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Chapter 15 – Advertising and Public Relations Advertising Marketing management must make 4 important decisions when developing an advertising

program:     Setting advertising objectives Setting the advertising budget Developing advertising strategy (message decisions and media decisions) Evaluating advertising campaign

Setting Advertising Objectives The overall advertising objective is to help build customer relationships by communicating customer value. An advertising objective is a specific communication task to be accomplished with a specific target audience during a specific time. Advertising objective can be classified by their primary purpose to – inform, persuade, remind. Informative advertising:   Used heavily when introducing a new product category Objective is to build primary demand

Persuasive advertising:     Becomes more important as competition increases Objective is to build selective demand Has become comparative advertising (or attack advertising), in which a company directly or indirectly compares its brand with one or more other brands Comparative advertising should be used with caution to avoid an advertising war and complaints to the relevant authorities

Reminder advertising:   Important for mature products Helps to maintain customer relationships and keep consumers thinking about the product

Setting the Advertising Budget Advertising budget is the dollars and other resources allocated to a product or a company advertising program. The four commonly used methods for setting promotion budgets are affordable method, percentage of sales method, competitive parity method and objective and task method. A brand’s advertising budget depends on:  Its stage in the product life o Eg new products need relatively large advertising budgets to build awareness and gain consumer trial

the advertiser must develop a compelling concept – or “big idea” – that will bring the message strategy to life in a distinctive and memorable way  The creative concept will guide the choice of specific appeals to be used in an advertising campaign. meaningful (more desirable and interesting to consumers). headline to entice people to read and the copy must be simple but strong and convincing  Message can be presented in various execution styles:  Slice of life: showing one or more “typical” people using the product in a normal setting  Lifestyle: shows how a product fits in with a particular lifestyle  Fantasy: creates a fantasy around the product or its use  Mood or image: builds a mood or image around the product or service such as beauty. Market share o Building and taking market share requires larger advertising spending than does simply maintaining current share o Market with more competitors and high advertising clutter must be advertised more heavily to be noticed above the noise in the market place o Undifferentiated brands – those that closely resemble other brands in their product class (soft drinks. believable (believed that the promised benefits will be delivered). Advertising appeals have three characteristics. that people want to watch them  Branded entertainment (or brand integrations) involves making the brand an inseparable part of some other form of entertainment. positive etc  Use memorable and attention-getting words  Format elements such as illustration to draw attention. Eg. or so useful. laundry detergents) – may require heavy advertising to set them apart Advertising budget is one of the easiest budget items to cut when the economic times get tough. intrigue. or serenity  Musical: shows people or cartoon characters singing about a product  Personality symbol: creates a character that represents the product eg Ronald McDonald or the Aflac duck  Technical expertise: shows the company’s expertise in making the product  Scientific evidence: presents survey or scientific evidence that the brand is better or better liked than one or more other brands  Testimonial evidence or endorsements: features a highly believable or likable source endorsing the product o Consumer-generated messages  User-generated content can incorporate the voice of the customer into brand messages and generate greater consumer brand involvement . However. carmaker Audi Developing Advertising Strategy Advertising strategy is the strategy by which the company accomplishes its advertising objectives. humourous. It consists of two major elements: creating advertising message and selecting advertising media  Creating advertising message o Breaking through the clutter  Advertising message to stand out from the rest of the advertisements that are available through the various mediums o Merging advertising and entertainment  AKA Madison & Vine – represents the merging of advertising and entertainment in an effort to break through the clutter and create new avenues for reaching consumers with more engaging messages  Takes one of two forms: advertainment or branded entertainment  The aim of advertainment is to make ads themselves so entertaining. love. and distinctive (how the product is better than competing brands) o Message execution  Things to look out for:  Tone of the advertisement. The most common form of branded entertainment is product placements – embedding brands as props within other programmes o Message strategy  The first step in creating effective advertising messages is to plan a message strategy – the general message that will be communicated to consumers  Developing an effective message strategy begins with identifying customer benefits that can be used as advertising appeals to get consumers to think about or react to the product or company in a certain way  Next. companies that can maintain or even increase their advertising spending while competitors are decreasing theirs can gain competitive advantage.

creative limitations o Selecting specific media vehicles  Must choose the best media vehicles – specific media within each general media type  Must compute the cost per 1. sound and motion. advertisers selects a mix of media and blends them into a fully IMC campaign. combines sight. allows personalization High geographic and demographic selectivity. message in one magazine may be more believable than in another or products that needs demonstration may be more impactful on a television than on a radio  Advertiser must choose the media that will engage consumers rather than simply reach them o Choosing among major media types  Choose a media that will effectively and efficiently present advertising messages to target customers  Generally. high cost. low message competition. appealing to the senses Flexibility. no guarantee of position Audio only. small pass-along audience Potentially low impact. high geographic and demographic selectivity. good positional selectivity Limitations High absolute costs. the audience controls exposure Relatively high cost per exposure. frequency. fleeting exposure. oppose seasonal pattern. low cost per exposure. choosing among major media types. “junk mail” image Long ad purchase lead time. This mix must be re-examined regularly. high repeat exposure. Compare and choose the media with the lowest cost per 1. low attention (“the halfheard” medium). low cost. and impact. interactive capabilities High audience selectivity. Profiles of Major Media Types Medium Television Newspapers Internet Direct mail Magazines Radio Outdoor o Advantages Good mass-marketing coverage. high-quality reproduction. good local market coverage. timeliness. media planners must balance media costs against several effectiveness factors  Evaluate the media vehicle’s audience quality eg parents magazine would have a higher exposure value for a diapers advertisement  Consider audience engagement eg readers of Vogue magazine pay more attention to ads than do Newsweek readers  Assess the vehicle’s editorial quality eg Time and WSJ are more believable and prestigious than Star or the National Enquirer Choosing media timing  Decide how to schedule the advertising over the course of a year  Can vary its advertising to follow seasonal pattern. and impact  Reach is a measure of the percentage of people in the target market who are exposed to the ad campaign during a given period of time  Frequency is a measure of how many times the average person in the target market is exposed to the message  Advertiser must determine the desired media impact – the qualitative value of message exposure through a given medium. long life and good pass-along readership Good local acceptance. higher clutter. fleeting exposure.  Such campaigns can boost consumer involvement and get consumers talking and thinking about a brand and its value to them Selecting advertising media o Advertising media is the vehicle through which advertising messages are delivered to their intended audiences o The major steps in advertising media selection are. credibility and prestige. or be the same all year . selecting specific media vehicles. and choosing media timing o Determining reach. poor reproduction quality. no ad competition within the same medium. high believability High selectivity. less audience selectivity Short life. fragmented audiences Little audience selectivity. immediacy. broad acceptability. low cost. determining reach.000 persons reached by a vehicle. low cost Flexibility. flexibility.000  Must consider the costs of producing ads for different media  In selecting specific media vehicles. frequency. Eg.

greater global advertising coordination. it ignores the fact that country markets differ greatly in their cultures. countries also differ in the extent to which they regulate advertising practices  Public Relations Another major mass-promotion tool is public relations – building good relations with the company’s various publics by obtaining favourable publicity. and a more consistent worldwide image o But it also has drawbacks. Think McDonald’s “i’m lovin’ it” campaign o Standardization produces many benefits – lower advertising costs. and events PR may perform the following functions: . stories. Eg. demographics. building up a good coprporate image. and availability o One way to measure is to compare past sales and profits with past advertising expenditures o Another way is through experiment Other Advertising Considerations The company must also address two additional questions:  How will the company organize its advertising function? o In small companies. advertising media costs and availability differ vastly from country to country. it sacrifices depth of advertising communications Evaluating Advertising Effectiveness and the Return on Advertising Investment Advertisers should regularly evaluate two types of advertising results: the communication effects and the sales and profit effects   Communication effects o Measuring the communication effects of an ad or ad campaign tells whether the ads and media are communicating the ad message well o Individual ads can be tested before or after they are run Sales and profit effects o Sales and profit effects of advertising are often much harder to measure o Affected by many factors other than advertising – such as product features. price. advertising is usually handled by outside advertising agency because they can offer several advantages  Perform advertising tasks better than the company’s own staff can  Bring an outside point of view to solving the company’s problems. Then they adapt their advertising programs to make them more responsive to consumer needs and expectations within local market o Global advertisers face several special problems. and economic conditions o Develop global advertising strategies that make their worldwide efforts more efficient and consistent. advertising might be handled by someone in the sales department o In large companies. Eg. Must choose the pattern of the ads  Continuity means scheduling ads evenly within a given period  Pulsing means scheduling ads unevenly over a given time period  Although pulsing achieves minimum awareness. along with lots of experience from working with different clients and situations How will the company adapt its advertising strategies and programs to the complexities of international markets? o The most basic issue concerns the degree to which global advertising should be adapted to the unique characteristics of various country markets o Increased popularity of online social networks and video sharing has boosted the need for advertising standardization for global brands. and handling or heading off unfavourable rumours.

company’s own website .      Press relations or press agency: creating and placing newsworthy information in the news media to attract attention to a person. blogs. rather it pays for a staff to develop and circulate information and manage events PR is sometimes described as a marketing stepchild because of its limited and scattered use PR practitioners see their jobs as simply communicating. sales and profits. product. or service Product publicity: publicizing specific products Public affairs: building and maintain national or local community relationships Lobbying: building and maintaining relationships with legislators and government officials to influence legislation and regulation Investor relations: maintaining relationships with shareholders and others in the financial community Development: working with donors or members of non-profit organizations to gain financial or volunteer support The Role and Impact of Public Relations    PR can have a strong impact on public awareness at a much lower cost than advertising can. social networks. and customer relationships Major Public Relation Tools PR uses several tools         News Speeches Special events Written materials Audiovisual materials Corporate identity materials Public service activities Internet – websites. It does not pay for the space or time in the media. marketing managers tend to be much more interested in how advertising and PR affect brand building.