iPhone users how they feel about iPhone advertising.

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and on an ongoing basis. Spending time and effort (not necessarily money) in the run up to your application launch can be a brilliant way to get noticed immediately. . Many successful applications are adopted very quickly. this type of response won’t come easily. Unless you’re incredibly lucky (or have a completely outstanding idea).THE PERFECT PROMOTION MIX There are two important stages when promoting your application – at launch. and make their way into Apple’s top listings within a few days.

It’s only really an effective marketing mechanism for the apps in the top charts (less than 0.98 The Perfect Promotion Mix Perfecting Your Website The bottom line is that it’s down to you to be the ambassador for your app. You can’t just hit submit. That’s one route to perfect. So once the App Store as a marketing mechanism has been discounted. and expect to be an overnight success purely because you’re in the mystical “App Store”. tell everyone who will listen about it! As we mentioned previously. there are various techniques you can employ to make sure that your App Store listing is as clear and compelling as possible. The most important of these is also the simplest! Talk to people about your application.05% of the apps in the store are currently in the US Top 100 chart). Realistically. but the other is your application’s website. This is your chance to give a far greater amount of information to a potential buyer. Go to conferences and Apple events. you are left with traditional marketing methods. write to bloggers and people who are influential in the area that you want your application to sell. Dave Verwer outlines two options for your website: . you are not going to get there without alternative methods of marketing. Dave Verwer feels the same way: The most important thing here is to not depend on the App Store to be your marketing. Tell everyone you can find about it. and really impress them with your app’s functionality right from day one.

a product website should go beyond what the App Store page offers. I always liked the way Apple does these kind of videos by coupling the tutorial with emotion. You need to create something that carries the style and branding of your application onto the web. but several tutorial videos work best. both of these techniques can work well. this could be a page on your existing company site or for larger apps it could be a dedicated web site like we produced for our app. For smaller apps.99 The Perfect Promotion Mix It is very important to have a web site for your application – something that people who are interested can visit and find out more about you and your app. 27 http://balloonsapp.com. Sophia Teutschler has a few interesting thoughts to share: In my opinion. The important thing to remember is that simply tacking another page onto your existing site isn’t enough. More screenshots than on the App Store page are a must. Most important are ways to show what the app does without relying on a demo version. Balloons!27 Generally speaking. .

100 The Perfect Promotion Mix Here are just a few examples of iPhone app websites that are executed extremely well: sophiestication.com/articles tapbots.com/software/pastebot/ .

You’ll need three things: 1.com It’s obvious that the same care and attention went into these websites as did the applications themselves. A piece of software that changes your mouse cursor into something more useful for a demo video. or any other similar app. Jing. Your favorite screen recording application – Screenflow. take a look at one of our recent posts on iPhone. For some more great examples.appstorm.101 The Perfect Promotion Mix rampchamp. and makes the iPhone Simulator more 28 http://iphone.AppStorm. There’s no easy way to record video from your iPhone directly. Camtasia.net/roundups/design/40-stunning-iphone-developer-websites/. but there are a few clever tools to achieve something similar using the iPhone Simulator on your desktop.28 Quick Guide: Creating a Video Demo One important element to get right is the video demonstration. . 2.

SimFinger29 is a great solution. developer.com/phonefinger/. running through a few of the app’s features (keep it short and snappy). 3. You can overlay your own audio commentary later if you decide to. though ideally your app should be designed in a way that doesn’t require a voiceover to describe what’s going on! Export the video to your favorite video sharing website.com/atebits/SimFinger. Generating Launch “Buzz” “Buzz” is a vague concept. 4. I’d recommend SimFinger in particular. or website. and embed it into your website for everyone to see. and adding any final extras in a piece of video editing software such as iMovie. but PhoneFinger30 also does the trick. Your compiled app. running in Xcode’s iPhone Simulator It’s then just a case of recording the portion of your screen containing the iPhone Simulator. as it has the ability to add other application icons to your iPhone home screen. But how do you start this process in motion for your own creation? 29 30 http://github. Far more people will be likely to pay for your app if they can see it in action before they buy. change the carrier to something more realistic than “Carrier”. . http://www. It’s easy to see when another application has it – the Internet lights up with mentions of a particular app.wonderwarp. and add a layer of gloss over the simulator display.102 The Perfect Promotion Mix realistic.

Then. everyone buys at once. and hide every last detail. We’ve also seen both methods work for other companies. It either needs to look visually stunning. It’s a gamble. Prepare well. Bjango had some fascinating thoughts to share on generating buzz. or offer a completely immersive and addictive user experience. One application that launched with great success was Attic. I’m not entirely sure which is best. you’ll also be held accountable for any features you’ve said you were going to include. you need to create something brilliant. but means you’ll hit everywhere at once. an iPhone app for finding hidden gems within your iPhone’s music library. giving you momentum and a decent chance of success. It also means you can gain feedback about your app before release. I think the most important part of the entire process is having an app that’s worthy of discussion. To be honest. so that when it’s finally released. as bloggers and users picked up on the app: . People should want to talk about your app. They feel that you can take one of two approaches: Option 1: Ultimate secrecy Anyone who’s familiar with Apple will know how this one works. prep the press and launch at full velocity. teasers and full blown video demos. It typically only works if you’re well established. and how to handle a successful launch.103 The Perfect Promotion Mix First and foremost. The idea is to spread as much information about your product before launch as possible. We’ve tried both. Something so incredible that people have to tell their friends about it. when the time is right. But beware. Option 2: Slowly building momentum A carefully placed trail of hints. Devin Ross found press releases sparked quite a bit of interest. and the competition will know what you’re up to.

Sending out promotional codes to blogs can be a good solution. videos. Do make a press page on your web site. John Gruber picked up on the application and linked to it on his site.com.AppStorm receives several requests every day from developers looking to have their application reviewed or covered on the site. I never sent a press release to him either. That brought tons of traffic. but do not rely too heavily on this as bloggers and journalists can get hundreds of press releases a day. It’s important that you don’t rely completely on a traditional press release. Dave Verwer has some more thoughts to share on this topic: Press releases are useful to help get the word out once you release your app. These are great points to take note of. In retrospect. and everything else that reviewers might need if they do decide to talk about your app. I started to see a bunch of mentions on Twitter and I knew something organic was happening. You can use a service such as PRMac31 to get a broad distribution of your release to hundreds of sites. and stayed up all night just to make sure everything went smoothly. I go through a three question process when deciding whether to commission a review of a particular application: 31 http://prmac. iPhone. though (like we did for Balloons!) and have all of your artwork. as can offering them to sites that would like to run a giveaway. . I sent out press releases with promo codes to a list of blog sites that morning.104 The Perfect Promotion Mix I released Attic on March 1st. I wasn’t aware of how fast people picked up on the application. I was surprised how fast it was too.

of course. blogging about Ramp Champ on our main website. it’s always a positive sign.32 What probably helped the most. 3. Traditional advertising such as web and print were used only sparingly. then I’m likely to download the application. Twitter and. however. I asked Gedeon from The Iconfactory what their main promotion techniques were. A final application to profile that got all of these pointers completely correct is Ramp Champ – a game that had a phenomenally successful launch. Facebook. 32 http://iconfactory.com. It’s worth taking the time and care to send someone a personal message. and which factors held importance in its surge to popularity: We used many of the most popular methods available today. branding. and write a review if I feel that our readers will find it useful. clear and welldesigned. .105 The Perfect Promotion Mix 1. or the site? If it’s a generic press release sent out in bulk to hundreds of people. it doesn’t reflect well on the developer. I’ll likely pass over it in favor of something else that’s different and unique. Does the idea sound interesting? If the application is just another clone of something remarkably mundane. This really helped build anticipation for the game so when the actual launch rolled around. How much care and attention has been put into screenshots. were the tiny sneak peaks of some of the artwork from the game that we posted and leaked a month or so prior to launch. and the app’s website? If the interface looks logical. many people already knew about it. These old ways of advertising are not nearly as effective any longer. Is the email personally directed to me. If all three of those conditions are met. give it a try. 2.

106 The Perfect Promotion Mix The idea of building up a community during development. and keeping people informed can be a great technique. the increased visibility serves to increase sales. if your app is selling 300-800 copies a day. It means that when you do come to flip the switch. If you’re app is selling over 1. so being featured here is a great way to fuel sales and ignite a catalyst effect. you have an established base of people ready to buy your application. it takes more and more effort or “push” to reach the top lists. and maintain your position. Being a featured app definitely helps. then you are on the path to a really successful launch. based on one of his recent projects: Sales requirements vary wildly depending on the category of application and whether your app is free or paid. Dave Verwer also had a few statistics to share on this subject. Typically this will at least double your sales. However. I can give a recent . Many iPhone users browse these as a guide to what’s new and popular on the App Store.000 then you’re probably in the Top 50. Reaching Apple’s Top Lists If you’re able to gather enough promotion to push your application into one of Apple’s Top Lists. You can sit in the list for a while if you have a good product. then you’re probably in the Top 100 somewhere. Generally speaking. Once you’re there. at least for a short while. being featured isn’t nearly as good as being in that Top 25. offering “sneak peaks”. if not triple them. I asked The Iconfactory to share a few statistics about how many sales it takes to reach the Top 10 rankings in the App Store. and how being a “Featured” app affects interest: As the App Store grows and more apps are added.

Obviously the numbers will be smaller in the paid photography app charts and those numbers would need to be significantly bigger to get into the top 100 charts in a very popular category like Games or Entertainment. When we were in the top half of the Top 100 charts. we were getting between 1300 and 1600 downloads per day. and now we are in the bottom half of those charts we are getting between 600 and 800 downloads per day. we have a free application which has been in the Top 100 free photography apps charts in several countries around the world since it launched a couple of weeks ago. What better way to find out how users find new applications than just to ask them? That’s what we did. 98 .107 The Perfect Promotion Mix example though. and the results were as follows: Recommendations from Websites Recommendations from Friends Searching the App Store Browsing by Category Apple's Top Lists 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Never Not So Often Quite Often Very Often Chart 1 P.

Do I Have Any Chance of Reaching the Top 100? With so many different applications in the App Store. Interestingly. it can often feel that reaching any form of “Top List” is impossible. along with Apple’s Top Lists.000 per day. Air Sharing HD. The number of sales required to hit that mark has changed over time. but generally has been over $15. we asked respondents whether they’d ever reached Apple’s Top 100: . Far fewer browse through the different categories within the App Store. In our developer survey. we spoke to Dave Howell from Avatron: We’ve had good luck with the rankings. this outcome could be slightly biased as most respondents found the survey through AppStorm – an iPhone software website! Finally. three of our apps (Air Sharing. and Air Display) have reached the position of #1 top grossing third-party app. no one method had a particularly high number of people “never” using it.108 cont’d The Perfect Promotion Mix A large proportion of readers find recommendations from websites useful. Users tend to utilize all these methods to some extent. even if a few are explored more regularly than others. This suggests that it’s certainly worth promoting your application through all these avenues – particularly approaching blogs and websites. So far. Admittedly.

You’ll also be more likely to reach this level if you already have a track record on the App Store. they’ll be far more likely to spend money on your latest release. and plenty of launch promotion to give yourself a chance. be that Twitter.109 cont’d The Perfect Promotion Mix Yes (24%) No. You’ll need a great idea. not yet! (76%) Chart 2 P. or any other website around the world. a well designed interface. Facebook. 139 If almost a quarter of our 80 survey participants were able to make it. . so can you! Unfortunately. If iPhone users have enjoyed your software before. there’s no secret formula to pushing yourself into the realms of a Top 10 iPhone application. Go Social With Your App The power of social media is something that cannot be overlooked. It’s almost a certainty that everyone in your user base will use some form of online social service. MySpace.

and require that a user connects to their social media account in order to use it. this could take on the idea implemented by the developers of Canabalt. or through 33 http://www. The power of word-of-mouth shouldn’t be overlooked. In its most basic form. or playing along with your friends.33 This allows you to send out a tweet letting people know how far you progressed in a particular game: Other games take this to a more in-depth level. for sharing statistics and achievements. People’s recommendation of your application – whether done explicitly.110 The Perfect Promotion Mix You can use this fact to your advantage when designing an application. Whichever method you use. .canabalt. Many successful apps have a way to link your Facebook/Twitter account with the software. this type of social integration can mean than your users help to promote your application for you. Posting out tweets and updates from the app (providing they have specifically given their consent to do so) is a great way to easily find new users.com.

Bjango couldn’t have put this better: In terms of connecting with users and building a following. and keep track of what people are saying about you. The vast majority of people hear about Simplenote from a friend. and join in the discussion. and thank people when they say something positive about your app. co-worker or blogger. An existing base of engaged customers are very likely to purchase your work in the future. Set up a Twitter and Facebook account for your app. organic growth: We experimented with hiring a marketing company for a short period of time. and betas. . Simplenote relies on this to a large degree. but the results were very difficult to track precisely. and they are also a fantastic resource for gaining feedback on app ideas. building up a gradual following on these different services will be an invaluable asset when you come to launch your next killer application. As well as this. If that’s on Twitter.111 The Perfect Promotion Mix allowing the software to let their online “friends” know that they are using the app – is very important. then make sure you’re there to answer any questions they have. but also offers a channel to enter into a conversation with them. Use social media to your advantage. For now we’re happy with solid organic growth. and make sure that it’s at the forefront of your mind right from the start of the development process Connecting With Users Social media is not only a great way to have users promote your application for you. It will give you the opportunity to help people out who are having problems. mockups. you’ll need to find where your users are. and have found it to lead to reliable. Be honest and sincere.

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I asked the developers of Headquarters about the techniques they use to keep users interested in their application, and whether an email mailing list worked particularly well: We actually use a few techniques to keep people interested in Headquarters. We post updates on Twitter, our mailing list and spread the news via word of mouth. On top of all that, we also ran some advertising on Fusions Ads. Out of all of the different methods we use to generate interest in Headquarters, I think the most important and most effective way was to generate buzz via word of mouth. Since ours is not a mass-appeal application that everyone can use (as opposed to a $1.99 game) it was very important that we established a reputation within the community. I would, along with the rest of the team, personally message people who were praising (or criticizing) the application. Basically I wanted to let them know that I actually care about what I built and I am dedicated to improving Headquarters. This seems to have struck home with a lot of people because many of them turned around and recommended Headquarters to their friends. The mailing list, in my opinion, wasn’t as effective as I wanted it to be. I don’t think we’ll drop it, but I consider a message from a mailing list to be roughly equivalent to a simple press release. Sometimes they’re very interesting and everyone picks up on it, but most of the time they’re just ignored. There’s certainly no harm in having a traditional email newsletter on your website, but this isn’t likely to be as effective as deliberately going out to find your users where they are already. Don’t expect them to come directly to you with feedback – seek it out.

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Advertising vs. Word of Mouth
In addition to focusing on social media, blogs, and word of mouth, you also have the option of advertising your application in a more traditional sense. The most effective place to do this is wherever your users spend a great deal of time. If it’s a design-related app, consider an advertisement on a series of design blogs. If it’s a mass appeal application, a website related to iPhone apps themselves might be a good option. The traditional rules of marketing apply here, and it’s important to connect with the greatest number of relevant people possible for your money. We asked Glasshouse Apps about the different types of promotion they’ve tried for their apps, and how effective have they been: We’ve tried a few: in-app banner ads, website banner ads, sending out promo codes, forums, and of course Twitter. All of these have been worthwhile simply from a learning point of view, but I’d recommend not throwing too much money or resources into any one avenue of promotion until you’ve tested it on a small scale first. The best type of promotion is when Apple do it for you for free, but that’s out of your hands.

Interestingly, many developers took the approach that advertising is more or less a “break even” game. It certainly wasn’t hailed as a great way to reach potential users. A word of caution against running straight towards the idea of advertising comes from Garrett Murray, who feels that word of mouth can be just as important: Initially, I only promoted Ego via word of mouth. I announced it on my site and people linked it around in the community. This worked

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very well. A few friends with big audiences linked to it (people like John Gruber), and word of mouth spread. About six months after I launched the app I played with some advertising, but in the long run it wasn’t entirely beneficial. I ended up mostly breaking even. Ego is a very niche app, and word of mouth seems to work best.

And finally, yet another developer who sees word of mouth as vital is Dustin MacDonald, the developer of Wallet: These days, I think word of mouth is far more powerful than your average marketing campaign. If you have an exciting, compelling app, users will find out about it. You can accelerate this process by taking advantage of social networking sites. Set up a Facebook page, start a Twitter account, and otherwise make it easier for people to spread the word about your app.

It’s no surprise that a general theme started to emerge. Word of mouth is a remarkably effective marketing tool, and paying for advertising shouldn’t be considered a necessity. Although it’s undoubtedly worth experimenting with, advertising is not used as the core promotion method by any developers interviewed. Of course, the best thing to do is the all-encompassing approach to promotion taken by Avatron: We do everything. We employ a good PR firm, buy banner ads, reach out to bloggers and journalists, attend conferences, use social networks, design our icons and screen shots to appeal to Apple’s Developer Relations staff, give t-shirts to prominent influencers, run sales and free promotions, issue updates as frequently as practical, and provide quotes for books such as this one!

but it’s well worth it. . As you invest time talking to users about your application and helping them with problems. We’ve mentioned the importance of your App Store rating before. Select Start Studios shared their advice on offering support for iPhone applications: It’s very important that you make it easy for users to get in touch with you. don’t make it hard on them. We all take turns answering e-mails. It will become obvious when certain functionality isn’t clear. and the level of post-sales support you give can have a big impact on this. As a result. be proud of it. Don’t be afraid to put your name and other information next to your product. or that users want to be able to do something extra that your app isn’t capable of. talking to people on Twitter and even taking phone calls.115 The Perfect Promotion Mix Top Notch Support and Regular Updates The process of selling your application doesn’t end as soon as the user clicks “Buy App”. You built it. you’ll build up a greater understanding about which areas of your application are in need of refinement. we divide support requests throughout the entire team. It may consume a little more of your time handling these things personally. We may spend a considerable amount of time per week on support but it’s definitely not time wasted. It’s almost guaranteed that people will try to get in touch with you for whatever reason. It’s incredible how appreciative people are when they can easily contact a real person and get a direct and honest response. we offer support in many ways: we have a support forum and we’re always reachable by direct e-mail and Twitter. For Headquarters specifically.

and when something does go wrong we can afford the time to address it properly. ideas and dreams. the application needs to be bringing in enough revenue to account for that time! 34 35 http://assistly. The important thing to remember is that if you’re going to invest 2-3 hours per day supporting your users. Email is great. This is an area where simplicity helps us. How Long Does Support Take? Based on the results of our survey. Simplenote synchronizes people’s thoughts. developers spend two hours each day on support. We do our best to be transparent and responsive whenever there’s a problem. and can save a great deal of time down the road. but it might not be the medium that suits you best. Since there’s less that people are able to do with our app. Another website that many iPhone developers use is Get Satisfaction35.116 The Perfect Promotion Mix The developers of Simplenote understand this completely: Customer support is extremely important to us. They’re our window into all support emails and tweets. That’s a huge responsibility. Of course. http://getsatisfaction. Finding the right tool for offering support is important.34 which is a new service. We’ll eventually launch a self-service portal that is powered by them as well. on average. Our beloved customer support tool is Assistly. there’s less that can go wrong.com. a community driven support site that allows people to easily ask questions and submit requests. .com. this varies depending upon the size of your application and the range of functionality on offer.

A few years ago. but steady quality updates throughout the year keeps the app fresh and your customers happy.117 The Perfect Promotion Mix In addition to offering support. The one thing to pay close attention to with big events is the lead time – because large events often require firm commitments months in advance. Sophie Teutschler feels that this is a necessity: Keeping the updates coming is the best thing you can do. This isn’t a requirement – many successful apps are updated very infrequently after any initial bugs are ironed out. and whether they’d recommend it to other developers: I’d recommend pitching your app in all the places you can find people with iPhones! The guys at Carsonified are especially supportive when it comes to UK-based startups. Updates could be used to fix any pending issues. or add requested features. I asked them how this process worked. but any opportunity to talk to a group of people about your new creation is a great one. you need to make sure your app is submitted and approved well ahead of schedule in order to best capitalize on the exposure.com. and it was very well received. There’s no need to update your app every month. Conquer Your Stage Fright One final possibility for ongoing promotion that shouldn’t be overlooked is the idea of presenting your app at a conference or meet-up. . This doesn’t need to be a huge event. I watched the developers of Broadersheet pitch to a panel at a Carsonified36 “Future of Web Apps” event. 36 http://carsonified. users like to see your application updated on a fairly regular basis.

Which Promotion Methods Do Developers Find Most Beneficial? One of the questions in our developer survey asked which promotion methods they have found to be most effective in the past. Many cities have local iPhone/OS X user and developer groups.118 The Perfect Promotion Mix It needn’t necessarily be a conference for hundreds of people. so don’t invest too much energy into this route! Chart 1 P. The least effective method was a “well written press release”. 110 . This can also be a good place to meet likeminded developers and share advice. This is followed by an ongoing relationship with bloggers. The results tied in closely with the interview responses throughout this chapter: Word of Mouth Giving Away Free Promotion Codes An Ongoing Relationship with Bloggers A Well-Written Press Release Spending Money on Advertising 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Irrelevant Not So Effective Quite Effective Very Effective Word of mouth is – by far – the most effective method of promotion. and are always looking for new people to come and talk about their latest creation.

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The rest of this chapter will walk you through a huge spectrum of useful resources. Hopefully you’ll feel well equipped to get the process started. where’s the best place to begin? We’d be remiss not to give you a helping hand into the (often confusing) world of iPhone development. it’s time to get started! But. and step confidently onto the path towards becoming an iPhone app entrepreneur! . websites.USEFUL RESOURCES Now that you’ve received insight from so many successful iPhone developers. podcasts. books and conferences that offer a helping hand with getting started in the App Store.

ly/ipgsguide Not just getting started with programming for the iPhone. Introduction to Objective-C http://bit. event handling. Getting Started Guides http://bit. and this is the best place to go for official information.ly/iphig We’ve mentioned this document throughout the book. iPhone Application Programming Guide http://bit. to . drawing. Data Management.ly/ipprogguide Quite simply an overview of everything to do with iPhone programming. Security and much more. or to any practical applications. Human Interface Guidelines http://bit. Their Getting Started guides are particularly good. This is Apple’s style guide – both to your application interface. but it’s worth reiterating its importance again here. but also getting started with Audio. Read it twice.121 Useful Resources Apple’s Documentation Apple makes plenty of their own documentation available.ly/objcintro Apple’s hefty introduction to Objective-C doesn’t specifically refer to iPhone development. but it has just about everything you need to know in plenty of detail. and also to how it works. files and multimedia support. From the basics of learning Objective-C and Cocoa. this selection covers pretty much everything you will need to know about iPhone development. Books If reading books is the best way for you to enjoy learning. including windows.

No programming experience is required before you pick up this book.to/exploresdk Dave Mark and Jeff LaMarche take you through the beginning stages of iPhone development.to/cocoaguide After successfully coming to grips with Objective-C. enabling you to go on to create high quality apps for the iPhone. . This book gives you a good grounding into what you should code yourself. Neil Goldstein takes you through an introduction to the language relating both to iPhone and Mac OS X development. There are many other books out there. offers a good range. Beginning iPhone 3 Development: Exploring the iPhone SDK http://amzn. Previous programming experience is necessary.to/ipprojects Designing for the iPhone is probably unlike anything else you have previously designed for. especially in Objective-C or at least in a C-related language. as certain aspects are standardized and the screen is much smaller than any desktop or laptop. you will get a good grounding in designing and programming for the iPhone interface. the next step would be to learn how to utilize the Cocoa Frameworks in your development of both Mac OS X and iPhone applications.122 Useful Resources interface design and 3D Games Development. I think. and some Cocoa experience would be beneficial. and it also comes with a CD of source code as well. but this selection. and what you should let Cocoa do for you. Objective-C for Dummies http://amzn. Learn Cocoa on the Mac http://amzn.to/objcdummies The majority of iPhone apps are written in Objective-C so you need to know the language before getting started. iPhone User Interface Design Projects http://amzn.

you are introduced to the concepts of graphics programming using OpenGL along with collision detection. Taking you through topics such as optimizing performance and streamlining your interface. but this book takes an entirely different approach to programming. such as the “How to Program” series. and what to consider when migrating desktop applications down to the iPhone. Contributions come from a number of different app developers giving you a broad range of opinions and plenty of good advice.to/advancedprojects For those developers looking to take their iPhone apps to the next level. The next step on from learning the iPhone basics would be to start creating 3D apps. The book also gives you a brief introduction to getting your app approved by Apple. but I’m sure there are a few wannabe iPhone game developers out there. The book gives you a good introduction to creating 3D games that utilize the iPhone’s touchscreen capabilities and is a great next step up from programming basic apps. 3D for iPhone Apps with Blender and SIO2 http://amzn. animation and interacting with the environment. Introducing you to all the main iPhone programming concepts and libraries using 14 complete apps. iPhone for Programmers – An App Driven Approach http://amzn. how to present data intensive apps. Core Location and many other technologies.to/appapproach Deitel and Deitel write some of the best programming books around.123 Useful Resources This book introduces you to designing for the iPhone. you’ll learn how to integrate Cocoa Touch. Map Kit. the book also introduces different writers to . though this requires some previous programming knowledge to understand the example source code given. including how best to use the limited screen real estate. iPhone Advanced Projects http://amzn.to/iphone3d Programming apps for the iPhone is one thing. this book is for you. Using Blender as the 3D content creator.

Learn about networking with other iPhones. covering all the tools and technologies needed to develop killer iPhone applications. integrating iPhone features and interface design is covered in these detailed videos. be sure to check that it’s for a recent version of the Xcode and the iPhone/IOS SDK.apple. Before you pay for a screencast. iPhone Application Development http://bit. streaming audio and debugging errors in your code. iPhone Tech Talk World Tour http://developer. and slightly newer than the above tutorials. Topics include game development. it’s almost as good as being there… just without the pressure of assignments! .com/iphone/ Also from Apple through the Developer Program. Screencasts There are a lot of great screencasts out there for learning iPhone development – some are free. UI and web applications over the 13 hour course of video tutorials.124 Useful Resources talk about a variety of advanced topics. Apple’s Getting Started Tutorials http://developer.apple. Featuring the full lectures along with PDFs of the lecture slides and all the supporting code. and others come at a price.ly/iphonestanford One of the most popular series on iTunes U. Stanford University’s iPhone Application Development is updated for the Winter 2010 semester. integrating SQLite and Push Notifications. Everything from introducing the iPhone SDK to fundamentals of Cocoa. comes this 13 video series.com/iphone/ Once you have registered for the free iPhone Developer Program you get nine introductory videos to help you to get started with iPhone app development.

. Podcasts Inspiration need not come in a purely visual format – there are plenty of podcasts that can be really helpful for picking up the basics and gaining insight from other developers. A few of these include: Mobile Orchard http://mobileorchard. Pragmatic Screencasts http://pragprog. Gain some insight into what goes into producing an app and the different technologies utilized. the course is fully in English and covers everything from interface building and debugging to audio. these screencasts come highly recommended for learning about specific aspects of iPhone development.125 Useful Resources Highly recommended to all those with some knowledge of a C language and Object Oriented Programming concepts. video. drawing and networking. Don’t worry if you can’t speak German.com/screencasts/v-bdiphone/writing-your-first-iphoneapplication The series entitled “Writing Your First iPhone Application” is a particularly good introduction. PeepCode Screencasts http://peepcode. with five episodes priced at $5 each.com/category/podcast/ An iPhone Developer podcast talking to some of the people behind the most popular apps in the store.com/ Priced at around $10 each.ly/rwthiphone Similar to Stanford’s course above. Lecture slides are available as PDFs although you cannot get hold of any of the source code or assignments. iPhone Application Programming http://bit. RWTH Aachen in Germany also uploaded their course to iTunes U.

and Cocoa. the iPhone SDK. they’ve got you covered! iPhone. Android. Topics include native development with the iPhone.tutsplus. but a useful resource. Blogs and Websites Mobiletuts+ http://mobile.ly/mdnshow Useful Resources A “one stop shop” show for Mac and iPhone developers.appstorm.126 The MDN Show http://bit. gain inspiration from other developers.ly/onmac Conversations and tutorials on development for Mac and iPhone software.net/ Obviously I have to recommend our own website as a brilliant place to find out about new applications. Windows and Blackberry platforms. OnMacDevelopment http://bit. the Mac Developer Network show takes on a magazine style format and is very easy to listen to. and techniques for building mobile accessible web sites with HTML 5. cross-platform development with tools like Appcelerator and Phone Gap. Whether you want to create the next killer app or become a pioneer of the mobile frontier. Not too technical. with leading authors and experts on topics such as Snow Leopard.com/ Mobiletuts+ is all about quality tutorials for mobile developers – all mobile developers.AppStorm http://iphone. and connect with a huge base of iPhone users! .

Requires a paid Developer Program account to access (but you’ll need one of these anyway to distribute your iPhone application in the App Store). iPhone Flow http://www.com/ Useful Resources Updated about once a week.raywenderlich. A vital read for those wishing to develop in Cocoa2D. where you will meet lots of like-minded developers. iCodeBlog provides some very useful and detailed tutorials.127 iCodeBlog http://icodeblog. Forums If you want to exchange ideas with other developers and seek help.com/ Some great iPhone tutorials and tips from developer Ray Wenderlich.com/ A community blog where users post links to items they feel will be of interest to other developers. . there’s no replacement for an active forum filled with helpful members.iphoneflow. ManiacDev http://maniacdev.apple. Hopefully one of the following will fit the bill: Apple Developer Forums http://developer.com/ One of the best blogs out there regularly updated with quality tutorials and resources. Ray Wenderlich http://www. You can pick up some neat tips here.com/devforums/ Apple’s official forums.

If a few beers are involved as well. Conferences There’s no replacement to sitting down and talking about your latest iPhone development project with other developers. iPhone Dev SDK http://www.37 or you can just Google for local developers and set something going yourself! 37 http://appleusergroupresources. and the legal side of coding apps. These conferences are a great opportunity to hear some inspiring speakers.128 iPhone Dev Forums http://www. and chat with other developers.tipb.com/forum/ A massive forum with over 22. Covering everything from basic development to tutorials. iPhone World http://forum.iphoneworld.000 members.com/iphone-developer-forum/ Get helpful advice from other developers and browse the informative blog for the latest iPhone and iPad news while you’re there. It’s also worth looking out for meet-ups in your local area. technical iPhone development.ca/ A large forum with over 20.000 members. and topics centering around the App Store.iphonedevforums. so much the better.com/forum/ Useful Resources Get help with coding the iPhone SDK. web apps and also advice on app promotion. . Apple have their own list of user groups.com/?page_id=394. and general Apple and iPhone news. game development.iphonedevsdk. TiPb iPhone Developer Forum http://forum.

org The iOSDevCamp (formerly known as the iPhoneDevCamp) is a not-forprofit organization that gathers regularly to develop applications for iPhone and iPod touch using both the native SDK and web standards. Register early. The event .com/iphone2010/ This two-day conference occurred in April 2010.com/ Useful Resources Occurring on a regular basis.voicesthatmatter.360idev. 360iDev is the first and (supposedly) still the best iPhone developer conference in the world.com/wwdc/ Apple’s main conference seems to take on an increasingly mobile-centric approach every year. as in recent years the conference has sold out quickly.iphonedevcamp. Apple Worldwide Developers Conference http://developer. iPhone Developer Summit http://www. and one of Core Competencies/Interface Development.com/ Open to anyone with an interest in iPhone development. and it’s worth checking to see whether it will be repeated. It features some excellent technical sessions on both iPhone and Mac OS X development. You have to pay the registration fee in advance (approximately $499).129 360iDev http://www. the iPhone Developer Summit is usually held in Santa Clara. If you can’t make it though. and the schedule was split between a day of Best Practices/Game Development.iphonedevsummit. The cost was $495 for early bird registration. iOSDevCamp http://www. don’t worry – Apple usually publishes their videos of conference sessions online soon after the event. but the four-day event features some of the top speakers in the industry.apple. California. USA. Voices That Matter http://www.

Facebook Connect http://developers.google.com/p/oolongengine/ For those of you wanting to create games for the iPhone.x but should work with current releases. 3D game creation becomes a whole lot simpler and it ties in with the Bullet Physics SDK. and aims to assist those of you embarking on your own native app development.facebook. If you’re looking for a few interesting pointers to get started with different open source libraries. It was built for iPhone 2. ObjectiveFlickr http://github. This is the best way to connect your application up to Google’s services. these links may prove to be useful: Google API Client Library http://code.com/connect.com/lukhnos/objectiveflickr ObjectiveFlickr is an API for connecting to a Flickr account through your iPhone or Mac app. . Development Libraries. the Oolong Engine provides a great starting point. YouTube and Analytics among others. Oolong Engine http://code. featuring content from the participants themselves. This code provides a reliable method of authentication for Facebook services.google. APIs and Frameworks This section is for the technically adept. Docs.php?tab=iphone Integrate Facebook Connect into your app to connect with your Facebook friends.com/p/gdata-objectivec-client/ Google provides some brilliant Objective-C APIs for its services like Maps.130 Useful Resources format is “unconference” or Barcamp-style.

31 Example Applications http://appsamuck. Phone Gap is a framework for building mobile apps using Javascript.com/p/cocos2d-iphone/ Useful Resources Another game development framework. without even having to code. LiquidGear runs as the middle man and can integrate with databases. Model Baker http://www.google.com/ For those of you not interested in learning Objective-C.widgetpress.com/modelbaker Point and click iPhone app development? Model Baker introduces the quickest way to make iPhone applications.net/ Develop iPhone apps using Javascript and HTML.com/ Appsamuck provides source code for 31 example applications showing you how to achieve a number of different application programming tasks. Touch XML http://code. PhoneGap http://phonegap. LiquidGear http://www. maps. contacts and location services among a number of other features. built-in accelerometer. although this one is for 2D rather than 3D games.liquidgear.google. Unfortunately these aren’t brilliantly commented so you will need to be fairly adept with Objective-C to work it out. .131 Cocos2D http://code.com/p/touchcode/wiki/TouchXML Touch XML is a lightweight replacement for NSXML allowing parsing of XML data on the iPhone. Based on Cocos2d for the Python language but converted to Objective-C for iPhone development.

tutorials. Before giving up on a particular piece of functionality. Three20 http://three20. frameworks and helpful APIs available for native app development.com/products/rhodes/ Useful Resources Rhodes is an open source framework for developing mobile apps for all platforms. It’s the code that powers the Facebook iPhone app and many other apps in the App Store. It’s based on the Ruby programming language and can compile apps for Android.132 Rhodes http://rhomobile. A solid starting point to avoid beginning from scratch. Blackberry and iPhone. Obviously this only scratches the surface of the different resources.info/ Three20 is an iPhone development library. be sure to search around to see whether someone else has come up with a solution already! .

10 .

ONE PIECE OF ADVICE We’ve already determined that constraint is a wonderful thing. . and I thought the same would be true when asking developers for their advice. The following section highlights some concise wisdom from developers.

FInd people that can help achieve your goals. But make something people want. This is fairly conventional wisdom and it works for us. There are so many business models you can consider. Heed their wise words carefully! 37signals Scratch your own itch. I’m fairly new at this myself. Simplenote My advice isn’t earth-shattering.135 Words of Wisdom One Piece of Advice I asked developers to offer a single piece of advice for aspiring iPhone entrepreneurs. . you have to look at the application development as a business. The iPhone landscape is always changing so you have to work quickly and adapt. Chances are that if you’re having a problem. others will too. Figuring out what customers want and creating awareness for the application is something that needs a lot of consideration. So solve that. There are a lot of guys just like you. and persevere. You need to invest in developing a product. Devin Ross – Attic I would suggest that if you want to make a profit as a developer (and who doesn’t). Coding the application is only half the battle. listen to their feedback.

There are a lot of apps in the App Store and sometimes it can seem as if no one will ever notice your work. Let your customers have a way of reaching you directly so they can let you know what they like and dislike and what they want to you to improve. keep at it. i. the App Store will notice. I can say that . I almost threw in the towel right there. Secondly – listen to your customers. Gedeon Maheux – The Iconfactory Don’t get discouraged. Thirdly – as corny as it might sound – don’t give up. It takes hard work and more than a few attempts before you’ll probably have a moderate hit.136 Sarah Parmenter – You Know Who One Piece of Advice Aspire to develop the best of your category and not to settle for mediocrity in favor of revenue. I’ve been really fortunate to have had excellent partnerships on my apps. Feedback is so important when developing apps. Your app should always do something exceptionally new and exciting if you want to stand out. If you make a quality product.e. But 18 months later. don’t expect a gold rush. find a great partner. don’t churn out a load of crappy apps – aspire for one great one! Dustin MacDonald – Wallet Don’t forget to innovate. When I looked at the sales figures for Barista’s first day on the App Store. Just don’t give up! Glasshouse Apps Firstly. and it fills a badly needed niche. and you’ll probably see some success. That being said.

Try and find at least 5 or 10 people that you can count on to help you out on short notice. Dave Verwer – Shiny Development Get out there and try it! Don’t worry about making your first app an all singing. and part of the quality assurance for that is making sure the app is installable from a machine other than your own development computers. Take a simple idea. Release something that starts to get you going. building and shipping an app. There is no experience better than actually going through the entire process of designing. Once your app is out. all dancing.137 One Piece of Advice developing that one app has probably been the most influential business decision I’ve made in my entire working life. that’s great. and it will teach you an incredible amount about how to approach the process in the future. Sophia Teutschler – Sophiestication Software Make apps! It’s that simple. Get something simple coded and get it on the store. If you can find more that are willing to beta test. instead of reading about or planning. I always learned the most by doing. . get it going and go for it. Just try to release something quality. mind blowing application. You can work on your masterpiece as your second application! Lee Mallabone – Broadersheet Be selective when choosing your beta testers. but it’s important to have a few that you can call up and ask to install a new test version of your app today. it doesn’t have to be super unique or even big. you’ll want to be able to turn out new releases quickly.

Oh.138 Garrett Murray – Ego One Piece of Advice If I can only offer once piece. For simple utility apps. and grow a thick skin. they will find a variety of apps sold at prices between $10-$50. Like anything else. will you lose 40% of your customers? In most cases. Look at it this way: If you price your app at $4. I think there’s a trend of undervaluing apps right now. despite what you may read from a minority of developers. 99% of people selling apps aren’t making untold sums of money. . with a huge amount of apps between $1-$3. I think the answer is no: If you’re properly marketing your app on social networks and such. but by charging 40% more. because customer feedback can be extremely frustrating.99. and you need to make regular updates to it. especially for those looking for mass adoption. is not a get-rich-quick system. you’re still making more money. app developers are really doing themselves a disservice. this may make sense. you need to market and promote that app. you need to work hard to make a decent income. Don’t go in expecting to be rich overnight. it would be that the App Store. you might lose 10-20% of the potential customers. If one browses the highest revenue apps in the app store. and offer some general advice on this one: Price for value. You need to produce a quality application with wide appeal. But for a great majority of apps that apply to niche markets and business users. David Kaneda – Sencha I’ll step down from my web app soapbox for a moment.99 instead of $2.

. When developing iOS apps.” Especially as more and more developers begin to look at iPad and Universal apps. Many of the early apps in the store bore out that prejudice.139 One Piece of Advice There are other reasons. it’s tempting to think of it as a platform for small apps. don’t skimp on the kind of process and diligence that you would commit to the development of desktop apps. But there’s no reason why iOS apps can’t be every bit as deep as desktop apps. “What would I pay for this?” Dave Howell – Avatron Because the iPhone is small. too. like being associated with quality by being “premium. they should simply be asking themselves.

11 .

concerns and doubts about embarking on this process. Like we did. Is it possible to make a living developing for the iPhone? How long does it take to develop an app? How many hours will it take to offer support? Is this career really more enjoyable than my existing work? In the first ever extensive App Store developer survey. We’ve surveyed over 80 individual iPhone developers and companies to gather a comprehensive set of statistics that shed light on the App Store. .THE iPHONE DEVELOPER SURVEY It often feels as though there’s a mystical shroud hovering over developers operating in the App Store. I’m sure you have all manner of questions running around your head. we aim to answer all your questions.

132 .000 (9%) Less than 100 (19%) 250 – 500 (22%) 100 – 250 (46%) Chart 1 P.142 The iPhone Developer Survey Part 1 – Business and Company How many hours does it generally take to develop an iPhone application? 1.000+ (4%) 500 – 1.

132 25 30 35 40 45 Are you aiming to grow your company’s staff.143 Other The iPhone Developer Survey How many people are employed by your company? 11+ 6 – 10 2–5 Just me! 0 5 10 15 20 Chart 2 P. 133 . or are you happy with your current size? We're happy as we are! (50%) We're looking to grow (50%) Chart 1 P.

000 – $10.000 – $50.000+ $25. what is the financial cost of developing an iPhone app? $50.000 $5.144 The iPhone Developer Survey In your experience.000 $500 – $1.000 $10. 133 15 20 25 What is your total monthly revenue from sales of iPhone apps in USD? .000 $1.000 – $25.000 $1 – $500 Just my own time 0 5 10 Chart 2 P.000 – $5.

134 Could you make a living solely from your iPhone app’s revenue? Yes (19%) Not yet (81%) Chart 2 P. 134 .145 The iPhone Developer Survey How has iPhone development affected your personal income or company revenue? Reduced our income (4%) Made no difference (20%) Increased income significantly (34%) Increased income slightly (42%) Chart 1 P.

146 The iPhone Developer Survey What’s the average age of those working at your company? Is iPhone development your full-time job? Yes (26%) No – I do something else as well (74%) Chart 1 P. 135 How many hours do you spend on support each day? .

147 I work in a shared office (13%) The iPhone Developer Survey Do you work from home. in a private office. 136 . or in a shared office? I work in a private office (13%) I work from home (74%) Chart 1 P. 136 Do you enjoy iPhone development more than your previous job? The same! (23%) No (3%) Yes (74%) Chart 2 P.

148 The iPhone Developer Survey Part 2 – Developing Apps How did you learn to develop for the iPhone? I'm not a programmer! I attended a course I taught myself I was already proficient in Objective C 0 10 20 Chart 1 P. 137 30 40 50 60 How many days. does it take for your iPhone app to be approved by Apple? . on average.

138 . 138 How would you rate the effectiveness of these promotion techniques? Word of Mouth Giving Away Free Promotion Codes An Ongoing Relationship with Bloggers A Well-Written Press Release Spending Money on Advertising 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Irrelevant Not So Effective Quite Effective Very Effective Chart 2 P.149 Perfectly Crafted App Store Listing The iPhone Developer Survey How important are these characteristics for your app to be a success? Low Price Great Interface Design Unique Idea 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Irrelevant Not So Important Quite Important Very Important Chart 1 P.

139 No. Developers could have reached the Top 100 in their local App Store – not necessarily the US App Store. not yet! (76%) n.b. 139 . Chart 2 P. For this question.150 The iPhone Developer Survey Have you ever been featured in an iPhone TV advertisement? Yes! (3%) No. we didn’t specify the Top 100 in any particular country. not yet (97%) Have you ever reached Apple’s Top 100 ranking? Yes (24%) Chart 1 P.

151 The iPhone Developer Survey What’s the highest you’ve ranked? Have you considered developing for the iPad? No (16%) Yes – I've released an iPad app (29%) Yes – I'm working on one now (55%) Chart 1 P. 140 .

152 The iPhone Developer Survey Do you develop for any of the following other mobile platforms? Other Nokia Windows Mobile Blackberry Android 0 5 10 Chart 1 P. 141 15 20 25 30 Do you offer both a free and paid-for version of your application? Yes (25%) No (75%) Chart 2 P. 141 .

153 The iPhone Developer Survey Will you be using Apple’s “iAd” system? Probably not I'm thinking about it Definitely 0 10 20 Chart 1 P. 142 30 40 50 60 Are you happy with the current state of the App Store? I'm fairly unhappy with the App Store (6%) Everything's great (45%) It has a few problems (49%) .

and how they find your app. what they like. spending time and money on developing an app that might never get approved. Here are a few of the best pieces of insight we received: Reviews and star ratings are irrelevant. it’s because you don’t like it. I’d give developers better analytics about App Store listing views. and what they struggle with on a regular basis. It is a little bit scary. reviews and ratings can often be negative and do not reflect the general opinion. If I could change one thing. and usually when you remove an app. It’s a black box at the moment. it would be to make the approval process a lot more open and transparent. I’d also make it easier for people who are looking at an app in iTunes to click buy (on their computer) and have it start downloading immediately over the air to their phone. . Usually people give a star when they remove an app.154 The iPhone Developer Survey What would our respondents like to see change on the App Store? We’ve collected a series of responses from our survey participants about what they’d like to see change on the App Store. I would also formalize an appeal process for rejected apps. Apps get rejected every day for what appear to be arbitrary reasons. People tend to share their opinion more often when they are frustrated rather than when they are happy. what they search for. In the end. I have to say something as a person who never even owned a Mac until three months before my first app was approved. Apple has done a very good job at making the entire development process work.

This is great – it’s awesome to see large companies turn their focus on such a fun market. This isn’t so much the case now. For example. there are plenty of great applications out there that are simply ignored because they’re too small to market. My one proposed feature would be to include an additional subdivision in the top lists – highlight the small one to five people development shops. but all in all. and Apple walks you through every step. And it is free (take that. The App Store is very unforgiving to indie developers. The whole reason why so many developers flocked to this platform is because it was a indie developer friendly eco-system. the development software is extremely well done. Give them the spotlight that they deserve. The review process needs to be more transparent and accessible. and too small to be noticed. if sometimes tedious. there are legitimate complaints. . Visual Studio). Ubisoft and all of the other big titles are re-releasing their titles on the App Store to great fanfare and profit. if an app is rejected. and everything but advertising is done for you – Apple sells your app worldwide. and even in the support forums. There is help available in Xcode. The process you have to take is straightforward. get it approved. The downside is that the smaller development shops lose all of that “free press” that was attributed to the Top 100 sections because they’re crowded with large developers. on the Apple Developer website. You make an app. EA. and it’s much harder to make it. and sends you checks! Yes.155 The iPhone Developer Survey First. I should be able to contact the reviewer for more information than that included in the rejection letter. in the documentation. it is a beautiful system for developers of any level.

156 The iPhone Developer Survey I had a problem with my first iPad app where one bug seemed to occur over and over. and also by pushing resubmissions to the front of the queue. and every time I fixed it and resubmitted it. I finally discovered that the reviewer was continually reviewing the old version! Things like this could be prevented by allowing me to contact the reviewer. . it would be rejected again for the same bug.

12 .

000 iPhone users over the course of one week in July 2010. Hopefully this information will help you make decisions about promotion. and what aspects of your application to spend the most time on. how often they update them. targeting.THE iPHONE USER SURVEY As a developer. we’ve collected responses from over 1. We’re offering the data for you here. These participants were all readers of AppStorm. how many they buy. so feel free to use it as you see fit! . the devices they use them on. it’s vital to understand just how users experience your software. This could relate to how they find apps. or all manner of other information! In this final part of the survey.

159
55 – 64 (1%) 45 – 54 (4%) 35 – 44 (14%)

The iPhone User Survey
What was the age of our participants?
Under 18 (12%)

18 – 24 (33%)

25 – 34 (36%)

Chart 1 P. 146

Which iPhone/iPod touch do you own?
iPod Touch (3rd Generation) iPod Touch (2nd Generation) iPod Touch (1st Generation) iPhone 4 iPhone 3GS iPhone 3G iPhone
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350

Chart P. 147 n.b. If participants owned more than one of these 1devices, we asked them to select the one that

they used most on a day-to-day basis.

160

The iPhone User Survey
How many apps do you have on your iPhone?

(Those apps you have actually installed on your iPhone right now.)

How often do you download app updates?
Less than once per week (11%)

Once per week (16%)

Every day (34%)

A few times per week (39%)
Chart 1 P. 148

161

The iPhone User Survey

Do you use any of the following mobile platforms?

Other

Nokia

Windows Mobile

Blackberry

Android

0

20

40

60
Chart 2 P. 148

80

100

120

140

Do you have any web apps on your iPhone home screen?
What's a web app? (4%) Yes – More than one (33%)

No (42%)

Yes – Just one (21%)
Chart 1 P. 149

162 The iPhone User Survey How much do you usually spend on iPhone applications each week? $50+ $20 – $50 $10 – $20 $5 – $10 $0 – $5 0 100 200 300 400 Chart 1 P. 150 I'd rather pay for an ad-free app (37%) . 150 500 600 700 800 900 How do you feel about iPhone advertising? I'd rather have a free app with advertising (27%) I don't mind (36%) Chart 2 P.

163 The iPhone User Survey What’s the most you have ever paid for an iPhone app? If one is available. do you download a free version of an app before purchasing it? I usually just purchase it (4%) Sometimes (44%) Always (52%) Chart 1 P. 151 .

152 How important are ratings when deciding whether to buy an app? I don't pay attention to ratings (2%) Not very important (7%) Very important (48%) A little important (43%) Chart 1 P. 152 .164 Recommendations from Websites Recommendations from Friends The iPhone User Survey How often do you use the following to find a new iPhone app? Searching the App Store Browsing by Category Apple's Top Lists 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Never Not So Often Quite Often Very Often Chart 1 P.

CONCLUSION Embarking on the journey of developing an iPhone application is nothing to be taken lightly. Spend time crafting your idea. It won’t be easy. don’t forget to enjoy the process from start to finish. Best of luck. keep it simple. always put design first. but the satisfaction of watching your application shoot to fame will be worth every minute. and never stop promoting your app with an unrelenting passion. and equipped you to take your first few steps in the right direction. don’t be afraid to seek help from others. and I’ll see you in the App Store! David Appleyard AppStorm Editor . understand the App Store guidelines. Most of all. Hopefully this book has provided you with knowledge you didn’t have before.

and writers.broadersheet.com cocoia.com youknowwhodesign. I’d like to re-iterate my thanks to the following people who helped in various ways: Interviewees Graham Clarke Michael Johnston & Fred Cheng Dave Verwer Sarah Parmenter Marc Edwards Joshua Tessier.com 37signals.com simplenoteapp.com iphone.com bjango.com selectstartstudios.com .com sencha.com sophiestication.CREDITS This book couldn’t have come together without the help and contribution of many different developers. Tariq Zaid & Adam McNamara David Heinemeier Hansson & Jason Fried Devin Ross – Attic Sebastiaan de With Garrett Murray Dustin MacDonald Gedeon Maheux – The Iconfactory Lee Mallabone – Broadersheet Sophia Teutschler – Sophiestication Software David Kaneda – Sencha Dave Howell – Avatron glasshouseapps.com ego-app.com iconfactory.com shinydevelopment.com acrylicapps. iPhone users.com atticapp.com avatron.

I really appreciate you taking the time to contribute. and hope you enjoyed reading the resulting statistics! AppStorm Writers Finally.072 iPhone users that completed our survey.appstorm. Many of the fantastic links and resources collected by Mark are reproduced in the “Resources” chapter of this book. 38 http://iphone.Survey Participants Thank you so much to the 80 iPhone developers and 1. . thank you to Mark Sinkinson who contributed an incredibly useful post to AppStorm entitled “The Complete iPhone Development Toolbox”38.net/roundups/developer/the-complete-iphone-development-toolbox/.

He’s also the editor of Phototuts+. and Web apps with over 60. He built his first website over ten years ago and is passionate about the Internet. a series of sites relating to Mac. and online business. UK. David lives in Manchester. and is never without his trusty iPhone. loves playing with the latest gadgets from Cupertino.ABOUT THE AUTHOR David Appleyard is part of the Envato team and manager of the AppStorm network. blogging.net. with his girlfriend Jen. iPhone. V413HA V . and manages a few other popular blogs including Design Shack.000 daily readers. Check out David’s personal website at http://davidappleyard. or follow him on Twitter: @davidappleyard.

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