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Synopsis

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DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY

Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Award of Bachelor of Technology Degree in Electronics and Communication Engineering

Submitted By:-

Abhishek Gupta(2310384)

Submitted to:Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Ambala College of Engineering and Applied Research, Devsthali, Near Mithapur, Ambala-133101 (Affiliated to Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra) (2013)

ABSTRACT
Cameras have undergone huge developments and advancement since the days television sets were invented. The usual camera sets have been replaced by much portable and efficient cameras. The latest in the line are the digital cameras. This report will explain the advancement in camera technology. As the technology migrates continuously at fast speeds, cameras have penetrated into both home and commercial areas.The research for this report was concentrated in the field of digital photography technology and so this application of camera technology will be explained in greater detail as compared to other areas of applicability. Also explained is how society is being affected by these applications and what future applications may be in store.

INTRODUCTION
This report is about the digital photography and its applications. The history of camera technology and how it works are important for understanding this report and so each has its own section within the report. How it compares to other camera systems and its uses will be discussed as well. The goal of this report is to explain the potentials of digital photography. This report is intended for anyone who: uses cameras in their home, uses camera for leisure activities, is curious about the applications, or is curious about how it works. Actually, this report is for everyone since cameras have become important part of our life. Digital photography uses an array of electronic photodetectors to capture the image focused by the lens, as opposed to an exposure on photographic film. The captured image is then digitzed and stored as a computer file ready for digital processing, viewing, digital publishing or printing. Until the advent of such technology, photographs were made by exposing light sensitive photographic film, and used chemical photographic processingto develop and stabilize the image. By contrast, digital photographs can be displayed, printed, stored, manipulated, transmitted, and archived using digital and computer techniques, without chemical processing. Digital photography is one of several forms of digital imaging. Digital images are also created by non-photographic equipment such as computer tomography scanners and radio telescopes. Digital images can also be made by scanning other photographic images. Digital cameras have decimated the film photography industry through declining use of the expensive film rolls and development chemicals previously required to develop the photos. This has had a dramatic effect on companies such as Fuji, Kodak, and Agfa.Up until the advent of the digital camera, amateur photographers could either buy print film for their camera, or slide film. If they purchased slide film, the resulting slides could be developed and viewed using a slide projector. Digital photography revolutionized the industry by eliminating the delay and cost. The ease of viewing, transferring and editing allowed consumers to manage their digital photos with ordinary home computers rather than specialized equipment.

LITERATURE SURVEY
This literature review provides a discussion of areas related to the qualitative research undertaken by me. The majority of these areas have been selected primarily in line with a need to position digital camera technology within the wider context of historical, present and future considerations. Other areas were selected for discussion because of a need to highlight their importance and identify areas that require particular attention in order for camera developments to cater to the needs of particular audiences, an example of this in particular is the area of hd recording. The idea to this project initially was gathered from Thinkdigit Magazines November 2012 issue titled Everyones A Gamer which include detailed study about digital photography in a small handbook along with it titled Fasttrack to Digital Photography. A white paper titled Optics For Digital Photography by Scneideroptics was thoroughly studied and referenced. Other web articles that were studied are provided in the refrences column at the end of this synopsis. The major website that was referenced was www.digitalphotography.com and en.wikipedia.com .

MERITS AND DEMERITS


MERITS

Immediate image review and deletion is possible; lighting and composition can be assessed immediately, which ultimately conserves storage space.

High volume of images to medium ratio; allowing for extensive photography sessions without changing film rolls. To most users a single memory card is sufficient for the lifetime of the camera whereas film rolls are a re-incurring cost of film cameras.

Faster workflow: Management (colour and file), manipulation and printing tools are more versatile than conventional film processes. However, batch processing of RAW files can be time consuming, even on a fast computer.

Digital manipulation: A digital image can be modified and manipulated much easier and faster than with traditional negative and print methods. The digital image to the right was captured in RAW format, processed and output in 3 different ways from the source RAW file, then merged and further processed for color saturation and other special effects to produce a more dramatic result than was originally captured with the RAW image.

DEMERITS

Whereas film cameras can have manual backups for electronic and electrical features, digital cameras are entirely dependent on an electrical supply (usually batteries but sometimes power cord when in 'tethered' mode).

Many digital sensors have less dynamic range than color print film. However, some newer CCDs such as Fuji's Super CCD, which combines diodes of different sensitivity, have improved upon this issue.

When highlights burn out, they burn to white without details, while film cameras retain a reduced level of detail. High ISO image noise may manifest as multicolored speckles in digital images, rather than the less-objectionable "grain" of high-ISO film. While this speckling can be removed by noise-reduction software, either in-camera or on

a computer, this can have a detrimental effect on image quality as fine detail may be lost in the process. Aliasing may add patterns to images that do not exist and would not appear in film.

APPLICATIONS
With the acceptable image quality and the other advantages of digital photography (particularly the time pressures of daily newspapers) the majority of

professional news photographers capture their images with digital cameras. Digital photography has been adopted by many amateur snapshot photographers, who take advantage of the convenience of sending images by email, placing them on the World Wide Web, or displaying them in digital picture frames. The majority of cameras are camera phones integrated into cell phones but their sensors and lenses are usually small and of poor quality, which renders most of them unsuitable for making even moderate size prints. Some commercial photographers, and some amateurs interested in artistic photography, have been resistant to using digital rather than film cameras because they believe that the image quality available from a digital camera is still inferior to that available from a film camera, and the quality of images taken on medium format film was thought to be impossible to match with a digital camera. Some have expressed a concern that changing computer technology may make digital photographs inaccessible in the future. A specialized application is the use of digital photographs in court proceedings, with the added difficulty of demonstrating an image's authenticity. Some high-end film can also be projected for viewing at a much higher optical resolution than even the best video projectors. Some professional photographers resist the use of digital cameras because of their low frame rate. Storing an 8MP image takes a lot of time and therefore, in some applications digital cameras are not currently appropriate.

CONCLUSION
Digital cameras have decimated the film photography industry through declining use of the expensive film rolls and development chemicals previously required to develop the photos. This has had a dramatic effect on companies such as Fuji, Kodak, and Agfa. Many stores that formerly offered photofinishing services or sold film no longer do, or have seen a tremendous decline. In 2012, Kodak filed for bankruptcy after struggling to adapt to the changing industry. Up until the advent of the digital camera, amateur photographers could either buy print film for their camera, or slide film. If they purchased slide film, the resulting slides could be developed and viewed using a slide projector. Digital photography revolutionized the industry by eliminating the delay and cost. The ease of viewing, transferring and editing allowed consumers to manage their digital photos with ordinary home computersrather than specialized equipment. Digital cameras in cell phones have arguably the largest impact. Smart phones can immediately upload their products to the Internet, preserving them even if the camera is destroyed or the images deleted.

REFERENCES
[1] Web Article, Digital Photography, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_photography [2] DSLR Camera, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_single-lens_reflex_camera [3] Digital Photography, http://www.digitalphotography.com/ [4] DSLR vs. Point & Shoot Camera http://photographylife.com/dslr-vs-point-and-shoot-camera