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One of the best things about fast food is not just that it‘s quick, but that it‘s consistent. Walk into a McDonald‘s in Tosserdorf, Germany, and a Big Mac is still a robust, comforting Big Mac, just like at home. What makes fast food so consistent? Restaurants like McDonald‘s use the same ingredients and preparation methods at every location. In this chapter, we show you how to apply the concept behind fast food to the process of writing the SAT essay. That way you can write a top-notch SAT essay every time. To make it happen, you need to know three key things, just like all the fast food chains:
Know your customers. Know your ingredients. Know how to put the ingredients together.
Know Your Customers
After you finish taking the SAT, your essay is scanned into a computer, uploaded to a secure website, and graded on computer screens at remote locations by ―essaygraders.‖ These essay-graders are either English teachers or writing teachers who have been hired and trained to grade SAT essays by the company that makes the SAT. Every essay is actually read by two graders. Each grader is instructed to spend no more than three minutes reading an essay before giving it a score on a scale of 1–6. The two grades are then added together to make up your entire essay subscore, which ranges from 2–12. (If two graders come to wildly different scores for an essay, like a 2 and a 5, a third grader is brought in.) So the essay graders are your customers. You want to give them an essay that tastes just like what they‘re expecting. How are you supposed to know what they’re expecting? You can learn exactly what SAT essay-graders expect by looking at two very important guidelines: the actual SAT essay directions and the grading criteria that the SAT gives the graders.
The SAT Essay Directions
The first thing you should not do when writing your SAT essay is read the directions. Don‘t waste your time on the real test. Instead, read the directions now and make sure you understand them.
Directions: Consider carefully the following excerpt and the assignment below it. Then plan and write an essay that explains your ideas as persuasively as possible. Keep in mind that the support you provide —both reasons and examples—will help make your view convincing to the reader. You have twenty-five minutes to plan and write an essay on the topic assigned below. DO NOT WRITE ON ANOTHER TOPIC. AN ESSAY ON ANOTHER TOPIC IS NOT ACCEPTABLE. The essay is assigned to give you an opportunity to show how well you can write. You should, therefore, take care to express your thoughts on the t opic clearly and effectively. How well you write is much more important than how much you write, but to cover the topic adequately you will probably need to write more than one paragraph. Be specific.
Your essay must be written on the lines provided on your answer sheet. You will receive no other paper on which to write. You will find that you have enough space if you write on every line, avoid wide margins, and keep your handwriting to a reasonable size. It is important to remember that what you writ e will be read by someone who is not familiar with your handwriting. Try to write or print so that what you are writing is legible to the reader.
We‘ve translated these directions into a list of Dos and Don‘ts to make all the rules easier to grasp:
DO Write only on the given topic as directed. Take a clear position on the topic. DON’T Write on a topic that relates vaguely to the one given. Take a wishy-washy position or try to argue two sides. Write creatively or ornately just to show off.
Write persuasively to convince the grader. Include reasons and examples that support your position. Write with correct grammar and spelling. Write as clearly as possible.
Include examples not directly related to your position. Forget to proof your work for spelling and grammar mistakes. Use too many fancy vocabulary words or overly long sentences. Be vague or use generalizations. Put more importance on length than on quality. Make your handwriting too large or you‘ll sacrifice space. Write in cursive if you can print. Print is much easier to read.
Write specifically and concretely. Write more than one paragraph.
Write only on the given lined paper.
Write as neatly as possible in print or cursive.
The Grader’s Instructions
The graders must refer to a set-in-stone list of criteria when evaluating each essay and deciding what grade (1 through 6) it deserves. The following chart is our explanation of the grading criteria that the SAT gives the graders.
5 4 3 . arguments. with no more than a few significant flaws and errors. A 5 essay: • shows well-developed critical thinking skills by taking a solid position on t he topic • supports and develops its position on the topic with appropriate examples. with occasional use of vague or inappropriate vocabulary • only minor variation in sentence structure • a variety of errors in grammar. arguments. and punctuation. including ideas that are not always coherent • a capacity for competent use of language. with at most a few small errors. spelling. and evidence • is organized and focused and features a coherent progression of ideas • demonstrates competence with language throughout by using appropriate vocabulary • uses varied sentence structure • contains few errors in grammar. spelling. a few errors in grammar. spelling. and evidence • is tightly organized and focused. spelling. and punctuation. A 4 essay: • shows adequate critical thinking ski ll by taking a position on the topic and supporting that position with generally appropriate examples. or evidence presented • lapses in organization and focus. arguments. arguments. A 6 essay: • shows a firm grasp of critical thinking and takes a powerful and interesting position on the topic • supports and develops its position with appropriate and insightful examples. as demonstrated by its position on the topic • inadequate support or development of its position based on deficiencies in examples. A 4 essay is competent and demonstrates a basic command of the language throughout the entire essay. at most. A 5 essay is strong and demonstrates a generally consistent command of language throughout the entire essay. A 3 essay shows developing competence and contains one or more of the following: • some critical thinking skills.Score Description of Essay 6 A 6 essay is superior and demonstrates a strong and consistent command of the language throughout the entire essay. and punctuation. with a progression of ideas that is mostly coherent • demonstrates inconsistent facility with language and uses mostly appropriate vocabulary • uses some variation in sentence structure • contains some errors in grammar. with a smooth a nd coherent progression of ideas • demonstrates a facility with language through the use of descriptive and appropriate vocabulary • uses intelligent variation in sentence x structure • contains. and punctuation. and evidence • is mostly organized and focused.
including ideas that are frequently incoherent • poor language skills through use of limited or wrong vocabulary • errors in sentence structure • errors in grammar. Examples: The relevance and development of the examples you use to support your argument. 1. or society (unless you want to. 3. Positioning SAT essay topics are always broad. The broad nature of SAT topics means you‘ll never be forced to write about topical or controversial issues of politics. We‘ll spend the rest of this chapter teaching you precisely how to give it to them. 1 0 Know Your Ingredients To write a tasty SAT essay. you‘ve got to know the necessary ingredients: The different grades of 1–6 are based on the quality of your essay in four fundamental categories. spelling.2 A 2 essay is seriously flawed and demonstrates a poor command of the language throughout the entire essay. Command of Language: Sentence construction. But the broadness of the topics also means that with a little thought you can come up with plenty of examples to support your position on the topic. Now you know your customers. culture. arguments. grammar. we‘ll talk about whether you should want to a little later). and word choice. and punctuation that make parts of the essay unintelligible. 2. A typical SAT essay topic gives you a statement that addresses ideas like the concept of justice. Essays written on a topic other than the one assigned will receive a score of zero. A 1 essay contains one or more of the following: • no position on the topic. and other rules of writing that make the meaning hard to understand A 1 essay is profoundly flawed and demonstrates a very poor command of the language throughout the entire essay. the definition of success. and you know what they want. Organization: The organization of each of your paragraphs and of your essay overall. the importance of learning from mistakes. and evidence • weak organization and focus. 4. Really. or almost no support or development of the position • poor organization and focus that makes the essay incoherent • numerous vocabulary errors • fundamental errors in sentence structure • errors in grammar. . punctuation. really. 1. A 2 essay contains one or more of the following: • poor critical thinking skills as shown by an inconsistent or unclear position on the topic • insufficient support for the position on the topic as a result of faulty or nonexistent examples. really broad. We‘re talking ―the big questions of life‖ broad. sp elling. Positioning: The strength and clarity of your stance on the given topic.
Once you‘ve rephrased the topic. something subtle. You need to select your position strategically. But there are two things that do make excellent SAT examples stand out from the crowd: Specific examples Variety of examples .‖ In addition to narrowing down the focus of the broad original topic. Your essay should be specific. Remember. current events. A solid position on two strategies: Rephrase the prompt.‖ you might come up with a sentence like ―Failure can lead to success by teaching important lessons that help us avoid repeating mistakes in the future. Not on the 25-minute fast food essay. You need to keep it simple. Choose Your Position Agree or disagree. since you‘ll be proving your own statement rather than the more obscure version put forth by the SAT.‖ Drop those thoughts. ―I could argue the ‗agree‘ side pretty well. You may be thinking. or any other discipline. agree with it or disagree. then come up with the examples that support your simple stand. you get 25 minutes. On the SAT. 2. literature. putting the SAT essay question in your own words makes it easier for you to take a position confidently. the key to writing a great SAT essay is taking a strong position on an extremely broad topic. When you choose an argument for a paper in school. Choose your position. . Remember to back up your position with specific examples from personal experience. Examples To make an SAT essay really shine. Given these time constraints.Philosophers take years to write tomes on the topics of justice or success. It‘s time to learn how to take a stand. You may have qualms or otherwise ―sophisticated‖ thoughts at this point. but I‘m not sure that I 100 percent believe in the agree side because. Then write an essay as directed. Rephrase the Prompt Rephrase the prompt in your own words and make it more specific. you often have to strain yourself to look for something original. Not here. history.‖ Assignment: Write an essay in which you agree or disagree with the statement above. you‘re not going to have a week to write this essay. Just coming up with any three examples that fit a basic position on a broad topic is not gonna cut it. ―There‘s no success like failure. It‘s that simple. you‘ve got to load it up with excellent examples. If you rephrase the statement ―There is no success like failure. . . Agree or disagree. Here‘s a sample topic: Consider the following statement and assignment.
such detailed facts support an argument. Knowing that the Americans defeated the British in 1783 is the start of a great example. Another way to put this is. But you‘re much more likely to impress the grader and write a better essay if you use a broad range of examples from different areas: history.Specific Examples Good examples discuss specific events. To prove the position that ―there‘s no success like failure.‖ You need to be specific: Give dates. and business or current events. which officially granted the Americans independence and gave the United States all lands east of the Mississippi River. leadership differences. though. That means when you‘re thinking up examples. science. Awesome! That‘s a potentially great example. Just as bricks hold up a building. A NOTE ON TRUTHFULNESS IN EXAMPLES . Sure. but you must show specifically how the American victory proves the argument that ―there‘s no success like failure.‖ Perhaps you come up with the example of the American army during the Revolutionary War. you should consider as wide a variety as possible. literature. To make it actually great. Literature: Dickens‘s success in writing about the working class based on his years spent in poverty as a child laborer. literature. battles. A broad array of examples like those will provide a more solid and defensible position than three examples drawn from personal experience or from just one or two areas. which learned from its failures in the early years of the war how it needed to fight the British. inadequate soldiers and supplies. Let‘s say you‘re trying to think of examples to support the position that ―learning the lessons taught by failure is a sure route to success.‖ What failures on the part of the British government and army led to the Americans‘ success? (Morale issues. the Battle of Yorktown. Business or Current Events: The JetBlue airline succeeding by learning from the mistakes of its competitors. There are literally millions of good. politics. dates. ―The American army learned from its mistakes and then defeated the British Redcoats. You need to choose examples that you know a lot about in order to be specific.‖ you might choose one example from history. you have to be able to talk about things that have happened in detail. mention people. you might mention the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1783. you have to be able to say more than just. and so on. If you use the experience of the American Army in the Revolutionary War as an example. Here are three examples that you might choose from those three areas: History: The Americans‘ victory over the British in the Revolutionary War. art. tactics. Variety of Examples The other crucial thing about SAT essay examples is how much ground they cover. and so on.) The one-two punch of a solid example and details that use the example to prove your argument make the difference between a good SAT essay example and a great one. you could come up with three examples from your personal life about how you learned from failure. or measurable changes over time. Knowing a lot about an example means you know more than just the basic facts. to show how your example proves your argument. as long as all of your examples remain closely tied to proving your argument. You need to be able to use all the detailed facts about your example. potential examples for every position you might choose. such as dates and events.
. The examples you choose to support your argument and your development of those examples is a big part of how well you write. it‘s back to the trusty fast food analogy: A good SAT essay is a lot like a triple-decker burger. literature. That does not mean you should make up examples from history or bend facts into falsehoods. business.‖ the structure of your essay should be almost identical. The first and last paragraphs are your essay‘s introduction and conclusion. Organization No matter what topic you end up writing about. many of which had gone out of business due to lack of demand. you should always follow this five-paragraph structure on your SAT essay. flavorless New York City pretzels offered at other stands. So what‘s this magical essay structure? Well. It‘s certainly better to use universal examples based on facts and events that your grader might recognize. Her chocolate-covered pretzel business became a success based on her competitors‘ failures. or almost any other topic.The SAT essay tests how well you write. art. the organization of your essay should be the same. and the structure we‘re about to explain will make sure those ingredients stand out in your essay. and you‘ve transformed your personal knowledge into a much more credible and impressive example about success and failure in business. or which examples you choose. Turn that example into an article you recently read in your local newspaper. She started the business because she noticed that her friends and neighbors were sick and tired of the dull. That‘s it. No matter what the topic is. That‘s right. 3. what you feel about it. But there‘s no SAT rule or law that says that the examples you use to support your arguments have to be true. Instead. The SAT is looking for those standard ingredients. the same. remember that you can bend the truth a bit and use your personal knowledge and experience to generate examples that prove your argument. If you‘re asked to write about whether ―there‘s no success like failure‖ or about the merits of the phrase ―progress always comes at a cost. it means you can take examples drawn from your personal experience or your own knowledge and present them as examples from current events. let‘s say your Aunt Edna started a business selling chocolate-covered pretzels on the street in New York City. however. For instance. each of the middle three paragraphs discusses an example that supports and illustrates your argument. If you‘re in a bind.
It identifies where you stand on the topic and should pull the grader into the essay. who started a recruiting firm that rose out of the ashes of Johnson‘s personal experience of being laid off. Three sentences. . Explain and describe your three examples to make it clear how they fit into your argument. clear.. is another example of a success that arose from learning from failure. THE THESIS STATEMENT: The thesis statement is the first sentence of your essay. the popular Internet search engine. The Meat: Three-Example Paragraphs Each of your three-example paragraphs should follow this basic format: Four to five sentences long. three examples. The first sentence should be the topic sentence. A good thesis statement for the essay topic.‖ is Learning from the lessons taught by failure is a sure route to success. It explains what your example is and places it within the context of your argument. The grader knows exactly what to expect from your essay now and is ready to dive in. Here‘s an example: The United States of America can be seen as a success that emerged from failure: by learning from the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation.Just as important as the organization of your entire essay is the organization within each of the five paragraphs. Google Inc. though in this case Google learned from the failures of its competitors. THE ESSAY SUMMARY: After the thesis statement. you need three to four sentences in your introduction. the founding fathers were able to create the Constitution. This thesis statement conveys the writer‘s position on the topic boldly and clearly. Explain your position on the topic clearly and concisely. Another example that shows how success can arise from failure is the story of Rod Johnson. To accomplish these three goals. and definitive. it carves out the position that the essay will take on the very broad. vague topic: learning from failure yields success. which serves as the thesis statement of the paragraph. A good thesis statement is strong. Transition the grader smoothly into your three examples. The Top Bun: Introduction The introduction to an SAT essay has to do three things: Grab the grader‘s attention. It‘s usually best to give each example its own sentence. In only a few words. ―There‘s no success like failure. Let‘s take a closer look at each paragraph next. the document on which America is built. the rest of the first paragraph should serve as a kind of summary of the examples you will use to support your position on the topic. These three to four sentences will convey your thesis statement and the overall map of your essay to the grader.
The next three to four sentences are for developing your example. was the Constitution. three years later. In these sentences you show through specific. RECAP YOUR ARGUMENT: The recap is a one-sentence summary of what you‘ve already argued. By learning from the failure of the Articles. The SAT‘s essay directions say it loud and clear: ―Be specific. That means your second meat paragraph should start with a transitional phrase such as. Transitions Between Meat Paragraphs: Your first meat paragraph dives right into its thesis statement.‖ A slightly more sophisticated way to build transitions is to choose examples from different sources. which created a more powerful central government while also maintaining the integrity of the states. learning from failure is a means to gaining success in business as well. The simplest way to build these transitions is to use words like another and finally. business. concrete discussion of facts and situations just how your example supports your essay thesis statement. To accomplish these two goals. As we continue through the chapter. and declarative. In 1786. If the first paragraph is about a political instance of learning from failure and the second is from business. Look to the future. . more powerful government. ―Another example . . this paragraph states that the United States is one of the great examples of ―a success achieved by studying and learning from failures.‖ It then uses the specific example of the Articles of Confederation. make that fact your transition: ―As in politics. and Google make it clear that in the realms of politics and business. It‘s specific throughout and even includes a few dates. your conclusion should contain three to four sentences. As in the thesis statement. By ―broadening‖ your argument. bold. but the second and third meat paragraphs need transitions. For now we‘re just going to show you one ―meat‖ paragraph. Rod Johnson. which established the United States of America as a single country for the first time. we mean that you should attempt to link your specific examples to wider fields. Take the case of. some that are good. Here‘s a recap example: The examples of the Constitution. The best meat paragraphs on the SAT essay are specific. .‖ The Bottom Bun: Conclusion The conclusion of your essay should accomplish two main goals: Recap your argument while broadening it a bit. Expand your position. After just five years of living under the Articles of Confederation. the Annapolis convention was convened. The result. the recap should be straightforward. you‘ll see several more. and the Constitution to prove its position. . and art. the founding fathers created the founding document of a country that has become both the most powerful country in the world and a beacon of democracy. the states realized that they needed a new document and a new. the Annapolis convention. such as politics. This one is good: The United States. the greatest successes arise from careful . the first great democracy of the modern world. . some that are bad.‖ In its topic sentence. such as from history and business. is also one of the best examples of a success achieved by studying and learning from earlier failures.
considerations of the lessons of failure. clear. success would be easier to achieve. Provide a transition from the previous example paragraph. and break down the essay into its core ingredients. One of the best ways to push your argument further is to look to the future and think about what would happen if the position that you‘ve taken in your essay could be applied on a broader scale. As the examples of history and business demonstrate. something to be denied and hidden.S. Here‘s an example: Failure is often seen as embarrassing. Purpose 3 sentences Lay out the three examples you will use to support your thesis statement. But as the examples of the U. Google. Example Development Example Paragraph 2 Topic Sentence 1 sentence Describe your example and fit it into the context of your overall thesis. . then that failure can become a powerful teacher. if an individual. Here‘s the SAT essay outline you should use. Example Paragraph 1 Topic Sentence 1 sentence Describe your example and fit it into the context of your overall thesis statement. the following chart sums it all up. no matter what topic you get or what position you take: Length The Introduction Thesis Statement Essay Summary 1 sentence Describe your argument clearly and concisely. Be as specific as possible. 3–4 sentences Use specific facts to show how your example supports your argument. EXPAND ON YOUR POSITION: The last two or three sentences of the essay should take the argument you just recapped and push it a little further. if everyone had the courage and insight to view failure as a surefire way to learn from mistakes. Constitution. The bottom bun wraps up the entire SAT essay. and easy to write. or even a nation is strong enough to face and study its failure. your SAT essay will be strong. The Universal SAT Essay Template To make sure you really get the essay organization. organization. And there you have it! If you follow the template we just provided. and Rod Johnson prove.
so pay close attention to these three facets of your essay (the actual SAT essay-grading guidelines mention them specifically): Variation in sentence structure Word choice Grammar and spelling Sentence Structure Sentence structure is very important. Example Development The Conclusion Recap 1 sentence Summarize your argument and examples.‖ Think of your command of language as your fast food essay‘s Special Sauce—it‘s the sprinkling of perfect word choice. or business. which we call your ―command of language. can make your essay sound boring and unsophisticated. and spelling that must ooze through your entire essay. and link the examples to broader things like politics. 3–4 sentences Use specific facts to show how your example supports your argument. grammar. Sentence structure. But the SAT-graders also care about the mechanics of your writing. Be as specific as possible. detailed examples is a strong start to a successful SAT essay. Be as specific as possible. . An SAT essay with a clear position and strong examples won‘t get a perfect score without the Special Sauce. Sentence structure. if done well. Your 2–3 sentences Expand your position by contemplating what would happen in the world if people (or nations. art. sentence structure. if it is monotonous and unchanging. Command of Language Taking a clear position and defending it with solid. Example Paragraph 3 Topic Sentence 1 sentence Describe your example and fit it into the context of your overall thesis. or businesses) followed the argument you make in your essay. Provide a transition from the previous paragraph. history. Sentence structure is also important in essays you write for school. Sentence structure is important on the SAT essay. can keep your readers engaged and help make your essay exciting and easier to read. Did you notice how dull that entire last paragraph became after the first two sentences? That‘s because every one of those sentences not only started in the same way but also all had the same straight-ahead plodding rhythm. Broaden Argument 4.Example Development 3–4 sentences Use specific facts to show how your example supports your argument.
we give you two handy rules to simplify the sentences that you write on the SAT essay: 1. Patrick saved up his allowance and eventually purchased a sports car. I love trying to steal candy while I’m there. For example. Focus on changing the structure of your sentences as you write the essay. OVERLY COMPLEX SENTENCES Sometimes students think writing long complicated sentences will impress teachers. phrases. he gained ten pounds. Never write a sentence that contains more than three commas. leading them through your essay. We could fill an entire book with rules about creating simple and succinct prose. Notice how the various sentences start differently and also have different internal rhythms. Showing Results: Manuel ingested nothing but soda and burgers every day for a month. Elaborating: I love sneaking into movies. You don‘t have to invert every clause. she thinks red nail polish looks trashy. Soon after.) 2. Here are some different kinds of transitions you can use to spice up your sentence structure: Showing Contrast: Katie likes pink nail polish. (Unless you need to include a list. you can afford pricey items. Providing an Example: If you save up your money. Instead. and eventually Bob drifted into a life of crime. You‘ve got to mix it up. These variations in sentence structure keep the writing vibrant and interesting. but it won‘t impress SAT essay-graders.Now go back and look at the earlier sample meat paragraph on the Constitution. or sentences that take readers gently by the hand. Showing Sequence: The police arrested Bob at the party. Keep your sentences short and simple. They‘re words. and your SAT essays should be as clear and easy to read as possible. In contrast. Varying the structure of your sentences keeps your reader engaged and makes your writing easier to read and more exciting. but you should be careful not to let a few sentences in a row follow the same exact structure. his college applications were all rejected. Mixing up your sentence structure is crucial on the SAT essay —it‘s also important to consider when writing essays for school. Complex sentences are difficult to understand. Much easier to read and far less repetitive. Transitions are the words that provide the context necessary to help readers understand the flow of your argument. As a result. Maybe. Here‘s the boring first paragraph of this section rewritten with varied sentence structure: Sentence structure is very important. Monotonous and repetitive sentence structure can make your essay sound boring and unsophisticated. Never write a sentence that takes up more than three lines of SAT-essay paper. right? TRANSITION BETWEEN SENTENCES One great way to vary your sentence structure while increasing the logical flow of your essay is to use transitions. . Try to avoid sentences with more than two commas. Even more than that.
The likelihood is that you‘re going to use the word incorrectly and give the grader a bad impression. Graders are instructed to look out for patterns of errors.Those rules are certainly not foolproof. the states realized that they needed a new document and a new. We cover all the important grammar you need to know in ―Beat Identifying Sentence Errors‖ and ―Beat Improving Sentences. It means you should go for the proper word. This is 6-level writing. or that you write run-on sentences again and again. you‘re bound to end up misusing those words. Word Choice When students see that ―word choice‖ plays a part in their essay score. Instead. the word that makes your essay as clear as possible. the best word. but it isn‘t teeming with five-syllable words. That belief is wrong and potentially damaging to your SAT essay score. Follow the five steps we describe next and you‘ll be on your way to a 6.‖ Know How to Put the Ingredients Together By now you know all of the ingredients you should use and the template you should follow to write a great SAT essay. As for learning the grammar. the first great democracy of the modern world. The result. If you strain to put big fancy words into your essay. You need to be able to write solid grammatical sentences to score well on the essay. So don‘t try to use a word unless you know what it means. the Annapolis convention was convened. And misusing a sophisticated word is a worse offense than not using one at all. Five Steps to a 6 Step 1 Understand the topic and take a position. was the Constitution. Now that’s good word choice. In 1786. The SAT understands that you‘re bound to make minor mistakes in a rushed 25-minute essay. they think it means that they have to use tons of sophisticated vocabulary words in order to score well. Word choice doesn‘t mean that you have to go for the big word every time. After just five years of living under the Articles of Confederation. keep it simple and stick to words you know well. is also one of the best examples of a success achieved by studying and learning from earlier failures. which established the United States of America as a single country for the first time. that your spelling of familiar words is often incorrect. Don‘t go throwing around tough words in the hope that you‘re going to use it correctly and impress your reader. When it does reach for an uncommon word. Next you need to learn the writing process that will empower you to put it all together into a top-score-worthy essay every time. you‘re in luck. 1 minute . but abiding by them will keep you from filling your SAT essay with overly complex sentences and will ultimately make your essay easier to understand. which created a more powerful central government while also maintaining the integrity of the states. If a grader sees that your punctuation is consistently wrong. Let‘s look at part of the paragraph about the Constitution: The United States. By learning from the failure of the Articles. like beacon. more powerful government. the founding fathers created the founding document of a country that has become both t he most powerful country in the world and a beacon of democracy. that‘s when your score will suffer. three years later. well. Grammar and Spelling A few grammar or spelling mistakes sprinkled throughout your essay will not destroy your score. it uses the word appropriately and effectively. What the passage does is use every single word correctly.
(2–3 minutes) Your position is that you agree with the statement that ―failure can lead to success by teaching important lessons that help us avoid repeating mistakes in the future. Step 2: Brainstorm examples. or any other discipline. and your essay will probably derail. Here‘s the sample topic we will use throughout this section: Consider the following statement and assignment. Then write an essay as directed. Plenty of SAT-takers will succumb to the temptation to plunge straight from Step 1 into writing the essay (Step 4). ―Failure can lead to success by teaching important lessons that help us avoid repeating mistakes in the future. or thinking up examples to support your position. Brainstorming.‖ Terrific. Remember to back up your position with specific examples from personal experience. we‘ve got two strategies to suggest: BRAINSTORM BY CATEGORY . You just close your eyes and scrunch up your face and THINK REALLY HARD until you come up with some examples. Create an outline.) That‘s it. literature.‖ Assignment: Write an essay in which you agree or disagree with the statement above. is the crucial next step. (In our example. don‘t skip brainstorming. (1 minute) The first thing you must do before you can even think about your essay is read the topic very carefully. history. 2–3 minutes 3–4 minutes 15 minutes 2 minutes Step 1: Understand the topic and take a position. Your essay should be specific. To do that. Proof the essay. we agree with the topic. brainstorming while staring at a blank page under time pressure can be intimidating and frustrating. You‘ll write the first thing that comes to mind. Write the essay. ―There‘s no success like failure. So even though you feel the time pressure. Make sure you understand the topic thoroughly by making it your own. current events. in practice. One step down. four more to go.Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Brainstorm examples. But. Skipping the brainstorming session will leave you with an opinion on the topic but with no clearly thought-out examples to prove your point.‖ Choose Your Position. use the two strategies we discussed in the Ingredients section: Rephrase the Prompt. Brainstorming seems simple. To make brainstorming less daunting and more productive.
If you don‘t want to risk wasting time preparing ahead of time. brainstorm a list split up by category. ―There‘s no success like failure. their failures. You can actually prepare examples for each of the seven categories we‘ve brainstormed above in our chart. since the SAT essay topics are so broad. That‘s still great. The risk inherent in planning ahead is that you can get stuck with a topic on the SAT in which all your knowledge about scientists just isn‘t applicable. for instance. Rod Johnson (your uncle) realized the need for a placement agency in South Carolina after getting laid off.The best examples you can generate to support your SAT essay topic will come from a variety of sources such as science.‖ Current Events Science History Politics Failure of 9/11 security led to the creation of Homeland Security. PREPARE AHEAD OF TIME If you want to put in the time. CHOOSE YOUR TOP THREE When you go through your brainstormed and pre-prepared examples to decide which three you should actually use. Which examples can you be most specific about? . politics. history. But while this is somewhat of a risk. That means your next step is to choose the top three of your five potential examples. Brainstorming ahead of time can be a great method. read up about various scientists. Art Literature Personal Experience Business Let‘s say you took three minutes and came up with a list of eight categories like ours. and personal experience. It‘s up to you. don‘t. Can‘t think of one. because it gives you time to do more than just brainstorm. James Joyce became a writer only after failing as a singer. you could also do some brainstorming ahead of time. you need to keep three things in mind: 1. You could. can‘t think of one The US Constitution was written only after the failure of the Articles of Confederation. art. and you got examples for five of them. and other facts. Google watched the failures of its competitors and learned to improve its Internet business model and technology. Preparing ahead of time will pay off if you develop a few examples that you know a lot about for the essay. literature. the impact of their discoveries (positive and negative). Then you‘ll have to resort to thinking up examples on the spot. Babies learn to walk only after trying and failing time and again. business. So. Here‘s the list we brainstormed for the topic. But it could backfire if it winds up that you absolutely cannot use the examples you prepared. learning about their successes. and memorize dates. events. you can often massage your examples to fit.
write the outline. On fast food essays like the SAT essay. organizing your ideas in outline form and then sticking to that outline is crucial. WRITING THE OUTLINE Since your outline is a kind of bare-bones ―map‖ of your essay. Which examples are not controversial? The first two reasons are pretty straightforward: Specificity and variety in your examples will help you write the strongest essay. the outline should follow our Universal SAT Essay Template. and that you think lots of people might go for the babies walking example. explain example 2 Topic sentence for example 3. Love the outline! Live the outline! At the very least. The point about controversy is a bit more subtle. we guarantee that the four or five minutes that you invest in writing an outline will definitely be paid back when you write the essay. and the last thing you want to do is upset or offend anyone. who might then be more inclined to lower your grade. Step 3: Create an outline. Which examples will give your essay the broadest range? 3. the 9/11 example from our brainstormed list should be cut. which rewards standard conformity much more than it does creativity.2. state examples Example 1 Example 2 Example 3 Conclusion Topic sentence for example 1. That means you‘ve narrowed down your brainstormed topics to the top three. Google. So we‘re here to encourage you to embrace the outline. The SAT essay graders care much more about how well you write and how intelligently you can use examples to back up your position than they care about the truth of what you say in examples drawn from personal experience. explain example 1 Topic sentence for example 2. For instance. explain example 3 Thesis rephrased in a broader way. a look into the future . Here‘s another example. Though you may feel that you‘re wasting your time. Let‘s say that you‘re not so certain if that story about James Joyce being a singer is even really true. (3–4 minutes) After brainstorming comes the essay writing step that students tend to dread most— writing an outline. That would mean you decide to keep the examples about the Constitution. you portray him as a businessman you read about in an esteemed publication recently? Transform your personal experience and make it seem like an actual example from current events. and the story of Rod Johnson. Next up: Outlining. The event just is too full of unresolved issues to serve as a suitable essay topic. What if instead of referring to Rod Johnson as your enterprising uncle. Staying away from very controversial examples ensures that you won‘t accidentally offend or annoy your grader. Here‘s a summary of the template: PARAGRAPH PURPOSE 1 2 3 4 5 WHAT IT SHOULD CONTAIN Introduction Thesis statement.
That adds up to only about ten more sentences than what you‘ve jotted down in your outline. came up with better (NEXT technological solution and better business model. and concluding statement when you write your essay. to learn and evolve. Three examples: (1) US Constitution and Articles failure. PARAGRAPH INTRODUCTION 1: Failure can lead to success teaching lessons. Notice that we‘ve placed our examples in strongest to weakest order starting in paragraph 2. study it. Since failure is good teacher. topic sentences. Once you have the outline down on paper. As you sketch out your outline. As you write. 5: Failure often seen as embarrassing. We suggest that you put what you consider to be your strongest example first. and if for some reason you run out of time and can only fit two example paragraphs between your intro and conclusion. Articles of Confederation. one topic sentence for each of your three examples. Notice how in the example above we drop verbs and write in a note-taking style. PARAGRAPH 2: US Constitution developed by studying the failures of previous EXAMPLE 1 (BEST) document. followed by the second strongest. not with him. consider where you want each example to go. writing the essay becomes more a job of polishing language and ideas than creating them from scratch. history shows failure leads to success for everyone. and then the least strong. Step 4: Write the essay.As you write the outline. even in rivals. Studied his failure. intelligent companies look for failure everywhere. People try to hide it. (15 minutes) Writing the essay consists of filling out your ideas by following your outline and plugging in what‘s missing. they might as well be your best two examples. By studying failures US became true revolutionary democracy. Your outline must contain all the essential raw material that will become your thesis statement. Feel free to write just enough to convey to yourself what you need to be able to follow during the actual writing of your essay. All together your essay should be about fifteen to twenty sentences long. We suggest this because the essay is a timed section. Your outline need not be articulate or even comprehensible to anyone other than you. Here‘s a sample outline we‘ve written based on the topic and examples we have already discussed. But if you or society take responsibility for it. 4: Johnson founded job placement agency based on difficulties (NEXT finding a new job after getting laid off. remember that conveying your ideas clearly matters at this stage. and a conclusion statement that ties everything together. PARAGRAPH EXAMPLE 2 BEST) 3: Google studied competitors‘ struggles. (2) failed dot-coms lead to more successful online businesses. which should already contain a basic version of your thesis statement. (3) guy who started success ful recruiting business after getting laid off. PARAGRAPH EXAMPLE 3 BEST) PARAGRAPH CONCLUSION Your outline does not have to be written in complete sentences. found problems lay with system. learning mistakes. keep these three facets of your essay in mind: .
IF YOU RUN OUT OF TIME If you‘re running out of time before finishing the intro.. The United States. which created a more powerful central government while also maintaining the integrity of the states. The United States of America can be seen as a success that eme rged from failure: by learning from the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation. who started a recruiting firm that arose fro m Johnson‘s personal experience of being laid off. take your two best examples and go with them. more powerful government. Organization Development Clarity Following your outline will make sure you stick to the Universal SAT Essay Template. In 1786. the founding fathers created the founding document of a country that has become both the most powerful country in the world and a beacon of democracy. possibly a 4 or 5. Learning the lessons taught by failure is a sure route to success. THE FINISHED ESSAY: OUR EXAMPLE Here is an example of a complete SAT essay. and so on. It‘s based strictly on the outline we built in step 3 of our Five Steps to a 6. describe events in detail. Do not break from your outline. That means organization shouldn‘t be a problem. You‘re serving fast food. . the popular Internet search engine. After just five years of living under the Articles of Confederation. Never pause for a digression or drop in a fact or detail that‘s not entirely relevant to your essay‘s thesis statement. with a focus on clear simple language and the occasional drop of special sauce. and the conclusion. but it also means focusing on varying sentence length and structure as well as including a few well-placed vocabulary words that you definitely know how to use correctly. which established the United States of America as a single country for the first time. there‘s still hope. is also one of the best examples of a success achieved by studying and learning from earlier failures. Google Inc. the first great democracy of the modern world. three years later. Three examples is definitely the strongest and safest way to go. you should make sure that every sentence in the essay serves the greater goal of proving your thesis statement as well as the more immediate purpose of building on the supporting examples you present in the intro and in each example paragraph‘s topic sentence. the founding fathers were able to create the Constitution. By clarity. You can still get a decent score. the Annapolis convention was convened. The result. we mean the simplicity of the language that you use. is another example of a success that arose from learning from failure. all three example paragraphs. As far as development goes. but if you just can‘t get through three. with just two. That involves spelling and grammar. the document on which America is built. Here‘s what you should do: Drop one of your example paragraphs. Another example that shows how success can arise from failure is the story of Rod Johnson. and fast food always sticks to the core ingredients and the universal recipe. By learning from the failure of the Articles. though in this case Google learned from the failures of its competitors. was the Constitution. Just be sure to include an introduction and a conclusion in every SAT essay. You should also make sure that you are specific with your examples: give dates. the states realized that they needed a new document and a new.
In the Practice Essay section at the end of this chapter. Failure is often seen as embarrassing. A month later. and now Google‘s dominanc e in the field of Internet search is almost absolute. Google. organization. (2 minutes) Proofing your essay means reading through your finished essay to correct mistakes or to clear up words that are difficult to read. the Internet search engine company. Google identified and solved the problem of assessing the quality of searc h results by using the number of links pointing to a page as an indicator of the number of people who find the page valuable. spend whatever time you do have left proofing. but you should also be on the lookout for instances in which bad handwriting makes it look as if you‘ve made a grammatical or spelling mistake. it‘s time to move on to the final step of our Five Steps to a 6—proofing your essay. repetitive sentence structure. The SAT explicitly says that handwriting will not affect your grade. After a month of research. Rather than accept his failure after being laid off. and Rod Johnson prove. This particular essay topic presents you with a very broad idea and then asks you to explain your view and back it up with concrete examples. but it‘s the only one of the Five Steps to a 6 that isn‘t absolutely crucial. For now. and all that special sauce stuff. or even a nation is strong enough to face and study its failure.Unlike the United States. Google.‖ which we have referred to throughout this chapter. then that failure can become a powerful teacher. Today Johnson Staffing is the largest job placement agency in South Carolina and is in the process of expanding into a national corporation. we provide analysis to explain more fully why we think this essay deserves a 6. if an individual.S. has suffered few set backs since it went into business in the late 1990s. Read over your essay and search for rough writing. but only if people have the courage to face it head on. Google‘s search results became far more accurate and reliable than those from other companies. which had its fair share of ups and downs over the years. Two Sample SAT Essays—Up Close Below is our sample essay question. bad transitions. Here‘s the sample prompt again: . Johnson realized that his failure to find a new job resulted primarily from the inefficiency of the local job placement agencies. The example of Rod Johnson‘s success also shows how effective learning from mistakes and failure can be. not from his own deficiencies. something to be denied and hidden. Johnson decided to study it. which is designed to be as close as possible to an essay question that might appear on the SAT. Not every SAT essay topic will take this form. Suddenly. but every SAT essay question will require you to take a position and defend it with examples. proofing is the step to drop. ―There‘s no success like failure. The examples of history and business demonstrate that failure can be the best catalyst of success. You‘ll recognize that it‘s based on the great philosopher Moses Pelingus‘s assertion. Google has succeeded by studying the failures of other companies in order to help it innovate its technology and business model. Proofing is important. But as the examples of the U. If you‘re running out of time and you have to skip a step. Johnson created Johnson Staffing to correct this weakness in the job placement sector. If you don‘t have two minutes after you‘ve finished writing the essay (step 4). Constitution. grammatical errors. Step 5: Proof the essay.
the founding fathers created the founding document of a country that has become both the most powerful country in the world and a beacon of . complete with a brief analysis of each essay and how they differ from each other. A 6 Essay Learning the lessons taught by failure is a sure route to success. (NEXT BEST SUPPORTING EXAMPLE ) The United States. note that we have marked certain sentences and paragraphs to illustrate where and how the essay does or does not abide by our Universal SAT Essay Template. which established the United States of America as a single country for the first time. support your position using an example (or examples) from literature. current events. ―There‘s no success like failure. We evaluate both essays according to three sets of criteria: Our four essential essay ingredients The SAT grader‘s checklist A checklist based on our Universal SAT Essay Template As you read both examples. Keep in mind that the support you provide—both reasons and examples—will help make your view convincing to the reader. (NEXT BEST SUPPORTING EXAMPLE ) Another example that shows how success can arise from failure is the story of Rod Johnson. or from your personal experience or observation. the document on which America is built. though in this case Google learned from the failures of its competitors.. the founding fathers were able to create the Constitution. the popular Internet search engine. (BEST SUPPORTING EXAMPLE ) Google Inc. the Annapolis convention was convened. Below are two different versions of responses to our sample essay question. the first great democracy of the modern world. is another example of a success that arose from lea rning from failure. By learning from the failure of the Articles. who started a recruiting firm that ar ose from Johnson‘s personal experience of being laid off. science and technology. three years later. (THESIS STATEMENT) The United States of America can be seen as a success that emerged from failure: by learning from the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation.‖ What is your view on the idea that succe ss can begin with failure? In an essay. was the Constitution. Then plan and write an essay that explains your ideas as persuasively as pos sible. is also one of the best examples of a success achieved by studying and learning from earlie r failures. (TOPIC SENTENCE FOR EXAMPLE 1) After just five years of living under the Articles of Confederation. In 1786. The result.Consider carefully the following quotation and the assignment below it. the arts. politics. We provide examples of a 6 essay and a 4 essay. the states realized that they needed a new document and a new more powerful government. history. which created a more powerful central government while also maintaining the integrity of the states.
It uses three examples from a very diverse array of disciplines—from Internet technology to history and politics to a profile of an entrepreneur—and it never veers from using these examples to support the thesis statement‘s position.democracy. Google Inc. we need to assess whether this essay contains the four essential ingredients of a great SAT essay. The writer does not take risks with unfamiliar vocabulary but instead chooses a few out of the ordinary words like beacon. Johnson created Johnson Staffing to correct this weakness in the job placement sector. but only if people have the courage to face it head on . and now Google‘s dominance in the field of Internet search is almost absolute. Johnson dec ided to study it. grammar. Google identified and solved the problem of assessing the quality of search results by using the number of links pointing to a page as an indicator of the number of people who find the page valuable. the Internet search engine company. which had its fair share of ups and downs over the years. and innovate that sprinkle just the right amount of special sauce throughout the essay. deficiencies. (FOUR DEVELOPMENT SENTENCES TO SUPPORT EXAMPLE 3) Failure is often seen as embarrassing. and word choice. (FOUR DEVELOPMENT SENTENCES TO SUPPORT EXAMPLE 1) Unlike the United States. not from his own deficiencies. organization. 2. and is in the process of expanding into a national corporation. something to be denied and hidden. Google‘s search results became far more accurate and reliable than those from other companies. It takes a very strong and clear stance on the topic in the first sentence and sticks to it from start to finish. or even a nation is strong enough to face and study its failure.S. Positioning: The strength and clarity of the position on the given topic. has suffered few setbacks since it went into business in the late 1990s. Johnson realized that his failure to find a new job resulted primarily from the inefficiency of the local job placement agencies. (THESIS STATEMENT REPHRASED IN BROADER WAY THAT PUSHES IT FURTHER) The examples of history and business demonstrate that failure can be the best catalyst of success.. (THREE DEVELOPMENT SENTENCES TO SUPPORT EXAM PLE 2) The example of Rod Johnson‘s success as an entrepreneur in the recruiting field also shows how effective learning from mistakes and failure can be. Sentence . But as the examples of the U. and Rod Johnson prove. (TOPIC SENTENCE FOR EXAMPLE 3) Rather than accept his failure after being laid off. Examples: The relevance and development of the examples used to support your argument. a strong conclusion). Why This Essay Deserves a 6 First. both at the paragraph level (topic sentences and development sentences) and at the overall essay level (intro. 3. Suddenly. A month later. (TOPIC SENTENCE FOR EXAMPLE 2) Google has succeeded by studying the failures of other companies in order to help it innovate its technology and business model. Today Johnson Staffing is the largest job placement agency in South Carolina. The command of language remains solid throughout. 4. just to refresh your memory: 1. Google. Organization: The organization of each paragraph and of the essay overall. Constitution . Command of Language: Sentence construction. After a month of research. This essay serves up all four SAT essay ingredients. then that failure can become a powerful teacher. three meaty example paragraphs. if an individual. The organization of the essay follows our Universal SAT Essay Template perfectly. Here they are.
Conclusion paragraph contains rephrased thesis statement. YES Demonstrates a superior command of language. Topic sentence for example in paragraph 3. with at most a few minor errors. SAT CRITERIA FOR 6 ESSAYS YES NO? YES OR Consistently excellent. Here‘s a quick-reference chart that takes a closer look at this 6 essay based on the actual SAT‘s evaluation criteria for graders and based on our Universal SAT Essay Template. Topic sentence for example in paragraph 2.structure varies often. Topic sentence for example in paragraph 4. Finally. no significant grammar errors disrupt the overall excellence of this SAT essay. 3–4 development sentences to support paragraph 4‘s example. Three examples listed in paragraph 1 in o rder from best to worst. OUR UNIVERSAL SAT ESSAY TEMPLATE CRITERIA YES NO? YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES OR Thesis statement in first sentence of paragraph 1. 3–4 development sentences to support paragraph 2‘s example. Shows strong overall organization and paragraph development. making the entire essay more interesting and engaging to the grader. as shown by varied YES sentence structure and word choice. 3–4 development sentences to support paragraph 3‘s example. Takes a clear position on the topic and uses insightful relevant examples YES to back it up. . About 15 sentences total.
complete with electronic pedals controlled by foot. . They‘re also not linked together with transitions and occasionally veer slightly off topic. this 4 essay takes a stance on the topic in the first sentence and sticks to it. turn it in early. BUT NOT REPHRASED IN BROADER WAY THAT PUSHES IT FURTHER) The examples of history and business demonstrate that failure can be the best catalyst of success. (THESIS STATEMENT TOUCHED ON. Shoppers reaped the benefits of all kinds of great deals and online promotions. a heavy metal drummer who learned to play the drums in a better different style after a crippling car accident almost killed him and his band. For starters. and today are in much stronger more successful positions than they were just a few years ago.A 4 Essay Failure can sometimes lead to success. The organization of the essay follows our Universal SAT Essay Template closely. Proof? Today Arnie Wagner is still on top of the drumming world. and they now have benefited by not suffering the same pitfalls. but the stance is not resoundingly clear from the start: ―Failure can sometimes lead to success. (FOUR DEVELOPMENT SENTENCES TO SUPPORT EXAMPLE 1) Arnold ―Arnie‖ Wagner is one of the best drummers alive today. which leads him to a new style and his band to even greater heights of success. Rather than give up and fail with his one arm. but not perfectly. and many online business es continue to thrive. It does use examples to support its position. He has a special drum kit designed for him. It‘s competent overall but not exceptional. More specifically. learned from their mistakes. but its examples are not as sophisticated or as varied as the examples in the 6 essay. Another examp le proving that failure sometimes leads to success is that of Arnold ―Arnie‖ Wagner. Wagner took the problem on courageously and decides to view it as an oppor tunity to change his drumming style. Some Internet companies realized the mistakes others were making. such as offering too deep discounts and not charging for shipping. (NO TOPIC SENTENCE TO SUPPORT EXAMPLE 2) He ‘s sure lucky to be alive! Arnie lost his right arm in a car crash just as his band Darkness Falls was beginning to establish success. That‘s the key difference between 4 essays and 6 essays. turn it in. and moved on.‖ The thesis statement is vague and makes the essay‘s positioning wishy-washy. The 6s are above excellent students: They do their homework days in advance. Why This Essay Deserves a 4 This essay does an adequate job serving up all four SAT essay ingredients. (SUPPORTING EXAMPLE ).The Internet boom was good to online shoppers but not so great to online businesses. and get back a passing grade that keeps their parents off their back. Only the failure of other business made this happen. The 4s are like average students: They do the work the night before. Often people and businesses use other‘s failures or even their own to learn from mistakes and try not to repeat them. (FIVE DEVELOPMENT SENTENCES TO SUPPORT EXAM PLE 2) Failure doesn‘t have to end there. (SUPPORTING EXAMPLE ) Not all Internet businesses vanished when the dot -com boom went bust—some picked up the pieces. which makes it weaker overall than the 6 essay‘s unwavering stance. (THESIS STATEMENT) Many Internet commerce businesses have learned from the terrible failures of the dot -com boom and bust. and impress teachers with the superior quality of their work. while e -commerce businesses did themselves in. but only if people have the courage to face it head on.
it contains only two examples. The 4 contains no special sauce whatsoever. The 4 essay‘s NOs pinpoint its weaknesses. and to the deficiencies in the 4 essay as compared to the 6 (the NOs in the YES/NO column). since having only two will make the grader scrutinize them more closely than if your support were spread over three examples. which we just discussed. Compared to the 6 essay. YES YES YES Competent but not consistent command of language. The paragraph meanders toward a topic sentence. Here‘s a closer look at this 4 essay based on the SAT‘s evaluation criteria for graders and based on our Universal SAT Essay Template. The entire passage is written in the past tense. but suddenly shifts into the present tense with the sentence that begins. including only two examples limits the breadth of your support. this 4 essay contains significantly more spelling and grammar errors. Though not disastrous. Addresses the topic presented adequately. this essay does include a thesis statement and a topic sentence in the first example paragraph. . The conclusion refers back to the thesis statement in broad terms (―Failure doesn‘t have to end there‖). Pay special attention to the difference in criteria for 4 essays and 6 essays.‖ This essay also features repetitive sentence structure that makes it a much duller read than the 6. The writer introduces the drummer Arnie Wagner. another contributing factor to its average quality overall. . but not in a way that is directly related to proving the thesis statement. SAT CRITERIA FOR 4 ESSAYS YES OR NO? Consistently solid. OUR UNIVERSAL SAT ESSAY TEMPLATE CRITERIA YES OR NO? YES NO Thesis statement in first sentence of paragraph 1. The command of language remains acceptable throughout. . most notably the jarring tense shift in paragraph 3. with several errors in YES grammar and usage and only slight sentence variation. but the structure begins to derail at the beginning of the second example paragraph. ―He has a special drum kit. but it does not tie the essay together as well as the broadening conclusion found in the 6 essay. with at least several minor errors and a few more YES serious weaknesses or mistakes. Uses examples to support a position on the topic. Three examples listed in paragraph 1 in order from best to worst. At the sentence level. It also makes the strength and quality of your examples all the more crucial. . Shows acceptable organization and development throughout. but never regains a sure footing.
Topic sentence for example in paragraph 3. Conclusion paragraph contains rephrased thesis statement. 3–4 development sentences to support paragraph 4‘s example. YES YES NO NO NO NO YES YES . 3–4 development sentences to support paragraph 2‘s example.Topic sentence for example in paragraph 2. Topic sentence for example in paragraph 4. About 15 sentences total. 3–4 development sentences to support paragraph 3‘s example.
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