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FM 5-100-15

PREFACE
This field manual (FM) is a guide for the employment of engineer forces in support of a United
States (US) Army corps. It addresses the role, organization, and command and control of corps
engineers and the conduct of corps-level engineer operations.

The primary users of this FM are the corps commander and his staff, the corps engineer and his
staff, engineer units subordinate to the corps engineer brigade, and theater engineer organiza-
tions at echelons above corps (EAC). Other users will be engineer organizations supporting
maneuver units subordinate to the corps and sister serviced commanders and staffs, the United
States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), and government contractors.

The manual is fully compatible with the Army’s operational doctrine as contained in FMs 100-5
and 100-7 and is consistent with current joint and multinational doctrine. This manual follows
the format of FM 100-15 and supports the concepts and principles contained therein. It also
complements FMs 5-71-100 and 5-116.

The proponent for this publication is the United States Army Engineer School (USAES).
Submit changes for improvement on Department of the Army (DA) Form 2028 (Recommended
Changes to Publications and Blank Forms) to Commandant, US Army Engineer School, ATTN:
ATSE-T-PD-PM, Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri, 65473-6650.

Unless this publication states otherwise, masculine nouns and pronouns do not refer exclusively
to men.

ix
FM 5-100-15

CHAPTER 1

CORPS ENGINEER OPERATIONS


The objectives of the carpet-bombing effort in front of the VII Corps were to
mask the assault and saturate enemy defensive sectors as far back as their
direct-support artillery positions. Following the bombing, the 1st, 9th, and
30th Infantry divisions were to deliver a coordinated assault across a relatively
narrow front and punch a hole through which the waiting 2nd and 3rd Armored
divisions would launch a pursuit of the presumably routed German forces.

The 1106th Engineer Combat Group was moved up to the VII Corps’ left flank
to support directly the 30th Infantry Division and the initially trailing 2nd
Armored Division as they advanced along high ground on the west bank of the
Vire River. On the VII Corps right flank, the 1120th Engineer Combat Group
would support the 4th and 9th Infantry divisions in the assault and the follow-on
3rd Armored Division in the pursuit. Our own 1111th Engineer Combat Group
would act as the corps engineers in the VII Corps sector, devoting its efforts to
opening and maintaining the supply routes and building and maintaining the
longer, more permanent timber trestle bridges back along the MSR that would
be opened by the advancing infantry and armor and initially cleared by the
direct-support engineer combat battalions.

A description of Army breakout plans from the Normandy lodgment in July


1944. From the book, The First Across the Rhine, The Story of the 291st
Engineer Combat Battalion. by Colonel David E. Pergrin with Eric Hammel.

THE ROLE OF CORPS ENGINEER FORCES

THE CORPS erations for a considerable period. During


force-projection operations, an Army corps may
The corps is the US Army unit capable of oper- serve as the Army forces (ARFOR) headquar-
ating at both the tactical and operational levels ters to a theater command or joint task force
of war. It is the instrument by which higher (JTF) or as a JTF headquarters itself. The
echelons of command conduct maneuvers at the corps may control units from the Air Force,
operational level. Corps are tailored based on Navy, and Marine Corps, along with allied and
mission, enemy, terrain, troops, and time avail- coalition nations. A tailored corps engineer bri-
able (METT-T) to contain all combat, combat gade is commonly available to the corps to
support (CS), and combat service support weight its main effort and to perform special
(CSS) unit capabilities required to sustain op- CS functions.

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FM 5-100-15

THE CORPS ENGINEER BRIGADE also tasks and prioritizes the work effort of the
DS corps topographic company.
The corps engineer brigade commands and con-
trols all engineer support to the corps and is
In force-projection theaters where no forward-
assigned all engineer units that are not organic
based theater engineer structure exists, the
to divisions, separate maneuver brigades, and
corps engineer brigade could initially function
cavalry regiments. The brigade provides mo-
as the theater engineer headquarters and re-
bility countermobility survivability, and gen-
gional contingency engineering manager
eral engineering support to the corps based on
(RCEM). To do this, the brigade needs special
METT-T. Corps topographic engineering sup-
augmentation from an engineer command
port normally is provided by a topographic en-
(ENCOM) and/or the USACE in the areas of
gineer company placed indirect support (DS) to construction management, real estate acquisi-
the corps from the theater Army (TA) topo- tion, and construction contracting support.
graphic engineer battalion. The corps engineer The brigade would execute this function until
brigade augments engineers organic to divi- an ENCOM, TA. engineer brigade, or engineer
sions, separate maneuver brigades, and cav- construction group arrives in theater.
alry regiments.
In the absence of follow-on deployment of an
The corps engineer brigade may contain vari- ENCOM, TA engineer brigade, or engineer con-
ous numbers of engineer groups, corps engi- struction group, the corps engineer brigade
neer battalions (mechanized, wheeled, air- (with the special augmentation listed above)
borne, and light), combat heavy engineer bat- may have to act as the theater engineer head-
talions, and separate engineer companies quarters indefinitely.
(fixed and assault float bridge, combat support
equipment (CSE), light equipment (LE), and SIMULTANEOUS OPERATIONS
topographic). Other specialized engineer or-
ganizations will augment the corps engineer Simultaneous deep, close, and rear corps op-
effort as the mission dictates. The brigade con- erations comprise a special and continuous
trols and staff supervises theater engineer battle space synchronization requirement.
forces from EAC operating in the corps area. The linkage between these operations assures
These may include units such as prime-power that the aims, timing, and activities associated
battalions; construction support, pipeline con- with these operations are mutually supporting.
struction, dump truck and port construction For commanders, synchronization of simulta-
companies; and utilities, well-drilling, fire- neous operations will normally require deliber-
fighting, and other special teams and detach- ate planning and staff coordination. Simulta-
ments. neous operations in depth have a direct impact
on the enemy's cohesion. Corps units are no
The corps engineer brigade commander also longer restricted to fighting three sequential
serves as the corps engineer special staff offi- operations (deep, close, and rear). Nor are in-
cer. The corps staff engineer section (SES) as- depth operations conducted solely to establish
sists him by providing engineer functional- favorable conditions for the close fight. The
area expertise to all corps stiff elements. The corps commander influences these operations
SES provides recommendations to the corps by assigning on-order missions and priorities
staff on the use of engineer assets and ensures and allocating combat assets. He must de-
that the engineer battlefield functions are fully scribe, in his concept of the operation, how all
planned, integrated, synchronized, and exe- deep, close, and rear operations will be exe-
cuted to support the corps commander’s intent cuted simultaneously, their command rela-
and scheme of maneuver. The corps engineer tionships, and their relative priorities. The

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FM 5-100-15

corps commander will retain reserve forces un- phase of deep operations, engineers provide ter-
der his control. The command echelon above rain analysis that supports the identification of
corps designates the corps’s area of operations named areas of interest (NAIs) and target ar-
(AO). The corps geographically divides its AO eas of interest (TAIs). Countermobility targets
into subareas where it will conduct close, deep, are recommended for nomination by corps staff
and rear operations. The use of lateral, rear, engineers to the corps Assistant Chief of Staff,
and forward boundaries is intended to better G2 (Intelligence) (G2)/Assistant Chief of Staff,
delineate responsibility and commandant con- G3 (Operations and Plans) (G3) deep opera-
trol (C2). However, combat operations in the tions coordination cell and the corps’s joint tar-
geting board. Recommended targets for nomi-
corps area may be nonlinear, and the intermin-
nation could include the emplacement of long-
gling of opposing forces may be inevitable. The
range scatterable minefield and the destruc-
air and space above the corps’s AO constitute a tion of bridges and other choke points. The use
third dimension of the corps’s battle space. of deep countermobility emplacement systems,
such as the Gator, needs to be planned and
Corps engineers support operations through- coordinated at least 72 hours prior to delivery
out the corps’s battle space based on the corps time.
commander’s intent and METT-T. Engineer
support to all corps deep, close, and rear op- The Detect phase executes the decisions
erations focuses on planning, coordination, reached in the Decide phase. When target
synchronization, integration, and resource al- selection standards have been defined, a deci-
location. Successful engineer operations in sion support template (DST) is prepared.
support of corps operations require a thor- When an acceptable target is located, evalu-
ough understanding of the terrain, threat ca- ation of the DST may result in an immediate
pabilities, commander’s intent and scheme of fire mission.
maneuver.
The Track phase occurs when the target is out
Deep Operations of range of corps fire-support systems or when
future intentions need to be determined.
Deep operations allow the corps commander to
Tracking is accomplished with various na-
engage the enemy throughout the depth of the
tional, theater, and corps intelligence and sur-
enemy’s AO so that the effects appear to the veillance systems.
enemy commander as one fight. The corps con-
ducts deep operations to destroy the enemy’s The Deliver phase is executed rapidly by hav-
cohesion, nullify his firepower, disrupt his C2, ing designated fire-support systems respond to
destroy his supplies, break his morale, or dis- corps attack directives when the defined trigger
rupt his introduction of follow-on forces. Fire- events are detected by sensors.
power, both lethal and nonlethal, synergisti-
cally combines with maneuver in conducting During the Assess phase, a timely and accurate
deep operations. estimate of the damage resulting from the -ap
plication of military force, either lethal or non-
The corps uses a Decide-Detect-Track-Deliver lethal, against the target is made.
Assess approach that enables the comrnander to
take the initiative in selecting high-value targets During the Decide, Detect, Track, Deliver,
(HVTs) before they actually present themselves and Assess phases, corps engineers coordi-
in the target array. nate, integrate, track, and assess the effec-
tiveness of all countermobility systems used
The Decide phase provides the focus and pri- in deep operations. Task-organized corps en-
orities for the collection-management and gineers support deep ground-maneuver mo-
fire-planning processes. During the Decide bility by participating in reconnaissance op-

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FM 5-100-15

erations and by keeping open the ground rain-analysis teams when division require-
routes, drop zones, landing zones, and other ments exceed organic capabilities. In prepara-
means of access needed by deep forces to sus- tion for close operations, topographic engineers
tain the fight. support the corps G2 with weather and terrain
amlyses and terrain products that assist in the
Close Operations intelligence preparation of the battlefield (IPB)
process. In addition, the DS topographic engi-
Corps close operations include the simultane-
neer company produces detailed, large-scale
ous close, deep, and rear operations of commit- imagery products and other special products
ted divisions, separate maneuver brigades, and depicting areas where combat operations will
cavalry regiments. The outcome of corps close be conducted. The topographic company sur-
operations will ultimately determine the suc- vey team provides accurate geodetic survey
cess or failure of the corps’s battle. control points for artillery, aviation, intelli-
gence, and signal positioning.
The corps engineer brigade augments organic
engineers in divisions, separate brigades, and Mobility support for corps close operations fo-
cavalry regiments. Engineer groups, corps en- cuses on the movement of large tactical units
gineer battalions, combat heavy engineer bat- from the corps rear to the brigade rear bound-
talions, engineer bridge companies, and engi- ary. Topographic engineers identify possible
neer CSE and LE companies can be task-organ- mobility corridors. Corps engineer battalions
ized to support maneuver elements according widen lanes through minefields and other ob-
to the corps commander’s intent to weight the stacles breached by assaulting division engi-
main effort. Corps engineers may also work in neers, breach obstacles that have been by-
the division area on a task or area basis, such passed by assault forces, upgrade combat roads
as constructing and repairing main supply and trails, and keep open key routes designated
routes (MSRs) from corps support group areas by the corps G3. Corps engineer bridge compa-
to the brigade rear boundary; constructing float nies provide assault float bridging and follow-
and fixed bridging, emplacing corps-directed on fixed bridging support Corps engineer bat-
obstacles; constructing forward corps airfields talions, along with CSE and LE companies,
and aviation support facilities; or providing repair battle-damaged roads and airfields.
survivability support for battle command This repair includes forward aviation combat
nodes, field artillery, air defense artillery engineering (FACE) support such as construct-
(ADA), and logistics support sites. All corps ing low-altitude parachute extraction zones
engineers operating in a division’s area will be (LAPES) and forward area rearm/refuel points
under the division engineer’s control and staff (FARPs).
supervision. A corps engineer work line (EWL)
may be designated to divide division and corps Countermobility support for corps close opera-
engineer responsibilities. Corps engineers also tions focuses on reinforcing terrain with obsta-
support separate corps brigades, such as artil- cles that support the corps commander’s intent
lery aviation, air defense, military police (MP), and maneuver plan. Corps terrain analysts
military intelligence (MI), signal, and chemical identify threat-sized regimental attack corri-
brigades, in much the same reamer. Major dors. The corps obstacle plan degrades the en-
corps combined arms mobility operations, such emy’s ability to maneuver without hindering
as large-scale obstacle breaching and river the maneuver of friendly divisions, separate
crossings, are supported primarily by corps en- brigades, and cavalry regiments. The corps
gineer units. commander will designate obstacle-restricted
areas (ORAs), corps reserve forces’ counterat-
Topographic engineering support to corps close tack routes, any corps reserve demolition obsta-
operations focuses on augmenting division ter- cles within the corps sector, and specific terrain

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FM 5-100-15

features that must be protected for ongoing and operations, including sustainment and C2. The
future corps operations such as key MSR corps must synchronize the rear operations’
bridges. Corps engineer units augment the functions of terrain management, security, sus-
execution of the corps obstacle plan with divi- tainment, and movement with their close and
sion, separate brigade, and cavalry regiment deep operations, in accord with the corps com-
engineers. Corps logistic planners anticipate mander’s concept and intent.
and push Class IV/V obstacle packages (includ-
ing mines and demolitions) forward to emplac- In support of terrain management, corps engi-
ing corps engineers as soon as mission require- neers conduct terrain analysis to assist in the
ments are known. positioning of corps reserve, CS, and CSS units.
The corps engineer coordinates closely with the
Survivability support during corps close opera- rear tactical operations center (RTOC) to iden-
tions emphasizes the use of corps engineer bat- tify rear security operations and engineer sup
talions and attached engineer CSE and LE port requirements. Corps engineers with com-
companies to protect critical corps communica- bat capability (wheeled, mechanized, airborne,
tion nodes, command posts (CPs), logistics or light) are normally positioned in the rear
units, corps artillery fire-direction centers, and area where they can control key terrain or im-
ADA. Corps engineer unite also construct pro- prove the defensive capability of key bases and
tective berms and revetments for corps aviation base clusters within the corps area. Corps en-
units and nuclear, biological, chemical (NBC) gineers provide general engineering support to
collective protective shelters for critical corps keep LOC open by building, maintaining, and
units. repairing roads and airfields. Corps engineers
also provide construction support for the corps
General engineering support to corps close op- support command (COSCOM) and corps avia-
erations concentrates on lines of communica- tion brigade facilities in rear areas. They coor-
tion (LOC) and MSR construction, mainte- dinate with other theater engineer units and
nance, and rehabilitation in the corps’s AO by the host nation to keep railroads, waterways,
corps engineer battalions and attached CSE and other transportation systems open and to
and LE companies. Combat heavy engineer provide necessary utility services in the corps
battalions may also be attached to the corps area. Corps engineers plan and execute counter-
engineer brigade to perform vertical and hori- mobility missions to block critical threat avenues
zontal construction missions. This includes the of approach and to deny facilities in support of
maintenance and repair of airfields for un- base and base-cluster self-defense plans. Rear
manned airborne vehicles (UAVs) as well as survivability tasks include hardening C2 head-
Army aviation, Air Force, and Marine aircraft quarters and digging in critical CSS facilities.
Corps engineers will also develop logistics sup Corps engineers assist in the preparation of area
port areas (LSAs) that include terminal trans- damage control (ADC) plans to facilitate the re-
fer points (TTPs), Class III fuel storage and turn of a base or base clusters to mission capabil-
transfer sites, Class V ammunition supply ity during or after hostile action or natural disas-
points (ASPS), enemy prisoner-of-war (EPW) ters. This is done by reducing the probability of
camps, hospital sites, and troop bed-down fa- damage, minimizing its effects, and aiding in the
cilities such as Force Provider. continuation or reestablishment of normal opera-
tions. Corps engineers provide mobility support
Rear Operations for movement of MP and designated tactical com-
bat forces (TCFs), including breaching and bridg-
Corps rear operations are the activities con- ing support. Corps engineers with combat capa-
ducted from the corps rear boundary to the rear bility can also serve as a TCF with additional
boundaries of committed maneuver units. training augmented by indirect-fire support
Rear operations are conducted to ensure the heavy weapons, communications, and transpor-
corps’s freedom of maneuver and continuity of tation equipment.

Corps Engineer Operations 1-5


FM 5-100-15

CORPS BATTLEFIELD OPERATING • IPB on an operational or theater basis.


SYSTEMS
• Targeting intelligence.
Corps are the link between the operational and
tactical levels of war. They plan and conduct • Battle damage assessment and post-
major operations and battles. They create and strike assessment.
maintain the conditions for the success of cur-
rent battles and set up the conditions for the Ž Collection requirements management
success of future battles. Operational plan- (synchronization of intelligence product
ning concentrates on the design of campaigns reports).
and major operations. Tactical operations con- The corps engineer is critical to this process in
sist of conducting battles and engagements as the areas of collecting and processing opera-
parts of campaigns and major operations. The tional information. He is the corps expert on
planning and execution of tactical-level battles threat breaching, bridging, and obstacle em-
are the corps’ major roles. When conducting placement capabilities. He is responsible for
operations, the corps will synchronize and inte- advising the corps commander on the effective
grate operational- and tactical-level operating use of terrain. He coordinates with the corps
systems. G2/G3 for the collection of battlefield terrain
information through reconnaissance and other
The corps engineer brigade is responsible for collection sources such as satellite imagery. He
planning, coordinating, synchronizing, and in- coordinates with the theater engineer for corps
tegrating the five engineer battlefield func- topographic support requirements for survey-
tions of mobility countermobility, survivability, ing, terrain analysis, and reproduction. He as-
general engineering, and topographic engi- sists in the distribution of terrain-analysis and
neering into each operational- and tactical- other special topographic products and he de-
fines the geometry of the battlefield by provid-
level operating system.
ing map products and geodetic surveys. The
corps engineer evaluates the availability of
Operational Intelligence standard and nonstandard maps and terrain-
analysis data bases covering the corps’s AO. If
Operational intelligence is that intelligence shortfalls exist, he and the corps G2 define
which is required for planning and conducting specific requirements and coordinate the collec-
major operations within a theater of operations tion and creation of necessary data to build the
(TO). At the operational level of war, the joint corps topographic data base. The corps engi-
and multinational intelligence system concen- neer prepares the topographic operations an-
trates on the collection and analysis of infor- nex (Appendix A) for corps operations plans and
mation that will lead to the identification, loca- orders. In coordination with the corps G2, he
tion, and analysis of the operational center of tasks and prioritizes the DS corps topographic
gravity and operational objectives. Opera- company’s work effort. The corps topographic
tional intelligence also focuses on production company uses cartographic techniques to pro-
efforts downward and concentrates efforts on duce image- and map-based special-purpose
fighting priority intelligence requirements products. These products include intelligence
(PIR) such as— and operations overlays or overprints, modified
combined obstacle overlays (MCOOs), image
Ž Basic (or finished) intelligence. maps, expedient map revisions, line-of-sight
(LOS) products, and precise survey and geo-
• Strategic indications and warning. detic positions. The corps engineer also deter-
mines the need for a topographic survey to
• Tactical warning. verify data used by military intelligence and
• Current intelligence reporting. fire-support systems. The corps engineer coor-

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FM 5-100-15

dinates the DS of one corps terrain-analysis corps engineer provides advice on the employ-
team from the corps topographic company to ment of all scatterable mines in the corps area
the corps G2/G3 at the corps analysis control regardless of the means of delivery. The use of
element (ACE). This terrain-analysis team scatterable mines gives the corps the ability to
provides the corps G2/G3 with ongoing analy- quickly place an obstacle in the face of the
ses of the effects of terrain and weather on enemy in order to fix, turn, disrupt, or block his
combat operations as an integral part of the advance or withdrawal. The corps carefully
continuous IPB process. A second corps ter- monitors scatterable-mine emplacement and
rain-analysis team from the corps topographic self-destruct times to be able to attack rapidly
company provides general support (GS) to through a recently created gap in the friendly
other subordinate corps headquarters under
obstacle system. The corps commander is the
the corps engineer’s staff supervision.
approval authority for the employment of all
scatterable mines in the corps area. The
Operational Movement and Maneuver
authority to emplace mines with long self-de-
Operational movement and maneuver is the struct times (greater than 24 hours) may be
disposition of joint and/or multinational forces delegated down to division level and with the
to create a decisive impact on the conduct of a concurrence of corps, down to brigade level.
campaign or major operation. This is accom- The authority to emplace mines with short self-
plished by either securing the operational ad- destruct times (less than 24 hours) may be
vantages of position before the battle is joined delegated as far down as battalion level. The
or by exploiting tactical success to achieve op- corps commander should allocate the authority
erational or strategic results. The corps ma- to emplace scatterable mines based on both the
neuver elements are its divisions, separate ma- duration and type of weapon system deploying
neuver brigades, cavalry regiment, and avia- the mines. The corps engineer ensures that
tion brigade. The objective of operational ma- the use of scatterable mines is well coordinated
neuver at corps level is to place or move bri- so that a lower echelon does not inadvertently
gade- or division-sized combat elements into place an obstacle in the path of a future corps
positions where they can bring fires to bear on maneuver corridor (for example, a corps re-
the enemy with the greatest effect. serve force’s counterattack route).

The corps engineer synchronizes operational Operational Fires


movement and maneuver with operational mo-
bility and countermobility support. He plans Operational fires are the application of fire-
the use of corps engineer forces in overcoming power and other means to achieve a decisive
operationally significant obstacles, such as impact on the conduct of a campaign or major
those created by nuclear or chemical weapons, operation. Operational fires are, by their na-
and enhancing the movement of friendly ture, joint (and potentially multinational) ac-
forces. He also selects locations for operational tivities. They are a vital component of the op-
obstacle systems and plans for their emplace- erational plan, and as such, must be carefully
ment by corps engineer forces. Corps engi- integrated with the commander’s operational
neers augment engineers organic to the ma- concept. Operational maneuver and opera-
neuver elements. Corps engineers can be task- tional fires may occur simultaneously within a
organized to support maneuver organizations commander’s battle space but may have very
for relatively long-term, continuous support or different objectives. An example is simultane-
on a short-term, task basis such as breaching ous attacks, where neither function is directly
major complex obstacles, crossing rivers, or dependent on the success of the other. The
emplacing corps-directed obstacles. In support Army has significant capabilities for contribut-
of operational movement and maneuver, the ing to the joint deep fight or for planning and

Corps Engineer Operations 1-7


FM 5-100-15

conducting its own deep operations, when nec- of weapons of mass destruction Risk assess-
essary, using operational maneuver and/or or- ment is dynamic. As circumstances change
ganic operational fires. and the command’s experience level increases,
risk assessments confirm critical information
Corps engineer operations and corps opera- that affects decisions.
tional fires are closely linked and mutually
supportive. The effectiveness of this link is Corps engineers support operational protection
assured by accurate topographic geodetic con- by—
trol points that define a common grid. These
points are placed by surveyors from the DS Ž Tracking minefield and unexploded
topographic engineer company using precise ordnance (UXO) concentrations.
geodetic survey techniques. Corps engineers
also provide map-based terrain visualization • Preparing operationally significant for-
products to support the corps’s fire-support tifications.
plan. Integrating operational fires with obsta-
cles greatly enhances the effectiveness of both. Ž Removing operationally significant haz-
The corps engineer assists with the target ards (including NBC).
identification process, ensuring that corps ob-
stacle planning and operational fires mutually • Providing protection for operational lo-
support the commander’s intent. The corps en- gistics sites.
gineer provides advice and coordinates the em-
ployment and allocation of scatterable mines • Providing advice and assisting units in
delivered by field artillery aviation, and tacti- the employment of camouflage conceal-
cal air into the corps area. ment techniques.

Operational Protection Ž Supporting deception operations as re-


quired.
Operational protection conserves the force’s
fighting potential so that it can be applied at
the decisive time and place. It includes actions Operational Command and Control
taken to counter the enemy’s firepower and Operational C2 is the exercise of authority and
maneuver by making soldiers, systems, and direction by a commander to accomplish opera-
operational formations difficult to locate, tional objectives. The control mechanisms sup-
strike, and destroy. Operational protection port the battle command exercise. The com-
pertains to forces everywhere in the theater of mander’s vision and his stated intent guide the
war or operations. Operational protection in- organization toward accomplishing their mis-
cludes such items as providing operational air sion or assigned tasks. Battle command fo-
defense, conducting deception, safeguarding cuses efforts, establishes limits, and provides
operational forces in major operations, record- structure to operational functions. The C2 sys-
ing all minefield locations, employing opera- tem supports the organization in conducting
tions security (OPSEC), and providing security current operations while planning and prepar-
(including combatting terrorism). ing for future operations.

Conducting risk assessments is integral to Corps engineers support the corps C2 process
force protection. Risk assessments identify in various ways. Engineer participation in
hazards and examine the resulting risks asso- corps-level planning ensures that the five engi-
ciated with the mission. Special risk consid- neer battlefield missions are properly synchro-
erations must be made where there is a threat nized and integrated with all corps and JTF

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operations. Engineers are incorporated into Tactical Intelligence


the corps’ staffs at the corps’ assault, tactical, Tactical intelligence is that knowledge of the
main, and rear CPs. The corps engineer staff enemy, weather, and geographical features re-
may provide manning for a JTF engineer staff. quired by the commander in planning and con-
Timely production and dissemination of sup- ducting combat operations. It is derived from
porting topographic products that depict the an analysis of information on the enemy’s capa-
terrain, the enemy situation, and the friendly bilities, intentions, and vulnerabilities and the
plan ensure that all CPs are operating in the environment.
same geodetic framework.
Corps engineers support tactical intelligence
Operational Logistics operations by collecting and forwarding recon-
naissance information concerning friendly ob-
Operational logistics consist of those activities stacle locations, enemy obstacles, routes,
required to support the force during campaigns bridges, and engineer construction material.
and major operations within a TO. Operational Attached corps engineer support to maneuver
support of the force extends from TO logistics units engaged in intelligence-gathering mis-
bases to forward CSS units and facilities. The sions also contributes to the corps intelligence
TO logistics base links strategic sustainment to effort. Corps topographic terrain imagery
tactical CSS. The primary focus of operational products that identify specific terrain details
logistics is on reception, positioning of facilities, are provided to assist in the movement of unit
material management, movement control, dis-
personnel and equipment the emplacement of
tribution management, reconstitution, and re- obstacles, and the siting and protection of
deployment. weapons systems.
The corps engineer assists in establishing and
Tactical Maneuver
maintaining the corps infrastructure necessary
to sustain these missions in coordination with Tactical; maneuver is the employment of forces
the corps Assistant Chief of Staff, G4 (Logistics) on the battlefield through movement and direct
(G4), COSCOM, TA, and foreign/host nation. fires in combination with fire support, or fire
This includes initial base-development plan- potential, to achieve a position of advantage in
ning that identifies requirements for logistics order to accomplish the mission. This includes
support and troop bed-down facilities. The direct-fire systems such as small arms, tank
corps engineer identifies supporting general guns, and attack helicopter fires.
engineering requirements and capabilities
needed. Based on the corps plan, the corps Corps engineer support to tactical maneuver
engineer identifies any significant require- operations can be described in terms of aug-
ments of bridging, additional construction menting engineers organic to divisions, sepa-
equipment, Class IV construction materials, rate brigades, and cavalry regiments that are
and Class V demolitions and mines to corps engaged in heavy or light maneuvers, cavalry,
logistics planners. The corps engineer closely or aviation operations. Corps engineers sup-
monitors the status of these types of supplies port heavy maneuver force operations primar-
and equipment, ensuring availability to corps ily in the areas of float- and fixed-bridging sup
operations. The corps engineer, in coordination
port; construction repair, and maintenance of
with the corps G2, also defines stockage re-
movement routes during the offense; and sur-
quirements for maps to be held by topographic
units and quartermaster map distribution vivability and countermobility support during
units supporting the corps. This service is pro- deliberate defenses. Light maneuver force op-
vided through supporting CSS units, supply erations normally need extensive augmenta-
point storage, and the distribution of standard tion from corps engineer units due to limited
topographic products at the corps level. numbers of organic engineers in light maneu-

Corps Engineer Operations 1-9


FM 5-100-15

ver units. Critical corps engineer tasks sup Tactical Fire Support
porting offensive light maneuver operations in- Tactical fire support is the collective and coor-
clude opening captured airfields and lodgment dinated use of target acquisition data, indirect
facilities with heavy equipment and conduct- fire weapons, armed aircraft and other lethal
ing breaching operations during the offense. and nonlethal means against ground targets in
All light maneuver operations normally re- support of maneuver force operations.
quire extensive survivability support from
corps engineers. Both hasty and deliberate de- Corps engineer support for tactical fire-support
fensive operations require corps engineer aug- operations can be described in terms of field
mentation. Task-organized corps engineer bat- artillery, electronic jamming, Army aviation,
talions normally augment cavalry regiments and tactical air support. The corps artillery
by providing the necessary mobility, counter- brigade has no organic engineer assets, so it
mobility, and survivability support. Corps en- may require corps engineer support in all five
gineers are fully embedded with regimental engineer battlefield functions. This support
reconnaissance operations, providing critical may include digging in fire-direction centers,
terrain and obstacle information to corps intel- building protective berms, and breaching scat-
ligence agencies. Corps engineer support to terable minefield. Topographic surveyors
corps aviation maneuver operations includes work closely with the corps artillery survey
coordinating and assisting the emplacement of planning and coordination element (SPCE) to
scatterable mines by helicopters and fixed- ensure that target acquisition/collection assets
wing aircraft to block enemy penetrations, turn are on a common grid with the delivery assets
enemy formations, or protect the flanks of to effectively respond to HVTs. In support of
corps counterattacks. Corps engineers also electronic jamming missions, corps engineers
provide general engineering support such as dig in the corps electronic warfare units and
erecting corps aviation logistics and mainte- topographic engineers provide accurate survey
nance facilities and constructing helicopter control points for electronic warfare assets.
landing pads and FARPs. Corps engineers construct protective berms,
landing pads, and maintenance structures for
Tactical Mobility and Survivability Army aviation assets, along with FARPs.
Corps engineers support tactical air missions
Tactical mobility and survivability is the capa- by providing general engineering support in
bility of the force that permits freedom of the areas of rapid runway repair and other
movement, relative to the enemy, while retain- maintenance of airfields and FARPs.
ing the ability to fulfill the primary mission. It
also includes those measures the force takes to Tactical Air Defense
remain viable and functional by protecting it-
Tactical air defense includes all measures de-
self from the effects of enemy weapons systems
signed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of
and natural occurrences.
an attack by hostile aircraft and guided mis-
siles, both before and after they are airborne, to
Corps engineers are major contributors to this
preserve combat power and maintain friendly
component. Corps engineers enhance the ef- freedom of action. Portions of the corps ADA
festiveness of maneuver unite by providing mo- brigade will be task-organized to the maneuver
bility support, degrading the enemy’s ability to elements, as dictated by METT-T to support
move on the battlefield through countermobil- close operations. The remainder of the ADA
ity support, providing protective emplace- brigade, under corps control, will focus on pro-
ments and structures, and constructing and tecting essential rear-area functions and facili-
maintaining combat trails. ties.

1-10 Corps Engineer operations


FM 5-100-15

Corps engineer support to forward ADA units critical signal nodes from the effects of enemy
primarily consists of survivability tasks and fires, thus allowing uninterrupted C2 opera-
will be provided by engineers organic to the tions. Corps engineers also provide the general
maneuver elements or augmenting corps engi- engineering required to support the personnel
neer units. Corps engineer support to other and systems involved in the C2 process. They
ADA efforts also focuses on survivability in- construct and repair facilities and install and
cluding digging in fire-direction centers and repair utilities as necessary.
building protective berms for ADA weapons
systems. They also clear fields of fire for ADA Tactical Combat Service Support
weapons systems. Topographic engineers, in
coordination with the corps G2, aid in identify- Tactical CSS is the support and assistance pro-
ing air avenues of approach. vided to sustain forces, primarily in the fields of
logistics, personnel services, and health serv-
ices. This includes arming, fueling, fixing
Tactical Command and Control
manning the force, distributing supplies, pro-
Tactical C2 is the exercise of authority and viding general engineering and MP support,
direction by a properly designated commander and evacuating noncombatants from the area.
over assigned forces in the accomplishment of
the mission. Battle command functions are Corps engineer support to CSS efforts focuses
performed through an arrangement of person- on survivability and general engineering.
nel, equipment, facilities, and procedures em- Corps engineers build protective berms, shel-
ployed by a commander in planning, directing, ters, and revetments for critical CSS facilities
coordinating, and controlling forces and opera- and activities. They construct and maintain
tions in accomplishing the mission. roads and CSS facilities. They may provide
essential utilities including sewage, water, and
Corps engineers support the tactical C2 process electrical systems. Corps bridge companies
by enhancing the survivability of tactical C2 have the capability to provide haul support
facilities. Engineers construct bunkers and with their bridge trucks when bridge compo-
other structures, such as NBC collective protec- nents are off-loaded.
tive shelters, to protect commanders, staff, and

TYPES OF ENGINEER ORGANIZATIONS


CORPS ENGINEER UNITS Engineer Company (Light Equipment)
Based on METT-T, the corps task organization (Airborne)
may contain several types of corps engineer Engineer Company (Combat Support
Equipment)
units to weight its main effort and to conduct
Engineer Company (Topographic)
other battlefield functions. The engineer or-
Engineer Company (Ribbon Bridge)
ganizations that are normally assigned to the
Engineer Company (Panel Bridge)
corps are listed below.
Engineer Company (Medium Girder
Headquarters, Engineer Brigade (Corps) Bridge)
Headquarters, Engineer Group (Combat) Engineer Team (Diving, Light)
Engineer Battalion (Corps) (Mechanized)
Engineer Battalion (Corps) (Wheeled)
Engineer Battalion (Corps) (Light) Headquarters, Engineer Brigade (Corps)
Engineer Battalion (Corps) (Airborne)
The brigade is comprised of an organic head-
Engineer Battalion (Combat Heavy)
quarters and headquarters company (HHC), a
Engineer Company (Light Equipment)

Corps Engineer Operations 1-11


FM 5-100-15

DS topographic company and a variety of other veillance, and target acquisition (RISTA)
subordinate engineer organizations assigned forces. This support can involve breaching
or attached based on METT-T. Figure 1-1 natural and man-made obstacles and improv-
shows a theoretical corps engineer brigade lay- ing trafficability of routes for cavalry regi-
down. The brigade also provides staffing for a ments, field artillery, and logistics units. Dur-
corps SES that supports each corps’s CP. ing deliberate breaches at division or brigade
level, mechanized corps engineers may provide
Headquarters, Engineer Group (Combat) the engineer support to the breach force, pre-
serving the division engineers for follow-on op-
The combat engineer group is the principal sub-
erations; follow and widen breaches conducted
ordinate unit of the corps engineer brigade.
by division engineer units; or breach obstacles
The combat engineer group’s only organic ele-
ment is its HHC. The engineer group is de- bypassed by division engineer units. To weight
signed to provide C2 of five to seven subordi- the offensive main effort, mechanized corps en-
nate corps engineer units on either an area or gineer battalions can be task-organized to divi-
functional basis, either far forward in the divi- sion engineers. In the deliberate defense,
sion and brigade areas or in the corps rear area. mechanized corps engineers augment division
Its mission may include being the crossing- engineers in survivability and countermobility
force engineer headquarters for major river- operations. Mechanized corps engineers can
crossing operations or during a major deliber- emplace ground-emplaced scatterable mine-
ate breach of a complex obstacle system. The field and conventional obstacles such as road
combat engineer group can also control GS gen- craters and bridge demolitions. The battalion
eral engineering in the corps and division rear has limited general engineering capability and
areas, focusing on the construction of MSRs may require support from other corps engineer
and logistics support bases. A combat engineer units.
group may be task-organized to support a divi-
sion when the division’s augmented corps engi- Engineer Battalion (Corps) (Wheeled)
neer strength exceeds the C2 capability of the The wheeled corps engineer battalion consists
division engineer and his staff. During this of an HHC and three line companies. It is
situation, the division engineer brigade or bat- designed to provide engineer support to corps
talion commander normally remains as the di- close and rear operations and can fight as mo-
vision engineer staff officer. The combat engi- torized infantry when properly trained and
neer group operates as a major subordinate augmented. Wheeled corps engineers can exe-
command (MSC) under the division, receiving cute mobility operations forward of the brigade
taskings from the division G3 and division en-
support areas (BSAs) to maintain supply
gineer.
routes used by logistics units, tactical routes,
and combat trails. Engineer CSE companies
Engineer Battalion (Corps) (Mechanized) can be task-organized to the battalion to sup-
The mechanized corps engineer battalion con- port these types of missions. Wheeled corps
sists of an HHC and three line companies. It engineer units provide countermobility sup-
is almost identical in capability to the division port to corps close operations to prepare the
engineer battalions in an armored or mecha- battlefield for decisive operations. They con-
nized division, but has a larger staff. It is tribute significantly to the emplacement of the
designed to conduct engineer operations in corps obstacle plan. Wheeled corps engineers
close combat and can fight as mechanized in- can be task-organized to division engineers, es-
fantry when properly trained and augmented. pecially in the deliberate defense. Wheeled
Mechanized corps engineers provide mobility corps engineers also support corps close and
support to reconnaissance, intelligence, sur- rear operations with horizontal general engi-

1-12 Corps Engineer Operations


FM 5-100-15

Figure 1-1. Sample corps engineer brigade

Corps Engineer Operations 1-13


FM 5-100-15

neering. They keep LOC open by building, and is relatively self-sustaining and able to
maintaining, and repairing roads, combat operate independently in remote areas with
trails, forward airfields, and logistics facilities security force augmentation. The combat
to sustain uninterrupted logistics flow from heavy engineer battalion is capable of conduct-
corps and division logistics units to forward ing multiple construction missions simultane-
maneuver units. When augmented with addi- ously. The battalion is capable of constructing
tional horizontal and vertical assets, they can and providing rapid repair and rehabilitation
construct logistics bases and can perform gen- of facilities such as airfields, roads, bridges,
eral engineering operations. and buildings. With augmentation from spe-
cialized engineer companies, detachments, and
Engineer Battalion (Corps) (Light) and teams, the combat heavy engineer battalion
Engineer Battalion (Corps) (Airborne) can manage and assist in the construction of
ports, pipelines, water wells, power plants, and
These two battalions, though not identical, are
power-distribution networks to either austere
very similar in size, equipment, and mission.
or complete levels. The battalion can construct
Both have an HHC and three line companies.
TO structures (such as those contained in the
They reinforce engineers in light infantry, air-
Army facilities components system (AFCS))
borne, and air assault divisions and special
operations forces (SOF) units. Their equip- and erect prefabricated structures. The com-
ment is down-sized and capable of being rap- bat heavy engineer battalion is well suited for
idly deployed anywhere in the world. Light and support to operations other than war (OOTW)
airborne corps engineer battalions are strategi- such as those conducted during postconflict,
cally mobile in order to accompany rapidly-de- humanitarian assistance, disaster relief, and
ploying force-projection forces. They are de- nation assistance. Combat heavy engineer
signed in perform engineer support to corps battalions are normally task-organized to the
close operations and fight as light infantry corps engineer brigade or divisions to reinforce
when properly trained and augmented. During their general engineering capability.
force-projection operations, these battalions
have a limited capability to construct and im- Engineer Company (Light Equipment) and
prove logistics bases; build, maintain, and re- Engineer Company (Light Equipment)
pair LOC and airfields; and construct individ- (Airborne)
ual and vehicle survivability positions for These units support light and airborne engi-
early-deploying contingency forces. The engi- neers and include down-sized, rapidly-deploy-
neer light equipment company and light equip- able engineer equipment. They are normally
ment company (airborne) will often support task-organized to corps or division light and
corps light and airborne engineer battalions. airborne engineer battalions to enhance their
Corps light and airborne engineer battalions horizontal construction capabilities, but may
have limited obstacle-breaching capability. also be task-organized to wheeled or mecha-
This constrains them to mainly improving and nized engineer battalions. These equipment-
widening existing breach lanes. In the deliber-
intensive companies have the capability to per-
ate defense, these battalions can reinforce light
form survivability and general engineering
division engineers in countermobility and sur-
missions. They help the maneuver forces dig
vivability missions.
in, and can execute earth-moving countermo-
bility missions when supporting a deliberate
Engineer Battalion (Combat Heavy)
defense. The corps light equipment companies
The combat heavy engineer battalion executes work with the light and airborne engineer bat-
a wide variety of horizontal and vertical con- talions in early deployment with force-projec-
struction missions. It is deployable by ship tion forces to establish forward logistics bases

1-14 Corps Engineer Operations


FM 5-100-15

until heavier corps and theater engineer assets assets remain available to all in a central loca-
arrive. tion. The surveyors are normally operating
throughout the corps area extending geodetic
Engineer Company (Combat Support control. Other elements of the company maybe
Equipment) task-organized and placed in support of a sup-
ported division or task force for a limited time
The engineer CSE company is a deployable, and for a particular tactical operation. Re-
equipment-intensive company that possesses quirements that cannot be met by the company
significant earth-moving capability. It is nor- because of priority workload or complexity are
mally attached to a corps engineer battalion passed to the topographic battalion for comple-
(wheeled or mechanized) to augment the bat- tion. Normally, the corps topographic engineer
talion’s horizontal construction capability. It company is centrally located in the corps rear
can also operate independently while under the area.
direct control of the combat engineer group.
The primary roles for an engineer CSE com- Engineer Company (Ribbon Bridge)
pany are—
The engineer ribbon bridge company employs a
Ž Survivability and tank ditching during dependable, versatile float-bridge system
deliberate defensive operations in for- which can be rapidly emplaced in a close com-
ward brigade areas. bat environment. The ribbon bridge company
is normally task-organized with a corps engi-
Ž Horizontal general engineering along neer battalion or combat engineer group as
MSRs and combat trails in other corps’ part of river-crossing operations. The ribbon
close-operation areas. bridge components can be transported by spe-
cialized bridge trucks or sling-loaded by me-
• Horizontal general engineering and sur- dium-lift helicopters to the bridging site. The
vivability in corps’ rear areas. engineer ribbon brigge company has a secon-
dary mission of providing logistics haul capa-
Engineer Company (Topographic) bility using its bridge transport trucks when
the bridge is down loaded.
A topographic engineer company from the thea-
ter topographic battalion is placed in DS of the Engineer Company (Panel Bridge) and
corps. Capabilities of this company include the
Engineer Company (Medium Girder Bridge)
full spectrum of topographic support, as in the
battalion, with personnel and equipment to These engineer fixed-bridge companies are ca-
provide products for the corps’s AOs. Depend- pable of rapidly emplacing tactical standard
ing on the distance from the battalion and the bridging, either panel bridges (normally Bailey
tactical situation, the topographic company bridges) or medium girder bridges (MGBs),
may be attached to the corps for administration over wet or dry gaps in a close combat environ-
and nontopographic logistics support. The ment. These fixed bridges can be used to re-
theater topographic battalion provides topo- place assault float bridges or to bridge gaps
graphic supply and intermediate maintenance that exceed the capabilities of the armored ve-
for topographic equipment. A terrain-analysis hicle launched bridge (AVLB). Normally, these
element of the company is placed in DS of the engineer fixed-bridge companies are task-or-
corps G3/G2, and another terrain element re- ganized to a corps engineer battalion or combat
mains in GS of other customers such as the G4, engineer group to support gap-crossing opera-
engineer, and signal. The terrain-analysis ele- tions. These companies also have a secondary
ment furnishes rapid-response and special-pur- mission of providing logistics haul capability
pose topographic support to the corps staff for using its organic trucks when the bridge is
operations planning and IPB. The production down loaded.

Corps Engineer Operations 1-15


FM 5-100-15

Engineer Team (Diving, Light) and headquarters detachment (HHD) and


mechanized division engineer battalions. They
The engineer diving team (light) is capable of
supporting the corps commanders' diving re- normally train and operate with each maneu-
quirements on the battlefield. The team fo- ver brigade in the division forming habitual-
cuses on offensive, defensive, retrograde, river- support relationships. The armored or mecha-
nized division engineer brigade commander
crossing, deception, and ADC operations. It is
capable of underwater construction underwa- also serves as the division engineer special
ter reconnaissance, underwater obstacle em- staff officer. The armored or mechanized divi-
placement and reduction, and river-crossing sion engineer headquarters provides central-
support, all of which require mobile equip ized C2 and planning for the total division en-
ment. It is also capable of supporting diving gineer effort. It recommends the task organi-
requirements in ports, harbors, and coastal zation for division engineer battalions and re-
zones. However, it lacks the heavy equipment inforcing corps engineer battalions and sepa-
required to support major port construction rate engineer companies to the division com-
projects, decompression dives, and salvage op- mander or G3 based on METT-T. The armored
erations. The team can provide its capabilities or mechanized division engineer brigade com-
in support of OOTW. mander may detach companies from one divi-
sion engineer battalion to another battalion
(main effort) or to another maneuver unit such
CORPS ENGINEER SUPPORT TO
as the division cavalry squadron. Mechanized
DIVISIONS, SEPARATE BRIGADES, AND
corps engineer battalions and CSE companies
CAVALRY REGIMENTS
normally are task-organized to the armored or
The corps engineer brigade augments engineer mechanized division. The armored or mecha-
units organic to divisions, separate brigades, and nized division engineer controls and staff su-
cavalry regiments based on METT-T. These or- pervises corps engineer assets working in the
ganic engineer units are focused on close combat division AO on a task or mission basis.
mobility, countermobility, and survivability sup
port to maneuver forces. Corps engineers pro- Engineer Battalion (Light)
vide additional support in these fictions along
The light infantry division has an organic light
with general and topographic engineering sup-
port. Engineer organizations organic to divi- engineer battalion with an HHC and three
light division engineer companies. These com-
sions, separate brigades, and cavalry regiments
panies establish and maintain a habitual-sup
that can be reinforced by the corps engineer bri-
gade are listed below. port relationship with each light infantry bri-
gade in the division. The light division engi-
Division neer battalion commander also serves as the
Engineer Brigade (Heavy) division engineer special staff officer. He fo-
Engineer Battalion (Light) cuses on supporting the light division fight by
Engineer Battalion (Airborne) recommending the task organization of ele-
Engineer Battalion (Air Assault) ments of the battalion assault and obstacle
Separate Maneuver Brigade (A&O) platoon, light combat engineer platoons,
Engineer Company and corps’ assets to the division commander or
Cavalry Regiment G3. The task organization of light division en-
Engineer Company gineers depends on METT-T and requires ex-
treme flexibility. Light division engineers
Headquarters, Engineer Brigade (Heavy) must be concentrated at the main effort loca-
The armored or mechanized division has an tion, at the critical time, under centralized
organic engineer brigade with a headquarters control. Austere light engineer companies re-

1-16 Corps Engineer Operations


FM 5-100-15

quire extensive augmentation from the corps HHC and three air assault engineer compa-
engineer brigade for extended and force-projec- nies. These companies develop and maintain a
tion operations. An engineer group with a habitual-support relationship with each air as-
corps light engineer battalion, corps wheeled sault brigade in the division. The air assault
battalions, a light engineer equipment com- division engineer battalion commander also
pany, and CSEs is normally task-organized to serves as the division engineer special staff
the light infantry division. The light division officer. The air assault division engineer bat-
engineer controls and staff supervises engineer talion commander focuses on supporting the
assets working in the light division’s AO on a air assault division fight by recommending the
task or mission basis. task organization of the battalion A&O pla-
toon, air assault combat engineer platoons, and
Engineer Battalion (Airborne) corps’ assets to the division commander or G3.
The task organization of air assault division
The airborne division has one organic air-
engineers depends on METT-T and requires
borne division engineer battalion with an
HHC and three airborne division companies. extreme flexibility. The air assault division en-
These companies establish and maintain a gineer battalion organization is similar to the
habitual-support relationship with each air- airborne division engineer battalion but has
borne infantry brigade in the division. The enhanced tactical mobility due to access to the
airborne division engineer battalion com- air mobility assets organic to the air assault
mander also serves as the division engineer division. For extended and force-projection op-
special staff officer. He focuses on supporting erations, the air assault engineer battalion re-
the airborne division fight by recommending quires extensive augmentation from the corps
the task organization of the battalion A&O engineer brigade. A corps light engineer bat-
platoon, airborne combat engineer platoons, talion and light engineer equipment company
and supporting corps’ assets to the division are normally task-organized to the air assault
commander or G3. The task organization of division. The air assault division engineer con-
airborne division engineers depends on trols and staff supervises these and all other
METT-T and requires extreme flexibility. Air- corps engineer assets working in the division’s
borne division engineer companies are fairly AO on a task or mission basis.
austere with limited organic equipment as-
sets, including small emplacement excavators Engineer Company (Separate Maneuver
(SEFJs), Volcano scatterable-mine systems, Brigade)
and airborne engineer squad vehicles. For Except for their smaller size, separate ar-
extended and force-projection operations, the mored, infantry, and light infantry brigades
airborne engineer battalion requires exten- have essentially the same characteristics as
sive augmentation from the corps engineer divisions. These brigades can be used to aug-
brigade. A corps airborne engineer battalion ment divisions but are capable of operating as
and light engineer equipment company (air-
independent units. Separate maneuver bri-
borne) are normally task-organized to the air-
gades have an organic engineer company with
borne division. The airborne division engi-
three engineer platoons and an A&O platoon
neer controls and staff supervises corps engi-
neer assets working in the division’s AO on a that develop and maintain habitual-support
relationships with battalion task forces in the
task or mission basis.
brigade. The separate brigade also has a bri-
gade staff engineer section which provides cen-
Engineer Battalion (Air Assault)
tralized planning for the total brigade engineer
The air assault division has one organic air effort by recommending to the brigade com-
assault division engineer battalion with an mander or S3 a task organization of separate

Corps Engineer Operations 1-17


FM 5-100-15

brigade engineer squads, platoons, and corps alry regiment’s organic engineer company as
assets based on METT-T. The separate brigade its fourth line company. The corps engineer
engineer company commander may detach battalion staff augments the regimental engi-
squads from one separate brigade engineer neer staff section for planning and controlling
platoon to another platoon (main effort). A operations. If the task organization of the
corps engineer battalion is normally task-or- corps engineer battalion to the cavalry regi-
ganized to the separate maneuver brigade. ment is long term the corps engineer battalion
When this occurs, the corps engineer battalion commander normally becomes the regimental
normally absorbs the separate brigade organic engineer.
engineer company as its fourth line company.
The corps engineer battalion staff augments THEATER ENGINEER SUPPORT TO THE
the separate brigade engineer staff section for CORPS
planning and controlling operations. If the
The corps engineer brigade is augmented by
task organization of the corps engineer battal-
other theater engineer organizations from EAC
ion to the separate brigade is long term, the
based on METT-T. Theater engineer forces fo-
corps engineer battalion commander normally
cus primarily on general and topographic engi-
becomes the separate brigade engineer.
neering operations. Theater general engineer-
ing operations include—
Engineer Company (Cavalry Regiment)
The cavalry regiment performs reconnais- Ž LOC (roads, airfields, ports, railways,
sance, security, and economy-of-force opera- and canals) construction, maintenance,
tions for the corps. The regiment has organic and repair.
air and ground cavalry units that can operate
as combined arms teams over wide areas. The Ž Pipeline construction.
regiment may conduct offensive, defensive, or
retrograde operations. It has significant mo- Ž Logistics facility support.
bile, antiarmor capability and can effectively
conduct covering-force, flank-security, or coun- • Rear-area restoration.
terattack operations. It may be attached to a
division but is capable of independent opera- • ADC.
tions. The regiment has an organic engineer
company with three engineer platoons and an Ž Production and preparation of construc-
A&O platoon that develop and maintain habit- tion materials.
ual-support relationships with regimental
ground squadrons. The regiment also has a Ž Real estate management.
separate regimental engineer staff section
which provides centralized planning for the to- • Support to theater units and C2 facili-
tal regimental engineer effort. It recommends ties.
to the regimental command or S3 the task or-
ganization of engineer squads, platoons, and Theater topographic engineering operations
corps assets based on METT-T. The cavalry provide the full spectrum of topographic sup-
regiment engineer company commander may port to all TA assets and, when directed, to
detach squads from one engineer platoon to joint and multinational commands. Theater
another platoon (main effort). A corps engineer engineer organizations (normally assigned to
battalion is normally task-organized to the an ENCOM headquarters in a mature theater)
cavalry regiment. When this occurs, the corps can be task-organized to the corps engineer
engineer battalion normally absorbs the cav- brigade in support of force-projection opera-

1-18 Corps Engineer Operations


FM 5-100-15

tions when required. Theater engineer organi- Ž Planning, coordinating, and supervising
zations that can augment the corps engineer military and contract construction and
brigade are listed below. engineering services to the Army, other
services, and coalition forces in the thea-
Headquarters, Engineer Command ter.
Headquarters, Engineer Brigade (Theater)
Headquarters, Engineer Group (Construction) • Allocating engineer resources (units,
Engineer Battalion (Combat Heavy) contractors, materials, and equipment)
Engineer Battalion (Topogtaphic to meet mission requirements.
Engineer Battalion (Prime Power)
Ž Prioritizing the use of available theater
Engineer Company (Port Construction)
Engineer Company (Pipeline Construction) engineer assets, including tradeoffs be-
Engineer Company (Construction Support) tween combat and construction require-
Engineer Company (Dump Truck) ments.
Engineer Battalion HHD Ž Coordinating topographic and military
Engineer Cellular Teams and Detachments geographic intelligence support to the
force.
Headquarters, Engineer Command
Ž Providing real estate support to the
The ENCOM is located at TA and is responsible Army, other services, and allies
for theater operational engineering, construc- throughout the theater.
tion, and topography. Its composition is tai-
lored based on METT-T and can consist of a Ž Providing technical assistance to real
number of theater engineer brigade headquar- property maintenance activities
ters, construction engineer group headquar- (RPMA) throughout the theater.
ters, engineer battalions (combat heavy, topo-
graphic, and prime-power), engineer compa- • Planning construction material require-
nies (port construction, pipeline, construction ments and prioritizing their use.
support, and dump truck), and detachments or
teams (well-drilling, diving, fire-fighting real Ž Providing special engineer support to
estate, utilities, prime-power, power-line con- the theater such as pipeline construc-
struction dredging, asphalt, quarry, and engi- tion, port construction, dump truck,
neer civic action). The ENCOM task-organizes prime-power, and fire-fighting.
its subordinate units as necessary During
force-projection operations, the TA may use a Headquarters, Engineer Brigade
corps engineer brigade headquarters or theater (Theater Army)
engineer brigade headquarters until an EN-
COM is deployed. The ENCOM will deploy in The TA engineer brigade is the principal subor-
increments to the theater, reaching full status dinate unit of the ENCOM. The engineer bri-
as the theater matures. Until this occurs, the gade has an organic HHC and is tailored based
ENCOM or the USACE will augment that on METT-T. It may have a number of engineer
headquarters. The ENCOM performs the fol- group headquarters, engineer battalions, com-
lowing functions: panies, detachments, and teams. The engineer
brigade’s AO should coincide with Theater
• Planning and coordinating theater engi- Army Area Command (TAACOM) boundaries
neer operations. whenever possible. During force-projection op-
erations, the engineer brigade, with augmenta-
• Assessing theater infrastructure re- tion from the ENCOM or USACE, may deploy
quirements. alone. The engineer brigade’s C2 capabilities

Corps Engineer Operations 1-19


FM 5-100-15

are similar in those of the ENCOM, with the engineer battalion is capable of conducting
exception of the topographic support function. multiple construction missions simultaneously.
The battalion is capable of constructing and
Headquarters, Engineer Group providing rapid repair and rehabilitation of fa-
(Construction) cilities such as airfields, roads, bridges, and
buildings. With augmentation from special-
The construction engineer group has an organic
ized engineer companies, detachments, and
HHC and can provide C2 for up to seven engi-
teams, the combat heavy engineer battalion
neer battalions, plus a number of separate com-
can manage and assist in the construction of
panies, detachments, and teams. It is the prin-
ports, pipelines, water wells, power plants, and
cipal subordinate unit of a TA engineer brigade.
The construction engineer group FUNCTIONS as power-distribution networks to either austere
the principal construction manager for a given or complete levels. The battalion can construct
area or given tasks. It has a large planning and TO structures (such as those contained in the
design capability. The construction engineer AFCS) and erect prefabricated structures. The
group operating areas normally coincide with combat heavy engineer battalion is well suited
area-support-group (ASG) boundaries. In for support to OOTW such as those conducted
force-projection theaters, a construction engi- during postconflict, humanitarian assistance,
neer group attached to a corps engineer brigade disaster relief, and nation assistance. Combat
may be all that is deployed for C2 of theater heavy engineer battalions are normally task-
engineers. The engineer group will be organized to the corps engineer brigade or divi-
weighted with specialized engineer units to sions to reinforce their general engineering ca-
execute specific taskings. Construction engi- pability.
neer group C2 capabilities include—
Engineer Battalion (Topographic)
Ž Planning, designing, coordinating, and The theater engineer topographic battalion
supervising general troop construction provides the full spectrum of topographic sup-
support to the Army, other services, and port to all TA assets and, when directed, to joint
agencies within the group’s assigned and multinational commands. This includes-
AO.
• Terrain analysis.
• Planning, designing, coordinating, and
supervising construction or rehabilita- Ž Precise positioning (geodetic) surveys.
tion of facilities within the group’s area.
Ž Production of mapping, charting, and
Ž Allocating assigned engineer troops, geodesy (MC&G) products.
materials, and equipment to projects.
• Data-base management (both hard copy
• Functioning as a corps engineer group. and digital).

Ž Special product storage and distribu-


Engineer Battalion (Combat Heavy)
tion.
The combat heavy engineer battalion executes
a wide variety of horizontal and vertical con- Ž Supply of topographic material.
struction missions. It is deployable by ship
and relatively self-sustaining and able to oper- Ž Intermediate maintenance support of
ate independently in remote areas with secu- topographic equipment.
rity force augmentation. The combat heavy

1-20 Corps Engineer Operations


FM 5-100-15

The battalion consists of an HHC, one topo- Engineer Company (Port Construction)
graphic engineer company in GS of the theater, The engineer port construction company is
and one topographic company for each sup- designed to augment a combat heavy bat-
ported corps. Requirements for topographic talion. This results in a task force that has
engineer support are developed by the theater the capability to support joint logistics-
intelligence staff and coordinated by the assis-
over-the-shore (LOTS) operations, provide
tant theater topographic engineer (ATTE). moorings and anchorage for ocean-going
The theater engineer is responsible for coordi-
vessels, construct and rehabilitate cargo
nating and tasking topographic missions. The
loading and off-loading facilities, and re-
topographic engineer battalion is functionally move underwater obstacles (to include
organized around data collection assimilation, dredging and demolitions).
and analysis. The process is highly automated
and relies on high-speed data transmission,
Engineer Company (Pipeline Construction)
graphic display and production capabilities.
The battalion works closely with MI units to The engineer pipeline construction company is
use current sources of imagery that can be designed to augment a combat heavy battalion,
quickly turned into image maps. The battalion resulting in a task force capable of providing
uses data bases produced by the Defense Map- pipeline construction and major maintenance
ping Agency (DMA) and civil and national sat- for the movement of bulk petroleum, oils, and
ellite imagery systems, along with local data lubricants (POL).
sources, to compile and transmit terrain-analy-
is products to maneuver units. The battalion Engineer Company (Construction Support)
may provide limited map distribution support The engineer construction support company
until quartermaster map distribution units ar- provides specialized construction capability
rive. Terrain assets of the battalion support and construction materials production. I t s
company will support SOF. functions include rock crushing and bitumi-
nous mixing and paving for major horizontal
Engineer Battalion (Prime Power) construction missions such as paved roads,
storage facilities, and airfields. It normally
The prime-power engineer battalion provides augments a combat heavy battalion.
quickly-deployable prime-power companies
and teams to force-projection theaters within Engineer Company (Dump Truck)
72 hours. Prime-power units provide the nec-
essary electrical continuity between tactical The engineer dump truck company augments
generators (TACGENs) and commercial the material-haul capability of construction
power sources in theater. They also support units for large, long, or extended construction
general engineering operations in the com- material-haul requirements.
munications zone (COMMZ), providing power
generation and power-related technical sup- Engineer Battalion (Headquarters and
port to rear-area units (such as air defense), Headquarters Detachment)
facilities (such as hospitals), and activities The engineer battalion HHD provides C2 of
(such as Force provider). Prime-power sup- separate theater engineer construction compa-
port may extend forward into the corps area nies, cellular detachments, and teams. The
at the direction of the theater engineer. headquarters detachment augments the staff
Prime-power units also support postconflict of an ASG in the execution of RPMA for ASG
operations and OOTW. bases, including construction contracting and

Corps Engineer Operations 1-21


FM 5-100-15

host-nation support. It also may serve as a • Fire-fighting team.


Directorate of Public Works (DPW) for specific
theater installations. • Real estate team.

Engineer Cellular Teams and Detachments • Utilities team.


Engineer detachments and cellular teams pro- • Prime-power detachment.
vide flexible, tailorable specialized engineer
capability to the theater. These teams and de- • Powerline construction team.
tachments are typically small and have very
little organic CSS or staff planning capability • Dredging team.
Engineer construction material production
teams produce crushed rock asphalt paving
Ž Civic-action team.
materials, and lumber, as appropriate, to aug-
ment indigenous theater capability. Engineer
Ž USACE water-detection team.
special-purpose detachments and teams per-
form critical engineer tasks. These include the
following. Ž USACE contingency real estate support
team (CREST).
• Engineer equipment operation team.
Ž USACE contract support team.
• Well-drilling team.

Ž Heavy diving team.

1-22 Corps Engineer Operations


FM 5-100-15

CHAPTER 2
COMMAND AND CONTROL
(General) Walker knew very well that these forces could not stop a major CCF
offensive. His purpose in deploying the 2d Division northeasterly was to give
the ROKs moral support and prevent a disastrous ROK bugout. Meanwhile,
he continued drawing plans for a deep withdrawal to a line at the Kum River.

On December 22 (1950) Walker called the engineer Pat Strong to Eighth Army’s
tactical CP in Seoul. He gave Strong orders to prepare for a “scorched earth”
policy. He would blow up “every bridge and culvert” on the railways and
highways, “every foot of railroad line, ” and a huge “tidal lock” at Inchon. Strong
was aghast. He viewed these orders as utterly defeatist, “the scorched earth
policy of an army that would never return. ” He did not have sufficient resources
to rebuild these structures should Eighth Army regain the offensive. For that
reason he “pleaded” with Walker to restrict demolition to “key bridges” and
merely a single span in other bridges and, since the U.S. Navy controlled the
seas and would deny the CCF use of Inchon, to spare the tidal lock, which
would take “months” to rebuild. But Walker refused to change the order. . .

A description of the withdrawal from the Yalu River, from the book, The
Forgotten War, America in Korea 1950-1953, by Clay Blair.

Corps engineer C2 is the exercise of leadership the corps engineer brigade commander to inte-
through a system of organizations, facilities, grate engineer plans into future operations as
and processes that plans, directs, controls, and well as to synchronize the effort involved in the
coordinates corps engineer operations. Effec- current fight. This chapter focuses on estab-
tive corps engineer C2 is crucial to providing lishing effective engineer C2 with the corps. It
the corps commander with responsive engineer draws on the C2 principles and structure out-
support throughout the corps’s AO. It enables lined in FMs 101-5 and 100-15.

THE CORPS ENGINEER BRIGADE COMMANDER AND HIS STAFF


COMMAND authority and responsibility. Commanders can
delegate authority to subordinate commanders;
Corps battles are the key to tactical and opera- however, they retain responsibility at all times.
tional campaign success. Personal leadership Command is personal, and a commander must
is the most vital component of combat power take his role seriously. Battle command has
and has the most critical impact upon the out- two vital components: decision making and
come of battles and campaigns. FM 101-5 de- leadership. Commanders command one level
scribes the essential concepts of command- down and monitor two levels down.

Command and Control 2-1


FM 5-100-15

The corps engineer brigade commander pro- ing commander’s authority over other com-
vides the purpose, direction, and motivation for manders. Commanders can use forms of proce-
his soldiers to accomplish the difficult and dan- dural controls for indirect purposes to accom-
gerous engineer tasks that support corps op- plish clear, easily understood tasks. These in-
erations. The brigade commander determines clude maneuver graphics, concepts of opera-
what his leadership team and subordinate en- tion, mission orders, regulations, doctrine, and
gineer organizations need to be able to do in standing operating procedures (SOPs) to con-
war, establishes or reinforces standards, and trol subordinate units’ actions. Positive con-
then resources and trains the corps engineer trols are used for direct purposes to accomplish
forces. complex or vague tasks. These include setting
times for mission accomplishment, committing
The corps engineer’s role as both a brigade reserves, and implementing changes to plans.
commander and corps special staff officer pro-
vides unique leadership challenges. The bri- In advance of events, the corps commander es-
gade commander positions himself where he tablishes the conditions he wants to obtain at
can best command engineer support for the the conclusion of the battle or campaign. His
corps commander. In his role as commander, he concept of the operation includes his intent his
is at the scene of the engineer main effort. He vision of the end conditions, why those end
promotes command presence that enhances the conditions are necessary and how the corps
morale of corps engineer forces. The brigade will achieve those results. This concept of the
commander is also the corps commander’s engi- corps operation provides the focus for all corps
neer special staff officer, directly accessible to engineer operations and extends the corps
the corps decision makers. He assists the corps commander’s intent throughout the entire en-
commander by controlling the total engineer gineer force. All corps engineer leaders maxi-
fight, anticipating problems, providing timely mize decentralization of engineer support to
recommendations, and participating in initial the corps. They issue engineer orders that
future planning. He must balance his time clearly indicate what must be done, but provide
commanding and controlling subordinate corps subordinates with maximum latitude as to how
engineer units with his time needed to be with to get it done. They promote bold, innovative,
corps decision makers. risk taking and the immediate use of opportu-
nities within the context of the corps engineer
brigade and corps commander’s intent.
CONTROL
FM 100-5 states that commanders use control The corps engineer brigade commander devel-
to regulate forces and functions on the battle- ops his engineer concept of the operation that
field in order to execute the commander’s in- provides the basis for engineer task organiza-
tent. A commander derives the authority to tion, scheme of engineer support tasks to sub-
control another unit from his command respon- ordinate engineer units, engineer work areas,
sibility. A supported unit commander, such as synchronization, and identification of critical
the maneuver division commander, has the collateral engineer operations. Success in the
authority to coordinate directly with support- execution of the engineer concept requires the
ing commanders in order to synchronize his brigade commander’s personal attention and
plan and adjust its execution. The supporting perseverance, his ability to recognize the need
commander must accomplish these tasks for for changes or modifications to the engineer
the supported commander and is responsible concept, and his ability to affect the necessary
for the internal control of his unit. Unit task changes in a timely manner. He formulates a
organization, with designated command and new engineer concept or revises it whenever
support relationships, prescribes the support- there is a changing corps mission or situation.

2-2 Command and Control


FM 5-100-15

He continuously analyzes his engineer mission to engineer units under engineer brigade con-
and maintains a continuous engineer estimate trol.
and engineer battlefield assessment (EBA),
modifying his engineer concept over time as The corps engineer brigade commander and
the need arises. The corps engineer visualizes his staff understand the terrain and their op-
the large and complex operation of his own ponent well. They know the available strate-
engineer force and corps maneuver and logis- gic and operational imagery products and
tics forces (as well as that of the enemy) and topographic systems that provide the neces-
projects that visualization into the future. The sary terrain information to corps planners.
engineer concept is sufficiently detailed so that The brigade commander and his staff provide
the staff can develop the plan and specific en- recommendations to the corps commander on
gineer missions for subordinate engineer units how to defeat various threat engineer capa-
so that they can take actions to support the bilities such as bridging, breaching, and ob-
plan, even in the absence of subsequent guid- stacle-emplacement systems.
ance. Several iterations may be required to
clearly refine the engineer concept. The corps engineer brigade commander and
his staff understand and are proactive with
An engineer control process achieves agility by corps logistics operations. Continuous engi-
overcoming the inherent perception of engi- neer input with corps logistics planners en-
neers being “tied to the terrain. ” To enhance sures that corps engineer forces are properly
this agility the engineer brigade commander supported and sustained throughout cam-
controls subordinate engineer forces from any paigns and battles. In addition, extensive
location on the battlefield. He provides a re- survivability or general engineering support
sponsive control structure by organizing the to corps logistics forces is also planned and
corps engineer brigade staff, establishing engi- executed in a timely manner.
neer control facilities, and defining the engi-
neer control process used. He effectively uses A well-trained, smoothly-functioning corps
his engineer control organizations to hear, see, engineer brigade staff requires that the bri-
and understand all engineer battlefield mis- gade commander develop, train, guide, and
sions within the corps. The corps engineer con- demand high standards of performance from
trol system provides timely and accurate infor- all members of the staff in peacetime to en-
mation through the use of periodic engineer sure that they are properly prepared for war.
situation reports (SITREPs) and other engi- This demands realistic, difficult training ex-
neer battle information systems that monitor ercises in support of the corps, with all key
corps engineer support to the battlefield. Face- engineer players present and performing
to-face discussions between the corps engineer their engineer functions as they would in bat-
and subordinate engineer commanders often tle. The ability to synchronize thought with
tell much about the engineer situation. The the corps engineer brigade commander is
corps engineer control system rapidly trans- more than just understanding the com-
forms the engineer brigade commander’s deci- mander’s intent. It is that single unity of
sions into specific directions through the corps thought developed through interaction with
operation order (OPORD) and engineer annex the brigade commander so that the engineer
to engineer units augmenting divisions, sepa- staff thoroughly understands his thought
rate brigades, and the cavalry regiment, as processes and how he would react in any
well as through corps engineer brigade orders given situation.

Command and Control 2-3


FM 5-100-15

CORPS ENGINEER COMMAND AND CONTROL ORGANIZATION


The corps commander exercises control dinating the corps’s operations. A separate en-
through the Army Battle-Command System tity called the corps command group is also
(ABCS) from several CPs and a command formed and has specific functions and charac-
group. ABCS is the battle-command system teristics. Figure 2-3, page 2-6, graphically de-
used by all tactical echelons up through the picts corps and engineer CP locations.
corps (see Figure 2-1 for the ABC S). The corps
also provides the link between ABCS and the The corps engineer brigade normally establishes
battle-co mmand systems of the joint or multi- a separate brigade CP under the control of the
national C2 systems that area part of the Army deputy brigade commander (DBC). In addition
Information Systems Network (AISN) (see Fig- to establishing the brigade CP, corps engineer
ure 2-2). CPs support the corps commander by planning-and-control capability is available at
providing the structural framework to facili- each corps CP (assault, tactical, main, and rear)
tate planning, directing, controlling, and coor- and is available to the corps command group as

Figure 2-1. Army Battle-Command System (ABCS) architecture

2-4 Command and Control


FM 5-100-15

Figure 2-2. Army Information systems network

required. The corps engineer brigade has an neer force information to the ACE and engineer
SES element located within each corps CP. staff elements at each CP. Figure 2-4, page 2-7,
This engineer staff is under the control of the shows the relationships between the brigade
Assistant Corps Engineer (ACE), who inte- CP, the corps CP engineer staffs, and the bri-
grates engineers into the corps planning proc- gade command group.
ess. The ACE provides advance warning of fu-
ture corps operations through engineer chan- Corps engineer groups also establish separate
nels to the corps engineer brigade headquar- group CPs under the direction of the group
ters and to engineer staffs at divisions, sepa- executive officer (XO). The group CP provides
rate brigades, and the cavalry regiment. The current engineer force information to the bri-
ACE also receives current engineer force infor- gade CP. The group CP is structured similar to
mation from the organic division and separate the brigade CP.
maneuver forces. This allows the ACE to have Corps engineer battalions and companies also
a total picture of the overall engineer situation. establish separate CPs under the direction of
The brigade CP provides current corps engi- the battalion or company XOs.

Command and Control 2-5


FM 5-100-15

Figure 2-3. Corps and engineer CP locations

CORPS ENGINEER BRIGADE locate forward with either the corps command
The corps engineer brigade commander com- group, the corps tactical CP, or the brigade CP.
mands and controls corps engineer forces In some cases, the brigade commander may
through the brigade command group and the move to the decisive point of engineer opera-
brigade CP. Each are mutually supportive and tions to act as the eyes for the corps com-
provide timely information to the corps SES. mander. The brigade commander coordinates
closely and controls the engineer fight with his
subordinate group and separate battalion com-
Corps Engineer Brigade Command Group
manders. The brigade co mmander may use
The corps engineer brigade forms a command the brigade command sergeant major (CSM) as
group consisting of the brigade commander a second set of eyes for current engineer opera-
and those accompanying him on the battlefield. tions. The CSM maybe positioned on a secon-
The brigade commander normally concen- dary engineer effort or with the brigade corn
trates on the current engineer fight. He may mander at the engineer main effort. The CSM

2-6 Command and Control


FM 5-100-15

Figure 2-4. Corps engineer C2 relationships

Command and Control 2-7


FM 5-100-15

monitors the status of engineer brigade sol- corps assault tactical (TAC), and rear CPs.
diers, including their health, welfare, morale, The current-operations cell also maintains con-
and individual training proficiency. To be ef- tinuous contact with brigade liaison officers
fective, both the brigade commander and the (LOs) detailed to subordinate engineer head-
CSM require dedicated transportation and quarters or supported corps, joint or multina-
communications capabilities. tional forces and contracting agencies. The cell
is responsible for brigade CP OPSEC. If, in
Corps Engineer Brigade Command Post support of corps rear operations, the corps en-
gineer brigade commander is designated as a
The corps engineer brigade headquarters es- base cluster commander, the current-opera-
tablishes a mobile brigade CP in the vicinity of tions cell performs the additional mission of
the corps engineer main effort. The brigade CP being a base cluster operations center (BCOC)
is directed by the DBC, who provides appropri- for the commander. The BCOC coordinates
ate leadership, intent and guidance to the bri- rear-area tactical-operations support for the
gade CP staff. The brigade CP remains fo- base cluster with the designated corps rear-
cused on current engineer operations by main- area operations center (RAOC).
taining close coordination with corps engineer
groups, separate battalions, and companies. Plans cell. The brigade TOC plans cell consists
The brigade CP consists of three elements--the of brigade S3 and S2 personnel and repre-
corps engineer brigade tactical operations cen- sentatives from the brigade S4, S5, and S1
ter (TOC), a signal element, and a life-support sections, along with liaison personnel from the
area. corps topographic engineer company that is in
DS to the corps. The plans cell writes detailed
Brigade TOC. Because of its size and breadth engineer plans that support approved corps
of responsibilities, the corps engineer brigade plans, including construction estimates. The
TOC has multidisciplined cells that enhance corps topographic company provides terrain
engineer coordination and synchronization. imagery products in support of this planning.
These include a current-operations cell, a plans Corps EBA products and engineer reconnais-
cell, and a CSS cell. The brigade XO directs sance collection plans are developed here. This
the brigade TOC. cell works closely with the engineer plans cell
at the corps main CP, the corps G2, and the
Current-operations cell. The brigde TOC cur- terrain-analysis team supporting the G2.
rent-operations cell consists of Operations and
Training Officer (US Army) (S3) personnel. In- CSS cell. The brigade TOC CSS cell consists
telligence Officer (US Army) (S2) personnel, the of the brigade S4, S1, S5, chaplain, and Staff
brigade chemical officer, and representatives Judge Advocate (SJA) sections. The cell’s pri-
from the brigade Supply Officer (US Army) mary function is to track critical engineer
(S4), Adjutant (US Army) (S1), and Civil Affairs logistics and personnel items that support
Officer (US Army) (S5). The cell’s primary corps engineer operations. This may include
function is to monitor the current status of critical engineer Class V demolitions and
corps engineer units, including their missions, mines. Class IV supplies, critical engineer
logistics, personnel, and host-nation support. equipment shortages and maintenance, criti-
The current-operations cell writes and main- cal engineer personnel shortages, corps MSR
tains engineer brigade orders. It also main- conditions, and host-nation support. The CSS
tains current threat information (including cell works closely with the corps G4, Assistant
threat engineer capability). This cell works Chief of Staff, G5 (Civil Affairs)(G5) Assistant
closely with the engineer staff in the corps main Chief of Staff, G1 (Personnel) (G1), COSCOM,
CP current-operations cell and maintains com- and the engineer staff at the corps rear CP to
munications with the engineer staff at the resolve CSS issues. The chaplain and SJA are

2-8 Command and Control


FM 5-100-15

considered part of the corps engineer brigade Engineer Support to the Corps Command
commander’s personal staff and may accom- Group
pany him when required. The corps command group’s primary purpose
Signal element. The corps engineer brigade is to keep the corps commander informed.
communications section is responsible for con- When separated from the corps CPS, the com-
necting the brigade CP into the signal support mand group will normally consist of the corps
network which includes the combat net radio commander and representatives from the G3,
(CNR), the area common user system (ACUS), G2, and fire-support elements. The command
the automated data distribution system group provides corps leadership, intent, and
(ADDS), and broadcast interface. Engineer guidance through a small, secure, mobile CP.
communications systems must provide timely,
The corps engineer provides representation to
accurate, secure, and reliable information flow
the command group, especially during major
to and from the corps engineer brigade com- corps operations requiring extensive engineer
mander, his staff, corps staff engineer ele- support such as major river crossings, obsta-
ments, and higher and lower echelons. The cle-breaching operations, and large-scale de-
brigade signal officer (BSO) continuously coor- fensive preparations.
dinates engineer signal requirements with the
corps signal brigade and the corps signal offi- Engineer Support to the Corps Assault and
cer. He is responsible for information system Tactical Command Posts
security (ISS) at the brigade CP. The commu-
nications section also establishes base cluster During force-projection or fast-moving opera-
communications networks when required. tions, the corps will normally deploy an as-
sault CP with the subordinate maneuver
Life-support area. The corps engineer bri- units while the corps main and rear CPs in-
gade HHC commander is responsible for pro- itially remain at a fixed location (the home
viding secure working and living facilities for station, the intermediate staging base (ISB),
brigade CP personnel. This includes food and or the corps rear area). After the corps main
field services, supply and maintenance capa- and rear CPs deploy forward, the assault CP
bility. The company commander is responsible normally becomes the TAC CP. The corps as-
for planning a tactical base defense, estab- sault and TAC CPs focus on conducting corps
lishing a base defense operations center close operations. Deep and rear operations
(BDOC), and interfacing with designated are monitored only for their effect on close
BCOCs and/or RAOCs. Normally, the brigade operations. The assault and TAC CPs are
TOC is located in the vicinity of the life-support small and mobile, with reduced electronic sig-
area. The company commander coordinates nature. They are under the corps G3’s con-
force protection and other security measures trol. They may be located well forward in the
with the brigade TOC current-operations cell. corps areas (such as in the vicinity of the main
CP of a division conducting the corps’s main
attack) or with a counterattacking force dur-
CORPS STAFF ENGINEER SECTION ing the defense. Integrated engineer support
The SES represents the corps engineer during to the corps assault and TAC CPs are pro-
all aspects of corps planning and execution. vided by an element from the corps engineer
The SES provides embedded, timely engineer brigade headquarters’ SES. This engineer
staffing support to the corps command group cell fully integrates current corps engineer
and each corps CP (assault, TAC, main, and operations with current maneuver, intelli-
rear) as required. The SES also provides gence, fire-support, aviation, ADA, chemical,
timely information to the corps engineer bri- and CSS operations. The cell’s major func-
gade command group and the brigade CP. tions are—

Command and Control 2-9


FM 5-100-15

Ž Synchronizing engineer support of corps battle-command system, providing continuity


close operations. for corps operations. The main CP has a
broader orientation and is more future ori-
Ž Writing engineer portions of corps warn- ented than the assault or TAC CPs. The main
ing orders ( WARNO RDs) and fragmen- CP synchronizes the entire corps battle, con-
tary orders (FRAGOs) in support of ducts corps deep operations, and plans all fu-
corps close operations. ture operations. It is normally located in a
built-up area, if the situation permits, and is
• Maintaining the current engineer situ- positioned in the forward portion of the corps
ation and EBA information supporting rear area. The corps main CP is controlled by
corps close operations. the corps chief of staff and is comprised of six
cells: current operations, intelligence, plans,
Ž Assessing the current engineer support corps deep operations coordination cell
to the tactical situation. (CDOCC), CSS, and headquarters cells.

Ž Assisting in the acquisition of terrain Integrated engineer support to the main CP


imagery products needed to support element is provided by elements from the SES
corps close operations. under the direction of the ACE. The ACE re-
mains focused on engineer support to future
Ž Monitoring the status of engineer logis- corps operations, maintaining close coordina-
tics support and updating logistics re- tion between all corps CP engineer sections.
quirements for corps close operations. The ACE is normally located at the corps main
CP. Engineers are integrated into the current
Ž Providing close operation engineer situ- operations, plans, corps deep operations coordi-
ation information to the corps main CP nation, and intelligence cells of the main CP.
engineer cell.
Main CP current-operations cell. The
Ž Monitoring corps deep and rear opera- main CP current-operations cell’s primary
tions for effects on engineer support to function is to synchronize current corps deep,
corps close operations. close, and rear operations. It also controls
deep maneuver operations and maintains the
• Tracking and consolidating current current corps situation. The main CP current-
threat and friendly obstacle information operations cell also allocates resources to cur-
and providing it to the corps main CP rent operations based on the corps com-
engineer cell. mander’s guidance; develops branches to cur-
rent operations; and provides current situation
Engineer Support to the Corps Main information to higher, lower, and adjacent
Command Post headquarters. In addition, the cell monitors
close and rear operations through communica-
The corps fights one simultaneous battle across tions with the corps assault, TAC, and rear
the full range of the battlefield--deep, close, CPs. The bulk of the SES operations element
and rear. The normal organization of the corps is integrated into this cell. The major engineer
CPs reflects these related activities. The main functions in support of the main CP current-op
CP is organized, manned, and equipped to sus- erations cell are to—
tain awareness of the corps’s total battle space.
It predominately focuses on deep and future • Monitor the execution of current engi-
operations and monitors close and rear opera- neer orders and the status of engineer
tions. The corps main CP synchronizes the work in the corps area by maintaining

2-10 Command and Control


FM 5-100-15

close communications with the brigade EBAs; determining limitations of engi-


CP. neer units providing future support; de-
veloping supporting engineer task or-
Ž Monitor the status of ongoing deliberate ganizations; recommending engineer
corps river-crossing and large-scale ob- work priorities based on the corps engi-
stacle-breaching operations (including neer brigade commander’s and corps
crossing-site conditions, emplaced commander’s intent; and writing appro-
bridging, and cleared-lane information). priate engineer annexes to approved
Provide this information to engineers corps plans.
located at the corps rear CP and the
brigade CP. Ž Make available all pertinent topo-
graphic and terrain imagery products
Ž Write engineer portions and annexes to needed in planning future corps opera-
related current corps FRAGOs in coordi- tions.
nation with the corps assault or TAC CP • Recommend corps-level control meas-
engineer element. ures, to include obstacle zones, ORAs,
directed or reserved obstacles, scatter-
Ž Monitor the status of corps-directed ob- able minefield delegation authority, and
stacle zones, directed or reserved obsta- corps denial targets.
cles, denial targets, and scatterable
mines employed by the corps. • Plan engineer support for corps tactical
movements.
Ž Monitor the current corps engineer lo-
Ž Monitor the current corps engineer situ-
gistics status, including tactical bridg-
ing and breaching equipment, engineer ation, the current threat engineer situ-
construction equipment and supplies, ation, and the ongoing EBA for its im-
mines and demolitions, and map sup- pact on future operations, and then ad-
plies. Provide this information to corps just future engineer operational support
logistics planners and engineers located plans as needed.
at the corps assault or TAC and rear Ž Advise the corps engineer on the status
CPs. and content of ongoing corps plans that
Main CP plans cell. The plans cell develops are not approved or published and en-
future operation plans as sequels to the cur- sure that the corps engineer’s intent and
rent corps operation. The cell monitors the guidance is input into these working
current situation for its impact on future op- plans.
erations and makes appropriate adjustments. Ž Provide future corps operations infor-
It fully integrates future corps engineer opera- mation to engineer elements located at
tions with future maneuver, intelligence, fire- the corps assault, TAC, and rear CPs
support, aviation, ADA chemical, logistics, and along with the brigade CP plans cell as
corps deep operations. The major engineer required.
functions in support of the main CP plans cell
are to— • Coordinate approved future plans with
requisite theater engineer planning
• Plan engineer support to future corps staffs.
deep, close, and rear operations (se-
quels) by developing courses of action for • Review subordinate engineer orders and
each; preparing engineer estimates and plans for compliance with the corps en-

Command and Control 2-11


FM 5-100-15

gineer’s intent and corps engineer bri- Ž Determine mobility and survivability
gade plans and orders. requirements to support corps field ar-
tillery brigade and aviation brigade op-
era tions and movements.
Main CP CDOCC. The key to fighting simul-
taneously in depth is a battle-command organi- Main CP intelligence cell. The main CP
zation that can synchronize all available intelligence cell requests, collects, and ana-
means to simultaneously conduct deep, close, lyzes threat, terrain, and weather information
and rear operations. To ensure unity of effort, from all sources in order to produce and dis-
a single organization within the main CP, the tribute combat intelligence. It conducts con-
CDOCC, is responsible for the employment of tinuous IPB to support planning for future op-
all aspects according to the commander’s guid- erations and to use as the basis for target de-
ance. The CDOCC is permanently manned, as velopment. As part of the deep-targeting proc-
a minimum, by G3 plans, electronic warfare ess, the main CP intelligence cell implements
(EW), fire support, intelligence, and Army air- the corps intelligence-collection plan and noti-
space command and control (A2C2) repre- fies the main CP fire-support and current op-
sentatives. Additional representatives, such erations cells when HVTs are detected and
as the corps engineer, psychological operations tracked. A topographic engineering officer
(PSYOP), air defense, and air liaison, are from the SES is normally located in the main
brought in as required. The CDOCC coordi- CP intelligence cell. His major engineer func-
nates deep operations for the corps, interfacing tions in support of the cell are to—
with the joint targeting coordination board and
the corps targeting cell to provide linkage to Ž Advise corps main CP personnel on the
joint and organic fires. After the commander effective use of terrain.
assigns decisive points for attack by subordi-
nate headquarters, the cell monitors and coor- • Provide weather and terrain analyses
dinates the execution of corps deep operations. and terrain products that assist in the
The major engineer functions in support of the corps IPB process and the identification
CDOCC are to— of NAIs and TAIs for corps deep opera-
tions.
Ž Determine high-payoff countermobility
targets for nomination in support of • Coordinate corps topographic support
corps deep operations. requirements for surveying, terrain
analysis, and reproduction with the
Ž Monitor the employment of deep air- and theater topographic battalion.
artillery-delivered scatterable mines, • Task and prioritize the work effort of the
including self-destruct times and foot- DS corps topographic company.
print locations.
• Coordinate the collection of battlefield
• Recommend and coordinate the employ- terrain information with the corps
ment of corps-directed artillery and air- G2/G3.
delivered scatterable minefield in sup-
port of current corps operations. • Evaluate the availability of standard
and nonstandard maps and terrain-
Ž Synchronize corps fire support with cur- analysis data bases covering the corps’s
rent large-scale corps engineer opera- AO. Where shortfalls exist, he deter-
tions such as river crossings, large-scale mines specific requirements and coordi-
breaching, and obstacle-emplacement. nates the collection and creation of nec-

2-12 Command and Control


FM 5-100-15

essary data to build the corps topo- Rear CP operations cell. The rear CP op-
graphic data base. erations cell exercises staff responsibility for
terrain management and security functions. It
• Prepare the topographic operations an- monitors the corps close and deep operations in
nex for corps plans and orders. order to assume control, if required, and to
ensure that rear operations are responding to
Ž Coordinate the support of two corps ter- current and future corps requirements. The
rain-analysis teams from the corps topo- rear CP operations cell has three sections: in-
graphic company; one in GS to the corps telligence, operations, and terrain manage-
and the other in DS to the corps G2/G3. ment.
Engineers are integrated into each section,
Engineer Support to the Corps Rear providing needed ADC expertise and obtain-
Command Post ing needed imagery products for rear terrain
The corps rear CP conducts corps rear opera- management. In addition, engineers monitor
tions with the corps deputy commanding gen- the status of foreign/host-nation and con-
eral (DCG) being responsible for the conduct of tracting support for real estate acquisition
corps rear operations. The DCG commands and construction equipment and supplies.
They also maintain the status of large-scale
and controls those units that are task organized
construction operations. They provide this
to conduct rear operations, when required.
information to the corps G4 and G5, the
This C2 function synchronizes rear security op-
COSCOM, theater engineer planners, corps
erations, terrain management within the corps
main CP engineer elements, and the corps
rear area, sustainment of the corps, control of
engineer brigade S5. Engineers closely coor-
administrative moves, ADC, and other associ-
dinate with the corps RTOC concerning base
ated functions in the corps rear area.
cluster defense requirements.
The corps rear CP contains three components: Rear CP CSS cell. The CSS cell consists of
a headquarters, an operations cell, and a CSS personnel from the corps G1, Adjutant General
cell. The rear CP is normally located in close
(AG), G4, G5, and other staff offices charged
proximity to the COSCOM CP for security, life with the planning and execution of personnel
support, and ease of coordination, but both CPs and logistical operations for the corps. The
are separate and distinct. CSS cell synchronizes corps sustainment op-
erations and plans movements throughout the
Integrated engineer support to the corps rear
corps rear area. Engineers monitor the status
CP is provided by an element from the SES of of general engineering missions along with
the corps engineer brigade headquarters. En- conditions of MSRs throughout the corps rear
gineers integrate themselves into each cell of
area. Engineers also coordinate closely with
the corps rear CP as required. the corps movement control center (MCC) and
MP to facilitate battlefield circulation.
Rear CP headquarters. The headquarters is
composed of the DCG, his personal staff, and
CORPS ENGINEER GROUP
other personnel as designated. The corps dep-
uty chief of staff is normally designated as the The corps engineer group C2 organization is
corps rear CP chief of staff to control rear CP similar to that of the corps engineer brigade
operations. Engineer support to the headquar- CP. Depending on METT-T, corps engineer
ters provides rear engineer information, as re- groups may be task organized in GS on an area
quired, through informal information and deci- basis in the corps rear, or they may be in a
sion briefings. command or support relationship to a division,

Command and Control 2-13


FM 5-100-15

separate brigade, or cavalry regiment. Be- group main effort. The group main CP is di-
cause of these wide-ranging possibilities of rected by the engineer group XO. When the
missions, the engineer group C2 organization group commander is not located at the group
must remain flexible and mobile in order to main CP, the XO provides appropriate leader-
provide responsive engineer information flow ship, intent, and guidance to the group CP
and direction. The engineer group C2 organi- staff The group main CP consists of three
zation can be described in terms of the engi- elements: the engineer group TOC, a signal
neer group command group and three CPs: a element, and a life-support area.
main CP (group main CP), a tactical CP (group
TAC CP), and a rear CP (group rear CP). Group TOC. Because of its size and breadth of
responsibilities, the group TOC has multidisci-
Corps Engineer Group Command Group plined cells that enhance engineer coordina-
tion and synchronization. These cells include
The engineer group forms a command group the group main CP current-operations cell,
that consists of the group commander and plans cell, and CSS cell.
those accompanying him on the battlefield.
The group commander normally concentrates Current-operations cell. The group TOC cur-
on the current engineer fight. He may locate rent-operations cell consists of group S3 and S2
forwar with a forward corps engineer battal- personnel, the group chemical officer, and rep
ion conducting the engineer main effort or at resentatives from the group S4 and S1. The
the group main CP. In some cases, the group cell’s primary function is to monitor the current
commander may move to the decisive point of status of corps engineer group units, including
engineer operations to act as the eyes for the their missions, logistics, personnel, and host-
corps engineer brigade commander. The group nation support. The current operations cell
commander coordinates closely and controls writes and maintains corps engineer group or-
the engineer fight with his subordinate battal- ders. It also maintains current threat informa-
ion and separate company commanders. He
tion (including threat engineer capability).
may use the group CSM as a second set of eyes This cell works closely with the engineer staff
on the current engineer operations. The CSM in the corps engineer brigade CP current-op-
may be positioned on a secondary engineer ef- erations cell, subordinate engineer unit CP
fort or with the group commander at the engi- personnel, LOs detailed from the corps engi-
neer main effort. The CSM monitors the neer brigade, and supported maneuver forces.
status of engineer group soldiers, including The current-operations cell also maintains con-
their health, welfare, morale, and individual tinuous contact with group LOs detailed to
training proficiency. To be effective, both the subordinate engineer units or supported corps
group commander and the CSM require dedi- maneuver forces. The cell is responsible for
cated transportation and communications ca- group CP OPSEC. If, in support of corps rear
pabilities. operations, the corps engineer group com-
mander is designated as a base cluster com-
Corps Engineer Group Command Posts mander, the current-operations cell performs
The corps engineer group normally establishes the additional mission of being a BCOC for the
one CP, the group main CP. However, METT-T commander. The BCOC coordinates rear-area
may dictate the need for the engineer group to tactical-operations support for the base cluster
establish a TAC or rear CP out of group assets. with the designated corps RAOC.

Corps engineer group main CP. The engi- Plans cell. The group TOC plans cell consists of
neer group headquarters establishes a mobile group S3 and S2 personnel and representatives
group main CP in the vicinity of the engineer from the group S4 and S1 sections. The plans

2-14 Command and Control


FM 5-100-15

cell writes detailed engineer group plans, in- cal base defense, establishing a BDOC, and
cluding construction estimates, and develops interfacing with designated BCOCs and/or
EBA products and engineer reconnaissance col- RAOCs. Normally, the group TOC is located
lection plans. This cell works closely with the near the life-support area. The company com-
engineer plans cell at the corps engineer bri- mander coordinates force protection and other
gade CP, the brigade S2, and subordinate engi- security measures with the group TOC cur-
neer units. rent-operations cell.
CSS cell. The group TOC CSS cell consists of Corps engineer group TAC CP. The engi-
the group S4, the engineer equipment mainte- neer group commander determines the need
nance officer (EEMO), S1, and chaplain sec- for forming a group TAC CP based on METT-T.
tions. The cell’s primary function is to track For example, a group TAC CP may be needed
critical engineer logistics and personnel items
to command and control engineer support to an
that support corps engineer group operations.
This may include critical engineer Class V attacking light division, providing forward en-
demolitions and mines, Class IV supplies, criti- gineer command and staff presence. The group
cal engineer equipment shortages and mainte- TOC provides the nucleus of personnel to form
nance, critical engineer personnel shortages, a group TAC CP under the group S3’s control.
MSR conditions, and host-nation support. The Vehicles and communications systems needed
CSS cell works closely with the corps engineer to forma group TAC CP are taken from organic
brigade S1, S4, and S5; subordinate engineer engineer group equipment. The group TAC CP
CSS staff elements; and COSCOM support must be as maneuverable and survivable as
units. The chaplain is considered part of the the supported force, and it must be able to
corps engineer group commander’s personal communicate the necessary engineer informa-
staff and may accompany him when required. tion to higher, lower, and adjacent echelons in
a timely manner.
Signal element. The engineer group communi-
cations section is responsible for connecting the Engineer group rear CP. The engineer group
group main CP and, if established, a group TAC commander determines the need for forming a
CP into the signal support network, including group rear CP based on METT-T. For example,
the CNR, the ACUS, the ADDS, and broadcast a group rear C P may be located in the vicinity
interface. Engineer communications systems of the division support command (DISCOM) to
must provide timely, accurate, secure, and reli- control engineer logistics support from the
able information flow to and from the corps corps. The group TOC CSS cell provides the
engineer group commander, his staff, the bri- nucleus of personnel to work in the group rear
gade CP subordinate engineer unit CPs, and CP under the group S4’s control. Vehicles and
supported maneuver forces, when required. communications systems needed to form a
The group signal officer continuously coordi- group rear CP are taken from organic engineer
nates engineer signal requirements with the group equipment. The group rear CP must be
corps engineer BSO. The group signal officer is as maneuverable and survivable as the sup-
responsible for ISS at the group CP. The com- ported force, and it must be able to communi-
munications section also establishes base clus- cate the necessary engineer information to
ter communications networks when required. higher, lower, and adjacent echelons in a timely
manner.
Life support area. The engineer group HHC
commander is responsible for providing secure
working and living facilities for group main CP Engineer Group Command and Control
personnel. This includes food service, supply, Special Employment Considerations
and maintenance capability. The company The engineer group normally employs the C2
commander is responsible for planning a tacti- organization described previously. There are

Command and Control 2-15


FM 5-100-15

several circumstances which may modify the • Will any portion or all of division engi-
way the engineer group conducts its C2 mis- neer unit battalions be placed under the
sion. A few of these are described in the follow- control of the engineer group?
ing paragraphs, including C2 of corps engineer
support to a division and C2 of large-scale mo- Ž Will the engineer group need to form a
bility or construction operations. group TAC CP? If so, where will it and
the group main CP be located?
Group C2 of corps engineer support to a
• Does the group have high precedence
division. Light divisions have austere organic
engineer capability. Because of this, they are assigned to its communications links
normally augmented by a corps engineer group supporting the division?
that commands and controls several corps engi- • How long will the engineer group be sup-
neer battalions and separate engineer compa- porting the division?
nies. In most cases, armored and mechanized
divisions have an organic engineer brigade that • What command and support relation-
can adequately control corps engineer unite op- ships are to be used for the engineer
erating in the division area. An engineer group group and subordinate corps engineer
may be task organized to an armored or mecha- units?
nized division in order to control specific engi- • What communications and other equip-
neer missions such as large-scale mobility op-
ment support will the engineer group
erations. An engineer group may also be re-
need to provide adequate C2 interface
quired when the number of task-organized
with the division?
corps engineer units to the division exceeds the
division engineer brigade’s C2 capability. • What are engineer LO requirements?
When an engineer group is task organized by
METT-T to control corps engineer support to a • What logistics control considerations
division, several key considerations must be are needed to support an engineer group
made, including— and its subordinate units in the division
area?
• How will the engineer group commander An engineer group may provide the manpower
work with, and possibly for, the division to staff a light division rear CP due to austere
engineer? organic capability The following should be
considered:
• Will the engineer group receive missions
through the Assistant Division Engineer • What is the relationship between the
(ADE) staff and division G3, or will it be engineer group, the assistant division
tasked directly by the division engineer commander for support (ADC-S), the di-
brigade or battalion S3? vision G4, and the DISCOM com-
Ž Will EWLs be established, defining the mander?
areas where corps engineers will work in
the division area? • How long will the engineer group be sup-
porting the light division rear CP?
• Will division engineers be task organ-
ized in a mix with corps engineers? • Who will control ongoing corps engineer
support missions to the light division?

2-16 Command and Control


FM 5-100-15

Group C2 of engineer support to large- • How long will the engineer group be sup-
Scale mobility operations. Corps engineer porting the crossing?
groups are especially suited to control the mas-
sive engineer support required of large-scale • What command and support relation-
mobility operations such as obstacle breaching ships are to be used for the engineer
and deliberate river crossings as described in group and subordinate corps engineer
FMs 90-13 and 90-13-1. The engineer group units?
can provide positive control of engineer units
and equipment during these operations. When Ž What are engineer LO requirements?
an engineer group is task organized by METT-
T to command and control corps engineer sup- Ž What engineer control measures are
port to large-scale obstacle-breaching or delib- needed throughout the crossing area?
erate river-crossing operations, several key
considerations must be made, including— Ž How much engineer group C2 will be
needed during crossing rehearsals?
Ž Will the engineer group be task-organ-
ized as part of the maneuver crossing Ž What communications and other equip-
force? ment support will the engineer group
need to provide adequate C2 interface
Ž Will the engineer group accompany the with the crossing force and follow-on
maneuver force following the crossing? forces?
Ž What C2 logistics considerations are
Ž Will the engineer group commander be
the crossing-force engineer? needed to support the corps engineer
group and subordinate units in the
• Will the engineer group need to form a crossing area?
group TAC CP? Group C2 of large-scale construction op-
erations. Engineer groups are especially
Ž Will the engineer group remain in GS to suited to control the massive engineer support
the corps, providing crossing support on required for large-scale construction operations
an area basis to all units passing in the corps area such as forward logistics
through the crossing area? bases, airfields, and so forth. The engineer
group can provide positive control of engineer
Ž Will the engineer group commander units and equipment during these operations.
serve as the crossing-area engineer? When an engineer group is task organized by
METT-T to command and control corps engi-
• What is the relationship between the neer support to large-scale construction opera-
group commander and engineers cross- tions, several key considerations must be made,
ing with the maneuver force? including—
• Will the engineer group need augmenta-
Ž Where should the group TAG and main tion from theater engineers for construc-
CPs be located for maximum control of tion management, contracting, and real
the engineer forces in the crossing area? estate acquisition capability?
Ž Does the group have high precedence • Will the engineer group remain in GS to
assigned to its communications links the corps for an extended period of time?
supporting the crossing? If not, how will the group pass ongoing

Command and Control 2-17


FM 5-100-15

construction missions to follow-on thea- The battalion commander uses the battalion
ter engineer forces? CSM as a second set of eyes on current engi-
neer operations. The CSM maybe positioned
Ž How will the engineer group acquire on a secondary engineer battalion effort or
host-nation construction support? What with the battalion commander at the engineer
are liaison requirements? battalion main effort. The CSM monitors the
Ž Does the group have high precedence status of engineer battalion soldiers, including
assigned to its communications links their health, welfare, morale, and individual
supporting the construction effort? training proficiency. Both the battalion com-
mander and the CSM require dedicated trans-
portation and communications capabilities.
CORPS ENGINEER BATTALION
Corps engineer battalions (mechanized, Corps Engineer Battalion Command Posts
wheeled, airborne, and light) may be task or- Based on METT-T the corps engineer battalion
ganized in various ways, including providing may establish one or all of the three types of
GS to the corps on an area basis, along an MSR, CPs (main, TAC, and rear).
or supporting logistics bases in the corps rear;
supporting forward maneuver brigades and the Battalion main CP. The corps engineer bat-
cavalry regiment in a DS, operational control talion establishes a main CP in the vicinity of
(OPCON), or attached status; or controlling the engineer battalion main effort. The main
separate engineer companies, theater engineer CP is directed by the engineer battalion XO.
teams, and detachments. Because of these When the battalion commander is not located
wide-ranging possibilities of missions, the at the battalion main CP, the XO provides ap-
corps engineer battalion C2 organization must propriate leadership, intent, and guidance to
remain flexible and mobile to provide respon- the battalion main CP staff. The battalion
sive engineer information flow and direction. main CP staff consists of the following battal-
The corps engineer battalion C2 organization ion personnel: the XO, the S3, the assistant S3,
can be described in terms of the corps engineer the operations sergeant, the S2, the intelli-
battalion command group and corps engineer gence sergeant, the chemical noncommissioned
battalion CPs. Each maybe separated or collo- officer (NCO), the S4, and a representative
cated depending on METT-T. from the S1. The main CP’s primary function
is to monitor the current status of corps engi-
Corps Engineer Battalion Command Group neer battalion missions, logistics, and person-
The corps engineer battalion forms a command nel. The main CP staff writes and maintains
group consisting of the battalion co mmander corps engineer battalion orders. It also main-
and those accompanying him on the battlefield. tains current threat information (including
The battalion commander normally concen- threat engineer capability) and executes EBA
trates on the current engineer fight. He may products and engineer reconnaissance collec-
locate forward with a forward corps engineer tion plans and is responsible for CP OPSEC.
company conducting the engineer main effort The main CP staff works closely with the engi-
or at the battalion main CP. In some cases, he neer staff in the corps engineer group main CP,
may move to the decisive point of engineer op- supported maneuver CPs, and subordinate en-
erations to act as the eyes for the corps engineer gineer unit CP personnel. It also maintains
group or brigade co mmander. The battalion continuous contact with battalion LOs detailed
commander coordinates closely and controls to subordinate engineer units or supported
the engineer fight with his subordinate com- corps maneuver forces. If, in support of corps
pany commanders. rear operations, the corps engineer battalion

2-18 Command and Control


FM 5-100-15

commander is designated as a base cluster (FSB) headquarters or in the vicinity of a


commander, the operations cell performs the COSCOM supply point Depending on METT-T
additional mission of being a BCOC for the T, the battalion rear CP may collocate with the
commander. The BCOC coordinates rear-area battalion main CP. The battalion rear CP
tactical-operations support for the base cluster must be as maneuverable and survivable as
with the designated corps RAOC. the supported force, and it must be able to
communicate the necessary administrative
The corps engineer battalion communications and logistics engineer information to higher,
section is responsible for connecting the battal- lower, and adjacent echelons in a timely man-
ion main CP, battalion rear CP and, if estab- ner. The battalion rear CP is under the HHC
lished, the battalion TAC CP into the signal commander’s control and consists of the
support network, including the CNR, the EEMO, S1, S4 representative, surgeon, and
ACUS, the ADDS, and broadcast interface. En- chaplain. The battalion rear CP’s primary
gineer communications systems must provide function is to track critical engineer logistics
timely accurate, secure, and reliable informa- and personnel items that support corps engi-
tion flow to and from the corps engineer battal- neer battalion operations. This may include
ion commander, the battalion staff at each CP, critical engineer Class V demolitions and
the group main CG subordinate engineer unit mines, Class IV supplies, critical engineer
CPs, and supported maneuver forces, when re-
equipment shortages and maintenance, critical
quired. The battalion signal officer continu-
ously coordinates engineer signal requirements engineer personnel shortages, MSR conditions,
with the corps engineer group signal officer and and host-nation support. The battalion rear
is responsible for ISS at each CP. The commu- CP works closely with the corps engineer group
nications section also establishes base cluster CSS cell, subordinate engineer CSS staff ele-
communications networks when required. ments, and COSCOM support units. The chap-
lain is considered part of the corps engineer
Battalion TAC CP. The corps engineer battal- battalion commander’s personal staff and may
ion commander determines the need for form- accompany him when required. The battalion
ing a battalion TAC CP based on METT-T. For surgeon supervises battalion medical-support
example, a battalion TAC CP maybe needed to operations. The HHC commander provides
command and control engineer support to a food-service, supply and maintenance support
division maneuver brigade, separate maneuver to each CP. He is also responsible for planning
brigade, or cavalry regiment, providing for- a rear base defense, establishing a BDOC, and
ward engineer command and staff presence. interfacing with designated BCOCs and/or
The battalion TOC provides the nucleus of per- RAOCs. The company commander also coordi-
sonnel to work in the battalion TAC CP under nates force protection and other security meas-
the battalion S3’s control. Other personnel ures for the battalion rear CP.
that may be required at the TAC CP include the
battalion S2 and the signal officer. Battalion Command and Control of Corps Engineer
TAC CP vehicles and communications systems Battalion Support to a Division, Division
must be compatible with the maneuver force Brigade, Separate Brigade, or Cavalry
being supported. A secure communications Regiment
three-net capability is required (higher, lower,
and supported). Light divisions, separate maneuver brigades,
and cavalry regiments have austere organic
Battalion rear CP. A battalion rear CP is engineer capability Even armored or mecha-
formed to control engineer logistics support nized divisions with an organic engineer bri-
from the corps, It maybe located in the vicin- gade do not possess all of the engineer capabil-
ity of a brigade forward support battalion ity they need. Any of these may be reinforced

Command and Control 2-19


FM 5-100-15

by corps engineer battalions. When a corps • What communications and other equip-
engineer battalion is task organized by METT- ment support will the engineer battalion
T to support a division, division brigade, sepa- need to adequately provide C2 interface
rate corps brigade, or cavalry regiment, several with the division, brigade or regiment?
key considerations must be made, including—
Ž What logistics control considerations
• How will the engineer battalion com- are needed to support a corps engineer
mander work with and possibly for the battalion in the division, brigade, or cav-
division, brigade, or regimental engi- alry regiment area?
neer? Which one will be the division,
brigade, or regimental engineer? CORPS ENGINEER COMPANY
Corps engineer companies (line, bridge, LE,
• Will the engineer battalion receive mis- and CSE) may be task organized in various
sions through the maneuver unit G3/S3, ways, including providing GS to the corps on
or will it be tasked directly by the or- an area basis, along an MSR, at river-crossing
ganic engineer staff? sites, or supporting logistics bases in the corps
rear; supporting forward maneuver brigades
• Will EWLs be established, defining the and cavalry regiments in a DS, OPCON, or
areas where corps engineers will work in attached status; or being attached to corps or
the division, brigade, or regimental division engineer battalions. Because of these
area? wide-ranging possibilities of missions, the
corps engineer company C2 organization must
• Will division, brigade, or regimental en- remain flexible and mobile to provide respon-
gineers be task organized in a mix with sive engineer information flow and direction.
corps engineers? The corps engineer company C2 organization
can be described in terms of the company com-
• Will any portion of the division, brigade, mand group, a company CP and a unit trains
or regimental engineers be placed under element. Each may be separated or collocated,
the corps engineer battalion’s control? depending on METT-T.
• Will the engineer battalion need to form
Corps Engineer Company Command Group
a battalion TAC CP? If so, where will it
and the battalion main CP be located? The corps engineer company forms a command
group consisting of the company commander
• Does the battalion have high precedence and those accompanying him on the battlefield.
assigned to its communications links The company commander normally concen-
while operating in the division, brigade, trates on the current engineer fight. He may
or cavalry regiment area? locate forward with a forward corps engineer
Ž How long will the engineer battalion be platoon or section conducting the engineer
supporting the division, brigade, or regi- main effort or at the company CP. In some
ment? cases, the company commander may move to
the decisive point of engineer operations to act
• What command and support relation- as the eyes for the corps engineer battalion,
ships are to be used for the engineer group, or brigade commander. The company
battalion and subordinate corps engi- commander coordinates closely and controls
neer units? the engineer fight with his subordinate platoon
and section leaders.

2-20 Command and Control


FM 5-100-15

The company first sergeant (1SG) remains fo- engineerreconnaissancecollectionplans, and


cused on the sustainment of current engineer OPSEC procedures. The company CP works
operations. He is normally located with the closely with higher engineer headquarters,
company CP but may be located at the unit supported maneuver CPs, and subordinate pla-
trains element, if established, or a corps CSS toons and sections leaders. It also maintains
location. The company 1SG maintains close continuous contact with LOs detailed from
coordination with platoon and section ser- higher engineer headquarters or supported
geants, the engineer battalion S4, and sup- corps maneuver forces. If, in support of corps
ported maneuver S4s. Both the company com- rear operations, the corps engineer company
mander and the company 1SG may move to the commander is designated as a base com-
company CP during critical times during cur- mander, the company CP performs the addi-
rent engineer operations to provide guidance tional mission of being a BDOC for the com-
and control to unforeseen events. The com- mander. The BDOC coordinates rear-area tac-
pany commander also uses the company 1SG tical-operations support for the base with the
as a second set of eyes on current engineer designated BCOC and corps RAOC.
operations. The 1SG may be positioned at a
secondary engineer company effort or with the The corps engineer company communications
company commander at the engineer company section is responsible for connecting the com-
main effort. The 1SG monitors the status of pany CP into the signal support network in-
engineer company soldiers, including their cluding the CNR, the ACUS, the ADDS, and
health, welfare, morale, and individual train- broadcast interface. Engineer communica-
ing proficiency. Both the company commander tions systems must provide timely, accurate,
and the 1SG require dedicated transportation secure, and reliable information flow to and
and communications capabilities. from the company commander, company CP,
unit trains element, higher engineer headquar-
Corps Engineer Company Command Post ters, subordinate platoons and sections, and
supported maneuver forces, when required.
The corps engineer company headquarters es-
The company communications sergeant con-
tablishes a mobile company CP in the vicinity
tinuously coordinates engineer signal require-
of the engineer company main effort. The com-
ments with the higher engineer communica-
pany CP is normally directed by the engineer
tions personnel and is responsible for ISS at
company XO or operations sergeant. When the
the company CP. The communications section
company commander is not located at the com-
also establishes base defense communications
pany CP, the XO provides appropriate leader-
networks when required.
ship, intent, and guidance to the company CP
staff.
Unit Trains Element
Company CP personnel consist of the following The corps engineer company may form a unit
company personnel: the XO, the operations ser- trains element to control engineer logistics
geant, the chemical sergeant, and repre- support from the corps or to establish an engi-
sentatives from the supply and maintenance neer equipment park or construction supply
sections. The company CP’s primary function point. The unit trains element is normally col-
is to monitor the current status of corps engi- located with the company CP. However, de-
neer company missions, logistics, and person- pending on METT-T, the unit trains element
nel. The company CP writes and maintains may be formed in the vicinity of a COSCOM
company orders. It also maintains current supply or maintenance point or with an engi-
threat information (including threat engi- neer battalion rear CP. The unit trains ele-
neer capability) and executes EBA products, ment must be able to communicate the neces-

Command and Control 2-21


FM 5-100-15

sary engineer information to higher, lower, and ing, fueling, feeding, and maintaining opera-
adjacent echelons in a timely manner. It is tions. The unit trains element works closely
under the 1SG’s control and consists of the with higher engineer headquarters' S4 sec-
company supply and maintenance sections, tions, subordinate platoon and section ser-
The unit trains element’s primary function is geants, and COSCOM support units. If re-
to track and provide critical engineer logistics quired, the unit trains may be split between a
and personnel items that support corps engi- field trains and combat trains.
neer company operations. This includes arm-

CORPS ENGINEER PLANNING PROCESS


The corps uses the standard tactical decision- corps commander chooses the process to be
making process described in FM 101-5 to sup- used based on the time available and his staff’s
port the corps commander’s activities and to experience (see Figure 2-6, page 2-24). Figure
achieve the desired results. As stated in FM 2-7, page 2-25, shows the continuous nature of
101-5, tactical decision making, as a form of the process and the time relationship of the
problem solving, is a dynamic, multidimen- activities that constitute the corps’s deliberate
sional process. Tactical decision makers must decision-making process. The times shown are
be flexible, allowing decisions about current based on a 72-hour proactive, intuitive-driven,
operations to occur simultaneously with plans and predictive corps planning cycle.
and decisions concerning future operations.
Tactical decision making at the corps occurs ENGINEER ESTIMATE
within the context of the eight troop-leading
The corps engineer uses the engineer-estimate
procedures (TLPs) and encompasses the esti-
process to assist decision making by the corps
mate of the situation and IPB processes. The
commander. The engineer estimate is a staff
eight TLP steps are—
estimate process. It is the primary tool for
1. Receive or perceive a mission. facilitating engineer planning and the early
integration of mobility, countermobility, surviv-
2. Issue a WARNORD. ability, general, and topographic engineering
considerations into the estimate of the situ-
3. Make a tentative plan. ation and the corps plan. The engineer esti-
mate drives the coordination between the corps
4. Initiate movement. engineer brigade staff and the corps staff. The
engineer estimate process is a methodical se-
5. Reconnoiter. ries of activities that engineer commanders
and their staffs use to examine engineer battle-
6. Complete the plan. field support possibilities in parallel with the
corps planning process. These standard, logi-
7. Issue the order. cal, and effective thought processes enhance
the commander’s and staffs abilities to de-
8. Supervise and refine. velop, select and implement effective courses
of action. The engineer estimate also drives
Figure 2-5 shows the relationships between the timely development of necessary engineer
TLPs, the estimate of the situation, and the instructions through the corps order or engi-
IPB. The corps uses the three standard tacti- neer annex to maneuver forces and through
cal decision-making processes described in FM engineer orders to corps engineer units. The
101-5: deliberate, combat, and quick. The engineer-estimate process is simply an exten-

2-22 Command and Control


FM 5-100-15

Figure 2-5. Relationship between TLPs, the estimate of the situation, and IPB

sion of the corps tactical decision-making proc- and engineers. While the engineer-estimate
ess. For the corps to receive timely and effec- process-outlines specific steps, it is a flexible
tive engineer support, engineers must be fully process with each step being continuously re-
integrated throughout the corps planning proc- fined based on changes in the current situation
ess. The steps of the tactical decision-making and future missions. Appendix B contains a
process, using the corps estimate of the situ- more detailed discussion of the engineer esti-
ation and the engineer estimate, are shown in mate.
Figure 2-8, page 2-26. The arrows show which
steps have two-way input as well as where the CORPS PLANS AND ORDERS
engineer estimate relies heavily upon the esti-
mate of the situation for information. The A critical by-product of the engineer estimate is
corps engineer staff must understand all as- the integration of engineer missions and in-
pects of the corps plan. In particular, it must structions into the base corps plan or order,
thoroughly understand the commander’s in- engineer annex, and engineer unit orders and
tent and concept for maneuver, fire support, plans.

Command and Control 2-23


FM 5-100-15

Figure 2-6. Corps deliberate, combat, and quick decision-making pro

2-24 Command and Control


FM 5-100-15

Flgure 2-7. Corps deliberate decision making

Command and Control 2-25


FM 5-100-15

Figure 2-8. Estimate of the situation and the engineer estimate

Engineer Information Needed in the Corps FRAGO. Instructions contrary to tactical


Plan or Order SOPS would be included in coordinating in-
The SES ensures that engineer missions and structions of the base plan. The commander’s
instructions that are critical to the success of concept of the operation could also include the
the corps mission are included in the appropri- scheme of engineer support to the corps plan
The engineer priority of effort and support
ate sections of the corps base plans or orders.
This information should not be consolidated in found under the execution (engineer) para-
the engineer annex because it tends to obscure graph also supports the corps commander’s
critical engineer information and instructions concept of the operation.
from division, separate brigade, and cavalry
regiment commanders. The engineer annex is The engineer-estimate process identifies the
not used to duplicate this information, but to critical engineer information and mission-es-
expand the information and assign specific sential tasks needed for inclusion in the base
tasks to corps units. order. Table 2-1 illustrates how key compo-
nents of the engineer-estimate process drive
For example, if a deliberate breach through engineer input into the corps base order.
threat obstacles is critical to the corps plan it
will appear as a critical task to the breaching
Engineer Annex to the Corps Plan or Order
division. Likewise, the execution of Air Force-
delivered scatterable mines in support of deep- Corps plans or orders have a detailed engineer
attack targeting may be included in a corps annex attached that contains critical engineer

2-26 Command and Control


FM 5-100-15

Table 2-1. Engineer input to the corps OPORD

information and engineer-specific instruc- trates how the engineer annex’s content is de-
tions that are either too voluminous or not rived from information found in the engineer
appropriate for inclusion in the corps base estimate.
order or plan. The corps engineer annex is
written by the SES and assists the division, Topographic Annex to the Corps Plan or
separate brigade, or cavalry regiment staff Order
engineers; the corps engineer brigade; and
the COSCOM. The annex may take the form The corps prepares a topographic annex to all
of written instructions, matrices, overlays, or contingency plans (CONPLANs), operation
a combination of these. Appendix A discusses plans (OPLANs), and/or OPORDs. This annex
the engineer annex’s format and content in provides the direction needed by the corps’s
more detail. Sample matrices and overlays subordinate elements to obtain support from
are also provided. Table 2-2, page 2-28, illus- topographic units and guidance for the employ-

Command and Control 2-27


FM 5-100-15

Table 2-2. Engineer annex content and engineer estimate

2-28 Command and Control


FM 5-100-15

ment of those units. The format for the topo- tion is executed, the responsible staff section
graphic annex is shown in Appendix A. This implements and supervises the specific details
format is the same as that used by the unified of that option. The G3 and the corps com-
and specified (U&S) commands, which is An- mander review the battle plan with the staff to
nex M (MC&G) of the Joint Services Opera- approve specific phases. They specify which
tions Plans (JSOPs). Note that all the refer- option will be executed based on the situation
ences in this appendix refer to a general and which option will be implemented on order.
OPORD. Proper preparation of the annex de- The product of the review is a coordinated DST
mands detailed identification and definition of and the synchronization matrix. The ACE en-
all requirements for topographic products and sures that engineer functions are properly syn-
services, whether provided by the DMA or field chronized during war gaming with each corps
units. The preparation of the topographic an- DST and synchronization matrix component as
nex is not limited to topographic products, but required.
applies to any products and services in the
MC&G field which are required to support the The engineer brigade staff synchronizes corps
command’s CONPLANs, OPLANs, and/or engineer unit operations support in much the
OPORDs. same manner. Using the corps commander’s
intent and concept of the operation, the brigade
CORPS ENGINEER SYNCHRONIZATION staff develops specific and detailed engineer
support options for every phase of the opera-
Effective synchronization of corps engineer ac-
tion. Options are war-gamed by each staff sec-
tivities and plans with the corps’s operational
tion. Specific options are listed on the engineer
and tactical warfare components is critical for
synchronization matrix becoming the engineer
campaign and battle success. The corps devel-
support plan. The S3 and the engineer brigade
ops and uses a DST and a synchronization ma-
commander review the engineer support plan
trix as a "playbook" for each operational and
with the staff to approve specific phases. They
tactical warfare component. The IPB process
specify which option will be executed based on
is the basis for the DST and synchronization
the situation and which option will be imple-
matrix. Time-phased templates depicting en-
mented on order. When an option is executed,
emy situations at critical terrain features and
the responsible staff section implements and
or/events throughout the corps’s AO are devel-
supervises the specific details of that option.
oped from the IPB process. Using these tem-
The product of the review is a coordinated syn-
plates and the corps commander's intent, the
chronization matrix and graphic engineer DST.
corps staff identifies and enters decision points
A copy of each is provided to subordinate corps
or events on the DST and synchronization ma-
engineer headquarters and the SES. The DST
trix Significant enemy or friendly events may
and the synchronization matrix can be effec-
be designated as decision points. As OPLANs
tively used to write appropriate engineer or-
are developed, the staff develops the DST and
ders or plans and to formulate corps engineer
the synchronization matrix by identifying ma-
task organizations. A sample engineer DST
jor execution options during war-gaming. Spe-
and the synchronization matrix are shown in
cific and detailed options are then developed
Figures 2-9 and 2-10, pages 2-30 and 2-31.
for every decision point. Options are formu-
lated by each staff section responsible for each
of the operational or tactical warfare compo- CORPS ENGINEER TASK ORGANIZATION
nents. Specific options listed on the DST and ‘Risk-organizing corps engineer forces is a criti-
synchronization matrix become the battle plan. cal step in the engineer C2 process. Because of
Many of the battle plan options maybe contra- the difficulty of moving corps engineer forces
dictory and/or complementary. When an op- quickly on the battlefield, it is critical that en-

Command and Control 2-29


FM 5-100-15

Figure 2-9. Engineer decision support template

2-30 Command and Control


FM 5-100-15

Figure 2-10. Engineer synchronlzation matrix

Command and Control 2-31


FM 5-100-15

gineers are adequately task-organized to sup- taching a light corps engineer battalion to a
port the corps plan on a continual basis with deploying airborne or air assault division dur-
minimal follow-on changes, Engineer task-or- ing initial force-projection operations. When
ganization changes may be generated from a placing corps engineer forces in an attached
change to the corps plan or major changes in a command relationship, the following should be
subordinate corps engineer unit status. All considered:
corps engineer task-organization changes must
• How long will the attached command
be closely synchronized between the SES and
relationship last? What decision crite-
corps engineer brigade staff and be approved
ria exist to return the corps engineer
by the corps G3 or corps commander.
unit back to its parent headquarters?
Consider an attachment of corps engi-
ENGINEER COMMAND AND SUPPORT neer units by phase of the operation,
RELATIONSHIPS until certain objectives are met, or for
As part of the task-organization process, it is specific tasks. Reconstituting formerly
critical to identify the proper command-and- attached corps engineer units will nor-
support relationships of corps engineer forces. mally take time to reform the unit back
Table 2-3 describes the employment of engi- under the parent engineer control.
neer command and support relationships. • What logistics support will not be pro-
Each situation is unique and requires its own vided by the maneuver unit that the
solution. Whatever the relationship, engineer parent engineer headquarters may have
commanders are always responsible for the to support? (For example, engineer
technical correctness of all tasks undertaken equipment repair parts, some Class
by their subordinate elements. The following IV/V supplies, and so forth.) Attached
should be considered when identifying com- corps engineer units may need accompa-
mand and support relationships of corps engi- nying corps logistics elements.
neer forces:
• What engineer reporting requirements
Command Relationships still exist to the parent engineer head-
quarters after affecting the attached
Command authority over corps engineer units
is given to a maneuver commander when he command relationship? These reports
needs responsive corps engineer forces that are are normally passed through maneuver
immediately available to him. The command channels to the division engineer and
relationship can be attachment, OPCON, or then passed to the parent corps engineer
headquarters.
operational command (OPCOM).

Attachment. An attachment is appropriate OPCON. OPCON is appropriate when a ma-


when a maneuver commander needs task-or- neuver commander needs task-organization or
ganization or direct-command authority over direct command authority over corps engineer
corps engineer units and when time, distance, units but logistical support can be provided by
or communications prevent the parent corps the parent corps engineer headquarters. OP-
engineer headquarters from providing ade- CON corps engineer units may be further task
quate logistical support, Attached corps engi- organized by the maneuver headquarters. An
neer units may be further task-organized by example is placing OPCON of corps engineer
the maneuver headquarters. Examples of at- battalions to a division for corps offensive op
tachments include attaching a mechanized erations, allowing further engineer task-or-
corps engineer battalion to a cavalry regiment ganization by maneuver forces as required.
during corps covering-force operations or at- When placing corps engineer forces in an

2-32 Command and Control


FM 5-100-15

Table 2-3. Command and support relationships


Support Relationships Command Relationships

An engineer element Direct support General support OPCON/OPCOM Attached/assigned


with a relationship of --

Is commanded by -- Parent unit Parent unit Supported unit Supported unit


(note 2) (note 2)

Maintains liaison and Supported and Supported and Supported and Supported unit
communications with-- parent units parent units parent units

May be task-organized Parent unit Parent unit Supported unit Supported unit
by--

Can be-- Dedicated support Used only to Placed Further attached


to a particular unit, support the parent OPCON/OPCOM to OPCON/OPCOM
May be given task force as a whole, other engineer/ or DS to divisions,
or area May be given task maneuver units; brigades, or task
assignments or area made DS to forces or retained
assignments divisions, brigades, GS
or task forces; or
retained GS

Responds to support Supported unit Parent unit Supported unit Supported unit
requests from--

Has work priority Supported unit Supported unit Supported unit Supported unit
established by--

Has spare work effort Parent unit Parent unit Supported unit Supported unit
available to--

Forwards requests for Parent unit Parent unit Supported unit Supported unit
additional support
through--

Receives logistical Parent unit Parent unit Parent unit Supported unit
support from-- (note 1) (note 1)

Sends reports to-- Supported unit; Parent unit Supported unit; Supported unit;
information to information to information to
parent unit parent unit parent unit

Notes

1. When attached, the engineer element is provided administrative/logistics support, When placed
OPCON/OPCOM, the supporting unit provides support in the common classes of supply to the
maximum extent possible.

2. It is possible that units will receive additional engineer support without a command relationship (for
example, the support relationship of DS to the division).

3. Regardless of the type of relationship, activities of engineer units working in an area are under the
staff supervision of the area engineer.

4. The supported unit, regardless of the command/support relationship, is to furnish engineer materials
to support engineer operations.

Command and Control 2-33


FM 5-100-15

OPCON command relationship, the following placing an Army combat heavy engineer bat-
should be considered: talion under OPCOM of a Marine division
headquarters for general engineering missions
• How long will the OPCON relationship in a joint force-projection theater, allowing fur-
last? What decision criteria exist to re- ther engineer task organization by joint forces
turn the corps engineer unit back to its as required. When placing corps engineer
parent headquarters? OPCON is nor- forces in an OPCOM relationship, the following
mally used for short-duration opera- should be considered:
tions. Consider OPCON of corps engi-
neer units by phase of the operation, Ž How long will the OPCOM relationship
until certain objectives are met, or for last? What decision criteria exist to re-
specific tasks. Reconstituting former turn the corps engineer unit back to its
OPCON corps engineer units will not parent headquarters? OPCOM is nor-
take as much time as if they had been mally used for short-duration opera-
attached. tions. Consider OPCOM of corps engi-
neer units by phase of the operation,
• What logistics support will be provided until certain objectives are met, or for
by the maneuver unit that the parent specific tasks. Reconstituting former
engineer headquarters may not be able OPCOM corps engineer units will not
to support? (For example, common take as much time as if they had been
classes of supply, rations, fuel, water, attached.
and so forth. ) OPCON corps engineer
units will need accompanying corps lo- • What logistics support will be provided
gistics elements. by the joint or multinational unit that
the parent engineer headquarters may
Ž What engineer reporting requirements not be able to support? (For example,
still exist to the parent engineer head- common classes of supply, rations, fuel,
quarters after affecting the OPCON water, and so forth. ) O PCOM corps en-
command relationship? These reports gineer units will need accompanying
are normally passed through maneuver Army corps logistics elements.
channels to the division engineer and
then passed to the parent corps engineer • What engineer reporting requirements
headquarters. still exist to the parent engineer head-
quarters after affecting the OPCOM re-
lationship? These reports are normally
OPCOM. OPCOM is appropriate when a passed through joint or multinational
corps engineer unit supports another service or command channels to the parent Army
coalition force during joint and multinational corps engineer headquarters.
operations. In this case, OPCOM is synony-
mous with OPCON concerning command, ad- Ž What engineer LO requirements exist?
ministrative, and logistics responsibilities.
OPCOM is used when the joint or multina- Support Relationships
tional commander needs task-organization or
direct-command authority over Army corps en- Support relationships retain corps engineer
gineer units but the parent Army corps engi- command, administrative, and logistical re-
neer headquarters can provide logistical sup sponsibilities with the parent corps engineer
port OPCOM corps engineer units maybe fur- unit .The corps engineer unit commander or-
ther task-organized by the joint or multina- ganizes his unit and suballocates tasks in a
tional maneuver headquarters. An example is manner he determines will most effectively

2-34 Command and Control


FM 5-100-15

meet the needs of the supported commander. engineer headquarters may not be able
Engineer support relationships include DS and to support? (For example, common
GS. classes of supply, rations, fuel, water,
and so forth. ) DS corps engineer units
Direct support. ADS relationship is appro- will need accompanying corps logistics
priate when the supported unit requires re- elements,
sponsive engineer support but does not require
task-organization authority. The parent corps • What engineer reporting requirements
engineer headquarters provides logistical sup- still exist to the parent engineer head-
port DS corps engineer units may be further quarters after affecting the DS rela-
task-organized by the parent engineer head- tionship? These reports are normally
quarters. The parent corps engineer head- passed through maneuver channels to
quarters may task the DS engineer unit with the parent corps engineer headquar-
additional corps missions if time and resources ters.
permit Under the DS relationship, the prior-
ity of corps engineer work is with the sup- General support. A GS relationship is ap-
ported unit. An example of DS is the place- propriate when the higher headquarters re-
ment of an engineer group in DS to a division quires central control and flexibility in em-
for large-scale breaching or river-crossing op- ploying corps engineer resources. The parent
eration support, allowing further engineer task corps engineer headquarters provides logisti-
organization by engineers as required. Direct cal support. Under the GS relationship, the
engineer support is normally provided on a priority of corps engineer work is with the
task basis or on an area basis. The EWL is supported unit. An example of GS is the
often used to denote the area covered under the placement of an engineer group in GS to the
DS mission. The EWL is a coordinated bound- corps rear area to control corps general engi-
ary and its location is usually determined by neering operations.
the supported units. DS engineer support and
the use of the EWL should be considered CORPS ENGINEER ORDERS AND PLANS
when a change of the subordinate rear bound-
All commanders must issue timely clear, and
ary is expected. This reduces the transfer of
concise orders that give purpose and direction
missions between the supported unit and the
to subordinate planning, preparation and exe-
corps engineer. When placing corps engineer
cution. Corps engineer commanders issue or-
forces in a DS relationship, the following
ders to subordinate units to execute the scheme
should be considered:
of engineer support to corps close, deep, and
rear operations, based on developed plans. Or-
• How long will the DS relationship last?
ders translate the corps’s scheme of engineer
What decision criteria exist to return
operations into clear and concise engineer mis-
the corps engineer unit back to its par-
sions. They combine the concept of corps engi-
ent headquarters? Consider DS of
neer support with engineer unit-specific plans
corps engineer units by phase of the
needed to accomplish engineer missions, sus-
operation, until certain objectives are
tain the engineer force, and ensure unity of
met, or for specific tasks.Reconstitut-
engineer effort. The corps engineer brigade
ing former DS corps engineer units will
commander uses both corps orders and engi-
not take as much time as if they had
neer unit orders to provide the necessary engi-
been attached or OPCON.
neer C2 for the corps commander. The engi-
• What logistics support will be provided neer-estimate process and tactical decision-
by the supported unit that the parent making process again drive the insertion of

Command and Control 2-35


FM 5-100-15

engineer information in corps orders and the cluding task-organized corps engineer units,
development of engineer unit orders. when a FRAGO is developed by the corps staff
or when he perceives significant changes to the
The corps engineer brigade commander retains corps plan. The WARNORD is essential to in-
functional control of corps engineer units sup itiatingsubordinateplanningandpreparation.
porting divisions, separate brigades, and the It should be as detailed as possible, based on
cavalry regiment by assigning specific tasks the corps’s mission and information available.
and missions in corps orders and annexes. Re- It should include any likely changes in task
gardless of command and support relation- organization with a no-earlier-than move time
ships, the brigade commander must still pro- identified. This facilitates planning any neces-
vide the corps commander with functional con- sary engineer force consolidation and required
trol over the engineer effort within divisions, unit sustainment operations. The WARNORD
separate brigades, and the cavalry regiment to is also used by the receiving engineer unit to
ensure unity of effort. He may issue WAR- initiate internal planning. Appendix A pro-
NORDs to task-organized corps engineer forces vides the format for a WARNORD and provides
in order to focus future planning and prepara- examples.
tion of upcoming corps missions. He may also
require periodic SITREPs from task-organized
corps engineer forces to ascertain ongoing com- Operations Plan and Operations Order
bat readiness status. The bottom line is that
The corps engineer brigade commander is-
the corps engineer brigade commander is re-
sponsible to the corps commander to ensure sues an OPLAN or OPORD at the outset of an
unity of engineer effort through functional con- operation or when the corps mission changes
so much that the initial OPLAN or OPORD is
trol of task-organized corps engineer forces.
no longer useful as a foundation. Engineer
The corps engineer brigade commander exer- OPLANs and OPORDs focus the corps engi-
cises a high level of both unit and functional neer force on the mission, effect the necessary
control over assigned corps engineer unite task organization, assign unit missions (in-
not task-organized to divisions, separate bri- cluding on-order and be-prepared missions),
gades, and the cavalry regiment. He and his and establish the necessary service support
subordinate commanders directly issue the structure. They also provide subordinate
full range of engineer unit orders that are commanders with the corps engineer brigade
absolutely essential to ensuring that subordi- commander’s intent and concept of engineer
nate units understand how their missions support operations, giving subordinate engi-
support the maneuver plan and mesh with neer commanders the necessary freedom of
the corps engineer plan. The intent behind action while retaining unity of effort. The
engineer orders is to focus subordinate engi- corps engineer brigade OPLAN or OPORD
neer planning and preparation effort. They serves as a base document from which the
facilitate subordinate engineer integration brigade commander can adjust as the situ-
and responsiveness to the corps’s rapid deci- ation develops by the use of FRAGOs. When
sion cycle. There are three types of unit or- a corps mission changes drastically and the
ders: the WARNORD, the OPLAN and engineer brigade OPLAN or OPORD is no
OPORD, and the FRAGO. longer a solid base document the engineer
brigade staff produces a new OPLAN or
OPORD and issues it to affected subordinate
Warning Order
engineer units. Appendix A provides the for-
The corps engineer brigade commander is- mat for OPORDs and provides some exam-
sues a WARNORD to his subordinates, in- ples.

2-36 Command and Control


FM 5-100-15

Fragmentary Order and hear through personal reconnaissance of


ongoing engineer support missions. By observ-
The FRAGO allows the corps engineer brigade
ing engineer operations, commanders can im-
commander to modify the current OPLAN or
mediately assess the cause and effect of corps
OPORD quickly based on changes in the situ-
engineer support plans. A danger lies in rely-
ation. The FRAGO only outlines changes; all
ing totally upon personal reconnaissance for
other instructions in the base OPLAN or
decision making, as it is just a snapshot in time
OPORD remain in effect A FRAGO has no set
and space, not showing the overall dynamics
format or content; it is modified to meet the
involved in the corps fight.
needs of the situation. The FRAGO can be
used to change any part of the base OPLAN or
OPORD. Normally, the corps engineer brigade Visits With Subordinate Units
commander uses the FRAGO when there is an Through discussions with subordinate units,
immediate tactical requirement to adjust engi- corps engineer commanders gather fairly
neer task organization or the scheme of engi- timely and accurate engineer operational and
neer operations, or to submit missions. With logistical information. This is especially criti-
few exceptions, task-organized corps engineer cal with corps engineer units that are task-or-
units do not execute the FRAGO until coordi- ganized to divisions, separate brigades, and
nation has occurred with the supported com- the cavalry regiment.
mander. Appendix A provides a sample format
for a FRAGO. Periodic Staff Briefings and Updates
Corps engineer commanders continually re-
CORPS ENGINEER INFORMATION
ceive briefings from higher headquarters staffs
REQUIREMENTS
and their own engineer staff concerning threat,
Corps engineer commanders must receive maneuver, engineer, and logistical support in-
timely and accurate battlefield information in formation. This information is normally not as
order to affect future engineer support plans. timely as personal reconnaissance or visits
Several means of gathering this necessary in- with subordinate engineer units, but it pro-
formation is used by engineer commanders. vides a broader perspective of corps engineer
They include personal reconnaissance, visits support to the battlefield. The briefing forum
with subordinate engineer units, periodic staff provides a setting for the corps engineer com-
briefings and updates, and periodic reports mander to explain his intent and concept of
transmitted through the corps signal system or engineer support to the corps. Any changes to
delivered by courier. All of these provide infor- the current plan are explained in detail. Deci-
mation to the commander so that he can decide sions are often made during these briefings by
whether to continue with the current engineer the commander, so it is critical that key engi-
support plan, change to a branch plan, or drop neer staff and subordinate engineer unit com-
the current plan completely and make a new manders be present.
one. To allow the corps engineer commanders
to be at critical points on the battlefield to Transmitted Reports
gather information, it is imperative that ade-
quate transportation and communications ca- Periodic reports transmitted through the corps
pability be available to them. signal system or by courier provide critical in-
formation to both the brigade commander and
Personal Reconnaissance his staff. Standard reporting formats of key
engineer information requirements help deter-
The best information corps engineer command- mine trends in engineer support, allowing the
ers can receive is what they can actually see brigade commander to make decisions based on

Command and Control 2-37


FM 5-100-15

higher quality information (see Appendix C for operations and intelligence information flow.
a template of standard corps engineer report This information includes such things as DA
formats). Corps engineer force information Form 1355 minefield reports, intelligence spot
that is transmitted to the corps engineer bri- reports (SPOTRE Ps), engineer situation re-
gade headquarters and SESs can be described ports (ENSITREPs), NBC reports, and so on.
in four general types: engineer operations and Two paths are used by corps engineer forces
intelligence information, engineer logistics and assigned to the corps engineer brigade and
personnel information, corps operations and in- task-organized corps engineer forces support-
telligence information, and corps logistics and ing divisions, separate brigades, and the cav-
personnel information. alry regiment. The paths work both ways,
with the majority of information flowing from
Engineer operations and intelligence in- corps engineer units to the brigade CP and
formation flow. Figure 2-11 shows engineer corps SES. The managers of this information

Figure 2-11. Corps engineer information flow

2-38 Command and Control


FM 5-100-15

include the engineer brigade operations staff ligence summaries (INTSUMs), maneuver
personnel at the brigade CP and the corps as- overlays, FRAGOs, chemical downwind mes-
sault or TAC CP. In some cases, information sages and so on. Again, two paths are used by
coming in from task-organized forces may be corps engineer forces assigned to the corps en-
timelier than that coming in from assigned en- gineer brigade and task-organized corps engi-
gineers, due to easier access to corps signal neer forces supporting divisions, separate bri-
systems. The corps SES will receive this infor- gades, and cavalry regiments. The paths work
mation faster than the brigade CP. In reverse, both ways, with the majority of information
the brigade CP will receive information faster flowing from the corps G2/G3 through the bri-
from assigned engineers than the SES. For the gade CP, SES, and maneuver CPs to corps en-
brigade commander to retain functional con- gineer units. The managers of this informa-
trol, task-organized corps engineer units tion include the engineer brigade operations
should develop a way to transmit operational staff personnel at the brigade CP and the corps
and intelligence information directly to the bri- TAC CP. In some cases, information coming in
gade CP. from maneuver CPs may be timelier for task-
organized engineers than assigned engineers,
Engineer logistics and personnel infor- due to direct access to corps information at the
mation flow. Figure 2-11 also shows engineer maneuver CP. The corps SES will receive this
logistics and personnel information flow. This information faster than the brigade CP.
information includes such things as daily logis-
tics status reports (LOGSTATs), casualty Corps logistics and personnel informa-
feeder reports, awards, and so on. Two paths tion flow. Figure 2-12 also shows corps logis-
are used by corps engineer forces assigned to tics and personnel information flow. This in-
the corps engineer brigade and task-organized formation may include such things as corps
corps engineer forces supporting divisions, ammunition controlled supply rates (CSRs),
separate brigades, and cavalry regiments. The personnel replacement rates, supply-point lo-
path works both ways, with the majority of cations, and so on. Again, two paths are used
information flowing from corps engineer units by corps engineer forces assigned to the corps
to the brigade CP and SES. The managers of engineer brigade and task-organized corps en-
this information include the engineer brigade gineer forces supporting divisions, separate
logistics staff sections at the brigade CP and brigades, and cavalry regiments. The paths
the corps rear CP. Again, engineer information work both ways, with the majority of informa-
coming in from task-organized forces may be tion flowing from the corps G4/COSCOM
timelier than that coming from assigned engi- through the brigade CP, SES, and maneuver
neers, due to easier access to corps signal sys- CPs to corps engineer units. The managers of
tems. Task-organized corps engineer units this information include the engineer brigade
should also develop a way to transmit logistics logistics staff personnel at the brigade CP and
and personnel information directly to the bri- the corps rear CP. In some cases, information
gade CP. coming in from maneuver CPs may be timelier
for task-organized engineers than for assigned
Corps operations and intelligence infor- engineers, due to direct access to corps infor-
mation. Figure 2-12, page 2-40, shows corps mation at the maneuver CP. The corps SES
operations and intelligence information flow. will normally receive this information faster
This information includes such things as intel- than the brigade CP.

Command and Control 2-39


FM 5-100-15

Figure 2-12. Corps information flow

2-40 Command and Control


FM 5-100-15

CHAPTER 3
FORCE PROJECTION
The (7th Engineer) Brigade units occupied various locations in tactical assembly
area (TAA) JUNO in advance of VII Corps. We immediately began sustainment
operations which provided life support and protection for arriving units. These
missions included constructing unit-sized protective berms, airfields, helipads,
hospitals, roads, ammunition storage areas, and a petroleum storage area and
applying dust palliative. The Brigade also executed projects in support of the
corps train up for offensive operations. Several tank gunnery ranges were built
in division areas and the 176th Engineer Group constructed a replica of the
Iraqi barrier system to rehearse combined arms breaching operations. The
engineers participated in this breach training as an integral part of the team,
which culminated in a live-fire exercise using the mine-clearing line charge
(MICLIC).

From the 7th Engineer Brigade Command Report-- Operations Desert Shield
and Desert Storm, dated 9 April 1991, Colonel Samuel C. Raines, Commanding.

Force-projection operations usually begin as a mander. The corps’s mission could range from
contingency operation in response to a crisis a simple show of force to providing a deterrent
involving imminent or actual military involve- force against a major and immediate threat.
ment during war or OOTW on a regional scale. The ability to project continental United States
These crises present a definite threat to US (CONUS)-based, ground combat power is criti-
interests, but the situation, military mission, cal as forward-presence US forces have de-
and military threat are often vague and uncer- clined over the years. Adherence to Army-op-
tain. The objective area may be defended or it erations tenets requires close cooperation with
may be benign; the threat may be mobile and US Naval, Marine, and Air Forces. In addi-
armored or it may be a light paramilitary force; tion, operations in foreign territory will require
the terrain could be steep jungles, wide open multinational efforts with host-nation and coa-
deserts, or high mountain valleys. lition military forces. Engineer support efforts
require close coordination and cooperation
The corps will conduct force-projection opera- with joint and coalition military engineer
tions as part of a joint and possibly multina- forces along with host-nation support agencies
tional force under the OPCOM of a Com- to meet force-projection mission requirements.
mander in Chief (CINC) or joint force com-

FORCE-PROJECTION CONSIDERATIONS
FM 100-5 describes several key considerations following describes corps engineer capabilities
that apply to force-projection operations. The that should also be considered:

Force Projection 3-1


FM 5-100-15

LETHALITY FOR THE DEPLOYING FORCE m ium on early and continuous teamwork.
Corps construction engineers may be the in-
In all contingencies, the early-entry force must
itial forces deployed during unopposed entry
possess the required lethality to accomplish the
operations where limited host-nation support
mission and protect the force the moment it ar-
and infrastructure exist. Other corps combat
rives in theater. Corps engineers contribute to
engineer forces may flow with and closely sup-
the lethality of the early-entry combat force
port early-entry combat forces.
through placing minefield and other obstacles,
along with protecting the lodgment by construct-
ing secure C2 nodes, logistics bases, and other JOINT BATTLE COMMAND
needed fortifications and survivability positions. Because of the joint and possibly multinational
Corps engineer mobility, such as bridging, gap nature of force-projection operations, command-
crossing, and obstacle breaching, enhances the ers must establish a battle-command system that
lethality of combat forces securing operational can contend with the simultaneous challenges of
objectives. deployment, entry, and combat while retaining
the capability to adjust to the evolving conditions
ANTICIPATION AND INTELLIGENCE of each. Corps engineers are involved in each of
these challenges--supporting deployments while
Force-projection anticipation is the expectation also deploying themselves, supporting lodgments
of being alerted and deployed. The rapid intro- with construction, and supporting maneuver op-
duction of US forces requires accurate, detailed, erations with combat engineering. This requires
continuous, and timely intelligence. Corps engi- corps engineers to execute missions at the small-
neers anticipate and provide needed topographic unit level while joint engineer battle-command
terrain products of likely contingency areas in echelons are separated in time and space.
support of the ongoing IPB process. They assess
available infrastructure for possible general en- A key battle-command consideration is the
gineering requirements, including airfields, method in which joint and multinational engi-
MSRs, ports, utilities, and logistics facilities. neer forces, including USACE civilian contrac-
They determine threat engineer capabilities in tors, are commanded. When the corps is desig-
likely lodgment areas, including requirements nated as a JTF or multinational headquarters,
for countermine and counterobstacle capabilities the engineer staff should be placed under the
needed with the early-entry force. They also con- Operations Directorate (J3) staff or as a sepa-
sider planning and support which may be avail- rate joint or multinational SES. When the
able through the logistics civil augmentation pro- corps serves as an ARFOR headquarters, the
gram (LOGCAP) and USACE contracting capa- use of a standard corps SES (as described in
bilities. Chapter 2) applies. Engineers should avoid
being placed under the auspices of the joint or
multinational Logistics Directorate (J4) staff.
FORCE TAILORING AND TEAMWORK
Lessons learned from force-projection opera-
Force tailoring is the process of determining the tions show that when staff engineers are
right mix and sequence of units. Proper plan- placed under the J4, engineers are prioritized
ning should give the operational commander the to support logistics forces in theater at the ex-
resources and dispositions to deal with any even- pense of maneuver and other deployed units.
tuality that might jeopardize either mission ac- In addition to ensuring proper engineer staff-
complishment or force protection. Commanders ing at the JTF or ARFOR level, a separate
consider the factors of METT-T, strategic lift, engineer headquarters (such as the corps engi-
pre-positioned assets, and host-nation support neer brigade, an ENCOM, a TA engineer bri-
when they tailor forces. Deploying unite must be gade, or an engineer group) should be identi-
extremely flexible and versatile, placing a pre- fied to command and control the varied,

3-2 Force Projection


FM 5-100-15

critical, and constrain operational engineer cal construction materials and equipment.
support required in the AO. These types of missions continually prepare
corps engineers for future force-projection op-
LOGISTICS erations during war and OOTW.
Successful force projection requires tailorable,
flexible logistics. Existing theater infrastructure MEDIA IMPACT
greatly affects logistics planning, including air- Force-projection operations are affected by vis-
fields, ports, roads, and other assets. Corps engi- ual media such as television. Corps engineers
neers support force-projection logistics opera- can have positive media impact during these
tions by constructing forward-support bases, operations, such as visually describing local
ISBs, and lodgments. Corps engineers work civic-action construction projects that enhance
closely with host-nation and contracted logistics goodwill both in the TO and in the US.
sources.
POSTCONFLICT
TRAINING AND MULTINATIONAL
Issues related to the strategic end state, postcon-
OPERATIONS flict activities, and transition to peace are consid-
Demanding and relevant training helps focus ered throughout force-projection operational
missions and conditions expected to be found planning and execution. Corps engineers play a
during force-projection operations. Corps engi- significant role in supporting postconflict activi-
neers continually conduct peacetime overseas de- ties, including the construction of refugee and
ployment training in support of nation-assis- redeployment facilities; battlefield cleanup of
tance, disaster-relief, peacekeeping, counter- mines, UXO, and hazardous waste; and the res-
drug, and humanitarian-assistance missions toration of basic infrastructure utilities and serv-
around the world. Normally, these missions are ices.
fully combined with host-nation forces, using lo-

FORCE-PROJECTION OPERATIONS
Force projection will follow a general sequence. reserve component as well as assembling and
Normally force-projection operations fall into organizing personnel, supplies, and material
stages that begin with planning and preparation prior to deployment.
and end with redeployment and demobilization
of the force-projection force. Activities of one Over three-fourths of the total engineer force
stage may blend with another, be parallel to an- structure is in the selective reserve components
other, or not occur at all. The following eight of the US Army Reserves (WAR) and the Army
stages provide the general structure for a force- National Guard (ARNG). A large force-projec-
projection operation with engineer considera- tion engineer capability also exists in USACE
tions for each stage. They can be adjusted to fit agencies throughout CONUS and overseas. Be-
the needs of a particular crisis response. cause of this, force-projection operations require
the mobilization of reserve component corps en-
MOBILIZATION gineer forces and USACE personnel. Activated
engineer forces may include corps engineer bri-
Mobilization describes a process by which the gades, groups, battalions, and companies;
armed forces reach a state of enhancd readiness USACE agencies; elements of the ENCOM;
in preparation for war or other national emergen- other theater engineer units; and specialized en-
cies. It includes activating all or part of the gineer teams and personnel.

Force Projection 3-3


FM 5-100-15

Activated reserve component engineer units and repair of austere logistics bases, staging
and USACE agencies maintain a high state of areas, and roads.
personnel, equipment, and training readiness.
These units and agencies continually demon- Timely topographic engineer support is critical
strate their mobilization proficiency during to the corps commander’s terrain assessment in
day-to-day operations, annual training deploy- order to determi ne where to conduct operations
ments throughout CONUS and overseas, state and to identiy host-nation infrastructure that
emergency duty, and other support to domestic may be available to sustain operations. Early
authorities. deployment of USACE water-detection teams
may be essential in ensuring the development
PREDEPLOYMENT of adequate resources. Accurate topographic
Force-projection operations commence with cri- imagery and map products are crucial to sup-
sis-action planning and predeployment activi- port operational IPB and follow-on C2 opera-
ties. Using the corps crisis-action system, the tions.
corps seeks to determine the requisite military
conditions for success, sequences activities to Requisite engineer capability may be required
achieve these conditions, and applies resources in force packaging for acquiring host-nation
accordingly. The objective in this phase is to real estate and for planning the construction of
select the proper force and to derive the correct contingency theater support facilities. This en-
operational concepts for subsequent phases of the gineer support package is normally attached to
campaign (see Figure 3-1). Decisions made in the corps engineer brigade or JTF engineer
this phase determine the corps engineers’ capa- staff until a theater engineer battle-command
bilities to support the entire force-projection op- headquarters arrives. Initial engineer support
eration. Engineers are integrated fully with capability may be available with USACE per-
corps planners as they identify the conditions sonnel already working in the force-projection
for success. Engineer planners organize engi- theater.
neer forces to ensure that success (see Figure
3-2). Peacetime engineer overseas deployment
training, the acquisition and construction of
Corps engineer force support packages are facilities, and the pre-positioning of engineer
formed according to the operational concept. materials and equipment in possible force-pro-
This input is provided in a matter of hours, not jection theater locations may reduce initial re-
days or weeks. As a hedge against unforeseen quirements for engineer support forces. For-
circumstances in the objective area, leading ward-presence engineers engaged in humani-
combat engineer elements of the crisis response tarian- assistance, nation-assistance, or disas-
force are tailored for forcible entry. This pro- ter-relief operations in the force-projection
vides overwhelming combat power at the first theater also reduce initial engineer force struc-
point of decision—securing lodgments—and ture requirements. Theater host-nation engi-
supports the additional conditions required for neer support must be planned for and may
subsequent phases of the operation. augment initially deployed engineer forces.

Robust initial combat engineer capability to DEPLOYMENT


open airfields and provide maneuver surviv- Deployment of corps forces is dependent upon
ability and force protection is a critical forced- limited sealift and airlift assets. The primary
entry support consideration. Follow-on combat consideration i n determining the composition
engineers are phased in for port-of-debarkation of initial corps response forces will be METT-T
(POD) development, including the construction factors, balanced against available airlift and

3-4 Force Projection


FM 5-100-15

Figure 3-1. Predeployment and crisis-action analysis

Figure 3-2. Predeployment and crisis-action engineer functions

Force Projection 3-5


FM 5-100-15

sealift assets (see Figure 3-3). In a time-criti- airhead deployment operations. Engineer de-
cal situation, light corps forces will be deployed ployment tasks include constructing or up-
initially. Corps armored forces, if required, grading deployment facilities; providing heavy
will simultaneously up load for deployment by equipment and trucks to assist in moving to
sea. Each crisis will have unique demands, and loading railcars, aircraft, and ships; mark-
causing commanders to balance the speed of ing and maintaining deployment routes from
deployment with the protection of the deploy- the installation to the port or airhead; and pro-
ing force. viding laborers to assist in the deployment
process.
Corps engineers are fully integrated into the
light and heavy mix of deploying forces (see ENTRY OPERATIONS
Figure 3-4). At the same time, other engi-
This principal focus of the entry phase is to
neers will support installation railheads and
build up combat power as quickly as possible
staging-area operation requirements. Corps
while concurrently conducting combat opera-
engineers may also be involved with port and

Figure 3-3. Deployment analysis

3-6 Force Projection


FM 5-100-15

Figure 3-4. Deployment engineer functions

tions (see Figure 3-5, page 3-8). Speed in clos- echeloned battle command, and the careful
ing the force and in achieving the desired con- synchronization of air and sea power are essen-
ditions in the contingency theater is critical. tial. Forced-entry action by airborne, air as-
The success of follow-on decisive operations to sault, or amphibious forces initiates this phase
restore the political and military end state by seizing airfields and establishing airheads.
hinges on the corps’s ability to build combat Follow-on corps echelons of the crisis-response
power without losing the initiative. The coor- force must be prepared to close into the objec-
dinated use of joint, coalition, and host-nation tive areas and to reinforce the assault. This
forces continues to be paramount while build- normally requires the formation of a JTF to
ing combat power. This phase is quite transi- shape future operations even as it focuses on
tive in nature, as the corps commander accepts the crucial joint fight to establish a lodgment.
reasonable risks in using available forces to Available coalition and foreign/host-nation
exploit favorable conditions. This key execu- forces prove critical in this phase to provide the
tion phase encompasses the critical seizure of bulk of combat power in theater as US forces
unopposed or opposed lodgments in the objec- arrive.
tive area. Tailored assault packages,

Force Projection 3-7


FM 5-100-15

Figure 3-5. Entry operations analysis

Corps engineer forces are organized to support ment area and ISBs. Early deployment of
these combat operations simultaneously (see corps topographic engineer imagery capability
Figure 3-6). This situation could require com- is critical to support the shaping of future op-
mitment of both corps and division engineers erations in the force-projection theater. Fol-
early in the deployment sequence. Division en- low-on corps topographic survey teams will be
gineers will focus on close combat require- needed in the lodgment area to establish accu-
ments, including mobility, survivability, and rate survey control points for fire-support op-
force-protection support. Corps engineers re- erations and positive navigation systems.
pair runways, establish or improve existing Corps engineer battle-command elements are
LAPES and forward landing strips (FLSs), re- deployed with the assault and follow-on force
pair airports and seaports, construct and re- packages to maximize engineer work on time-
pair roads, support corps defensive operations sensitive tasks and to coordinate engineer ac-
with countermobility and survivability opera- tivities with host-nation and coalition forces.
tions, construct ADA firing points, build corps The corps engineer brigade may become the
battle-command facilities, and develop other RCEM.
sustainment infrastructure in the initial lodg-

3-8 Force Projection


FM 5-100-15

Figure 3-6. Entry operations engineer functions

COMBAT OPERATIONS tion are essential qualities of the corps’s war-


It is through decisive combat operations that fighting style. The corps destroys or neutral-
the corps will achieve those operational objec- izes the threat’s center of gravity in this phase
tives that will attain the strategic purpose of by maneuvering and orienting combat power
the campaign (see Figure 3-7, page 3-10). The against the enemy’s flanks and rear.
corps operational method is characterized by During this phase, corps engineers are fully
the use of overwhel mi ng force, maneuver war- engaged in all of the battlefield operating sys-
fare, and simple battle-command design that tems (BOSs) as described throughout this
exploit subordinates’ initiatives through decen- manual, supporting the numerous tasks re-
tralized execution. The corps seeks to achieve quired during decisive combat operations (see
the desired end state as soon as possible by Figure 3-8, page 3-11). These include—
winning the war with quick, aggressive opera-
tions. The previously described phases set the • Protecting the arriving force with engi-
conditions for decisive combat operations. neer survivability and countermobility
Speed and high tempo in planning and execu- operations.

Force Projection 3-9


FM 5-100-15

Figure 3-7. Combat operations analysis

Ž Constructing forward operating bases, Ž Locating construction materials and


FLSs, and supply routes. equipment through engineer reconnais-
sance operations.
Ž Expanding the lodgment area through
combat engineer mobility operations. Ž Facilitating linkup operations with
other forces, both joint and unconven-
Ž Providing arriving forces with topo- tional.
graphic engineering support. • Performing other needed force-projec-
tion theater engineer missions until the
Ž Assisting reception, staging, and on- arrival of theater engineers under the
ward-movement operations with gen- control of an ENCOM or TA brigade
eral engineering support, including the (such as real estate acquisition, host-na-
erection of portable structures and the tion construction contracting support,
construction of aircraft bed-down facili - well drilling, diving, fire fighting, pipe-
ties, training facilities, EPW camps, and line construction, hazardous waste
refugee facilities. cleanup, and prime-power supply).

3-10 Force Projection


FM 5-100-15

Figure 3-8. Combat operations engineer functions

Several tasks may be conducted exclusively by • Relieving/reconstituting expended divi-


corps engineers, including— sion engineer units.
Ž Performing corps camouflage and decep-
• Constructing corps defensive positions,
EPW camps, refugee facilities, and logis- tion operations.
tics bases. • Breaching bypassed obstacles, widening
• Providing combat engineer support to assault lanes, and limited clearing of
the corps reserve, cavalry regiments, minefield and UXO.
separate maneuver brigades, corps • Constructing, improving, and maintain-
RAOCs, TCFs, and corps aviation units. ing supply routes.
Ž Performing deliberate river crossings. • Erecting permanent route signs.

• Augmenting corps force-protection and • Performing equipment and munition de-


survivability. ni al operations.

Force Projection 3-11


FM 5-100-15

• Producing and distributing nonstan- Corps engineers are especially suited to assist
dard topographic imagery products. in restoring order, reestablishing the for-
eign/host-nation infrastructure, preparing
forces for redeployment, and providing a con-
CONFLICT TERMINATION AND tinting presence in theater (see Figure 3-10).
POSTCONFLICT OPERATIONS Corps engineers support various postconflict
missions such as constructing tent cities for
Successful combat operations are designed to refugees, constructing EPW camps, developing
bring an end to the conflict.When a cessation potable water supplies, restoring utilities, re-
of hostilities or a truce is called, deployed corps building roads and bridges, and marking and
forces transition to a period of postconflict op- limited clearing of minefield and UXO.
erations. This transition can occur even if re-
sidual combat operations are still underway in
other parts of the force-projection theater (see
Figure 3-9).

Figure 3-9. Conflict termination postconflict operations


redeployment, and reconstitution operations

3-12 Force Projection


FM 5-100-15

Figure 3-10. Conflict termination, postconflict operations,


redeployment, and engineer functions

REDEPLOYMENT AND RECONSTITUTION while retaining flexibility and security con-


The objectives in this final phase are to rede- tinue to be essential.
ploy assets that are no longer needed as rap-
idly as possible to CONUS, to an ISB, or to During this phase, corps engineers are focused
another TO. Postconflict activities have a di - on the construction or repair of redeployment
rect impact on the redeployment flow. In con- facilities and staging areas, including wash
junction with this effort, the corps must be racks, equipment holding, and sterile customs
reconstituted for other force- projection mis- inspection facilities. In addition, corps engi-
sions. At the same time, CS and CSS elements neers will support—
often remain in theater to support forward- • Force protection of deployi ng forces.
presence peacekeeping or nation-assistance ef-
forts. Echeloning the corps battle command • Port operations and maintenance.

Force Projection 3-13


FM 5-100-15

• Battlefield and hazardous-waste of logistics requires significant resources such


cleanup. as supplies, material, and support activities.
Ž Supply-route and facility maintenance.
Corps engineers may demobilize themselves or
Ž Other needed general engineering and be involved with the handling, storage, and
life-support engineering tasks. accountability of demobilized equipment and
supplies. Typical engineer demobilization mis-
DEMOBILIZATION sions include the construction, upgrade, or re-
Demobilization is the process by which units, moval of logistics facilities; the cleanup and
individuals, and material transfer from active removal of hazardous waste, the repair of in-
duty back to a reserve status. Demobilization

JOINT OPERATIONS
Operation RESTORE HOPE demonstrated how well joint engineer capabilities can be used
to meet theater requirements. Early planning identified a large military engineer require-
ment for both combat and construction support missions. Planners decided to use a mixture
of engineering capability from the US Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps. Time
phasing of this support was well orchestrated, based on available lift and mission requine-
ments.
US Air Force RED HORSE airfield repair teams had been maintaining airfields throughout
Somalia in support of Operation PROVIDE RELIEF since 16 August 1993.

A small portion of the JTF engineer staff arrived on D-Day to assess theater requirements.
Of immediate concern was power generation and potable water for the impending force.
On D+1, a vertical construction detachment from the 40th Naval Mobile Construction Bat-
talion (NMCB 40) (Seabee) opened up the Mogadishu airfield, and constructed troop bed-
down and logistics support facilities throughout Mogadishu.
On D+5, a company of combat engineers from the 1st Marine Combat Engineer Battalion (1
CEB), 1st Marine Division, supported the expansion of Marine operations in Mogadishu by
clearing obstacles and sweeping for mines. The battalion then supported Marine lodgment
efforts in Baidoa, Balidogie, and Kismayo. They also began upgrading the road from Baidoa
to Bardera.
Elements of the Marine 7th Engineer Support Battalion (7 ESB) arrived offshore on D+5.
The battalion augmented Seabee horizontal construction capability and constructed and
operated redeployment facilities. Horizontal construction equipment from the 1st Naval
Mobile Construction Battalion (NMCB 1) arrived on D+7 along with command and control
elements from the 30th Naval Construction Regiment (30 NCR). NMCB 1 repaired airfields
and constructed base camp facilities at outlying humanitarian relief centers and opened up
MSRs out of Mogadishu.
On D+7, a company of the Army’s 41st Engineer Battalion, 10th Mountain Division, arrived
and supported the lodgment of Army infantry forces at Balidogle and Marka with minesweep-
ing operations, engineer reconnaissance, force protection, and limited base-camp construction

3-14 Force Projection


FM 5-100-15

support. The remainder of the battalion (-) flowed into theater and constructed two Bailey
bridges, repaired one Bailey bridge, and cleared mines along the Kismayo-to-Bardera MSR.

On D+10, a DMA map depot was established at the Mogadishu airfield.


On D+22, the JTF dropped the requirement for one additional Army combat heavy battalion,
a port construction company, a prime-power detachment, and several fire-fighting units. The
decision not to bring forward additional engineer forces was based on capabilities available
in theater with deployed or deploying US and coalition engineer forces.
On D+24, elements of the Army's 36th Engineer Group, along with the 43rd Combat Heavy
Engineer Battalion and the 63rd and 642nd Engineer Combat Support Equipment Compa-
nies, arrived to open MSRs and build base camps in the western sector Remaining elements
of NMCB 40 and NMCB 1 also arrived on D+24 and continued working on MSR and base
camps in the eastern sector All engineer personnel and equipment were in theater by D+50.
From the Center for Army Lessons Learned (CALL) “After-Action Report on Operation
Restore Hope in Somalia”, March 1993.

The Army will not operate alone. Force-projec- task organ izations, and geographic areas of re-
tion operations involving Army forces will al- sponsibilities for corps engineer forces. The
ways be joint under the responsibility of a uni- corps engineer brigade SES may form the nu-
fied combat commander. Joint forces include cleus of the JTF engineer staff section, with
unified and specified commands and JTFs. Ar- additional staffing provided from each service
mies normally design the major ground opera- component in the JTF. An understanding of
tions of a campaign, while corps and divisions other component engineer capabilities is essen-
usually fight battles and engagements. A corps tial for understanding the joint commander’s
commander may be a JTF commander in cer- intent. Appendix E lists some of these joint
tain circumstances, planning and executing a capabilities that corps engineer forces should
campaign that achieves strategic objectives. A be familiar with.
JTF will normally draw units from various
components: TA, naval fleet, fleet marine When corps engineer forces are identified to
force, or theater air force, Joint forces operate support a JTF, a thorough joint engineer
with two distinct chains of command--one for METT-T analysis is made to identify all engi-
operations and another for administrative and neer requirements. This critical front-end
logistical matters. A JTF may be formed to analysis drives the entire engineer support op-
perform OOTW missions such as support to eration, ensuring success. The corps engineer
insurgency and counteri nsurgency, peace op- force uses the Army administrative and logisti-
erations, Department of Defense (DOD) sup- cal chain of command for support. Engineer
port to counterdrug operations, antiterrorism requirements are extensively planned with the
operations, and contingency OOTW. corps logistics staff, ensuring that adequate
support exists over extended joint operations
Corps engineer support to a JTF, unified, or distances. Limited common-type engineer lo-
specified command uses both chains of com- gistical support (such as fuel, demolitions, con-
mand to accomplish required tasks. The opera- struction materials, and construction equip-
tional chain of command delineates missions, ment repair parts) may be available from other

Force Projection 3-15


FM 5-100-15

components. However, most corps engineer ad- major airfield construction operations in the
ministrative and logistical support must come corps’s force-projection area. These missions
exclusively from Army sources. Corps engi- are normally beyond the scope of organic Air
neer LO requirements during joint operations Force engineer capability (such as the Prime
will also be extensive. Base Engineer Emergency Force (Prime
BEEF) and the Rapid Engineer Deployable
AIR FORCE SUPPORT Heavy Operational Repair Squadron, Engineer
(RED HORSE)) and require extensive liaison
Army corps engineer support to the Air Force between the corps engineer brigade and the Air
falls into three broad categories: input to Air Force customer. Host-nation airfield facility
Force interdiction missions, requests for ter-
leasing and contracting support may be re-
rain imagery products from Air Force air- and quired from the USACE or an ENCOM. The
space-based surveillance and reconnaissance corps engineer brigade may be required to pro-
assets, and airfield construction support in the vide fire-fighting and crash-rescue support to
corps area.
Air Force airfields. The engineer annex to the
corps OPORD/OPLAN describes specific proce-
Interdiction Missions dures to be used.
Army corps engineers will nominate situ-
ational obstacle locations in support of deep NAVY AND MARINE CORPS SUPPORT
operations through the corps G2/G3 targeting Army corps engineer support to the Navy and
element to the corps air support operations cen- Marine Corps primarily deals with the support
ter (ASOC) located in the CDOCC of the corps of amphibious operations on a mission basis.
main CP. Deep situational obstacles may in- Corps engineer input into the CDOCC target-
clude strategic bridge demolitions and Air ing cell may eventually lead to naval or marine
Force-delivered scatterable minefield. Ap- corps forces emplacing approved corps deep ob-
proved deep-operations situational obstacle lo- stacle groups. In addition, naval and marine
cations with specific obstacle effects on HVTs corps imagery support may be available
will be described in the engineer annex to the through the corps G2. Corps engineer con-
corps order and supported by the DST. Obsta- struction interface with NMCBs (Seabees) may
cles that are emplaced during deep operations occur in special circumstances, with extensive
will be reported by the ASOC to the G3 and liaison support required from the corps engi-
tracked by the engineer staff in the corps main neer brigade, the USACE, and the ENCOM.
CP current-operations cell. This support may include Army diving and
well-drilling support for joint port facilities.
Surveillance and Reconnaissance Missions
Army corps engineer requests for specific ter- Army corps engineers may assist Navy am-
rain imagery products from Air Force surveil- phibious operations by clearing deep-water
lance and reconnaissance assets will be made mines using Army divers. They may also as-
through the corps G2 to the ASOC. sist Marine Corps amphibious operations with
shallow-water, beach obstacle breaching and
Construction Support clearing.

Army corps engineers directly interface with


Air Force agencies, as required, in support of

3-16 Force Projection


FM 5-100-15

MULTINATIONAL OPERATIONS
Force-projection operations inherently imply Ž What topographic capabilities and prod-
that they will be multinational, varying in du- ucts can be shared between coalition
ration, formality and purpose. These include partners?
the temporary alignment of countries for nar-
rowly focused objectives, informal coalitions to Ž Can construction services and materials
provide for common action in accomplishing be provided by the host nation? What
limited objectives, and long-standing alliances. common engineer items can be shared
The longer the coalition is sustained, the more between coalition partners such as con-
opportunities exist to standardize and inte- struction equipment repair parts and
grate tactics, techniques, and procedures be- obstacle materials?
tween nations.

Some considerations that corps engineer forces Ž What engineer liaison requirements ex-
ist? Are LOs provided with adequate
should address while supporting multinational
operations include— transportation and communications
equipment? What language skills are
needed?
• What are the capabilities and any limi-
tations of coalition engineer forces?

OPERATIONS OTHER THAN WAR


Corps engineers are key players during unop- counterdrug operations, nation assistance, an-
posed force-projection operations into theaters titerrorism operations, and contingency
with little or no infrastructure support. Corps OOTW. All of these situations relate directly to
engineers can effectively support complex and wartime engineer missions and tasks. Corps
sensitive situations in a variety of OOTW, to engineer LO requirements during OOTW can
include support to insurgency and counterin- be extensive, Chapter 8 and FM 5-114 describe
surgency, humanitarian assistance and disas- in detail how corps engineers support OOTW.
ter relief, peace operations, DOD support to

Force Projection 3-17


FM 5-100-15

CHAPTER 4
LOGISTICS

Another substantial undertaking was the construction and maintenance of sev-


eral MSRs to support the movement of soldiers, equipment, fuel, food, water
and ammunition. These MSRs were color coded Green, Blue, Black, and Gold.
Over 68 miles of new MSRs were constructed, with maintenance required on
over 204 miles. Operations were conducted around the clock with all of the
company’s assets. Continuous sustainment operations reduced the average life
span of grader cutting edges to three days. Heavy dust one day and heavy
rains the next provided added challenges every day.

From the 131st Engineer CSE Company Unit History in Support of Operation
Desert Shield/Storm, dated 10 March 1991, Christopher D. Bishop, Command-
ing.

Logistics is the process of planning and execut- cial engineer equipment is of low density re-
ing force sustainment in support of military quiring intensive management to ensure avail-
operations. A force-projection Army depends ability for mission use. Engineer mission ma-
on the right logistical decisions prior to the terials are normally bulky heavy and hard to
onset of operations. There is normally little transport. They must be requisitioned, trans-
time for last-minute logistics fires when the ported, stockpiled, and issued in a streamlined
decision to employ combat forces has been manner. Engineers play a key role in support-
made. ing corps logistics operations, including the
construction, upgrade, and maintenance of lo-
Corps engineer force sustainment is critical for gistics bases, troop bed-down facilities, air-
maintaining and multiplying combat power. fields, ports, and MSRs.
Logistical operations sustaining corps engineer
activities accurately anticipate engineer needs. This chapter focuses on the sustainment of
Many corps engineer logistical needs are corps engineer units and corps engineer sup-
unique, one-of-a-kind requirements that de- port to corps logistical operations. It supple-
mand improvisation by the logistician and ments doctrine found in FMs 100-10 and 63-3.
oftentimes strain the logistical system Spe-

THE UNDERPINNINGS OF LOGISTICS


The objective of logistics is to ensure operations operating system. Strategic and operational
succeed and facilitate the commander’s ability logistics support wars, campaigns, and major
to generate and mass combat power at the de- operations; tactical logistics support battles
cisive time and place. Logistics is a major and engagements. Corps logistics focuses on

Logistics 4-1
FM 5-100-15

operational and tactical support. Corps engi- vides the right support at the right time and
neers closely support operational logistics in place to units in the combat zone. Corps engi-
areas such as renovating existing facilities or, neers receive tactical logistics support from
if required, constructing new troop bed-down COSCOM units in the areas of manning, arm-
facilities for force-reception operations; open- ing, fueling, fixing, moving, and sustaining.
ing ports and airfields to develop the theater Corps engineers support tactical logistics op-
infrastructure; and assisting in the distribu- erations in areas such as constructing FARPs,
tion and management of material, movements, digging in ASPS and corps logistics C2 nodes,
and personnel and health services by con- and erecting fixed bridging along forward sup
structing and maintaining MSRs and other lo- ply routes.
gistics support facilities. Operational logistics
support encompasses those activities required Regardless of the war level, the corps engineer
to sustain campaigns and major operations logistical support structure and resource re-
and to enable success at the tactical level of quirements are dependent upon METT-T. The
war. corps engineer logistical support structure
fully supports the corps commander’s intent
Tactical logistics encompasses all CSS and en- and is integrated into his concept of operation.
gineer activities required to sustain the tacti- Trade-offs between combat and general engi-
cal commander’s ability to fight battles and neering capabilities in the corps area directly
engagements. Successful tactical logistics pro- affect this logistical support capability.

LOGISTICS CHARACTERISTICS
Scarce resources require logistics operations to fore, during, and after combat operations.
be efficient, not wasteful. Logistics operations Corps logistic planners look at least 72 hours
must be effective to provide the intended or into the future. Corps logisticians consider
expected support therefore, successful logistics joint, multinational, and host-nation assets
support must be balanced between effective- when planning support for engineer operations.
ness and efficiency. Logistics operations are They maximize the use of all available re-
characterized by being able to anticipate re- sources, especially host-nation assets. They
quirements, integrate joint and multinational prioritize critical logistical activities based on
logistics support and improvise solutions and the concept of operations. They anticipate lo-
by being responsive and continuous. These gistical requirements based on experience and
characteristics facilitate effective, efficient lo- historical knowledge. They concentrate on
gistics support and enable operational success. critical war-stoppers first, then move to the
They apply in both war and OOTW. These item next in priority. They participate in and
imperatives act as a guide for planners and evaluate the logistical significance of each
operators to synchronize logistics on the battle- phase of the operation during the entire com-
field. The corps engineer unit commander and mand-estimate process, to include: mission
his staff understand and use these imperatives analysis; course-of-action (COA) development,
while planning engineer operations. The fol- analysis, war gaming, and recommendation,
lowing paragraphs describe these charac- and execution of the plan. Various phases of
teristics along with corps engineer considera- force-projection operations can help describe
tions for each: anticipation requirements for corps engineers.

ANTICIPATION Predeployment and Deployment


To anticipate means that the corps logistics If possible, before hostilities begin, the logistics
planner is proactive rather than reactive be- organization first envisions and then becomes

4-2 Logistics
FM 5-100-15

capable of supporting engineer operations in- neer operations places an extraordinary bur-
volved in theater sustaining base development. den on the logistics structure. Rates of con-
Since all corps logistics and combat operations sumption for fuel, repair parts, construction
depend on a robust infrastructure system, base and obstacle materials, mines, and explosives
development should be placed high on the dictate the commitment of a large amount of
force-projection theater commander’s priority maintenance and transportation assets in sup-
list. A foreign country’s infrastructure cannot port of corps engineer forces. Engineer combat
be developed overnight to support force-projec- operations are dangerous by their very nature,
tion operations. Normally its infrastructure is which means that logistics planners anticipate
built only to sustain the indigenous population and provide for the replacement of corps engi-
and industry with minimal additional capacity neer personnel and equipment losses.
being available to support US and coalition
forces. The theater needs to have the capacity Conflict Termination, Postconflict
to move large numbers of units through its Operations, and Redeployment
airport and seaport facilities. The theater also
needs the necessary facilities to manage such When combat operations have ended, corps en-
functions as battle command, storage and gineer forces may be asked to restore the war-
transfer of ammunition, equipment mainte- torn area and to construct redeployment facili-
nance, storage and movement of bulk petro- ties. This phase of force-projection operations
leum, power generation and distribution, and is critical to ensuring victory in war, and also
rear-area troop staging and billeting. These victory in peace. Depending on the political
functions are necessary for a synchronized flow and social factors of a conflict, devastation re-
of support to occur. The onward movement of sulting from hostilities may require some resto-
follow-on forces and supplies is critical for suc- ration by our forces. This will require the same
cess on the battlefield. Logistics planners attention to detail in logistics anticipation
work closely with the corps engineer to develop planning and most likely the rotation of follow-
a suitable transportation infrastructure (ports, on units working in concert with host-nation
roads, bridges, railroads, and airfields). An- and US construction contractors.
ticipation of engineer requirements is crucial
to ensure that adequate time is available to INTEGRATION
complete a robust infrastructure. Much of this
Operational and tactical plans integrate all lo-
work can be done by foreign/host-nation or US
gistical support such that it creates a syner-
contractor personnel. These facilities can also
gism with the combat concept of operation. Lo-
be improved with the foresight of using engi-
gistical planners participate in and evaluate
neer assets prior to the conflict during nation-
the logistical significance of each phase of the
assistance operations and other OOTW. Base
operation during the entire command-estimate
development does not end once the conflict be-
process.
gins. On the contrary, base development needs
will increase depending on the size of the force
Engineer logistical plans will most likely be in
involved in the conflict. Each time the force
support of joint and multinational operations.
expands or contracts, planners review facilities
The theater commander integrates operations
and LOC requirements to ensure that they are
in his area of responsibility which often include
adequate to accomplish the mission.
engineer forces from other services or countries
and possibly civilian engineering contractors.
Entry and Combat Operations
Army corps engineers are integrated fully with
During the decisive entry and combat phases of logistics support agencies to ensure mutual
force-projection operations, the nature of engi- support.

Logistics 4-3
FM 5-100-15

CONTINUITY tion and also react rapidly to crises or opportu-


The corps commander needs continuous logis- nities. Sustainment planners pay particular
tical capability in order to gain and maintain attention to engineer task-organization
the initiative in combat. Continuity of opera- changes. Engineer units can normally respond
tions is critical to success on the battlefield. to a change in task organization much quicker
than the corps logistical-support packages can.
Corps engineer forces are always either com- Because of this, interim contingency engineer
mitted to the current fight or in preparation of sustainment plans are normally developed
the next battle. The battlefield tempo requires such as the overstocking of critical engineer
a constant vigilance by both the logistician and supplies and repair parts for use until corps
engineer commander in ensuring a constant logistical support packages are available.
flow of support. Supplies are pushed (unit-dis-
tribution method) forward whenever logisti- IMPROVISATION
cally feasible. This is especially crucial to Extraordinary methods may be necessary to
corps engineer units because they do not usu- ensure success on the battlefield. Corps logis-
ally have lulls in their operations that would tical planners attempt to push support to engi-
allow them to use the supply-point method of neer units forward to ensure smooth combat
supply. operations. Sometimes this is not feasible or
supportable. They improvise by making, in-
RESPONSIVENESS venting, devising, or fabricating what is
Versatility in logistics-support systems will en- needed out of what is on hand. An example
hance the supporting unit’s responsiveness. includes creating a demolition cratering charge
Corps logistics planners structure the logistics using common fertilizer and diesel fuel. Dur-
force to be versatile enough to complement ing Operation Desert Storm, crude oil and die-
combat plans and operations, yet robust sel fuel were also used as a substitute for un-
enough to ensure that there is no interruption available dust palliative. Specific battle dam-
of services. The structure is responsive enough age assessment and repair (BDAR) procedures
to allow the commander to seize and maintain have been developed based on the need to im-
the initiative. provise on the battlefield. Improvisation is
not a substitute for good planning . . . . an-
Corps engineer logisticians plan to meet the ticipate requirements. Improvisation is one
changing requirements of the battlefield on of the American soldier’s greatest strengths;
short notice. The engineer sustainment sys- recognize it as an advantage in meeting emer-
tem should be versatile enough to keep pace gencies.
with rapid decision cycles and mission execu-

LOGISTICS PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS


Planning for corps logistics support involves LOGISTICS PREPARATION OF THE
several critical decisions concerning the inter- THEATER
face of combat CS, and CSS activities in the
Logistics preparation of the theater are those
corps. A corps logistics-support concept is de- actions taken prior to a crisis that enhance
veloped, including support to corps engineer future corps logistical support during future
forces along with how corps engineers support force-projection operations. Corps engineers
the corps logistics system. Critical to this con- can assist in this process by identifying and
cept development are several corps logistics preparing bases of operation and forward logis-
planning considerations. tics bases. They can select and improve LOC.

4-4 Logistics
FM 5-100-15

They can identify theater construction equip • Systems interoperability.


ment and materials. Corps engineers partici-
pating in OOTW can improve the theater’s in- • Availability of sealift and airlift into the
frastructure through various operations such theater.
as nation-assistance and disaster-relief activi-
ties. • Suitability of air, ground, and sea LOC.
LOGISTICS FORCE COMPOSITION Corps engineer logistics priorities can shift be-
The speed of deployment and the expected tween units or maybe focused on a particular
level of threat to be encountered will dictate area. Shifting priorities between units or ar-
how the corps CSS force is structured in thea- eas requires close scrutiny and coordination by
ter. The majority of initial logistics forces an the logistics planner to ensure that there are
objective area may be a primarily active com- no lapses in support. The shifting of priorities
ponent working with joint, host-nation, and from one location to another on the battlefield
coalition logistics-support agencies, especially is an extremely complicated process with a
in the early stages of force-projection opera- high potential for failure. Some examples of
tions. As the duration of the operation be- potential reasons for shifting priorities are—
comes longer, reserve component logistics
forces will be phased in. Government civilians • Reconstituting the force.
and contractors can provide many specialized
logistics functions for the military possibly re- • Exploiting enemy weaknesses on the
quiring their integration into combat opera- battlefield.
tions and requiring detailed advanced plan-
ning. Some corps engineer construction units, • Preparing for future operations such as
such as combat heavy engineer battalions and counterattacks.
CSE companies, may be task-organized and
phased into the theater as logistics forces de- • Continuing with success of a current op-
ploy and arrive. eration.

LOGISTICS PRIORITIES Corps engineers may receive priority for cer-


tain corps logistics supplies such as Class IV
The fact that the corps commander’s resources construction materials or Class V mines and
are limited will always be a planning consid- demolitions. Corps bridge companies may be
eration in establishing priorities.The estab- directed to support corps line-haul operations
lishment of engineer logistical priorities con- after downloading bridges. Priorities for corps
siders a wide array of factors, such as— engineer work may be required for the con-
struction of logistics bases and MSRs.
Ž Commander’s intent.
JOINT LOGISTICS
• Commander’s concept of the operation.
The nature of joint logistics at the strategic
Host-nation assets. level ensures its integration with national sys-

tems. Integration of joint logistics at the op
Ž Joint-service capabilities. erational level requires detailed planning and
synchronization between all service organiza-
Ž Multinational/coalition-nation capabili- tions. The logistical force structure for a joint
ties. operation usually requires multiple task-or-
ganization changes as the theater matures.

Logistics 4-5
FM 5-100-15

The CINC or JTF staff will ensure that logis- forces are completely compatible with US engi-
tics are integrated by delegating responsibility neer forces. Incompatibility with coalition
for various classes of supply. For instance, the communications systems can be an even bigger
Air Force may be responsible for all aviation problem for synchronizing adequate multina-
fuel and Class VIII (medical) supplies, the tional logistics support on the battlefield. LOs
Army would provide Class I (food and water) are essential to ensure successful multina-
and Class III (packaged and bulk) supplies, tional logistics operations.
while each service would handle its own Class
V (ammunition) supplies. Army corps engi- FOREIGN/HOST-NATION SUPPORT
neers could receive Class IV materials from
The use of foreign/host-nation assets allows
joint-service supply points such as those estab-
greater flexibility to assign US logistical units
lished by Naval seabees.
other missions that are more critical to success
on the battlefield. It also reduces the initial
MULTINATIONAL LOGISTICS
requirements for strategic sealift and airlift
Logistics in a multinational operation is much which allows critical transportation assets to
the same as in a joint environment but much be dedicated to deploying more combat power.
more complicated. Logistics support is nor- However, foreign/host-nation support should
mally a national responsibility; however, ar- not be relied on as a sole source of logistics
rangements may be made for US corps logistics support. Preestablished foreign/hosb-nation
agencies to supply coalition partners with such support agreements, such as Status of Forces
things as food and water, some ammunition, Agreements (SOFAs), can significantly im-
POL, medical supplies, construction and obsta- prove logistical support systems. These agree-
cle materials, mines, some vehicles, and maps. ments must be made prior to the outbreak of
Although some logistical functions may be suit- hostilities and cannot be relied on for critical
able for purely national operations, many are logistical requirements. Regardless of the
not. Movement control; the operation and use presence of a preestablished agreement, the
of ports, airfields, or LOC; and logistical com- corps commander ensures the force has con-
munications systems are perfect examples of tracting and real estate capability deployed
supply functions better suited for multina- early enough to acquire the necessary for-
tional operational control. Weapon, equip- eign/host-nation assets. Some of the typical
ment, and battle-command systems compati- logistical support that can be provided by for-
bility is the biggest obstacle to overcome in eign/host-nation assets is—
synchronizing logistics in a multinational op-
eration. The method of integration and syn-
chronization of multinational assets depends Ž Government agency support. The for-
on many factors. Technological capabilities, eign/host nation may operate systems
tactical training, national economic well-being, such as transportation, utilities, and
host-nation contracting capability political is- telephone networks in support of US
sues, or even cultural differences are all consid- forces. It can also provide police, fire,
erations in determining an appropriate logis- and local security forces in support of
tics system. If members of an alliance use rear-area operations.
similar equipment or systems, plans should in-
clude consolidation of maintenance, resupply, Ž Contractor support. Foreign/host-na-
and other support operations. Although many tion, third-country nationals, or US con-
of our possible coalition partners have bought tractors can provide supplies and serv-
like engineer equipment systems, such as the ices such as construction, labor, laundry,
bulldozer or grader, none of our allies’ engineer bath, bakery, and transportation. Pre-

4-6 Logistics
FM 5-100-15

arranged LOGCAP contracts can also • The effect of the failure of compliance
provide these services. with a foreign/host-nation asset on US
security.
• Foreign/host-nation civilians or third-
country nationals. These civilians can • The reliability of the foreign/host-nation
perform a wide array of services for the support provided.
commander. Some of the civilian skills
that may be required include construc- • The capability, dependability, and will-
tion laborers, linguists, stevedores, ingness of the foreign/host nation to pro-
truck drivers, rail operators, air-traffic vide and sustain identified resource
controllers, utility specialists, and tech- needs.
nicians.
Ž The political, social, and economic con-
• Foreign/host-nation military units. For- siderations associated with the use of
eign/host-nation military or paramili- foreign/host-nation assets.
tary units support wartime functions
such as traffic control, convoy escort, • The risk associated with foreign/host-
installation security, cargo and troop nation support being unavailable in
transport, fuel storage and distribution, wartime in the type and quantity agreed
and rear operations. upon.

• Foreign/host-nation facilities. The use


of existing foreign/host-nation facilities CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTING ACTIVITIES
can relieve the commander of the need The majority of logistical contracting actions
for a great deal of new construction. will be accomplished by the corps G4. Corps
Such facilities as billets, maintenance combat engineer forces will not normally get
shops, medical and dental clinics or hos- involved with normal contracting actions in the
pitals, logistical activities, and recrea- TO. The corps engineer assists the corps G4 in
tional areas can be provided by a con- coordinating construction contracting actions
tractual agreement. being accomplished by the foreign/host nation
and the USACE by identifying requirements in
• Supplies and equipment. The availabil- terms of US engineer force equivalents. The
ity of critical supplies is highly depend- forward-deployed USACE command (USACE
ent on the TO. Such things as construc- (FWD)) maybe part of the Army component of
tion materials (lumber, bricks, concrete, a JTF and yet respond directly to the JTF com-
asphalt, and so forth), construction mander through the JTF engineer on contract
equipment and tools, and obstacle mate- construction issues. The USACE (FWD) may
rials will drastically reduce engineer lift also be engaged in real estate leasing opera-
requirements into the TO. tions as well as other Army support missions
(for example, maintenance of the Theater Con-
METT-T analysis determines the ultimate deci- struction Management System (TCMS), water
sion to use foreign/host-nation assets and ap detection, and so forth). To the extent that the
propriate foreign/host-nation support battle corps requires USACE support USACE (FWD)
command. Consider the following factors in may place a liaison cell with the corps SES
determining the suitability of using for- and/or, if required, a contract execution section
eign/host-nation resources to accomplish logis- with the corps engineer brigade headquarters.
tics-support missions and functions in the area Regardless of the ultimate arrangements for
of responsibility (AOR): support, the ACE and the USACE (FWD) com-

Logistics 4-7
FM 5-100-15

mander will work closely together to ensure erations. Corps engineer use of captured ob-
that the corps’s engineering contracting needs stacle and construction materials, mines and
are met. demolitions, and engineer equipment can sig-
nificantly reduce logistical requirements in the
LOGISTICS CIVIL AUGMENTATION AOR with appropriate safety awareness and
PROGRAM operational training. Food, POL, water, and
medical supplies can be used to support EPW
The LOGCAP is a DA program that provides
camps or holding facilities. Captured facilities
responsive contract capability to augment US
can be used in a variety of ways to support
forces with facility and logistics services during
logistics operations.
contingencies/wartime. As the program’s ex-
ecutive agent, the USACE provides program
SUPPORTING OPERATIONS OTHER THAN
management, coordinates LOGCAP require-
WAR
ments with supported major Army commands
(MACOMs), and administers the LOGCAP OOTW may require the same or a greater level
contract. The G3, the G4, the corps engineer, of logistical support as wartime operations.
and the comptroller are key players in develop- Combatant commanders tailor logistics sup
ing LOGCAP requirements and ensuring the port of these operations based on theater
appropriate mix of contractor and troop sup- needs. In some cases, logistics-support units
port. Three major types of activities are sup- and corps engineers may be the only forces
ported by the worldwide LOGCAP contract fa- involved in the theater. The logistical opera-
cilities operations, maintenance, repair, and tion may be the main effort in certain situ-
construction; all other nonfacility logistics ations, such as humanitarian-assistance op-
services (for example, POL, transportation, erations. Corps logistics efforts are integrated
food/water, and maintenance); and contractor with host-nation or local resources and activi-
planning expertise to assist MACOM/contin- ties. The wide variety of potential support re-
gency planners. LOGCAP is especially suited quirements demands a flexible logistics struc-
to support reception, staging, and onward ture tailored to theater missions. Corps engi-
movement (RS&O) operations. Additionally neers invariably get involved with a wide vari-
LOGCAP can augment engineer units (operate ety of missions that may need flexible logistics
Class IV supply yards and provide construction support. Critical engineer logistical considera-
equipment), provide facility engineer support tions during OOTW include the availability of
and support COMMZ-oriented construction. construction equipment DS maintenance ca-
pability repair parts supply, Class IV construc-
CAPTURED ENEMY RESOURCES tion materials, and the need for engineer LOs.
Captured enemy resources are another asset
that may become available during combat op-

CORPS LOGISTICS OPERATIONS


Corps logistics elements are organized to pro- level logistics support and health-services sup
vide military forces with supply, maintenance, port to corps units and theater units attached
transportation, and field services. Corps units to the corps. Corps units attached to divisions
are supported by the COSCOM whether they are supported by the DISCOM. All other corps
are operating in division, separate brigade, units operating in division areas receive logis-
cavalry regiment, or the corps rear areas (see tics support from COSCOM units operating in
Figure 4-1). The COSCOM provides corps- nearby areas. Health-services support for

4-8 Logistics
FM 5-100-15

Figure 4-1. COSCOM organization

corps units operating in division areas are pro- movement control), maintenance, and medical
vided on an area basis by the division medical- support to divisions and nondivision units of
support structure. the corps. The COSCOM is not a fixed organi-
zation; it contains a mix of subordinate units as
required by the corps’s size and configuration.
CORPS SUPPORT COMMAND Within the COSCOM, corps support groups
The COSCOM is the principal logistics organi- (CSGs) provide supply (except Class VIII),
zation in the corps. It provides supply field maintenance, and field services to division and
services, transportation (node operations and nondivision units (see Figure 4-2, page 4-10). A

Logistics 4-9
FM 5-100-15

Figure 4-2. Forward and rear corps support group organizations

4-10 Logistics
FM 5-100-15

corps medical brigade provides medical sup- limited vehicle maintenance support from the
port, and a transportation group may be as- DISCOM and its FSBs. Regardless of the com-
signed to the COSCOM. Personnel and finance mand or support relationship, all corps engi-
support are provided by functional commands. neer units must exchange logistics coordina-
tion and status information through engineer
A task-organized DS battalion from the CSG channels to the corps engineer brigade CP See
normally sustains corps engineer units de- Figures 2-9 and 2-10, pages 2-30 and 2-31, con-
ployed in division areas. To support forward cerning corps engineer logistics information
corps units, including engineers, these flow.
COSCOM units habitually locate in the vicin-
ity of division rear boundaries to render timely PERSONNEL-SERVICES SUPPORT
effective support. However, some corps engi-
neer units may operate too far forward for the Personnel-services support is the management
COSCOM to provide support such as corps and execution of personnel services, resource
engineer battalions supporting cavalry regi- management, finance services, chaplaincy ac-
ments. In these cases, the maneuver unit will tivities, command information services, and le-
normally be logistically augmented by the gal-service support
COSCOM to provide needed support to the for-
ward corps engineer units. Corps engineer The S1/G1 has staff responsibility for coordi-
units operating in the corps rear area will nor- nating personnel-services support. Religious,
mally be sustained by CSG support units and legal, and public-affairs support is provided by
systems, usually on a supply- point basis. All elements organic to engineer units. Morale,
corps engineer units directly establish individ- welfare, and recreation (MWR) support is pro-
ual logistics accounts with various COSCOM c o m m a n d a n d a v a r i e t y o f e x t e r -
support agencies in theater. nal agencies.

COMMAND AND SUPPORT RELATIONSHIPS Personnel support is provided through the per-
sonnel groups who exercise C2 over subordi-
Command and support relationships deter- nate elements, including personnel-services
mine how corps engineer units will be sus- battalions, postal companies, replacement
tained. Normally maneuver units do not have companies, and bands. These elements oper-
the capability to logistically sustain corps engi- ate on both area and DS bases and support
neer units. For this reason, most corps engi- both division and nondivision units. Personnel
neers are placed in DS or OPCON roles to ma- and administration services include strength
neuver forces. Parent corps engineer organiza- and personnel accounting, casualty reporting,
tions track subordinate unit missions and their replacement operations, awards, military per-
status in order to properly allocate and provide sonnel management, Red Cross services, and
sustainment resources from the corps. Corps civilian personnel mangagement. For doctrine
engineer units are rarely attached to maneu- on personnel and administrative support, see
ver or other units because it requires the sup FM 12-6.
ported unit to provide logistical support except
for personnel and administration activities. Finance support is provided through the fi-
Command and support relationships can be al- nance group and its subordinate finance bat-
tered to fit various situations. For example, talions, which have the capability of fielding
theater engineers on a task in the corps area finance detachments. These units provide
will be supported by the COSCOM. Corps en- military pay, disbursing, travel, and commer-
gineers operating in a division area may re- cial vendor service on an area-support basis.
ceive support of common classes of supply and For doctrine on finance support, see FM 14-7.

Logistics 4-11
FM 5-100-15

Figure 4-3 shows the corps personnel strength Figure 4-5, page 4-14, shows area and corps
accounting channels used by engineers on the finance support.
battlefield. Figure 4-4 shows how engineer re-
placements are managed in the corps’s AO.

Figure 4-3. Strength accounting data and casualty reporting flow

4-12 Logistics
FM 5-100-15

Figure 4-4. Replacement flow

HEALTH-SERVICES SUPPORT Ž Preventive-medicine services.


Health-services support relates to all elements ŽMedical logistics (Class VIII supply and
of medical care for the soldier. There are four resupply).
levels of health-services support in the theater:
unit division, corps, and EAC. Each higher ŽHospitalization support.
level of support contains equal treatment capa- Ž Medical regulation of patients.
bility as the lower level plus a new increment
of treatment capability which sets it apart Ž Whole-blood management
from the lower level of support The corps
medical brigade provides health-services sup Ž Dental services.
port to corps engineer forces in the areas of— Ž Veterinary services.
Ž Emergency medical treatment and
evacuation of casualties.

Logistics 4-13
FM 5-100-15

Figure 4-5. Area and corps finance-support centers

Figure 4-6 shows how health-services support Ž DS and GS repair-parts supply.


is normally provided to engineers in the corps’s
AO. Ž Major end-item replacement.

SUPPLY SUPPORT Ž Air-drop supply.


All supply classes are vital to the overall suc- Ž Local procurement.
cess of operations. The COSCOM provides di-
rect and general supply support to corps engi- Ž Material management performed by the
neer units. Supply-support functions include— Corps Materiel Management Center
(CMMC).
Ž DS and GS ammunition supply.
The principal supply classes for corps engi-
Ž DS and GS water supply. neers supporting combat operations are Class
III POL, Class IV construction (lumber, nails,
Ž DS and GS Class I, II, III, and IV supply. and so forth) and obstacle (concertina wire,
sandbags, and so forth) materials, and Class V

4-14 Logistics
FM 5-100-15

Figure 4-6. Sample employment of health-services-support elements on the battlefield

Logistics 4-15
FM 5-100-15

mines and demolitions. In general, the engi- shown in Figure 4-7. Figure 4-8 shows the flow
neer supply request and material flow for of Class IX repair parts and maintenance-re-
Classes I, H, III, IV, and VII can be depicted as lated Class II supplies.

Figure 4-7. Generic requisition and distribution flow

4-16 Logistics
FM 5-100-15

Figure 4-8. Requisition and supply flow of common repair parts and maintenance-related
Class II supplies

Logistics 4-17
FM 5-100-15

Class Ill POL Supply Class IV items per day to nondivision


units in their AOR.
Engineer forces require an enormous amount
of Class III POL to operate. The following
Ž A general supply company that can re-
should be considered to ensure an adequate
ceive, store, and issue 212 STONs of
flow of POL to the corps engineer units:
bridging equipment, obstacle, and con-
Ž Commanders develop forecasts to sup- struction supplies daily.
port the concept of operation.
Class V Supply
Ž Forecasts are submitted through the Class V supply requirements for corps engineer
CMMC. units are satisfied by the COSCOM GS ammu-
nition companies. A minimum of one corps
Ž Supply units submit usage reports to the storage area (CSA) for ammunition is located
CMMC. behind each division to support the ASPS and
ammunition transfer points (ATPs) for opera-
Ž A distribution plan is developed by the tions. Conventional ammunition may be the
CMMC based on available POL and the dominant factor in determining the outcome of
commander’s priorities. conventional combat. The mission of the con-
ventional ammunition support structure is to
• The petroleum battalion (GS) distrib- provide the ammunition to meet the mission
utes POL to nondivision DS supply units requirements of operational and tactical com-
using unit supply distribution. manders. The Maneuver-Oriented Ammuni-
tion Distribution System (MOADS) is designed
Ž The engineer user normally picks POL to provide 100 percent of the combat units’ re-
up from the DS supply unit via supply- quirements through the ATP network. Nor-
point distribution. mally corps transportation is allocated and op-
erates in a DS role to support ammunition
Ž Figure 4-9 depicts the normal flow of shipments from the CSA to ASPS and ATPs.
engineer POL supply in a corps’s AO. This system provides engineer unite with the
normal Class V ammunition as well as mines
Class IV Supply and demolitions required to accomplish their
Class IV supplies are handled by COSCOM missions.
heavy material supply and general supply com-
panies. These items are usually heavy tonnage Engineer commanders control the flow of am-
and are critical to the war effort The corps G3 munition by using two ammunition supply
keeps the COSCOM informed of breaching, rates: the required supply rate (RSR) and the
bridging, obstacle, or construction supply re- CSR. The RSR is the amount of ammunition
quirements which significantly change Class needed to sustain tactical operations, without
IV supply estimates. Class IV supplies are restrictions, over a specified period of time.
normally a low priority for the G3 and G4, The RSR is developed by the G3/S3 and submit-
requiring the corps engineer to continually ted through operational channels. The CSR is
keep attention focused on needed Class IV sup- the amount of ammunition that can be allo-
plies. The COSCOM's Class IV supply support cated based on the availability of ammunition
organization consists of— assets, Class V storage facilities, and transpor-
tation assets over a specified period of time.
Ž DS supply companies that receive, store, The CSR is announced through logistical chan-
and issue 29.65 short tons (STONs) of nels.

4-18 Logistics
FM 5-100-15

Figure 4-9. Bulk fuel requirements

Logistics 4-19
FM 5-100-15

Requirements for engineer weapon systems Class V supplies. Once quantities are known,
are estimated in the same manner as other the G4, the CMMC, the corps movement con-
combat arms systems. In many instances, trol center (CMCC), and COSCOM staffs will
sound judgment and METT-T considerations procure and ensure the transport of required
will be the only tools available to make these engineer materials to point distribution areas.
estimates (for example, the identification of
how many MICLICs are required to perform TRANSPORTATION AND MOVEMENT
all breaching operations in the main battle
Movement is inherent in all combat opera-
area (MBA)). A detailed understanding of the
tions. It is the one element that ties together
commander’s intent and concept of the opera-
sustainment and all the other BOSS. Moving
tion are crucial to accurately estimate the
the force includes not only transporting
RSR. Figure 4-10 shows a typical engineer
equipment and personnel, but also control-
ammunition distribution system in a corps’s
ling the entire transportation system. Trans-
AO.
portation organizations provide support to
corps engineer forces in three basic func-
Class lV/V Distribution tional areas: node operations, movement con-
It is essential that COSCOM logistics-sup- trol, and terminal operations.
port elements provide unit distribution to de-
liver Class IV and V supplies as far forward Transportation management ensures that
as possible to corps engineer forces. Corps planning maximizes the use of available
engineer unit on-hand basic loads of Class IV transportation resources to meet the com-
and V materials allow quick initiation of en- mand’s movement requirements. The CMCC
gineer missions; however, a unit’s basic load coordinates and monitors the movement of
will normally not sustain the unit throughout corps engineer forces within the corps area.
the operation. Unit distribution requires the Movement control teams (MCTs), movement
use of the corps transportation assets to allow regulating teams (MRTs), and air terminal
engineer transportation and personnel assets movement control teams (ATMCTs) are es-
maximum time to concentrate on preparing tablished to reduce the CMCC’S span of con-
the battlefield for operations. This is particu- trol and to provide more responsive support
larly important for corps engineer units sup- to the transportation system users. MCTs,
porting maneuver units and is commonly MRTs, and ATMCTs generally report directly
called the push method for supplying forward to the CMCC and are located at points that
units. Engineer mission resource require- allow close and constant coordination with
ments are normally large, bulky, heavy, and the installations and units to be served. Dur-
not readily available in theater. These re- ing joint operations, the joint movement con-
quirements are anticipated by all command trol cell (JMCC) manages transportation re-
levels to make maximum use of preparation quirements at the JTF level. Figure 4-11,
time. For this reason, logistics and engineer page 4-22, depicts engineer movement sup-
planners push Class IV and V supplies for- port in the corps’s AO.
ward as soon as possible, even if the exact
quantities are still not known. Standard lo- Engineers provide valuable assistance to an-
gistics packages (LOGPACs) provide the best other movement control system, battlefield
method in pushing forward engineer logistics circulation control (BCC). The traffic flow on
for missions. These LOGPACs are normally MSRs and alternate supply routes (ASRs) is
configured based on METT-T in the COSCOM crucial to ensuring success on the battlefield,
by the DS supply company for Class IV sup- The main players in this system are the
plies and the GS ammunition company for CMCC, transporters (COSCOM and the G4),

4-20 Logistics
FM 5-100-15

4-10. Flow of ammunition within the corps

Logistics 4-21
FM 5-100-15

Figure 4-11. Ground transportation request and commitment flow

MP, engineers, and the units moving along the MAINTENANCE SUPPORT
supply routes. Daily coordination between all The corps maintenance system is developed
of these elements is essential to ensure smooth around the idea of "fix forward." Maintaining
traffic flow. This coordination reviews such corps engineer equipment is critical to ensure
things as battle damage assessment (BDA) re- operational success. Low-density/high-usage
ports, corps movement priorities, future divi- engineer equipment requires intensive man-
sion- and corps-level movements, the threat agement by the corps engineer and corps logis-
situation, and the availability of transporta- ticians. Management of certain repair parts
tion assets. Corps engineer forces are respon- and supplies needed for maintenance of this
sible for constructing, upgrading, and main- equipment is critical, especially filters, tires,
taining MSRs in the corps sector. METT-T and cutting edges.
may dictate the need to use corps engineer
assets in the division sectors to improve MSRs Fixing engineer equipment and systems en-
critical to future corps operations. compasses much more than maintaining on-
hand equipment. It includes recovering,

4-22 Logistics
FM 5-100-15

evacuating, supplying repair parts, and replac- FIELD-SERVICES SUPPORT


ing major items. The nature of the battlefield, Field services available to corps engineer
combined with the complexity of engineer op- forces include food service, airdrop, laundry
erations, demands that repairs be made clothing exchange and bath, renovation, bak-
quickly and as near as possible to the point of ery, classification, mortuary services, RPMA,
failure or damage. This means that repair post exchange sales, camouflage, and explosive
parts and maintenance teams must be pushed ordnance disposal (EOD). Corps field services
as far forward as possible. The attachment of directly impact on the safety morale, and wel-
DS maintenance support teams to corps engi- fare of soldiers. Corps engineers support field
neer units helps facilitate this forward mainte- services as required primarily with general en-
nance support. BDAR kits should be maxi-
gineering tasks. RPMA and camouflage are
mized whenever feasible. Figures 4-12 and 4- normally considered engineer areas of exper-
13, pages 4-24 and 4-25, depict typical corps tise. Corps engineers also augment EOD op-
engineer equipment maintenance flow on the erations by conducting mobility operations
battlefield. through concentrations of UXO.

CORPS ENGINEER SUPPORT TO LOGISTICS OPERATIONS


LINES-OF-COMMUNICATION Water Supply Support
CONSTRUCTION
Corps engineers may be required to support
LOC are often equated to MSRs, but they are water detection, development of water sources,
much more. According to FM 100-5, LOC are and water storage and distribution systems in
all the routes (land, water, and air) that con- the corps area. Topographic engineer support
nect an operating military force with a base of and water-detection teams from the USACE
operations and along which supplies and mili- assist with finding water sources. Well-drill-
tary forces move. Lines of support are in- ing teams or contracted well-drilling support
tratheater extensions of LOC. If the theater’s with organic logistics support develop water
infrastructure is underdeveloped, corps and sources. Engineer tasks associated with water
theater engineer forces will need to arrive storage and distribution include site prepara-
early in the force flow to establish the mini- tion for storage tanks and bladders, and con-
mum required infrastructure to support the struction of storage tanks and water distribu-
force. The establishment of priorities of corps tion lines, possibly by contract.
engineer effort will be crucial in the initial
stages of force flow. Potential LOC engineering MEDICAL-FACILITY CONSTRUCTION
missions include: port construction or up-
The construction of corps medical facilities
grade; airfield construction, upgrade, or repair;
may place one of the largest demands on engi-
MSR/ASR construction, upgrade, or repair;
neer forces. The corps engineers provide con-
and bridge construction, upgrade, or repair.
struction-related support to all COSCOM units
in the corps’s AO, but none are more demand-
Logistics-Facility Construction
ing than the health services. The use of exist-
Corps logistics operations may require the use ing host-nation facilities is preferred, but con-
of facilities such as Force Provider, ASPS, POL struction of adequate medical facilities may be
bladder farms, supply points, and maintenance needed to support the force.
bays. Corps engineers may be required to pro-
vide limited construction and prime-power Site preparation requirements vary with the
electrical support to logistics facilities. type of hospital and the nature of the terrain.

Logistics 4-23
FM 5-100-15

Figure 4-12. Reparable flow

4-24 Logistics
FM 5-100-15

Figure 4-13. Direct-exchange flow

Logistics 4-25
FM 5-100-15

Site selection may be restricted based on threats. The purposes of corps rear operations
METT-T or political and social considerations. are to secure the force; neutralize or defeat
Whenever possible, select the site to minimize threat operations in the rear area; and ensure
engineering construction effort. Theater real freedom of action in close and deep operations.
estate management teams may be needed to Three levels of response to threat activities are
lease the large amount of land required to sup- used in planning corps rear operations. Rather
port a health-services site. than focusing on the size or type of threat,
these levels focus on the nature of friendly ac-
Follow-on medical facility construction re- tions needed to defeat the threat.
quirements include such things as power gen-
eration and distribution, waste disposal (haz- Ž Level I threats can be defeated by base
ardous and ordinary), field sanitation, water or base cluster self-defense measures.
supply and distribution, heating and cooling,
refrigeration, and patient and staff living fa- Ž Level II threats are beyond base or base
cilities. cluster self-defense capabilities but can
be defeated by response forces, normally
RECONSTITUTION SUPPORT with supporting fires.
Reconstitution is an extraordinary action that Ž Level III threats necessitate the com-
commanders plan and implement to restore mand decision to commit a combined
units to a desired level of combat effectiveness
arms tactical combat force to defeat
commensurate with mission requirements and
them.
available resources. An operational pause may
be necessary to implement reconstitution pro-
Corps engineer construction forces build and
cedures. Corps engineers oftentimes do not
fortify corps logistics bases, battle-command
have the opportunity to take full advantage of
facilities, and decontamination sites. They
reconstitution because many engineer mis-
also perform other engineer tasks needed
sions continue to support the reconstitution ef-
against rear-area threats such as camouflage
fort, including MSR maintenance and arifield
and countermobility operations. Corps combat
upgrades. Therefore, the corps engineer com-
engineer forces can be used to defeat level H
mander emphasizes the need for continuous
threats if the corps commander has deemed it
internal unit reconstitution activities through-
necessary to divert valuable engineer assets to
out the battle. Chapter 7 provides more detail
this mission. They are generally not suitable
on corps engineer support to reconstitution op-
for defeating level III threats unless they are
erations, along with internal unit reconstitu-
augmented with additional training, transpor-
tion operations.
tation, forces, antiarmor weapon systems, and
forward-observer support adequate enough to
LOGISTICS FORCE-PROTECTION defeat the expected threat forces.
SUPPORT
Corps logistics forces are primarily located in
rear areas and are vulnerable to rear-area

CORPS ENGINEER LOGISTICS CONCEPT


Corps engineer sustainment planners and ex- corps decision cycle through early, complete,
ecutors focus on several essential tasks to ac- and continuous integration into the corps C2
complish the logistics support mission. First, and logistics structure. They plan and adjust
engineer logistics planners keep pace with the engineer sustainment in concert with the rapid

4-26 Logistics
FM 5-100-15

corps planning process. Second, they track Corps engineer units supporting forward ma-
both subordinate and supporting engineer neuver brigades receive logistics support from
units’ sustainment postures to allow the sus- an element of the COSCOM collocated with the
tainment planner to account for available re- brigade FSBs. These special supply and
sources, shift them as necessary and integrate health-service-support packages from the CSG
them into planning future operations. Third, are tailored and sent to the BSAs through di-
detailed coordination with the corps logistics rect coordination with the CSG LO collocated
units allows engineer sustainment planners to with the DISCOM CP. The DISCOM may pro-
influence current and future operations by en- vide common classes of supplies to forward
suring that continuous and responsive logistics corps engineer units. Personnel-services sup
support is maintained. port remains with corps personnel units that
locate in the division support area (DSA),
CORPS ENGINEER LOGISTICS LAYDOWN Corps engineer units operating in division rear
areas receive supply and health-services sup
Corps logistics support for engineer units de-
port from the DS corps support battalion. Per-
pends on their location on the battlefield and
sonnel-services support is obtained through di-
their command or support relationship to the
rect coordination with corps personnel units in
supported unit. In terms of logistics planning
the DSA.
and integration, corps engineer units fall into
four types:
Corps engineer units supporting cavalry regi-
ments and separate maneuver brigades receive
Ž Corps engineer brigade and group HHC
support through the designated corps support
and separate engineer companies (such
package attached to the corps maneuver unit.
as bridge and CSE companies).
Corps engineer units operating in the corps
rear area receive logistics support through a
Ž Corps engineer units operating in divi-
designated CSG on an area basis. They locate
sion areas.
and establish accounts with designated
COSCOM logistics-support agencies and units.
Ž Corps engineer units supporting cavalry
Theater engineer units operating in the corps
regiments and separate maneuver bri-
rear area are also supported by a designated
gades.
CSG.
Ž Corps engineer units supporting corps
Regardless of the command or support rela-
rear operations.
tionship and location on the battlefield, all
corps engineer units provide routine logistics
Corps engineer brigade and group HHCs and
status reports through the appropriate head-
separate companies have limited organic capa-
quarter to ensure that the logistics support of
bility to sustain themselves. Therefore, these
corps engineer units is fully integrated into the
units rely upon tailored corps logistics assets
corps’s planning and coordination of sustain-
from the COSCOM for sustainment through-
ment support.
out the battlefield. These engineer units locate
and establish accounts with designated
FLOW OF SUPPORT
COSCOM logistics-support agencies and units.
Corps engineer separate companies that are Logistics support for corps engineer units is
attached to corps engineer battalions receive divided into two basic categories: unit sustain-
logistics support through those battalions for ment and mission sustainment. Unit sustain-
the duration of the attachment. ment encompasses all of a unit’s logistics-

Logistics 4-27
FM 5-100-15

support requirements needed to remain a vi- Sound sustainment estimates, accurate track-
able fighting force. Mission sustainment con- ing of corps engineer unit sustainment posture,
sists of the supplies and services needed to and continuous coordination with the
accomplish specific engineer missions for the COSCOM and corps G4 ensure that engineer
corps. The flow of supplies and services in unit requirements are properly forecasted, pri-
these categories differs, requiring corps engi- oritized, and delivered.
neer logistics planners and executors to under-
stand the differences. Figure 4-14 and Figure
4-15, page 4-30, show the flow of supplies and KEY CORPS ENGINEER LOGISTICS
services for unit and mission sustainment. LEADERS
The requisition and delivery processes vary, The responsibilities of the corps engineer unit’s
based on the supply class or type of service. key logistics leaders and their functions within
Engineer unit sustainment is generally accom- the corp and engineer CP systems are crucial to
plished through the COSCOM infrastructure accomplishing these tasks. All corps engineer
of corps support battalions, personnel, and commanders and staffs must be familiar with
medical units. Forward corps engineer forces and support these roles and functions to ensure
may also receive some common logistics sup- appropriate corps engineer unit and mission
port from DISCOM units. Mission sustain- sustainment.
ment requires supplies such as Class V demo-
litions and mines for combat operations and Assistant Corps Engineer
Class IV construction materials for general en-
gineering missions. These supplies are re- The ACE is responsible for writing and inte-
quested through the COSCOM direct-support grating engineer-specific information for inclu-
supply unit (DSSU), which in turns passes the sion in corps orders and plans, including logis-
requisition to the CMMC. These mission sup- tics support. The ACE ensures that essential
plies are normally moved from corps general- engineer logistics-support requirements are
support supply units (GSSUs) by corps trans- identified, coordinated, and published. He is
portation units as close to the combat or gen- assisted in this task by the corps rear CP engi-
eral engineering mission location as possible. neer section, the corps engineer brigade S4, the
This minimizes multiple material handling re- corps main CP engineer plans and operations
quirements, reduces the transportation re- sections, and the corps engineer brigade CP
quirements on corps transportation assets, and CSS cell.
facilitates faster mission accomplishment. If
mission-related supplies cannot be delivered Corps Rear CP Engineer
directly to the combat or general engineering The corps rear CP engineer is responsible for
location or engineer unit by corps transporta- identifying requirements and ensuring that lo-
tion assets, a plan using corps engineer or gistics are coordinated for engineer units oper-
other corps assets is required. Most corps en- ating in the corps area. The corps rear CP
gineer units are equipped to augment this op- engineer is assisted in this task as necessary by
eration with limited organic transportation ca- the corps main CP engineer plans and opera-
pability but are not responsible for planning, tions sections and the corps engineer brigade
controlling, and executing the delivery of mis- CP CSS cell.
sion-required supplies.
Executive Officer
Corps engineers can influence both unit and
mission sustainment requirements through The XO, at all levels from the corps engineer
early integration into the corps sustainment brigade through the corps engineer battalion, is
planning process at the main and rear CPs. responsible for synchronizing all logistics sup-

4-28 Logistics
FM 5-100-15

Figure 4-14.

Logistics 4-29
FM 5-100-15

Figure 4-15. Engineer mission sustainment Class IV/V supplies for corps engineers

port in his unit. He directs the execution of and general administrative functions with the
engineer staff logistics-support tasks, coordi- appropriate corps personnel, finance, and
nates the effort of staff members, and super- medical-support units. The S1 should be cross-
vises the efficient and prompt response of staff trained with the S4 in all areas of engineer
logistics-support functions. He relies on the sustainment.
logistics staff section (for example, the corps
engineer brigade, group CSS cells, the battal- The corps engineer brigade S1 specifically coor-
ion rear CP, and unit trains elements) to plan, dinates corps engineer personnel and medical
integrate, request, and monitor corps engineer support with the corps G1/AG staffs at the
logistics fuctions that support both unit and corps rear CP and with the corps personnel,
mission sustainment. finance, and medical groups.

S1 S4
The S1 at the corps engineer brigade, group, The S4 at the corps engineer brigade, group,
and battalion levels is responsible for integrat- and battalion levels is responsible for integrat-
ing personnel and medical-services support ing supply, maintenance, transportation, and

4-30 Logistics
FM 5-100-15

field-services support with the appropriate the status of engineer company soldiers, includ-
corps logistics-support units. The S4 should be ing their health, welfare, and morale.
fully cross trained with the S1.

The corps engineer brigade S4 specifically CORPS ENGINEER LOGISTICS COMMAND


plans, coordinates, and monitors corps engi- AND CONTROL
neer operations with the corps rear CP engi- Corps engineer logistics C2 centers around
neer, the corps rear CP G4, and the COSCOM the corps rear and main CPs, but pervades all
CP staffs. He provides detailed sustainment corps engineer C2 nodes. Each corps engineer
input to the corps engineer brigade TOC for CP has specific responsibilities in identifying
developing orders for each mission The bri- unit and mission logistics requirements, esti-
gade S4 closely monitors and accurately tracks mating resources, integrating into the corps’s
the sustainment status of corps engineer planning cycle, and monitoring the execution
groups, battalions, and separate companies, of engineer sustainment missions supporting
He is assisted by a chief supply sergeant, a corps logistics operations.
supply technician warrant officer, and supply
specialists for supply-related functions. He is Corps Rear CP Engineer Section
also assisted by the maintenance technician
The corps rear CP engineer section is the corps
warrant officer and senior maintenance super-
engineer’s primary integrator into the corps for
visor for troubleshooting maintenance opera-
executing logistics support for subordinate
tions and support
corps engineer units. The rear CP engineer
section coordinates sustainment for current
HHC Commander
corps engineer operations and plans and pre-
Corps engineer brigade, group, and battalion pares for implementation of future operations.
HHC commanders command the HHC CP and It maintains updated logistics status of corps
are assisted by the HHC 1SG. The commander engineer units, providing the corps main CP
is responsible for coordinating sustainment of engineer section with detailed logistics esti-
the corps engineer brigade, group, or battalion mates to assist in formulating corps plans and
CP and command groups. He ensures logistics orders and ensuring that corps engineer sus-
coordination and integration with designated tainment plans are synchronized with the
COSCOM support units. He may also be re- corps G4 and the COSCOM. The rear CP
sponsible for base defense operations. engineer works closely with the brigade S4 to
develop future logistics estimates.
Company First Sergeant
The corps engineer company 1SG is the prin- Corps Main CP Engineer Section
cipal logistics sustainment leader at the com- The corps main CP engineer section supports
pany level. The company 1SG remains fo- the ACE in developing corps engineer sus-
cused on sustainment of current engineer op- tainment plans and writing the engineer lo-
erations and is normally located with the gistics portions of the basic corps OPLAN or
company CP. However, he may be located at OPORD and paragraph four of the engineer
the unit trains element, if established, or a annex. The ACE integrates engineer sustain-
corps CSS location. He maintains close coor- ment into corps operations through coordina-
dination with platoon sergeants and mainte- tion with the corps main CP CSS cell. The
nance/supply section sergeants; engineer bat- corps main CP engineer section ensures that
talion, group, or brigade S4/S1s; and any sup- immediate engineer sustainment requests re-
ported maneuver S4/S1s. The 1SG monitors ceived from the corps TAC CP are forwarded

Logistics 4-31
FM 5-100-15

to the corps rear CP and the corps engineer with designated COSCOM support units, set-
brigade CSS cell. ting up life-support areas for CP personnel,
and locating vehicle maintenance areas. The
Corps Tactical CP Engineer Section HHC CP may also be designated as a BDOC or
BCOC.
The corps TAC CP engineer section has limited
capability to impact engineer logistics support
Corps Engineer Battalion Rear CP
Its primary logistics duties are receiving and
forwarding reports and influencing the redirec- The corps engineer battalion rear CP fully sup
tion of sustainment priorities for corps engineer ports the battalion S1/S4 officers in developing
units operating forward in the corps area. corps engineer battalion sustainment plans
and writing paragraph four for battalion
Corps Engineer Brigade and Group TOC OPORDs and OPLANs. They monitor current
CSS cells corps engineer battalion logistics status
through periodic personnel and logistics status
The CSS cells operating in the corps engineer reports (for example, the PERREP and the
brigade and group TOC fully support the bri- LOGSTAT) from subordinate units. They rec-
gade and group S1/S4 officers in developing ommend logistics priorities to the battalion
corps engineer sustainment plans and writing commander; identify critical personnel and
paragraph four for brigade and group OPORDs supply shortages, along with maintenance or
and OPLANs. They monitor current corps en- transportation problems, that affect engineer
gineer logistics status through periodic person- unit and mission sustainment; and redirect lo-
nel and logistics status reports (for example, gistics support as required. The corps engineer
the personnel report (PERREP) and the LOG- battalion rear CP maintains constant commun-
STAT) from subordinate units. They recom- ication with the battalion main CP, subordi-
mend logistics priorities to the brigade or group nate engineer units logistics sections, higher
commander; identify critical personnel and headquarters logistics sections, designated
supply shortages, along with maintenance or COSCOM support units, and supporting ma-
transportation problems, that affect engineer neuver unit logistics-support units, if required.
unit and mission sustainment; and redirect lo-
gistics support as required. The corps engineer Corps Engineer Unit Trains Element
brigade CSS cell maintains constant commu-
Corps engineer companies may form a unit
nication with subordinate engineer units lo-
trains element to control engineer logistics sup
gistics sections, the corps rear CP engineer
port from the corps or to establish an engineer
section, COSCOM CP, and the corps G4. The
equipment park or construction supply point.
corp engineer group CSS cell maintains con-
The unit trains element is normally collocated
stant communication with the brigade CSS cell,
with the company CP. However, depending on
subordinate corps engineer units, and support-
METT-T, the unit trains element may be
ing maneuver unit logistics-support units, if
formed in the vicinity of a COSCOM supply or
required.
maintenance point or with a corps engineer
battalion rear CP. The unit trains element is
Corps Engineer Brigade and Group HHC
normally under the control of the company 1SG
CPs
and consists of the company supply and main-
The corps engineer brigade and group HHC tenance sections. It tracks, reports, and pro-
establish CPs at or in close proximity to the vides critical engineer unit and mission-sus-
brigade or group TOC. The HHC CP is respon- tainment support. The corps engineer unit
sible for the sustainment of the brigade and trains element maintains constant communica-
group CP. This includes establishing accounts tion with subordinate platoon and section ser-

4-32 Logistics
FM 5-100-15

geants, higher headquarters logistics sections, essary supplies are identified and resourced
designated COSCOM support units, and sup- through corps or theater stocks.
porting maneuver unit logistics-support units,
if required. Simultaneously the ACE, the corps main CP
engineer section, and the brigade TOC CSS cell
THE CORPS ENGINEER’S ROLE IN develop a RSR to support corps engineer mis-
PLANNING AND COORDINATING LOGISTICS sion requirements and forwards it to the corps
rear CP engineer. Based on the corps’s current
The corps engineer’s attempt to plan and coor- stockage of required items and the identifica-
dinate engineer logistics efforts is essential to tion of additional supplies needed, the corps
full integration of corps engineer units into the rear CP engineer, in coordination with the G4,
corps’s sustainment structure. The ACE, the assesses the availability of these supplies in
corps rear CP engineer, the COSCOM, and the corps’ stocks. The corps rear CP engineer and
G4 work closely to synchronize the logistics the G4 also analyze the corps’s capability to
planning and coordination process. They fa- transport mission supplies to corps engineer
cilitate sound and timely plans or orders and units. This information is provided to the
necessary sustainment for corps engineer corps G3 for his development of the CSR for
units. engineer supplies.

Upon receipt of a WARNORD for a mission, the Having identified the requirements for both
corps rear CP engineer immediately initiates unit sustainment and mission supplies and
an engineer logistics estimate as outlined in their availability, the requirements are for-
FM 101-10-1/2. This estimate is specifically warded to the ACE at the corps main CP, along
focused on the sustainment of all subordinate with a projected combat-power status based on
corps engineer units, Classes I, III, IV, V, and the current engineer sustainment status. The
VII supplies and personnel losses are the essen- ACE then analyzes the requirements to sup
tial elements in the logistics estimate process. port the plan and translates them into specific
Close integration with the COSCOM can sim- plans that are used to determine the supporta-
plify and speed the estimate process through bility of the corps’s courses of action. Upon
the use of their automated data processing determination of a course of action, the specific
(ADP) systems. During continuous operations, engineer logistics input into the corps’s basic
the estimate process may need to be abbrevi- order and paragraph four of the engineer an-
ated due to time constraints. While working nex are developed and incorporated into each.
closely with the corps engineer brigade TOC Current engineer sustainment operations may
CSS cell, the corps rear CP engineer aggres- require redirection based on the new plan and
sively maintains an accurate logistics and com- are sent to the corps rear CP engineer and the
bat status of all engineer units. This informa- corps engineer brigade TOC CSS cell for coor-
tion is critical to shortening the engineer logis- dination and execution.
tics estimate process.
Corps engineer units operating in division ar-
Having conducted the estimate process in de- eas provide the unit and mission logistics
termine unit sustainment and mission supply status to the division engineer staff so that they
requirements, the corps rear CP engineer com- can do a similar logistics staff planning process.
pares the requirements with the reported Accurate and timely status reporting assists
status of subordinate units to determine spe- the division engineer in providing an accurate
cific amounts of supplies needed to support the corps engineer unit status to the division com-
operation. These requirements are then coor- mander and energizes the division engineer
dinated with the COSCOM to ensure that nec- staff support to intercede in critical sustain-

Logistics 4-33
FM 5-100-15

ment problems when necessary. The division rate and timely status reporting assists the
engineer staff also ensures that mission-re- corps engineer in providing an accurate theater
quired supplies needed by corps engineer units engineer unit status to the corps commander
to execute division missions are integrated into and energizes the corps engineer staff support
the division’s logistics plans. to intercede in critical sustainment problems
when necessary. The corps engineer staff also
Theater engineer units operating in the corps ensures that mission-required supplies needed
area provide the unit and mission logistics by theater engineer units to execute corps mis-
status to the corps engineer staff, normally the sions are integrated into the corps’s logistics
corps rear CP engineer. This allows a similar plans.
logistics staff planning process. Again, accu-

4-34 Logistics
FM 5-100-15

CHAPTER 5
OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS

Great tanks fitted with special mine plows and rakes jump forward clearing
initial paths through obstacles. Combat engineers position mine-clearing
charges immediately behind the tanks. When minefield are discovered, engi-
neers fire a rocket over the tanks that pulls out a long line of explosives. The
line charge is then detonated, creating an unbelievable blast. This marks a
lane, clears some mines, and renders any enemy troops in the area completely
ineffective. Bulldozers have been fitted with special steel protection. They push
into the breach, clearing and widening each lane. The M9 armored combat
engineer vehicle is used to attack bunkers and trenches with its sturdy blade.
There is resistance, but Iraqi soldiers begin to surrender in large quantities.
Those that stay and fight are quickly overrun. The tanks are busy destroying
Iraqi tanks and fighting vehicles. Engineers are clearing bunkers and blowing
up enemy equipment. The M9 armored combat earthmover (ACE) crushes
bunkers and destroys trenches. Those who do not surrender are covered and
crushed. Within minutes, eight lanes are opened through the first obstacle belt.
In short order, sixteen lanes are opened, marked, and divided for one-way,
two-way, wheeled, or tracked traffic. Everywhere there are engineers blowing
up enemy fortifications. Giant engineer equipment pushes aside debris and
roads appear in the desert. Everywhere there is noise, dust, smoke, and the
deafening roar of gunfire. It is synchronized perfectly.

From “A Commanders Perspective” by Colonel Samuel C. Raines, Commander,


7th Engineer Brigade (Corps), during Operation Desert Storm, 9 April 1991.

PURPOSE OF THE OFFENSE


The corps conducts offensive operations to de- late units, to gain information, or to spoil an
feat, destroy, or neutralize the enemy force. enemy’s offensive preparation. Seizure and re-
The offense is the decisive form of war. Offen- tention of the initiative come with offensive
sive operations are designed to defeat the in- action. Corps are expected to conduct offensive
tegrity of the enemy’s defense system by driv- operations to defeat or destroy a designated
ing into his rear and destroying artillery, re- portion or formation of an enemy’s defense. A
serves, C2 systems, CPs, and logistics support. corps may conduct an offensive operation as
These operations may also be conducted to se- part of a TA operation, independently as the
cure key or decisive terrain, to deceive or mis- Army component of a JTF, or internally as part
direct uncommitted enemy forces, to fix or iso- of its own operation.

Offensive Operations 5-1


FM 5-100-15

This chapter provides a doctrinal foundation offensive framework and assist the corps in
for corps engineer support to offensive opera- achieving success. The engineer estimate fo-
tions. It serves as an extension of FM 100-15. cuses on the process used to meet the needs of
It examines how corps engineers fit into the corps offensive planning.

OFFENSIVE CHARACTERISTICS
The offensive operation is the corps’s primary general engineering support to corps logistics
means of taking and maintaining the initia- operations may also be appropriate to ensure
tive. Successful engineer support of corps of- adequate corps logistics support during the at-
fensive operations depends on the corps engi- tack such as MSR construction immediately
neer’s understanding and application of the following combat formations.
four offensive characteristics: surprise, con-
centration, tempo, and audacity. TEMPO
Tempo is the rate of speed of military action
SURPRISE that maintains relentless pressure on the en-
Surprise is achieved by striking the enemy at emy to prevent him from recovering from the
a time or place or in a reamer for which it is shock and effects of the attack. Corps engi-
not physically or mentally ready. To give the neers help achieve this tempo by maintaining
corps the element of surprise, corps engineers a responsive engineer C2 system and decision
overcome operational and tactical obstacles cycle. Establishing corps engineer task organi-
rapidly and provide the corps with mobility zations and command or support relationships
over restricted terrain. Corps engineers also that do not change during the course of the
prepare forward logistics bases, assisting in battle allows the maneuver forces to retain re-
the rapid forward movement of corps forces. lentless pressure against the enemy.

CONCENTRATION AUDACITY
Concentration is achieved by massing the ef- Audacity is required to boldly execute simple
fects of combat power at the point of attack. plans that negate the disadvantages of numeri-
The corps engineer task-organizes and devel- cal inferiority. Commanders understand when
ops a scheme of engineer operations that sup- and where they are taking risks but don’t be-
ports this concentration of maneuver forces by come tentative in the execution of plans. The
massing the right type of engineer support at corps engineer facilitates audacious offensive
the right place and time. Allocating the proper action by seeing the battlefield and anticipat-
mix and amount of corps engineers to divisions ing future engineer requirements. He con-
that are making the main corps attack permits stantly postures the engineer force so that the
them to adjust to changing circumstances corps can rapidly take advantage of narrow
without time-consuming and confusing reor- windows of opportunity such as in the case of
ganizations. The massing of corps engineer forward river crossings.

FORMS OF THE CORPS TACTICAL OFFENSE


Successful engineer support of corps offensive the four forms of the tactical offense: move-
operations also depends on the corps engi- ment to contact (MTC), attack, exploitation,
neer’s understanding and ability to support and pursuit.

5-2 Offensive Operations


FM 5-100-15

MOVEMENT TO CONTACT The corps engineer supports the MTC by con-


figuring corps engineer forces forward to ac-
The corps conducts an MTC to gain or regain
complish needed mobility, countermobility,
contact with the enemy and to develop the situ-
general engineering, and limited survivability
ation. The MTC is characterized by rapid
movement along multiple axes, centralized operations. The corps engineer understands
planning and decentralized control, and the the MTC's objective, contingencies, branches,
rapid transition of combined arms formations and sequels. He then identifies engineer tasks
from the march to the attack. The corps fo- and allocates forces. Figure 5-1, page 5-4,
cuses on intelligence collection and security to shows the basic engineer tasks germane to a
the main body. During the MTC, the corps is corps MTC. The corps engineer considers each
normally organized with a covering force, an component of the MTC and the inherent engi-
neer missions that are performed in support of
advance guard, a main body and flank and
rear security elements. A variant of the MTC the covering force; advance, flank, or rear
is the approach march, used when command- guards; and the main body. He then task-or-
ers are relatively certain of the enemy’s loca- ganizes units based on his available forces and
C2 requirements. He ensures that deep opera-
tion and are a considerable distance from the
enemy. Limited-purpose applications of the tions scatterable mining is fully synchronized
MTC include the search and attack, conducted during the MTC so that emplacement times,
by light maneuver units or air cavalry and lanes, and durations facilitate future corps op-
reconnaissance in force, conducted by heavier erations. Figure 5-2, page 5-5, shows a possi-
units. Both operations seek enemy informa- ble engineer force laydown to support the engi-
neer missions needed during an MTC.
tion and probe for enemy weaknesses; or they
may deny terrain to the enemy, and possibly
destroy the enemy. The desired result of the Covering Force
MTC is to find the enemy. The corps normally uses the cavalry regiment
as the covering force but may use a division or
An MTC has several possible outcomes. First, separate brigade. In addition, the corps com-
a corps may not make contact with the enemy mander may direct that leading divisions es-
and reach its objective unopposed. This could tablish division-controlled covering forces in
result in continuing the MTC to a subsequent support of the MTC. The corps covering force
objective or establishing a hasty defense ori- develops the situation and prevents the unnec-
ented on key terrain. Second, a meeting en- essary delay of the main body Covering-force
gagement may occur where the corps meets an missions include destroying enemy resistance,
unexpected moving or stationary force and securing key terrain, or containing enemy
where friendly action takes place without hesi- forces. When attacking a defending enemy
tation. If the covering force or the unit in con- army, the corps covering force is usually ex-
tact is unable to defeat or contain the enemy pected to penetrate the enemy’s security zone,
force, the corps will rapidly decide to conduct a identify the location and deployment of forces
hasty attack, hasty defense, or a combination in the main defensive belt, and limit the en-
of both, normally with units from the main emy's intelligence-gathering activities.
body. Another possibility is to bypass the en-
emy force altogether. When the corps has a Engineer support for the corps covering force
clear picture of a moving enemy’s disposition, includes reconnaissance (to gain terrain and
it may try to gain the advantage by moving to enemy engineer intelligence) and mobility op-
advantageous terrain and preparing for a erations (to sustain the covering force’s freedom
hasty defense, hasty attack, or a combination of maneuver). Engineers help identify the best
that destroys the enemy force. routes for forward movement along with lateral

Offensive Operations 5-3


FM 5-100-15

Figure 5-1. Engineer support to a corps MTC

routes for additional flexibility. Engineers with Advance Guard


the covering force allow it to move inde- The corps advance guard is normally furnished
pendently through undefended obstacles and and controlled by the leading divisions in the
restrictions. The cavalry regiment or separate main body. The advance guard maintains con-
brigade will normally have a corps engineer tact with and provides liaison to the covering
battalion attached, augmenting organic engi- force. It is task-organized to support the unin-
neer company capabilities to allow for rapid terrupted movement of the main body. Engi-
earth moving, minefield breaching, and assault neer support for this operation normally comes
bridging. If the corps covering force is a divi- from the leading division engineer brigade or
sion, the organic division engineer brigade or battalion. The corps engineer may augment
battalion normally provides support for engi- with bridging and breaching assets. The pri-
neer missions. Engineer support to covering- mary mission of the engineer force supporting
force operations is characterized by early the corps advance guard is to maintain the
linkup, detailed combined arms planning and advance guard’s freedom to maneuver with
rehearsals, and thorough integration into the mobility support, allowing it to fight through
combined arms team. defended obstacles without reinforcement.

5-4 Offensive Operations


FM 5-100-15

Figure 5-2. Engineer force laydown for a corps MTC

Engineers with the advance guard assist in screen or guard) are assigned to these units.
rapid movement, develop the situation, and While there is not necessarily a dedicated engi-
maintain the momentum of the main body. In- neer force with the flank security force, coun-
stride breaches are conducted along routes termobility support is an inherent task. Situ-
where the main body is moving. The advance ational obstacle emplacement will normally be
guard may require countermobility support, es- the responsibility of main body division engi-
pecially if the intent is to fix the enemy and neers or corps engineers supporting screening
allow the main body to attack a flank. Situ- or guarding cavalry regiments and separate
ational obstacles are planned and executed as brigades.
required.
The corps normally controls rear security
Flank and Rear Security
forces due to the extensive distances created by
Corps flank security is normally furnished and supporting logistics forces. Countermobility
controlled by main body forces. If flank secu- support, including situational obstacle plan-
rity forces are required to be under corps con- ning and emplacement is also inherent to sup-
trol, specific security missions (normally port rear security operations. The corps engi-

Offensive Operations 5-5


FM 5-100-15

neer plans corps reserve demolition targets corps commander, including the hasty attack
and ORAs to ensure freedom of maneuver in deliberate attack, spoiling attack, counterat-
the corps rear area. tack raid, feint, demonstration, or any combi-
nation thereof.
Main Body
The corps engineer supports attacks by config-
The main body contains the bulk of the corps’s
uring corps engineer forces to accomplish
combat power. Units are task-organized into needed forward mobility countermobility gen-
march columns to facilitate a hasty attack or a
eral engineering, and limited survivability op-
hasty defense from the march. Elements of the
erations. The corps engineer understands the
main body may be committed to reduce pockets
attack’s objective, contingencies, branches, and
of resistance contained or bypassed by the cov-
sequels. He then identifies engineer tasks and
ering force. Engineers supporting the main
allocates forces. He considers each type of at-
body focus primarily on forward mobility and
tack and the inherent engineer missions that
countermobility operations. Corps engineer
are performed. He then task-organizes units
battalions augmenting divisions widen
based on his available forces and C2 require-
breached lanes, breach bypassed obstacles, and
ments. He ensures that deep operations scat-
emplace situational obstacles on the flanks.
terable mining is fully synchronized during the
Corps bridging units are located in march col-
umns for responsive support to the main body attack so that emplacement times, lanes, and
CSE companies and combat heavy engineer durations facilitate future corps operations.
battalions construct follow-on MSRs and logis-
tics bases. Hasty Attack
The hasty attack is an offensive operation with
ATTACK minimum preparation by the unit in contact
The attack’s purpose is to defeat, destroy or with the main body. The attack destroys the
neutralize the enemy. The same fundamentals enemy before he can concentrate forces or es-
apply to each type of attack. Attacks with en- tablish an effective defense. It is the most
emy-force objectives are preferable to terrain- likely result of a meeting engagement. A corps
oriented objectives. The corps will normally uses hasty attacks from the march with main
transition into an attack following an MTC, but body units and covering forces that are imme-
the attack may also occur after defensive opera- diately available. The hasty attack may be
tions, exploitations, and pursuits. Successful conducted as part of a planned contingency
attacks depend on the skillful massing of fires, during an MTC or as an unforseen contin-
maneuver, EW, and other effects against the gency during hasty or deliberate defenses and
enemy force. To defeat the enemy force, the deliberate attacks. Sound IPB and prior war
corps attacks to destroy the continuity of the gaming of situations, battle drills, and rehears-
enemy defense by making the enemy positions als are critical to success. The hasty attack is
untenable so that he either abandons his de- normally initiated by the use of FRAGOs. It is
fense or eventually faces piecemeal destruc- followed by the use of reserve forces or immed-
tion. To destroy the enemy force, the corps iate reinforcement.
achieves overwhelming combat power through
the use of fire and maneuver. When attacking Prior to the attack, the corps engineer antici-
a comparable-size force, the corps accept-a risks pates and task-organizes needed engineer
in a part or parts of its zone of action to achieve forces to provide responsive support to divi-
concentration at decisive points while using sions, separate brigades, cavalry regiments,
deception and economy of forces in other areas. and reserve forces without delays. Figure 5-3
Several forms of the attack maybe used by the shows the basic engineer tasks germane to a

5-6 Offensive Operations


FM 5-100-15

corps hasty attack. Special topographic prod- flanks. Countermobility and survivability sup
ucts that assist in terrain analysis and effec- port become the priorities when objectives are
tive engineer and terrain reconnaissance al- secured and in order to repel enemy counterat-
lows some planning to make these attacks less tacks. General engineering support to build
improvised. During the MTC, the corps engi- and upgrade MSRs and logistics bases is re-
neer closely monitors the battlefield to discern quired to exploit the hasty attack’s success,
the disposition of enemy and friendly forces especially when attacks turn into pursuits.
when transitioning to a hasty attack. Critical The ability to maintain the momentum of the
information is forwarded directly to subordi- attack is directly affected by the corps’s ability
nate engineer units. The corps engineer also to sustain the force, including the pre-position-
focuses on coordinating engineer operations be- ing of engineer forces and material. The corps
tween adjacent units during the hasty attack. engineer has little impact during the hasty at-
He initially focuses on forward mobility sup- tack’s actual execution. His responsibility re-
port, such as breaching and bridging, that volves around planning and providing a
maintains the attacking force’s freedom of man- trained, tailored, flexible, and well-rehearsed
euver. Countermobility support is planned to engineer task organization before the battle.
isolate the battlefield and protect the corps Figure 5-4, page 5-8, shows a corps conducting

Figure 5-3. Engineer support to a corps hasty attack

Offensive Operations 5-7


FM 5-100-15

a hasty attack on a moving force from an MTC The deliberate attack is a fully synchronized
and the engineer task organization that sup operation that employs the effects of every
ports the inherent corps engineer’s tasks. available asset against the enemy defense. It
is often conducted from the defense. This type
Deliberate Attack of attack requires massed combat power on a
narrow front in an area where there is a high
The corps conducts a deliberate attack against probability of surprise. The corps develops in-
a well-organized defense or when— telligence and a flexible scheme of maneuver
that uses indirect approaches, deception, and
Ž A hasty attack has failed or cannot suc- surprise as a basis for the deliberate attack.
ceed.
The corps engineer develops a scheme of engi-
Ž The enemy situation is known. neer operations that focuses on providing for-
ward mobility support throughout the depth of
Ž The combined arms team can be em- the corps’s deliberate attack. This allocation of
ployed with sufficient combat power to engineer forces is based on the IPB, the EBA,
defeat the enemy. and the mission analysis conducted during the

Figure 5-4. Engineer force laydown for a corps hasty attack

5-8 Offensive Operations


FM 5-100-15

command estimate (see Figure 5-5). The corps propriate division, separate brigade, cavalry
engineer thoroughly understands the corps regiment, or reserve force. If required, he allo-
commander’s intent and scheme of maneuver; cates engineer group headquarters to divi-
anticipates how divisions, separate brigades, sions in order to bolster engineer C2. Coun-
the cavalry regiment, and reserve forces will termobility and survivability operations are
fight and comprehends the threat situational also significant in supporting a deliberate at-
template in order to properly conduct the engi- tack. Countermobility operations assist in
neer mission analysis. The corps engineer isolating the battlefield and protecting the
then looks at the maneuver-brigade level and corps from enemy flank attack and counterat-
identifies the number of lanes or crossing sites tack. The corps engineer understands the
required for each brigade, regiment, or reserve corps commander’s intent, follow-on missions,
force. He then compares the capabilities of di- and contingency plans to allocate engineer
vision, separate brigade, cavalry regiment, and forces to support them. Using the corps’s
reserve force engineer units to the numbers of DST and the synchronization matrix, the
required lanes or crossing sites. If a shortfall corps engineer estimates the time available
exists, he allocates available corps engineer to conduct needed corps countermobility op-
battalions and/or bridge companies to the ap- erations, including the transportation of ob-

Figure 5-5. Engineer support to a corps deliberate attack

Offensive Operations 5-9


FM 5-100-15

stacle material to corps-directed obstacle loca- within the overall defensive framework re-
tions. He coordinates with the COSCOM to quires careful timing. Counterattacks can be
ensure that mission-required Class IV obstacle rehearsed and timing-controlled, and the
materials and Class V mines and demolitions ground may be traversed and prepared.
are pushed forward to support a hasty defense
on the objective and to corps-directed obstacle Corps engineer support begins with a detailed
locations. He influences countermobility op- terrain analysis to determine how to shape the
erations during the deliberate attack’s execu- battlefield. The corps engineer plans for coun-
tion by tracking the battle and advising the terattacks by ensuring that a proper engineer
corps commander on the use of deep scatter- support force is task-organized with reserve
able mines. The corps engineer supports sur- forces. Corps engineers operating in rear areas
vivability operations by ensuring that divi- can have on-order support-type missions to
sions, separate brigades, the cavalry regiment, counterattacking forces. They can also pre-
and reserve forces have sufficient earth-mov- pare counterattack routes in the corps defen-
ing assets in their task organization. General sive area. The corps engineer recommends
engineering support to build and upgrade corps ORAs and corps-directed obstacles that
MSRs and logistics bases is required to exploit ensure clear and protected routes for counter-
the success of deliberate attacks, especially attacking forces. Corps engineers support
when attacks turn into pursuits. The ability to counterattacking forces in the same reamer as
maintain the momentum of the attack is di- those conducting hasty and deliberate attacks,
rectly affected by the corps’s ability to sustain primarily with mobility assets.
the force, including the pre-positioning of engi-
neer forces and material. Figure 5-6 shows a Raid
corps conducting a deliberate attack and the
A raid is a limited-objective attack into enemy
engineer task organization that supports the
territory for a specific purpose other than gaining
inherent corps engineer’s tasks.
and holding terrain. The corps commander con-
ducts raids to destroy key enemy facilities and
Spoiling Attack installations, to capture or free prisoners, or to
Corps commanders mount spoiling attacks disrupt enemy C2. Corps engineers support
from a defensive position to disrupt an ex- raids based on specific mission requirements,
pected enemy attack. A spoiling attack at- including demolition or breaching support.
tempts to strike the enemy while he is most
vulnerable. Spoiling attacks are conducted Feint and Demonstration
like other attacks; they may be hasty deliber- A feint is a supporting attack designed to divert
ate, or exploitive. Corps engineers support the enemy’s attention from the main effort It
spoiling attacks the same way they support is usually a shallow, limited-objective attack
hasty or deliberate attacks, primarily in the conducted before or during the main attack by
mobility area. divisions, brigades, or smaller units. A demon-
stration is a show of force in an area where a
Counterattack decision is not sought. A demonstration threat-
The corps commander conducts a counterat- ens attack but does not make contact. Feints
tack with either reserve forces or lightly com- and demonstrations deceive the enemy as to
mitted forward forces. The corps counterat- the true intentions of the attacker, pinning him
tacks after the enemy launches his attack re- in place, diverting his attention, and allowing
veals his main effort or creates an assailable decisive action elsewhere. If they unveil an
flank. Counterattacks are conducted much enemy weakness, they may be followed by a
like other attacks, but synchronizing them hasty or deliberate attack.

5-10 Offensive Operations


FM 5-100-15

Figure 5-6. Engineer force laydown for a corps deliberate attack

Corps engineers support feints and demonstra- maintaining offensive pressure through exploi-
tions by providing needed mobility and coun- tation. It is the chief means of translating tac-
termobility support. Engineer support to lim- tical success into operational advantage and
ited (but visible) breaching, obstacle-emplace- can be directed by the theater or corps com-
ment, and survivability operations contribute mander. An exploitation is normally initiated
to these deceptive operations. by already-committed units using available
forces to form both an exploiting force and a
EXPLOITATION follow-and-support force (see Figure 5-7, page
5-12). An exploitation is characterized by de-
An exploitation of the disruptive effects centralized execution. The employment of ex-
caused by a successful attack will either sup- ploitation and follow-and-support forces is
port the securing of deep friendly objectives, similar to an MTC. The corps can either exploit
or it will prevent the enemy from reconstitut- its own success or act as the exploiting or fol-
ing an organized defense, counterattacking, low-and-support force for a higher theater com-
conducting an orderly withdrawal, or continu- mand. Potential missions for the exploiting
ing to support operations. The attacker ex- force are securing objectives deep in the enemy
tends the defending force’s destruction by rear, securing LOC, surrounding and destroying

Offensive Operations 5-11


FM 5-100-15

enemy forces, denying escape routes to an en- The corps engineer force supports the exploi-
circled force, and destroying enemy reserves. tation in similar fashion to an MTC. The
The follow-and-support force initially prevents major difference is the very limited time
the enemy from closing the gap in a penetration available to plan and prepare for the exploita-
and secures key terrain gained during the tion. Because of this, the corps engineer con-
penetration or envelopment. As the exploiting figures the supporting engineer force from
force advances, the follow-and-support force se- the engineer assets already task-organized
cures LOC, mops up or destroys bypassed with the exploiting force. Forward mobility
forces, expands the area of exploitation from assets, including breaching and bridging
the exploiting force’s axis of advancement, and equipment, are required to maintain the
blocks the advance of reinforcements into the force’s momentum so that it can rapidly exe-
area. As the exploitation continues, the corps cute its mission. Countermobility opera-
commander will establish and communicate a tions are required to secure objectives, block
limit of advance, a series of objectives for the enemy forces, and provide flank protection
attacking divisions, and a general plan for the for the exploiting force. Survivability opera-
next battle. He will organize the corps to facili- tions are conducted to protect the force with
tate his next scheme of maneuver. the mission to secure terrain or deny escape

Figure 5-7. Exploitation

5-12 Offensive Operations


FM 5-100-15

routes. Engineer support to the follow-and- nates closely with the CO SCOM, ensuring
support force includes the same mobility, that engineer logistics requirements are
countermobility, and survivability require- identified and met, especially with fuel
ments as the exploiting force, along with and maintenance support.
extensive general engineering work being
needed to keep LOC and MSRs open. PURSUIT
Corps engineer support to the follow-and-
support force is normally provided by engi- Pursuit is an operation against a retreating
neer assets already in place. There may enemy force. It normally follows a success-
also be some time to plan and move other ful exploitation. The pursuit’s object is the
corps engineer units into position to pro- destruction of the opposing force that is in
vide needed general engineering support. the process of disengagement. Pursuit op-
erations require a direct-pressure force and
The corps engineer has several responsibili- normally an encircling force. The direct-
ties when the corps conducts an exploitation. pressure force prevents enemy disengage-
First, he plans to support the exploitation ment and subsequent reconstitution of the
before the battle begins by providing a flex- defense, and inflicts maximum casualties
ible corps engineer task organization to the by attacking constantly on a wide front.
attacking divisions. The exploitation mis- The encircling force’s mission is to get to the
sion is likely to be assigned to the corps enemy’s rear rapidly, block his escape and,
follow-and-support force or its reserve. The together with the direct-pressure force,
corps engineer ensures that both of these complete his destruction (Figure 5-8, page
forces contain enough engineer assets to sup- 5-14).
port future contingencies, including exploi-
tation operations. Second, because the situ- The corps engineer’s initial priority is to
ation is unclear during an exploitation, the support both forces with mobility assets.
corps engineer supports the G2 by assisting The direct-pressure force requires the capa-
in the development of terrain intelligence- bility to conduct decentralized, in-stride
gathering requirements pertaining to the breaching operations. The encircling force
area being exploited. He provides informa- requires mobility support to get into posi-
tion requirements for engineer missions, in- tion, followed by countermobility and sur-
cluding locations and sizes of obstacle belts vivability support to block the enemy force.
and zones and the location of enemy forces Due to the fast pace of pursuit operations,
covering them, any friendly or enemy use of follow-on general engineering support to
scatterable mines that will impact on the both pursuit forces is especially critical for
mission, the status of specific bridges key timely logistics support to the corps. Due to
to the operation, and the impact of weather the nature of the pursuit and its similari-
and terrain on mobility support. Third, the ties to the exploitation, the corps engineer
corps engineer is sensitive to the logistics planning considerations and actions are the
posture of the engineer force supporting same as those of an exploitation.
corps exploitation operations. He coordi-

CORPS OFFENSIVE FORMS OF MANEUVER


The corps normally uses a combination of the veying the corps commander’s scheme of ma-
basic forms of manuver--envelopment turn- neuver and what he intends his subordinate
ing movement infiltration, penetration, and units to accomplish. For example, a corps com-
frontal attack--when attacking, exploiting, or mander may direct one division to effect a pene-
pursuing. They provide a useful means of con- traction while another division envelopes a de-

Offensive Operations 5-13


FM 5-100-15

Figure 5-8. Pursuit

fending enemy force. The corps commander form of maneuver, commanders find or create
determines which form of maneuver to use an assailable flank, pitting their strengths
based on METT-T. He uses the form of maneu- against the enemy’s weaknesses. The enemy is
ver as an expression of intent and overall con- usually freed in place from the front by a sup-
cept of the operation that gives focus to corps porting attack to hold him in position while the
planning. The corps engineer understands main effort passes around the main defense
each form of maneuver and its implications in and attacks a flank (Figure 5-9). This is de-
developing the scheme of engineer support op- signed to delay or disrupt his reaction to the
erations and task organization. enveloping force and cause him to commit his
reserve prematurely or ineffectively The main
ENVELOPMENT attack’s objective can be either force-or terrain-
oriented. The main attack may be used to at-
When attacking, the corps will normally at- tack and roll up forces in the main defensive
tempt to envelope the enemy force along indi- belt, second-echelon defense, or reserves.
rect approaches. This is especially true if the When the objective is terrain-oriented, the
enemy force is of comparable size. To use this main attack is normally focused on securing

5-14 Offensive Operations


FM 5-100-15

key terrain, which cuts the enemy’s LOC or ment capabilities with corps assets. The corps
escape routes. engineer may plan corps obstacle zones and
directed obstacles that protect extended flanks
In support of envelopments, the corps engineer and objectives. ORAs may be designated, al-
develops a scheme of engineer operations that lowing free movement of enveloping forces.
focuses on the mobility of the enveloping force The corps engineer also provides horizontal-
and protection of its extended flanks and objec- construction capability to divisions and sepa-
tives, along with construction, improvement and rate brigades serving as the enveloping force
maintenance of MSRs and logistics bases. The for extended MSR and logistics base construc-
divisions and separate brigades that make up tion improvement and maintenance.
the enveloping force normally organize for in-
stride breaching and flank obstacle-emplace- The corps engineer develops engineer require-
ment operations. The corps engineer develops a ments for corps supporting attacks during the
flexible and redundant engineer task organiza- envelopment. Extensive obstacle breaching
tion that augments division and separate bri- may be required by the supporting attack divi-
gade breaching, bridging, and obstacle-emplace- sions or separate brigades. The main effort’s

Figure 5-9. Corps single and double envelopment

Offensive Operations 5-15


FM 5-100-15

success may hinge on the ability of the support- division and separate brigade breaching, bridg-
ing attacks to penetrate the obstacles and cause ing, and obstacle-emplacement capabilities
the enemy to fight in two directions. Corps with corps assets. The corps engineer may
engineer augmentation to the supporting at- plan corps obstacle zones and directed obsta-
tack may be limited in scope, forcing the divi- cles that protect extended flanks and deep ob-
sion or separate brigade to rely on organic engi- jectives. ORAs may be designated, allowing
neer assets. The corps engineer may have to free movement of turning-movement forces.
accept some risk and allocate the minimum The corps engineer also provides extensive
essential engineer force needed to augment horizontal-construction capability to divisions
corps supporting attacks. To minimize this and separate brigades serving as the turning-
risk, he works closely with the corps G2 on a movement force for extended MSR and logis-
thorough IPB and obstacle intelligence (OB- tics base construction, improvement, and
STINTEL) collection effort to verify or deny maintenance.
enemy defensive capability facing the support-
ing attack. INFILTRATION
Infiltration uses the covert movement of forces
TURNING MOVEMENT through enemy lines to attack positions in the
The corps conducts a turning movement to en- enemy’s rear. Corps light infantry units are
velop the enemy by striking at areas deep in the best suited to conduct an infiltration. The
rear and at his LOC. The turning movement corps commander may use infiltration in con-
uses freedom of maneuver to create a decisive junction with other forms of maneuver to at-
point where the enemy is unprepared. It is tack lightly defended positions or stronger posi-
distinguished from an envelopment primarily tions from a flank and rear, to secure key ter-
by the depth of its objectives and by what the rain in support of the main effort or to disrupt
commander intends for it to accomplish. In a enemy rear operations. The size, strength, and
turning movement, the corps seeks to avoid the composition of infiltration forces will usually be
main enemy force, in pass around his defensive limited to avoid detection until the objective is
reached. Limited objectives and tasks are also
belts, and to secure an objective deep in the
the norm with infiltration forces.
enemy rear to make the enemy position unten-
able (Figure 5-10). Due to the large distances
The corps engineer supports infiltration opera-
involved, a turning movement does not always
tions with light corps engineer units and equip
require a supporting attack to fix the enemy
ment as required. Covert obstacle-breaching,
force.
obstacle-emplacement, and long-range commu-
nications capabilities are packaged with sup
In support of turning movements, the corps
porting engineer forces. Engineers perform
engineer develops a scheme of engineer opera-
any needed reconnaissance of terrain, obsta-
tions similar to an envelopment. It focuses on
cles, and enemy engineer capabilities.
the mobility of the turning-movement force
and protection of its deep extended flanks and
PENETRATION
objectives, along with construction, improve-
ment, and maintenance of long MSRs and The corps commander uses penetration when
many logistics bases. The divisions and sepa- the enemy’s flanks are not assailable, to attack
rate brigades that make up the turning-move- through the enemy’s principal defensive posi-
ment force organize for in-stride breaching and tions, to break the integrity of the enemy de-
flank obstacle-emplacement operations. The fense, and to defeat the enemy in detail. Pene-
corps engineer develops a flexible and redun- tration is conducted when the enemy force is _
dant engineer task organization that augments overextended, a weakness is detected, or an

5-16 Offensive Operations


FM 5-100-15

Figure 5-10. Corps turning movement

assailable flank is not available. The corps enemy army. The corps conducts penetration
conducts a penetration with an infantry or ar- in three phases: rupturing the enemy's defen-
mored attack supported by concentrated fires sive positions, widening the gap, and securing
(Figure 5-11, page 5-18). An attacking divi- objectives that destroy the continuity of the
sion should be able to penetrate a defending defense. The corps uses its main attack to rup-
enemy division into the main defensive belt. ture the enemy’s defense. Supporting attacks
Corps supporting attacks and/or deep opera- protect the flank of the main effort and widen
tions are employed to fix or draw off enemy the gap by defeating adjacent enemy forces.
reserves that can react to the zone of penetra- Follow-and-support forces are used to clear the
tion. This includes regimental or larger- zone, widen the penetration, or secure the lodg-
sized counterattack forces outside the as- ment from counterattack. The corps reserve is
signed zone of the division conducting the positioned to assist the main attack and exploit
penetration. After the main defensive belt is success. Multiple penetrations may be desir-
penetrated, the corps commits trailing divi- able if they force the enemy to disperse his fires
sions to either further penetrate or envelop and react to multiple threats before commit-
subsequent defensive belts of the defending ting his reserves. The corps commander

Offensive Operations 5-17


FM 5-100-15

Figure 5-11. Corps conducting a penetration

weighs the advantage of penetrating on multi- to providing mobility to supporting attack and
ple axes versus the higher costs and casualties follow-and-support forces widening the gap.
that may be inflicted. Depending on the enemy situation, countermo-
bility may become the main effort to defeat
The corps engineer supports a corps penetra- counterattacks against the lodgment. The
tion by providing the lead division in the main corps usually uses follow-and-support forces to
effort with overwhelming mobility to decisively secure the lodgment and defeat any counterat-
rupture the enemy’s obstacle system. This re- tacks. The corps engineer anticipates the size
mains the engineer’s main effort until the of expected counterattack forces, analyzes
penetration is achieved. The corps engineer likely avenues of approach, and allocates the
masses obstacle-reduction assets into the main countermobility assets needed to fix or disrupt
attack’s division engineer brigade or battalion. counterattack forces. He may plan situational
Penetration requires the creation of more lanes obstacle zones and directed corps targets that
along a more narrow front than normally asso- only become active on the corps commander’s
ciated with breaching operations. As penetra- order. Once the lodgment is secured, the engi-
tion is achieved, the engineer main effort shifts neer priority shifts to assisting the corps in

5-18 Offensive Operations


FM 5-100-15

exploiting its success by ensuring the mobility strikes along a wide front with two or more
of its exploiting divisions. The corps engineer divisions abreast attacking in the zone (Figure
develops a scheme of engineer operations that 5-12, page 5-20). The frontal attack is an ap-
allows for the rapid development of a lane net- propriate form of maneuver to be used by a
work within the penetration. The lane net- fixing division conducting a supporting attack
work supports both the uninterrupted passage to an envelopment.
of the corps reserve to subsequent objectives
and the logistics flow to forces in the penetra- The corps engineer supports the frontal attack
tion. The corps engineer constitutes an engi- by providing adequate mobility support across
neer follow-and-support force to expand, up a wide front along multiple axes. The mission’s
grade, and maintain the lane network. The nature may prevent massing overwhelming
corps engineer also ensures the corps reserve mobility support from the corps perspective.
has enough engineers to maintain its own mo- However, the corps engineer ensures the task
bility as it attacks deep into the enemy’s rear organization allows attacking divisions to
area. mass engineers as required at their level. The
corps engineer tries to balance mobility assets
FRONTAL ATTACK with each attacking division to allow the flexi-
bility needed across the front. Follow-and-sup-
The corps uses a frontal attack to overrun, de-
port corps engineers are decentralized and bal-
stroy or capture a weaker enemy force in posi-
anced across the front. They focus on widening
tion. The frontal attack strikes the enemy
lanes, breaching bypassed obstacles, and con-
across a wide front, over the most direct ap-
structing and improving MSRs. The corps en-
preaches, or against an enemy weakness or
gineer also provides balanced countermobility
assailable flank. The frontal attack is used
and survivability assets for each division to
when the corps has overwhelming combat
establish a decentralized hasty defense on the
power and the enemy is at a clear disadvan-
objective. If the corps’s plan is to establish a
tage. A corps may employ a frontal attack as
deliberate defense immediately upon consoli-
part of a supporting attack of a TA envelop
dation, the corps engineer allocates needed
ment. It is the least desirable form of maneu-
corps engineer forces to the division at the out-
ver because it inherently wastes lives and ma-
set of the frontal attack. He also plans for and
terial unless there is some additional reason
coordinates with the corps G4 to pre-position
for it. Such reasons could be the lack of an
and push necessary Class IV obstacle supplies
assailable flank, critical time constraints, or
and Class V mines and demolitions to the divi-
the desire to deal a severe psychological blow
sions.
to the enemy. In the frontal attack, the corps

CORPS OPERATIONS IN DEPTH


The corps engineer thoroughly understands the will normally weight the main effort but are
corps offensive framework to integrate effec- prepared to shift the main effort rapidly to
tively into offensive operations as both the en- reinforce success. Maintaining the maneuver
gineer planner and the unit commander elements’ mobility is the engineer effort’s first
throughout the depth of the battlefield. Corps priority in offensive operations. Corps engi-
engineers supporting maneuver elements dur- neer units can be task-organized to provide
ing offensive operations will normally be placed support for river-crossing operations, obstacle
in a command relationship that provides re- breaching, construction of combat trails, MSR
sponsive support to the division, separate bri- maintenance, and other types of support.
gade, or cavalry regiment. Corps engineers Corps engineers augment maneuver force engi-

Offensive Operations 5-19


FM 5-100-15

Figure 5-12. Frontal attack

neers to help develop and maintain multiple mander’s ability to see the battlefield and de-
approach and attack routes. These routes al- velop courses of actions. Needed terrain analy-
low forces to enter the fight quickly, building ses include the identification of MSRs, deter-
combat power at the point of concentration. mining the current condition of MSRs and at-
During the offense, corps engineers folly sup- tack routes, the classification of bridges along
port deep, close, rear, reconnaissance and secu- the attack route, and the status of damaged or
rity, and reserve operations simultaneously destroyed bridges. Various trafficability over-
throughout the entire battlefield. lays and other terrain products are also devel-
oped. The corps engineer participates in deep
DEEP OPERATIONS countermobility targeting that synchronizes fu-
ture mobility requirements and assists in the
Corps engineer support to deep offensive opera- identification of HVTs such as dams, bridges,
tions is primarily accomplished in the areas of and other man-made facilities. Bridges in key
topographic engineering countermobility and mobility corridors may intentionally be left in-
ground maneuver mobility operations. Deep tact if their destruction might inhibit future
topographic support enhances the com- offensive operations. The corps engineer also

5-20 Offensive Operations


FM 5-100-15

recommends the employment of deep scatter- it can be committed against the main attack.
able mines, such as the Gator and other air-de- In this case, corps engineers committed to this
livered munitions, to disrupt the enemy’s fol- supporting attack may be task-organized with
low-on echelons and his logistical resupply. the bulk of the corps’s float-bridging assets,
Light engineers with SOFs may be employed taking some flexibility away from the main
deep in the enemy’s rear to protect key choke effort. Corps engineers normally support divi-
points or to interdict enemy movements and sion and separate brigade supporting attacks
reinforcements. Corps engineer tasks in sup with mobility assets, countermobility (primar-
port of deep ground maneuver include aug- ily through the use of scatterable mines) to the
menting ground forces with obstacle-breaching flanks, and survivability to units engaged in
capability obtained from corps combat engi- economy-of-force operations. Corps engineer
neers equipped with breaching equipment, con- units not committed to main or supporting at-
structing combat trails and aerial resupply tacks upgrade breach lanes and logistics sup-
points, maintaining logistics supply routes, and
ply routes and support deliberate river cross-
providing countermobility and survivability
ings for forward passage of exploiting divisions
support at deep objectives and to protect flanks.
and separate brigades. They assist in rear-
ward passage of covering-force units as well as
support reserve forces, should they be committ-
CLOSE OPERATIONS
ted.
Close offensive operations are normally de-
scribed in terms of the main attack supporting Follow-and-Support Forces
attacks, and follow-and-support forces. Close
offensive operations must also consider impli- The corps engineer understands the corps
cations of contingency and deception plans. commander’s intent for the use of follow-and-
support forces during close offensive opera-
tions. He analyzes the engineer tasks inher-
Main Attack
ent in the possible missions assigned to the
The corps engineer’s main effort during close follow-and-support force and task-organizes
offensive operations is to provide dedicated en- engineer support accordingly. Corps engi-
gineer support to the main attack division with neer forces may provide the bulk of engineer
mobility assets. Corps engineers should re- support to follow-and-support forces, espe-
main focused on this effort until the mission cially to widen breaches or breach bypassed
and objectives are accomplished. obstacles. However, the corps engineer
avoids allocating corps engineer forces to fol-
Supporting Attack low-and-support missions at the undue ex-
pense of the corps main effort.
The corps engineer identifies the engineer re-
quirements of the supporting attack by consid-
ering how the supporting attack assists the Contingency Plans
main effort. He then identifies the critical en- Corps engineers are sensitive to the corps’s
gineer tasks necessary to render that assis- contingency plans, branches, and sequels.
tance. While the supporting attack is not nor- The corps engineer anticipates engineer re-
mally the main effort of engineer support, cer- quirements and plans for the improvement of
tain essential engineer missions may receive routes between divisions to facilitate lateral
priority resourcing. For example, the corps shifts in combat power. In addition, the corps
may task its supporting attack division to engineer develops plans for shifting critical
conduct a deliberate river crossing to fix an engineer assets between divisions as the main
enemy counterattack force in position before effort or mission changes.

Offensive Operations 5-21


FM 5-100-15

Deception Plans group designate, locate, establish and main-


The corps engineer participates in planning de- tain follow-on bridging assets in corps bridge
parks. As requirements are anticipated,
ception operations by identifying engineer re-
quirements needed to support the overall de- bridge stocks are pushed to forward bridge
ception plan. He also identifies the impact that parks. During offensive operations, the corps
committing engineer resources to the deception normally operates two airfields in the rear area
effort has on support to the corps main effort. until such time as joint or multinational serv-
For example, the corps may use a demonstra- ices start to operate in or out of these airfields.
tion by a division to cause the enemy com- Corps airfields and heliports are kept opera-
mander to position his reserve tank division tional by corps engineers expediently repairing
away from the friendly main effort. This decep- damage to facilities using landing mats and
tion picture may not be complete without a other surface and subgrade repair techniques.
show of engineer force, including corps aug- The ACE and the rear CP engineer, working
mentation to conduct breaches. The corps engi- with the corps G4, identify locations for the
neer determines the trade-offs necessary to ac- corps map depot. They also work with the G4
complish this demonstration versus supporting and corps chemical officer to provide construc-
the corps main attack. tion support in order to develop operational
decontamination and unit reconstitution sites
REAR OPERATIONS that provide responsive support to corps units.
In coordination with the corps RTOC, corps
Corps engineers support offensive rear opera- engineers assist in the development and sur-
tions by constructing, maintaining, and im- vivability of logistics bases and base cluster
proving fluid LOC necessary to sustain the defenses to protect sustainment units from
force. The corps engineer, with help from the threats in division and corps rear areas. This
ACE and corps rear CP engineers, assists the includes rear-area countermobility support in
corps deputy commander in developing and the areas of protective obstacles and on-order
controlling engineer units committed to rear scatterable mining. Mobility support to desig-
operations. The corps rear CP engineer, in co- nated TCFs is normally provided by corps en-
ordination with the corps TAC and main CP gineers operating in the rear area.
engineers, anticipates mission requirements
for Class IV obstacle supplies and Class V
demolitions and mines to be pushed forward to RECONNAISSANCE AND SECURITY
attacking divisions. The ACE may develop OPERATIONS
clearly defined EWLs between corps, forward Corps engineers assist in reconnaissance in
division, and theater engineers to support rear multiple roles. The corps engineer and ACE
operations. EWLs are delineated to maximize work closely with the corps staff to integrate
engineer support and battle command. Be- engineer information requirements into the to-
cause of this, they may or may not coincide tal corps intelligence-collection effort. The
with corps maneuver graphics, such as corps engineer assists the G2 cell in interpret-
boundaries and phase lines. When all avail- ing and analyzing this intelligence. He assists
able corps engineer forces must be committed the corps commander and his staff in analyzing
into the forward corps area, the ACE recom- the impact engineer intelligence has on current
mends movement of the corps rear boundary and future corps operations. Because engi-
forward. If the boundary is not moved, an neers are normally spread throughout the
EWL should be designated to allow theater or width and depth of the corps’s AO, they make
host-nation engineers to work forward of the maximum use of engineer channels to forward
corps rear boundary. The ACE, the rear CP engineer reconnaissance information and com-
engineer, and the supporting rear engineer bat intelligence to higher headquarters and to

5-22 Offensive Operations


FM 5-100-15

pass analyses to subordinates. Corps engineer data bases and products are disseminated to
battalions attached to cavalry regiments di- corps units.
rectly participate in corps reconnaissance op-
erations. Other forward corps reconnaissance RESERVE OPERATIONS
units are augmented with engineers to provide
The corps engineer understands all of the corps
needed breaching assets and other mobility en-
reserve forces’ be-prepared missions and ana-
hancements and to assist with obstacle recon- lyzes the engineer tasks involved. In the of-
naissance. Corps engineer bridge companies fense, engineers task-organized to support the
with diving capability conduct extensive river reserves are essential. The premise that engi-
reconnaissance when required. Engineer con- neers are never held in reserve must not delay
struction units continually assess the avail- the commitment of the corps reserve by
ability of local construction materials and changes in engineer task organization neces-
equipment. sary to accomplish its mission. Avoid the use of
on-order support missions for engineers sup-
The corps engineer assists in corps security porting corps reserve forces. Dedicated engi-
operations by identifying with the G2 likely neers are allocated to the reserve well in ad-
mobility corridors and avenues of approach vance of their commitment due to travel, reor-
that threaten the corps’s flanks and rear. He ganization, and rehearsal time effecting task-
analyzes the threat and makes recommenda- organization changes. Corps engineer units
tions on the use of situational obstacles to as- supporting these reserves focus primarily on
sist guard and screening forces in their secu- mobility operations. They can be used to guide
rity missions. Security forces that are aug- maneuver units through breached obstacles.
mented with corps engineer forces emplace si- Task-orgainized corps reserve force engineers
tuational obstacles along the flanks. Topo- can also work rear-area type missions in the
graphic engineers actively collect engineer re- area of the reserve force as long as they can
connaissance data for integration into the topo- quickly react to commitment of the reserve
graphic data base and ensure that updated force.

ENGINEER OFFENSIVE PLANNING


This section focuses on planning support for commander’s intent and concept of the opera-
offensive missions. The engineer estimate pro- tion. The basic engineer-estimate process is
vides the planning framework for the corps found in Appendix B.
engineer to integrate into the corps command-
estimate process. It provides a systematic pro- MISSION ANALYSIS
cedure for developing the engineer task organi-
The mission analysis phase occurs from the
zation and scheme of engineer operations to
receipt of the mission through the identifica-
support the corps in offensive operations. The
tion of required engineer tasks. It includes
corps engineer staff (the engineer brigade com-
analyses of terrain, enemy and friendly engi-
mander, the brigade staff, and the SES) con-
neer capabilities.
ducts offensive engineer planning using the en-
gineer-estimate process. Each staff element
plans offensive engineer operations simultane- Mission Receipt
ously sharing required information. The corps The engineer-estimate and offensive planning
engineer blends this planning process into an processes begin with the corps engineer receiv-
engineer support plan that meets the corps ing his mission. This mission is extracted from

Offensive Operations 5-23


FM 5-100-15

the TA, JTF, or other higher headquarters Friendly Engineer Capability


OPORD; the engineer annex; graphics; and the Working with the corps G3, the corps engineer
corps WARNORD. Based on the identified staff analyzes friendly engineer capabilities
mission the corps engineer staff participates based on the available engineer force to the
in the corps mission-analysis process by devel- corps, including organic division separate bri-
oping facts and assumptions. Working simul- gade, cavalry regiment, and theater engineers
taneously with the G2 and G3, the corps engi- working in the corps area. The staff accounts
neer staff conducts an EBA This EBA consists for all available and mission-capable engineer
of analyzing the terrain and assessing the en- assets that support the corps. Additionally the
emy and friendly engineer capabilities. staff accounts for corps mobility assets, includ-
ing specific breaching and bridging equipment,
Terrain Analysis and checks scatterable-mine availability.
Terrain analysis is conducted by the corps engi-
neer staff with the corps G2, corps terrain- Engineer Tasks
analysis teams, and the corps topographic com- The corps engineer staff continues the mission
pany using the observation and field of fire, analysis by conducting a complete review of the
cover and concealment, obstacles, key terrain, higher command OPLAN or OPORD, including
and avenues of approach (OCOKA) framework operational graphics. The staff focuses on iden-
The terrain analysis is then used to develop the tifying specified and implied tasks, additional
enemy situation template and corresponding engineer assets available in the task organiza-
scheme of maneuver. The corps topographic tion, the specified acceptable risk, and the time
company will produce a detailed, large-scale available to conduct the mission. Based on this
(1:5,000 to 1:10,000) image map annotated with analysis, the staff determines which engineer
known obstacle locations, enemy positions, and tasks are mission essential and provides this
key terrain features of the decisive terrain (ob- information to the G3 for inclusion in the re-
stacle belts and key objectives) for use in de- stated mission.
tailed planning. For the offense, the terrain
analysis focuses on identifying where an enemy
will defend, where the corps can move while COURSE-OF-ACTION DEVELOPMENT
conducting its offensive operation, and where Once mission-essential engineer tasks are
the corps is vulnerable to flank attack and en- identified, the corps engineer-staff analyzes the
emy counterattack. corps commander’s intent and each developed
COA for engineer implications. This includes
Enemy Engineer Capability weighting the engineer main effort, engineer
The corps engineer staff works with the G2 in C2 requirements, and engineer logistics re-
identifying the engineer capability of both the quirements for each COA. The COAs are then
war-gamed and recommended to the corps com-
enemy maneuver and engineer forces. Based
mander.
on the knowledge of how enemy engineers sup-
port defensive operations and the specific en-
emy engineer capability to support the defense, Corps Commander’s Intent
the staff plots enemy obstacle belts and the The corps commander issues his guidance and
estimated survivability status on the enemy intent following the development and approval
situation template. Based on the situation of the restated mission. Based on his guidance
template, the staff develops specific engineer and intent the corps engineer staff identifies
intelligence requirements and nominates NAIs the form of maneuver and the type of attack the
to incorporate in the corps reconnaissance and corps will employ. The engineer staff confirms
surveillance (R&S) plan. specified, implied, and essential engineer tasks

5-24 Offensive Operations


FM 5-100-15

and prepares to support COA development by their span-of-control capability. If a shortfall


the corps staff. exists, the staff analyzes all available C2 head-
quarters and upgrades the C2 structure. As a
Course-of-Action Analysis rule of thumb, an engineer C2 headquarters
can effectively control five to seven subordinate
Based on each corps’s proposed COA, the corps units. Engineer communications capability is
engineer staff looks two levels down to the ma- also identified, ensuring that corps engineer C2
neuver-brigade level and develops a scheme of headquarters can be adequately supported by
engineer operations, focusing on essential engi- the corps area signal network. If the engineer
neer tasks. The staff uses the corps com- C2 capability cannot be upgraded, this shortfall
mander’s intent, the terrain analysis, and the is identified during war gaming and COA com-
enemy situation template to identify the re- parison. Other C2 considerations include iden-
quired mobility tasks and engineer assets tification of future task-organization changes,
needed to perform them. Next, the staff looks changes in effort, and essential tasks.
at countermobility tasks, including those re-
quired to provide flank and rear security dur- Engineer Logistics Support
ing movement and those required to support
hasty defenses on the objective. The staff iden- The corps engineer staff analyzes logistics sup-
tifies assets required to accomplish those mis- port requirements for each COA. Especially
sions and conducts the same analyses for gen- critical is the identification of shortfalls in en-
eral engineering and survivability missions. gineer breaching and bridging equipment,
Class V demolition supplies (such as MICLIC),
Engineer Main Effort fuel supplies, maintenance, and transportation
capability. Critical engineer personnel short-
Having identified the tasks and assets re- ages are also identified. If shortfalls exist, the
quired for a COA, the corps engineer and his staff verifies them and requests additional lo-
staff establish where the engineer main effort gistics capability from the higher headquarters
must be. The staff reviews the engineer and command through the G3. If additional logis-
maneuver assets available, allocates engineer tics capability is not available, the corps engi-
assets and recommends the allocation of ma- neer focuses logistics support on main effort
neuver assets, and identifies any shortfalls. If tasks and reallocates other logistics capability
shortfalls exist, the staff confirms them by to compensate for the shortfall. Any risk asso-
verifying available assets and requesting addi- ciated with the shortfall of engineer logistics
tional assets, including host-nation assets, support is identified and addressed during war
from the higher headquarters command gaming and COA comparison.
through the G3. If additional assets are not
available, the corps engineer focuses on main ORDERS DEVELOPMENT
effort tasks and reallocates assets to compen-
sate for the shortfall. Any risk associated with Once COAs have been war-gamed, compared,
the shortfall of engineer assets is identified and recommended to the corps commander, he
and addressed during war gaming and COA decides how the offensive mission will be con-
comparison. ducted and gives his intent and concept of the
operation. Based on this, the corps engineer
Engineer Command and Control staff refines the corps engineers’ missions and
develops a scheme of engineer operations that
Following the allocation of engineer assets, the integrates engineers into the total corps
corps engineer staff focuses on engineer C2. scheme of maneuver. This scheme is included
The staff ensures assets assigned to each sub- in the execution paragraph of the corps basic
ordinate engineer headquarters do not exceed OPLAN or OPORD by the SES. To accomplish

Offensive Operations 5-25


FM 5-100-15

these tasks, the SES finalizes the engineer task neer annex to the OPLAN or OPORD. The SES
organization and command or support relation- then briefs the corps engineer’s plan to the
ships, assigns engineer tasks to the corps’s sub- corps’ subordinate maneuver commanders
ordinate units (divisions, separate brigades, ing the corps orders brief. Simultaneously the
and the cavalry regiment) in subunit para- corps engineer brigade staff develops the engi-
graphs and the coordinating instructions, pro- neer OPLAN or OPORD in coordination with
vides engineer-specific input into the service the SES. It ensures complete dissemination to
and support paragraph and develops the engi- all engineer units working for the corps.

PREPARING FOR ATTACKS


During offensive operations, corps engineer Ž Corps engineers operating in rear areas
commanders maximize time available for plan- constructing mock-up complex obstacle
ning and issuing orders. Attack orders embody systems and other terrain features that
the commander’s intent and concept of opera- may be encountered, allowing inte-
tion. During the offense, synchronization of grated, combined arms, in-stride
engineer support to the combined arms team is breaching rehearsals.
especially critical. The corps engineer brigade
staff produces an engineer DST and a synchro- Ž Engineer participation with attack
nization matrix that fully supports corps offen- route reconnaissance forces ensuring
sive plans. Both are updated and modified as that follow-on engineer forces are task-
the attack progresses. The engineer DST and organized to meet the mobility require-
the synchronization matrix could highlight en- ments needed to keep the maneuver
gineer support activities such as the following force moving.

Ž Integrated engineer participation in all Ž Pre-positioning bridge stocks and obsta-


combined arms planning, back briefs, cle-breaching material forward to assist
and rehearsals prior to the attack. in forward movements.

Ž Corps topographic engineer units pro- Ž Constructing forward logistics bases


viding detailed terrain products of at- prior to attacks, allowing uninterrupted
tack routes that assist corps planners in logistics support during the attack.
the IPB process. These products, espe-
cially the MCOO, can help identify ob- Ž The loading and carrying of mines and
stacle and bypass locations. other obstacle-emplacement material,
ensuring protection against flank and
Ž Forward staging of corps engineer bat- objective counterattacks.
talions in forward attack positions with
other field artillery (FA), ADA, and lo- Ž Situational obstacle decision points con-
gistics units to allow the corps to strike cerning the emplacement of deep scat-
quickly and deeply. terable mines, such as the Gator, along
with flank and rear corps-directed ob-
stacles.

5-26 Offensive Operations


FM 5-100-15

CONDUCTING ATTACKS
The corps engineer and his staff closely moni- engineer actions within the scope of the corps
tor the preparation and execution of the offen- offensive plan. Continuous communications
sive mission refining the plan as necessary between the corps staff, the corps SES, the
based on the situation. The staff reviews sub- corps engineer brigade, and subordinate engi-
ordinate engineer unit OPLANs and OPORDs, neer headquarters is vital to influencing engi-
along with the engineer annexes and engineer neer support to corps attacks. The goal is in
portions of maneuver unit OPLANs and avoid major engineer task-organization
OPORDS, for compliance with the corps com- changes and shifts in engineer priorities dur-
mander’s intent. The staff maintains continu- ing the attack through effective offensive plan-
ous liaison with other command and staff or- ning.
ganizations to ensure the synchronization of

Offensive Operations 5-27


FM 5-100-15

CHAPTER 6
DEFENSIVE OPERATIONS
During the next twenty-four hours I Corps slowly withdrew closer to Seoul. At
noon on April 28 (1951) it began occupying Line Lincoln (or Golden). After
weeks of engineering work, the line was very strong. It was comprised of a
series of deep, interconnected trenches and sandbagged bunkers bristling with
machine guns, 57- and 75-mm recoilless rifles, and flamethrowers. It was
protected on the north side by half a dozen lines of coiled barbed wire. Beyond
and inside the barbed wire were dense fields of antipersonnel mines, booby
traps, and “thousands” of gasoline drums (fougasses) filled with napalm and
white phosphorus to be exploded by trip wire or remotely activated thermite
grenades...

That night--April 28--the enemy made two attempts to crack Line Lincoln (or
Golden). The first was mounted by the NKPA 8th Division against the ROK
1st Division sector Supported by Patton tanks of Hannum’s B Company, 73d
Tank Battalion, the ROKs yielded a hill, but then counterattacked, killing 1,241
NKPA troops. The second was a CCF attack at Gerry Kelleher’s 35th Infantry
sector After Kelleher’s men had decisively repulsed the attack, he reported they
had inflicted “an estimated 1,000 dead and wounded” casualties on the CCF.

From the book, The Forgotten War, America in Korea 1950-1953, by Clay Blair.

PURPOSE OF THE DEFENSE


The corps conducts defensive operations to de- forces in order to erode their capabilities. Dur-
feat enemy attacks and regain the initiative. ing force-projection operations, the corps may
While military operations focus on maintain- have to defend the lodgment area until suffi-
ing the initiative through offensive action, the cient friendly forces have been deployed to as-
defense is an inherent part of any offensive sume the offense. Counterattacks and spoiling
action. The defense is only a temporary state; attacks are incorporated into the overall defen-
its purpose is to facilitate an offensive action. sive plan. The plan should be flexible enough
The corps may have to defend when it is not in terms of its concept and task organization to
able to attack. The defense cannot be purely permit rapid changes. The corps fights a dy-
passive; the corps must seize or create opportu- namic defense by continually attacking
nities to attack the enemy throughout its AO. throughout the battle.
The corps may need in gain time to build com-
bat power or to hold key terrain to facilitate Corps engineers play a vital role in giving the
other operations. It may have to defend for the corps a decisive edge while conducting the de-
sole purpose of engaging and defeating enemy fense. Engineers understand the charac-

Defensive Operations 6-1


FM 5-100-15

teristics of defensive operations and how they process remains as a base planning tool for
are applied. They also appreciate how engineer integrating into corps defensive plans. While
forces and missions integrate into the corps’s the process remains the same, each step is tai-
defensive framework The engineer-estimate lored to the needs for defensive planning.

CHARACTERISTICS OF DEFENSIVE OPERATIONS


The corps defense serves to defeat the attack- ate the information and intent needed to fos-
ing enemy and regain the initiative. It is an ter early defensive planning at all levels.
active, not passive, operation. It is charac- Corps-level engineer planning provides a cen-
terized by flexibility and violence, attacking tralized focus for the defense while allowing
the enemy throughout the depth of his forma- decentralized execution. The corps engineer
tions. Corps defensive operations include five staff uses the scheme of engineer operations,
distinct characteristics: preparation, security obstacle-emplacement capability and control,
disruption mass and concentration of forces, survivability guidance, and counterattack mo-
and flexibility. bility requirements to focus the corps’s subor-
dinate unit engineer efforts. The corps engi-
PREPARATION neer considers the full range of engineer re-
quirements for the total defensive framework
Defensive operations have a distinct prepara-
deep, security close (MBA), rear, and reserve
tion phase that is vital to the corps’s success. operations. Each element is considered during
The defender arrives on the battlefield first
the engineer mission analysis and accounted
and, as time allows, is afforded the opportunity for in the corps scheme of engineer operations.
to choose his ground in order to capitalize on The corps engineer resources subordinates
the advantage of fighting from selected and through task organization and the prioritiza-
prepared positions, and to set the conditions tion of Class IV obstacle materials and Class
for the battle. The corps prepares for the de-
V mines and demolitions. This allows subor-
fense by positioning forces, making use of and dinates to anticipate limitations on their ca-
improving terrain, developing and war-gaming
pabilities, to prioritize support, and to iden-
plans, organizing the force for movement and
tify engineer asset shortfalls. Topographic
support rehearsing, and conducting surveil- engineers help prepare for defensive opera-
lance and reconnaissance forward of the de-
tions with detailed terrain-analysis products.
fended area. During the course of the battle, Combat engineers perform engineer recon-
the corps looks for opportunities to wrest the naissance and intelligence collection support
initiative from the attacker. The corps com-
the siting and preparation of fortifications
mander prepares for this by identifying coun-
and obstacles that exploit the defender’s ad-
terattack forces and rehearsing counterattack vantages, and rehearse breaching drills with
plans for eventual transition to the offense.
counterattack forces. Wheeled combat engi-
neer battalions, combat heavy engineer bat-
Corps engineer functions and forces area criti- talions, and CSE companies provide general
cal component in setting the conditions for engineering support by constructing, upgrad-
combat and giving the corps an edge against an ing, and maintaining MSRs and logistics
attacker. Corps engineers play a major role in bases throughout the corps’s defensive AO.
defensive preparations, depending largely on
their ability to conduct integrated planning
SECURITY
with the corps staff and parallel planning with
the corps engineer brigade staff. The corps engi- Defending forces provide security to conserve
neer staff uses engineer channels to dissemi- combat power for use elsewhere. The purpose

6-2 Defensive Operations


FM 5-100-15

of security in the defense is to coordinate and never allowed to get set. He is hit with spoiling
synchronize the defense, to provide early warn- attacks before he can focus his combat power,
ing, and to begin disrupting the integrity of the and he is counterattacked before he can consoli-
enemy attack early and continuously. The date any gains.
corps provides defensive security through force-
protection measures, deception, and physical Corps engineers aid in the disruption of the
means in the defensive area. The corps nor- enemy attack throughout the depth of the bat-
mally provides a security area with a desig- tlefield. The corps engineer and his staff work
nated covering force. closely with the corps staff to ensure that engi-
neer functions are integrated into deep opera-
Corps engineers assist in the defense’s security tions. For example, the corps engineer staff
in several areas. Corps engineer battalions at- nominates deep targets that directly attack the
tached to covering-force units emplace situ- enemy’s engineer capability to conduct mobil-
ational obstacles in the face of the enemy and ity operations such as bridging and breaching
conduct timely terrain and enemy reconnais- assets. Based on terrain analysis and engineer
sances. Corps engineers operating in the MBA intelligence, the staff also nominates deep tar-
emplace tactical obstacles that fix turn, dis- gets for destruction or denial and designs ob-
rupt or block enemy formations. They also stacle systems that fix or disrupt enemy forma-
provide force protection during survivability tions. The staff ensures that engineer aspects
operations for corps C2, artillery, air defense, of deep and MBA operations are mutually sup-
and logistics facilities. Corps engineers sup- portive. Corps engineers provide the security
port deception operations as required. force with the countermobility means needed
to disrupt the enemy’s attack early and the
DISRUPTION mobility means needed to fight a fluid battle.
Corps defensive forces disrupt the enemy at- Obstacles are used in disruptive deception ef-
tack throughout the depth of his formations forts in the MBA. This causes the enemy to
by— commit combat power prematurely or against
a strength perceived as a weakness. Corps en-
Ž Destroying forces. gineer forces provide the mobility required of
corps counterattacking forces that will com-
• Spoiling the timing or synchronization plete the defeat of the enemy force and regain
of his attack. the initiative. Corps engineer units also pro-
vide survivability support to defending forces.
Ž Denying his freedom to maneuver. This support allows the massing of effects of
lethal firepower to disrupt an attack.
• Misleading enemy reconnaissance.
MASS AND CONCENTRATION
Ž Breaking up formations. The corps commander will concentrate his
forces swiftly and mass the effects of over-
• Interrupting fire support, logistics sup- whelming combat power where he chooses. He
port, and C2. shifts that mass repeatedly with his point of
main effort during the period of the enemy
Ž Seizing the initiative. attack. The corps concentrates forces to exploit
or create an enemy weakness. The corps com-
The corps defense includes a focused attempt to mander may be willing to economize and ac-
disrupt the enemy effort through deep, security, cept risk in some areas to create the effects
and deception operations. The attacker is required. Economy-of-force operations or de-

Defensive Operations 6-3


FM 5-100-15

ception maybe major factors in the corps’s de- the enemy’s blows, seize the initiative from the
fensive plan. The corps retains and, when nec- enemy force, and set the conditions for regain-
essary, reconstitutes a reserve. ing the initiative. Agility requires the corps
staff to read the battle, plan branches and se-
Corps engineers support the massing of forces quels, organize the battlefield in depth, retain
and the concentration of effects through mobil- reserves, plan counterattacks, and have the
ity. This allows rapid movement of forces and ability to shift the main effort.
survivability to maximize protection of both
fighting and support systems. Engineers sup- Corps engineers support the corps’s flexibility
port corps deception operations through a vari- and agility with all available units. Corps
ety of tactical engineering missions or by pro- topographic engineers contribute to the corps
viding forces. Corps engineers contribute sig- commander’s ability to see and read the battle
nificantly to economy-of-force operations by by providing timely terrain analysis and spe-
emplacing dense obstacle zones, enhancing cial topographic products. Corps combat engi-
survivability of massed firepower and C2, and neers provide tactical mobility to counterat-
constructing strong points. Engineers also pro- tack and reserve forces. Corps construction en-
vide mobility for the rapid movement of corps gineer forces provide general engineering that
counterattack forces and reserves to allow the allows the corps commander to react quickly by
corps to take offensive action and exploit a bro- building and maintaining routes that allow
ken enemy attack. rapid shifts of combat and support forces.
They also establish forward logistics bases.
FLEXIBILITY Engineer success is directly dependent on the
Corps defensive plans are flexible to allow agile ability of all engineer staffs within the corps to
execution. Corps defensive operations counter anticipate requirements and take actions to
provide timely engineer support to the corps.

DEFENSIVE PATTERNS

Corps defensive operations generally take one to strike and destroy enemy forces. The bal-
of two patterns: a mobile defense or an area ance among these elements depends on METT-
defense. The fundamental difference between T but generally involves a combination of both.
these patterns is their focus-and-defeat mecha- Regardless of the pattern selected, success de-
nism. The scheme of engineer operations to pends on the employment of both static and
support corps defensive operations is tailored dynamic elements to defeat an attacking en-
to the type of defense and its focus-and-defeat emy.
mechanism. Mobile defenses focus on the de-
struction of the attacking force by permitting MOBILE DEFENSE
the enemy to advance into a position that ex- The focus of the corps’s mobile defense is the
poses him to counterattack by a mobile reserve destruction of the enemy attacker. The mobile
force. Area defenses focus on the retention of defense is organized to permit the enemy to
terrain by absorbing the enemy in an interlock- advance into a position that exposes him to
ing series of positions and destroying him counterattack and envelopment by a mobile
largely by fires. Both forms of the defense em- striking force. Therefore, the mobile defense
ploy static and dynamic elements. Defending trades space for time to achieve a decisive ad-
corps commanders combine both patterns, us- vantage against the enemy. The defeat mecha-
ing static elements to delay, canalize, and ulti- nism is a large, mobile striking force that has
mately halt the attacker and using dynamic combat power and mobility greater than the
elements (spoiling attacks and counterattacks) targeted enemy force. Corps defenders place

6-4 Defensive Operations


FM 5-100-15

minimum forces forward, forming powerful relationships allows maneuver commanders


forces with which to strike the enemy at his the flexibility necessary to execute a mobile
most vulnerable time and place. defense. The maneuver force reserve normally
has a dedicated engineer force assigned to it in
Corps engineer forces support the mobile de- a command relationship to ensure synchro-
fense with mobility assets, decentralized engi- nized and responsive support. While engineer
neer command relationships, and dedicated en- forces are not held in reserve, engineer support
gineer forces committed to the maneuver mo- to the mobile striking force is a critical mission.
bile striking force. The mobility of the defend- The successful mobile defense depends on the
ing force is key to the success of a mobile de- synchronized integration of maneuver, fires,
fense. Engineers provide rapid breaching and and obstacles to seize the initiative from the
mobility assistance through all encountered ob- attacker within the defended area. Figure 6-1
stacles. A decentralized engineer force distrib- shows an example of the framework of a corps
uted among maneuver elements in command mobile defense.

Figure 6-1. Mobile-defense framework

Defensive Operations 6-5


FM 5-100-15

Countermobility support to the mobile defense port to corps logistics agencies focuses on con-
concentrates on using obstacles to attack the strutting and maintaining numerous MSRs
enemy’s ability to maneuver and preserves the and logistics bases that shift continuously dur-
mobility of the friendly force. Obstacle plan- ing the mobile defensive fight.
ning during the mobile defense is closely linked
to the enemy’s most probable maneuver course AREA DEFENSE
of action rather than terrain. Corps terrain
The corps commander conducts an area de-
analysis and topographic products assist the
fense to deny the enemy access to terrain or
obstacle planning effort by identifying likely
facilities for a specified time. The corps may
obstacle-emplacement areas used for attacking
conduct an area defense as part of a larger
the enemy’s maneuver in a way that supports
theater mobile defense. The bulk of defending
his destruction by friendly counterattack.
forces deploys to retain ground, using a defeat
Corps obstacle planning during the mobile de-
mechanism that is a combination of defensive
fense is usually more restrictive than permis-
positions with interlocking fires and a small
sive and reduces the flexibility of the divisions. mobile reserve to defeat local penetrations.
Directed corps obstacle zones, reserve demoli-
The area defense is organized to absorb the
tion obstacles, and ORAs will be the norm.
enemy into an interlocked series of positions
This serves to mass division obstacle effort at
from which he can be destroyed. A security
critical areas and to preserve the mobility of
area or covering force is also part of an area
the corps counterattack force into the MBA.
defense, METT-T drives the tasks to be done
Survivability effort trades space for time to
and determines priority. The maximum use of
create an enemy weakness to exploit by coun-
obstacles, flame weapons, engagement areas,
terattack. To create the conditions for a coun-
and control and distribution of frees is key to
terattack, the divisions fight the depth of their
successful area defense. The area defense does
sectors. Corps engineers provide survivability
not promise outright destruction of the at-
support to the divisions primarily by construct-
tacker; and it may require other simultaneous
ing alternate and supplementary fighting posi-
or subsequent operations to achieve a decisive
tions in depth. The nature of the mobile de-
defeat of the enemy. Figure 6-2 shows an ex-
fense fight reduces the need for protective ob-
ample of the framework of a corps area de-
stacles throughout the defense. Protective ob-
fense.
stacle effort is concentrated in the final sub-
sequent positions where the penetration must Corps engineer forces support the area defense
be blunted to allow counterattack to support based on detailed corps plans and synchroniza-
the mobility of the mobile striking force. The tion of all operational and tactical warfare
staff first delineates obstacle control measures components. Timely corps topographic and
to ensure division obstacle efforts do not limit terrain-analysis products assist in the identifi-
the mobile striking force’s freedom to maneu- cation of key and decisive terrain. They also
ver. Then, they ensure that the mobile striking play a major role in organizing an area defense
force has the necessary dedicated engineer and become the focus of obstacle emplacement
support to maintain its mobility during the and survivability effort. Preparation of the
counterattack. It must be able to reduce en- area defense is important and engineer effort
emy or friendly obstacles found in its path. is extensive, particularly in that area desig-
The counterattack cannot be stalled by lack of nated as the corps’s main effort. Retaining
mobility. The corps engineer staff weighs the centralized control of corps engineer units and
trade-offs between dedicating corps engineer their resources is the most efficient method of
forces to the mobile striking force or the obsta- preparing the area defense, so engineers are
cle emplacement and survivability require- generally employed under their own command-
ments in the MBA. General engineering sup- ers in a support relationship to maneuver com-

6-6 Defensive Operations


FM 5-100-15

Figure 6-2. Area defense framework

manders. Corps obstacle planning uses mini- tions. The corps engineer staff is sensitive to
mum obstacle control measures to give maxi- the division’s increased fortification needs in a
mum flexibility to the divisions while still fo- corps area defense. The increased require-
cusing tactical obstacle effort around the reten- ment for survivability also entails heavier em-
tion of terrain. Engineer units in support of ployment of protective obstacles to break the
corps security forces assist in the disruption of attacker’s assault. This increased need for di-
attacking formations by emplacing planned vision primary alternate, and supplementary
and situational obstacles in the covering-force fighting positions and protective obstacles re-
area. Other corps engineer forces help shape quires more corps engineers to support the di-
the battlefield to maximize the effects of visions. Once the battle is joined, a minimal
friendly fires and enhance the survivability of number of corps engineers remain with com-
friendly forces throughout the depth of the mitted forces in a command relationship. This
corps area. Survivability effort enables divi- allows for rapid repair of obstacles and fighting
sions to concentrate firepower from freed posi- positions and provides mobility support for lo-

Defensive Operations 6-7


FM 5-100-15

cal counterattacks. The bulk of the corps engi- structing, maintaining, and protecting critical
neer force withdraws to continue to work on MSRs and logistics bases that are normally
defenses in depth. General engineering sup- limited in number due to terrain constraints
port to corps logistics agencies focuses on con- during the area defensive fight.

OPERATIONS IN DEPTH
In the defense, the corps seeks to maximize its deep targeting (including corps-directed obsta-
firepower, mobility and shock effect to defeat cle zones using air- and artillery-delivered scat-
the enemy’s attack and transition early to the terable mines and bridge destruction) along
offense. Regardless of whether the mission major enemy avenues of approach. Emplaced
calls for a mobile or area defense, the corps uses deep obstacles are covered by aircraft or artil-
the following six elements of the defensive lery fire for full effectiveness. The corps engi-
framework to plan the synchronization of its neer staff, along with the G3, G2, and other
simultaneous deep, close, and rear operations corps staff officers, identifies obstacle zone in-
as one battle: tent (normally fix or disrupt), obstacle loca-
tions, covering-fire support and timing in rela-
Ž Deep operations in the area well beyond tion to execution criteria and decision points.
the forward line of own troops (FLOT).
SECURITY OPERATIONS
• Security-force operations forward and to
The corps engineer anticipates the very decen-
the flanks of the defending forces.
tralized execution of the screen cover, or guard
Ž Defensive operations in an MBA. mission by allowing maximum flexibility to em-
ploy tactical obstacles by the cavalry regiment
• Reserve operations in support of the through the use of corps-directed obstacle zones
main defensive effort. across the corps front or along a flank (see
Figure 6-3 and Figure 6-4, page 6-10). The
Ž Rear operations to retain freedom of ac- obstacle zone rear limit is normally a battle
tion in the rear area. handover line (BHL). The security-force engi-
neer has obstacle responsibility forward of the
Ž Deception operations to reinforce the en- BHL. The MBA engineer has obstacle employ-
emy’s perception of his success and to ment responsibility up the BHL. The MBA en-
delude him as to the true location and gineer is precluded from employing obstacles
intended use of the corps’s reserve forward of the BHL. The corps engineer en-
forces. sures effective coordination between the secu-
rity force and MBA engineers which supports
battle handoff and passage of the security force.
DEEP OPERATIONS The corps engineer considers scatterable mines
Corps engineer operations in support of the to assist the cavalry regiment’s disengagement.
deep defensive fight emphasize topographic The regiment can be reinforced with modular
support and countermobility. The corps topo- pack mine systems (MOPMS), the air or ground
graphic company supports the corps IPB proc- Volcano, and artillery-delivered mines through
ess with terrain analyses and special products. coordination with the corps fire-support coordi-
This support is used to plan deep fires and deep nation officer (FSCOORD). Mobility and hasty
obstacles in and beyond the corps covering- survivability are critical to the cavalry regi-
force area. The corps engineer and his staff at ment. Assault bridging augmentation may be
the corps main CP provide nominations for required from the corps. Marking lanes

6-8 Defensive Operations


FM 5-100-15

Figure 6-3. Security operations maneuver Iaydown

through obstacles and identifying fords and due to limited organic digging and obstacle-em-
combat trails for egress routes are other needed placement capability. Corps engineer units
mobility tasks. The cavalry regiment also re- working in the MBA will normally be in a sup
quires numerous hull-defilade positions in port relationship in order to maximize flexibil-
depth in the covering-force area. Normally, ity to the corps. In the end, however, METT-T
corps engineers providing support to security will determine the engineer organization for
forces will be placed in a command relationship combat.
to maximize responsiveness, such as attaching
corps engineers to the cavalry regiment. Corps topographic engineering provides
needed terrain products to support the IPB
MAIN-BATTLE-AREA OPERATIONS process and to identify engagement areas.
Specific terrain-analysis products assist in the
Corps engineer support to the MBA is extensive
designation of corps-directed obstacle zones,
and involves the engineer functions of topo-
reserve demolition targets, and ORAs. Accu-
graphic engineering, countermobility, mobility
rate topographic surveying ensures that the
and survivability support throughout the de-
corps fire-support systems are operating on a
fensive structure (see Figures 6-5 and 6-6,
common grid during the defense.
pages 6-11 and 6-12). Division engineer units
normally require significant augmentation Countermobility support is usually the primary
from corps engineer forces during the defense, focus of engineer support to the MBA. The

Defensive Operations 6-9


FM 5-100-15

Figure 6-4. Security operations engineer laydown

primary intent of countermobility operations is ments and their support units. Obsta-
to attack the enemy’s ability to execute his plan cles are also used to disrupt assault for-
by disrupting his combat formations, interfer- mations, attacking the low-level C2
ing with his C2, and creating confusion among while the attacker is under direct fire.
his commanders that can be exploited by
friendly forces. Corps engineer forces contrib- • Turn. Turning obstacles move and ma-
ute to division countermobility by assisting the nipulate the enemy to the force’s advan-
employment of tactical obstacles that are em- tage by enticing or forcing him to move
ployed to reduce the enemy's ability to maneu- in a desired direction by splitting his
ver, mass, and reinforce and to increase his formation, by canalizing him, or by ex-
vulnerability to fires. Obstacle intent should posing his flank.
be given for corps-directed obstacle zones. Re-
serve corps demolition obstacles should also be Ž Fix. Fixing obstacles are used to slow
given an obstacle intent They are designed to and hold the enemy in a specific area so
produce one of four primary obstacle functions: that he can be destroyed with fires or to
generate the time necessary for the force
Ž Disrupt. These obstacles disrupt march to break contact and disengage.
formations, break up operational tim-
ing, exhaust breaching assets, and cause • Block Obstacles never serve to block an
separation between forward combat ele- enemy force by themselves. Blocking

6-10 Defensive Operations


FM 5-100-15

Figure 6-5. Main battle area maneuver Iaydown

obstacles are complex, employed in lition obstacles that may require an engineer
depth, and integrated with fires and demolition party to ensure destruction. Divi-
flame weapons to prevent the enemy sions usually designate obstacle zones and ob-
from proceeding along a certain avenue tain approval from the corps. The corps may
of approach (or to proceed only at unac- designate specific obstacle zones when neces-
ceptable costs). Blocking obstacles sary to develop the defense in a particular loca-
serve as a limit beyond which the enemy tion such as to structure a salient or to allow a
will not be allowed to go. mobility corridor for corps-controlled counter-
attacks. In support of the latter, the corps most
FM 90-7 describes obstacle emplacement and often directs ORAs to facilitate future corps-
control in greater detail. Obstacle planning level maneuver. ORAs impose whatever re-
develops a coordinated, synchronized obstacle strictions the commander believes necessary.
system that supports the corps commander’s These restrictions are usually limits on the
mission and intent. The corps commander types of obstacles or the duration or approval
places the fewest possible restrictions on sub- authority for scatterable mines employed by
ordinate unit freedom to employ tactical obsta- subordinate units. While the corps com-
cles. However, he may elect to direct tactical mander limits the number of restrictions
obstacle emplacement which is critical to the placed on subordinate units, he closely moni-
corps’s defensive plan, including reserve demo- tors the planning and emplacement of division

Defensive Operations 6-11


FM 5-100-15

Figure 6-6. Main battle area engineer laydown

obstacle zones and brigade obstacle belts (two Survivability of corps forces is critical to the
levels down). success of close operations in the MBA METT-
T will determine the level of survivability re-
Mobility requirements are preplanned in the quired with all operational and tactical war-
defense. Corps engineers anticipate the corps fare components. The corps engineer and his
commander’s mobility requirements, with par- staff are particularly concerned with protect-
ticular emphasis on counterattack routes and ing corps artillery, air defense, and critical C2
axes. Synchronization of these routes is par- and logistics facilities in the MBA This may
ticularly difficult when the counterattack is include the preparation of multiple positions in
force oriented and the actual route and objec- depth.
tive is not precisely known in advance. Mobil-
ity operations in support of the corps defense
RESERVE OPERATIONS
are conducted to shift the main defensive ef-
fort, to conduct withdrawals, or to conduct a Corps engineer support to the corps reserve
relief in place. Corps reserve forces normally force is identified early during the defensive
require augmentation with corps engineer planning process (see Figure 6-7). The reserve
forces and mobility assets, usually in a com- force normally receives additional engineer as-
mand relationship. sets to primarily assist in its mobility to get to

6-12 Defensive Operations


FM 5-100-15

Figure 6-7. Reserve-operations framework

the point of commitment. These corps engi- taining mobility along corps LOC (see Figures
neer units are normally placed in a command 6-8 and 6-9, pages 6-14 and 6-15). Mobility and
-
relationship to the reserve force to allow imme- survivability support to corps rear-area base
diate responsiveness when committed. These clusters is normally limited to C2 nodes, key
engineer forces are not considered in reserve logistics facilities, EW nodes, ADA sites, and
but are fully engaged in synchronizing their corps aviation units and facilities. Engineer
support to the reserve force through timely support to survivability includes the digging in
stall’ integration and combined arms rehears- of high-value systems and supplies, the con-
als. The corps engineer force remains with the struction of field fortifications, assistance in
reserve force when it becomes the corps main camouflage, the digging of sumps for thorough
effort, avoiding confusing task-organization decontamination operations, and assistance to
changes during the heat of battle. deception operations. The keys to successful
employment of general engineering in the corps
REAR OPERATIONS rear area are prioritization for engineer effort
by the corps commander (in conjunction with
Corps engineer support to rear operations fo- his G3/G4), anticipation of requirements
cuses on survivability and general engineering through all phases of the battle, and task or-
for units in the corps rear area and on main- ganization of engineer forces in the corps rear

Defensive Operations 6-13


FM 5-100-15

Figure 6-8. Rear-operations engineer laydown

area that clearly define command or support cal engineer support could jeopardize other
relationships. Defensive operations lend them- corps missions.
selves particularly well to general-engineering
support provided on an area basis. When this DECEPTION OPERATIONS
method is employed, corps engineer groups
may be used to direct general-engineering ef- Observed engineer activity, since it is a scarce
fort in the corps rear area. Limited countermo- battlefield asset, is effective in painting a false
bility support may be provided by emplacing picture. Dummy obstacles, phony minefield,
protective obstacles that protect key C2 and shallow ditches, and weapon positions can all
logistics facilities as well as corps flanks. A be used to deceive and aid force survivability.
Most deception operations will be guarded in-
serious threat to the corps rear area may re-
formation with only selected corps personnel
quire the establishment of a TCF using corps
knowing the full scale of the deception opera-
engineer units when properly trained and aug-
tion. In order to ensure OPSEC as it relates to
mented with free-support, logistics, medical,
the deception plan, corps engineer units sup
transportation, and C2 assets. The use of engi-
porting deception should be given mission-type
neers as a TCF must be carefully evaluated by
orders that do not reveal their direct participa-
the corps commander as the reduction of criti- tion in a deception operation.

6-14 Defensive Operations


FM 5-100-15

Figure 6-9. Rear-operations base-cluster engineer Iaydown

ENGINEER DEFENSIVE PLANNING


The engineer-estimate process provides the the engineer annex; graphics; and the corps
planning framework for the corps engineer to WARNORD. Based on the identified mission
integrate into the corps command-estimate the corps engineer staff (the engineer brigade
process (see Figure 6-10, page 6-16). It pro- commander, the brigade staff, and the SES)
vides a systematic procedure for developing the participates in the corps mission analysis proc-
engineer task organization and scheme of engi- ess by developing facts and assumptions.
neer operations to support the corps in defen- Working simultaneously with the G2 and G3,
sive operations. The basic engineer-estimate the corps engineer staff conducts an EBA. The
process is found in Appendix B. EBA consists of analyzing the terrain and as-
sessing the enemy and friendly engineer capa-
MISSION RECEIPT bilities. A thorough, in-depth understanding of
The engineer-estimate and defensive-planning the commander’s intent leads to a corps defen-
process begin with the corps engineer receiving sive obstacle plan that not only attacks the
his mission. This mission is extracted from the enemy where desired, but also assists counter-
TA JTF, or other higher headquarters OPORD, attacks and facilitates future operations.

Defensive Operations 6-15


FM 5-100-15

Mission
Corps’s mission and theater/JTF commander’s intent
Corps’s allocation and plan for Class lV/V supplies
Corps’s obstacle restrictions
Theater/JTF requirements for future mobility impacting on corps

IPB and EBA

Terrain:
• No-go terrain and obstacle effort
• Key or decisive terrain to focus countermobility effort

Enemy engineer capability and missions:


• Enemy mobility capability at regimental through corps
• Enemy corps and division countermobility capability for flank protection and
transition to hasty defense

Friendly engineer capability:


• Countermobility capability by battalion
• Survivability by battalion
Ž Capability of theater engineer units
• Haul assets or support

Engineer Mission Analysis

Specified tasks - corps-directed obstacles


Implied tasks - mobility requirements for a passage of lines
Assets available - host-nation support
Time analysis - repositioning of the CATK force
Limitations - defeat mechanism
Risk - engineer’s participation in deception
Essential tasks - engineer functions tied to defeat mechanism

Scheme of Engineer Operations

Engineer task organization and resource allocation supports corps’s main effort
Obstacle control tied to maneuver-control graphics and force allocation

Figure 6-10. Engineer estimate in the defense

6-16 Defensive Operations


FM 5-100-15

TERRAIN ANALYSIS ENGINEER TASKS


Terrain analysis is conducted by the corps engi- The corps engineer stff continues the mission
neer staff with the corps G2, corps terrain- analysis by conducting complete review of the
analysis teams, and the corps topographic com- higher command OPLAN or OPORD, including
pany using the OCOKA framework. The ter- operational graphics. The staff focuses on iden-
rain analysis is then used to develop the enemy tifying specified and implied tasks, additional
situation template, corresponding scheme of engineer assets available in the task organiza-
maneuver, and corps obstacle plan. For the tion, the specified acceptable risk and the time
defense, the terrain analysis focuses on where available to conduct the missions. Based on
the enemy will attack and where the corps can this analysis, the staff determines what engi-
defend and move to conduct counterattacks. neer tasks are essential to the mission and
provides this information to the G3 for inclu-
ENEMY ENGINEER CAPABILITY sion in the restated mission.
The corps engineer staff works with the G2 in
identifying the engineer capability of both the
CORPS COMMANDER’S INTENT
enemy maneuver and engineer forces. Based
on the knowledge of how enemy engineers sup The corps commander issues his guidance and
port offensive operations and the specific en- intent following the development and approval
emy engineer capability to support the offense, of the restated mission. Based on his guidance
the staff plots locations of enemy obstacle and intent the corps engineer staff identifies
breaching and bridging assets, along with deep the pattern of defense and the defensive frame-
obstacle-emplacement capability on the enemy work the corps will employ. The engineer staff
situation template. Based on this situation confirms the specified, implied, and essential
template, the staff develops specific engineer engineer tasks and prepares to support COA
intelligence requirements and nominates NAIs development by the corps staff.
to incorporate in the corps R&S plan.

FRIENDLY ENGINEER CAPABILITY COURSE-OF-ACTION ANALYSIS

Working with the corps G3, the corps engineer Based on each COA proposed, the corps engi-
staff analyzes the friendly engineer capability neer staff looks two levels down at the maneu-
based on the available engineer force to the ver-brigade level and develops a scheme of en-
corps, including organic division separate bri- gineer support operations, focusing on essential
gade, cavalry regiment, and theater engineers engineer tasks. The staff uses the corps com-
working in the corps area. The staff accounts mander’s intent the terrain analysis, and the
for all available and mission-capable engineer enemy situation template to identify the re-
assets that support the corps. Additionally, the quired countermobility and survivability tasks
staff accounts for corps countermobility and and the engineer assets needed to perform
survivability assets, including specific digging, them. Next the staff looks at mobility tasks,
scatterable mine, and other obstacle-emplace- including those required to support counterat-
ment equipment. Defensive operations con- tacks by reserve forces. Planned obstacles al-
sume large amounts of Class IV obstacle mate- low spoiling attacks and counterattacks to suc-
rial and Class V mines and demolitions that ceed. The staff identifies assets required to
require time and transport to move forward. accomplish those missions and conducts the
Early coordination with corps logistics plan- same analyses for general engineering mis-
ners is mandatory. sions.

Defensive Operations 6-17


FM 5-100-15

ENGINEER MAIN EFFORT defense. The staff ensures that assets as-
signed to each subordinate engineer headquar-
Having identified the tasks and assets re-
ters do not exceed their span-of-control capabil-
quired for each COA, the corps engineer and
ity. If a shortfall exists, the staff analyzes all
his staff establish where the engineer main
available C2 headquarters and upgrades the
effort must be. The staff reviews the engineer
C2 structure. As a rule of thumb, engineer C2
and maneuver assets available, allocates engi-
headquarters can effectively control five to
neer assets and recommends the allocation of
seven subordinate units. Engineer communi-
maneuver assets, and identifies any shortfalls.
ations capability is also identified, ensuring
If shortfalls exist the staff confirms them by
verifying available assets and requesting addi- that the corps engineer C2 headquarters can be
adequately supported by the corps area infor-
tional assets, including host-nation assets,
mation network. If the engineer C2 capability
from the higher headquarters command
cannot be upgraded, this shortfall is identified
through the G3. If additional assets are not
available, the corps engineer focuses on the during war gaming and COA comparison. En-
gineer defensive battle-command require-
main-effort tasks and reallocates assets to
ments should also address task organization,
compensate for the shortfall. Any risk associ-
changes of engineer effort and essential tasks.
ated with the shortfall of engineer assets is
identified and addressed during wax gaming
and COA comparison. Terrain preparation for ENGINEER LOGISTICS SUPPORT
the defense requires time for completion. En- The corps engineer staff reviews the supplies,
gineers cannot remain idle while final plan- personnel, maintenance, and transportation
ning is in progress. Early parallel planning at capabilities available to engineers for each
all echelons helps buy time for the engineer. COA. They recommend the allocation of each
Operations requiring transfer of responsibility and identify any shortfalls, especially in the
for in-place obstacles require detailed planning areas of obstacle emplacement equipment dig-
and coordination. This may include coordina- ging assets, Class IV obstacle supplies, Class V
tion with allied forces or other services. Also, demolitions and mines, haul capability and
detailed coordination with adjacent units iden- critical engineer personnel shortages (see Fig-
tities locations of obstacles in the vicinity of the ure 6-11). If shortfalls exist the staff verifies
corps boundaries. The engineer organization them and requests additional logistics capabil-
for combat allows rapid transition to the of- ity from higher headquarters command
fense, including designating an engineer force through the G3. If additional logistics capabil-
to be with the reserve force. Organization of ity is not available, the corps engineer focuses
corps engineers for combat through command on supporting main effort tasks and reallocates
or support relationships must be the result of a logistics assets to compensate for the shortfall.
deliberate planning process. Reorganization of Any risk associated with this shortfall is iden-
the corps engineer force upon execution of the tified and addressed during war gaming and
defense will take time--time to convey orders, COA comparison.
time to disengage engineers from current mis-
sions, time to move engineers from one part of ORDERS DEVELOPMENT
the battlefield to another, and time to reorgan-
ize for new missions. Once COAs have been war-gamed, compared,
and recommended to the corps commander, he
decides how the defensive mission will be con-
ENGINEER COMMAND AND CONTROL
ducted and gives his intent and concept of the
Following the allocation of engineer assets, the operation. Based on this, the SES refines the
corps engineer staff focuses on the centralized corps engineers’ missions and develops a
engineer C2 requirements needed during the scheme of engineer operations that integrates

6-18 Defensive Operations


FM 5-100-15

Figure 6-11. Class IV/V obstacle support planning

engineers into the corps’s total defensive gineer-specific input into the service and sup-
scheme of maneuver. This scheme is included port paragraph and develops the engineer an-
in the execution paragraph of the corps basic nex (including obstacle and denial appendices)
OPLAN or OPORD. To accomplish these to the OPLAN or OPORD. The staff then
tasks, the staff finalizes the engineer task or- briefs the corps’s engineer plan to the corps’s
ganization and command or support relation- subordinate commanders during the corps’s or-
ships, assigns engineer tasks to the corps’s sub- ders brief. Simultaneously the corps engineer
ordinate units (divisions, separate brigades, brigade staff develops the engineer OPLAN or
and cavalry regiment) in subunit paragraphs OPORD. It ensures complete dissemination to
and the coordinating instructions, provides en- all engineer units working for the corps.

PREPARING, CONDUCTING, AND TERMINATING THE DEFENSE


PREPARING THE DEFENSE
ning and issuing orders. Corps engineer prepa-
During defensive operations, corps engineer ration of the battlefield occurs simultaneously
commanders maximize time available for plan- at all echelons throughout the corps’s AO. En-

Defensive Operations 6-19


FM 5-100-15

gineer preparations for the defense can occur CONDUCTING THE DEFENSE
early without the presence of maneuver and During the defense, corps engineer command-
support forces in the area, therefore, adequate
ers are physically and mentally agile. Corps
engineer planning is essential. The corps engi-
engineers must understand the corps com-
neer brigade staff produces an engineer DST mander’s intent for the defense and his critical
and a synchronization matrix that fully sup- items of information in order to properly advise
ports corps defensive plans. Both are updated maneuver and logistics commanders. Engineer
and modified as the defensive battle pro- units are prepared to move around the battle-
gresses. The DST and the synchronization ma- field to reinforce successor to support a shift in
trix could highlight specific engineer supportthe main effort. Engineers are proactive in
activities such as the following: ensuring that obstacles are continually main-
tained and covered by fires. Obstacle zone,
• Corps topographic engineer units pro- obstacle belt and corps-directed tactical obsta-
viding detailed terrain analyses of en- cle emplacement efforts are tracked by the
emy attack routes and friendly counter- corps engineer staff. Decision criteria outlined
attack routes that assist corps planners in the DST to execute corps reserve demolition
in the IPB process. These products, es- obstacles are clearly followed by the corp engi-
pecially the MCOO, help identify any neer and his staff. Mobility along counterat-
corps-directed obstacle zones, reserve tack axes is continually monitored. At the com-
demolition obstacles, or ORASs mencement of the defense, selected corps engi-
neers are normally withdrawn from division
• Deconfliction of division, separate bri- AOs to continue defensive preparations in
gade, and cavalry regiment obstacle depth. The status of engineer personnel, equip
plans to ensure mutual support and ac- ment, and critical Class IV obstacle supplies
cess for corps reserve counterattack and Class V mines and demolitions is moni-
forces. tored closely by the corps engineer staff.
Throughout the conduct of the battle, general
Ž Forward staging of needed Class IV ob- engineering tasks, including construction and
stacle materials and Class V mines and repair of MSRs and logistics bases, continue
demolitions. and are closely monitored.

Ž Engineer participation with security


forces verifying enemy engineer breach- TERMINATING THE DEFENSE
ing and bridging capabilities and ensur- The corps engineer anticipates the end state of
ing that MBA engineers are prepared to defensive operations by planning for and pre-
counter advancing enemy formations positioning needed obstacle breaching and
with obstacles. bridging assets where they can be passed
quickly to attacking forces. Corps engineer
Ž Completion of corps-directed obstacle forces remain flexible throughout the defense,
zones and reserve demolition obstacles. being ready to transition to support the offense
at a moment’s notice. The corps engineer main-
Ž Construction of forward logistics bases tains an up-to-date status of the terrain, includ-
and MSRs that support the corps de- ing emplaced and planned obstacle belts, corps-
fense. directed obstacles, and any reports of any con-
centrations of UXO from the artillery and Air
• Engineer force integration with corps Force that may impede future corps attacks.
reserve forces, including rehearsals for This updated status is crucial for the corps G2
counterattack missions. and G3 to affect future offensive operations.

6-20 Defensive Operations


FM 5-100-15

TRANSITION TO OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS


Engineers at all levels of command within the where the enemy attack has reached its culmi-
corps plan for the transition from the defense nating point. Rapid conversion to mobility
to the offense. The corps engineer ensures that missions, including obstacle breaching and
the corps engineer structure is designed to pro- bridging operations, is critical to success.
vide the necessary physical agility for the tran- Corps topographic engineer units provide
sition. Prior to assuming the offense, corps timely terrain analysis to enable the com-
engineer units are positioned well forward mander to see the current corps battlefield and
along with other maneuver and logistics sup AO. Employment of ORAs permits free ma-
port elements critical to rapid exploitation of neuver and allows offensive transitions to oc-
success. Engineer forces are task-organized cur rapidly. General engineering units are
throughout the corps to assist rapid movement poised to continue to construct and repair for-
out of defenses and through hasty obstacles ward MSRs and logistics bases.

Defensive Operations 6-21


FM 5-100-15

CHAPTER 7
OTHER OPERATIONS
I was first of all gratified to see how much had already been done by the 86th
Pontoon Battalion. Working on their own behalf to get the ferry running, they
had actually begun our work for us. As I surveyed the west-bank ferry site,
the first of my own Company B bulldozers arrived to begin leveling the approach
to conform to our own needs. Of equal importance, Captain Gene Hancock’s
998th Treadway Bridge Company rolled in and got straight to work. I exchanged
salutes and greetings with Captain Hancock and gave him leave to pitch right
into work with his eager engineers. The general opinion throughout the 1111th
(Engineer) Group was that the 998th was the best unit of its kind in the 1st
Army.
Much to my surprise, as I gazed across the awesomely wide and swift Rhine,
I chanced to see a bulldozer with flails clearing mines and working on the
east-bank approach. I asked Captain Warren Rombaugh whose engineers they
were and he proudly explained that Lieutenant Don Davis and Sergeant Bill
Miller had purloined a ferry and had taken their platoon across at 0400 hours.
The first unit of the 291st to cross the river had been working constantly under
fire since then..

From the book, First Across The Rhine. The Story of the 291st Engineer Combat
Battalion, by Colonel David E. Pergrin with Eric Hammel.

The corps conducts other operations to support The corps engineer requires a fundamental un-
both offensive and defensive operations. The derstanding of these operations and their in-
corps may be required to conduct these opera- herent special engineer considerations. The
tions in combination, sequentially and, in engineer missions involved in supporting other
many cases, as part of an offensive or defensive corps operations are essentially the same as
plan. In all cases, they require special consid- outlined for offensive and defensive missions.
erations during planning and execution. They Furthermore, the principles of engineer C2
are all difficult, complex, and often inherently still apply during planning and execution. The
risky. While the concept and basic goals of the corps engineer and his staff use the special
operation remain constant, actual methods for considerations discussed in this chapter to re-
their conduct will vary (due to METT-T) as fine the offensive or defensive engineer mission
they apply to each situation. analysis and force allocation.

Other Operations 7-1


FM 5-100-15

LARGE-SCALE MOBILITY OPERATIONS

The corps conducts large-scale mobility opera- large-scale breach is only a subcomponent of a
tions primarily in two areas: obstacle breach- larger, continuous offensive operation. The
ing and deliberate river crossings. The doc- breach may be an essential task but it is not
trinal fundamentals for combined arms the purpose of the attack Breaching phases
breaching operations (found in FM 90-13-1) assist the corps commander in more clearly
and river-crossing operations (found in FM 90- delineating the tasks to be planned and exe-
13) can be applied to corps-level mobility op- cuted at the corps, division, and brigade levels.
erations. While large-scale mobility opera- The phases of a large-scale breach are to—
tions are normally planned in detail at the
division level, corps have specific fundamental Ž Attack to the obstacle.
planning and resourcing responsibilities for
these operations. The corps engineer and his Ž Breach and assault.
staff are responsible for developing detailed
schemes of engineer support and providing the • Secure the beachhead.
extensive engineer forces and assets required
for both missions. Ž Pass follow-on forces.

LARGE-SCALE BREACHING OPERATIONS Attack to the obstacle. The corps begins the
attack to the obstacle by setting the conditions
A large-scale breach is defined as a breaching
for the operation’s success. This is accom-
operation conducted by divisions and corps to
plished by conducting deep operations to iso-
create a penetration through a well-prepared late the close fight and to reduce enemy fire-
defense and to pass follow-on divisions or
support capability; providing adequate re-
corps. These operations are conducted in
sources to the breach force; and ensuring that
phases that serve to integrate them into corps
fundamental breach principles are applied.
and theater offensive plans. Corps-controlled Deep operations serve to suppress the enemy’s
breaching operations usually consist of corps-
fire support and its ability to reinforce the first
level operations using lead divisions to conduct
tactical echelon. These operations focus on en-
the deliberate breach. The enemy main defen-
emy artillery groups, rocket artillery, or ma-
sive belt is characterized as a linear area de-
neuver units. The corps applies both lethal
fense lacking depth at the first tactical echelon.
and nonlethal fires to suppress enemy forces
Normally, the corps scheme of maneuver in-
at the point of penetration and to further
volves one or two lead divisions creating an
isolate and obscure the battlefield. These
initial penetration through which follow-on di-
fires usually include artillery, attack helicop-
visions or corps can pass. Lead divisions con-
ters, close air support (CAS), air interdiction
duct either division or simultaneous brigade
(AI), EW, and PSYOP. Deception operations
deliberate breaches to create the initial pene-
are used to deceive the enemy commander as
tration. The focus of corps operations is to set
to the exact time, location, and nature of the
the conditions for success, support the fight at
corps operation. A priority of the corps intel-
the obstacle, and exploit lead division success
ligence-collection plan is on the forward en-
to continue the attack.
emy’s defenses and obstacle system. Aggres-
sive corps ground and air reconnaissance and
Phases of a Large-Scale Breach
the use of satellite imagery provide lead divi-
There are four distinct maneuver phases inher- sions with timely intelligence updates on both
ent in a large-scale breach from the corps’s obstacle and enemy dispositions. This phase
perspective. As with any obstacle crossing, a ends as the lead divisions close with the enemy

7-2 Other Operations


FM 5-100-15

main defensive area and begin executing their cure against counterattack, and organized en-
deliberate breach. emy resistance within the beachhead poses
little threat to the breach lanes.
Breach and assault. The objective of the
breach-and-assault phase is to penetrate the Pass follow-on forces. Follow-on forces be-
enemy’s defense with the lead divisions and to gin movement from TAAs in the rear of the
isolate the division objectives with corps and breaching division to forward assembly areas
theater assets. The fight at the obstacle is en- (FAAs), to attack positions in the beachhead.
tirely a division fight. The focus of the corps Movement is centrally controlled by corps. As
and theater deep operations will continue to be with any passage of lines, the breaching divi-
on isolating the breaching areas from air and sion controls movement within its sector as the
ground counterattack and to continue counter- in-place force. The beachhead line normally
fire operations against enemy artillery. Enemy serves as the BHL for the in-place and passed
scatterable mine delivery systems are a likely units. While this phase is similar to any pas-
PIR and are excellent HVTs for corps and thea- sage of lines, the restrictions imposed by mov-
ter fire-support systems. The corps engineer ing on lanes through obstacles require some
staff and the G2 plot likely minefield locations special traffic-control considerations. This
and delivery systems. The breach-and-assault phase ends with the completion of the forward
phase ends when the divisions seize their in- passage of follow-on forces and the turnover of
itial objectives and eliminate enemy direct fire the lanes and traffic control to the corps.
on the breaching sites.
Corps Commander’s Responsibilities
Secure the beachhead. The attacking divi-
The corps commander provides guidance and
sion quickly secures the beachhead in order to
intent concerning the conduct of large-scale
expedite the passage of follow-on forces. The
breaching operations. He controls the initial
corps-delineated beachhead line initially
breach fight with lead divisions and the follow-
serves as a limit of advance and an area to pass on passage of divisions and corps. He and his
follow-on forces. The size of the beachhead key staff members may locate near the vicinity
and the location of the beachhead line are of the breach location for effective C2. He is
driven by the size of the follow-on force, the responsible for applying the breaching tenet of
amount of forces required to defend the beach- intelligence; the breaching fundamentals of
head from counterattack and the location of suppression obscuration security and reduc-
enemy first-echelon artillery groups and re- tion (SOSR); the breaching organization of sup
serves. The immediate concern is to clear the port, breach and assault forces; mass; and syn-
beachhead and eliminate all direct fires and chronization to each echelon of planning.
all observed indirect fires that can affect the
passage of follow-on forces. Simultaneous with Intelligence. Providing accurate, timely in-
securing the beachhead, the division begins telligence is critical to the success of a corps’s
establishing the necessary lane network. Re- breaching operation. This begins before the
ducing and marking additional lanes necessary war-gaming process with the plotting of enemy
to pass the follow-on forces, as well as to sustain unit locations in the first and second echelons,
forces within the beachhead, is a division-level artillery locations, and the locations of obstacle
operation. A system of traffic control within the systems (IPB situation template). Updated
beachhead is quickly established to support terrain products (such as current satellite im-
rapid and controlled movement on the lanes. agery maps of the beachhead and the MCOO)
This phase ends when the necessary lanes for produced by the corps topographic company
both the forward passage and sustainment and terrain teams support this intelligence ef-
traffic are reduced, the beachhead line is se- fort. The corps intelligence-collection plan and

Other Operations 7-3


FM 5-100-15

event template are developed during the war- • Clearing additional lanes to support the
gaming process. A portion of the collection plan passage of follow-on forces.
is dedicated to confirming template locations.
This intelligence flow is continuous up to and • Maintaining the lane network.
beyond the start of the attack. The corps collec-
tion plan also focuses on deep operations that Ž Providing movement control.
are critical to suppressing enemy fire-support
assets and reserves, thereby isolating the bat- Breaching organization. The corps com-
tlefield. Every effort is made to push intelli- mander maintains certain responsibilities that
gence down to division level and below. The assist lower-echelon support breach and as-
breaching division and its brigades supplement sault forces to allow the lead divisions to focus
this plan by developing their own collection on the immediate fight at the obstacle. To as-
plans and R&S plans based on the same IPB sist division support forces in eliminating the
process. enemy’s ability to interfere with the breaching
operations, the corps commander provides
Breaching fundamentals. The corps com- deep-operations fire support. This fire support
mander maintains certain SOSR responsibili- suppresses the enemy’s defenses and reduces
ties at his echelon to allow the divisions and its ability to reinforce or influence the battle
brigades to focus on the immediate fight at the with second-echelon forces or fire-support as-
obstacle. At corps level, the principles of SOSR sets. The corps obscures the battlefield through
are the same as at lower echelons, but the scope
the use of C2 countermeasures, including EW
is different. The corps uses fire support and
and OPSEC. Deception is also a critical aspect
deep operations to suppress the enemy’s de-
of corps-level obscuration of the breach opera-
fenses and isolate the battlefield. These opera-
tion that misleads the enemy commander as to
tions serve to disrupt defenses at the breach
sites and reduce the enemy’s ability to reinforce the nature, time, and location of the corps op-
or influence the battle by using its second-eche- eration. The corps supports division breach-
lon forces or fire-support assets. The corps force missions to create lanes that enable the
obscures the battlefield through the use of C2 attacking force to pass through the obstacle and
countermeasures, including EW, OPSEC, and continue the attack with additional breaching
smoke/obscurants. Deception is also a critical assets and suppressive deep-operations fire
aspect of corps-level obscuration of the breach support, along with needed obscuration. This
operation which serves to mislead the enemy also helps the corps to secure the breach site.
commander as to the nature, time, and location To assist the breach force in reducing obstacles,
of the corps operation. Corps responsibilities the corps accepts lane handover from the for-
under the secure tenet are accomplished ward divisions, upgrades existing lanes to han-
through deep operations and fire support to dle additional traffic, clears additional lanes to
isolate the breach sites and protect them from support the passage of follow-on forces, main-
enemy actions. CAS, AI, deep fires, attack heli- tains the lane networlk, and provides movement
copters, and air defense weapons are all tools control. The corps supports division assault-
available to the corps commander. Corps re- force missions to destroy or dislodge the enemy
sponsibilities to reduce obstacles include— on the obstacle’s far side, primarily with sup
pressive deep-operations fire support.
• Accepting lane handover from the for-
ward divisions. Mass. Breaching is conducted by rapidly ap-
plying a concentrated force at a point in order
• Upgrading existing lanes to handle ad- to crack the obstacle and rupture the defense.
ditional traffic. Massed corps combat power is directed against

7-4 Other Operations


FM 5-100-15

an enemy weakness. The location determined friendly troops in the obstacle or in the enemy’s
for large-scale breaching depends on a weak- fire sack. The corps commander ensures syn-
ness in the enemy’s defense where its covering chronization through proper planning and
fires are minimized. If the corps commander force preparation. Fundamentals to achieve
cannot find a natural weakness, he creates one synchronization are—
by fixing the majority of the defending force
and isolating a small portion of it for attack. Ž Detailed reverse planning.
The isolated portion is then suppressed to
eliminate effective fire on division breach Ž Clear subunit instructions.
forces. Smoke and terrain are used to assist in
isolating the force under attack. Suppression Ž Effective C2.
requires the corps commander to mass enough
overmatching fires to achieve at least a 3:1 • A well-rehearsed force.
firepower ratio.
Corps Engineer Support
The corps commander also masses his engi-
neers and breaching equipment to assist divi- Corps engineers support large-scale breaching
sion breach forces reducing the obstacle. Divi- operations in many ways. The corps engineer
sion breach forces are organized and equipped assists the corps commander by providing de-
to use several different reduction techniques in tailed engineer estimates for the breach. Corps
case the primary technique fails. Additional engineers augment division breach forces by
reduction assets--normally fifty percent more providing them with additional assets to clear
than required--are present to handle the unex- the necessary number of lanes to ensure the
pected. These additional forces are positioned movement of follow-on forces through the
with the division breach force. Achieving nec- beachhead. Normally an engineer group with
essary mass for the assault requires the divi- several corps engineer battalions is placed in a
sion breach force to open enough lanes through command relationship to each breaching divi-
the obstacle to permit rapid passage and sion in order to give it efficient C2 of all engi-
buildup of forces on the far side. A division neer forces at the breach sites. This allows
normally requires a minimum of twelve lanes, division engineers to accompany assault forces
allowing two brigades abreast with six task as they pass through the breaches to seize
forces to pass simultaneously in column while beachhead objectives. Corps engineers at the
minimizing lateral movement. The tactical breach sites widen existing lanes and create
situation may require additional lanes to pass additional ones to enhance corps mobility. As
a larger assault force quickly through the ob- the beachhead is secured and follow-on forces
stacle to achieve a sufficient combat-power ra- pass through the in-place division, control of
tio. The principle of mass influences the selec- the breach site is passed to the corps to free the
tion of the corps breaching location the task in-place division for future operations. Corps
organization augmenting division support, engineers continue route improvement and ob-
breach, and assault forces; and the integration stacle-clearance operations. Corps engineers
of engineers in force movement or attack forma- with assault forces are prepared to install tac-
tions. tical obstacles to support the defense of the
beachhead, including scatterable mines. Ob-
Synchronization. Breaching operations re- stacles are also used in deep operations to iso-
quire precise synchronization of the SOSR late the battlefield and delay reserves. Corps
breaching fundamentals by support, breach, engineers enhance movement in rear areas by
and assault forces. Failure to synchronize ef- maintaining and improving MSRs and repair-
forts can result in rapid, devastating losses of ing and upgrading bridges.

Other Operations 7-5


FM 5-100-15

RIVER-CROSSING OPERATIONS Rarely will a river crossing be a specified task


within the corps’s mission. More often, a river
A river crossing is a special operation in that it
crossing will be an implied task for a lead divi-
requires specific procedures for success because
sion. The corps will designate the bridgehead
the water obstacle inhibits ground maneuver in for an offensive river crossing and will normally
the usual way. It demands more detailed plan-
depict the bridgehead graphically using a
ning and technical support than normal tacti-
bridgehead line or a set of division objectives.
cal operations. It also features specific control The bridgehead is the area on the far bank that
measures to move the force across a water ob-
is to be secured to continue the offensive. It
stacle. The obstacle may be a river, lake, or provides space for those combat CS, and criti-
canal. Unlike other obstacle types, the water
cal CSS elements that are necessary for the
obstacle remains effective during and after the
corps to continue the attack. The bridgehead
crossing operation. must be defensible, be large enough to maneu-
ver and deploy the force required to continue
A successful river-crossing operation is one that the mission, and facilitate continuation of the
moves more combat assets across a river than operation. For divisions crossing the river and
an enemy can mass against the crossing. De- continuing the attack a shallow bridgehead of
liberate river-crossing operations are normally about 30 kilometers (19 miles) maybe used. If
planned and conducted by corps and divisions. the corps intends on passing a division through
At the corps level, fundamental planning (in- the bridgehead, a deeper bridgehead of 40 to 50
cluding deception) and resourcing of corps as- kilometers (25 to 30 miles) may be required,
sets to the division takes place. At these eche- depending on the terrain. Divisions normally
lons, a major river crossing will involve most if assign bridgehead objectives and control move-
not all, of the assets of the organization in- ment across the river. Brigades assault across
volved. Extensive use of corps assets is re- the river and secure the bridgehead as an ele-
quired in the conduct of the operation. Divi- ment of a larger force.
sions do not have sufficient support-force struc-
ture or capability to conduct a river-crossing Both corps and division headquarters antici-
operation. They cannot cross major water ob- pate and plan for river crossings in advance.
stacles without corps assistance and still be Division and brigade commanders organize
expected to press the fight. The corps assigns their forces into bridgehead, support, and
missions and provides the necessary support breakout forces for river-crossing operations.
and equipment. Specifically, the corps provides Bridgehead forces seize and secure the bridge-
augmentation in the following areas: head. Support forces consist of corps combat
engineer battalions; corps bridge companies;
Ž Engineer forces. light engineer diving teams; and MR EW, and
chemical units. These units provide crossing
means, traffic control, and obscuration. Break-
• Fire support.
out forces cross the river behind bridgehead
forces and attack out of the bridgehead oriented
• Air defense. on subsequent objectives. The division com-
mander normally designates an assistant divi-
Ž Smoke. sion commander as the crossing-force com-
mander (CFC) to take charge of controlling the
• MP. division crossing. A crossing force receives
planning support from a crossing-force engi-
• EW. neer (CFE) who is normally the commander of
a corps engineer group in support of the divi-
• Attack helicopters. sion. He provides additional staff planners for

7-6 Other Operations


FM 5-100-15

the CFC and coordinates engineer support to Each forward brigade normally has a DS com-
the crossing area commanders (CACs), who are bat engineer battalion from corps to support
normally the maneuver brigade XOs. Addi- the crossing. The corps engineer battalion com-
tional communications support is required for mander is normally the CAE and is responsible
the engineer group to operate in both the divi- to the CAC and CFE for engineer crossing
sion and corps signal networks during river means and sites. He informs the CAC and CFE
crossings. The corps engineer group commands of changes due to technical difficulties or enemy
and controls all corps engineer assets support- action that render a crossing means inoperable
ing the river-crossing operation, including or reduces its capacity He commands those
bridge companies and combat engineer battal- engineers tasked to move the force across the
ions. It is critical for supporting corps engi- river obstacle; they remain at the river as the
neers to be totally involved in all facets of the attack proceeds beyond the exit-bank objec-
river-crossing operation from initial planning
tives. The division and brigade engineers focus
through preparation and execution. This en-
sures a continuity of thought and action. Divi- on supporting the lead brigades at the exit-
sion and brigade engineer staffs focus on sup- bank intermediate, and bridgehead objectives
porting the fight through the bridgehead. with organic engineer units. They are not nor-
Some duties and tasks of the CFE may be to- mally involved in detailed planning of the river
crossing. Some duties and responsibilities of
• Coordinate engineer support to the the CAE are to—
CACs.
Ž Keep the CAC informed on all aspects of
• Coordinate with the corps engineer bri-
the engineer operation.
gade for additional assets.
• Coordinate with the CFE.
Ž Assist with division deception planning,
Ž Control all corps bridge assets in his
• Recommend R&S requirements to the
area.
division engineer.
• Recommend reconnaissance require-
Ž Coordinate planning between crossing
ments to the CAC and coordinate execu-
area engineers (CAEs) and CACs. tion.
• Coordinate with the CFC and division
• Prepare the crossing area with equip-
engineer. ment parks, engineer regulating points,
combat trails, call-forward areas, and
• Inform all concerned parties of any po-
crossing sites.
tential problem areas.
Ž Assist the CAC in developing his cross-
• Develop a detailed crossing schedule for
ing plan.
the division.
• Coordinate smoke/obscurant support in
Ž Coordinate with the corps chemical offi-
the crossing area.
cer on the use of smoke/obscurants.
• Coordinate traffic-control support in the
• Coordinate with the corps MP brigade
crossing area.
on traffic-control requirements.

Other Operations 7-7


FM 5-100-15

RETROGRADE OPERATIONS

Retrograde operations are conducted when it is DELAYS, WITHDRAWALS, AND


necessary or desirable to move in an organized RETIREMENTS
and orderly way to the rear or away from the Corps retrograde operations normally include
enemy. They are planned, organized move- a combination of delaying actions, withdrawal
ments that include delaying actions, withdraw- operations, and retirement actions executed in
als, and retirements. These operations may be conjunction with other combat operations. A
forced or voluntary but they require the ap- delay is an operation in which the corps trades
proval of the next higher commander. The space and time to inflict maximum damage on
corps may direct a division to conduct a retro- the enemy without decisive engagement. A
grade operation within the corps’s AO, or the withdrawal is an operation in which the corps
corps may be directed from the theater com- in contact withdraws to free itself for a new
mander to conduct a retrograde operation as mission. A retirement is an operation in which
part of a larger theater operation. A well- a corps not in contact moves away from the
planned, organized, aggressively executed ret- enemy. These operations may occur simulta-
regrade operation provides opportunities for neously or they may be sequential actions. To
the corps to inflict heavy damage on enemy accomplish these purposes, retrograde opera-
troops and material while continuing to main- tions are accompanied by efforts to reduce the
tain its fighting integrity. The purpose of a enemy’s strength; to bring up additional forces;
retrograde operation is to preserve the corps’s to concentrate forces elsewhere for an attack
integrity for future operations; however, the to prepare stronger defenses to the rear; and to
retrograde can be conducted to— maneuver the enemy into areas where he can
be counterattacked.
• Disengage forces from combat.

• Avoid combat under undesirable condi- RETROGRADE RIVER CROSSINGS


tions.
Planning and executing river crossings during
retrograde operations are similar to operations
• Shape the battlefield, drawing the en-
discussed earlier in this chapter. The following
emy into an unfavorable situation. special considerations are taken into account
when planning a retrograde river crossing.
• Gain time without fighting a decisive
engagement. • Command and control. Command, con-
trol, and coordination are difficult in a
Ž Reposition forces on more favorable ter- retrograde river crossing. Delaying,
rain. defending, and supporting forces re-
quire explicit missions and tasks. Ef-
• Permit the use of a portion of the force fective liaison support is required be-
else where. tween retrograding units, the crossing-
force headquarters, and supporting
Ž Harass, exhaust resist, and delay the units.
enemy.
• Deception. Deception is planned and
Ž Shorten LOC and supply. executed to conceal the extent of the
operation and the actual crossing sites
• Conform to the movements of other to be used. Smoke/obscurants, elec-
friendly forces. tronic deception, and dummy sites re-

7-8 Other Operations


FM 5-100-15

duce the enemy’s capability to disrupt • Leadership and morale. The nature of
the crossing. OPSEC measures are re- retrograde operations involves an inher-
quired. ent risk of degrading the command’s mo-
rale; therefore, maintaining offensive
• Crossing sites. Retrograde crossing spirit is especially essential among sub-
sites are initially controlled by friendly ordinate leaders and soldiers.
forces. They may be insufficient in num-
ber and may be attacked by enemy forces • Surveillance and reconnaissance. Intel-
early in the operation. Planning and ligence requirements for the commander
developing additional sites provide flexi- are dramatically increased as forces are
bility against this probability. Any echeloned to the rear, and the forward
crossing site must be protected against combat power is subsequently reduced.
enemy action using security forces to Tracking the enemy situation is aggres-
counter all battalion-sized air assault or sive and accurate. The commander
airborne insertions. takes maximum action to conserve his
combat power while still accomplishing
Ž Support forces and bridging. The his mission.
corps commander attempts to pass all
nonessential support forces across the • Mobility. The larger the mobility dif-
river early and disperse them in loca- ferential achieved by the retrograding
tions that can support the operation. force over the enemy, the greater the
Fixed bridging equipment should be re- probability of a successful retrograde
covered early and replaced with ribbon operation. The corps achieves this mo-
bridging that can be recovered quickly. bility advantage by providing for corps
Other bridging equipment that cannot mobility and degrading that of the en-
be recovered quickly may have to be emy force.
destroyed. Existing bridges and other
crossing means, such as ferries, may • Battlefield deception. Deception is inte-
need to be destroyed. Close coordina- grated into all aspects of retrograde op-
tion with delaying forces precludes cut- erations to cover movements of friendly
ting off friendly forces. units and to enhance the possibility of
surprise. Deception operations target
the enemy force to cause indecision and
RETROGRADE PLANNING delay enemy actions and to prevent him
The complexity and fluidity of retrograde op- from concentrating combat power at a
erations and the absolute need to synchronize friendly weakness.
the entire corps operation dictate the need for
detailed, centralized planning and coordination • Liaison. Liaison between higher, adja-
and decentralized execution of the operation. cent, and subordinate headquarters is
Corps planning for retrograde operations be- critical considering the degradation of
gins with the preparation of plans for the fol- communications during large unit
low-on mission. It is driven by the com- movements.
mander’s concept of the operation and his in-
tent. A number of key planning fundamentals • Rear operations. Maximum efficiency of
receives special emphasis during the retro- terrain management is essential during
grade planning phase, including the following: retrograde operations.

Other Operations 7-9


FM 5-100-15

Ž Logistics operations. Logistics support Corps engineer support to corps retrograde op-
challenges are intensified by the re- erations is crucial. The engineer’s dominant
quirement to move logistics bases while role is achieving superior mobility over the en-
still sustaining the corps. emy Engineers at all levels focus on increas-
ing the mobility differential between the retro-
grading corps and the enemy force. Corps en-
CORPS ENGINEER SUPPORT gineers accomplish this by improving routes,
constructing combat trails, repairing or replac-
The corps engineer contributes to corps retro-
ing destroyed or underclass bridges, breaching
grade operations by working with the corps minefield and other obstacles, and clearing
staff to focus intelligence-collection efforts on routes of damaged or destroyed vehicles. As
key information requirements. These require-
part of degrading enemy mobility corps engi-
ments indicate enemy strengths, weaknesses, neers supplement covering-force and rear-
and intentions. The corps engineer staff as- guard-force engineers by installing obstacles to
sists the corps G2 cell in analyzing combat disrupt or block enemy movement and to allow
intelligence, particularly enemy engineer ac-
friendly forces to break contact and not become
tivities (for example, a delaying division may
decisively engaged. Corps engineers in rear
report a concentration of low-density breaching areas emplace obstacles for subsequent defen-
assets indicating the location of the enemy’s sive positions for the covering force and rear-
main effort). The corps engineer staff also as- guard forces. Priority is given to using point
sists in developing high-value targeting for obstacles. Control and execution of corps re-
corps deep-strike assets (for example, he may serve demolition obstacles are essential. To
plot the location and employment of enemy as- protect the force, corps engineers augment cov-
sault bridges, recommend their location as a ering-force and rear-guard-force engineers by
PIR, and recommend their destruction as an assisting in the preparation of protective forti-
HVT. fications for combat vehicles. Engineers in
rear areas prepare subsequent positions.

RELIEF IN PLACE
A relief in place is a combat operation in which emy as long as possible. Deception and
all or part of a corps in a combat area is re- OPSEC are all-important from the out-
placed by another corps. It is normally ordered set.
when the relieved unit is either in a hasty or
deliberate defense. The relieving unit usually • Speed. Relief-in-place operations are
assumes the same defensive responsibilities extremely vulnerable to enemy spoil-
and initially deploys the same as the relieved ing attacks once they begin. Unneces-
corps. sary delays during the execution are
avoided to prevent giving the enemy
CONSIDERATIONS time to acquire, target, and mass fires
Key considerations in planning and executing on the relief.
a relief in place are—
• Control. Intermingling of forces places
• Secrecy. Because of the inherent vul- increased demands on corps C2, par-
nerabilities created by a relief in place, ticularly if enemy contact is made dur-
the operation is concealed from the en- ing the relief in place.

7-10 Other Operations


FM 5-100-15

CORPS ENGINEER SUPPORT Obstacle Turnover


Corps engineers contribute most to the relief in The relieved corps engineer staff consolidates
place by assisting the corps in achieving speed and provides obstacle locations, configuration,
and control. As the two corps G3s collocate to and composition to the relieving unit. The two
develop the maneuver plan for the relief in corps engineer staffs develop detailed plans for
place, the collocated corps engineer staffs de- the turnover of corps reserve demolition obsta-
velop a tied scheme of engineer operations. cles, corps obstacle zones, and planned ORAs.
Both corps engineer staffs fully understand the When developing the obstacle-turnover plan,
scope of the mission, including the defensive the relieved corps engineer staff requires de-
plan and the concept for the relief in place, in tailed and current status on the obstacle belts
order to determine engineer tasks needed to and zones in his AO. They receive updated
maintain speed and control. obstacle reports from all subordinate units and
compile a complete list of all individual obsta-
Mobility Support cles emplaced in the corps area and updates
the corps obstacle overlay. This information is
Both staffs recommend engineer task organiza-
then passed to the relieving corps engineer
tions that provide in-stride mobility operations
staff. Both staffs determine the details of how
to brigades moving to, through, and from
existing corps reserve demolition obstacles or
friendly defensive positions. A review of the
those obstacles being emplaced will be ex-
relieved unit’s defensive plan overlaid with the
changed. The presence of engineer LOs at
relief-in-place concept is conducted. The
every echelon of the relieving unit down to the
routes and avenues for entering and exiting
maneuver company or team level is critical to
units are clearly identified and marked, with
the speed and control of obstacle turnover.
mobility requirements being determined for
Upon linkup, the engineer LOs from the reliev-
each route. The relieved corps has the respon-
ing units become thoroughly familiar with the
sibility to fully prepare the routes through its
existing obstacles, including the direct- and in-
AO. The relieved corps engineer staff allocates
direct-fire control measures integrated with
mobility resources to assist in preparing these
the obstacles. The engineer LO also assists the
routes for movement. Additionally, both corps
relieving maneuver commander in integrating
engineer staffs ensure their respective corps
obstacles into his defense plan and improving
have the capability to conduct in-stride breach-
unit defenses against subsequent enemy at-
ing operations in the event lanes are closed
tacks.
during movement.

PASSAGE OF LINES
A passage of lines is an operation in which one with the enemy. An example of a rearward
force moves through another. A passage of lines passage of lines is when a corps-controlled cov-
can be conducted forward or rearward. The ering force passes through and transfers com-
corps as a whole may participate in a passage bat responsibility to MBA divisions.
of lines as the passing or stationary force. Addi-
tionally corps offensive and defensive opera- PLANNING
tions often include passage of lines involving
subordinate units. An example of a corps for- Successful passages of lines are characterized
ward passage of lines is when a corps, as an by detailed, centralized planning and decen-
operational or theater reserve, conducts a coun- tralized execution. The passing of control be-
terattack through friendly forces in contact tween passing and in-place corps or the corps’s

Other Operations 7-11


FM 5-100-15

subordinate units is one of the key considera- through the sector. This information also in-
tions in any passage of lines. The commanders eludes the details and execution criteria for
of the corps involved establish a mutually corps-directed reserve demolition targets and
agreed-upon event that triggers the passage of situational obstacles. The passing corps engi-
control. Once control is passed, the passing neer staff then ensures dissemination of the
corps exercises tactical control (TACON) over information to subordinates through coordina-
the in-place corps until all of its forces are tion with the G3 and instructions in the corps
beyond the direct-fire range of the in-place for- OFORD, engineer annex and overlays. C2 of
ward divisions. However, during a rearward both passed and passing corps engineer units
passage of lines, control is passed from the during the passage of lines transfers to the
rearward passing unit to the in-place corps corps exercising TACON. The corps engineer
unit. Forces in the rearward-passing corps staff of the corps with TACON facilitates con-
come under TACON of the in-place corps once trol of engineer units during planning and exe-
they are committed to the passage routes or cution of the passage by having an accurate
corridors. Whether conducting a forward or status of all engineer assets, activities, and
rearward passage, the in-place corps has the obstacle control measures in the sector.
responsibility to provide mobility for the pass-
ing unit along cleared routes or corridors in-Place Corps Engineer Execution
through its sector. The in-place corps engineer staff conducts a
complete analysis of the passage-of-lines con-
CORPS ENGINEER SUPPORT cept of operations. The in-place corps normally
The corps engineer and his staff thoroughly tasks subordinate maneuver units to prepare
understand when engineer fictional and unit the passage routes or corridors. The in-place
control is passed, the disposition of engineer corps engineer staff recommends a task organi-
forces, and engineer missions at the time of zation of engineer forces to the divisions, sepa-
passage. Close coordination and joint planning rate brigades, and cavalry regiment based on
between corps engineer staffs are critical to the assets needed to clear assigned routes and cor-
success of the passage of lines. When control is ridors. Clearing operations are conducted prior
passed between corps, the corresponding corps to the initiation of the passage. Additionally
engineer brigade commander may assume TA- the in-place corps engineer staff plans the clo-
CON of all engineer forces of the passing or sure of lanes through obstacles, if required,
in-place corps. The corps engineer brigade once the passage is complete.
commander can then task engineers of the ad-
jacent corps based on immediate requirements Passing Corps Engineer Execution
during passage. This is critical in the forward
The passing corps engineer staff task-organ-
passage of lines, since it affords the passing izes corps engineer assets to assist in-stride
corps engineer brigade commander with a
breaching operations prior to the passage of
means of accomplishing unforeseen engineer
lines. This ensures rapid support for mobility
tasks with minimal impact on engineer sup-
operations and continuation of the passage in
port to the subsequent attack.
the event a route is shut down during the mis-
sion. Creating lanes through the in-place
Collocated Corps Engineer Staff Planning corps’s obstacles requires permission from the
The corps engineer staffs of both passing and corps exercising TACON. Authority to reduce
passed corps collocate during the planning and friendly obstacles in response to an immediate
execution of the passage of lines. They focus tactical situation may be given to the corps’s
initially on exchanging information including subordinate units. This authority is included
individual obstacle locations and routes in the coordinating instructions of the corps

7-12 Other Operations


FM 5-100-15

order. Under all circumstances, this action is staff closely monitors the passage during exe-
reported to the passed unit so that the obstacle cution to advise both corps commanders on the
can be repaired. The passing corps engineer impact of such occurrences.

ENCIRCLED FRIENDLY-FORCE OPERATIONS


From the corps’s perspective, encirclement is of • Reestablishes communications with
concern whether it pertains to all or a portion higher headquarters and within units.
of the corps. A unit is considered encircled
when all ground routes of evacuation and rein- • Continues to employ intelligence assets
forcement have been cut off by enemy action. A to assess the immediate threat and on-
unit may become encircled when it is— going enemy rear operations.

Ž Ordered to remain in a strong position • Establishes a reserve.


on key terrain to deny the enemy pas-
sage through a vital choke point follow- • Reorganizes fire and logistics support.
ing an enemy breakthrough.
Ž Limits vulnerability to NBC weapons.
• Given a mission of becoming encircled as
part of a larger plan. Ž Maintains morale.

Ž Cut off from friendly forces unintention- • Continues improving the defense.
ally through its own maneuver, errors,
exhaustion, or other cause.
CORPS ENGINEER SUPPORT
CORPS COMMANDER RESPONSIBILITIES Corps engineers will play a very important role
Once encircled, the corps commander basically in any of the options selected. A thorough un-
has three options: breakout defend, or exfil- derstanding of the operation and input into the
trate. The decision to breakout to the rear or planning process by the corps engineer SW is
to continue the attack deep, defend encircled, essential. Of significance to engineers will be
or exfiltrate must be made promptly and exe- the conservation of corps breaching, bridging,
cuted with resolve. The longer a force remains and obstacle-emplacement equipment Class
encircled, the more depleted it becomes and the III POL; Class IV materials; and Class V mines
more organized and stronger the containing and demolitions. As resupply will probably be
enemy becomes. The decision on which option sporadic, disciplined use of available resources
to take will be based on the intent or orders of will be paramount. While encircled, corps en-
the higher commander. Prior to conducting gineer units assist greatly in improving the
any of these options, the corps commander encircled force’s defense, reducing vulnerabil-
reestablishes an effective chain of command, ity to fires, and providing mobility assets to
develops a viable perimeter defense to preserve reconnaissance forces.
what forces are available, and plans sub-
sequent operations. In order to reorganize BREAKOUT OPERATIONS
and consolidate forces effectively in the encir- The attack to breakout requires that the corps
cled AO, the corps commander— maintain a simultaneous defense in other ar-
eas of the perimeter. To do this, the corps com-
• Establishes security. mander must—

Other Operations 7-13


FM 5-100-15

Ž Deceive the enemy. • Supporting feints or demonstrations as


part of deception.
• Exploit gaps and weaknesses.
ENCIRCLED DEFENSE
Ž Exploit limited visibility.
Encircled corps forces may be required to
maintain and defend their positions. The corps
Ž Organize the breakout force with neces-
commander considers the following:
sary attack and guard components.
• The mission of unit and higher head-
Ž Coordinate internal and external sup-
quarters.
porting attacks.
• The terrain available for defense.
Ž Concentrate overwhelming combat
power at the breakout point. Ž The availability of reinforcements or re-
lief of the force before the enemy can
Ž Provide for forces left behind.
eliminate it.
• Prepare for linkup operations.
• The mobility differential of the enemy
forces being greater allowing the enemy
In support of breakout operations, the corps
to destroy corps forces during a breakout
engineer staff plans for— attempt.
Ž Installing obstacles in depth to support
If the encircled force decides or is ordered to
a shrinking perimeter.
defend in place, corps engineers could be ex-
petted to—
Ž Constructing strong points and battle
positions. • Provide mobility assets to reconnais-
sance forces.
• Eliminating obstacles in the breakout
corridor. • Continue to improve the defense by em-
placing obstacles and constructing fight-
Ž Maintaining evacuation routes. ing positions and battle positions in
depth.
Ž Clearing drop zones for resupply. • Maintain aerial resupply areas.
Ž Destroying excess ammunition and • Destroy excess supplies and equipment
equipment. if the situation demands it.
• Supporting the breakout force with • Perform other survivability missions as
breaching, bridging, and flank obstacle- resources allow.
emplacement equipment.
EXFILTRATION
Ž Conducting decontamination opera-
tions, including exit routes. If the corps is ordered to exfiltrate its encircled
position, it will do so through the movement of
Ž Conducting reconnaissance of exit small units over multiple routes. The para-
routes. mount consideration of this operation is se-

7-14 Other Operations


FM 5-100-15

crecy and stealth. Corps engineers may be Ž Reconnaissance of multiple exit routes.
used for--
Ž Destruction of excess supplies and
• Construction and maintenance of com- equipment after the force has evacu-
bat trails and roads. ated.
• Dust control.

ENCIRCLED ENEMY FORCES


Encirclement operations are conducted to maneuver speed intensive. Corps bridge com-
cause enemy forces to lose freedom of maneu- panies and CSE companies may also fill engi-
ver by denying them the capability to defend or neer requirements during an encirclement.
delay in an organized manner. Additionally Corps engineer missions during an encircle-
encircling operations seek to cut off evacuation ment may include—
and reinforcement routes.
• Obstacle emplacement to keep encircled
The principles in developing encirclement op- forces confined and to prevent potential
erations are deception, rapid and sudden pene- linkup by reserves.
tration and swift exploitation in combination
with persistent frontal attacks. Deception is • Route maintenance to ensure a steady
necessary so that the breakthrough and fur- flow of logistics to the encircling force.
ther exploitation may be a complete surprise to
the enemy. Additionally the attack is executed • Assistance with decontamination opera-
such that enemy units attacked are not just tions.
defeated, but destroyed by fires alone or with
fire and maneuver. The enveloping forces • Obstacle removal to support the encir-
must be able to exploit success quickly and cling force.
without stopping. Their strength enables
them to quickly destroy on-coming reserves as • Possible river-crossing operations.
well as inflict the defeat of forces being by-
passed. • Support of maneuver forces in the at-
tack.
Corps engineers are deeply involved in the en-
circlement-operations planning process at all Ž Preparation of LAPES for aerial resup-
levels of command. This ensures the availabil- ply.
ity of engineer support required at the correct
time and place in the operation. Mechanized Ž Establishment of EPW compounds or
corps engineer battalions are well suited to holding areas.
support the encircling maneuver forces. These
could be followed by wheeled corps engineer • Participation in deception operations.
battalions to do the follow-on tasks that are not

LARGE-SCALE UNIT MOVEMENT


Heavy corps, divisions, and brigades are pow- quickly in fast-developing situations. They can
erful weapons in any kind of conflict as long as only go where the road nets or cross-country
they have the space to move and concentrate conditions allow them to march and maneuver

Other Operations 7-15


FM 5-100-15

on multiple routes and avenues of approach.


Commanders fully understand the magnitude • Upgrade or construction of lateral
and importance of corps-sized movements. routes.
These movements will be successful when
based on anticipation and prior planning, com- • Establishment of refugee holding areas
mand involvement at all levels, and ruthless along the routes.
discipline. Movements are considered to be
Ž Upgrade of bridges and culverts to with-
either administrative or tactical, based on the
likelihood of enemy contact. No matter what stand corps loads.
type of move occurs, detailed planning is in-
• Preplacement of construction materials
volved by all participants with the G4,
COSCOM, and CMCC. The movement of typi- and equipment along the route to speed
cal heavy corps having 25,000 vehicles can last repairs.
from hours to days depending on the weather,
Ž Mine and obstacle clearance.
the number of routes used, and METT-T.

Corps engineers play an important role in Ž Construction of forward logistics bases


large unit movements. Besides moving them- prior to the movement.
selves, they must also support the operation
from the concept until after the movement has During the movement, corps engineers position
been completed. This responsibility falls themselves at intervals along the route for—
mainly on corps engineer units so that organic
division separate brigade, and cavalry regi- • Assistance in clearing routes of refugee
ment engineers may remain in their respective and stranded vehicles.
formations and be ready to support their ma-
neuver unit operations at any time. Ž Performing emergency road and bridge
repairs.
The corps engineer and his rear CP staff work
closely with the G4, COSCOM, and CMCC to • Recovering disabled military vehicles.
integrate engineer support with these types of
movements. In a corps-sized movement, corps • Dust control.
engineers could be expected to perform the fol-
lowing functions: • Chemical decontamination support.

Ž Route reconnaissance and classification. Once the movement has been completed, corps
engineers quickly bring the used routes up to
• Preliminary route maintenance and up- military standard to ensure that follow-on
grade, including turn outs for narrow forces and logistics can move forward without
roads. delay to support the corps in its mission.

LINKUP OPERATIONS
The corps may be required to conduct a linkup
with another force as part of a larger theater- • Maneuver forces are attacking on sepa-
directed operation, or it may be required to rate but converging axes.
direct a linkup of subordinate units as a phase
of a larger corps operation. Corps linkup op- • An advancing force reaches an objective
erations may be conducted when— area previously seized or occupied by

7-16 Other Operations


FM 5-100-15

amphibious, airborne, air assault, or Ž Establishing obstacle control meas-


special operations forces. ures needed with both converging
forces to ensure safe passage routes
• It is necessary to complete the encircle- and corridors.
ment of an enemy force or during the
breakout of an encircled force. • Updating the obstacle emplacement
status of both converging forces, in-
Ž A counterattack moves in the vicinity cluding corps-directed tactical obsta-
of a stationary friendly force. cles and reserve demolition obstacles.

Corps engineer forces engaged in linkup op- • Ensuring the availability of mobility
erations provide needed mobility and coun- assets needed to conduct in-stride
termobility support prior to the linkup. Fol- breaches for both converging forces,
lowing linkup, corps engineers prepare for along with needed countermobility and
subsequent mission support. The corps engi- survivability assets for a hasty defense
neer and his staff integrate engineer support in the linkup area.
into all linkup operations plans. Key plan- • Ensuring the availability of follow-on
ning considerations include— mission engineer support require-
• Providing needed topographic and ter- ments after the linkup has been af-
rain-analysis products showing con- fected.
verging force routes and corridors • Ensuring the availability of engineer
along with the linkup objective area. liaison requirements for both converg-
• Establishing engineer command or ing forces to ensure effective coordina-
support relationships between the con- tion prior to and during the linkup.
verging forces both during and after Ž Constructing or improving linkup
completion of the linkup. points and passage routes.

RECONSTITUTION
FM 100-9 defines reconstitution as an extraor- commanders conduct reorganization. They re-
dinary action that commanders plan and im- organize before considering regneration. Re-
plement to restore units to a desired level of organization may be immediate or deliberate,
combat effectiveness commensurate with mis- depending on time and resources available. It
sion requirements and available resources. includes cross-leveling of equipment and per-
Reconstitution transcends normal day-to-day sonnel; matching operational weapons systems
sustainment activities, with the status of a with crews; and forming composite units. Nor-
unit being key to initiating reconstitution. mal logistics operations continue through the
Three major elements are part of reconstitu- reorganization process.
tion reorganization assessment and regen-
eration. Corps engineer units are prepared to conduct
internal reorganization operations as required
REORGANIZATION during combat operations. Corps engineer
companies reorganize platoons; corps engineer
Reorganization is the action of shifting re- battalions reorganize companies and platoons;
sources within a degraded unit to increase its corps engineer groups reorganize battalions
combat effectiveness. All subordinate corps and separate companies; and the corps engi-

Other Operations 7-17


FM 5-100-15

neer brigade reorganizes groups, battalions, placing the engineer chain of command and
and separate companies. conducting engineer mission-essential training
to get the regenerated engineer unit to stand-
ASSESSMENT ard with its new soldiers and equipment.
Other corps engineer units that are not being
Assessment measures a unit’s capability to regenerated can support corps regeneration ef-
perform its mission. The unit commander con-
forts with personnel, equipment and training
tinually assesses his unit before, during, and
support. The corps engineer and his staff work
after operations. If he determines that the
closely with the corps G3 and G4 in determin-
unit is no longer mission capable, even after ing the following engineer support require-
reorganization, he notifies his higher com-
ments:
mander. Higher headquarters can either
change the mission of the unit to match its • Recommending the allocation and redis-
degraded capability or remove it from combat.
tribution of engineer units, personnel,
External elements may also assess the unit
and equipment.
after it disengages with a more thorough evalu-
ation to determine regeneration needs and re- • Participating in regeneration site and
sources available.
terrain reconnaissance and the site se-
lection process.
Corps engineer commanders and their staffs
continually assess the mission-capable status Ž Preparing, constructing, and maintain-
of their units and develop change-of-mission or ing regeneration sites, facilities, train-
regeneration plans for corps engineer units
ing areas, and access and egress routes.
supporting close maneuver operations that This includes identifying and procuring
may quickly become mission incapable. Other needed Class IV construction material
corps engineer units that become mission inca- requirements.
pable report this information as quickly as pos-
sible to the corps engineer staff for resolution. Ž Developing corps engineer staff require-
ments and structure for the corps regen-
REGENERATION eration task force (RTF).
Regeneration of corps engineer units is the re-
building of those units. It requires large-scale Ž Providing engineers for additional re-
replacement of engineer personnel, equipment, generation site force protection, mobil-
and supplies. These replacements may require ity, countermobility, and area damage-
further reorganization. Corps engineer unit control support.
regeneration also involves reestablishing or re-

LARGE-SCALE DECONTAMINATION OPERATIONS


The threat of weapons of mass destruction on gree of decontamination capability but for
the battlefield cannot be overlooked. This larger operations many more assets are re-
threat knows no boundaries; it is not just lim- quired.
ited to high-intensity conflicts fought by large
armies. Many small nations now possess NBC The corps engineer and his staff coordinate en-
weapons that can be delivered into a corps’s gineer support requirements with the corps
AO. The potential of large-scale contamina- chemical officer for large-scale decontamina-
ion of equipment, personnel, and terrain must tion operations prior to, if possible, enemy NBC
not be overlooked. Most units have some de- strikes. Reconnaissance of possible decontami-

7-18 Other Operations


FM 5-100-15

nation sites is conducted, followed by deliber- ing sumps and pits, hauling supplies
ate planning of support at identified loca- and water, and maintaining routes to
tions. During combat operations, the corps en- the site.
gineer staff closely monitors the NBC status in
order to anticipate future support require- • Conducting route decontamination on
ments. Corps engineer units are well suited to both hard- and loose-surface roads.
respond to this situation. There are many
functions engineers may perform in support of • Conducting airfield decontamination of
decontamination operations prior to and after runways, parking areas, and routes.
NBC strikes. Some of these are—
Most corps engineer units are equipped to han-
Ž Identifying and developing water dle all or part of these tasks. The wheeled
sources. corps engineer battalion, combat heavy engi-
neer battalion, and CSE company have bull-
• Developing large decontamination sta- dozers, graders, loaders, heavy trucks, and
tions, including constructing road net- water distributors that can support most de-
works, decontaminating terrain, build- contamination operations.

Other Operations 7-19


FM 5-100-15

CHAPTER 8
OPERATIONS OTHER THAN WAR
In the early morning hours of 24 August 1992, Hurricane Andrew slammed
into the southern tip of Florida. The eye of the hurricane passed directly over
Homestead Air Force Base and the surrounding communities of Homestead and
Florida City with an estimated wind speed of over 160 mph . . . .

Late on 27 August 1992, the XVIII Airborne Corps was alerted and directed to
send a logistical task force to aid in the relief operations. The 20th Engineer
Brigade was directed to begin deployment of forces and to have an airborne
engineer battalion on the ground within 24 hours . . . .

During the time frame to deploy all military engineers, those units on the ground
were busy with a varied amount of work. After the area's main roads were
opened, debris operations became a lower priority mission. The clearing of
areas for the establishment of disaster assistance centers (DACs), life-support
centers (LSCs), mobile kitchen trailer (MKT) feeding sites, and the removal of
associated trash and refuse from those areas, became priority tasks. Further-
more, the clearing of debris from schools grew in importance when local authori-
ties decided to reopen them on 14 September 1992 . . . .

From “Hurricane Andrew: The 20th Engineer Brigade Perspective” by Major


Robert M. Ralston and Lieutenant Colonel Douglas L. Horn, 20th Engineer
Brigade, 1 October 1992.

INTRODUCTION
Organizing and training for war fighting re- may conduct a wide variety of OOTW missions
mains the primary mission of the corps and its that may involve engineers, including—
supporting engineers. However, the corps can
be called upon to conduct OOTW. The corps • Arms control.
commander and his staff quickly identify situ-
ations that may require the commitment of Ž Attacks and raids.
corps assets, including engineers, in OOTW
missions. This facilitates planning and execu- • Combatting terrorism.
tion based on METT-T. Corps force-projection
planning includes the possibility that forces Ž Disaster relief.
committed to the OOTW mission may become
involved with combat operations. Corps forces • Humanitarian assistance.

Operations Other Than War 8-1


FM 5-100-15

• Nation assistance. • Support to civil authorities.

Ž Support to insurgency and counterin- • Support to counterdrug operations.


surgency.
All corps forces, including engineers, cooperate
Ž Noncombatant evacuation operations fully with and act in support of federal, state,
(NEOs). and local civil authorities during domestic
OOTW operations. Overseas, the corps
Ž Peace operations. stresses a unified effort with joint and multina-
tional forces and with the host nation’s civil,
• Demonstrations and shows of force. military and police agencies.

Ž Security assistance.

PRINCIPLES OF OPERATIONS OTHER THAN WAR


The doctrinally based principles of war (such Engineer commanders and their staffs should
as mass, maneuver, unity of comman d, and not expand their missions unless completing
surprise) have withstood the tests of time and additional tasks is critical to accomplishing
experience. However, they do not always apply their primary missions. Engineers may have
to conducting activities other than warfare. their objectives and missions expanded with
The following OOTW principles have been de- each perceived success, as well as contracted
veloped for application by the corps based upon with setbacks.
the mission and operational environment.
Corps engineer considerations are also pro- UNITY OF EFFORT
vided for each OOTW principle.
Unity of effort is more difficult to attain in
OOTW than in war. In such operations, other
OBJECTIVE government agencies will often have the lead.
In OOTW, as in war, the corps commander con- The environment may be multinational, inter-
ducts a mission analysis that clearly defines agency, or under another branch of government
attainable objectives for the corps. The ob- where a single chain of command does not ex-
scure nature of OOTW may require multiple ist. Therefore, the corps attempts to obtain
tasks involved in a single mission. The mili- unity of effort. Unity of effort involves exten-
tary objective may be political or humanitar- sive coordination cooperation, and liaison in
ian. The objective may be limited. Success is the pursuit of common interests toward mis-
usually measured against the stated mission; sion accomplishment. This is done in the face
however, there is a probability that the opera- of divergent goals and political interests. The
tion will expand (such as mission creep). corps’s primary task is consensus building it
understands the capabilities and limitations of
Corps engineer forces understand the corps’s each service, agency and host-nation force as
goals and objectives during OOTW Engineers well as their legal and political requirements
are easily drawn into mission creep because of and limitations.
the unique equipment and personnel capabili-
ties in support of OOTW. Engineers can help Corps engineers facilitate unity of effort by un-
identify defined operational objectives. Engi- derstanding and blending the various capabili-
neer mission and project completion times can ties of military engineers and civilian contrac-
be used to determine the desired end state. tors to meet mission requirements. Delineat-

8-2 Operations Other Than War


FM 5-100-15

ing engineer work areas helps avoid duplica- resolved. Conflict resolution is very time-con-
tion of effort. The efficient use of engineer suming and may require a long-term commit-
forces, equipment, construction materials, and ment of corps forces. Corps elements employed
repair parts increases force productivity. in OOTW exercise adaptability, patience, de-
termination, and perseverance in order to con-
LEGITIMACY tinue the mission for as long as required.

Legitimacy is the subjective judgment that Corps engineers persevere in OOTW through
authority is being exercised by the right people versatility and agility to meet varied and
in the proper way for correct purposes. Legiti- quickly-changing mission requirements. Units
macy in OOTW involves three areas--the gov- supporting maneuver forces with combat engi-
ernment or agency exercising authority, the neering skills may have to construct logistics
presence of US forces in the AO, and the execu- support facilities and structures on a moment’s
tion of law-and-order operations. The people of notice. Construction engineers may be re-
the assisted nation, the world populace, and quired to breach urban obstacles with heavy
the US public all perceive the legitimacy of the equipment. Combat engineers may constantly
involvement of US forces differently. They all breach land mines emplaced in the same
can extensively influence and effect an opera- stretch of road over many days and months.
tion if legitimacy is not established and main- Maintaining supply routes with engineer
tained. Corps OOTW activities support cer- equipment can become redundant in many
tain political objectives, affecting how both the OOTW scenarios. Corps engineers demon-
host government and US forces are perceived strate perseverance and staying power through
by their respective publics. Whenever possi- professionalism and technical and tactical
ble, the corps ensures that its operations en- competence in all assigned missions.
hance the legitimacy of the host nation and its
armed forces in the eyes of the people of that
nation. In cases where a legitimate govern- RESTRAINT
ment does not exist, the corps uses caution When a corps is committed to an OOTW mis-
when dealing with individuals or organizations sion, it will normally be constrained and lim-
to avoid unintended legitimization of those in- ited by the terms of the mission statement,
dividuals or organizations. the terms of reference, and the rules of en-
gagement (ROE). Restrictions on the type of
Corps engineers are well-suited for enhancing force, the weapons used, and the ROE are
the legitimacy of the US presence during both established by the corps commander and
short- and long-term OOTW missions. The vis- clearly communicated to subordinate units in
ible construction and rehabilitation of public order to prevent the escalation of violence in
facilities, schools, water wells, and roads in an activity.
support of OOTW objectives enhance the legiti-
macy of US forces in the eyes of the host-na- Corps engineer forces operate fully within the
tion’s public. USACE personnel and their con- restraints defined by the corps commander.
tractors are well-respected throughout the The ROE concerning the use of land mines,
world as a legitimate US government agency. demolitions, and protective emplacements
are clearly established and written by the
PERSEVERANCE corps engineer staff. Constraints on the use
The corps plans to achieve its OOTW objectives of host-nation engineer equipment, laborers,
as rapidly as possible. However, many causes and construction materials are also identi-
of confl ict tend to be persistent and not quickly fied.

Operations Other Than War 8-3


FM 5-100-15

SECURITY ties, and nontraditional OOTW tasks make


All OOTW contain some degree of risk; there- force and individual soldier security difficult.
fore, regardless of mission, commanders secure
their forces. The presence of corps forces will Corps engineers enhance OOTW security by
bring about a wide range of actions and reac-
understanding all ROE and mission con-
tions. Commanders take appropriate meas- straints, securing their own forces at work sites
ures to ensure hostile factions, including ter- and in base-camp locations, and providing
rorists and criminals, do not acquire an unex-
force-protection construction support to the
pected advantage. Seemingly benign situ- corps. This includes building protective struc-
ations may possess the inherent circumstances
tures, digging emplacements, and emplacing
that place soldiers at risk. The OOTW threat barriers and barricades. OOTW security also
is not always easily recognizable. Mission re-
includes protecting the engineer force by safely
straints and the ROE may limit response op- operating engineer too;ls and equipment and by
tions. Corps force dispersion, diverse activi- keeping engineer soldiers safe and healthy.

ENGINEER SUPPORT TO OPERATIONS-OTHER-THAN-WAR MISSIONS


Corps engineer support is fully integrated sist EOD units in destroying munitions and
with corps OOTW planning processes. Versa- hardware.
tile corps engineer forces provide unique per-
sonnel and equipment capabilities that can ATTACKS AND RAIDS
effectively support complex and sensitive
The corps conducts attacks and raids for spe-
situations in any corps OOTW. All OOTW
cific purposes other than gaining or holding
situations relate directly to wartime corps en-
terrain. The corps conducts them to—
gineer missions and tasks. In many cases,
the only difference between a wartime engi- • Create situations that permit seizing
neer mission and an OOTW engineer mission
is the threat level. The basic engineer tasks
and maintaining political initiative.
remain the same in both environment. FM • Place considerable pressure on govern-
5-114 details engineer support to various
ments and groups supporting terrorism.
OOTW missions.
Ž Damage, destroy, or seize HVTs, equip-
ARMS CONTROL
ment, or facilities that threaten national
Arms control focuses on promoting strategic security interests.
military stability. It encompasses any plan,
arrangement, or process that controls the num- • Demonstrate US capability and resolve
bers, types, and performance characteristics of to achieve a favorable result.
weapons C2, logistics support, and intelli-
gence-gathering systems. • Support counterdrug operations by de-
stroying narcotics production or tr ans-
Corps engineers may support arms-control op- shipment facilities or by supporting
erations by providing topographic and imagery host-nation activities in this arena.
products used to verify treaty compliance and
by constructing logistics support facilities to Corps engineers construct rehearsal sites for
hold and store weapons involved with the the force involved in attacks and raids, Topo-
arms-control process. Corps engineers also as- graphic engineers produce large-scale

8-4 Operations Other Than War


FM 5-100-15

photomaps or graphics to help guide forces to • Developing a good IPB and EBA of
their objectives. Corps engineers participating threat forces.
in the mission may require refresher training
in specialized skills such as air-assault tech- Ž Establishing and enforcing sound oper-
niques, military operations on urbanized ter- ating procedures.
rain (MOUT), or reorganization to fight as in-
fantry. During attacks or raids, corps engi- • Organizing security elements.
neers may be tasked to—
• Constructing secure LSAs and CPs.
• Protect flanks, withdrawal routes, and
landing zones. • Constructing protective shelters for key
facilities.
• Emplace and man roadblocks.
Ž Emplacing vehicle barriers.
• Breach obstacles.
• Clearing standoff zones around facili-
• Move or destroy captured equipment. ties.

• Use captured equipment to perform mis- • Erecting predetonation screens to pro-


sions. tect units and installations.

COMBATTING TERRORISM DISASTER RELIEF


Combatting terrorism has two major compo- The corps participates in disaster-relief opera-
nents: anti terrorism (defensive) and coun - tions to promote human welfare and to quickly
terterrorism (offensive). The corps combats reduce the loss of life, pain and suffering, and
terrorism mainly through anti terrorism. This destruction of property as a result of natural or
includes those active and passive measures man-made disasters. These operations may be
taken to minimize vulnerabilities to terrorist a combination of joint, multinational, and in-
attack. Anti terrorism is a form of force protec- teragency support. The corps continually coor-
tion, which makes it the responsibility of all dinates and cooperates with local, state, fed-
corps units and personnel. Counterterrorism eral, and nongovernmental agencies. This is
is the full range of offensive operations against critical for timely response in the disaster area.
terrorists or those who support terrorists. The FM 100-19 provides further details for domes-
corps rarely conducts counterterrorism opera- tic support operations.
tions.
Corps engineers provide personnel and equip-
Corps engineers may become targets for terror- ment capabilities that are extremely useful
ists because of how and where they perform during disaster-relief operations in the follow-
their missions, especially construction projects ing areas:
and other wide-area missions. Equipment
parks and supply yards are large and difficult • Removing debris.
to defend. Soldiers operating equipment or
hauling materials are vulnerable to ambush by Ž Reestablishing utilities.
direct and indirect fires, mines, and booby
traps, Corps engineer leaders support antiter- • Rebuilding LOC.
rorism by—

Operations Other Than War 8-5


FM 5-100-15

• Assisting with the distribution of aid, and responsive democratic institutions; to de-
including food and clothing. velop a supportive infrastructure; to promote
strong, free-market economies; and to provide
• Building temporary facilities and struc- an orderly political change and economic-pro-
tures for displaced persons. gress environment. All corps nation-assistance
actions are integrated through the US ambas-
HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE sador’s country plan and the CINC’s regional
plan. These goals can only be met through
The corps possesses an ability to rapidly re-
education and transfer of essential skills to the
spond to emergencies that are caused by natu-
host nation. To be effective in meeting these
ral or man-made disasters or other endemic
goals, the host nation must develop a sense of
conditions such as human pain, disease, fam-
ownership of nation-assistance actions and
ine, or privation in countries or regions. The
projects.
State Department approves most humanitar-
ian-assistance operations and Congress funds
Typical corps engineer missions in support of
them through specific appropriations. Corps
nation-assistance operations include the fol-
commanders coordinate their efforts through
lowing:
the DOD, the United States Agency for Inter-
national Development (USAID), and the US • Engineer staff visits and exchanges of
ambassador. The corps can be tasked to pro-
engineer subject-m atter experts (SMEs)
vide the C2 support necessary to plan and exe-
between the US and the foreign nation
cute the ground portion of any hum anitari an-
to discuss specific engineer topics.
assistance operation. The corps may be tasked
to provide the logistics support necessary to Ž The exchange of engineer officers and
relieve human suffering. It may also be tasked
NCOs to work in the host-nation’s army.
to provide forces to secure an area in order for
the humanitarian-relief efforts of other agen- Ž Deployments of engineer units to per-
cies to proceed.
form multinational engineer training
with the host-nation’s military. This
Corps engineer assistance may include con-
training may include the construction of
structing and repairing rudimentary surface-
roads, airfields, structures, and ports;
transportation systems, basic sanitation fa-
well drilling; construction-material pro-
cilities, and rudimentary public facilities and
duction; and topographic engineering.
utilities. Other tasks may include drilling
water wells, constructing feeding centers,
and disposing of human and hazardous SUPPORT TO INSURGENCY AND
waste. COUNTERINSURGENCY
At the direction of the National Command
NATION ASSISTANCE
Authority (NCA), the corps may assist either
Nation assistance includes the civil and mili- insurgent movements or the host-nation gov-
tary assistance actions (other than humanitar- ernment opposing an insurgency. In both
ian assistance) rendered to a nation by the cases, the corps predominantly supports politi-
corps within that nation during war, conflict, cal and economical objectives. Through SOF,
and peace. Nation assistance supports the the corps covertly supports insurgences that
host nation’s efforts to promote development, oppose repressive regimes that work against
ideally through the use of host-nation re- US interests. The corps provides overt support
sources. The goals of nation assistance are to to a host-nation’s counterinsurgency opera-
promote long-term stability; to develop sound tions through logistical and training support in

8-6 Operations Other Than War


FM 5-100-15

concert with the US ambassador’s country PEACE OPERATIONS


plan. Peace operations encompass three types of pre-
dominantly diplomatic activities: preventive
Corps engineer support to insurgency forces is diplomacy, peacemaking, and peace building.
limited to providing topographic products and It also includes two complementary, predomi-
constructing SOF operating bases located out- nantly military activities--peacekeeping and
side the AO. Corps engineer missions for coun- peace enforcement. Corps engineer involve-
terinsurgency operations are similar to those ment in shows of force, preventive deploy-
for humanitarian and nation assistance. They ments, military-to-military relations, and secu-
include water supply and sanitation improve- rity-assistance programs all support preven-
ments; road, airfield, and port construction; tive diplomacy and peacemaking efforts.
and multinational training. Corps engineers support peace building pri-
marily through postconflict missions such as
NONCOMBATANT EVACUATION repairing utilities and roads, FM 100-23 pro-
OPERATIONS vides further details for peace operations.
NEOs are conducted to evacuate threatened
US and authorized host-nation or third-coun- Peacekeeping Operations
try citizens from locations in a foreign nation
Peacekeeping operations (PKOs) support diplo-
or a safe haven. A NEO involves swift, tempo-
matic efforts to establish or maintain peace in
rary occupancy of an objective. It ends with a areas of potential or actual conflict, They are
preplanned withdrawal. If the use of force is
undertaken with the consent of all belligerents,
involved, the minimum amount of force to ac- Corps PKO forces monitor and facilitate the
complish the mission will be used. A NEO is implementation of an existing truce or cease-
normally conducted as a joint operation by the fire and they support diplomatic efforts to
corps and sometimes involves multinational reach a long-term political settlement. Strict
forces.
appearance of neutrality, an adequate means of
self-protection, and the avail ability of timely
Corps engineers that support a NEO generally
and effective support are critical. The corps
operate as part of a joint force and may conduct
may be tasked to conduct PKOs over a consid-
a wide variety of tasks, including— erable time period, under multinational con-
trol (such as the United Nations (UN)), or un-
Ž Constructing temporary facilities and
der a unilateral peacekeeping umbrella.
protective structures in country or in
another country for either US forces or
Corps engineer missions in PKOs range from
the evacuees.
facilities construction to minefield clearance.
The size and composition of the corps engineer
Ž Providing needed topographic products
unit will vary depending on the specific tasks
and data for the operation.
that the unit must perform. If the force is
moving into an area with no facilities, the re-
Ž Conducting route reconnaissance and
quirement for construction engineering skills
mobility operations for land evacuation.
will depend on whether the force will construct
its own facilities, another country’s engineers
Ž Repairing airfields and clearing helicop-
will construct them, or the work will be con-
ter landing zones for use in air-evacu-
tracted. If the peacekeeping force moves into
ation operations.
existing facilities, the requirement for con-
struction skills will depend on who is tasked to
maintain the facilities. Although the require-

Operations Other Than War 8-7


FM 5-100-15

ment for combat engineers maybe small, there There are several construction missions essen-
is a possible need for this type of force to con- tial for PKOs. These missions include con-
struct barriers, provide assistance and training structing observation posts (OPs), checkpoints,
in engineering skills, or conduct countermine and roadblocks.
operations, either in contested areas or along
peacekeeping-force patrol routes. The major- Combat engineering tasks (such as mobility,
ity of engineer operations fall into one of two countermobility and survivability tasks) may
categories: general engineering and combat be conducted by US engineer units in support
engineering support. of PKOs. Engineer missions specifically re-
lated to PKOs include—
General engineer missions include those tasks
that support the force through the construction Ž Constructing CPs, bunkers, and OPs.
and repair of billeting, support and logistics
facilities, as well as LOC. These tasks may Ž Constructing force-protection struc-
include constructing, maintaining, and operat- tures such as earth revetments, wire ob-
ing electrical and sanitation utilities as well as stacles, and defensive positions.
locating water sources, operating reverse os-
mosis water purification units, and drilling Ž Clearing fields of observation.
wells, if necessary for water supply. General
engineering support must be in accordance Ž Demolishing fortifications.
with agreements between the parties in the
conflict and the host nations, as applicable, and Ž Clearing or marking minefield (includ-
must comply with Title 10, USC 401 unless ing minefield-fence maintenance).
support is provided under Section 551 of the
Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 USC 2348). Ž Clearing mines and booby traps.

The purpose of general engineering is to pro- Ž Providing backup support for identify-
vide an adequate support base for the ing, marking, removing, or destroying
peacekeeping force. The base must provide se- explosive ordnance.
cure and healthy living conditions. It must
provide sufficient administrative and mainte- Peace-Enforcement Operations
nance space for the units supporting the force
Peace-enforcement operations (PEOs) are mili-
and secure storage for all associated supplies
tary intervention operations in support of dip-
and material.
lomatic efforts to restore peace or to establish
conditions for conducting PKOs. PEOs are in-
Specific general engineering missions include —
tended to halt violence and restore more nor-
Ž Base-camp construction. mal civil activities. PEOs seek to restore order
and political and diplomatic dialogue. Unlike
Ž Air bases, ports, and other logistics fa- PKOs, in PEOs the consent of all belligerents
will not be obtained. Typically, one or more of
cilities construction.
the belligerents will not be in favor of employ-
Ž LOC construction. ing PEO forces. When conducting PEOs, the
corps deploys sufficient combat power to pre-
Ž Potable water-source development. sent a credible threat, to protect the force, and
to conduct the full range of combat operations
necessary to restore order and to separate war-
Ž Base and LOC maintenance.
ring factions when required. PEOs are nor-

8-8 Operations Other Than War


FM 5-100-15

really conducted in cooperation with other act on a corps, it is normally through the
counties and agencies but may be unilateral Security Assistance Training Program (SATP).
in scope. The two primary subcomponents of this pro-
gram are the International Military Education
Corps engineers support PEOs with— and Training Program (IMETP) and the For-
eign Military Sales Program (FMSP). How-
Ž Combat engineer missions in support of ever, in cases where security assistance must
combat operations. be surged to meet urgent operational require-
ments, the corps may be required to supervise
Ž Topographic engineering support. the preparation and transfer of major end
items of equipment by subordinate corps units
Ž Lodgment and theater infrastructure to a foreign nation.
development, including the construction
and repair of protective facilities, roads, Corps engineers may be involved with security
airfields, ports, and troop life-support assistance by constructing required logistics
facilities. facilities that support the FMSP. Corps engi-
neer mobile training teams are also able to
DEMONSTRATIONS AND SHOWS OF FORCE support the IMETP.
Demonstrations and shows of force portray
American resolve in a situation vital to our SUPPORT TO CIVIL AUTHORITIES
national interests to potential adversaries. These operations provide temporary support to
They can take the form of multinational train- domestic civil authorities when permitted by
ing exercises, rehearsals, forward staging of law. They are normally taken when an emer-
units, or force buildup in the AO. A corps’s gency overwhelms the capabilities of civil
involvement in a show of force may range in authorities. The type of support provided by
size and scope from a publicized, heightened the corps is divided into four categories: disas-
state of alert at the home station to the comple- ter relief, environmental assistance, commu-
tion of an unopposed force-projection entry into nity assistance, and law enforcement.
the AO. The corps must plan for the possibility
of a show of force deteriorating into a combat Corps engineer forces may be called upon to
operation. Political concerns dominate shows support civil authorities in various missions
of force. such as fighting forest fires, removing snow,
removing hazardous wastes, providing riot
Corps engineer support to demonstrations and control, and constructing emergency bridges
shows of force is normally a joint and multina- and airfields. FM 100-19 describes in detail
tional effort. Corps engineer tasks are very how corps engineers support civil authorities.
similar to the ones described in Chapter 3. The
overt use of engineer forces during shows of SUPPORT TO COUNTERDRUG OPERATIONS
force may aid in the operation’s political intent.
Because of US Code restrictions, the corps does
not normally participate in domestic counter-
SECURITY ASSISTANCE
drug operations. National Guard corps units
Security assistance provides defense material, may participate in counterdrug operations
military training, and defense-related services while under the state’s control. The corps may
by grants, loans, creditor cash sales to further become involved with cooperating foreign gov-
national policies and objectives. Security-as- ernments to interdict the flow of illegal drugs
sistance operations do not normally have an at the source, in transit and during distribu-
impact on a corps. When they do have an im- tion. Corps support of foreign counterdrug op-

Operations Other Than War 8-9


FM 5-100-15

erations is normally coordinated by the CINC • Constructing or rehabilitating law-en-


of the region, his special-operations command, forcement target ranges; helipads; and
and a country’s military-assistance groups. fuel-storage, billet, CP, and mainte-
The corps will normally supervise the prepara- nance facilities.
tion, deployment, and possible sustainment of
small specialized units to meet CINC or SOF Ž Producing photomaps and other topo-
shortfalls. graphic products of likely counterdrug
operations areas.
Corps engineers supporting domestic counter-
drug operations perform missions focused on Ž Constructing or upgrading access roads
supporting local law-enforcement agencies. for drug-interdiction patrols.
Engineers are sensitive to the legal aspects of
support to civilian authorities and abide by the Ž Clearing observation fields for counter-
Posse Comitatus Act. They are also aware of drug teams.
the capabilities of the threat, which is primar-
ily heavily armed narcotics traffickers. Typical
support tasks include—

ENGINEER CONSIDERATIONS
OOTW are joint, multi agency, and multi na- Threat engineer capabilities in likely
tional efforts. Effective engineer liaison with lodgment areas, including combat engi-
all involved military units and civilian agen- neering requirements for force protec-
cies is critical to mission success. The corps tion, countermine, counterobstacle, and
engineer tailors engineer support based on early-entry force support operations.
mission requirements. This support may be
radically different than for supporting combat The status of the infrastructure in the
operations. The following discussion high- AO, including airfield, road, port, logis-
lights key corps engineer OOTW considera- tics base, and troop bed-down facilities;
tions: real estate acquisition; construction ma-
terial supply; construction manage-
ENGINEER ASSESSMENT ment; and line-haul requirements.
An early, on-the-ground assessment by corps
Existing topographic product availabil-
engineer forces is critical to properly tailor and
ity and requirements for new terrain
logistically support the follow-on engineer
visualization products.
OOTW force. Results of this assessment are
quickly passed to deployment planners to en-
Specialized engineer requirements such
sure that an adequate engineer support force
as prime-power, fire-fighting, water-de-
arrives in the AO in a timely manner. Failure
tection, and well-drilling support.
to provide an adequate and timely engineer
force may cause inadequate troop bed down,
Engineer C2 requirements, including
sanitation, and force protection to the deployed
headquarters staffing, communications,
force. This early, on-the-ground engineer as- and information systems support.
sessment identifies—

8-10 Operations Other Than War


FM 5-100-15

Ž Engineer liaison requirements, includ- • Evaluate the availability of standard


ing linguists and civil-affairs personnel. and nonstandard map products in the
OOTW’s AO. If shortfalls exist, the
• Mission objectives and end-state, mis- corps engineer and the Intelligence Di-
sion-success, and liaison procedures. rectorate (J2) or ARFOR G2 define spe-
cific requirements and coordinate the
• Requirements for officers with contract- collection and creation of necessary data
ing officer’s representative (COR) or to build the JTF or ARFOR topographic
USACE experience. data base.

Ž The use of LOGCAP, contractor respon- • Coordinate with the J2/J3 or the ARFOR
sibilities, contract construction proce- G2/G3 for the early collection of terrain
dures, and initial work areas. information in the OOTW’s AO through
reconnaissance, topographic survey,
and satellite imagery.
JOINT ENGINEER COMMAND AND
CONTROL Ž Ensure that terrain analysis and topo-
Because of the joint, multi agency, and multina- graphic reproduction capability are
tional nature of OOTW, a key consideration is available early to the JTF or ARFOR or
how various engineer forces are commanded provided through split-basing these ca-
and controlled. At the joint and multinational pabilities from CONUS locations.
staffing level, the engineer staff should be
placed under the operational (J3) staff or as a • Establish a topographic-product stor-
separate SES. Engineers should avoid being age-and-distribution capability in the
placed under the auspices of the joint or multi- OOTW’s AO in conjunction with the J4
national logistics (J4) staff. Lessons learned or ARFOR G4.
from continuing OOTW deployments show that
when staff engineers are placed under the J4, Ž Establish special topographic product
engineers are tied up supporting logistics procedures with SOF and other deployed
forces in theater at the expense of maneuver forces.
and other deployed units. A separate engineer
headquarters should be identified to command
and control diverse OOTW engineer support. CONSTRUCTION SUPPORT
OOTW missions are normally conducted fol-
lowing the destruction of the area’s infrastruc-
TOPOGRAPHIC SUPPORT ture because of man-made or natural disasters
By their nature, OOTW missions are normally or conflicts between warring factions. OOTW
conducted in areas of the US and the rest of the highlight the requirement for engineers to es-
world that have limited up-to-date topographic tablish some type of bare-base infrastructure
coverage from the DMA; the United States that supports deployed forces or displaced civil-
Geological Survey (USGS); and other civilian, ians with minimal life support and a protected,
allied, and host-nation sources. It is critical healthy, and safe environment. Sanitary living
that the corps engineer ensures that the follow- and working areas are usually nonexistent.
ing functions are accomplished when providing Water supplies are usually contaminated.
topographic support to a corps JTF or ARFOR Electric power grids are normally off-line. Air-
OOTW mission: fields and ports may not be operating at full
capacity due to damage. Criminal activity
may be widespread. The corps engineer en-

Operations Other Than War 8-11


FM 5-100-15

sures that the following functions are accom- COUNTERMINE OPERATIONS


plished when providing construction support to It is estimated that there are more than 100
a corps JTF or ARFOR OOTW mission: million uncleared land mines spread through-
out 62 countries. This equates to approxi-
Ž Determine the status, availability, and mately one land mine for every 50 people on
acquisition procedures for existing in- our planet. Land mines are cheap and easily
frastructure facilities, utilities, air- obtained or constructed. They have become
fields, ports, roads, and construction the third world’s weapon of choice. They di-
materials in the OOTWs AO. rectly threaten civilian populations and corps
forces during OOTW missions. US forces do
Ž Estimate minimal engineer construc- not conduct demining operations; they clear
tion standards for life support and force mines only as required for military operations.
protection, including the need for base- It is critical that the corps engineer ensures
camp packaging such as Force Provider. that the following functions are accomplished
Define the construction end state with when providing countermine support to a corps
the JTF or ARFOR commander. Avoid JTF or ARFOR OOTW mission that is threat-
mission creep. ened with land mines:
• Determine what construction will be Ž Work closely with the JTF J2 or ARFOR
conducted by US or host-nation military G2 to determine the land-mine threat in
engineers or civilian contracting the OOTW’s AO. Publish mine-recogni-
through LOGCAP, based on deployment tion handbooks for deploying forces. Ex-
time lines and the threat level. ploit all sources of intelligence to iden-
tify mined areas in the OOTW's AO.
• Ensure that the JTF or ARFOR has ade-
quate. construction-management capa- Ž Ensure that deployed forces are trained
bility in the OOTW’s AO, including the to identify, mark, and report encoun-
use of joint, ENCOM, or USACE aug- tered land mines.
mentation teams.
Ž Ensure that engineers are fully confi-
• Ensure that joint, ENCOM, or USACE
dent in the employment of countermine
real estate acquisition teams are de- equipment and that the equipment is
ployed. operational. Conduct land-mine detec-
tion, marking, and removal training for
Ž Conduct thorough terrain analysis to en-
soldiers conducting countermine mis-
sure adequate construction-site drain- sions.
age, heavy-equipment access, and pro-
tection. Ž Provide necessary individual protective
equipment and mine-resistant vehicles
Ž Ensure that required construction mate-
to soldiers conducting countermine op-
rials are procured and shipped in a erations.
timely manner to meet initial deployed
force-protection and life-support needs. Ž
Establish, disseminate, and enforce
Flow in construction materials with de- route and area land-mine clearance and
ploying forces. Establish with the JTF marking procedures for the OOTW’s AO.
J4 or ARFOR G4 specific construction- Include these procedures with estab-
material yard locations and requisition lished ROE.
and distribution procedures.

8-12 Operations Other Than War


FM 5-100-15

FORCE PROTECTION • Develop force-protection construction


standards for operating and life-support
Corps engineers have unique equipment and
bases, including the need for security
personnel capabilities that can be used to sup-
fencing, lighting, obstacles, and guard
port deployed force-protection efforts during
OOTW missions. Engineers construct protec- posts.
tive facilities, bunkers, emplacements, vehicle
barriers, fences, and other structures needed to Ž Ensure that adequate force-protection
construction materials are provided to
protect the force. The corps engineer ensures
that the following functions are accomplished early-entry forces.
when providing force-protection support to a
corps JTF or ARFOR operation: • Establish facility security-inspection
procedures with military and local law-
enforcement personnel to quickly iden-
• Establish with the JTF or ARFOR com-
tify and repair breaches.
mander the required level of protection
needed in the OOTW’s AO, based on the
expected threat.

Operations Other Than War 8-13


FM 5-100-15

APPENDIX A
ORDERS AND ANNEXES
Orders and annexes are critical components of This appendix is divided into two major sec-
corps engineer C2. The corps engineer brigade tions. The first section deals with the corps
commander exercises functional control over OPORD, the engineer annex and the topo-
engineer operations within the corps (engineer graphic operations annex. This section pro-
units supporting maneuver divisions, separate vides the base format of the corps OPORD,
brigades, and cavalry regiments) by including highlighting areas where the corps engineer
critical instructions in the corps order and the may have direct input. It also outlines the
engineer annex. The corps engineer brigade format and content of the engineer and topo-
commander also issues a unit order to exercise graphic operations amexes and provides sam-
both fictional and unit control over forces ple overlays. The second section focuses on
committed to corps-level operations. These corps engineer unit orders. It provides a for-
units are normally task-organized by the corps mat and content for the corps engineer unit
under the control of the corps engineer brigade WARNORD and OPORD, including possible
commander. Therefore, it is imperative that annexes, overlays, and FRAGOs.
the corps engineer brigade commander under-
stands how to use the combination of corps and
unit orders to convey the plan.

THE CORPS OPORD, THE ENGINEER ANNEX, AND THE TOPOGRAPHIC


OPERATIONS ANNEX
CORPS OPORD gineer annex covers critical aspects of the en-
Figure A-1, pages A-2 through A-5, is a sample tire engineer plan, not just parts that pertain
format of the corps OPORD. Paragraphs in to engineer units. The engineer annex is not a
which the corps engineer brigade commander replacement for a unit order. For example, it
may provide engineer input are highlighted. does not give subunit orders and service sup
port instructions to engineer units remaining
under the corps engineer brigade command;
ENGINEER ANNEX those orders and instructions are contained in
The engineer annex contains information not the corps engineer brigade order. The engineer
included in the base corps order that is critical annex should meet the following general crite-
to the corps engineer plan or required for sub- ria:
ordinate engineer planning. It does not in- • Includes critical information derived
clude instructions or orders directly to corps from the EBA process.
engineer units. All instructions or tasks are
addressed to maneuver divisions, separate bri- Ž Contains all critical information and
gades, and cavalry regiments--not supporting tasks not covered elsewhere in the or-
corps engineer units. More important, the en- der.

Orders and Annexes A-1


FM 5-100-15

(Classification)

Copy of copies
Issuing Headquarters
(Place (coordinates) country)
(Date-time group, month, year)
(Message reference number)

OPERATION ORDER (number) (code name, if used)

Reference(s): Map(s) and other references required.


Time Zone Used Throughout the Order:

Task Organization:

Ž Must accurately reflect the engineer task organization of the unit's supporting maneuver
divisions, separate brigades, and cavalry regiments, including the command or support
relationship.

Ž List units under the corps engineer brigade commander’s command.

Ž List units remaining under corps control.

1. SITUATION.

a. Enemy Forces. Include recant enemy engineer activities or capabilities that are critical to
maneuver division, separate brigade, and cavalry regiment commanders or are essential to understanding
the corps engineer plan.

b. Friendly Forces.

c. Attachments and Detachments.

Ž State the effective time for engineer task organization if it differs from other units.

• Clarify or highlight changes in engineer task organization that occur during a phase of the
operation. For example, releasing corps control of bridge units to divisions.

2. MISSION.

3. EXECUTION.

Intent.

a. Concept of the Operation.

(1) Maneuver.

(2) Fires.

(3) Counterair operations.

Figure A-1. Corps OPORD

A-2 Orders and Annexes


FM 5-100-15

(4) Intelligence.

• Include the focus of engineer intelligence-collection efforts that impact on the


maneuver plan.

• Provide subordinate units with information requirements that are command PIR, as
coordinated with the G2 and the corps commander.

Ž Include special topographic product Information, such as river and trafficability data.

(5) Electronic warfare.

(6) Engineer.

Ž Describe the concept of engineer operations to support the maneuver plan.

• Establish the priority of effort and priority of support by mission and unit for each
phase of the operation.

• Focus primarily on support to simultaneous deep, close, and rear operations.

Ž Discuss corps-level missions only as they impact on division, separate brigade, and
cavalry regiment commanders.

(7) (Others, as needed.)

b. Tasks to Maneuver Units.

Ž Mission-essential engineer tasks to be accomplished by a specific maneuver element.

Ž Mission-essential tasks to be accomplished by engineers task-organized to maneuver


elements.

c. Tasks to Combat Support Units. May include corps-level tasks assigned to the corps engineer
brigade. Only listed to inform division, separate brigade, and cavalry regiment commanders of tasks under
corps control using corps-level forces.

d. Coordinating Instructions.

Ž Critical engineer instructions common to two or more maneuver units.

Ž Does not normally include SOP information unless it is needed for emphasis.

Ž May Include times or events In which corps-directed obstacle zones and ORAs become
effective, if they differ from the effective time of the order.

Ž Establish initial mission-oriented protective posture (MOPP) level for operation.

4. SERVICE SUPPORT.

a. General Concept of Logistics Support.

Ž Concept for push of Class lV/V supplies.

Ž Concept for logistics support of organic and supporting corps engineers task-organized to
maneuver divisions, separate brigades, and cavalry regiments, if not listed in service

Figure A-1. Corps OPORD (continued]

Orders and Annexes A-3


FM 5-100-15

support annex.

Ž Concept for bridging supplies.

b. Materiel and Services.

(1) Supply.

Ž Division, separate brigade, and cavalry regiment allocations of Class IV or engineer


Class V supplies, if not contained in the engineer annex.

Ž Tentative locations for transfer of Class IV/V supplies to maneuver divisions, separate
brigades, and cavalry regiments.

Ž Locations of bridging supplies in the corps area.

Ž Standard map-product supplies.

(2) Transportation. Transport of engineer-related supplies by corps units or organic engineer haul
assets.

(3) Services.

c. Medical Evacuation and Hospitalization.

d. Personnel.

e. Civil-Military Cooperation.

f. Host-Nation Support.

Ž Real estate procurement procedures.

• Use of host-nation construction forces.

g. Contracting.

Ž Construction contracting procedures.

• Use of LOGCAP.

h. Miscellaneous.

5. COMMAND AND SIGNAL.

a. Command.

b. Signal.

Figure A-1. Corps OPORD (continued)

A-4 Orders and Annexes


FM 5-100-15

Acknowledge

Commander’s Signature (optional)


Commander’s last name
Rank

OFFICIAL:
(Authentication)

Annexes:

Distribution:

Figure A-1. Corps OPORD (continued)

Orders and Annexes A-5


FM 5-100-15

• Does not contain items covered in SOPs Ž All existing and proposed friendly obsta-
unless the mission requires a change to cles and control measures (obstacle
the SOP. zones, restrictions, and lanes; directed
and reserve obstacles; and corps-level
Ž Contains information and tasks directed situational obstacles, including associ-
to major subordinate elements of the ated NAI/TAI).
corps, not supporting engineer units.
• Known and plotted enemy obstacles
• Contains clear, complete, brief, and (must also be on situation template).
timely directives, but avoids qualified
directives. Ž Logistic locations and routes, as they
apply to engineer operations.
• Includes only information and instruc-
tions that have been fully coordinated • NBC-contaminated areas.
with other parts of the OPORD, the
corps commander, and the staff. • Scatterable mine restrictions.

The engineer annex includes any combination Ž River-crossing locations and restric-
of written instructions, matrices, or overlays tions.
necessary to convey the essential details of the
engineer plan. The engineer annex provides a Ž Proposed thorough decontamination
standard format for both offensive and defen- sites.
sive operations. This format standardizes the
organization of information included as writ- Figure A-2, pages A-7 through A-11, is a sam-
ten instructions. The actual content depends ple format of a written engineer annex Fig-
on the type of operation and engineer plan. A ures A-3 through A-5, pages A-12 through A-14,
standardized annex format makes it easier for provide sample matrices and overlays.
the engineer staff officer to remember what
should be included, as well as for subordinate
staff officers to find required information. The TOPOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS ANNEX
format tailors the five-paragraph order to con-
vey critical information. The corps prepares a topographic operations
annex to all OPORDs. This annex provides the
The engineer annex may also include matrices direction needed by subordinate elements of
and overlays, as necessary, to convey the plan. the command to obtain support from topo-
Matrices may be used as part of the body of the graphic units and guidance for the employment
annex or as separate appendices. They are of those units. The format for the topographic
used to quickly convey or summarize informa- annex is shown in Figure A-6, pages A-15
tion not needing explanation, such as logistics through A-18. Proper preparation of the annex
allocations, corps obstacle zone priorities and demands detailed identification and definition
restrictions, or the task summary (execution of all requirements for topographic products
matrix). Finally overlays are used to give in- and services, whether provided by the DMA or
formation or instructions and expedite integra- field units. The preparation of the topographic
tion into the overall combined arms plan. At annex is not limited to topographic products,
corps level, information shown on overlays may but applies to any products and services in the
include but is not limited to— MC&G field which are required to support the
corps OPORD.

A-6 Orders and Annexes


FM 5-100-15

(Classification)

copy of copies
Issuing Headquarters
(Place (coordinates) country)
(Date-time group, month, year)
(Message reference number)

Annex (Engineer) to OPORD

Reference: Map(s) and other references required.


Time Zone Used Throughout the Order:

Task Organization: List all engineer units and task-organize them to maneuver divisions, separate brigades, and
cavalry regiments; the corps engineer brigade organization; or the corps.

Ž List all engineer units supporting the corps and engineer units task-organized to other than the parent
unit.

• May include a summary of low-density equipment, as necessary, to clarify unit task organization.

Ž Address command/support relationships as appropriate.

• Clearly identify changes in engineer task organization that occur during the operation.

Ž Must track with basic order.

1. SITUATION.

a. Enemy forces.

Ž Terrain. Critical aspects of the terrain impacting operations, including river and trafficability data.

• Weather, Critical aspects of the weather impacting operations.

Ž Enemy engineer capability/activity.

-- Known and plotted locations and activities of enemy engineer units.

-- Significant enemy maneuver and engineer capabilities that impact on engineer operations.

-- Expected employment of engineers based on the most probable enemy course of action.

b. Friendly forces.

• Designation, location, and activities of higher and adjacent engineers impacting on corps or
requiring coordination.

Ž Nonengineer units capable of assisting in engineer operations (such as nonengineer units capable

Figure A-2. Engineer Annex

Orders and Annexes A-7


FM 5-100-15

of emplacing scatterable mines).

c. Attachments and Detachments.


Ž List units attached or detached, only as necessary to clarify task organization.

• Highlight changes in engineer task organization occurring during operations along with effective
times or events.

2. MISSION. Same as corps mission statement.

3. EXECUTION.

a. Scheme of Engineer Operations.

• Describe the concept of engineer operations to support the maneuver plan. Must tie critical tasks
or main effort to the corps defeat mechanism.

• Establish the main effort of the engineer effort by mission and unit for each phase of the
operation.

Ž Focus primarily on corps engineer support to simultaneous deep, close, and rear operations.

• Discuss corps-level engineer missions only as they impact on division, separate brigade, and
cavalry regiment commanders.

(1) Obstacles.

• Supplement the narrative above, focusing specifically on details of the countermobility effort.

• Identify directed obstacle zones and ORAs used to support simultaneous corps deep, close,
and rear operations, Assign zone responsibilities, priorities, and restrictions to obstacle
zones. Zone restrictions may preclude the use of certain types of mines or obstacles or the
use of obstacles on specific routes through zones,

Ž Identify, prioritize, and assign responsibilities for corps-directed tactical and reserve
demolition obstacles. Also, provide execution criteria for reserve obstacles.

(2) Situational obstacles.

Ž Concept for the employment of situational obstacles. Focus on how they will be used to
support the corps maneuver plan, including scatterable mines.

Ž Corps-planned and executed. Clearly identify location, intent, and execution criteria of
corps-level obstacles planned and executed by the corps.

• Corps-planned/division, separate brigade, or cavalry regiment-executed, Assign


responsibilities for executing corps situation obstacles emplaced and resourced by the corps.
Discussion must include details on NAIs, TAIs, decision points, and execution criteria.

• Corps-resourced/division, separate brigade, or cavalry regiment-planned and executed.


Assign intent and allocate resources to divisions, separate brigades, and cavalry regiments.
May also state execution criteria.

• Authority. For each type, clearly state the headquarters maintaining the authority to use
scatterable mines and any restrictions on duration (by zone).

Figure A-2. Engineer Annex (continued)

A-8 Orders and Annexes


FM 5-100-15

(3) Bridging.

Ž Concept for the employment of float and fixed bridging in the corps area.

• Concept for host-nation bridging support.

• Locations of corps bridge parks/host-nation bridge supply points.

(4) Construction.

• Concept for horizontal and vertical construction in the corps area.

• Host-nation or contract construction capability.

Ž Standards of construction.

Ž Environmental guidance.

Ž Use of LOGCAP for construction.

Ž Use of EWL.

(5) Topographic engineering. Refer to the Topographic Operations Annex to the corps OPORD.

b. Subunit Instructions. (All tasks listed as division, separate brigade, and cavalry regiment missions or
engineer units under corps control.)

Ž Engineer tasks to be accomplished by a specific subordinate unit and not contained In the base
OPORD.

• Engineer tasks to be accomplished by engineers supporting maneuver elements (only as


necessary to ensure unity of effort).

• Corps-level tasks assigned to the corps engineer brigade organization are included, List only to
inform subordinate unit commanders of tasks under corps control using corps-level forces.

c. Coordinating Instructions,

• Critical engineer instructions common to two or more maneuver units not already covered in the
bae OPORD.

• SOP Information, only if needed for emphasis.

Ž Times or events in which obstacle zones and ORAs become effective, if they differ from the
effective time of the order.

Ž Corps PIR that must be considered by subordinate engineer staff officers or that require reports to
the ACE.

• Mission reports required by the ACE (if not covered in Signal paragraph or unit SOP).

• Explanation of EWL, If used.

4. SERVICE SUPPORT.

a. Command-Regulated Classes of Supply.

Figure A-2. Engineer Annex (continued)

Orders and Annexes A-9


FM 5-100-15

Ž Highlight subunit allocations of command-regulated classes of supply that impact on the


operation’s CSR.

Ž May summarize in a matrix or table.

b. Class lV/V Supplies Distribution Plan.

Ž State the method of supply (supply point or unit distribution) to be used for Class lV/V supplies for
each subunit.

• Give tentative locations for Class lV/V supply points or locations for linkup of corps or theater
push packages directly to units.

• Give allocation of Class lV/V supplies by division, separate brigade, cavalry regiment, zone, or a
combination. May be summarized in a matrix or table.

c. Transportation.

Ž Allocation and priority of support of theater and corps haul or airlift assets dedicated to division,
separate brigades, and cavalry regiments for Class lV/V supplies haul.

Ž Requirements for divisions, separate brigades, and cavalry regiments to supplement corps
transportation of mission loads (for example, divisions, separate brigades, and cavalry regiments
responsible for haul forward of PL each division, separate brigade, and cavalry regiment
provides heavy expanded mobility tactical trucks (HEMTTs) to haul mission).

d. Health-Services Support. Address arrangements made for theater engineer units operating in corps
areas.

e. Host Nation.

Ž Types and locations of host-nation engineer facilities, assets, or support.

Ž Procedures for requesting and acquiring host-nation engineer support.

Ž Limitations or restrictions on host-nation support (for example, host-nation personnel not


authorized forward of PL ).

f. Personnel Support. Address arrangements made for theater engineer units operating in corps areas.

5. COMMAND AND SIGNAL.

a. Command.

Ž Location of key engineer leaders.

Ž Designated chain of command.

• Designated headquarters that controls the effort within work lines on an area basis.

b. Signal.

Ž Nets monitored by the ACE and the corps TAC and rear CP engineers for reports, if different than
SOP.

Ž Designated critical engineer reporting requirements of subordinates, if not covered in coordinating

Figure A-2. Engineer Annex (continued)

A-10 Orders and Annexes


FM 5-100-15

Instructions or SOP.

ACKNOWLEDGE

COMMANDER
Rank

Official
/s/
Name
Position

Appendices
--Obstacle overlay (Figure A-3)
--Large-scale breach overlay (Figure A-4)
--Rear operations overlay (Figure A-5)

Figure A-2. Engineer Annex (continued)

Orders and Annexes A-11


FM 5-100-15

Figure A-3. Obstacle overlay

A-12 Orders and Annexes


FM 5-100-15

Figure A-4. Large-scale breach lane overlay

Orders and Annexes A-13


FM 5-100-15

Figure A-5. Engineer rear-area operations

A-14 Orders and Annexes


FM 5-100-15

(Classification)

copy of copies
Issuing Headquarters
(Place (coordinates) country)
(Date-time group, month, year)
(Message reference number)

Annex (Topographic Operations) to OPORD

References:

a. List those standard maps that are required for an understanding of this annex.

b. List those documents which provide the guidance required for the necessary planning functions that are
relevant to this annex.

1. SITUATION.

a. MC&G Requirements. List the MC&G products that are required to support the OPORD. Show
desired area coverage and quantitative requirements using an appendix if necessary or by portraying them
graphically using standard index bases.

b. Available Products. Provide a general statement regarding the availability and adequacy of the MC&G
data and related material required to support the OPORD.

c. Capabilities. List those topographic engineer forces that are assigned or attached. Show the latest
arrival date (LAD) for each topographic engineer unit that is contained in the time-phased force deployment data
(TPFDD). If this is of sufficient length, use an appendix for recording detailed transportation requirements and
procedures. Reference the appendix. Take notice that the format for the appendix should follow local procedures.

d. Supporting Capabilities. List those topographic engineer forces that are not assigned or attached but
which will be required to provide topographic support needed to implement this plan, including units not deployed.
Specify the type of command relationship desired for each unit plus the type and duration of support required.

2. MISSION. Restate the corps OPORD mission statement.

3. EXECUTION.

a. Concept of Topographic Operations.

(1) General. Describe how the command will provide the topographic support necessary to meet the
commander’s overall mission requirement. Include--

• Time phasing of operations.

Ž Nature and purpose of topographic operations to be conducted.

Ž Joint or multinational topographic support.

• Support from the DMA.

Figure A-6. Topographic annex

Orders and Annexes A-15


FM 5-100-15

• Support provided by agreements, coordination, and cooperation necessary for the successful
implementation of the OPORD. Describe the scope and extent of foreign/host-nation support
that is available to enhance topographic operations in support of the OPORD.

(2) Deployment. Summarize the requirements for deploying topographic engineer forces and depot
activities from their normal peacetime locations. Include the area of operations, emphasizing careful time planning
of this deployment.

(3) Employment. Describe in general terms how deployed topographic engineer forces are to be
employed to conduct topographic operations.

b. Tasks. Explain detailed responsibilities of commanders, staffs, and topographic units. In separate
numbered subparagraphs, list the topographic tasks assigned to each element of the command and for those units
that provide support to the OPORD. Each task should be spelled out in a concise statement, including a mission to
be performed in terms of further planning or execution of the overall plan. These task assignments should be
sufficiently detailed to ensure that all elements essential to the concept of the operations are described properly.
Ensure that responsibilities are assigned to establish, validate, and submit MC&G requirements and to task
topographic engineer units supporting the OPORD. State responsibilities for defining and adjusting command
stockage levels at map supply points. Specify map and data storage and distribution responsibilities for pick-up and
storage.

c. Coordinating Instructions. The final subparagraph, lettered appropriately, should be in separately


numbered subparagraphs. List those instructions that apply to the entire command or to two or more elements of it
that are necessary for proper coordination of the MC&G supped. Specify points of contact (POCs) within the
command who can authorize the release of war reserve stocks held or who can resolve command MC&G
problems. State whether a push or pull system will be employed. Specify any restrictions or quantity of the special
products which may be required. Also, explain the command’s system for setting priority and for allocating
resources to deal with demands on limited resources. Describe how notification of forces and agencies will be
carried out and how notification will be time-sequenced. Provide the conditions under which contacts with host-
nation agencies are authorized and identify those POCs.

4. ADMINISTRATION AND LOGISTICS.

a. Supply and Storage.

(1) MC&G products. Provide instructions on the MC&G supply and storage procedures and
requirements. Give guidance for obtaining routine and emergency replenishment of MC&G products. Address any
expected constraints on this replenishment. Include the planned locations of command and supporting MC&G
storage sites and facilities. Specify the type and quantity of MC&G products to be held by the supporting
command’s units. Give guidance for lead times that are required for furnishing nonstandard special-purpose
product support or responding to large quantity orders.

(2) Support of topographic engineer units. Specify the requirements needed for the provision of
nontopographic as well as topographic logistics supports.

b. Transportation.

(1) MC&G products. Provide guidance for the movement of MC&G products from supporting supply
points to the ultimate users. List, as a minimum, the time-phased transportation requirements list (TPTRL) portion
of the TPFDD reflecting movement of MC&G materials. List any transportation shortfalls in the required support of
topographic operations. Also, list contingency plans to fully carry out and sustain topographic operations In the
event that full transportation requirements cannot be provided. An appendix may be used, if necessary, to list
detailed transportation requirements and procedures.

(2) Topographic engineer units. Provide guidance for integrating the topographic engineer unit’s
transportation requirements into the command’s movement order.

Figure A-6. Topographic annex (continued)

A-16 Orders and Annexes


FM 5-100-15

c. MC&G Support. Provide instructions for obtaining planned support. Itemize the division of
responsibilities between organic units and supporting topographic engineer units to ensure that actions to procure
and stock MC&G products are complementary. Identify POCs for emergency procurement. Normally, access to
the DMA support is only available through the theater/JTF command.

d. Reports. Specify how reports are to be formatted as well as what time limits, methods, and
classification apply to their submission. Enter this in the appendix. Follow local procedures for format.

5. COMMAND AND SIGNAL.

a. Priorities, Delineate the priority of MC&G support to supported units and the priority of production for
MC&G products.

b. Command Relationships. Include primary and alternate locations of all major topographic engineer
units and supporting DMA organizations. Specify the C2 relationships between the command and its attached or
supporting MC&G units and organizations if this has not previously been addressed.

c. Command and Control. Provide a statement describing the scope and types of any special signal
support that is required for MC&G operations. With the exception of survey units, most topographic units have few
communications capabilities. Thus, explicit tasks are assigned to ensure that these units are effectively supported
by the command’s assets. This is especially critical in the case of distribution platoons operating map supply
points. Refer to the signal annex of the OPORD.

/s/
Corps Commander

OFFICIAL:

Corps Engineer

Appendices:

1 - MC&G Requirements List


2 - MC&G Transportation Requirements (optional) (not shown)
3 - MC&G Reports (optional) (not shown)

Figure A-6. Topographic annex (continued)

Orders and Annexes A-17


FM 5-100-15

(Classification)

Copy of copies
Issuing Headquarters
(Place (coordinates) country)
(Date-time group, month, year)
(Message reference number)

Appendix 1 to Topographic Annex to HQ OPLAN (Number)

MC&G Requirements List

Required items 1/ Coverage Required 2/ Coverage Available /3 Quantity /4

1. Standard Aerospace
Products

2. Standard Hydrographic
Products

3. Standard Topographic
Products

4. Standard Air Target


Materials

5. Survey Requirements

6. Standard Multiuse
Data Bases

1/ Generalized description such as a map series, scale, or digital data. Stock number of a specific item is not
required.

2/ Area to be covered described by geographic coordinates, political boundaries (identified by geopolitical codes),
and recognizable geographic area Attach a graphic or list in a tab to the appendix.

3/ Attach as a graphic or list related to coverage required or source for special-purpose products in a tab to the
appendix.

4/ Number of copies of each sheet, chart, or item needed to support the OPLAN. Attach a list by stock number in
a tab to the appendix.

Figure A-6. Topographic annex (continued)

A-18 Orders and Annexes


FM 5-100-15

The types of products and services needed to graphical area is the basic load. The term days
carry out unit missions and the quantity and of supply is meaningless for maps since the
frequency of the support desired, are listed. As speed with which a unit moves through any
a minimum, maps and charts required for op- given area is determined by the mission as
erational support must be identified. influenced by the weather, the terrain, and the
enemy situation.
To calculate the quantity of maps required for
a particular OPORD, plot the geographical ar- Planning stocks are those maps required by
eas covered by the unit’s areas of operations commanders and staffs to plan an anticipated
and interest on copies of appropriate indexes operation. Allowances, most of the time, are no
from the DMA or on a theater/JTF map cata- more than 20 percent of the basic load. Com-
log. A small-scale map of the general area may mand guidance should define whether or not
be used to plot and correlate the area to the this quantity is authorized in addition to or as
index. Factors to be considered in setting up part of the basic load.
areas of operations and interest are given in
FM 100-5. Areas of operations are designated Operational stocks are those that have been
by the next higher level of command. An alter- consumed, through loss or destruction during
native method is listing the stock numbers for execution of the OPORD. These stocks must be
all the sheets required. Usually, a combination replaced. Operational stock allowances are
of both methods is done since each has specific usually limited to no more than 20 percent of
advantages. the basic load.

The next step is to determine the size and type Overlap must be considered. A simple addition
of units to be employed, since this defines the of authorizations for all units under a com-
quantity of products required to support the mand is not the total number of maps required
OPORD. The theater/JTF commanders usu- for any particular map sheet To figure this
ally publish supplements to Army Regulation told correctly look at the geographic area cov-
(AR) 115-11 which contain a list of generic erage required for each unit at any level, based
units and the quantities of MC&G products upon the unit’s mission and employment capa-
each is authorized to order. If a supplement bilities. Questions such as “Do all divisions in
has not been published, the tables found in FM a corps require coverage for the entire corps
101-10-1/2, Section IV, Topography, provide the area?" need to be addressed. Entire coverage
necessary guidance. The quantity per sheet is may be required for the corps aviation brigade,
then the sum of authorization for all subordi- even though all the maps may not be in use at
nate units. The quantity per sheet multiplied the same time.
by the number of sheets required for the geo-

ENGINEER UNIT ORDERS


The corps engineer brigade commander uses a tion is effective and during combat operations,
unit order to exercise unit control over engineer the corps engineer brigade commander directs
units remaining under his command. At the subsequent unit orders only to those engineers
outset of an operation, the corps engineer bri- under his command. Orders, missions, and in-
gade commander uses his order to effect the structions to engineers supporting maneuver
necessary task organization of engineers in the divisions, separate brigades, and cavalry regi-
corps, to assign initial missions, and to estab- ments in command relationships are included
lish sustainment integration with the as tasks to the units in the corps order. The
COSCOM and CSGs. Once the task organiza- exception is the corps engineer unit WARNORD.

Orders and Annexes A-19


FM 5-100-15

The corps engineer brigade commander issues the supported division, separate bri-
WARNORDs to all engineers in the corps to gade, or cavalry regiment.
facilitate parallel planning within engineer
units and division, separate brigade, and cav- • Earliest Time of Move. This section
alry regiment engineer staffs. WARNORDs to states the earliest possible time that
engineers supporting maneuver units are for units must be ready to move. For units
planning only and are not executive. under the corps engineer brigade com-
mander’s command, actual movement
times may be given, if known. The ear-
CORPS ENGINEER UNIT WARNORD liest time of move is critical to synchro-
nizing sustainment operations to sup-
The purpose of the WARNORD is to help engi- port future missions.
neer staff officers and engineer units initiate
planning and preparations for an upcoming op- Ž Nature and Time of the Operation. This
eration. The WARNORD is critical to foster section provides recipients with as much
parallel planning at the engineer-unit and ma- information about the corps plan as pos-
neuver-unit levels. sible to foster parallel planning and
preparations and to set priorities. De-
There is no prescribed format for the WAR- pending on the maturity of the planning
NORD. It may be either written or oral but process, this section may include a con-
should include the following information: cept of engineer operations or tentative
scheme of engineer operations. Orders
• Heading. WARNORDs must always for preliminary action may also be in-
begin with the words “Warning Order” cluded, assigning engineer tasks such as
to ensure recipients understand the in- tactical/technical reconnaissance, es-
formation is for use only as a basis for tablishing Class IV/V supply points, es-
planning and will be followed by or- tablishing bridge parks, and moving to
ders. The addressees should also be linkup points. These orders are nor-
listed in the heading. The corps engi- mally qualified as be prepared or on or-
neer unit WARNORD should address der tasks, depending on how the plan is
all engineer units in the corps. established. Orders to engineers sup-
porting maneuver units are always on
Ž Situation. This section includes a brief order, with execution instructions com-
description of friendly and enemy situ- ing through maneuver headquarters-
ations and critical events. It may also generated orders.
include probable missions for the corps
and specified or implied tasks, and it Ž Time and Place of Orders Group. Units
may assign tentative tasks for plan- under the corps engineer brigade com-
ning only to engineer units. mander’s command are told when and
where to receive the entire order and
Ž Attachments and Detachments. This who will attend. Units should identify
section gives tentative and known the composition of the orders group in
changes to the task organization. their SOP.
However, it must be clear to engineers
supporting maneuver units that Ž Administrative/Logistical Information.
changes in task organization are for This includes instructions and warning
planning and will not be effective until information on changes in unit logistics
after an order is received from corps by operations and lash-up with maneuver

A-20 Orders and Annexes


FM 5-100-15

sustainment systems as required by fu- command relationships are conveyed through


ture operations. This information may input into the corps FRAGO. A FRAGO does
also direct movement to assembly areas not have a specified format, but an abbreviated
and provide instructions for sustain- OPORD format is usually used. The key to
ment after movement. issuing a FRAGO is to maximize the use of the
current OPORD by specifying only information
Ž Acknowledgement. An acknowledg- and instructions that have changed. The corps
ment of receipt is always required to engineer brigade commander can rarely issue
make sure it is received by all address- FRAGOs to his subordinate commanders face-
ees. to-face. He must normally issue FRAGOs over
the corps signal net. The corps engineer bri-
gade commander may use the DBC, XO, or a
CORPS ENGINEER UNIT OPORD member of his staff to issue the FRAGO in
The corps engineer brigade commander issues person to subordinate engineer commanders.
OPORDs to all engineer units under his com- This ensures that commanders understand the
mand. This OPORD may initially include any FRAGO and allows graphics to be provided. A
engineer unit operating in the corps area as FRAGO usually contains the following ele-
necessary to effect the task organization, as- ments:
sign fissions, and establish sustainment re-
sponsibility at the outset of an operation. Ž Changes to Task Organization, Any
However, once the task organization is ef- changes to unit task organizations made
fected, all instructions and missions to engi- necessary by the modification to the or-
neers supporting maneuver units are conveyed der.
in corps orders and are addressed to the ma-
neuver unit commanders. Figure A-7, pages Ž Situation. Includes a brief statement of
A-22 through A-27, is an outline of the content current enemy and friendly situations
of corps engineer unit OPORDs using the that usually gives the reason for the
standard five-paragraph field order. When the FRAGO. It may also update subordi-
order is an OPLAN instead of an OPORD, as- nates on the current status of corps-level
sumptions on which the plan is based are in- engineer missions.
cluded at the end of the Situation paragraph.
Ž Concept. Gives changes to the scheme of
CORPS ENGINEER UNIT FRAGO engineer operations and the correspond-
ing changes to subunit tasks. Must also
The corps engineer brigade commander will include any changes in the corps or corps
frequently need to modify his OPORD through engineer brigade commander’s intent.
the use of FRAGOs in order to make changes
in engineer operations that allow the corps to Ž Coordinating Instructions. Includes
take advantage of tactical and operational op- changes to Service Support and Com-
portunities. The corps engineer brigade com- mand and Signal paragraphs of the cur-
mander issues FRAGOs only to engineer units rent OPORD made necessary by the
under his command. Changes in instructions change in scheme of engineer opera-
to engineers supporting maneuver units in tions.

Orders and Annexes A-21


FM 5-100-15

(Classification)

copy of copies
(Issuing Engineer Headquarters
(Place (coordinates) country)
(Date-time group, month, year)
(Message reference number)

OPERATION ORDER (number) (code name, if used)

Reference(s): Map(s) and other references required.


Time Zone Used Throughout the Order:

Task Organization:

• Include all engineer headquarters of units under corps control.

• Include all engineer headquarters of division, separate brigade, and cavalry regiment units, if the
OPORD is the initial order for the operation.

Ž Include all theater/JTF engineer units operating in the corps area.

Ž List groups, battalions, companies, platoons, and detachments task-organized to headquarters other
than their parent unit.

• May list special equipment, if not clear in unit task organization.

Ž Must streamline C2.

Ž Address command support relationships, as necessary.

1. SITUATION.

a. Enemy Forces.

(1) Terrain and weather.

• Key aspects of the terrain affecting operations.

Ž Key and decisive terrain in the corps area that relates to operations.

Ž River and trafficability data.

Ž Expected weather conditions and impact on operations.

Ž Light data and impact on engineer missions.

(2) Enemy situation.

Ž Macro picture of enemy forces facing the corps.

Ž Current disposition of enemy forces, including the location of major enemy units (known and

Figure A-7. Corps engineer brigade OPORD

A-22 Orders and Annexes


FM 5-100-15

plotted), strength, designation (if known), composition, and current activities.

• Enemy engineer activities and capabilities.

Ž Most probable enemy course of action.

• Enemy activities, capabilities, and courses of action that affect corps-level engineer
operations.

b. Friendly Forces.

(1) Higher.

• Theater/JTF and corps missions and commander’s intent; paraphrase theater or corps
commander’s intent as it applies to engineer operations.

Ž Brief description of the theater/JTF and corps plans; highlight those aspects that give purpose
to missions.

Ž Theater/JTF engineer plans and priorities; where applicable, describe these as they apply to
corps engineer operations.

(2) Adjacent. Highlight missions of adjacent corps and theater/JTF engineer units that impact on
corps missions.

c. Attachments and Detachments.

Ž List attachments and detachments of organic and supporting engineers to the corps, as
necessary, to clarify the task organization.

• Highlight any attachments and detachments that occur during the operation, including the time or
event that triggers change.

2. MISSION.

• WHO is the corps engineer brigade organization.

Ž WHAT, WHEN, WHERE, and WHY is the corps mission.

Ž WHAT also includes any essential corps-level engineer missions.

3. EXECUTION.

Intent. The corps engineer brigade commander’s intent for the operation.

• Give the corps engineer brigade commander’s vision of the operation and how it supports the corps
plan.

• Describe the purpose of operations (WHY).

Ž Describe the “end state” of corps-level operations and its link to the “end state” of the corps operation.

• Do not describe the scheme of engineer operations or subunit tasks.

Ž Must link engineer intent to the corps defeat mechanism.

Figure A-7. Corps engineer brigade OPORD (continued)

Orders and annexes A-23


FM 5-100-15

a. Scheme of Engineer Operations.

Ž Must be a clear, concise narrative of the engineer plan from beginning to successful end. Uses
phases of the corps plan, organization of the defense, or battlefield framework to organize the
narrative.

• Must focus on mission-essential engineer missions and corps engineer main effort only; it is not a
summary of all engineer tasks, The corps engineer unit order will usually concentrate on
engineer operations in the corps rear or corps-level missions in deep and close operations.

Ž Must clearly identify the corps engineer unit’s main effort and how it shifts during the operation to
support the corps plan.

(1) Obstacles.

• Supplement the narrative above, focusing specifically on the details of the coutermobility
effort. Based on the nature of corps-level engineer missions, instructions may concentrate
only on corps-directed obstacles and ORAs.

Ž Identify obstacle zones used to support corps deep, close, and rear operations. Assign zone
responsibilities, priorities, and restrictions to corps-level countermobility efforts and engineer
units.

• Identify and assign responsibilities for corps-directed tactical and reserve obstacles to be
prepared by corps-controlled engineer units.

(2) Situational obstacles.

• Concept for the employment of situational obstacles, focusing on how they will be used to
complement or augment conventional tactical obstacle efforts, including scatterable mines.

• Discussion must include details on NAIs, TAIs, decision points, and execution criteria if the
scatterable mine target is corps-directed and executed by corps-controlled engineer units.

Ž Clearly state the headquarters maintaining the authority to use scatterable mines and any
restrictions on duration (by zone).

(3) Bridging.

• Concept for employment of float and fixed bridging in the corps area.

Ž Discussion must include details on crossing sites, bridge parks, and bridge classification.

Ž Clearly state the headquarters controlling bridging in the corps area.

(4) Construction.

Ž Concept for horizontal and vertical construction in the corps area.

Ž Discussion must include details of standards of construction, environmental restrictions,


locations of construction materials, and hand-off criteria.

Ž Clearly state use of host-nation or contract construction support, including LOGCAP.

(5) Topographic engineering.

Figure A-7. Corps engineer brigade OPORD (continued)

A-24 Orders and Annexes


FM 5-100-15

Ž Topography concept.

Ž Procedures.

• Standard/special products.

Ž Terrain-data management.

b. Tasks to Subordinate Units.

• Clear, concise listing of all tasks assigned to engineer units remaining under the corps engineer
brigade commander’s control.

Ž Each engineer group, batallion, and separate company headquarters remaining under the corps
engineer brigade commander’s control.

Ž Tasks assigned by unit and generally listed In the order they will be executed during the
operation.

Ž Clearly distinguished “be prepared” and “on order” tasks from normal tasks.

Ž Tasks/instructions common to two or more units are not Included.

• All corps-level missions identified during the estimate process, if necessary

c. Coordinating Instruction.

• Includes tasks and instructions that are common to two or more units subordinate to the corps
engineer brigade organization.

• Must include all pertinent coordinating instructions listed in the corps order.

• Does not list SOP orders unless needed for emphasis or changed due to the mission.

• May include reporting requirements common to two or more units if not covered in Signal
paragraph.

• May authorize direct coordination between subordinate or adjacent engineer-specific tasks.

• Gives the time task organization is effective.

• EWL.

Ž Initial MOPP level.

4. SERVICE SUPPORT.

a. General Concept of Logistic Support.

Ž Provide subordinates with the general concept of logistic support for units under the corps
engineer brigade commander’s control throughout the operation.

• Identify, in general, primary and backup (emergency) means of subunit sustainment for each type
of engineer unit under the corps engineer brigade commander’s control. Must address WHO
(corps battalions under division control, theater battalions, or special separate companies); HOW
(area support, unit support, supply point distribution, unit distribution); WHERE (CSA and CSGs);

Figure A-7. Corps engineer brigade OPORD (continued). .

Orders and annexes A-25


FM 5-100-15

and WHAT (classes of supply and critical services).

• Keep consistent with task organization and command support relationships,

• Make maximum reference to corps CSS graphics.

• List the locations of key CSS nodes as they apply to the concept for logistic support (COSCOM,
CSA, CSG, ASPs/ATPs, and so forth) and planned subsequent locations, if they change during
the operation.

b. Materiel and Services.

(1) Supply. For each class of supply--

• List allocation and CSRs for each unit, based on missions.

Ž List basic loads to be maintained by unit.

Ž List method of obtaining supplies if different from general concept. Note: Mission logistics
may be different than unit (scheduled) logistics.

Ž Address any special arrangements or plans to sustain specific mission needs (Class IV/V or
Class III push to sustain engineer preparation of defenses).

Ž Include standard map products.

(2) Transportation.

• Primary and alternate MSRs during the operation.

Ž Allocations of division or corps haul assets.

• Use of bridge trucks for corps haul missions.

(3) Services. For each service, list the location and means of requesting and obtaining services.

c. Medical Evacuation and Hospitalization. For each type of engineer unit, indicate the primary and
backup means of medical evacuation and hospitalization, including locations of health-service facilities providing
support on an area or unit basis.

d. Personnel.

Ž Method of casualty reporting.

• Method of handling EPWs and locations of EPW collection points.

• Method of receiving replacements.

Ž Method of receiving mail, religious services, and graves registration for each type of unit under
the corps engineer brigade commander’s control.

Ž Finance support of local procurement.

Ž Legal support.

Ž Command Information.

Figure A-7. Corps engineer brigade OPORD (continued)

A-26 Orders and Annexes


FM 5-100-15

Ž Public affairs.

e. Civil-Military Cooperation. Engineer supplies, services, or equipment provided by host nation.

f. Miscellaneous.

5. COMMAND AND SIGNAL.

a. Command.

• Location of key leaders and corps engineer brigade CPs during the operation and planned
movements.

Ž Location and planned movements of key corps C2 nodes.

• Designated chain of command.

b. Signal.

• Identify any communication/signal peculiarities for the operation not covered in the SOP.

• May designate critical reporting requirements of subordinates, if not covered In coordinating


instruction or SOP.

• Designate frequency-modulated (FM) nets subordinate to corps engineer unit command and
operations and intelligence (O/I) nets. Designate net for mission and routine reports.

Acknowledge

Corps engineer brigade commander’s signature (optional)


Corps engineer brigade commander’s last name
Rank

OFFICAL:
(Authentication)

Annexes: Possible annexes may include but are not limited to--
- Synchronization Matrix
- Intelligence Annex
- CSS Annex
- Movement Annex
Overlays: Possible overlays may include but are not limited to--
- Decision Support Template
- Engineer Operations Overlay: includes corps maneuver graphics and engineer graphics, as necessary.
- Corps CSS Overlay.
- Corps Obstacle Plan.
- Other Operations: River-Crossing, Large-Scale Breach, and Base Camp/Base Cluster Defenses.

Distribution:

Figure A-7. Corps engineer brigade OPORD (continued)

Orders and annexes A-27


FM 5-100-15

APPENDIX B
ENGINEER ESTIMATE
The engineer estimate is an extension of the • Drives the development of detailed engi-
command-estimate procedure. It is a logical neer plans, orders, and annexes.
thought process that is conducted by the engi-
neer staff officer concurrently with the sup Each step of the engineer-estimate process cor-
ported maneuver force’s tactical planning proc- responds to a step of the command-estimate
ess. The engineer-estimate process— procedure. Like the command estimate, the
engineer estimate is continuously refined. Ta-
• Generates early integration of the engi- ble B-1 shows the relationship between these
neer plan into the combined arms plan- two estimates. A more detailed discussion of
ning process. each step of the engineer estimate process is
found in the following paragraphs. The com-
Ž Drives the coordination between the mand-estimate procedure provides the frame-
staff engineer, the supported com- work for discussion of the corresponding engi-
mander, and other staff officers. neer-estimate actions.

Table B-1. Estimate of the situation and engineer estimate

Estimate of the Situation Engineer Estimate

Mission Mission

Facts and Assumptions lPB/EBA

Mission Analysis Engineer Mission Analysis

Commander’s Guidance Scheme of Engineer Operations Development

COA Development Engineer Plan (War-Game and Refine)

COA Analysis COA Recommendation

Decision Final Engineer Plan

Actions and Orders Orders

Engineer Estimate B-1


FM 5-100-15

RECEIVING THE MISSION


The staff engineer quickly focuses on several ● The topographic operations annex
essential components of the basic order and
engineer annex when he receives the mission. ● The type of operation (offensive or defen-
These are— sive).
Ž The enemy situation. • The current intelligence picture.
Ž The mission paragraph. • The terrain analysis.
• The task organization • The assets available.
• The logistics paragraph. Ž The time available (estimate).
Ž The engineer annex.

FACTS AND ASSUMPTIONS


Developing and refining facts and assumptions of-action development. Facts and assumptions
is a continuous process. The maneuver com- pertain to the enemy as well as the friendly
mander relies on the staff to present him with situation. The staff engineer uses the EBA as
facts and assumptions on which he can base his the framework for developing facts and as-
mission analysis, restated mission and course- sumptions.

ENGINEER BATTLEFIELD ASSESSMENT


The EBA consists of three parts (see Table B-2):

Table B-2. Engineer battlefield assessment

• Develops facts and assumptions about--

- Enemy engineer weaknesses.

- Critical friendly engineer capabilities and requirements.

• Mutually supports the G2/S2’s IPB.

Ž Contains three components:

- Terrain analysis.

- Enemy mission and engineer capability.

- Friendly mission and engineer capability.

B-2 Engineer Estimate


FM 5-100-15

Ž Terrain analysis. ENEMY MISSION AND ENGINEER


CAPABILITIES
Ž Enemy mission and engineer capabili-
Threat analysis and threat integration are also
ties. major components of the IPB. Enemy mission
and engineer capabilities are subcomponents
• Friendly mission and engineer capabili-
of the threat analysis and threat integration
ties.
process. The staff engineer supports the intel-
ligence officer during the threat evaluation by
TERRAIN ANALYSIS
focusing on the enemy's mission as it relates to
Terrain analysis is a major component of the enemy engineer capability. When executing
IPB. The objective of the terrain analysis is to this component of the EBA, the staff engineer
determine the impact that the terrain (includ- must first understand the enemy’s anticipated
ing weather) will have on mission accomplish- mission (attack or defend) and consider how
ment. The staff engineer supports the intelli- enemy engineers will be doctrinally employed.
gence officer in this process. Normally using The staff engineer then develops an estimate of
the OCOKA framework (see Table B-3), they the enemy's engineer capabilities. To do this,
determine what advantages or disadvantages he uses the G2/S2's order of battle and knowl-
the terrain and anticipated weather offer to edge of enemy engineer organizations and
both enemy and friendly forces. This process other assets (such as combat vehicle self-en-
has direct impact on planning engineer opera- trenching capabilities) that may impact engi-
tions. See Table B-4, page B-4, for examples of neer operations. The staff engineer must also
how the components of OCOKA may impact consider hard intelligence pertaining to recent
engineer support. enemy engineer activities.

Table B-3. EBA terrain analysis

• Analysis of the terrain’s impact on the battle using the OCOKA framework

- Observation and fields of fire.

- Cover and concealment.

- Obstacles.

- Key terrain.

- Avenues of approach.

• Advantages/disadvantages the terrain offers the enemy and the friendly force.

Ž Conclusions on the terrain’s impact on accomplishing the mission.

Engineer Estimate B-3


FM 5-100-15

Table B-4. OCOKA and sample engineer effects on planning

OCOKA Examples of Effects on Engineer Support

Observation and Fields of Fire Offense: Planning obscuration/location of the


support force for breach operations.
Defense: Obstacle distance from direct-fire
systems (might also affect obstacle composition
with reduced standoff). Limited fields of fire
might limit certain obstacle effects (for example,
fix and block).

Cover and Concealment Offense: Planning obscuration.assault positions


for breach operations. Impacts feasibility of
conducting a covert breach.
Defense: Tying In reinforcing obstacle to existing
obstacles might require an increased counter-
mobility effort.

Obstacles Offense: Task organizing special engineer


mobility assets (AVLBs and ACES). Plotting enemy
countermobility effort, tying into existing
obstacles.
Defense: Tying In reinforcing obstacle to
existing obstacles might require an increased
countermobility effort.

Key Terrain Offense: Targeting indirect-fire suppression and


obscuration for breach operations.
Defense: Obstacle intents tied to how valuable
the key terrain is for retention.

Avenues of Approach Offense: Capability to conduct in-stride,


deliberate, and covert breaching operations.
Focusing countermobility effort in a transition
to a hasty defense. The need for flank protection.
Defense: Focusing specific obstacle effects in a
specific location in an avenue of approach. Size
of avenue of approach impacts on required
countermobility effort.

The staff engineer then uses the G2/S2’s situ- must be organic to the total combined arms
ation template and the enemy’s capability esti- R&S plan. See Table B-5 for a quick summary
mate to plot the enemy’s engineer effort and its on enemy mission and engineer capability
location. Coordinating with the G2/S2, the analysis. In the defense, the SM engineer
staff engineer recommends PIR and the engi- plots—
neer force necessary to augment the reconnais-
sance effort that will confirm or deny the situ- • The enemy's mobility capabilities and loca-
ation template. Enemy engineer activities tion in the enemy's formation.

B-4 Engineer Estimate


FM 5-100-15

Table B-5. EBA enemy mission/engineer capability

Ž Anticipate enemy engineer operations and their impact on the battle.

Ž Consider the enemy’s mission and doctrinal employment of engineers in battle.

Ž Estimate enemy engineer capability based on--

- G2/S2’s order of battle.

- Threat engineer organizations.

- Manpower/equipment capabilities.

- Recent activities

Ž Plot enemy engineer effort based on--

- G2/S2’s situational template.

- Doctrinal engineer employment.

• The enemy’s use of scatterable mines. FRIENDLY MISSION AND ENGINEER


CAPABILITIES
Ž Enemy engineers that support the re- The third component of the EBA is to estimate
connaissance effort. the friendly engineer capability and its impact
on mission accomplishment. To perform this
• HVT recommendations (bridging assets, function, the staff engineer uses the informa-
breaching assets, and scatterable mine tion he developed in the first step (receive the
delivery systems). mission).
Ž The enemy’s countermobility and sur- Knowing the type of operation, the engineer
vivability capabilities in a transition to quickly prioritizes the development of capabil-
a defense. ity estimates. The staff engineer considers en-
gineer forces task-organized to his supported
In the offense, the staff engineer plots the en- unit as well as the assets that other members
emy's— of the combined arms team unit have (such as
mine plows) to determine the assets that are
Ž Tactical and protective obstacle effort. available. Assets under the control of the
higher engineer headquarters and adjacent en-
Ž Use of scatterable mines. gineer units should be noted for future refer-
ence in the event a lack of assets is identified
• Survivability and fortification effort. during course-of-action development. The en-

Engineer Estimate B-5


FM 5-100-15

gineer analyzes the available coverage, cur- The engineer combines his analysis of the ter-
rency and adequacy of standard topographic rain, enemy capability and friendly capability
products and terrain-analysis data bases. If to form facts and assumptions about—
shortfalls are noted, he coordinates with the
G2 to identify new production requirements for Ž Likely enemy engineer effort and the
the DMA or the theater topographic engineer most probable enemy course of action.
battalion.
• Potential enemy vulnerabilities.
Having determined the assets available and
having already estimated and refined the time • Critical friendly requirements.
available with the G3/S3, the staff engineer
uses standard planning factors or known unit Ž The impact of the factors above on the
work rates to determine the total engineer ca- mission.
pability. For example, in the offense, the engi-
neer would focus first on the total numbers of Developing facts and assumptions is a detailed
breaching equipment (AVLBs, MICLICs, and sometimes lengthy process. The staff en-
ACES, engineer platoons, and combat engineer gineer must maintain his focus on the informa-
vehicles (CEVs)) and translate that into breach tion required by the maneuver commander and
lanes. In the defense, the staff engineer deter- his battle staff to make decisions. The EBA is
mines the number of minefield, hull- or tur- a continuous process that is continually refined
ret-defilade positions, and tank ditches he as the situation becomes clearer. Each time
could construct with available resources. He new information is collected or the conditions
uses the results of his capability estimates dur- change, the engineer must evaluate its impact
ing the course-of-action development. See Ta- on the mission and refine the facts and as-
ble B-6 for an outline of this analysis. sumptions as necessary.

Table B-6. EBA friendly mission/engineer capability

• Evaluate friendly engineer capability and its impact on accomplishing the mission.

• Consider the friendly mission.

• Estimate the engineer assets available based upon task organization of--

- Maneuver forces.

- Engineer forces.

- Higher engineer headquarters.

- Adjacent engineer units.

Ž Consider the availability of critical resources.

• Estimate the total engineer capability based on engineer planning factors.

B-6 Engineer Estimate


FM 5-100-15

MISSION ANALYSIS
The engineer participates in mission analysis breach lanes, and the type of breach des-
by identifying engineer tasks that are mission ignated by the higher commander.
critical and have an impact on the overall mis-
sion. The staff engineer identifies engineer Ž Implied tasks. Implied tasks are devel-
tasks from the higher unit’s entire OPORD, not oped by analyzing the mission in con-
just the engineer annex. The staff engineer junction with the facts and assumptions
must look in numerous places to fully under- developed earlier. For example, obsta-
stand the total scheme of maneuver, com- cle handover coordination during a re-
mander’s intents, and instructions from the lief-in-place mission, if not specified, is
higher unit’s staff engineer. The staff engineer an implied task. A classic example of an
should concentrate on the following portions of implied task is identifying and planning
the OPORD as he receives and identifies the a river-crossing operation to support an
engineer mission: attack to seize an objective if a river
crossing is necessary to accomplish the
Ž Mission (paragraph 2). mission but is not specified in the higher
OPORD.
• Commander’s Intent (two levels up)
(paragraphs 1b and 3). Ž Assets available. The staff engineer
should have already identified the avail-
Ž Scheme of Maneuver (paragraph 3). able engineer assets in the EBA. The
engineer should also examine the total
• Scheme of Engineer Operations (para- force structure of the combined arms
graph 3). team. This will help the engineer as he
participates in course-of-action develop-
Ž Subunit Instructions (paragraph 3). ment. For instance, the amount of fire-
power available may help to determine
Ž Coordinating Instructions whether the force should conduct an in-
(paragraph 3). stride versus a deliberate breach or
which float bridging is available to sup-
• Service Support (paragraph 4). port division river-crossing operations.
Ž Command and Signal (paragraph 5). Ž Limitations (constraints and restric-
tions). Constraints are those specified
Ž Engineer Annex. tasks that limit freedom of action. Des-
ignated reserve obstacles, obstacle zones
Ž Topographic Operations Annex.
(with intents), and ORAs are examples
of constraints the engineer must con-
Mission analysis has several components, with sider in his mission analysis. Restric-
the staff engineer focusing on engineer capa- tions are limitations placed on the com-
bilities in each of the following components: mander that prohibit the command from
doing something. Therefore, they im-
Ž Specified tasks. Specified tasks are de- pact greatly on the course-of-action de-
rived directly from the WARNORD, velopment. Obstacle zones and ORAs
OPORD, or commander’s intent. Exam- are excellent examples of restrictions
ples are obstacle zones, obstacle belts because they limit the area in which
with intents, the required number of tactical obstacles can be placed.

Engineer Estimate B-7


FM 5-100-15

• Risk. A commander might specify a risk — Line-of-departure or prepare-to-


he is willing to accept to accomplish the defend times.
mission. For instance, the priority ob-
stacle effort in a defense may be em- — Rehearsals.
ployed on the most likely enemy avenue
of approach while situational obstacles — Hours of darkness or limited
are to be planned on the most dangerous visibility.
avenue of approach as an economy-of-
force measure. The staff engineer must This technique assists the staff engineer in accu-
understand how a risk involving an en- rately refining the estimate of the amount of
gineer capability will specifically impact time actually available and adjusting the
on combined arms operations and advise friendly engineer capability accordingly.
the commander accordingly.
Ž Essential tasks. Essential tasks are
Ž Time analysis. The staff engineer en- specified and implied tasks that are
sures that engineer operations are in- critical to mission success are identified
cluded in the combined arms time analy- as essential tasks. The engineer focuses
sis and determines the actual total time the development of his plans, staff coor-
available. He then refines his time dination, and allocation of resources on
analysis by developing a basic time-line the essential tasks. The staff engineer
sketch that includes such items as— does not ignore the other specified and
implied tasks, but his planning centers
— The supported unit’s OPORD. on the essential tasks.

— The engineer unit OPORD. Ž Restated mission. The restated mission


follows the same format as any mission
— Movement times. statement. The who, what, where, and
why are based on the mission analysis.

COMMANDER’S GUIDANCE
The staff engineer needs to receive planning • Situational obstacle planning.
guidance to tailor the schemes of engineer op-
erations that he will develop during course-of- • Use of digging assets (survivability ver-
action development. The amount of guidance sus countermobility).
required is based on the experience of the staff Ž Use of maneuver forces in the obstacle
engineer and maneuver commander, the time effort.
available, whether habitual relationships be- • Risk acceptance of engineer tasks.
tween the engineer and maneuver units have
been established, and SOPs. Some areas in • Interpretations of the higher com-
which the staff engineer might require guid- mander’s intent pertaining to engi-
ance are— neers.

B-8 Engineer Estimate


FM 5-100-15

SCHEME OF ENGINEER OPERATIONS


The next step of the command estimate is de- when he expects that capability to be
veloping the maneuver courses of action. employed and determines what will de-
Course-of-action development centers on the feat it and what assets are available to
employment of maneuver forces. However, the ensure success.
engineer assists in the process by considering
the impact engineer operations has on maneu- • Identify engineer missions and allocate
ver. The staff engineer must participate in or- forces. Based upon the maneuver course
der to tailor the scheme of engineer operations of action, situation analysis, mission
for each course of action. The staff engineer analysis, and commander’s intent, the
develops a scheme of engineer operations for engineer assesses the engineer require-
each maneuver course of action. He does not ments. This is the most important step
develop complete plans, just a concept. It is in developing a scheme of engineer op-
developed using the same steps as the maneu- erations.
ver course of action but without the detailed
force allocation. If time permits, the engineer • Develop a scheme of engineer opera-
may begin working on the details for each plan. tions. The scheme of engineer opera-
The process is as follows (see Table B-7): tions focuses on how the engineer efforts
integrate into and support the maneu-
• Analyze relative combat power. The ver course of action. Like the maneuver
staff engineer compares the anticipated course of action, the scheme of engineer
enemy engineer capability with the operations is generic without a specific
friendly engineer capability needed to engineer force allocation or unit desig-
defeat it. For example, in the offense, nation. It must address all phases of the
the staff engineer considers the enemy operation, particularly where engineer
doctrinal norms, hard intelligence, re- priorities must change to support the
cent activities, and the time the enemy maneuver.
has to prepare, then determines if the
friendly engineer capability is sufficient Ž Balance assets available against support
to overcome the enemy capability. Like- requirements. The staff engineer reviews
wise, in the defense, the staff engineer his scheme of engineer operations in light
looks at enemy capability and where and of the assets he has available (using his

Table B-7. Scheme of engineer operations development

1. Analyze relative combat power.

2. Ident ify engineer missions and allocate forces/assets.

3. Develop a scheme of engineer operations.

4. Balance requirements with assets available.

5. Integrate into the maneuver course of action.

Engineer Estimate B-9


FM 5-100-15

EBA product). Hasty estimate tools Ž Integrate into the maneuver course of
such as belt planning factors, blade- action. The staff engineer prepares a
hour estimates, and breach-lane re- statement describing the scheme of en-
quirements are used to quickly assess gineer operations. This statement ad-
whether adequate assets are available dresses how engineer efforts support the
to support the plan. All shortfalls are maneuver course of action. He inte-
noted and the scheme of engineer opera- grates the necessary graphics to illus-
tions is refined, if necessary. The plan trate this tentative engineer plan (for
is refined by shifting assets to the main example, breach control measures and
effort, shifting priorities with the phases obstacle graphics and intents).
of the operation, recommending to the
commander to accept risk, or requesting
additional assets.

WAR-GAME AND REFINE ENGINEER PLAN


Staff analysis identifies the best course of ac- There are three techniques for war gaming.
tion for recommendations to the commander. See Table B-8.
War-gaming techniques are used to analyze the
courses of action. War gaming is a systematic The next step, after each course of action is
visualization of enemy actions and reactions to independently war-gamed, is to compare the
each friendly course of action. The staff engi- results. The goal of comparing courses of ac-
neer participates in war gaming to— tion is to analyze the advantages and disad-
vantages of a course of action relative to the
Ž Ensure that the scheme of engineer op- other plans. Each course of action is compared
erations supports the maneuver plan to the others using specific evaluation criteria.
and is integrated with the other staff These evaluation criteria may be developed by
elements. the staff or maybe directed to the staff by the
commander during his planning guidance.
• Further identify weaknesses in his plan
and make adjustments, if necessary. The staff engineer compares courses of action
in terms of which scheme of engineer opera-
• Ensure the G2/S2 integrates enemy en- tions best supports accomplishing the mission.
gineer assets and actions as he plays the His comparison is only part of the total com-
enemy force. parison by the staff.

RECOMMEND A COURSE OF ACTION


The objective of the comparison is to make a must accept risk or where he will need addi-
unified recommendation to the commander on tional assets to avoid that risk. The staff engi-
which course of action is best. The engineer neer must also be prepared to inform the ma-
may have to give greater consideration to a neuver commander where those assets maybe
course of action which he can least support if it obtained and what influence the maneuver
looks like it is the best selection from the other may have to exert to get them. This is where
staff’s perspectives. He must be prepared to knowledge of higher and adjacent unit’s engi-
inform the maneuver commander where he neer assets becomes important.

B-10 Engineer Estimate


FM 5-100-15

Table B-8. War-gaming techniques

Avenue in Depth

This technique concentrates on one avenue of approach from start to finish, It is


equally applicable to offensive and defensive operations. It allows the engineer to
war-game the analyzed impact of enemy obstacles on the plan of attack and the effects
of sequential obstacle belts or groups for the defensive plan.

Belt

The belt technique divides the battlefield into areas that run the width of the sector,
war-gaming across the front and multiple avenues at once. This is the preferred
technique. It allows the engineer to war-game the mutual support between obstacle
belts and groups. It is the best method for analyzing mutual support and adjacent
engineer effort.

Box

This technique focuses solely on critical enemy or friendly events in a designated area
(box). The advantage of this method is that it is not time-consuming. It allows the
engineer to focus on a particular breach site or engagement area.

Based on the staff’s recommendations, the mander decides and issues to the staff addi-
commander makes a decision on which course tional guidance for developing the plan. This
of action to adopt for final planning. He may guidance concentrates on synchronizing the
select a specific course of action, modify a fight focusing on bringing the combat multipli-
course of action, or combine part of several era together.
courses of action. In any event, the com-

FINALIZE THE ENGINEER PLAN AND ISSUE THE ORDER


The staff engineer focuses his planning efforts part of the subunit instructions. Final coordi-
on the scheme of engineer operations for the nation is made with other staff members to
selected maneuver course of action. The engi- ensure total integration and mutual support.
neer determines the C2 necessary to accom-
plish the engineer missions (see Chapter 2 for The staff engineer conveys his written plan
additional information). The scheme of engi- through his input in the basic OPORD (scheme
neer operations is fine-tuned baaed on the war- of engineer operations, subunit instructions,
gaming process, the commander’s guidance, and coordinating instructions paragraphs) and
and situation updates. As the engineer falls in the engineer annex (see Appendix A). As part
the details of his plan, he refers back to his of the combined arms staff, the engineer also
initial mission analysis to ensure that all mis- participates in the OPORD briefing to the as-
sions have been taken into account. The staff sembled group. As with the other
engineer ensures that all engineer tasks are primary staff officers, the engineer gets only
assigned to maneuver and engineer units as one chance to brief the command group on the

Engineer Estimate B-11


FM 5-100-15

scheme of engineer operations. This is the first critical; repeating information covered by other
step in a properly executed and well-coordi- staff members should be avoided, and only
nated engineer plan. The focus of the staff critical items should be covered, to include SOP
engineer is briefing the subordinate command- items. Above all, the staff engineer should be
ers; the maneuver commander and staff should thoroughly familiar with the total plan so that
already know the plan. It helps to develop he is comfortable fielding questions.
standard briefings as a guide. Time is always

B-12 Engineer Estimate


FM 5-100-15

APPENDIX C
CORPS ENGINEER REPORTS
Timely accurate, and focused engineer infor- tion (NATO) working groups and provides a
mation flow is critical to the mission success of sample corps engineer report template. Both
corps, divisions, separate brigades, and cavalry pieces of information may be used by corps
regiments. This appendix provides informa- engineer units to develop specific engineer re-
tion concerning standardized engineer reports porting formats for use in SOPs, training exer-
developed by North Atlantic Treaty Organiza- cises, and combat operations.

NATO STANDARDIZATION AGREEMENT REPORT FORMATS


Engineer report formats have been developed E202 - ENGINEER ANNEX
by NATO engineer working groups. They are The E202 Engineer Annex is used to transmit
in use at the brigade through corps level.
all essential information required in the Engi-
These formats may be applicable to all engi-
neer Annex of a corps, division, separate bri-
neer units operating in a corps area. Refer to gade, or cavalry regiment OPORD.
NATO Standardization Agreement (STANAG)
2096 for specific line-by-line formats.
E203 - ENGINEER REPORT
STANAGs are available upon request from the
Naval Publications and Forms Center, 700 The E203 Engineer Report (ENGREP) is used
Robbins Avenue, Building 4, Section D, Phila- to report mobility countermobility, survivabil-
delphia, Pennsylvania 19111-5094. Developed ity, and general engineer support task progress
STANAG engineer report formats include: and unit combat effectiveness.

E201 - ENGINEER RECONNAISSANCE E204 - ENGINEER DATA REPORT


The E201 Engineer Reconnaissance Report is The E204 Engineer Data Report (ENG-
used to order the reconnaissance of mobility, DATAREP) is used to provide detailed informa-
countermobility, survivability and general en- tion about the number of effective engineer
gineering support tasks. The E201 Engineer units by type, generic equipment types in
Reconnaissance Report is also used to pass key terms of availability, and committed and un-
information back to the appropriate headquar- committed major items of material.
ters, accompanied by copies of the specific re-
connaissance reports as enclosures.

CORPS ENGINEER REPORT TEMPLATE


The sample template depicted in Figure C-1, headquarters in the corps. The template is
page C-3, provides a list of key information based on a five-paragraph OPORD format
items that may be required by any engineer Not all of the listed information will be re-

Corps Engineer Reports C-1


FM 5-100-15

quired by all units all of the time. The tem- specific area may be created by using this tem-
plate is designed to be modified based on spe- plate. Specific formats of reports will vary
cific engineer headquarters information and based on the information sharing systems
mission requirements. Detailed reports in any available.

C-2 Corps Engineer Reports


FM 5-100-15

ENGINEER SITUATION

As of: date-time group (DTG)


Engineer unit identification
Engineer unit location
Current task organization (two levels down)
Future task organization (As of: DTG)

ENGINEER INTELLIGENCE

Threat condition (THREATCON)/security level


Threat./NBC activity affecting engineer effort
MOPP level
Essential elements of engineer intelligence (EEEI)
Construction materials
Construction equipment
Obstacle materials
Reconnaissance data
Obstacles and rivers
MSRs
Overall intelligence assessment

ENGINEER MISSION

Command or support relationship


Priority of effort
Priority of support
Current engineer mission
Status of current engineer mission
Future engineer mission (As of: DTG)
Deep operations mission
Rear operations mission
Critical logistics affecting engineer mission
Minefield delegation authority
EWL location and parameters

CRITICAL ENGINEER OPERATIONS

Bridge and ferry operations


Engineer unit
Type of bridge, ferry, and minimum class load (MCL)
Length of bridge available
Current bridge, ferry location, and supporting unit
Length committed
Future bridge, ferry location, and supporting unit (As of DTG)
Bridge park location
Overall assessment
Breaching operations
Engineer unit
Current location, supporting unit, depth, and width
Future location, supporting unit, depth, and width (As of: DTG)

Figure C-1. Sample template

Corps Engineer Reports C-3


FM 5-100-15

Lane marking and designators


Overall assessment

Obstacle operations
Engineer unit
Obstacle zone designators, locations, and completion DTG
Obstacle belt designators, locations, intent, and completion DTG
Obstacle group designators, locations, intent, and completion DTG
Directed obstacle designators, locations, intent, and completion DTG
Reserve obstacle designators, locations, in! ent, and completion DTG
Obstacle turnover DTG/receiving unit
ORAs, locations, and effective DTG
Overall assessment
Survivability missions
Engineer unit
Center-of-mass location, supporting unit, survivability level, and completion DTG
Future location, supporting unit, and survivability level (As of: DTG)
Overall assessment
Construction missions
Engineer unit
Project type, designators, locations, supporting unit, and completion DTG
Future projects and locations (As of: DTG)
Quarry locations, type of materials, and effective DTG
Class IV supply-point locations and effective DTG
Water well-drilling locations and effective DTG
Contracting support
Overall assessment
Topographic missions
Engineer unit
Project type, designators, supporting unit, and completion DTG
Overall assessment
Fight-as-infantry missions
Engineer unit
Location, supporting unit, fire-support unit, and release DTG
Temporary equipment-park location
Overall assessment
Commander’s assessment (green, amber, red, and black)
Mobility
Countermobility
Survivability
General engineering
Topographic engineering
Fight as infantry

CRITICAL ENGINEER LOGISTICS

Personnel status

Unit Type On-hand Committed Available

(2 levels down)

Critical military occupational specialty (MOS) shortages


Overall assessment (green, amber, red, and black)

Figure C-1. Sample template (continued)

C-4 Corps Engineer Reports


FM 5-100-15

Combat engineer equipment

Equipment Type On-hand Committed Available


CEV
AVLB bridge
AVLB launcher
ACE
MICLIC
Volcano
Mine plow
Mine roller
Ribbon bridge (meters)
MGB set
Critical shortages
Overall assessment

Construction equipment

Equipment Tvpe On-hand Committed Available


Dozer
SEE
Loader
Grader
Scraper
Tractor
Low-bed trailer
Dump truck
Crane
Compaction
Critical shortages
Overall assessment

Tactical equipment

Equipment Type On-hand Committed Available


M113A3
5-ton dump truck
HMMWV
2 1/2-ton cargo truck
5-ton cargo truck
Antitank weapons
Machine guns
Overall assessment

Topographic equipment

Equipment Type On-hand Committed Available


Terrain data processing
Printing
Overall assessment

Supplies (days on hand)

Supply Type On-hand Assessment


Class I rations and water
Class II consumables/expendables

Figure C-1. Sample template (continued)

Corps Engineer Reports C-5


FM 5-100-15

Class Ill fuel


Class IV construction
Class IV obstacle
Class V weapons ammunition
Class V demolitions, fuse, caps, cord, and MICLIC reload
Class V mines, fuses, antihandling devices (AHDs), and Volcano reload
Class VI sundry packs
Class Vll end items
Class Vlll medical
Class IX repair parts
Critical shortages
Overall assessment

Maintenance

Maintenance Level Assessment


Organizational
Organic DS
DS
GS
Critical not-mission-capable (NMC) equipment
Reason for NMC (parts and maintenance)
Overall assessment

ENGINEER COMMAND AND CONTROL

Current CP location
Future CP location (as of: DTG)

Information systems

Equipment Type On-hand Committed Available


CNR
ACUS
ADDS
Broadcast
Computers
Position and navigation
Overall assessment

Figure C-1. Sample template (continued)

C-6 Corps Engineer Reports


FM 5-100-15

APPENDIX D
KEY LEADER RESPONSIBILITIES
This appendix outlines key duties and respon- • S5.
sibilities of several of the following principal
leaders in the corps engineer brigade organiza- • Engineer LO.
tion:
The duties described are a foundation of mis-
Ž Commander. sion-essential tasks required of engineer key
leaders. The commander may modify the du-
Ž DBC. ties and responsibilities based on METT-T and
on the structure of the corps and corps engi-
Ž ACE. neer organization.
Ž XO. Engineer leaders have functional-area respon-
Ž CSM. sibilities for both the corps and the corps engi-
neer organization. Engineer functional-area
Ž S1. responsibilities are listed below as corps staff
and unit responsibilities. Overall staff respon-
• S2. sibilities are listed by staff area in FM 101-5.
Ž S3.
• S4.

COMMANDER
CORPS STAFF RESPONSIBILITIES Ž Provides functional control of all engi-
The commander— neer forces working in the corps area
through input into corps orders.
Ž Serves as the corps engineer, the corps
commander’s principal advisor on engi- • Makes recommendations to the corps
neer operations. commander concerning the task organi-
zation of engineer forces to support the
• Controls and staff supervises all engi- corps commander’s intent.
neer forces operating in the corps area.
• Serves as the principal advisor for inte-
Ž Formulates concepts for engineer sup- grating specified and implied engineer
port to meet the corps commander’s in- tasks into the corps plan.
tent.
Ž Makes recommendations to the corps UNIT RESPONSIBILITIES
commander concerning engineer priori-
ties and acceptable risks. The corps engineer brigade commander—

Key Leader Responsibilities D-1


FM 5-100-15

Ž Commands all engineer forces that are Ž Analyzes unit performance, anticipates
organic to the corps and not task-organ- changes, and issues the necessary
ized in a command relationship below FRAGOs to subordinate units.
corps level.
• While exercising his engineer command
• Commands all units—engineer or other- and corps staff responsibilities, must
wise—assigned, attached, or OPCON to have the necessary equipment to travel
the corps engineer organization. and communicate with both his subordi-
nate units and the corps commander and
• Assigns specific missions to subordinate staff.
units through engineer organization
OPORDs.

DBC
CORPS STAFF RESPONSIBILITIES UNIT RESPONSIBILITIES
The DBC— The DBC—

• Maintains preparedness to perform the Ž Controls the brigade CP.


functions of the corps engineer.
• Serves as second in command (2IC) of
Ž Focuses on priorities set by the corps the corps engineer organization.
engineer.
Ž Requires the same type vehicle and com-
munications capabilities as the com-
mander.

ACE
The ACE is the corps engineer’s primary POC • Assists the corps main CP current-op-
on functional matters with corps plans and erations element and synchronizes engi-
current operations cells at the corps main Cl? neer support to the current simultane-
He performs his functional responsibilities on ous deep, close, and rear fights.
behalf of the corps engineer. The ACE—
• Coordinates closely with the G2, the G3,
Ž Serves as the OIC of the corps main CP the corps main CP plans element, and
engineer section. the corps engineer brigade CP to ensure
engineer integration into future opera-
Ž Tracks all mobility, survivability, and tions.
general engineering aspects of simulta-
neous deep, close, and rear operations • Develops the scheme of engineer opera-
through close coordination with the tions for future simultaneous deep,
corps assault TAC, and rear CP engi- close, and rear operations, looking for-
neers and the corps engineer brigade ward approximately 96 hours.
CP. • Allocates engineer resources for simul-
taneous deep, close, and rear operations;

D-2 Key Leader Responsibilities


FM 5-100-15

recommends the engineer task organiza- Ž Coordinates engineer functions with ad-
tion. jacent corps; subordinate divisions,
separate brigades, and cavalry regi-
Ž Synchronizes and integrates engineers ments; and higher engineer headquar-
into the corps plan and unit-level corps ters staff engineers. Also maintains a
scheme of engineer operations. data base to facilitate the transfer of
information.
• Synchronizes the unity of effort between
adjacent maneuver divisions, separate Ž Receives, posts, and analyzes combat in-
brigades, and cavalry regiments. telligence, focusing on its impact on fu-
ture plans.
Ž Prepares engineer input into the corps
basic order and engineer annex. • Interfaces with the theater/JTF engi-
neer on corps engineer plans, the status
• Processes engineer requirements identi- of corps engineer missions, and the iden-
fied by the corps assault, TAC, and rear tification of corps engineer require-
CPs; resolves conflicts and integrates ments.
into future plans.

XO
The unit responsibilities of the XO are to— • Synchronize all unit CSS operations in
the engineer organization.
Ž Synchronize and direct the engineer bri-
gade staff. • Maintain responsibility for the duties of
the XO, as outlined in FM 101-5.
• Supervise the development of corps en-
gineer brigade orders to subordinate • Serve as the OIC of the corps engineer
units. brigade TOC.

Ž Focus the staff on future operations and


requirements, looking forward approxi-
mately 48 hours.

CSM
CORPS STAFF RESPONSIBILITIES • Serves as an integrator or expediter in
The CSM— any functional area, as dictated by the
corps engineer, when required.
• Performs functions as tasked by the
corps engineer. UNIT RESPONSIBILITIES
The CSM—
• Serves as an engineer LO to higher, ad-
jacent, or subordinate units, when re- Ž Is responsible for the duties outlined in
quired. FM 101-5.

Key Leader Responsibilities D-3


FM 5-100-15

• Is the commander’s primary repre- missions he will be tasked with, require him to
sentative on matters of soldier morale operate from the FLOT to the corps support
and welfare. area. The CSM must be equipped with a vehi-
cle and communications system that will allow
The range of the CSM's soldier morale and him to travel and communicate long distances
welfare responsibilities, coupled with special in varied terrain.

S1
CORPS STAFF RESPONSIBILITIES UNIT RESPONSIBILITIES
The S1— The Sl—

Ž Assists the ACE in the development of • Maintains responsibility for all duties of
engineer plans and orders. the personnel officer, as outlined in FM
101-5.
• Serves as the primary interface with the Ž Develops the personnel portion of the
G1, the corps AG, and personnel and engineer CSS plan for inclusion in the
finance groups. engineer unit OPORD.
Ž Provides input to the engineer CSS por- Ž Coordinates engineer CSS functions at
tions of the basic corps plan and engi- the corps engineer brigade CP.
neer annex.
• Provides detailed engineer CSS input to
the corps main CP engineer section for
inclusion in division plans.

S2
CORPS STAFF RESPONSIBILITIES UNIT RESPONSIBILITIES
The S2— The S2—
• Serves as the corps’s expert on threat • Maintains responsibility for all duties of
engineer operations. the intelligence officer, as outlined in
FM 101-5.
Ž Supports the ACE as he coordinates
with the G2 to analyze and determine Ž Updates the corps engineer brigade com-
the impact of intelligence from all mander continually on the general
sources. threat situation, threat engineer capa-
bility, intent, and actions.
• Supports the ACE as he provides the G2
with threat engineer information for in- Ž Serves as a shift officer at the corps
elusion into corps plans. engineer brigade CP.
Ž Supports the ACE as he provides engi- Ž Provides the corps engineer brigade S3
neer-specific input to the corps IPB. with detailed enemy information for in-
clusion into engineer organization plans
and orders.

D-4 Key Leader Responsibilities


FM 5-100-15

S3
CORPS STAFF RESPONSIBILITIES Ž Receives, analyzes, and posts current
The S3 assists the ACE and corps TAC and rear and corps engineer brigade subordinate
CP engineers in their functions, when neces- units’ status.
sary. • Passes engineer requirements and re-
ports from forward corps engineer bri-
UNIT RESPONSIBILITIES gade subordinate units to the corps main
The S3— CP engineer section.

• Maintains responsibility for all func- • Monitors NBC activities of the corps and
tions of the operations officer, as out- corps engineer brigade units.
lined in FM 101-5.
• Exchanges current close operations in-
Ž Serves as the OIC of the corps engineer formation with the corps assault or TAC
brigade TOC operations cell. CP engineer section.

Ž Coordinates the execution of the subor- In many instances, the corps engineer brigade
dinate brigade engineer units conduct- S3 is required to occupy forward positions dur-
ing close and rear operations. ing river-crossing, large-scale breaching, and
other special operations. The S3 must be
• Receives, analyzes, and posts combat in- equipped with a vehicle and a communications
telligence that affects engineer opera- system that are mobile, survivable, and capa-
tions in the current close fight. ble of long-range communications with the
corps engineer brigade commander, subordi-
nate units, and the ACE.

S4
CORPS STAFF RESPONSIBILITIES UNIT RESPONSIBILITIES
The S4- The S4—

Ž Assists the corps rear CP engineer in Ž Serves as the OIC of the CSS cell in the
providing engineer staff expertise to the corps engineer brigade TOC.
corps rear commander to assist in plan-
ning, executing, and synchronizing • Executes corps engineer brigade subor-
corps rear operations, when necessary. dinate current rear-area engineer op-
erations according to the corps’s scheme
Ž Provides advice and assistance to the of engineer operations.
G4, the COSCOM, and other maneuver
S4s in planning required engineer logis- • Provides engineer recommendations
tics support. and resource requirements for base-
cluster defenses.

Key Leader Responsibilities D-5


FM 5-100-15

• Identifies engineer support require- Ž Maintains responsibility for all duties of


ments for force sustainment, terrain the logistics officer, as outlined in FM
management, movement control, and 101-5.
force protection to the corps rear CP
engineer. • Integrates engineer CSS activities into
the corps CSS system.
• Provides detailed engineer CSS input to
the corps rear CP engineer for inclusion Ž Provides detailed engineer CSS input to
in corps plans. the corps rear CP engineer for inclusion
in engineer unit orders.
• Coordinates unit and mission CSS is-
sues with the G4 and COSCOM for corps • Synchronizes the execution of all logis-
engineer brigade subordinate units tics functions for engineer units operat-
working in the corps rear area. ing in the corps’s AO.

S5
CORPS STAFF RESPONSIBILITIES UNIT RESPONSIBILITIES
The S5— The S5—

• Assists the corps rear CP engineer in Ž Maintains responsibility for all duties of
providing assistance in planning, exe- the civil-military operations ofilcer, as
cuting, and synchronizing corps civil- outlined in FM 101-5.
rnilitary and host-nation operations.
• Identifies engineer support require-
Ž Provides advice and assistance to the ments for host-nation and civil-affairs
G4, G5, civil-affairs brigade, and other support.
maneuver S5s in planning required en-
gineer support to civil-military activi- Ž Assesses engineer requirements for
ties. EPW and refugee facilities and egress
routes.

ENGINEER LO
The engineer LO represents his commander at ing an engineer LO, the commander must en-
the headquarters of another unit and coordi- sure that the candidate has the following quali-
nates and promotes cooperation between the fications:
units. A commander should assign LO duties
to someone dedicated full time to that position, • Rank and experience appropriate for the
not make it an additional duty. An engineer headquarters to which he is assigned.
commander who sends a poorly qualified or The LO should possess tactical engineer
poorly equipped LO hurts hirnself and his unit skills in areas such as battlefield assess-
and makes a poor impression on the headquar- ments, breach and obstacle planning,
ters to which the LO is assigned. When select and so forth.

D-6 Key Leader Responsibilities


FM 5-100-15

• Ability to communicate effectively both ENGINEER LIAISON OFFICER


orally and in writing. It is especially RESPONSIBILITIES
critical that the LO possess strong staff
To perform successfully, an engineer LO must
briefing skills. complete the following tasks:
Ž Detailed knowledge of the parent unit’s Ž The LO places all acquired information
SOP, OPLANs, and OPORDs. in a battle book which he can carry eas-
ily and use to file information needed or
Ž Knowledge of the coalition force’s lan-
obtained at the duty site. The LO uses
guage when working with a multina-
the battle book when conducting brief-
tional unit. If knowledge of a foreign ings.
language is required but not available,
the parent unit ensures an interpreter is The LO ensures that arrangements for

provided.
communications and transportation
meet mission requirements. He checks
• Attributes such as a proper uniform and
assigned radios, signal operating in-
sharp personal appearance enhance ef-
structions (S0I), and challenge words
fective liaison activities.
and passwords, and he ensures that
rations are provided. The LO obtains
required specialized equipment, secu-
PARENT ENGINEER UNIT rity clearances, and credentials for
RESPONSIBILITIES identification into the higher head-
After an LO is selected, the parent unit head- quarters’ TOC.
quarters provides appropriate briefings and
support. • If conducting liaison with coalition
units, the LO ensures that language or
• The G3/S3 or his duty officer thoroughly interpreter requirements are met.
briefs the LO about the current situation
in the unit and the commander’s intent, • After arriving at the assigned unit, the
including details of the concept of opera- LO reports to the commander or his rep-
tions. This briefing includes unit loca- resentative (G3/S3 or chief of staff) and
tions, front-line trace, engineer plan- is prepared to brief the parent unit’s
ning factors, combat readiness factors situation. He visits each staff section,
(such as personnel strength and logistics provides information requested, and ob-
considerations), and a map with over- tains information needed by the parent
lays. engineer unit.

Ž The G3/S3 briefs the LO about the cur- • Because the LO provides a vital link to
rent status and missions of the assigned the parent unit he continually advises
unit. After this briefing, each staff sec- the TOC duty officer the secretary of the
tion informs the LO about their specific general staff, or the chief of staff of his
liaison and information requirements. whereabouts.
For example, the S2 may require de-
tailed terrain information. These brief- • Throughout the tour, the LO keeps in-
ings ensure that the LO clearly under- formed of the situation at the parent
stands his mission and responsibilities. unit and makes that information avail-
able to the commander and staff of the

Key Leader Responsibilities D-7


FM 5-100-15

assigned unit. He accomplishes this the higher headquarters’ mission, unit


task without interfering with operations locations, future operations, com-
at the assigned unit. He keeps an accu- mander’s intent, mission requirement,
rate record of all communications in a and requests for information. The LO
staff journal. He reports on those mat- clearly and accurately briefs all staff
ters within the scope of the mission and sections regarding detailed information
informs the assigned commander of in- received during the visit, and transmits
formation sent to the parent unit. information required by higher head-
quarters to each staff area of responsi-
Ž A major LO function is to promote har- bility.
monious relations between the parent
engineer unit and the assigned unit. As • The LO keeps abreast of the current
the parent unit’s representative, the situation and stays prepared to respond
LO’s actions significantly affect the to future liaison requirements.
higher headquarter’s perception of his
unit’s engineer support.
ASSIGNED UNIT RESPONSIBILITIES
• The LO immediately informs the parent
After the engineer LO arrives at the duty site,
unit any time he is unable to perform his
the assigned unit provides the following briefs
responsibilities at the assigned unit.
and support:
• After completing his mission, the LO
Ž The staff briefs the LO about their cur-
presents an out brief to the commander
rent operations. They provide the LNO
or G3/S3.
with rations, fuel, maintenance (if possi-
• Upon return to the parent unit, the LO ble), communications equipment, and
work and sleep areas.
briefs the engineer commander or his
representative regarding all informa-
Ž Like the LO, the assigned unit’s staff
tion received during the visit. This in-
fosters and promotes harmonious work-
cludes detailed information concerning
ing relationships.

D-8 Key Leader Responsibilities


FM 5-100-15

APPENDIX E
JOINT ENGINEER CAPABILITIES
FORCE-PROJECTION OPERATIONS
Army corps engineer commanders and their nications, logistics, and LO support are pro-
staffs operate jointly with Air Force, Navy and vided for supporting the Army engineer compo-
Marine Corps engineer forces during force-pro- nent to the joint engineer force. If shortfalls
jection operations. It is critical that Army occur with availability of standard map prod-
corps engineer forces fully understand a joint ucts and map data, requirements are coordi-
component’s engineer capabilities so that they nated with joint topographic agencies, such as
can integrate them into corps operational plan- the Topographic Engineering Center (TEC)
ning along with planning for Army corps engi- and the DMA Periodic joint engineer meet-
neer support to other joint headquarters. This ings assist in blending the joint engineer force
appendix provides a brief description of the towards accomplishing the numerous engineer
types of joint engineer units, their capabilities, missions required during force-projection op-
and interoperability considerations. During erations.
all joint force-projection operations, the corps
engineer ensures that adequate Army commu-

US AIR FORCE ENGINEER SUPPORT


The US Air Force is challenged by a variety of CIVIL-ENGINEERING MISSION
threats throughout the world. As a result, it
must be prepared to fight battles of great The Air Force combat engineer’s role is to en-
scope, range, and intensity It must be pre- sure that the engineering-related aspects of
pared to counter large modern forces, as well as air-base operations are responsive and effec-
light forces, insurgents, and sophisticated ter- tive. The following are basic wartime missions
rorist groups wherever and whenever they of Air Force engineers, as described in Depart-
threaten US interests. To meet this wide ment of Defense Directive (DODD) 1315.6:
range of threats, the worldwide air base net-
work must be capable of supporting the projec- Ž Emergency repair of war damage (in-
tion of air power. Air Force Regulation 93-3 eludes rapid runway repair (RRR), facil-
states that combat air operations depend on ity repair, and utility repair).
adequately developed and supported bases.
Bases must have adequate facilities and civil • Force bed down of Air Force units and
engineering resources to launch and recover weapons systems.
mission aircraft, support high sortie genera-
tion rates, provide essential CS functiions, and Ž Operations and maintenance of Air
assist in defending against enemy attack. Force facilities and installations.

Joint Engineer Capabilities E-1


FM 5-100-15

Ž Crash rescue and fire suppression. JTF commander when incoming force flow is
disrupted, resupply is interrupted, or launch
• Construction management and recovery activities at critical locations are
stopped due to major airfield damage. RED
• Supply of material and equipment to HORSE squadrons are packaged to be avail-
perform the engineering mission. able early in the time-phased deployment data
flow, and they are dedicated to up-front engi-
To accomplish these missions, Air Force engi- neer missions. They are assigned to employ-
neers are organized into three basic types of ment locations that are critical to the success
units with complementary wartime missions-- of the air war. Dividing responsibilities be-
RED HORSE units, Prime BEEF units, and tween Air Force engineering assets (RED
Prime Readiness in Base Support (Prime HORSE, Prime BEEF, and Prime RIBS) is not
RIBS) units, An engineering and services attempted. RED HORSE units can perform all
(E&S) force module combines Prime BEEF and the engineering missions of the civil-engineer-
Prime RIBS capabilities to support a flying ing units with the exception of crash rescue
squadron. and major fire suppression. The presence of
Prime BEEF forces at an employment location
RED HORSE UNITS does not exclude the employment of RED
HORSE units
RED HORSE civil-engineering squadrons are
wartime-structured units that provide a heav-
ier engineering capability than the civil engi- RED HORSE units are theater Air Force assets
neering base Prime BEEF and Prime RIBS with a regional responsibility They report
units. The RED HORSE squadrons have a re- through theater or regional command chan-
gional responsibility; they are not tied to a spe- nels, C2 of these units remains within num-
cific weapons system and are not responsible bered Air Force channels or a higher level if a
for base operations and maintenance. They numbered Air Force is not present (such as
are mobile, rapidly deployable, and largely under the Air Force forces (AFFOR) com-
self-sufficient for limited periods of time. They mander of a JTF). A joint contingency wartime
perform the wartime tasks of major force bed construction-management organization can
down, heavy damage repair, bare base develop also task RED HORSE units through the num-
ment, and heavy engineering operations. Due bered Air Force for construction support If two
to their mission, they possess greater combat or more RED HORSE squadrons are in a re-
capability than the civil-engineering base gion, an Air Force civil-engineering group will
units. RED HORSE was formed specifically to be formed with the numbered Air Force staff
meet wartime needs. Its composition is based engineer serving as the group commander. Ve-
on wartime requirements; it is not assigned to hicles, heavy equipment and RRR sets capable
an air base to perform peacetime operations of Supporting full RED HORSE squadrons are
and maintenance tasking. Its primary mission pre-positioned in projected TOs to mitigate any
in peacetime is to train for wartime, and its delays in receiving strategic heavy lift In ad-
squadrons represent the strongest combat en- dition to theater pre-positioned sets, RED
gineer capability in the Air Force. As the lead HORSE squadrons maintain home mobility
joint engineer resource in any force-projection sets of similar equipment that are easily de-
situation it is the most capable Air Force engi- ployed and maintained. They form three types
neering unit when it comes to the initial war- of RED HORSE (RH) deployment echelons with
time requirements affecting the launch, recov- vehicle and equipment sets at strategic loca-
ery and operation of Air Force combat aircraft tions. They are maintained in a ready-to-go
It is the engineer unit used by the theater or condition

E-2 Joint Engineer Capabilities


FM 5-100-15

RH-1 Echelon expands essential utility systems, including


Critical to RED HORSE employment is the airfield lighting, to support force bed down.
advance deployment of the RH- 1 echelon. This The squadron operates mineral product plants
element, tied to the appropriate theater air (batch plants, crusher, and block plant), if re-
component commander, would deploy with the quired, when plant equipment is supplied from
headquarters, prepare for the reception of fol- contingency or host stocks. The echelon per-
low-on RED HORSE elements, and prepare the forms explosive demolition operations as re-
advance plans for project execution This eche- quired and performs RRR using echelon-or-
lon consists of a 16-person team that is deploy- ganic equipment. The squadron is able to re-
able within 12 hours on a C-141. The team pair two large and three small bomb craters in
performs advanced airfield surveys, including a 4-hour period, Standard engineering capa-
evaluation of airfield pavements, the water bilities provided by RED HORSE squadrons
supply utility systems, and existing facilities. include--
It prepares a bed-down plan for the orderly • Airfield lighting,
establishment of an operator base at a force-
projection location. The team also compiles fa- • Concrete operations,
cility and material requirements necessary to
accomplish the force bed-down plan and accom- Ž Explosive demolition operations.
plishes the site layout for later RH-2 force bed
down. • Aircraft arresting systems,

RH-2 Echelon Ž Material testing.


The RH-2 echelon is a 93-person team with
heavy equipment capable of deploying within Ž Quarry operations.
48 hours. The team performs land clearing,
site stabilization, area drainage earthwork, Ž RRR.
and erection of relocatable structures essential
for force bed down at an undeveloped location. • Revetment construction.
The echelon performs RRR using organic
equipment and repair materials (AM-2 mat, Ž Water well drilling.
crushed stone, and so forth) that are pre-posi-
tioned or supplied by the support headquar- • Mobile facility asset siting, erection, and
ters. The team also repairs bomb-damaged fa- installation.
cilities and systems; installs, expands, and re-
pairs essential utility systems; and provides Ž Fuel systems.
initial civil-engineering support, including
drilling and developing water wells for deploy- Ž Facility hardening.
ing forces.
• Expedient pavement expansion.
RH-3 Echelon
• Utility-system repair.
The RH-3 echelon is a 295-person squadron
with heavy equipment capable of deploying Ž Force bed down.
within 6 days. The squadron accomplishes
heavy repair of bomb-damaged facilities and • Heavy earthwork.
utility systems. The echelon erects temporary
relocatable facility substitutes and installs or • Road construction.

Joint Engineer Capabilities E-3


FM 5-100-15

• Power generation. CONUS and overseas Air Force bases in order


to provide peacetime real-property mainte-
• Restoring chemically protected facili- nance capability. This capability is totally in-
ties. tegrated into the peacetime force structure and
provides the operational commander with the
• Engineering design. flexibility of employing weapons systems with-
out depending on others. A similar organic
• Base denial operations using fire, explo- civil-engineering capability in the form of
sives, component removal, equipment Prime BEEF CS forces will accompany deploy-
sabotage, and mechanical destruction. ing flying squadrons when they go to war.
These deploying flying units. will have the or-
• Disaster relief and preparedness. ganic Prime BEEF CS engineering support ca-
pable of performing those engineering wartime
Ž Defensive operations. tasks necessary for sortie generation. Specfic
Prime BEEF CS units will be linked to specific
Ž C2 over the following: flying units. Prime BEEF CS units concen-
trate primarily in supporting aircraft weapons
– Full-squadron deployment to one lo- systems and combat operations. There are two
cation. basic Prime BEEF mobile force classifications:
large CS squadrons and small specialty CS
–Full-squadron deployment with teams. Prime BEEF CS units have no organic
phased arrival to one location. heavy equipment--only toolboxes and small
team kits (such as power tools). They require
– Squadron deployment to multiple lo- base operating support and most deploy in 50-
cations (split unit). or 100-person team increments.

– In-transit operations during deploy- Large-Scale Prime BEEF CS squadrons


ment.
The large CS squadrons provide basic skills to
– Work party and convoy operations. establish base civil engineer (BCE) operations
or in accomplish the most critical wartime
tasks at locations where additional assistance
RED HORSE squadrons accomplish major air-
is required or where none exists. Eight types
field construction and repair work in forward
of large-scale CS squadrons are available in
locations requiring an organic logistics capabil-
four separate and distinct sizes (200-, 150-
ity, including vehicle maintenance, food serv-
100-, and 50-person). These types of squad-
ice, supply, and logistics plans. A 60-day war
rons are active duty, Air National Guard
readiness spares kit (WRSK) keeps these units
operational until normal supply channels open. (ANG), or Air Force Reserve. They are capable
of deploying on a 22- to 28-hour notice to sup
port aircraft operations at main operating
PRIME BEEF UNITS
bases (MOBs), collocated operating bases
All Prime BEEF forces are CS forces that are (COBs), standby bases (SBs), forward operat-
generally configured as squadrons and teams. ing locations (FOLs), aerial ports of debarka-
Their mission is to provide CS to the air com- tion (APODs), and bare bases (BBs). These
bat forces which are, or may become, a part of squadrons can fully support AM-2 matting, fi-
a theater, command, or task force formed for berglass matting and concrete slab RRR meth-
combat operations. These civil-engineering ods. These squadrons can support a bed-down
base units are organic at essentially all major population of 2,200 to 2,500 personnel. Combi-

E-4 Joint Engineer Capabilities


FM 5-100-15

nations of the eight types of CS squadrons are tion or other deploying aircraft, that CS squad-
used to support theater requirements. ron or team will be tasked to accompany its
flying squadron to the wartime location--re-
Small Specialty Prime BEEF CS Teams gardless of the degree of wartime host-nation
support in theater. If a CS squadron or team is
Small specialty CS teams are comprised of cer-
not tied to the home station or other deploying
tain skills and numbers, such as fire fighters,
aircraft and assured host-nation support is
construction management, and staff augmen-
available, the CS squadron or team may be
tation necessary to fill known requirements
reapportioned to some other wartime location.
Nine types of teams are available, ranging in
The basic E&S module consists of 282 people
size from 3 to 48 persons from all components.
from a 200-person Prime BEEF CS engineer-
The size and composition of all Prime BEEF
ing force package, a 48-person Prime BEEF CS
mobile teams is based on METT-T.
fire-fighter force package, and a 34-person
Prime RIBS CS force package.
PRIME RIBS UNITS
Prime RIBS units are worldwide combat mo- ARMY-AIR FORCE JOINT ENGINEER
rale, welfare, recreation, and services (MWRS) CONSIDERATIONS
forces organized and trained for wartime sup
During force-projection operations, the initial
port. The Prime RIBS program organizes
US Air Force engineering capability available
forces capable of deploying on a 22- to 28-hour
in theater will most probably be Air Force RED
notice to support global or major regional con-
HORSE elements establishing APODs. Prime
flict operations on MOBS, COBS, FOLs,
BEEF and Prime RIBS units will also be
APODs, aerial ports of embarkation (APOEs), quickly deployed to force-projection theater lo-
and BBs or to support essential MWRS mis-
cations to operate at major air bases. The
sions at critical CONUS bases. Each Prime
corps engineer and his staff should consider
RIBS element is capable of providing initial
the following when coordinating joint engineer
food service, billeting, recreation programs,
plans and operations with the Air Force:
and mortuary-operations support for a popula-
tion of up to 1,200 people. It can also support Ž Request the latest engineer intelligence
an independent or dependent combat aviation
data from deployed or deploying RED
squadron of 16 to 24 fighter aircraft or a sig- HORSE elements to assist in identify-
nificant aviation deployment less than squad-
ing force-projection TA engineer re-
ron size in a major deterrent force posture.
quirements (including soils data, avail-
With additional augmentation, Prime RIBS
ability of construction materials, and
units can support organizational field laundry
host-nation construction support) and
operations, personnel fitness programs, and
enemy engineer capabilities.
tactical field exchange resale operations.
Ž Establish engineer staff links between
ENGINEERING AND SERVICES FORCE the AFFOR and ARFOR engineer staff
MODULE sections through the JTF or theater en-
An E&S force module is married to deploying gineer staff and headquarters.
aircraft to the greatest extent possible. The • Provide necessary Army engineer LO
overall objective is to have Prime BEEF CS support.
and Prime RIBS squadrons and teams inextri-
cably bonded to a deploying flying squadron. Ž Develop the joint task-organization rela-
When a specific Prime BEEF or Prime RIBS tionships that enhance RED HORSE
CS squadron or team is tied to the home sta- and Prime BEEF capabilities following

Joint Engineer Capabilities E-5


FM 5-100-15

deployment of Army corps engineer Ž Determine if Prime BEEF units need _


units. augmentation from Army construction
units, especially in the area of RRR.
• Assess the need for RED HORSE airfield
maintenance and repair support follow-
ing arrival of Army construction units in
theater.

US NAVY ENGINEER SUPPORT


The Naval Construction Force (NCF) is a ge- • Amphibious assault and ship-to-shore
neric term applied to that group of deployable construction support operations.
naval units that has the capability to con-
struct maintain, and/or operate shore, inshore, • Battle-damage repair operations.
and deep-ocean facilities in support of US Navy
and Marine Corps and, when directed, other Ž Disaster control and recovery opera-
agencies of the US government, including the tions.
US Army and unified commanders. The NCF
is frequently referred to as the Seabees. It is • Civic-action employment.
composed of both active and reserve component
units.
NAVAL BASE CONSTRUCTION
Air-transportable, task-organized NCF units
The construction of naval bases maybe consid-
are available for deployment upon 48-hours no-
ered as falling into two areas: those within the
tice. Priority construction projects can be initi-
country of conflict and those off the shores of
ated days prior to the arrival of maritime pre-
the country in which combat is underway In-
positioning force (MPF) shipping. Additionally
country bases include logistics terminal facili-
local contractual acquisition of heavy engineer
ties; coastal, inshore, and riverine warfare op-
equipment can augment air-transported NCF
crating bases; communications facilities;
assets in a secure environment The NCF pro-
ashore fleet air units; and other fleet support
vides-
facilities in the immediate conflict area. Naval
air units ashore, such as search-and-rescue,
Ž Responsive military advanced base-con-
antisubmarine warfare, carrier on-board deliv-
struction support, including opera-
ery, electronic countermeasures, coastal and
tional, logistics, underwater, ship-to-
riverine patrol, communication, and tactical
shore, shore, and deep-ocean facilities
squadrons have significant construction impli-
construction, maintenance, and opera-
cations. Naval offshore bases are required to
tion.
support antisubmarine warfare, mine warfare,
reconnaissance, communications, underway
• Military construction support of Marine
replenishment, and logistics support to for-
Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF) opera-
ward-deployed Naval and Marine forces.
tions.

• Defensive and limited offensive opera- SUPPORT TO THE US MARINE CORPS


tions against overt or clandestine enemy The MAGTF is the major combat organization
attacks directed toward unit personnel, supported by the NCF. It normally consists of
convoys, camps, and facilities under con- a MAGTF command element, a ground combat
struction. element, an aviation combat element, and a

E-6 Joint Engineer Capabilities


FM 5-100-15

CSS element. OPCON is the only command or • Constructing of ASPs, expeditionary


support relationship appropriate and author- bulk-liquid storage facilities, battle-
ized when employing NCF units within the damage repair (including RRR), expedi-
MAGTF. The MAGTF commander may place tionary shelters for operations, commu-
NCF units under the OPCON of a subordinate nications, maintenance, warehousing,
element commander (such as a ground combat and personnel support structures.
element) for missions such as RRR or civil-ac-
tion team support required to assist stability • Erecting of combat-zone hospitals.
operations. NCF units employed under the
OPCON of the MAGTF element commander • Improving or constructing ports.
will be tasked according to MAGTF construc-
tion priorities. Ž Security fencing.

The normal MAGTF/NCF associations estab- Ž Well drilling.


lished to support MAGTF operations are gen-
eral guidelines; the actual NCF organizational Ž Expanding and upgrading unimproved
relationship with the MAGTF is METT-T de- roadway systems.
pendent. These associations are-
Ž Developing aviation support facilities
Ž A marine expeditionary force (MEF) and other forward operating bases in
with a naval construction regiment support of Marine aviation employment
(NCR) within 30 days. through extensive use of expeditionary
• A marine expeditionary brigade (MEB) airfield matting, pre-engineered and ex-
peditionary shelters, and other semiper-
with an NMCB within 6 days.
manent and permanent construction
Ž A marine expeditionary unit (MEU) support.
with an NMCB detachment (air detach-
ment, civic-action teams, and other de- Ž Hardening POL and ammunition stor-
tails and detachments as directed by the age facilities against natural and enemy
fleet CINC) within 48 hours. threats.
The MAGTF’s general engineering require- • Installing permanent (nonstandard)
ments will normally determine the scope of bridges in relief of tactical, fixed-panel
NCF employment during any operation. NCF bridging assets.
units focus on general engineering tasks and
are limited by training and equipment in com- In executing assigned projects, NCF units
bat and CS capabilities. Prior to assigning a maintain a significant self-defense capability
mission to an NCF unit a thorough analysis for their construction sites and can be em-
should be conducted to determine if all aspects ployed as part of a perimeter defense force. All
of the assignment fall within the NCF’s capa- Seabee units are equipped with small arms,
bilities. NCF units should receive specific and the larger units (NMCBs) have organic
tasks or types of tasks on an area or GS basis. indirect-fire weapons systems (60-millimeter
The NCF is a construction organization. It has mortars). Their weapons are identical to those
organic defensive capability, but does not pos- in the Marine Corps inventory. A Marine advi-
sess the offensive combat capability of Marine
sor is resident to the NMCB staff and NMCB
Corps engineer units. The construction capa-
personel receive semiannual training on mili-
bilities provided to the MAGTF by NCF units
tary skills and tactics.
are extensive. They include the following:

Joint Engineer Capabilities E-7


FM 5-100-15

AMPHIBIOUS OPERATIONS • Construct expedient survivability struc-


tures (earthen berms) for bulk liquids
All component NCF organizations maybe em-
ployed during amphibious operations. NCF and Class V ammunition storage.
forces are normally placed OPCON to the Com-
mander, Amphibious Task Force (CATF). They Ports
perform construction tasks that assist in the NCF units can evaluate port capabilities (sur-
ship-in-shore movement of personnel, equip- face and subsurface) amd upgrade facilities to
ment and supplies. NCF units OPCON to the support the MPF operation.
MAGTF commander maybe located in both the
assault echelon (AE) and the assault follow-on Arrival Airfield
echelon (AFOE). The priority given to con-
struction tasks assigned to NCF units will de- NCF enhancements include—
termine the echelon in which the NCF will be
Ž Analyzing soil and construction materi-
employed. Additional NCF units may be as-
signed to the CATF and employed within the als, to include evaluating the load-bear-
amphibious objective area (AOA) in a fleet sup- ing capability of select fill material.
port or other role. Examples of tasks requiring
• Constructing and upgrading airfields to
immediate priority include well drilling and
establishing or upgrading forward operating ensure their capability for tactical or
bases for fixed-wing aircraft. strategic lift (C-130/C-141/B-747/C-
17/C-5) aircraft.
SUPPORT TO THE MARITIME • Increasing aircraft staging areas (maxi-
PRE-POSITIONING FORCE
mum on ground (MOG)) sufficient for
The MPF is a task organization of units under tactical and strategic aircraft require-
one commander formed for the purpose of in- ments.
troducing an MEB and its associated equip-
ment and supplies into a secure area. The Ž Upgrading roadway systems.
MPF is composed of a command element a
maritime pre-positioning ships squadron, an Ž Constructing expedient survivability
MEB, and a naval support element (NSE). As structures (such as earthen berms and
part of their primary mission, NCF units con- revetments) for aircraft, bulk liquids,
struct and repair MPF logistics terminal facili- and Class V ammunition storage and
ties. Specific areas of emphasis include hardening existing facilities.
beaches, ports, the arrival airfield, and rail-
heads. Ž Arresting gear site preoparation/installa-
tion.
Beaches
Unlike amphibious operations, logistics consid- Ž Constructing and improving airfield
erations drive beach selection for MPF opera- utilities.
tions. NCF units can rapidly perform the fol-
lowing tasks: Rail heads
NCF tasks include—
Ž Upgrade beach egress and road net-
works to staging and marshaling areas • Damage control and repair.
and other inland destinations.
• Railhead operations.

E-8 Joint Engineer Capabilities


FM 5-100-15

NAVAL BASE MAINTENANCE Commander, Naval Construction Battalions,


The tasks of the NCF in support of naval base US Atlantic Fleet (COMCBLANT) exercise op-
maintenance include the operation and main- erational and administrative control of as-
tenance of public works and public utilities signed NCF components. They provide policy
such as water purification and distribution, guidance concerning leadership and discipline;
power generation and distribution, and sewage administration; force-projection planning;
collection and treatment. Once the base has readiness; military and technical training, unit
been substantially constructed, the NCF pro- employment deployment and scheduling; doc-
ovides maintenance and repair of structures, trine, tactics, and procedures; equipment man-
minor construction for alterations and im- agement and logistics support.
provements, and maintenance and upgrade of
LOC. Naval Construction Brigade
A naval construction brigade (NCB) exercises
DISASTER RELIEF administrative and operational control of two
NCF forces maintain the capability to provide or more NCRs operating in a specific geo-
disaster relief in the event of a natural disaster graphic area or in support of a specific military
or hostile military action. Each NCF unit is operation. The NCB provides an initial review
responsible for disaster control measures to of plans, programs, and construction capabili-
protect its own personnel equipment life-sup ties; assigns priorities and deadlines; and di-
port areas, and work sites. They may be as- rects distribution of units or materials and
signed responsibility for participation in the equipment
defense of other activities. The NCF unit
makes this an effective disaster control and Naval Construction Regiment
recovery unit (DCRU), ready to give direct as- An NCR exercises administrative and opera-
sistance to any military or civilian installation tional control of two or more NMCBs operating
or community during an emergency. in a specific geographic area or in support of a
specific military operation. The NCR may be
CIVIC ACTION OPCON to an MEF The NCR develops con-
Civic-action projects in support of the local struction execution plans; assigns construction
populace may be undertaken by NCF units as projects to NCR units; monitors progress; per-
part of their normal operations. forms quality control; directs redistribution of
units, equipment and materials; and reviews
NAVAL CONSTRUCTION FORCES plans and operations reports. The NCR also
maintains a greater planning, estimating, and
NCF units are commanded by officers of the engineering capability than the battalions.
Navy Civil Engineer Corps. Enlisted person-
nel are primarily from the naval occupational Naval Construction Force Support Unit
field 13 (construction). Occupational field 13
has builders, construction electricians, con- A naval construction force support unit
struction mechanics, engineering aids, equip (NCFSU) provides operational construction lo-
ment operators, steelworkers, and utility work- gistics support to the deployment area for an
ers. NCR of up to four NMCBs. The NCFSU con-
trols the requisition, expedition, receipt, con-
Commander, Naval Construction Battalions trol, issue, and delivery of construction (Class
IV) materials. It also provides maintenance
The commander, Naval Construction Battal- support for NCF auxiliary construction and
ions, US Pacific Fleet (COMCBPAC) and the transportation equipment and performs over-

Joint Engineer Capabilities E-9


FM 5-100-15

haul and specialized repair of equipment com- NMCB Air Detachment


ponents. When required, the NCFSU provides An air detachment (AIR DET) is a task-organ-
the operation and maintenance capability for ized advanced element of an NMCB. It is com-
rock crushers, asphalt and concrete plants, posed of 91 personnel and 38 items of civil-en-
large paving machines, and long-haul trans- gineer support equipment and limited to 250-
position. 300 STONs (14 C-141 equivalents) of air ship
ment The AIR DET is used to repair immedi-
Naval Mobile Construction Battalion ate war damage and construct urgent projects
A NMCB provides responsive military con- required by maro operational plans.
struction support to Naval, Marine Corps, and
other military forces, conducts battle-damage NMCB Civic-Action Team (Seabee Team)
repair operations (including RRR), constructs The civic-action Seabee team is a small, highly-
base facilities, and conducts defensive opera- mobile construction unit, task-organized from
tions as required by METT-T The NMCBs also NMCB assets. The civic-action team provides
conduct disaster-relief operations and civic-ac- socioeconomic community development disas-
tion projects as required. The most common ter relief, and technical assistance, The team
tasks of the NMCB are to— supervises nation-assistance construction pro-
jects and conducts on-the-job training and
• Construct, repair, improve, and main-
classroom instruction in third-world nations.
tain LOC (including bridges, road, and
rail systems).
Amphibious Construction Battalion
• Construct, repair, improve, and main- An amphibious construction battalion
tain fixed- and rotary-wing airfields, (PHIBCB) provides engineering support to the
landing sites, airdrop sites, and airfield naval beach group (NBG) during the initial
support structures/facilities. assault-and-landing phase of amphibious op
erations. The PHIBCB provides designated
Ž Upgrade, repair, and replace POL and elements to the CATF, supports the NBG, and
bulk-liquid systems. assists the landing-force support party (LFSP)
or NSE in operations that do not interfere with
• Construct ASPS, water storage and dis- the primary mission. There are two PHIBCBs,
tribution facilities, cantonments, defen- one each under the OPCON of the Commander
sive structures, throughput systems in Chief, Pacific Fleet (CINCPACFLT) and
(air, rail, road, and water terminals), Commander in Chief, Atlantic Fleet (CIN-
and other support facilities. CLANTFLT). They are readily organized to
support specific tasks. When employed in sup
port of amphibious operations, they become es-
The NMCB can function as an integral unit of sential elements of the NBG, the naval compo-
the NCR or it can operate independently It nent of the LFSP A PHIBCB supoorts a
provides specialized, task-organized detach- MAGTF landing over two beaches during the
ments up to one-half its organizational size to amphibious assault PHIBCBs maintain or-
address specific support requirements. ganizational command integrity.
Eighty-five percent of each NMCB can deploy
as an air echelon via aircraft (approximately Construction Battalion Maintenance Unit
87 C-141 equivalents), with the remaining fif-
A construction battalion maintenance unit
teen percent following via surface transporta-
(CBMU) maintains, operates, and repairs pub-
tion. lic works, utilities, and other facilities at an

E-10 Joint Engineer Capabilities


FM 5-100-15

established advance base after the departure of ments in support of other NCF, MPF, MAGTF,
the NMCB units that started the construction. or naval units. Tasks include support of under-
The unit may be attached to the NMCB to water surveillance systems and waterfront fa-
assist in completing the facilities that the cilities inspections.
CBMU will subsequently operate and main-
tain. When employed, CBMUs carry out their Construction Battalion Unit
assigned functions under the command of the
A construction battalion unit (CBU) provides
advanced base commander or naval component
engineering support of a nature that does not
commander. Typical CBMU functions in-
lend itself to accomplishment by other NCF
clude—
units. The CBUs are also used to provide man-
power pools in support of NMCBs and naval
Ž Designated public works responsibili-
fleet hospitals.
ties at a naval or marine base or other
installations.
ARMY-NAVY JOINT ENGINEER
• Maintenance, repair, and minor con- CONSIDERATIONS
struction for structures and grounds, in- During force-projection operations, the initial
cluding waterfront facilities, runways, naval engineering capability available in thea-
taxiways, parking aprons, and helicop- ter will most probably be NMCB AIR DETs,
ter pads (including matting surfaces). and MAGTF amphibious forces. NMCBs will
also be quickly deployed to force-projection
Ž Operation and maintenance of base theater locations to construct necessary naval
utilities systems, except expeditionary facilities. The corps engineer and his staff
systems such as the Amphibious Assault should consider the following when coordinat-
Fuel System (AAFS), Tactical Airfield ing joint engineer plans and operations with
Fuel Distribution System (TAFDS), and the Navy:
water-supply support system equip-
ment. Ž Request the latest engineer intelligence
data from deployed or deploying NMCB
• Engineering services for the base as re- AIR DET elements to assist in identify-
quested. ing force-projection TA engineer re-
quirements (including soils data, avail-
ability of construction materials, and
Underwater Construction Team host-nation construction support) and
An underwater construction team (UCT) con- enemy engineer capabilities.
structs, inspects, maintains, and repairs un-
• Establish engineer staff links between
derwater facilities. Generally, all underwater
engineering, construction and repair falls un- the Navy forces (NAVFOR) and ARFOR
der the purview of an UCT. Each UCT is or- engineer staff sections through the JTF
ganized and equipped to be self-sufficient in or theater engineer staff and headquar-
underwater construction capability for the ters.
various tasks anticipated. Their outfitting in- Ž Provide necessary Army engineer LO
cludes construction and underwater weight- support.
handling equipment underwater and terres-
trial construction tools, diving equipment, • Develop the joint task-organization rela-
safety equipment and a standard allowance of tionships that enhance NCR capabilities
infantry gear. The UCT can deploy as an inte- following deployment of Army corps en-
gral unit or as individual construction detach- gineer units.

Joint Engineer Capabilities E-11

I
FM 5-100-15

• Assess the need for NMCB support fol- • Develop procedures for Army engineer
lowing the arrival of Army construction units to be able to acquire additional
units in theater. Class IV construction materials from
NCFSUs.
Ž Determine if NMCB units need augmen-
tation from Army construction units.

US MARINE CORPS ENGINEER SUPPORT


The Marine Corps is organized into regi- dination staff essential for effective planning
ments, each of which contains a division, an and execution of operations by the other three
aircraft wing, and a force service support elements of the MAGTF
group (FSSG). These, in turn, each contain
organic engineer support. The Marine Corps Aviation Combat Element
component of the theater command or JTF is
The aviation combat element is task-organized
normally controlled by a commander of Ma-
to provide all or a portion of the functions of
rine Corps Forces (MARFOR). The regiment Marine Corps aviation in varying degrees,
forms MAGTFs to meet force-projection op- based on the tactical situation and the MAGTF
erations. Components of a MAGTF may in- mission, and size. These functions are air re-
clude an MEF, an MEB, and an MEU. connaissance, antiair warfare, and control of
aircraft and missiles. The aviation combat ele-
MARINE AIR-GROUND TASK FORCE ment is organized around an aviation head-
The Marine regiment may form a MAGTF quarters and varies in size from a reinforced
that is a task organization of Marine forces helicopter squadron to one or more Marine air-
(division, aircraft wing, and service-support craft wings. It includes those aviation com-
groups) under a single command and struc- mand (including air-control agencies), combat,
tured to accomplish a specific mission. NCF CS, and CSS units required by the situation.
units may be placed under OPCON to the Normally there is only one aviation combat
MAGTF commander, who may place NCF element in a MAGTF.
units under the OPCON of a subordinate ele-
ment commander (such as a ground combat Ground Combat Element
element) for missions such as RRR or civil-ac- The ground combat element is task-organized
tion team support required to assist stability to conduct ground operations. It is constructed
operations. NCF units employed under the around an infantry unit and varies in size from
OPCON of the MAGTF element commander a reinforced infantry battalion to one or more
will be tasked according to MAGTF construc- reinforced Marine divisions. It also includes
tion priorities. The MAGTF normally con- appropriate CS and CSS units. Normally,
sists of command, aviation combat ground there is only one ground combat element in a
combat and CSS elements. MAGTF.

Command Element CSS Element


The command element is the MAGTF head- The CSS element is task-organized to provide
quarters. It is a permanent organization com- the full range of CSS necessary to accomplish
posed of the commander; general or executive the MAGTF mission. This element can provide
and special staff sections; headquarters sec- supply, maintenance, transportation, deliber-
tion; and requisite command, control, and coor- ate engineer, health, postal, disbursing EPW,

E-12 Joint Engineer Capabilities


FM 5-100-15

automated information systems, exchange, and survivability of the Marine division


utilities, legal, and mortuary services. The through close combat engineer support and
CSS element varies in size from an MEU serv- provides limited general engineering support
ice-support group to an FSSG. Normally there required for the functioning of the Marine divi-
is only one CSS element in the MAGTF. sion. The CEB has the following capabilities:

MARINE EXPEDITIONARY FORCE Ž Mobility tasks.


An MEF is the largest of the MAGTFs, nor- – Conducts engineer reconnaissance
mally built around a division or wing team, but and supports intelligence collection
it can include several divisions and aircraft within the division zone.
wings, together with appropriate CSS organi-
zations. The MEF is capable of conducting a – Plans, organizes, and coordinates
wide RANGE of amphibious assault operations the assault breaching of explosive
and sustained operations ashore. It can be tai- and nonexplosive obstacles from the
lored for a wide variety of combat missions in high-water mark inland.
any geographic environment. – Employs assault bridge systems.
When augmented, employs other
MARINE EXPEDITIONARY BRIGADE standard bridge systems.
An MEB is a task-organized organization nor-
mally built around a Marine regimental land- – Provides expedient repair and rein-
ing team, a provisional Marine aircraft group, forcement of existing bridges.
and a logistics support group. It is capable of
conducting amphibious assault operations of a – Constructs expedient, short-span
limited scope. During potential crisis situ- bridges from local materials in sup-
ations, an MEB may be forward-deployed port of ground combat operations.
afloat for an extended period in order to pro-
vide an immediate combat response. – Provides temporary repair of exist-
ing roads and limited new construc-
MARINE EXPEDITIONARY UNIT tion of combat roads and trails.
An MEU is a task organization normally built Ž Countermobility tasks.
around a battalion landing team, a reinforced
helicopter squadron, and a logistics-support – Plans, organizes, and coordinates
unit. The MEU fulfills routine afloat-deploy- the construction of simple and com-
ment requirements, provides an immediate re- pound explosive and nonexplosive
action capability for crisis situations, and is obstacle systems.
capable of relatively limited combat.
– Plans and constructs obstacles re-
MARINE COMBAT ENGINEER BATTALION quiring special engineer equipment
or technical skills.
Each Marine division is supported by one CEB
that will provide close CS and limited general
– Performs specialized demolition
engineering support for the division through
missions beyond the capability of
task-organized combat engineer elements for
other division units.
ground combat operations. Each Marine in-
fantry regiment (three per division) is sup-
• Survivability tasks. Provides technical
ported by a combat engineer company The
assistance and necessary equipment for
CEB enhances the mobility countermobility,

Joint Engineer Capabilities E-13


FM 5-100-15

the development of temporary protec- MARINE ENGINEER OPERATIONS DIVISION


tive positions for personnel and equip- Each Marine aviation wing contains a wing
ment. support group, which in turn contains wing
support squadrons for both fixed- and rotary-
• General engineering support tasks. wing aircraft These squadrons each contain
an engineer operations division which provides
– Provides essential construction sup- organic engineer support to the wing only and
port that is temporary in nature and deploys with the wing. The division will not
designed to meet minimum combat normally assist in other engineer operations. It
requirements. provides all essential aviation ground support
requirements and have the capability to per-
– Provides utility support including form—
mobile electric power equipment
and potable water for essential troop • Engineer reconnaissance and survey.
consumption, bath services, and • Repair, improvement, and mainte-
equipment operation and mainte- nance of existing road nets.
nance requirements.
Ž Construction and maintenance of expe-
– Constructs and improves expedient dient roads and drainage systems.
vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL)
sites to support division operations. Ž Construction and maintenance of
VTOL facilities.
Ž Construction and maintenance of mis-
The CEB consists of a Headquarters and sion-essential base-camp require-
Service (H&S) company, an engineer support ments.
company (ESC), and four combat engineer
companies (CECs). The CEC provides close Ž Technical and equipment assistance
combat support of an engineering nature, as for erection of shelters.
necessary, to meet the essential requirements
of an infantry regiment and other division Ž Utilities support, to include essential
elements in combat operations. It contains a mobile electric power, water, and hy-
company headquarters and three combat en- giene support.
gineer platoons. The ESC provides person- • Equipment and personnel required for
nel, equipment, and appropriate task units to RRR.
the CECs in support of operational require-
ments. It provides minimum potable water Ž Material handling equipment (including
for the Marine division and electrical power 16 cranes and 31 forklifts) to support
for designated elements of the Marine divi- base operations.
sion. The ESC is organized into a company
• Limited mine-detection capability and
headquarters section, an equipment platoon,
combat engineering services.
a motor transport platoon, and a utilities pla-
toon. The Marine engineer forces are cur-
An engineer operations division is task-organ-
rently undergoing some organizational
ized into seven separate branches: draft/sur-
changes. The CEB will lose its support com-
vey, heavy equipment/material handling, utili-
pany and one CEC to the ESB in the FSSG.
ties, electrical, reference, water-support hy-
giene, and construction.

E-14 Joint Engineer Capabilities


FM 5-100-15

MARINE ENGINEER SUPPORT BATTALION Ž Providing bath and laundry services.


Each FSSG has an organic ESB. The ESB is Ž Providing EOD support.
organized to plan, coordinate, and supervise
the battalion’s general-engineering and supply- Ž Constructing field-expedient deception
support functions. It is structured to facilitate devices.
task organization for operations conducted by
the battalion. The ESB provides GS to the Ž Conducting countermobility operations
MEF (to include survivability countermobility, through the installation of obstacles, to
and mobility enhancements, and EOD) and GS include minefield and nonexplosive ob-
to the handling, storage, and distribution of stacles.
bulk Class I (water) and bulk Class III supplies. Ž Conducting mobility operations, to in-
The ESB is capable of— clude breaching, reducing, and remov-
ing explosive or nonexplosive obstacles.
• Conducting engineer reconnaissance.
Ž Providing specialized demolition opera-
Ž Constructing, improving, and maintain- tions.
ing airfields, encampments, and other
support facilities. The ESB is structured into seven separate
companies to facilitate task organization an
Ž Conducting mobility enhancement op- H&S company a bridge company an ESC, a
erations, iton include the construction, im- bulk fuel company and three engineer compa-
provement, and maintenance of LOC nies, The H&S company provides C2, admin-
and MSRs. istrative, and CS functions for the rest of the
battalion. This company also provides exten-
• Providing bulk Class III fuel support, to sive EOD support to the MEF with a separate
include receipt, storage, and distribu- EOD platoon. The ESC provides DS mainte-
tion of bulk fuel products. nance for specified equipment organic to the
battalion; DS transportation and services to
Ž Providing utilities support, to include the battalion; and GS or reinforcing augmenta-
mobile electric power beyond supported tion, as required, to the engineer companies of
units’ capabilities and electrical power the battalion. This is a large company organ-
distribution within camps and support ized into five separate platoons: utilities,
areas. maintenance, motor transport, engineer equip
ment, and water supply The bridge company
• Providing water purification and bulk provides technical assistance and supervision
Class I (water) storage and distribution. for the construction of find-panel and floating
bridge equipage, Organic equipment includes
Ž Providing survivability enhancements, nine bridge erection boats, three M4T6 sets, six
to include construction of protective floating foot bridges, and six MGB sets. The
structures. bulk fuel company provides general Class III
supply support to the MEF. The engineer com-
• Installing or supervising the installa- panies provide general engineering support of
tion of standard and nonstandard fixed- a deliberate NATURE to the MEF. It is organized
panel and floating bridging, to include into a headquarters section, an equipment pla-
planning and controlling bridging op- toon, and two engineer platoons.
erations.

Joint Engineer Capabilities E-15


FM 5-100-15

ARMY-MARINE CORPS JOINT ENGINEER the theater engineer staff and headquar-
CONSIDERATIONS ters.
During force-projection operations, the initial Ž Provide necessary Army engineer LO
US Marine Corps engineering capability avail- support.
able in theater will most probably be Marine
Division CEBs as part of MAGTF operations. • Develop the joint task-organization rela-
ESBs will also be quickly deployed to force-pro- tionships that enhance Marine engineer
jection theater locations to construct necessary capabilities following deployment of
Marine facilities. The corps engineer and his Army corps engineer units.
staff should consider the following when coor- • Assess the need for CEB and ESB sup-
dinating joint engineer plans and operations
port following the arrival of Army corps
with the Marine Corps:
combat engineer and construction units
Ž Request the latest engineer intelligence in theater.
data from deployed or deploying Marine • Determine if ESB units need augmenta-
CEB and ESB elements to assist in the
tion from Army construction units.
identification of force-projection TA en-
gineer requirements, including threat Ž Develop procedures for Army engineer
engineer capability, mine and obstacle units to be able acquire additional Class
data, soils data, and availability of con- IV construction materials from ESBs.
struction materials and host-nation con-
struction support. • Coordinate requirements and support as
• Establish engineer staff links between the situation dictates (such as when
the MAGTF, MARFOR, and ARFOR en- Army units supporting a JTF with a
gineer staff sections through the JTF or large Marine contingent, including a
Marine topographic platoon, are pre-
sent).

E-16 Joint Engineer Capabilities