ACADEMIC WRITING

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ADRIAN HRINCESCU MANAGEMENT I 29.11.2012

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Principalele cauze sunt asimetria informa țională și comportamentul oportunistic al agenților. and discussion . prin presiunea pe care o exercită pentru a obține câștiguri imediate. dar acestea să fie orientate preferential spre anumiti stakeholderi. susținerea unei logici care recomandă reinvestirea profitului sau neutralitatea politicii de dividend ar evidenția perspective neviabile pentru firmă și ar ridica V ER SI ON Doctorand: ADRIAN HRINCESCU MANAGEMENT I PAGE 1 . În prezent. insa. într-o lume în care asimetria de informații și puterea de negociere sunt esenta succesului pe piata financiara. As my personal thought. În contextul realității curente si a principiilor guvernanței corporative. T THE he „abstract” of my dissertation is reproduced below. dar aceasta nu generează obligatoriu bogăție pentru toți. print a copy of this document. the abstract contains five conceptual elements (moves). I further update it in a manner I consider to be proper – that improvement coincide with the 3rd homework. results. they are differently colored so that to be easier highlighted within the text: background. cu toate acestea piața a cunoscut numeroase scandaluri financiare mai mult sau mai putin surprinzatoare. există un anumit ciclu istoric din care piețele financiare nu pot scăpa. nu se mai poate aborda cu indiferență modul de repartizare a rezultatelor. that was not really the best conception and.A C A D EMI C W R I TI NG Homework 1 Translation into English of the „abstract” corresponding to dissertation and its structure pointing out Based on the information you have exposed in classroom. OR I GI NA L Informatia contabila pe pietele de capital Problematica eficienței informaționale a piețelor este amplă. Manifestarea acestei tematici la nivelul firmei rezida în repartizarea profitului pe destinații. Dincolo de oscilațiile de moment ale piețelor. ceea ce sărăcește viziunea strategică și pune în pericol dezvoltarea pe termen lung a firmei. poate cândva părea importantă doar poziționarea într-o stare de profitabilitate si ideea repartizării profitului pe destinații se aborda ca o temă marginală. manageri și creditori poate face ca firmele să genereze cash-flow-uri. as a following. exactly as it was agreed (to be read: imposed) with the project supervisor. methods. O firmă poate fi profitabilă. task 11/page 24 save time in the future. purpose. Uneori acționarii devin propriile lor victime. iar răspunsul la IN ROMANIAN întrebarea dacă există piețe financiare eficiente este extrem de discutabil. Asimetria de informații manifestată între acționari.

piata financiara. but nevertheless. in a world where information asymmetry and bargaining power are the essence of success in the financial market. In the context of current realities and principles of corporate governance. Beyond IN ENGLISH markets temporary oscillations a historical cycle restrains financial markets with chains so t hat no way out can be considered. MBO THE OR I GI NA L Accounting information on financial market The issue of market informational efficiency is extensive and on whether or not efficient financial markets would exist has been a high scientific debate. financial market. This debating state motivates to more deeply issue’s exploration. referred as " profit paradox" . V ER SI ON KEYWORDS: profit paradox. este o chestiune de noroc. guvernanta corporativa. Se dovedeste de multe ori ca acest fascinant fenomen. by the pressure they exert in order immediate gains to be achieved. this fascinating phenomenon. Different notorious researchers’ answers do not always provide the fairly unconcerned state which other financial areas have as hallmark . but afterwards these ones would be preferentially allotted to certain stakeholders. the market has experienced numerous. once. financial scandals. Variability analysis of the property’s concentration degree and MBO’s benefits testing constitute the innovative methods which highlight viable solutions and progress for companies. The main causes are information asymmetry and opportunistic agents behavior (the agency theory is invoked). Această stare de dezbateri motivează pentru a analiza problematica mai profund. Sometimes shareholders deceive themselves becoming their own victims. CUVINTE CHEIE: paradoxul profitului. „paradoxul profitului”. A business can be profitable. Analiza variabilitatii gradului de concentrare a proprietatii si testarea facilitatilor MBO sunt metodele inovatoare ce evidentiaza solutii si evolutii viabile pentru companii. only the placement in a state of profitability might seem important. which blurs the strategic vision and compromises long-run development of the company. information asymmetry. corporative governance.A C A D EMI C W R I TI NG un oarecare semn de întrebare cu privire la sinceritatea managerului. Often. MBO Doctorand: ADRIAN HRINCESCU MANAGEMENT I PAGE 2 . Răspunsurile oferite de diverși cercetători nu oferă întotdeauna starea de liniște ce caracterizează alte domenii financiare. managers and creditors may cause firms to generate cash-flows. asimetria informationala. The information asymmetry between shareholders. is a matter of luck. but the idea of profit sharing into classes was approached as a collateral issue. The implication of this theme at the company’s management level lies in profit sharing destinations. Today. more or less surprising. asserting a logic which recommends profits reinvestment or dividend policy neutrality would highlight non-viable outlooks for the company and would raise some question marks on manager’s sincerity. the results distribution cannot be indifferently dealt with any longer. but it does not necessarily generate wealth for all.

the doctoral research title is: Multinational organizations’ management – strategies for mutual adaptation andadvantagesinter-transferwithculturesand civilizations of host countries. This article seeks to analyze empirically the net effect of aggressive penetration in the “economic culture. Whereas innovation is often the responsibility of specialists in R&D. TY PE A Real world phenomenon The extension of international trade implies the societies are more exposed to alternative attitudes. intercultural management and knowledge management. the underlying creative skills and problem-solving abilities are possessed by everyone. beliefs. TY PE A Standard practice TY PE B Purpose or Objective Doctorand: ADRIAN HRINCESCU MANAGEMENT I PAGE 3 . C and D. and values leading to a Schumpeterian process of creative destruction whereby culture is destroyed on some margins and enhanced on others. marketing.A C A D EMI C W R I TI NG Homework 2 Task 4 / page 11 My research area is a niche referring the intersection point between strategic management. B. P oint 1: own examples of open sentences for each type: A. design or IT. ideas. At the moment.

The opening sentences are colored in purple. B. first and foremost. is the tool we considered to analyze the national reactive cultural patterns. the first ten abstracts have two simultaneous opening sentences: one Doctorand: ADRIAN HRINCESCU MANAGEMENT I PAGE 4 Abstract no. P oint 2: Categorization of the opening sentences in my reference corpus (20 abstracts). C and D. But. Type A Type B Type C Type D 01   02   03   04   05   06   07   08   09   10   11  12  13  14  15  16  17  18  19  20  TOTAL 5 11 13 1 . namely only the four distinctive types of „soft” strategies. The entire articles are archived in a file I also sent you via e-mail altogether with this document you are currently reading. The Emerald’s abstracts are structured and delimited in a standard way so that each abstract contains separately specified the Purpose and Researcher actions as well.A C A D EMI C W R I TI NG TY PE C Present Researcher Action The Boston model of configuration in standardization. The 20 abstracts are listed further down. TY PE D Problem or an Uncertainty The renewed interest in the product customization debate among academics and professionals has concentrated in the question of whether to customize multinational companies’ products or adapt international products to foreign markets. Therefore. please take a look in the table that groups the mentioned sentences by type A. The abstracts between 1 and 10 are retrieved from Emerald Journal.

Concluding. and were subsequently tested by utilizing a Delphi panel of international subject matter experts. It is expected that these models could be improved by including national political and legal differences and additional national economic variables. National cultures TI TL E 0 2 Cross-cultural leadership ABSTRACT 02 Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to summarize a successfully defended doctoral dissertation and to place this research in context to emerging areas of international project management (PM). Research limitations/implications – Research efforts point to the skills that project and business leaders must have to effectively lead cross-cultural teams. bank control. and state ownership to represent ownership structure. Design/methodology/approach – Results reported in this paper were based upon action learning. the authors addressed only the effects of ownership structure and national culture. Type B = 11 opens. and cultural intelligence. Practical implications – The findings demonstrate that national cultures of the home countries of MNCs have powerful influences on their governance structures. and its emphasis is recommended in future cross-national organizational research. leadership. Research limitations/implications – Although the models were successful in explaining MNC board structure. and to encourage others to embark on further research related to this important topic. Findings – The primary finding was that there are five dimensions of cross-cultural leadership intelligence (XLQ) that enable leaders to function effectively in any culture: societal. The authors use ownership concentration. Using agency theory and institutional theory. TI TL E 0 1 ABSTRACT 01 Corporate governance and national culture: a multi-country study Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show that corporate governance structures differ significantly across countries. Type D = 1 open. business. Type C = 13 opens. They view institutional structural norms as components of national culture and infer the nature of these norms for governance structure from Hofstede’s national culture dimensions.A C A D EMI C W R I TI NG of type B and one of type C. Findings – The findings show that national culture has a dominant influence on corporate governance structure. the distribution is: Type A = 5 opens. Design/methodology/approach – The hypotheses are tested with data on 399 multinational manufacturing firms based in 15 industrial countries. This distributions is quiet natural as long as it is habitual t he presentations to start from general to particular. virtual or co-located. It suggests the areas of research Doctorand: ADRIAN HRINCESCU MANAGEMENT I PAGE 5 . Keywords: Corporate governance. it examines how ownership structure and national culture influence the size and leadership structure of the corporate boards of multinational firms based in industrial countries. Originality/value – This paper links national culture with governance structure. or group.

Design/methodology/approach – The approach is to collect rankings of perceived goals of business leaders in 17 countries. Originality/value – From academic perspective. Findings – A detailed typology of trust is developed. thus allowing the identification of differences in culture when dealing with trust building elements in different sectors in the food supply chain. and so to provide a means of training and testing potential leaders. Recession United States of America TI TL E 0 4 Towards a cross-cultural typology of trust in B2B food trade ABSTRACT 04 Purpose – This paper aims to develop a hierarchical typology of trust elements for business-to-business trade among European companies in the food sector. but with exceptions. Research limitations/implications – Data collection was between 1995 and 2002 and analysis is based on judgment of evening MBA students with day jobs.A C A D EMI C W R I TI NG that need to be undertaken to put metrics on each dimension. sociology. greed. from their employees who are attending evening MBA courses. Business planning. the synthesis of anthropology. Research limitations/implications – Since the buyer’s perspective is adopted in this paper. and leadership enhances the body of knowledge of PM. For practical applications. Findings – There are marked differences in goal ranking between countries. Culture. management. business. Keywords: Leadership. An extensive literature review about interorganizational trust lays a foundation for designing a draft typology based on previous studies. Delphi method. Fine-tuning and validation of the typology is achieved through an exploratory field study based on 18 qualitative in-depth interviews with key informants in five EU countries. Design/methodology/approach – The paper integrates desk research literature study and a qualitative survey of food industry companies. Originality/value – The paper illustrates the unusual but credible data source from which the crisis could have been predicted. overall ranking across countries follows the US model. grain. psychology. Metaphors TI TL E 0 3 American culture and the 2008 financial crisis ABSTRACT 03 Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to trace the cultural roots of the presently ongoing crisis. meat and olive supply chains. The typology developed here must also be Doctorand: ADRIAN HRINCESCU MANAGEMENT I PAGE 6 . National cultures. further research is needed to validate the typology on the seller side. Although it is highly specific to the food industry. with special attention paid to the influence of culture. the dimensions identified can be employed and utilized to begin training of international leaders. Keywords: Strategic objectives. Conflict management. involving practitioners from the fresh fruit and vegetable. Practical implications – This paper explains the present financial crisis from a hypertrophy of US cultural goals: growth. and short-term gains. it is designed to be neutral to culture and sector.

it incorporates deliberative team processes into the model as a second-stage mediator. quantitative approach and collects data from 98 teams. Findings – The results provide support for the assumed impact of cognitive heterogeneity and also support the existence of sequential mediation pathway. Team working. which responds to calls to understand the role of process variables in team knowledge creation efforts (Drach-Zahavy and Somech). collaborative behaviors. It can serve as a checklist for any company that is interested in improving its relationships with suppliers or buyers. Food industry. and whether debate operates as a second stage mediator. and suggests that these knowledge differences produce their effect by triggering deliberative. Business-to-business marketing. aimed at quantifying he relative importance of the different trust elements. for instance within a descriptive research quantitative study. Originality/value – The paper advances the research on diversity. This responds to calls to understand the factors impacting on the performance of diverse teams (Ayoko and Hartel). Practical implications – The typology stimulates the consideration of cross-cultural or cross-sector differences in the salience of trust attributes and its construction process confirms that reputation management is an extremely important determinant of success or failure. providing researchers with a useful tool for conducting experimental research on trust creation mechanisms. First. Keywords: Trust. Knowledge creation TI TL E 0 6 ABSTRACT 06 Purpose – This paper seeks to identify the practical challenges of implementing a code of conduct in the supply chain management of multinational mobile phone industries from diverse cultural Doctorand: ADRIAN HRINCESCU MANAGEMENT I PAGE 7 Cultural and legal challenges in implementing code of conduct in supply chain management of mobile phone industries: Sony Ericsson case study . it investigates the role of team cognitions in the creation of new ideas by cross-cultural teams. The paper utilizes a survey-based. with debate operating as a second stage mediator between cognitive heterogeneity and knowledge creation. Second. Originality/value – The paper adds to the body of knowledge about inter-organizational trust. Keywords: Cross-cultural management. Design/methodology/approach – To investigate the impact of intervening variables on diversity’s impact in teams.A C A D EMI C W R I TI NG tested in practice. cross-cultural team dynamics and knowledge creation in two main ways. the paper assesses whether cognitive heterogeneity operates as a mediating variable between cultural diversity and knowledge creation. International trade TI TL E 0 5 Cross-cultural group performance ABSTRACT 05 Purpose – This paper aims to explore the assumption that the impact of cultural diversity on knowledge creating capability is consequent to associated differences in knowledge and perspectives. which is analyzed using causal steps approach.

A “cultural lens” is used to understand the level of ICT engagement in project organizations. Ethnographic interview in a case study setup is employed to extract actual cultural beliefs. Mobile technology TI TL E 0 7 ABSTRACT 07 Cultural consciousness and the effective implementation of information and communication technology Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss how culture. Therefore. while some basic codes of conduct compliance should be forced on the whole mobile phone industry. The CA investigates the conflicts between the “espoused values” and “actual beliefs” of members to understand culture. influenced by the project setup and contextual issues. Code of conduct. Monitoring. Compliance. Design/methodology/approach – This study is based on qualitative interviews. Keywords: Corporate social responsibility. analysis of codes of conduct and the practices of Sony Ericsson as well as of one of its suppliers. Design/methodology/approach – Cultural analysis (CA) is employed as the overarching research methodology. These beliefs are then analyzed through the CA framework to explain cultural environment and its impact on ICT implementation. Originality/value – This paper contributes in developing an understanding of: how CA framework through deciphering “espoused values” and “actual beliefs” can assist in studying organizational issues. Originality/value – Each company should define its own standards and limits of responsibility within the context of ethical sourcing. It is suggested that neither a simple linear prescription nor overlooking specific contextual aspects is beneficial for effective ICT implementation. A pre-existing CA framework with established “espoused values” for ICT implementation is used in this study. Communications technology. Information technology.A C A D EMI C W R I TI NG and legal contexts by analyzing critically how a multinational company manages the CSR concept in its supply chain. Findings – Codes of conduct should be perceived differently within different contexts. Cultural analysis. cultural and legal issues have to be considered when formulating and implementing codes of conduct. impacts on information and communication technology (ICT) engagement. This implies that effective ICT adoption requires careful consideration of the cultural traits in the design and implementation phases. Both cultural and legal challenges have to be considered. and when assessing compliance. Cultural beliefs PAGE 8 Doctorand: ADRIAN HRINCESCU MANAGEMENT I . The development of codes of conduct in the mobile phone industry is an ongoing process. Keywords: Australia. Construction industry. Communication. Project teams. Multinational companies. Trust. Findings – The ICT-related behavior of the project team members is contextual to a project environment. Supply chain management. and how the contextual issues shape the culture in a project organization leading to “integrated” or “fragmented” ICT implementation. Relationships. through a multiple perspective approach to cultural assessment.

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of controversial cultural attitudes on collaboration and the use of most diverse knowledge capital of employees being regarded as a key resource for innovation and competitive advantage.A C A D EMI C W R I TI NG TI TL E 0 8 ABSTRACT 08 Exploring the influence of national cultural context on CSR implementation Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to determine how national cultural context may be harnessed to support corporate social responsibility (CSR) implementation when sourcing fashion garments from developing country manufacturers. Keywords: Sri Lanka. Design/methodology/approach – Based on a comprehensive literature review. especially between partners coming from diametrically different cultural categories represent one of the key challenges of knowledge management in international business co-operations. Fashion. Garment industry. Practical implications – Analyzing the success of CSR implementation in the Sri Lankan export garment manufacturing industry enables the identification of country-specific factors which support CSR implementation. TI TL E 0 9 ABSTRACT 09 A new organizational memory for cross-cultural knowledge management Purpose – Effectively managing the cultural environment is an important stepping stone towards international business success. nonparticipant and participant observation (seven). Supply chain management. The managerial perspective taken within the research would be of use to fashion brands and retailers that are looking for ways of progressing CSR implementation in their global supply chains. Furthermore. Theoretical sampling was used to select Doctorand: ADRIAN HRINCESCU MANAGEMENT I PAGE 9 . Findings – It was found that harnessing the local cultural context can support and progress CSR implementation at the factory level: in Sri Lanka. Cultural problems. Originality/value – This paper presents industry-specific data from a key global garment manufacturing country on a commercially sensitive subject. Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative case study approach was adopted. The presence of governmental support reduces the likelihood of CSR transgressions by adding an extra level of accountability for suppliers. face-to-face interviews with managerial level and operational level informants within each company and through non-participant observation within factory environments. the very extensive data collection phase. Primary data were collected through on-site. applying the case study method. National cultures. using purposive sampling to select seven export garment manufacturers of varying size and business model in Sri Lanka. focus groups (four) and fieldtrip notes in two culturally diverse Russian and Austrian research settings. the Buddhist philosophy provided the moral underpinning and hence facilitated supplier engagement with CSR implementation. as managerial competency increases with higher education levels. It mainly consisted of in-depth interviews requiring 23 of them to reach theoretical saturation. Developing countries. It identifies factors within the national cultural context that support CSR implementation in the fashion supply chain. the level of socioeconomic development also affects CSR implementation. Corporate social responsibility. was carried out over a 13 month period.

Findings – Each model was found to have a positive significant prediction relationship with national culture infrastructure growth. Therefore. Austria. using GDP and population as co-variates. most of which (with the exception of the WEVS) assert stable. and then taking necessary interventions. The most promising model is the WEVS which explains a substantial proportion of the variance in national infrastructure. Practical implications – The study shows that increased efforts by the private sector and government can rely on dynamic models to boost national GDPs. The argument for cultural divergence in key moderators and mediators such as infrastructure development was also discussed. Originality/value – The paper supports the hypotheses that national culture models can “grow” GDP to a healthy level through prediction. especially referring to the soft aspects of emotions. holistic models of national culture for business applications. the paper sheds light on the knowledge sharing contingency depending more on a social-cognitive state rather than a static hierarchical status. and the World and European Values Survey (WEVS). will enhance and even change former institutionalized and ingrained patterns of behaviors. GLOBE. Russia. It bridges the gap of purely knowledge based and unemotional management tools towards a lively and engaging tool. the marginal influence of the other three cultural typologies were controlled for in each respective analysis. Additionally.A C A D EMI C W R I TI NG the participants. Eastern Europe. Then each model’s predictability was measured with set correlation methodology. Keywords: Knowledge management. This would appear to be the first time that an investigation of this type has been conducted explaining culturally influenced factors of knowledge management in Eastern and Western European co-operations. WEVS has a higher predictive link to each infrastructure area than the other models. This paper suggests that providing the appropriate knowledge management tools and environment. and give better strategic guidance to foreign financial investment and human resources management. Organizational memory. The national culture models of Hofstede. Findings – The attitude towards sharing the precious resource of diverse employees’ knowledge regarded as a prerequisite to international business success is influenced by national cultures. Organizational culture. Ronen and Shenkar. were measured and compared to ascertain the best prediction fit for national infrastructure development. Western Europe TI TL E 1 0 ABSTRACT 10 National culture and infrastructure development: comparison among four cultural typologies A Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the predictive influence of national cultural models on national infrastructure development. Originality/value – The paper poses two innovative organizational memory conceptualizations based on respondents’ needs and demands entailing a synthesis of knowledge management and interpersonal interactions to achieve the highest level of efficiency and high degrees of knowledge sharing and absorption. These results are preliminary and cross-sectional. Protective attitudes for knowledge sharing limit the growth of humans’ and the company’s development. Design/methodology/approach – A literature review examined four established cultural models. assessment. yet they suggest that dynamic cultural models may be the best predictors of infrastructure development. Also. The grounded theory method of constant comparative analysis was used to analyze the gathered data. Doctorand: ADRIAN HRINCESCU MANAGEMENT I PAGE 10 . Culture.

ship. Cultural typology. to be the most (socially) considerate toward their employees. where small and medium. International management. behavior and the effectiveness of decision-making by international entrepreneurs at identifying cross-border opportunities. Set correlation TI TL E 1 1 ABSTRACT 11 Cross-cultural entrepreneurial competence in identifying international business opportunities International operations are increasingly a prerequisite for survival. race/ethnicity and religion – on managerial views of profit and 15 other business priorities. competitiveness and growth of entrepreneurial ventures. Economic development. Buddhist and Malay Muslim) located in three different countries (Australia. had the highest regard for profit whilst those employed in Australia were found.A C A D EMI C W R I TI NG Keywords: National cultures. . culture. Singapore and Malaysia). In Europe. 203 responses were obtained (120 randomly and 83 by quota) from executives and managers belonging to either of two race/ethnic groups (Caucasian and Chinese) and three religious denominations (Christian. customers and environment. Responses of entrepreneurs in meeting these challenges can be supported by developing a deeper theoretical understanding of variables pertinent to international entrepreneur. they operate in a complex environment affected by diverse and intense pressure of national cultures. on the whole. Findings indicated that these three different cultural variables affected (to varying degrees) the attitudes of managers towards profit and other related business concerns. therefore. This paper contributes to the theoretical understanding of the process of international opportunity identification by entrepreneurs. the over-all effectiveness of international opportunity identification. the Malay Muslims and Caucasians in particular. TI TL E 1 2 ABSTRACT 12 Cross-cultural Comparisons of Managerial Perceptions on Profit KEYWORDS: business ethics. Finally. In total. we define cross -cultural competence in international opportunity identification and conclude by discussing implication of this study for practitioners and researchers. National economy. This study pointed to the need for cultural ethics as a complementary function in business. We then investigate the role of cross-cultural competence in moderating entrepreneurial ‘‘opportunity’’ competencies and entrepreneurial self-efficacy and.sized enterprises and entrepreneurs play a significant role in the economy. profit Doctorand: ADRIAN HRINCESCU MANAGEMENT I PAGE 11 The study investigated the effects of three cultural variables – country of employment. Managers working in Malaysia. We look at the influence of the cross-cultural environment on the cognition.

perceived leadership style. Using a highly diverse sample of 520 members of congruent and incongruent dyads from 66 countries working for 2 large cruise lines and 2 subsidiaries. from the same or different national cultures) impacts a variety of variables including perceived leadership style.A C A D EMI C W R I TI NG TI TL E 1 3 ABSTRACT 13 The role of culture in technology management research: National Character and Cultural Distance Framework Management research exploring the role of national culture on topics such as management style. Studies that attempt to compare and contrast the impact of culture on organizations in different cultures have been labeled as ‘‘National Character’’ studies. It was determined that cultural similarity impacted employee perceptions of LMX relations and organization citizenship behaviors. its legitimacy and importance are challenged. Previous research has found that cultural congruence between leaders and stakeholders (i. This study extends this line of research by investigating the relationship between cultural congruence. satisfaction and trust. in particular the existence of two subfields — one drawing on economics and strategy. TI TL E 1 5 ABSTRACT 15 From a distance and detached to up close and personal: Bridging strategic and cross-cultural perspectives in international management research and practice Despite its remarkable achievements.e. It is this latter area which is becoming increasingly important to technology management in the ‘‘Flat World’’ of the 21st Century. These studies attempt to determine how specific cultural attributes affect actions. leader–member exchange (LMX) and employee citizenship behaviors. the field of international business (IB) is under attack. strategies and performance. We propose a multi-method. TI TL E 1 4 ABSTRACT 14 National culture. paradigmatic interplay approach to IB research for building intellectual bridges Doctorand: ADRIAN HRINCESCU MANAGEMENT I PAGE 12 . but have failed to build the micro-process bridges that would have united and distinguished the field. leadership and citizenship: Implications for cross-cultural management Continued globalization is raising the level of diversity within hospitality organizations as well as the likelihood that leaders will manage those from varying national cultures. strategy and firm performance can broadly be divided into two categories. These studies look at the impact of ‘‘Cultural Distance’’ on the ability of organizations to successfully interact. The sociology of the field with its dominant positivist research paradigm also has not helped. The second type of culture study focuses on the interactions between two firms embedded in different national cultures. Research propositions for technology management for each of the two frameworks are developed. The results of the study provide strategies for cross-cultural management in the hospitality industry. but not leadership style.. the other on cross-cultural studies — have contributed to IB. multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to test the relationships. Structural weaknesses.

until organizations truly engage in interactions. breath of local stakeholders. We also develop a measure of cultural friction and assess the implications for extant theories as well as for future theory development in international business. TI TL E 1 6 ABSTRACT 16 Toward a perspective of cultural friction in international business This article introduces a new lens that addresses cultural interaction in global business. more relevant research. or lubricants.. TI TL E 1 7 Assessing cross-cultural marketing theory and research ABSTRACT 17 A content analysis of 99 articles focuses on the comparative cross-cultural marketing research in 14 leading marketing and business journals from 1990 to 2008. such as entry mode (e. the studies still focus strongly on the dimensions from Hofstede (2001). around the points of cross-border contact. cultural dimensions employed in the study) and methodological (e. green-field vs. In addition. The content analysis indicates strong growth in cross-cultural studies. and depth of localization..g. Although researchers have advanced in both conceptual and methodological respects.. survey data from North America and Europe and researchers based and trained in North America and Europe are still dominant in the research field. especially in terms of studies on consumer attitudes and behavior and on promotion-related topics. Further.g. or yield any meaningful interaction effect. Doctorand: ADRIAN HRINCESCU MANAGEMENT I PAGE 13 . The objective of this article is to examine the impact of national culture and geographic environment on firms’ corporate social performance (CSP). their responsibilities extend beyond not only the economic motive of profitability but also other social and environmental factors. Results show that the Hofstede’s cultural dimensions are significantly associated with CSP.g. speed and stage of international expansion. methodologically.A C A D EMI C W R I TI NG that would draw on the unique demographics of IB researchers and allow the field to be more united and hopefully produce stronger. This study classifies articles according to a series of conceptual (e. the cultural friction lens captures the nature and magnitude of interaction between the cultural systems engaged in cross-border businesses. use of analytical technique) criteria. negative or positive. European companies are found to outperform other regions and countries in CSP. (2) cultural friction is situation-specific. TI TL E 1 8 ABSTRACT 18 A Global Analysis of Corporate Social Performance: the Effects of Cultural and Geographic Environments As more and more multi-national companies expand their operations globally. workflow interdependence. acquisition). Shifting away from viewing culture in terms of its differences. In this study we present that (1) cultural distance may not transform into a clash. and (3) cultural friction can be curtailed through a series of managerial mechanisms. Empirical tests are based on a global CSP database of companies from 49 countries. contract vs. the dominance of two-country studies is problematic. equity. subject to the influence of “drag” parameters.

Our study suggests that developmental cross-cultural experiences occur through both work-related and non-work activities. Stakeholder management PAGE 14 Doctorand: ADRIAN HRINCESCU MANAGEMENT I . Cross regional comparison TI TL E 1 9 ABSTRACT 19 Dynamic cross-cultural competencies and global leadership effectiveness Analyzing data from a sample of 420 global leaders (matched with 221 supervisors). Corporate social responsibility. Small business. and lower neuroticism) and cross-cultural experiences (organization-initiated cross-cultural work experiences and non-work cross-cultural experiences) as predictors of dynamic cross-cultural competencies (tolerance of ambiguity. however. and reduced ethnocentrism) . Our study questions the universality of specific management terms and proposes that more attention should be paid to the institutional. discuss SMEs as a context free c ategory or remain focused on single country analysis. Cross-cultural comparison. Keywords: Comparative research. we found a combined effect of personality characteristics (extraversion. The results suggest that both selection and development are critical for building a pipeline of effective global leaders. cultural and linguistic contexts can influence owner– managers’ sense-making of stakeholder management. in turn. These competencies. are predictors of supervisors’ ratings of global leadership effectiveness. National business environments. openness to experience. TI TL E 2 0 ABSTRACT 20 How Do European SME Owner–Managers Make Sense of “Stakeholder Management” ?: Insights from a Cross-National Study The vast majority of empirical research on stakeholder management has traditionally focused on multinational corporations. Language. This cross-national empirical research investigates SME owner– managers’ perceptions of stakeholder management in six European countries.A C A D EMI C W R I TI NG Keywords: Corporate social performance.and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). cultural and linguistic environments that shape economic activity in different parts of Europe. Hofstede cultural dimensions. scholars have begun to pay attention to the stakeholder management concept in relation to small. The comparative analysis is followed by a discussion of how institutional. cultural flexibility. Smalland medium-sized enterprises. The few existing studies in this area. Only in recent years. Sense-making.

este o chestiune de noroc. Analiza variabilitatii gradului de concentrare a proprietatii si testa rea facilitatilor MBO sunt metodele inovatoare ce evidentiaza solutii si evolutii viabile pentru companii. manageri și creditori poate face ca firmele să genereze cash-flow-uri. piata financiara. insa. Această stare de dezbateri motivează pentru a analiza problematica mai profund. O firmă poate fi profitabilă. Se dovedeste de multe ori ca acest fascinant fenomen. guvernanta corporativa. dar aceasta nu generează obligatoriu bogăție pentru toți. desi partial predictibila piața a cunoscut numeroase scandaluri financiare mai mult sau mai putin surprinzatoare. Uneori acționarii devin propriile lor victime. ceea ce sărăcește viziunea strategică și pune în pericol dezvoltarea pe termen lung a firmei.A C A D EMI C W R I TI NG Homework 3 Task 11 / page 24 To solve this task I firstly make an optimized version of the abstract andafterwardsIcompareinparallelthe two versions based on the suggested 12 questions. Principalele cauze sunt asimetria informa țională și comportamentul oportunistic al agenților. Manifestarea acestei tematici la nivelul firmei rezida în repartizarea profitului pe destinații. dar acestea să fie orientate preferential spre anumiti stakeholderi sau beneficii colaterale. THE OPTI MI ZED V ER SI ON Informatia contabila pe pietele de capital CUVINTE CHEIE: paradoxul profitului. prin presiunea pe care o exercită pentru a obține câștiguri imediate. Asimetria de informații manifestată între acționari. MBO Doctorand: ADRIAN HRINCESCU MANAGEMENT I PAGE 15 Eficienta piețelor financiare este extrem de discutabila in contextul existentei unui mix intre oscilațiile momentane si un anumit ciclu istoric din care piețele financiare IN ROMANIAN nu pot scăpa. Susținerea unei logici care recomandă reinvestirea profitului sau neutralitatea politicii de dividend ar evidenția perspective neviabile pentru firmă și ar ridica un oarecare semn de întrebare cu privire la sinceritatea managerului. . „paradoxul profitului”. asimetria informationala.

which blurs the strategic vision and compromises long-run development of the company. The implication of this theme at the company’s management level lies in profit sharing destinations. Often. This debating state motivates to more deeply issue’s exploration.it depends on market turbulences.A C A D EMI C W R I TI NG THE OPTI MI ZED Accounting information on financial market Financial market’s informational efficiency is highly scientifically debatable in the context of the existing mix between momentary oscillations and “natural” historical IN ENGLISH cycle which restrains financial markets with chains so that no way out can be considered. Sometimes shareholders deceive themselves becoming their own victims. I mentioned the text itself. A business can be profitable. Variability analysis of the property’s concentration degree and MBO’s benefits testing constituted the innovative methods which highlighted viable solutions and progress for companies. financial market. but it does not necessarily generate wealth for all. The information asymmetry between shareholders. but afterwards these ones would be preferentially allotted to certain stakeholders and for collateral benefits. referred as " profit paradox" . this fascinating phenomenon. MBO Comparison between the original and the optimized versions is shown in the following table. Asserting a logic which recommends profits reinvestment or dividend policy neutrality would highlight non-viable outlooks for the company and would raise some question marks on manager’s sincerity.” 6 7 8 I have considered whether statement is necessary a purpose Yes Yes No 9 I have made sure that the methods move is not too long I have reviewed the main tense options of present (for Moves 1. has appeared as being a matter of luck . 2 and 5) and past (Moves 3 and 4) The main findings are sufficiently highlighted No Yes Doctorand: ADRIAN HRINCESCU MANAGEMENT I PAGE 16 10 % of abstract (23 words. V ER SI ON KEYWORDS: profit paradox. by the pressure they exert in order immediate gains to be achieved. 1 sentence) Yes . The main causes are information asymmetry and opportunistic agents behavior (the agency theory is invoked). To answer the questions. the market has experienced numerous. more or less surprising. corporative governance. whither the case. financial scandals. but nevertheless. managers and creditors may cause firms to generate cash-flows. length of market’s tipping points and international trading speed. information asymmetry. No 1 2 3 4 5 Question My draft falls within the required word limit My research is fairly typical of the subfield The number of sentences is appropriate The draft has the expected number of moves I have considered the pros and cons of an opening problematizing move Original version 315 words Yes 13 sentences 5 moves Yes Optimized version 248 words Yes 10 sentences 5 moves “… shareholders … order immediate gains to be achieved … (but this fact) compromises long-run development of the company” “This debating state motivates to more deeply issue’s exploration. despite its partial predictability.

even the last one. but the concepts they are applied to are brand new – MBO principles and property concentration degree. Comparing with the original version. Yes. not any Romanian material had OPTIMIZATION been approached the concerned issue. General background: it is nothing new here. it has sense this abstract to be longer as the usual ones. The tipping points and turbulence distribution invoke the chaos theory which is the trendiest approach in managerial science research. no changes have occurred during last decades. no were The optimized version reduces the words number from 300 down to 249. at that moment.A C A D EMI C W R I TI NG 10 As for conclusions. abbreviations used. no abbreviations were used. Here’s the phrase: “…historical cycle which restrains financial markets with chains so that no way out can be considered…” 12 No acronym. A NA L Y SI S Doctorand: ADRIAN HRINCESCU MANAGEMENT I PAGE 17 . Therefore it has been wise firstly to present the system of forces and therefore to mention its optimization as being the aim of the research. I have considered whether I need to justify the topic and/or the approach in the opening two moves Throughout I have checked whether any acronyms or abbreviations will be understood Yes 11 Yes Yes – the conclusion is based on typical management practices.a system of “forces” to be optimized. a righteous profit distribution is a matter of luck – it depends on market turbulences and international trading. even then. This means also pretty many words. Any financial crisis. No acronym. the abstract belong to a dissertation and not to an article. I have followed typical practice in my subfield Since my research is unusual. the discussions extend to the accounting information’s tuning so that the financial information to be released in market as a signal that precisely targets certain strategic investors. Purpose: It is a complex one . Methods: nothing is new here as for the methods per se. but counting on the fact the theme has been THE extremely “niche-ed” and. the abstract had to present extensively some new concepts. Discussions: The “profit paradox” being confirmed. the optimized version details furthermore the achieved results. It is also a question of timing: the signal should be “broadcast” exactly when the market reaches a tipping point. Moreover. Results: there are situations when prediction is possible but. has nothing new to uncover referring the market mechanisms.

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