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Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 1

MC LC
CHNG TRNH LP 11

PHN 1: I S V GII TCH

CHNG I. HM S LNG GIC V PHNG TRNH
LNG GIC

CHNG II. T HP V XC SUT

CHNG III. DY S. CP S CNG V CP S NHN

CHNG IV. GII HN

CHNG V. O HM



PHN 2: HNH HC

CHNG I. PHP DI HNH V PHP NG DNG


CHNG II. NG THNG V MT PHNG TRONG
KHNG GIAN


CHNG III. VECT TRONG KHNG GIAN. QUAN H
VUNG GC






Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 2

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999


CHNG I. HM S LNG GIC V PHNG
TRNH LNG GIC

BI 1. CC HM S LNG GIC















Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 3

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999

*












*



Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 4

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999





th hm s y=tanx




Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 5

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999



th hm s y=cotx




BI TP

4. Cho hm s y=f(x)=2sin2x


Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 6

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999


BI 2. PHNG TRNH LNG GIC C BN













Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 7

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999




BI TP
1. Gii cc phng trnh sau:


2. Tm nghim ca cc phng trnh sau trn khong cho


3. Gii cc phng trnh sau


Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 8

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999

BI 3. CC DNG PHNG TRNH LNG GIC

I. CNG THC
1. H thc LG c bn
2 2
2
2
sin cos 1
sin
tan
cos 2
1
tan 1
2 cos
k
k
o o
o t
o o t
o
t
o o t
o
+ =
| |
= = +
|
\ .
| |
= + = +
|
\ .
( )
( )
2
2
tan .cot 1
cos
cot
sin
1
cot 1
sin
k
k
o o
o
o o t
o
o o t
o
=
= =
= + =

2. Cng thc LG thng gp
Cng thc cng:
( )
( )
( )
sin sinacosb sinbcosa
cos cos a cos b sinasinb
tan tan
tan b
1 tan tan
a b
a b
a b
a
a b
=
=

=
)
)


Cng thc nhn:
2 2 2 2
3
3
3
2
sin 2 2sin .cos
cos 2 cos sin 2cos 1 1 2sin
cos3 4cos 3cos
sin3 3sin 4sin
3tan tan
tan3 =
1 3tan
a a a
a a a a a
a a a
a a a
a a
a
a
=
= = =
=
=



Tch thnh tng: cosa.cosb =
1
2
[cos(ab)+cos(a+b)]
sina.sinb =
1
2
[cos(ab)cos(a+b)]
sina.cosb =
1
2
[sin(ab)+sin(a+b)]
Tng thnh tch: sin sin 2sin cos
2 2
a b a b
a b
+
+ =
sin sin 2cos sin
2 2
a b a b
a b
+
=
cos cos 2cos cos
2 2
a b a b
a b
+
+ =
cos cos 2sin sin
2 2
a b a b
a b
+
=
sin( )
tan tan
cos .cos
a b
a b
a b

=
Cng thc h bc: cos
2
a =
1
2
(1+cos2a)
sin
2
a =
1
2
(1cos2a)
Biu din cc hm s LG theo tan
2
a
t =

Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 9

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999

2
2 2 2
2 1- 2
sin ; cos ; tan .
1 1 1
t t t
a a a
t t t
= = =
+ +


3. Phng trng LG c bn
* sinu=sinv
2
2
u v k
u v k
t
t t
= +


= +

* cosu=cosvu=v+k2t
* tanu=tanv u=v+kt * cotu=cotv u=v+kt ( ) Z k e


II. CC DNG PHNG TRNH LNG GIC

1. Phng trnh bc nht i vi sinx v cosx:
Dng: asinx+bcosx=c. iu kin phng trnh c nghim l
2 2 2
a b c + > .
Cch 1: Chia hai v phng trnh cho
2 2
a b + , ta c:
2 2 2 2 2 2
sin cos
a b c
x x
a b a b a b
+ =
+ + +

t:
2 2 2 2
cos ; sin
a b
a b a b
| | = =
+ +
. Khi phng trnh tng ng:
2 2
cos sin sin cos
c
x x
a b
| | + =
+
hay ( )
2 2
sin sin
c
x
a b
| + = =
+
a t
.
Cch 2: t tan
2
x
t = .
Bi 1. Gii phng trnh x x x 3 sin 4 1 9 cos 3 3 sin 3
3
+ =



2. Phng trnh ng cp bc hai , bc 3 i vi sinx v cosx:
Dng: asin
2
x+bsinxcosx+ccos
2
x=0 (*).
Cch 1: + Kim tra nghim vi
2
x k
t
t = + .
+ Gi s cosx=0: chia hai v phng trnh cho cos
2
x ta c: atan
2
x+btanx+c=0.
Ch :
2
2
1
tan 1
2 cos
x x k
x
t
t
| |
= + = +
|
\ .

Cch 2: p dng cng thc h bc.




Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 10

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999



3. Phng trnh i xng i vi sinx v cosx:
Dng: a(sinx cosx)+ bsinxcosx=c.
Cch gii: t t= sinx cosx. iu kin , t , 2 s .
sin cos 2 sin 2 cos
4 4
sin cos 2 sin 2 cos
4 4
x x x x
x x x x
t t
t t
| | | |
+ = + =
| |
\ . \ .
| | | |
= = +
| |
\ . \ .
Lu y cac co ng thc :






4. Dng cc cng thc h bc, nhn i, nhn ba a v phng trnh dng tch.




5. Bin i tng , hiu thnh tch v ngc li




Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 11

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999


BI TP N CHNG I

Bi 1. Phng trnh c bn


Bi 2. Phng trnh c bn


Bi 3. Phng trnh bc nht theo sinx, cosx


Bi 4. Phng trnh thun nht theo sinx, cosx, tanx



Bi 5. Gii phng trnh ng cp bng cch chia cho cos
2
x (hoc sin
2
x)


Bi 6. Gii phng trnh ng cp bng cch dng cng thc h bc


Bi 7. Bin i tch thnh tng hoc tng thnh tch gii



Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 12

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999

Bi 8. Gii cc phng trnh sau:

Bi 9.

Bi 10. Gii cc phng trnh sau

Bi 11.


Bi 12.



Bi 13.


Bi 14





Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 13

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999

Bi 15. Tm tp gi tr ca hm s:

a)
b)
c)
d)


Bi 16.

Bi 17.


Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 14

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999

CHNG II. T HP V XC SUT

BI 1. HAI QUY TC M C BN






* Quy tc cng:






Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 15

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999






* Quy tc nhn:




Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 16

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999


BI 2. HON V - CHNH HP T HP













Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 17

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999












Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 18

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999












Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 19

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999









Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 20

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999


BI 3. NH THC NIUTN


Cc hng ng thc:




Cng thc s hng tng qut:
k k n k
n k
b a C T

+
=
1
, 0kn.





Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 21

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999








Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 22

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999

BI TP





Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 23

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999








Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 24

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999


BI TP NNG CAO

I. Gii cc phng trnh sau:
1.

2.


3.

4

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.


Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 25

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.


Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 26

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999


BI TP LUYN THI I HC

1. (C_Khi D 2008)
Tm s hng khng cha x trong khai trin nh thc Newton ca
18
5
1
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
x
x , (x>0).
S: 6528
2. (H_Khi D 2004)
Tm s hng khng cha x trong khai trin nh thc Newton ca
7
4
3
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
x
x vi x>0.
S: 35
3. (H_Khi A 2003)
Tm s hng cha x
8
trong khai trin nh thc Newton ca
n
x
x
|
.
|

\
|
+
5
3
1
, bit rng
( ) 3 7
3
1
4
+ =
+
+
+
n C C
n
n
n
n
, (n nguyn dng, x>0, (
k
n
C l s t hp chp k ca n phn t).
S: 495
4. (H_Khi D 2007)
Tm h s ca x
5
trong khai trin thnh a thc ca x(12x)
5
+x
2
(1+3x)
10
.
S: 3320
5. (H_Khi D 2005)
Tnh gi tr biu thc
( )! 1
3
3 4
1
+
+
=
+
n
A A
M
n n
, bit rng 149 2 2
2
4
2
3
2
2
2
1
= + + +
+ + + + n n n n
C C C C (n l s
nguyn dng,
k
n
A l s chnh hp chp k ca n phn t v
k
n
C l s t hp chp k ca n phn t)
S:
4
3
= M
6. (H_Khi D 2008)
Tm s nguyn dng n tha mn h thc 2048
1 2
2
3
2
1
2
= + + +
n
n n n
C C C . (
k
n
C l s t hp chp k
ca n phn t).
S: n=6
7. (H_Khi D 2002)
Tm s nguyn dng n sao cho
0 1 2
2 4 2 243
n n
n n n n
C C C C + + + + = .
S: n=5
8. (H_Khi B 2008)
Chng minh rng
k
n
k
n
k
n
C C C n
n 1 1 1
2
1
1
1 1
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+
+
+ +
(n, k l cc s nguyn dng, kn,
k
n
C l s t hp
chp k ca n phn t).



Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 27

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999


XC SUT

BI 4. BIN C V XC SUT CA BIN C












Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 28

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999









Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 29

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999








Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 30

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999







Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 31

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999

BI TP








Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 32

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999

BI 5. CC QUY TC TNH XC SUT















Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 33

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999







Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 34

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999












Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 35

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999










Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 36

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999




Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 37

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999








Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 38

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999


BI 6. BIN NGU NHIN V RI RC







Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 39

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999









Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 40

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999









Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 41

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999






Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 42

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999






Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 43

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999








Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 44

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999





Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 45

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999











Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 46

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999





Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 47

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999







Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 48

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999





Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 49

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999









Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 50

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999






Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 51

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999








Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 52

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999







Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 53

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999







Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 54

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999

CHNG III. DY S, CP S CNG, CP S
NHN

BI 1. PHNG PHP QUY NP TON HC








Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 55

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999












Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 56

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999





Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 57

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999

BI TP





Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 58

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999

BI 2. DY S
















Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 59

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999









Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 60

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999

BI TP








Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 61

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999








Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 62

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999

BI 3. CP S CNG












Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 63

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999






Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 64

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999

BI TP







Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 65

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999

BI 4. CP S NHN








Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 66

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999









Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 67

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999



























Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 68

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999

BI TP




Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 69

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999









Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 70

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999









Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 71

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999







Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 72

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999






Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 73

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999


A. GII HN CA DY S
BI 1. DY S C GII HN 0






Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 74

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999











Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 75

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999


BI TP


Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 76

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999


BI 2. DY S C GII HN HU HN












Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 77

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999















Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 78

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999

BI TP





Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 79

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999

BI 3. DY S C GII HN V CC











Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 80

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999







Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 81

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999




Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 82

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999


BI TP






Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 83

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999






Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 84

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999


B. GII HN CA HM S. HM S LIN TC

BI 4. NH NGHA V MT S NH L V GII HN CA
HM S






Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 85

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999




















Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 86

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999









Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 87

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999









Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 88

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999




Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 89

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999


BI TP



Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 90

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999

BI 5. GII HN MT BN





Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 91

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999






Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 92

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999


BI TP






Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 93

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999





Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 94

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999

BI 6. MT VI QUY TC TM GII HN V
CC










Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 95

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999










Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 96

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999

BI TP



Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 97

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999


BI 7. CC DNG V NH







Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 98

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999





Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 99

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999

BI TP




Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 100

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999

BI 8. HM S LIN TC






Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 101

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999







Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 102

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999







Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 103

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999

BI TP






Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 104

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999











Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 105

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999







Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 106

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999









Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 107

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999




Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 108

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999






Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 109

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999



CHNG V. O HM

BI 1. KHI NIM O HM






Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 110

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999






Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 111

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999







Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 112

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999












Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 113

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999









Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 114

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999




Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 115

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999


BI TP



Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 116

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999


BI TP LUYN TP



Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 117

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999


BI 2. CC QUY TC TNH O HM







Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 118

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999








Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 119

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999














Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 120

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999








Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 121

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999









Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 122

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999







Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 123

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999




Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 124

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999


BI TP


BI TP LUYN TP



Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 125

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999







Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 126

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999

BI 3. O HM CA CC HM S
LNG GIC







Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 127

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BI TP




BI TP LUYN TP


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BI 4. VI PHN





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BI TP



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BI 5. O HM CP CAO







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BI TP





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BI TP N TP CHNG





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Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 139

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PHN II. HNH HC
Chng I. PHP DI HNH & PHP NG
DNG TRONG MT PHNG
Bi 1-2: PHP BIN HNH, PHP TNH TIN,
PHP DI HNH


I. PHP BIN HNH
1. nh ngha :
Quy tc t tng ng mi im M ca mphng vi mt im xc nh duy nht M ca
mphng c gi l php bin hnh trong mt phng
K hiu : F(M) = M
Hay M = F(M)
Khi : M l nh ca M qua php bin hnh F
2. Ch
- Php bin hnh bin mi im ca mphng thnh chnh n gi l php ng nht.
M





- chng minh H l nh ca hnh H qua php bin hnh F , ta cm :
: ' ( ) ' M M H M F M H e = e


II. PHP TNH TIN
1. nh ngha : Php bin hnh bin im M thnh M sao cho MM = V c gi l php
tnh tin theo V
K hiu : T : php tnh tin theo v
Ta c :

M

M

2. Tnh cht :
- Tnh cht 1 : php tnh tin bo ton khong cch gia 2 im bt k
- Tnh cht 2 : php tnh tin bin ng thng thnh ng thng song song hoc trng nhau,
bin on thng thnh on thng bng n, bin tam gic thnh tam gic bng n, bin ng
trn thnh ng trn c cng bn knh


V
T (M) = M MM = V
V
M
d
V

Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 140

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3. Biu thc ta : Trong mp Oxy cho M( x,y) ; = (a,b)
Gi M(x,y) l nh ca M qua T
Khi :


* Vd 1: Cho im M ( 1; 2 ). Xc nh ta M l nh ca M qua Vi V = ( 5, 7 )
Gii :
Gi s M( x; y). ta c



Vy M( 6; 9)

* Vd 2 : Trong mphng Oxy. Cho V = ( -2; 1); ng thng d : 2x- 3y +3 = 0
Vit phng trnh ca ng thng d l nh ca ng thng d qua
Gii :
Gi M(x;y) l nh ca M(x; y) qua
Theo biu thc ta ta c :


Ta c :
( ; ) 2 3 3 0
2( ' 2) 3( ' 1) 10 0
2 ' 3 ' 10 0
M x y d x y
x y
x y
e + =
+ + =
+ =

Do phng trnh ca d l :
2 3 10 0 x y + =

III. PHP DI HNH
1.nh ngha : php di hnh l php bin hnh bo ton k/cch gia 2 im bt k
2.Nhn xt :
- cc php tnh tin, x trc, x tm, php quay l nhng php di hnh
- nu thc hin lin tip 2 php di hnh th ta c 1 php di hnh

3.Tnh cht : Php di hnh
- Bin 3 im thng hng thnh 3 im thng hng & bo ton th t gia cc im
- Bin 1 thng thnh 1 thng, bin tia thnh tia, bin on thng thnh on thng bng n
- Bin 1 tam gic thnh tam gic bng n, bin 1 gc thnh 1 gc bng n
- Bin 1 trn thnh trn thnh trn c cng bn knh
* vd : Cho hvung ABCD c tm O. Tm nh ca cc im A,B,O qua php di hnh c c
bng cch thc hin lin tip Q
(O;90
o
)
v php x qua thng BD
Gii :





- Q
O;90
o
)
bin 3 im A,B,O theo th t thnh 3 im D,A,O
-
BD
bin 3 im D,A,O theo th t thnh 3 im D,C,O
Vy php di hnh cho bin 3 im A,B,O theo th t thnh 3 im D,C,O


V
x = x + a
y = y + b
x = 5 + 1
y = 7 + 2
x = 6
y = 9
T
V
x = x - 2
y = y + 1
x = x + 2
y = y - 1
D
A B
C
O

Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 141

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Bi 3 : PHP I XNG TRC


1. nh ngha :
Php bin hnh bin im M thnh im M i xng vi M qua d gi l php i xng trc
K hiu : -
d
(M) = M'
d
(M') = M
Khi : M l nh ca M qua php i xng trc; d c gi l trc i xng
2. nh l
- Php i xng trc bo ton khong cch gia hai im
-
d
(M) = M',
d
(N) = N' M'N' = MN
-
Ox
: M(x; y) M'(x'; y'). Khi o :
'
'
x x
y y
=


-
Oy
: M(x; y) M'(x'; y'). Khi o :
'
'
x x
y y
=









Bi 4 : PHP QUAY V PHP I XNG TM

I. Php quay
1. nh ngha : Cho im O v gc LG o . Php bin hnh bin O thnh chnh n,
bin mi im M = O thnh im M sao cho OM = OM & gc LG (OM, OM) = o
c gi l php quay tm O gc o . K hiu Q
(O,
o
)

im O : tm quay ; o : gc quay
*Vd : Cho cc im O,A,B,C trong A, B, C khng thng hng, dng nh ca ABC A
qua php quay tm O gc quay +90
o












2.Tnh cht : Php quay
- Bo ton k/cch gia 2 im bt k
- Bin thng thnh thng
- Bin mt on thng thnh on thng bng n

O
C
B
C
A
B
A

Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 142

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- Bin 1 tam gic thnh 1 tam gic bng n
- Bin trn thnh trn c cng bn knh

3) Biu thc ta ca php quay
gi M(x;y) l nh ca M(x;y)
qua Q(O, o )
i) Nu o = 90
o
th :
'
'
x y
y x
=


ii) Nu o = - 90
o
th
'
'
x y
y x
=


*Vd : Trong mphng ta cho im A(2;0) v thng c ptrnh d: x + y 2 = 0. Tm
nh ca A v d qua Q
(O; 90
o
)

Gii :
+ Q
(O;90
o
)
(A) = A(0;2)
+ Gi M(x;y) l nh ca M(x;y) qua Q
(O;90
o
)
. khi

=
=
x y
y x
'
'

=
=
'
'
y x
x y

Ta c : 0 2 = + e y x d M 0 2
' '
= x y

II. Phep oi xng tam
1. nh ngha:
L mt php bin hnh bin im M thnh im M i xng vi M qua tm O, ngha l


= ' OM OM
K hiu:
O

-
O
(M) = M'
O
(M') = M

2. Biu thc ta :
- Cho I(a; b).
I
: M(x; y) M'(x'; y'). Khi o :
' 2
' 2
x a x
y b y
=


c bit nu tm i xng l gc ta O th:

O
: M(x; y) M'(x'; y'). Khi o :
'
'
x x
y y
=





Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 143

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Bi 5-6 : HAI HNH BNG NHAU, PHP V T

I. HAI HNH BNG NHAU
1.nh ngha: hai hnh bng nhau c gi l bng nhau nu c 1 php di hnh
bin hnh ny thnh hnh kia

2.Chng minh 2 hnh bng nhau:
Ta cm 2 hnh l nh ca nhau qua 1 php di hnh
* vd : Cho hcn ABCD. Gi E, F, H,K,O,I,J ln lt l trung im ca
AB,BC,CD,DA,KF,HC,KO. Cm 2 hnh thang AEJK & FOIC bng nhau
Gii :





Gi G l trung im ca OF
*
EH
bin hinh thang AEJK thnh hnh thang BEGF
* T
EO
bin hnh thang BEGF thnh hnh thang FOIC
Do , hnh thang AEJK = hnh thang FOIC.

II. PHP V T
1.nh ngha : Trong mphng cho im I v mt s K = 0. Php bin hnh bin mi
im M thnh M sao cho

= IM K IM . ' c gi l php v t tm I t s K
K hiu : V
(I;K)


Vd : cho im O v cc im A,B C khng thng hng. Dng nh ca ABC A qua php
t v tm O t s 2
Gii :



*Nhn xt :
M= V
(O;K)
(M) M=V
(O;1/K)
(M)

2.Tnh cht :
a)Gi s M; N theo th t l nh ca M,N qua php v t t s K. Khi :
* ' ' . M N K MN =
, ,

* ' ' . M N K MN =

b)Php v t t s k
B
C
C
O
A
B

Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 144

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- Bin 3 im thng hng thnh 3 im thng hng v bo ton th t gia cc im y
- Bin 1 thng thnh 1 thng song song hoc trng vi n, bin tia thnh tia, on
thng thnh on thng
- Bin 1 tam gic thnh 1 tam gic ng dng vi n, bin 1 gc thnh 1 gc bng n
- Bin 1 trn c bn knh R thnh 1 trn c bn knh . K R
*Vd : Dng nh ca trn (I,2) qua V
( 0;3 )
bit OI =4
Gii :
V
( 0;3 )
(I) = I ' 3 OI OI =
, ,

Do : V
( 0;3 )
bin ( I;2 ) thnh trn ( I;6 )



Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 145

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Bi 7 : PHP NG DNG
1.nh ngha : php bin hnh F c gi l php ng dng t s k ( k > 0 ),
nu vi 2 im M,N bt k v nh M,N tng ng ca chng; ta lun c :
MN =k.MN
* Nhn xt :
- Php di hnh l php ng dng t s 1
- Php v t t s k l php ng dng t s k
- Nu thc hin lin tip 2 php g dng th c 1 php g dng

2.Tnh cht :
Php ng dng t s k :
- Bin 3 im thng hng thnh 3 im thng hng v bo ton th t gi 3
im y
-Bin tam gic thnh tam gic ng dng vi n, 1 gc thnh 1 gc bng n
-Bin trn bn knh R thnh trn bn knh R
*Vd : Cho ABC A xc nh nh ca n qua php ng dng c c bng
cch thc hin lin tip V
(B; )
v php i xng qua ng trung trc ca on
BC
Gii :


Gi A;C ln lt l trung im ca AB, BC
V
(B; )
bin ABC A thnh ' ' ' A B C A
Gi A =
d
(A). Ta c :

d
(B) = C.
Khi
d
bin ' ' A BC A thnh '' ' A CC A

3.Hnh ng dng
Hai hnh ng dng l ng dng vi vi nhau nu c mt php ng dng
bin hnh ny thnh hnh kia
*Vd
Cho hcn ABCD tm I. Gi H,K,L,J ln lt l trung im ca AD, BC, KC,
IC. Cmr 2 hnh thang JLKI & IHDC ng dng vi nhau
Gii :

Php
I
bin hnh thang IHDC thnh hthang IKBA
Php V
(C;1/2)
bin hthang IKBA thnh hthang JLKI
Vy 2 hnh thang JLKI v IHDC ng dng


Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 146

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BI TP

I. PHE P TNH TIE N

1. Cho hai iem co nh B, C tren ng tro n (O) va mo t ie m A thay o i tren ng tron o .
Tm qu tch tr c tam H cu a AABC.
HD: Ve ng knh BB'. Xe t phe p tnh tie n theo ' v B C =
,
,
. Qu tch ie m H la ng tro n
(O') a nh cu a (O) qua phe p tnh tie n o .
2. Cho ng tro n (O; R), ng knh AB co nh va ng knh CD thay o i. Tiep tuyen v i
ng tron (O) ta i B ca t AC ta i E, AD ta i F. Tm ta p hp tr c ta m ca c tam gia c CEF va
DEF.
HD: Go i H la tr c ta m ACEF, K la tr c ta m ADEF. Xe t phe p tnh tie n theo vect v BA =
,
,
.
Ta p h p cac ie m H va K la ng tro n (O') anh cu a (O) qua phe p tnh tie n o (tr hai
ie m A va A' v i ' AA BA =
, ,
).
3. Cho t gia c lo i ABCD va mo t ie m M c xa c nh b i AB DM =
, ,
va

CBM CDM = .
Ch ng minh:

ACD BCM = .
HD: Xe t phe p tnh tie n theo vect AB
,
.
4. Cho t gia c ABCD co

A = 60
0
,

B = 150
0
,

D = 90
0
, AB = 6 3 , CD = 12. Tnh o da i ca c
ca nh AD va BC.
HD: Xe t phe p tnh tie n theo vect BA
,
. BC = 6, AD = 6 3 .
5. Cho AABC. D ng hnh vuo ng BCDE ve pha ngoa i tam gia c. T D va E lan l t d ng ca c
ng vuong go c v i AB, AC. Chng minh ra ng hai ng vuong go c o v i ng cao
AH cu a AABC ong qui.
HD: Xe t phe p tnh tie n theo vect BE
,
, AABC AA'ED.
6. Tm a nh cu a ca c ie m A(0; 2), B(1; 3), C(3; 4) qua phe p tnh tien
v
T
,
trong ca c trng
hp sau:
a) v
,
= (1; 1) b) v
,
= (2; 1) c) v
,
= (2; 1) d) v
,
= (3; 2)
e) v
,
= (0; 0) f) v
,
= (3; 2)
7. Cho iem A(1; 4). Tm toa o iem B sao cho ( )
v
A T B =
,
trong ca c tr ng h p sau:
a)
( )
2; 3 v =
,
b) v
,
= (2; 1) c) v
,
= (2; 1) d) v
,
= (3; 2)
e) v
,
= (0; 0) f) v
,
= (3; 2)
8. Tm toa o vect v
,
sao cho ( )
/
v
T M M =
,
trong ca c tr ng hp sau:
a) M(10; 1), M(3; 8) b) M(5; 2), M'(4; 3) c) M(1; 2), M'(4; 5)
d) M(0; 0), M'(3; 4) c) M(5; 2), M'(2; 6) f) M(2; 3), M'(4; 5)
9. Trong mpOxy, cho ng tha ng (d) : 2x y + 5 = 0. Tm phng trnh cu a ng thang
(d) la a nh cu a (d) qua phe p tnh tie n theo v
,
trong ca c tr ng h p sau:
a) ( ) 4; 3 v =
,
b) v
,
= (2; 1) c) v
,
= (2; 1) d) v
,
= (3; 2)
10. Trong mpOxy, cho ng tron (C): ( ) ( )
2 2
1 2 4 x y + + = . Tm phng trnh cu a ng
tro n (C') la a nh cu a (C) qua phep tnh tien theo v
,
trong ca c tr ng h p sau:
a) ( ) 4; 3 v =
,
b) v
,
= (2; 1) c) v
,
= (2; 1) d) v
,
= (3; 2)

Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 147

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11. Trong mpOxy, cho Elip (E):
2 2
1
9 4
x y
+ = . Tm phng trnh cu a elip (E') la a nh cu a (E)
qua phep tnh tien theo v
,
trong ca c trng h p sau:
a) ( ) 4; 3 v =
,
b) v
,
= (2; 1) c) v
,
= (2; 1) d) v
,
= (3; 2)
12. Trong mpOxy, cho Hypebol (H):
2 2
1
16 9
x y
= . Tm phng trnh cu a Hypebol (H') la a nh
cu a (H) qua phep tnh tien theo v
,
trong ca c trng hp sau:
a) ( ) 4; 3 v =
,
b) v
,
= (2; 1) c) v
,
= (2; 1) d) v
,
= (3; 2)
13. Trong mpOxy, cho Parabol (P): y
2
= 16x. Tm phng trnh cu a Parabol (P') la a nh cu a (P)
qua phep tnh tien theo v
,
trong ca c trng h p sau:
a) ( ) 4; 3 v =
,
b) v
,
= (2; 1) c) v
,
= (2; 1) d) v
,
= (3; 2)
14. Cho ng tha ng d: x + 2y 1 = 0 va vect v
,
= (2; m). Tm m e phep tnh tie n
v
T
,
bie n d
tha nh chnh no .


Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 148

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II. PHE P OI X NG TRU C

1. Cho hai iem B, C co nh tren ng tro n (O) va mo t ie m A thay o i tren ng tron o .
Tm qu tch tr c tam H cu a AABC.
HD: Go i H' la giao ie m th hai cu a ng tha ng AH v i (O). Xe t phe p o i x ng tru c BC.
Qu tch ie m H la ng tro n (O') a nh cu a (O) qua phe p
BC
.
2. Cho ng tha ng d va hai iem A, B na m ve mot pha cu a d. Tm tre n d mo t iem M sao
cho to ng AM + MB co gia tr nho nha t.
HD: Go i A' =
d
(A). M la giao ie m cu a A'B va d.
3. Cho AABC v i tr c ta m H.
a) Chng minh ra ng ca c ng tro n ngoa i tiep cac tam gia c HAB, HBC, HCA co ban knh
ba ng nhau.
b) Go i O
1
, O
2
, O
3
la tam cu a ca c ng tron no i tre n. Chng minh ra ng ng tro n i qua 3
iem O
1
, O
2
, O
3
co ban knh ba ng ba n knh ng tro n ngoa i tiep AABC.
4. Cho go c nhon xOy va mo t ie m A thuo c mie n trong go c nay. Tm iem B e Ox, C e Oy
sao cho chu vi AABC la be nha t.
HD: Xe t ca c phe p o i x ng tru c:
Ox
(A) = A
1
;
Oy
(A) = A
2
. B, C la cac giao ie m cu a A
1
A
2

v i ca c ca nh Ox, Oy.
5. Cho AABC co ca c go c eu nho n va iem M cha y tren ca nh BC. Gia s
AB
(M) = M
1
,

AC
(M) = M
2
. Tm v tr cu a M tren canh BC e oan thang M
1
M
2
co o da i nga n nha t.
HD: M la cha n ng cao ve t A cu a AABC.
6. Cho AABC can nh A. iem M cha y tren BC. Ke MD AB, ME AC. Go i D' =

BC
(D). Tnh

' BD M va chng to MD + ME kho ng phu thuo c va o v tr ie m M.


HD:

' BD M = 1v; MD + ME = BH.


7. Tm a nh cu a ca c ie m sau qua phe p o i x ng truc Ox: A(2; 3), B(2; 3), C(0; 6), D(4; 3).
8. Tm a nh cu a ca c ie m sau qua phe p o i x ng truc Oy: A(2; 3), B(2; 3), C(0; 6), D(4; 3).
9. Tm a nh cu a iem A(3; 2) qua phe p o i x ng truc d v i d: x y = 0.
10. Tm a nh cu a ca c ng thang sau qua phe p o i x ng tru c Ox:
a) x 2 = 0 b) y 3 = 0 c) 2x + y 4 = 0 d) x + y 1 = 0
11. Tm a nh cu a ca c ng thang sau qua phe p o i x ng tru c Oy:
a) x 2 = 0 b) y 3 = 0 c) 2x + y 4 = 0 d) x + y 1 = 0
12. Tm a nh cu a ca c ng tro n sau qua phep o i xng tru c Ox:
a) (x + 1)
2
+ (y 1)
2
= 9 b) x
2
+ (y 2)
2
= 4
c) x
2
+ y
2
4x 2y 4 = 0 d) x
2
+ y
2
+ 2x 4y 11 = 0
13. Tm a nh cu a ca c ng tro n sau qua phep o i xng tru c Oy:
a) (x + 1)
2
+ (y 1)
2
= 9 b) x
2
+ (y 2)
2
= 4
c) x
2
+ y
2
4x 2y 4 = 0 d) x
2
+ y
2
+ 2x 4y 11 = 0
14. Tm a nh cu a ca c elip sau qua phe p o i x ng tru c Ox (Oy):
a)
2 2
1
16 9
x y
b) x
2
+ 4y
2
= 1 c) 9x
2
+ 16y
2
= 144
15. Tm a nh cu a ca c hypebol sau qua phe p o i xng tru c Ox (Oy):
a)
2 2
1
16 9
x y
b) x
2
4y
2
= 1 c) 9x
2
25y
2
= 225

Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 149

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16. Tm a nh cu a ca c parabol sau qua phep o i x ng tru c Ox:
a) y
2
= 2x b) x
2
= 2y c) y = x
2
17. Tm a nh cu a ca c parabol sau qua phep o i x ng tru c Oy:
a) y
2
= 2x b) x
2
= 2y c) y = x
2




Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 150

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III. PHE P O I X NG TA M

1. Tre n ng tro n (O) cho hai iem B, C co nh va mo t ie m A thay o i. Go i H la tr c ta m
cu a AABC va H' la ie m sao cho HBH'C la hnh bnh ha nh. Chng minh ra ng H' nam tren
ng tron (O). T o suy ra qu tch cu a iem H.
HD: Go i I la trung ie m cu a BC.
I
(H') = H Qu tch ie m H la ng tro n (O') a nh cu a
(O) qua phe p
I
.
2. ie m M thuo c mie n trong t gia c lo i ABCD. Goi A', B', C', D' lan l t la iem o i x ng
cu a M qua trung iem ca c ca nh AB, BC, CD, DA. Chng minh t gia c A'B'C'D' la hnh
bnh hanh.
3. Cho ng tro n (O, R) va mo t da y co nh AB = R 2 . ie m M cha y tren cung l n

AB
thoa man AMAB co ca c go c e u nhon, co H la tr c ta m. AH va BH ca t (O) theo th t ta i
A' va B'. A'B ca t AB' ta i N.
a) Ch ng minh A'B' cung la ng knh cu a ng tro n (O, R).
b) T gia c AMBN la hnh bnh hanh.
c) HN co o da i khong o i khi M cha y nh tren.
d) HN ca t A'B' ta i I. Tm ta p hp ca c iem I khi M cha y nh tren.
HD: a)

' ' A BB = 1v b) AM //A'N, BM // AN c) HN = B'A' = 2R


d) Go i J la trung ie m AB.
J
(M) = N,
J
(O) = O'.

' OIO = 1v Tap hp ca c iem I la


ng tron ng knh OO'.
4. Mo t ng thang i qua ta m O cu a hnh bnh hanh ABCD ca t ca c ca nh DC, AB ta i P va Q.
Ch ng minh rang ca c giao ie m cu a ca c ng tha ng AP, BP, CQ, DQ v i ca c ng cheo
cu a hnh bnh ha nh la ca c nh cu a mo t hnh bnh hanh m i.
HD: Xe t phe p
O
.
5. Tm a nh cu a ca c ie m A(2; 3), B(2; 3), C(0; 6), D(4; 3) qua phep o i xng ta m v i:
a) Ta m O(0; 0) b) Ta m I(1; 2) c) Ta m H(2; 3)
6. Tm a nh cu a ca c ng thang sau qua phe p o i x ng tam O(0; 0):
a) 2x y = 0 b) x + y + 2 = 0 c) 2x + y 4 = 0 d) y = 2 e) x = 1
7. Tm a nh cu a ca c ng thang sau qua phe p o i x ng tam I(2; 1):
a) 2x y = 0 b) x + y + 2 = 0 c) 2x + y 4 = 0 d) y = 2 e) x = 1
8. Tm a nh cu a ca c ng tro n sau qua phep o i xng ta m I(2; 1):
a) (x + 1)
2
+ (y 1)
2
= 9 b) x
2
+ (y 2)
2
= 4
c) x
2
+ y
2
4x 2y 4 = 0 d) x
2
+ y
2
+ 2x 4y 11 = 0
9. Tm a nh cu a ca c elip sau qua phe p o i x ng tam I(1; 2):
a)
2 2
1
16 9
x y
b) x
2
+ 4y
2
= 1 c) 9x
2
+ 16y
2
= 144
10. Tm a nh cu a ca c hypebol sau qua phe p o i xng ta m I(1; 2):
a)
2 2
1
16 9
x y
b) x
2
4y
2
= 1 c) 9x
2
25y
2
= 225
11. Tm a nh cu a ca c parabol sau qua phep o i x ng ta m O(0; 0):
a) y
2
= 2x b) x
2
= 2y c) y = x
2




Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 151

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999



IV. PHE P QUAY

1. Cho AABC. D ng ve pha ngoa i tam gia c o ca c tam gia c BAE va CAF vuong ca n ta i A.
Go i I, M, J theo th t la trung ie m cu a EB, BC, CF. Ch ng minh AIMJ vuo ng ca n.
HD: Xe t phe p quay Q
(A,90
0
)
.
2. Cho AABC. Dng ve pha ngoa i tam gia c o ca c hnh vuo ng ABEF va ACIK. Go i M la
trung iem cu a BC. Chng minh ra ng AM vuong go c vi FK va AM =
1
2
FK.
HD: Go i D =
(A)
(B). Xe t phe p quay Q
(A,90
0
)
.
3. Cho 3 iem A, B, C tha ng ha ng theo th t . La y ca c oa n tha ng AB, BC la m ca nh, dng
ca c tam gia c e u ABE va BCF nam cu ng ve mot pha so v i ng tha ng AB. Go i M, N
la n l t la ca c trung ie m cu a ca c oan tha ng AF, CE. Ch ng minh ABMN eu.
HD: Xe t phe p quay Q
(B,60
0
)
.
4. Cho AABC. La y ca c ca nh cu a tam gia c o lam ca nh, dng ra pha ngoa i tam gia c ca c tam
gia c e u ABC
1
, CAB
1
, CAB
1
. Chng minh ra ng ca c oan tha ng AA
1
, BB
1
, CC
1
ba ng nhau.
HD: Xe t cac phe p quay Q
(A,60
0
)
,

Q
(B,60
0
)
.
5. Cho AABC e u tam O. Tren ca c ca nh AB, AC a t ca c oa n tha ng AD, AE sao cho AD +
AE = AB. Ch ng minh ra ng OD = OE va

DOE = 120
0
.
HD: Xe t phe p quay Q
(O,120
0
)
.
6. Cho hnh vuo ng ABCD va iem M tre n ca nh AB. ng thang qua C vuong go c v i CM,
ca t AB va AD ta i E va F. CM ca t AD tai N. Ch ng minh ra ng:
a) CM + CN = EF b)
2 2 2
1 1 1
CM CN AB
+ =
HD: Xe t phe p quay Q
(C,90
0
)
.
7. Cho AABC. D ng ve pha ngoa i tam gia c ca c hnh vuong ABDE va ACIJ sao cho C va D
na m kha c pha v i AB. Ch ng minh giao ie m cu a BI va CD na m tren ng cao AH cu a
AABC.
HD: La y tre n tia o i cu a AH mo t oa n AK = BC. Go i O la ta m hnh vuo ng ACIJ. Xe t phe p
quay Q
(O,90
0
)
IB CK. Tng t CD BK.
8. Tm a nh cu a ca c ie m A(2; 3), B(2; 3), C(0; 6), D(4; 3) qua phep quay ta m O go c o v i:
a) o = 90
0
b) o = 90
0
c) o = 180
0

9. Tm a nh cu a ca c ng thang sau qua phe p quay ta m O go c 90
0
:
a) 2x y = 0 b) x + y + 2 = 0 c) 2x + y 4 = 0 d) y = 2 e) x = 1
10. Tm a nh cu a ca c ng tro n sau qua phep quay ta m O go c 90
0
:
a) (x + 1)
2
+ (y 1)
2
= 9 b) x
2
+ (y 2)
2
= 4
c) x
2
+ y
2
4x 2y 4 = 0 d) x
2
+ y
2
+ 2x 4y 11 = 0








Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 152

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999

V. PHE P V T

1. Cho AABC v i tro ng ta m G, tr c tam H va tam ng tro n ngoa i tie p O. Chng minh ba
iem G, H, O thang hang va 2 GH GO =
, ,
.
HD: Xe t phe p v t V
(G,2)
(O) = H.
2. Tam gia c ABC co hai nh B, C co nh, co n nh A cha y tre n mo t ng tron (O). Tm
qu tch trong ta m G cu a AABC.
HD: Go i I la trung ie m cu a BC. Xe t phe p v t
1
( , )
3
I
V (A) = G.
3. Cho ng tro n (O) co ng knh AB. Go i C la iem o i xng cu a A qua B, PQ la mo t
ng knh thay o i cu a (O). ng thang CQ cat PA va PB lan l t ta i M va N.
a) Ch ng minh ra ng Q la trung ie m cu a CM, N la trung ie m cu a CQ.
b) Tm qu tch cu a M va N khi ng knh PQ thay o i.
HD: a) S du ng tnh cha t ng trung bnh.
b) Xe t ca c phe p v t V
(C,2)
(Q) = M;
1
( , )
2
C
V (Q) = N.
4. Cho ng tron (O, R) va ng thang d khong co iem chung v i ng tron. T mo t
iem M ba t k tren d, ke ca c tiep tuyen MP, MQ v i ng tro n (O).
a) Ch ng minh PQ luon i qua mo t iem co nh.
b) Tm ta p h p trung iem K cu a PQ, ta m O' cu a ng tron ngoa i tiep AMPQ, tr c ta m H
cu a AMPQ.
HD: a) Ke OI d, OI ca t PQ ta i N.
2
. OI ON r =
, ,
N co nh.
b) Ta p h p cac ie m K la ng tro n (O
1
) ng knh NO.
Ta p h p cac ie m O' ng trung tr c oa n OI.
Ta p h p cac ie m H la ng tro n (O
2
) = V
(O,2)
.
5. Cho ie m A ngoa i ng tro n (O, R) va ng knh MN quay xung quanh ta m O. AM va
AN ca t ng tron (O) ta i B va C.
a) Ch ng minh ng tro n (AMN) luo n i qua mo t ie m co nh kha c A.
b) Chng minh BC luon i qua mo t iem co nh.
c) Tm ta p h p trung ie m I cu a BC va trong ta m G cu a AABC.
HD: a) AO ca t (AMN) ta i D.
2
. . OAOD OMON R = =
, , , ,
D co nh.
b) AO ca t BC ta i E.
2 2
. AE AD AO R =
, ,
E co nh.
c) Ta p h p cac ie m I la ng tro n (O
1
) ng knh EO.
Ta p h p cac ie m G la ng tro n (O
2
) =
2
( , )
3
A
V (O
1
).
6. Cho ng tro n (O, R), ng knh AB. Mo t ng tha ng d vuong go c v i AB ta i mo t
iem C ngoa i ng tron. Mo t iem M chay tre n ng tron. AM ca t d ta i D, CM ca t
(O) ta i N, BD ca t (O) ta i E.
a) Ch ng minh AM.AD kho ng phu thuo c vao v tr cu a iem M.
b) T gia c CDNE la hnh g?
c) Tm ta p h p tro ng ta m G cu a AMAC.
HD: a) AM.AD = AB.AC (kho ng o i) b) NE // CD CDNE la hnh thang.

Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 153

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999

c) Go i I la trung ie m AC. Ke GK // MO. Ta p h p ca c ie m G la ng tro n (K,
3
R
) a nh
cu a ng tro n (O, R) qua phe p
1
( , )
3
I
V .
7. Tm a nh cu a ca c ie m sau qua phe p v t ta m I(2; 3), t so k = 2: A(2; 3), B(3; 4), C(0;
5), D(3; 0), O(0; 0).
8. Tm a nh cu a ca c iem sau qua phep v t ta m I(2; 3), t so k =
1
2
: A(2; 3), B(3; 4), C(0;
5), D(3; 0), O(0; 0).
9. Phep vi t ta m I t so
1
2
k bien iem M tha nh M. Tm toa o cu a iem I trong ca c
trng hp sau:
a) M(4; 6) va M(3; 5). b) M(2; 3) va M'(6; 1) c) M(1; 4) va M'(3; 6)
10. Phep v t ta m I t so k bien iem M thanh M. Tm k trong ca c tr ng hp sau:
a) I(2; 1), M(1; 1), M(1; 1). b) I(1; 2), M(0; 4) va M'(2; 0)
c) I(2; 1), M(1; 2), M'(2; 3)
11. Tm a nh cu a ca c ng thang sau qua phe p v t ta m O(0; 0) t so k = 2:
a) x + 2y 1 = 0 b) x 2y + 3 = 0 c) y 3 = 0 d) x + 4 = 0
12. Tm a nh cu a ng tha ng d: x 2y + 1 = 0 qua phep v t ta m I(2; 1) t so k trong ca c
trng hp sau:
a) k = 1 b) k = 2 c) k = 1 d) k = 2 e) k =
1
2
f) k =
1
2

13. Trong ma t phang Oxy, cho hai ng tha ng A
1
: x 2y + 1 = 0 va A
2
: x 2y + 4 = 0 va
iem I(2; 1). Tm t so k e phep v t V
(I,k)
bie n A
1
thanh A
2
.
14. Tm a nh cu a ca c ng tro n sau qua phep v t tam O(0; 0) t so k = 2:
a)
2 2
( 1) ( 5) 4 x y b)
2 2
( 2) ( 1) 9 x y c) x
2
+ y
2
= 4
15. Tm a nh cu a ng tron (C): (x + 1)
2
+ (y 3)
2
= 9 qua phep v t ta m I(2; 1) t so k trong
ca c tr ng h p sau:
a) k = 1 b) k = 2 c) k = 1 d) k = 2 e) k =
1
2
f) k =
1
2

16. Xe t phe p v t ta m I(1; 0) t so k = 3 bien ng tro n (C) tha nh (C'). Tm phng trnh cu a
ng tron (C) ne u bie t phng trnh ng tron (C') la :
a)
2 2
( 1) ( 5) 4 x y b)
2 2
( 2) ( 1) 9 x y c)
2 2
1 x y










Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 154

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999

Chng 2 : NG THNG V MP
TRONG KHNG GIAN- QUAN H SONG
SONG.

Bi 1: I CNG V NG THNG V MT
PHNG

I. Khi nim m u:
1. MP : k hu (P), (Q), ( ), ( ), o | ...
Biu dim mp : hnh bnh hnh, min gc .



2. im thuc mp :
K hiu : Ae ( ) o ; B e ( ) o
3. Hnh biu din ca mt hnh trong khng gian:
Quy tc : -Hnh biu din ca on thng l on thng, ca ng thng l ng thng.
-Hnh biu din ca 2 ng thng song song l hai ng thng song song; ca hai ng thng
ct nhau l hai ng thng ct nhau.
- Gi nguyn quan h thuc gia im v ng thng.
- Dng nt lin biu din cho ng nhn thy, v nt t on biu din cho ng b che
khut.

II. Cc tnh cht tha nhn :
1) C mt v ch mt ng thng i qua hai im phn bit.
2) C mt v ch mt mp i qua 3 im khng thng hng.
K hiu : ( ABC).
3) Nu mt ng thng c hai im thuc mp th ng thng nm trong mp.k hiu :
( ) d o c .
4) Tn ti 4 im khng cng thuc mt mp.
5) Nu hai mp phn bit c mt im chung th chng cn c 1 im chung khc na.
NX: Nu hai mp phn bit c 1 im chung th chng s c 1 ng thng chung .ng thng
chung y gi l giao tuyn ca hai mp.
V d1 : Trong mp (P) cho hnh bnh hnh ABCD . Ly im S ngoi (P). Tm giao tuyn ca hai
mp (SAC) v (SBD).
Gii :
Gi O l giao im ca AC v BD.
Ta c :
OeACc(SAC) => Oe (SAC).
OeBD c(SBD)=> O e(SBD).
Vy O l im chung ca (SAC) v (SBD).
M S cng l im chung ca (SAC) v (SBD),
Do : Giao tuyn ca hai mp (SAC) v (SBD) l SO.

III. Cc cch xc nh mt mp:
- Qua 3 im A,B,C khng thng hng. K/h : mp(ABC).
- Qua im A v 1 ng thng d khng i qua im A. k/h : mp(A,d).

Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 155

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999

- Qua 2 ng thng a,b ct nhau.
k/h : mp(a,b).
VD2: Cho 4 im A,B,C,D khng ng phng. Trn 3 cnh AB, AC, AD ln lt ly cc im
M,N,K sao cho MNBC=H, NKCD=I ,KMBD = J. Chng minh 3 im H,I,J thng hng.
Gii :


V I, J, H e (MNK)(BCD) nn 3 im I, J, K thng hng.

IV. Hnh chp , hnh t din.
1. Hnh chp : Cho a gic li A
1
A
2
A
n
nm trong mp (P). Ly im S nm ngoi (P) . Ln lt
ni S vi cc nh A
1
, A
2
, , A
n
ta thu c hnh chp S. A
1
A
2
A
n.

S : nh ca hnh chp.
A
1
A
2
A
n
: Mt y ca hnh chp.
- Gi tn hnh chp theo tn a gic y . VD : hnh chp tam gic , hnh chp t gic,
2. T din : Cho 4 im S,A,B,C khng ng phng. Hnh gm 4 tam gic ABC, ABS, ACS,BCS
c gi l hnh t din.
K hiu :SABC.
* T din c 4 mt l cc tam gic u gi l t din u.
VD3: Cho hnh chp S.ABCD c y ABCD l hnh bnh hnh . Gi M,N,P ln lt l trung
im ca AB,AD,SC.
a)Tm giao im ca mp (MNP) vi cc cnh ca hnh chp.
b) Tm giao tuyn ca mp (MNP) vi cc mt ca hnh chp.
Gii:



(MNP)(ABCD) = MN
(MNP)(SAB) = EM
(MNP)(SBC) = EP
(MNP)(SCD) = PF
(MNP)(SDA) = FN
MEPFN l thit din ca hnh chp S.ABCD khi ct bi mp(MNP).


Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 156

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999



Bi 2 : HAI NG THNG CHO NHAU V HAI
NG THNG SONG SONG.

I. V tr tng i gia hai ng thng:
Trong khng gian cho hai ng thng a,b.

TH1: a v b ng phng
- a ct b ab = M.
o


- a // b ab = C.
o

- a b ab = a.
o

TH2: khng c mp no cha a v b, ta ni a v b cho nhau.
o

* Nhn xt : Hai t c gi l song song nu chng ng phng v khng c im chung.
VD : Cho t din ABCD, hy ch ra cc cp ng thng cho nhau.

II. Tnh cht:
1. nh l 1: Trong khng gian qua 1 im khng nm trn 1 ng thng cho trc c 1 v ch 1
ng thng song song vi ng thng cho.
* Nhn xt : Qua hai g thng song song xc nh duy nht 1 mp.k/h: (a,b)

2. nh l 2: ( nh l v giao tuyn ca hai mp). Nu 3 mp phn bit ct nhau theo 3 giao tuyn
phn bit th 3 giao tuyn y hoc ng quy hoc i mt song song.

o
|

o
|



* H qu : N 2 mp phn bit ln lt cha hai thng song song th giao tuyn ca chng (nu c ) cng
song song hoc trng vi 1 trong 2 thng .

o
|


o
|

o
|


Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 157

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999


VD : Cho hnh chp S.ABCD c y ABCD l hnhbnh hnh. Xc nh giao tuyn ca cc mp : a) (SAB)
v (SCD); b) (SAD) v (SBC).
Gii :
a) (SAB) (SCD) = ?
AB | CD
( )
( )
( ) ( )
AB SAB
CD SCD Sx AB CD
SAB SCD Sx
c

c
`

=
)
| |

b) (SAD) (SBC) = ?
AD| BC
( )
( )
( ) ( )
AD SAD
BC SBC Sy AD BC
SAD SBC Sy
c

c
`

=
)
| |
3. nh l 3: Hai ng thng phn bit cng song song vi thng th 3 th song song nhau.
a b
a b
c b

`
)
|
|
|




Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 158

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999


BI 3. NG THNG V MT PHNG SONG
SONG

1. V tr tng i gia ng thng v mp



2. Tnh cht
a) nh l 1: Nu ng thng d khng nm trong ( ) o v d song song vi mt ng
thng d nm trong ( ) o th d song song vi ( ) o .


* Nhn xt : chng minh d // ( ) o ta chng minh ( ) d o . v d // d nm trong ( ) o
* V d 1: Cho t din ABCD .Gi M, N ln lt l trung im ca AD v CD.
a) Chng minh : MN // (ABC)
b) G l trng tm ca tam gic ACD. I l mt im trn cnh BC sao cho IC=2BI. Chng
minh : IG // ( ABD)

a) Ta c:MN .(ABC)
MN // AC ( v MN l ng trung bnh ca tam gic ACD)
M : AC c(ABC)
Suy ra MN // (ABC)
A
D
C
B
M
G
N
I
d
d
d// ( ) o
( ) d o | =


d ( ) o =M

( ) d o c

M
d
d
d
( ) d o .
d // d
d ( ) o c
=> d // ( ) o

Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 159

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999

b)
Ta c : IG .( BAD)
Xt tam gic BCM c:
2
3
CI CG
CB CM
= =
Suy ra : IG // BM
M : BM c(BAD)
Suy ra : BM // (BAD)

b) nh l 2: Cho ng thng a // ( ) o . Nu ( ) | cha a v ct ( ) o theo giao tuyn d th
d // a.





* Cch 2 tm giao tuyn ca hai mp ( ) o v ( ) | .
- Tm 1 im chung M
- Tm phng giao tuyn :
a // ( ) o
ac ( ) |
=> ( ) o ( ) | = Mx // a

* V d 2: Cho hnh chp S. ABCD c y ABCD l hnh bnh hnh.Trn on AD ly
im M ty . Mt phng ( ) o i qua M song song vi SA v CD. Tm giao tuyn ca
mp( ) o vi cc mt phng : (SAD) , (ABCD), (SCD)
Gii :

* Tm ( ) o (SAD) = ?
Ta c : M e ( ) o (SAD)
( ) o // SA
SA c(SAD)
Suy ra : ( ) o (SAD) = MN // SA
A
B
C
D
N
M
P
Q
a
d
a // ( ) o
a c ( ) |
( ) o ( ) | =d
=> d // a
S

Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 160

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999

* Tm ( ) o (ABCD) = ?
Ta c : M e ( ) o (ABCD)
( ) o // CD
CD c(ABCD)
Suy ra : ( ) o (ABCD) = MP // CD
* Tm ( ) o (SCD) = ?
Ta c : N e ( ) o (SCD)
( ) o // CD
CD c(SCD)
Suy ra : ( ) o (SCD) = NQ // CD

* H qu : Nu hai mp phn bit cng song song vi mt ng thng th giao tuyn ca
chng (nu c )cng song song vi ng thng .
( )
( )
( ) ( )
/ /
/ / / /
a
a d a
d
o
|
o |

=>




c) nh l 3: Cho hai ng thng cho nhau .C duy nht mt mp cha ng thng ny
v song vi ng thng kia.




a
a
b
M

Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 161

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999


BI 4. HAI MT PHNG SONG SONG

I. nh ngha :
Hai mphng (o ),( | ) c gi l song song nu chng khng c im chung.
Kh : (o ) // ( | )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) o | o | | = |

II. Tnh cht :
1.nh l 1 :
Nu mphng (o ) cha 2 thng ct nhau a, b v cng song song vi ( | ) th (o ) // ( | )
( ), ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
a b
a b
a
b
o o
o |
|
|
c c

|
|
|


* VD 1 :
Cho t din ABCD. Gi G
1
, G
2
, G
3
ln lt l trng tm ca AABC, AACD, AABD.
Cmr:(G
1
G
2
G
3
) // (BCD)

Gii :
Gi M,N,P ln lt l trung im ca BC, CD, BD
Ta c :
1 2
1 2
2
3
AG AG
AM AN
GG MN
= =
|

M MN c(BCD)
=> G
1
G
2
// (BCD) (1)
Tng t, xt A AMP ta c :
3 1
1 3
2
3
AG AG
AM AP
GG MP
= =
|

M MP c(BCD)
=> G
1
G
3
// (BCD) (2)
T (1) v (2) =>(G
1
G
2
G
3
) // (BCD)

2.nh l 2 :
Qua 1 im nm ngoi 1 mphng cho trc c 1 v ch 1 mphng // vi mphng cho
*H qu :
1)Nu d // (o ) th trong (o ) c 1 thng // d v qua d c duy nht 1 mphng song song vi ( o )
2)Hai mphng phn bit cng // vi mphng th 3 th // nhau

3.nh l 3 :

Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 162

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Cho 2 mphng //, nu 1 mphng ct mt ny th cng ct mt kia & 2 gtuyn // nhau
*H qu :
2 ct tuyn // chn trn 2 mphng //. Nhng on thng bng nhau

III.nh l talet :
3 mphng phn bit i mt song song chn trn 2 ct tuyn bt k nhng on thng tng ng
t l

IV.Hnh lng tr - hnh hp :
1.Hnh lng tr :

K hiu : lng tr
' ' ' '
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
A A A A A A A A
* Nhn xt :
- Cc cnh bn song song & bng nhau
- Mt bn l hnh bnh hnh
- Hai y l 2 a gic = nhau
2.hnh hp l hnh c y l hnh bnh hnh

V.Hnh chp ct :
S

*Nhn xt :
- Cc mt bn l cc hnh thang
- Hai y l 2 a gic c cc cnh tng ng song song & t s cc cp cnh tng ng bng nhau
- Cc thng cha cc cnh bn ng quy ti mt im.


Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 163

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BI 5. PHP CHIU SONG SONG, HNH BIU
DIN CA MT HNH TRONG KHNG GIAN

I. Php chiu song song

M l hnh chiu song song ca M ln (o ) theo phng A
(o ): mt phng chiu
A : l phng chiu
Php t tng ng mi im M trong khng gian vi hnh chiu M ca n trn (o ) c gi l
php chiu song song ln ( o ) theo phng A

II. Cc tnh cht ca php chiu //
* nh l 1 : php chiu // bin :
a) 3 im thng hng thnh 3 im thng hng v khng lm thay i th t 3 im .
b) Bin 2 thng // thnh 2 thng // hoc trng .

III. Hnh biu din ca 1 hnh trong khng gian trn mphng
Hnh biu din ca :
1) mt A ty ( vung, cn, u, ) l 1 A

2) mt hnh bnh hnh ty ( vung, ch nht, hnh bnh hnh, hnh thoi ..) l 1 hnh bnh hnh

3) Mt hnh thang ty ( thang vung, thang cn ) l mt hnh thang min l t s di 2 y
ca hnh biu din phi bng t s di 2 y ca hnh cho

4) Hnh trn l hnh elip


A M
M

Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 164

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CC PHNG PHP CHNG MINH HNH
HC

I.Phng php chng minh ng thng song song mt phng:
Phng php1:
Mun chng minh ng thng song song vi mt phng ta
chng minh ng thng khng nm trong mt phng v song
song vi mt ng thng no nm trong mt phng.



a // b
b (P) a //(P)
a (P)

c
`

.
)




V d: Cho t din ABCD.Gi M,N ln lt l trung im ca AB,
AD.
Chng minh MN song song vi mt phng (BCD).
Gii: Trong tam gic ABD c:
M trung im ca AB
N trung im ca AD.
Nn MN l ng trung
bnh ca
tam gic ABD
Do MN // BD
M BD c (BCD)
MN (BCD) .
Vy MN // (BCD).





Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 165

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Phng php2:
Mun chng minh ng thng a song song mt phng (P) ta
chng minh ng thng a nm trong mt phng (Q) m (Q) // (P)

V d: Cho hnh hp ABCD.ABCD. M; N tu trn mt phng
(ABCD).
Chng minh MN // mt phng (ABCD).





(ABCD) //(A' B' C' D')
MN (ABCD)
MN//(A' B' C' D')

`
c
)



H

Phng php 3:
Mun chng minh ng thng a song song mt phng (P), ta
chng minh ng thng a v mt phng (P) khng c im
chung cng vung gc vi mt ng thng b.



Phng php 4:
Mun chng minh ng thng a song song mt phng (P), ta
chng minh ng thng a v mt phng (P) khng c im
chung cng vung gc vi mt mt phng (Q).

Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 166

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Phng php 5:
Mun chng minh ng thng a song song mt phng (P), ta
chng minh ng thng a song song vi ng thng b m
ng thng b song song vi mt phng (P)(a v (P) khng c
im chung)

II.Phng php chng minh hai ng thng song song:
Phng php 1:
S dng nh l: Nu hai mt phng ct nhau ln lt i qua
hai ng thng song song th giao tuyn ca chng song song vi
hai ng thng (hoc trng vi mt trong hai ng thng ).



a // b
a (P)
c // a // b
b (Q)
(P) (Q) c

`
c

=
)




Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 167

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Phng php2:
S dng nh l: Nu ng thng a song song mt phng (P) th
mi mt phng (Q) cha a m ct mt phng (P) th ct theo giao
tuyn b song song vi ng thng a.



(P) // a
a (Q) b// a
(P) (Q) b

c
`

=
)



Phng php 3:
S dng nh l: Nu mt phng (R) ct hai mt phng song
song (P) v (Q) ln lt theo hai giao tuyn a v b th a//b.



(P) //(Q)
(R) (P) a a // b
(R) (Q) b

=
`

=
)


Phng php 5:
S dng nh l: Nu hai mt phng cng song song vi mt
ng thng th giao tuyn ca chng(nu c) song song vi
ng thng .



(P) // a
(Q) // a b// a
(P) (Q) b

=
)





Q
b
a
P

Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 168

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III.Phng php chng minh hai mt phng song song:
Phng php 1:
Mun chng minh hai mt phng song song, ta chng minh mt
phng ny cha hai ng thng ct nhau cng song song vi mt
phng kia.

Nu a // (Q)
b// (Q)
a,b (P) c
a ct b
Th (P) // (Q)



V d: Cho hnh chp SABCD y l hnh bnh hnh ABCD,AC ct
BD ti O.Gi M,N ln lt l trung im ca SC,CD.Chng minh
(MNO) // (SAD).









Chng minh:
Ta c MN l ng trung bnh ca tam gic SCD
Nn MN // SD
M SD c (SAD)
V MN . (SAD)
Vy MN // (SAD)
Ta c OM l ng trung bnh ca tam gic SAC
Nn OM // SA
M SA c (SAD)

Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 169

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V OM . (SAD)
Vy OM // (SAD)
Ta c

MN//(SAD)
OM//(SAD)
MN, OM (OMN)
MN OM M

`
c

=
)
nn (MNO) // (SAD)
Phng php 2:
Nu hai mt phng (P) v (Q) khng c im chung cng vung
gc mt ng thng a th chng song song vi nhau.

Phng php 3:
Nu hai mt phng (P) v (Q) khng c im chung cng vung
gc mt mt phng(R) th chng song song vi nhau.



Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 170

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Phng php 4:
Nu hai mt phng (P) v (Q) khng c im chung cng song
song mt mt phng(R) th chng song song vi nhau.

P
Q
R



IV. Phng php chng minh ng thng vung gc mt phng:
Phng php 1:
Mun chng minh ng thng d vung gc vi mt phng (P),ta
chng minh ng thng d vung gc vi hai ng thng a v b
ct nhau nm trong mt phng (P)

d a
d b
d (P)
a, b (P)
a b I



`
c

=
)




Phng php 2:
S dng tnh cht:d // A,mA (P) th d (P)

Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 171

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Phng php 3:
S dng nh l: Nu hai mt phng (P),(Q) vung gc vi nhau
v ct nhau theo giao tuyn x, ng thng no nm trong mt
phng (P) m vung gc vi giao tuyn x th vung gc vi mt
phng (Q).


Phng php 4:
S dng tnh cht:Nu hai mt phng phn bit cng vung gc
vi mt phng th ba th giao tuyn ca chng vung gc vi mt
phng th ba .





(P) (R)
(Q) (R) a (R)
(P) (Q) a

=
)





Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 172

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Phng php 5:
S dng tnh cht: Nu hai mt phng song song vi nhau, ng
thng a vung gc vi mt phng ny th n vung gc vi mt
phng kia.





(P) //(Q)
a (Q)
a (P)


`

)






Phng php 6:
S dng tnh cht:Nu ng thng a song song vi ng thng
b,m ng thng a vung gc mt phng (P) th ng thng b
cng vung gc vi mt phng (P).




a // b
b (P)
a (P)

)




Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 173

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V. Phng php chng minh hai mt phng vung gc:
Phng php 1:
Mun chng minh hai mt phng vung gc vi nhau ta chng
minh mt phng ny cha mt ng thng vung gc mt phng
kia.





a (P)
(P) (Q)
a (Q)



`
c
)





Phng php 2:
S dung tnh cht:

(P) //(Q)
(R) (Q)
(R) (P)

)















Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 174

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Phng php 3:
S dng tnh cht: (P) d , (Q) // d hoc cha d th (P) (Q)

VI. Phng php chng minh hai ng thng vung gc:
Phng php 1:
Mun chng minh hai ng thng vung gc vi nhau ta chng
minh ng thng ny vung gc vi mt phng cha ng
thng kia.



d (P)
d a
a (P)



`
c
)





Phng php 2:
S dng nh l:Nu ng thng a song song mt phng (P),
m ng thng d vung gc mt phng (P), th d vung gc vi
ng thng a.










Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 175

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VII.Phng php tm giao tuyn ca hai mt phng:
Phng php 1:
Tm hai im chung phn bit ca hai mt phng.
V d: Cho hnh chp SABCD.Tm giao tuyn ca hai mt phng
(SAC) v (SBD).
Gii: Trong mt phng (ABCD):
AC ct BD ti O.
Ta c OeAC, ACc (SAC)
OeBD, BDc (SBD)
Nn O l im chung ca hai mt
phng
(SAC) v (SBD)
M S l im chung ca hai mt
phng
(SAC) v (SBD)
Vy SO l giao tuyn ca (SAC) v
(SBD).
Phng php 2:
S dng nh l: Nu hai mt phng ct nhau ln lt i qua
hai ng thng song song th giao tuyn ca chng song song vi
hai ng thng (hoc trng vi mt trong hai ng thng ).



a // b
a (P)
c // a // b
b (Q)
(P) (Q) c

`
c

=
)



V d: Cho hnh chp SABCD c y l hnh bnh hnh,M thuc SA.
Tm giao tuyn ca hai mt phng (MCD) v (SAB

Gii: Ta c AB // CD
Hai mt phng (SAB) v (MCD)

Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 176

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ln lt cha hai ng
thng
AB//CD
th giao tuyn ca chng l
ng
thng i qua im M song
song
vi AB ct SB ti N.
Vy MN l giao tuyn ca hai mt phng (SAB) v (MCD).



Phng php3:
S dng nh l: Nu ng thng a song song mt phng (P) th
mi mt phng (Q) cha a m ct mt phng (P) th ct theo giao
tuyn b song song vi ng thng a.


(P) // a
a (Q) b// a
(P) (Q) b

c
`

=
)



V d: Cho hnh chp SABCD y hnh thang ABCD (AB//CD), M
thuc cnh AD. Mt phng (P) qua M song song vi SA v AB. Xc
inh giao tuyn ca mt phng (P) vi (SBC).








Gii:Gi N:P;Q ln lt l trung im ca mt phng (P) vi SD;
SC v BC.
Ta c
Q
b
a
P

Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 177

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(P) // SA
SA (SAD) MN// SA
(P) (SAD) MN

c
`

=
)


(P) // AB
AB (ABCD) MQ// AB
(P) (ABCD) MQ

c
`

=
)

Hai mt phng (P) v (SCD) ln lt cha MN // DC, nn giao
tuyn ca chng l NP song song vi CD.
Ta c im Pe(P) v Pe(SBC)
Qe(P) v Qe(SBC)
Vy PQ l giao tuyn ca mt phng (P) v mt phng (SBC).


Phng php 4:
S dng nh l: Nu mt phng (R) ct hai mt phng song
song (P) v (Q) ln lt theo hai giao tuyn a v b th a//b.



(P) //(Q)
(R) (P) a a // b
(R) (Q) b

=
`

=
)















Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 178

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Chng III : QUAN H VUNG GC
VECT TRONG KHNG GIAN

I.nh ngha v cc php ton v vect trong kgian
1.nh ngha : vect trong kgian l mt on thng c hng .
Kh : , , AB a x
, , ,


2.Php cng tr vect trong kgian :
Cc quy tc cn nh :
a)Quy tc 3 im

AB BC AC
BC AC AB
+ =
=
, , ,
, , ,

b)Quy tc hnh bnh hnh : ABCD l hbhnh
Ta c :
AB AD AC + =
, , ,

c)Quy tc hnh hp : cho hnh hp ABCD.ABCD khi :
' ' AB AD AA AC + + =
, , , ,


Vd: cho t din ABCD. Gi M,N ln lt l trung im ca AB & CD
Cmr :
1
( )
2
MN BC AD = +
, , ,

Gii : ta c
0 2 0
1
( )
2
BC BM MN NC
AD AM MN ND
BC AD MN
MN BC AD
= + +
= + +
+ = + +
= +
, , , ,
, , , ,
, , , , ,
, , ,

3.Php nhn vect vi 1 s :
*Nu I l trung im ca AB th :

0
2 ,
IA IB
MA MB MI M
+ =
+ =
, , ,
, , ,
*Nu G l trng tm ca AABC th :

0
3 ,
GA GB GC
MA MB MC MG M
+ + =
+ + =
, , , ,
, , , ,
Vd: Cho t din ABCD. G l trng tm AABC. Cmr :
3 AB AC AD AG + + =
, , , ,

Gii :
3 ( )
3 0
3 ( )
AB AC AD AG GB
AG GC AG GD
AG GB GC GD
AG
AG dpcm
+ + = +
+ + + +
= + + +
= +
=
, , , , ,
, , , ,
, , , ,
, ,
,



Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 179

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II.iu kin ng phng ca 3 vect :
1.nh ngha : Trong kgian 3 vect c gi l ng phng nu gi ca chng cng // 1 mphng
2.iu kin 3 vect ng phng :
*nh l 1 : Trong kgian cho 2 vect a
,
&b
,
khng cng phng vi 1 vect c
,

a
,
, b
,
, c
,
ng phng c ma nb = +
, , ,


*Vd : cho A ABC. Ly im S ngoi (ABC) trn on SA ly M sao cho:
2 MS MA =
, ,
, trn BC ly im N sao cho
1
2
NB NC =
, ,
. CMR 3 vect AB
,
, , MN SC
, ,
ng
phng
Gii :
M
N
A
B
C
S

*
2 2 2 2
*
MN MA AB BN
MN MA AB BN
MN MS SC CN
= + +
= + +
= + +
, , , ,
, , , ,
, , , ,

Do :
3 0 2 0
2 1
3 3
MN AB SC
MN AB SC
= + + +
= +
, , , , ,
, , ,
; ; MN AB SC
, , ,
ng phng (pcm)
*nh l 2 : Trong kgian cho 3 vect a
,
, b
,
, c
,
khng ng phng. Khi vi mi x
,
ta u tm
c 1 b 3 (m,n,p) sao cho : x ma nb pc = + +
, , , ,



Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 180

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HAI NG THNG VUNG GC


I.Tch v hng ca 2 vect trong Kg
1.Gc gia 2 vect trong kg
Trong khng gian cho 2 vect a
,
, b
,

T 1 im A ty , v AB a =
, ,
; AC b =
, ,
. Khi ( a
,
, b
,
) =

BAC
( vi

0 0
0 180 BAC s s )

2.Tch v hng ca 2 vect trong kg
L 1 s : . . .cos( , ) a b a b a b =
, , , , , ,

*Nhn xt :
Gc gia 2 vect

.
cos( , )
.
a b
a b
a b
=
, ,
, ,
, ,
* di :
2 2 2
a a a a = => =
, , , ,

Vd: Cho t din OABC c OA,OB, OC i mt vung gc & Oa = OB = OC = 1. Gi M l trung
im ca AB. Tnh gc gia 2 vect & OM BC
, ,

Gii:
M
O
C
B
A

.
cos( , )
.
OM BC
OM BC
OM BC
=
, ,
, ,

M:
1
. ( )( )
2
OM BC OA OB OC OB = +
, , , , , ,

2
1
( . . . )
2
OAOC OAOB OBOC OB = +
, , , , , , ,

2
1 1
2 2
OB = =
2
2 2
2
AB
OM
BC
- = =
- =

Do :
0
1
1
2
cos( , )
2 2
. 2
2
( , ) 120
OM BC
OM BC

= =
=
, ,
, ,



Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 181

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II.Vect ch phong ca ng thng:
1. nh ngha: Vect u
,
(khc o
,
) c gi l vtcp ca thng d nu gi ca n // hoc trng vi
thng.
2. Nhn xt:
- Nu u
,
l vtcp ca thng d th ku
,
l vtcp ca d
- 2 thng phn bit hai vect ch phong ca chng cng phng.

III.Gc gia 2 thng:
1.nh ngha: Gc gia 2 thng a & b trong khng gian l gc gia thng a & b cng i qua
1 im v ln lt // a v b
*Ch :
0 0
0 ( , ) 90 a b s s

2.Cch xc nh gc gia 2 thng:
C1: dng nh ngha (a,b) = (a, b)
C2: tnh gc gia 2 vtcp ca 2 thng ( . u v
, ,
)
*Nu
0 0
0 ( , ) 90 ( , ) ( , ) u v a b u v s s =
, , , ,

*Nu
0 0 0
90 ( , ) 180 ( , ) 180 ( , ) u v a b u v s s =
, , , ,
*VD: Cho hnh chp S.ABC c SA = SB = SC =
AB = AC = a v BC = 2 a . Tnh (AB,SC)
Gii:
* ABC A c AC = AB = a, BC = 2 a => AB AC
* SBC A c SB = SC = a, BC = 2 a => AB AC
Ta c:
.
cos( , )
.
AB SC
AB SC
AB SC
=
, ,
, ,

M:
0
2
. ( )
. .
. .cos60
2
AB SC AB AS AC
AB AS AB AC
a a
a
= +
= +
=
=
, , , , ,
, , , ,

*AB = SC = a
=>
0
1
cos( , ) ( , ) 120
2
AB SC AB SC

= =
, , ,,

Do : (AB,SC) = 180
0
120
0
= 60
0

V.Hai ng thng vung gc:
1. nh ngha: 2 thng c gi l vung gc nhau nu gc gia chng bng 90
0
( a b )
2. N hn xt:
* ( . ) 0 a b u v =
, ,

* Cho 2 thng //, thng no vung gc vi thng ny th cng vung gc vi thng kia.
* 2 thng c th ct nhau hoc cho nhau

*VD: Cho t din ABCD c AB AC , AB BD . Gi P, Q ln lt l trung im ca AB &
CD. CMR : AB PQ
Gii: Ta c

Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 182

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2 0 0
1
( )
2
1
( )
2
PQ PA AD DQ
PQ PB BC CQ
PQ AD BC
PQ AD BC
BD AC
= + +
= + +
= + + +
= +
= +
, , , ,
, , , ,
, , , , ,
, , ,
, ,

Ta c:

1
. ( )
2
1
( . . )
2
0
AB PQ AB BD AC
AB BD AB AC
= +
= +
=
, , , , ,
, , , ,

AB PQ (pcm)


Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 183

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NG THNG VUNG GC MT PHNG

d

( ) d o
-> ko v trong
mphng c v s
thng
d




M
A B

























1.thng vung gc vi mphng:
thng d c gi l vung gc vi mphng ( ) o nu d vi mi ng
thng nm trong mphng ( ) o
Kh: ( ) d o

2.iu kin thng vung gc vi mphng:
Nu thng d vi 2 thng ct nhau nm trong ( ) o th ( ) d o
*H qu: Nu 1 thng vi 2 cnh ca 1 tam gic th n vung gc vi
cnh cn li ca tam gic

3.Tnh cht:
a.C duy nht 1 mphng i qua 1 im cho trc v vi 1 thng cho
trc
b.C duy nht 1thng i qua 1 im cho trc v vi 1 mphng cho
trc.
*Mt phng trung trc ca 1 on thng: l mphng i qua trung im ca
on thng v vi thng .
4.Lin h gia tnh vung gc & tnh song song ca thng & mphng
trong kgian:
a.TC1:
) ( )
( )
a b
i b
a
o
o

|


( )
)
( )
a
ii a b
b
o
o

|
b)TC2:

( ) ( )
) ( )
( )
( )
) ( ) ( )
( )
i a
a
a
ii
a
o |
|
o
o
o |
|

|
|

c)TC3:

( )
)
( )
( )
) ( )
( )
a
i a b
b
a
ii a b a
b
o
o
o
o
o

|
|


*Vd: Cho hnh chp S.ABC c y ABC . vung ti B, SA (ABC)
a)cmr: BC(SAB)
b)Gi H l ng cao ca ABC . . Cmr: AHSC
Gii:

Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 184

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999


a)Cm thng mt
phng ta cm: SA
vi 2 thng ct
nhau trong (ABC)
b)cm: AHSC ta
cm thng ny
mphng cha thng
kia.






















->php chiu vung
gc l 1 trng hp
c bit ca php
chiu song song


d'
d
O
H
A

(d, ( ) o ) = (d,d)=

*CM: ANSC
Ta c: DCAD
DCSA
C
B
A
H
S

a)Ta c: SA(ABC)
SABC
M ABBC (do ABC . vung ti B)
=>BC(SAB)
b)Ta c:
*AHSB (do AH l ng cao) (1)
*BC(SAB) (cu a)
AHc(SAB)
=>BCAH (2)
T (1) & (2) => AH(SBC), AHBC

5.Php chiu vung gc v nh l 3 ng vung gc:
a)nh ngha: Cho thng d vung gc mphng ( ) o . Php chiu song
song theo phng d ln mphng ( ) o c gi l php chiu vung gc ln
mt phng ( ) o

b)nh l 3 ng vung gc:
Cho thng a c ( ) o v b. ( ) o ng thi ko vung gc vi ( ) o
Gi b l hnh chiu vung gc ca b ln ( ) o , khi a b a b

c)Gc gia thng v mphng: Cho d & ( ) o
*Nu d ( ) o th gc gia d v ( ) o bng 90
0

*Nu d khng vung gc vi ( ) o th gc gia d v hnh chiu d ca n
ln ( ) o c gi l gc gia d v mp ( ) o
*Ch :
0 0
0 ( ; ( )) 90 d o s s
VD: Cho hnh chp S.ABCD c y ABCD l hnh vung cnh
a, 2 SA a = , SA(ABCD)
a)Gi M, N ln lt l hnh chiu ca A ln SB v SD. Tnh gc gia
thng SC v mphng (AMN)
b)Tnh gc gia t SC v (ABCD)
Gii:

Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 185

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999

=> DC(SAD)
=> DCAN
M ANSD
=> AN(SDC)
=> ANSC

M
N
D
C
B
A
H
S

a)Ta c:
BCAB (ABCD l hvung)
BCSA (SA(ABCD))
=> BC(SAB)
AMc(SAB)
=> BCAM
M AM(SBC)
=>AMSC (1)
Tng t: ANSC (2)
T (1) & (2) => SC(AMN)
=>gc gia SC v (AMN) bng 90
0





Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 186

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999

HAI MT PHNG VUNG GC

I. Gc gia hai mt phng

1. nh ngha :
Gc gia hai mt phng l gc gia hai ng thng ln lt vung gc vi hai mt phng .

2. Cch xc nh gc gia hai mt phng( ) ( ) , o | ct nhau
B1: Tm giao tuyn ( ) ( ) c o | =
B2 : Ly im I tu trn c
- Trong ( ) o , dng a c ti I
- Trong ( ) | ,dng b c ti I
Khi : ( ) ( ) ( )

( )

, , a b o | =

* V d : Cho hnh chp S.ABCD c y ABCD l hnh vung cnh a . 3 SA a = , ( ) SA ABCD .)
Tnh gc gia hai mt phng:
a) (SCD) v (ABCD)
b) (SAB) v (ABCD)
Gii












a) ( ) ( ) SCD ABCD CD =
Ta c : AD CD
=> SD CD ( v ( ) SA ABCD nn AD l hnh chiu ca SD ln (ABCD))
Do : Gc gia hai mp (SAD) v (ABCD) l gc

SDA.
Xt tam gic SAD vung ti A c :

0
3
tan 3
60
SA a
SDA
AD a
SDA
= = =
=

b) ( ) ( ) SAB ABCD AB =
SA AB
AD AB
Suy ra : gc gia (SAB) v (ABCD) l

0
90 SAD = ( do SA AD)


S
A
B
C
D

Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 187

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999

3. Din tch hnh chiu ca mt a gic
Cho a gic (H) nm trong ( ) o c din tch S. (H) l hnh chiu ca (H) ln ( ) | . Khi din tch
S ca (H) c tnh bi cng thc :
' .cos S S = , vi ( ) ( ) ( )

, o | =

II. Hai mt phng vung gc :
1. nh ngha : hai mt phng c gi l vung gc nu gc gia chng bng 90
0

K hiu : ( ) ( ) o |
2. Cc nh l
a) nh l 1 :
iu kin cn v 2 mp vung gc l mt ny cha mt ng thng vung gc vi mt kia



* Cch chng minh 2 mp vung gc :
C1 : Chng minh gc gia chng bng 90
0

C2: mt ny cha 1 ng thng vung gc vi mt kia
* VD :
c) Chng minh (SAC) (SBD)
Gii :
Ta c : ACBD
AC SA ( do SA (ABCD) )
AC (SBD)
(SAC) (SBD)
*H qu:
i) Nu 2 mp vung gc th t no nm trong mp ny vung gc vi giao tuyn th u vung gc vi
mp kia
ii) SGK
*nh l 2: Nu 2 mp ct nhau v cng vung gc 1 mp th giao tuyn ca chng vung gc vi mp

III.Hnh lng tr ng, hnh hp ch nht, hnh lp phng:
1.Hnh lng tr ng: l hnh lng tr c cc mt bn vung gc vi cnh y

a
b
c
O
|
o

Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 188

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999


2.Hnh hp ch nht: l hnh lng tr ng c y l hnh ch nht.













3.Hnh lp phng: l hnh lng tr ng c y l hnh vung v cc mt bn u l hnh vung
IV.Hnh chp u, hnh chp ct u:
- Cho hnh chp nh S, gi H l hnh chiu ca ca S ln mt y. Khi SH l ng cao ca hnh
chp.
H : chn ng cao

1.Hnh chp u l hnh chp c y l mt hnh a gic u v chn ca ng cao trng vi tm
ca a gic y.

2.Hnh chp ct u: phn ca hnh chp u nm gia y v 1 thit din song song vi y ct tt
c cc cnh bn ca hnh chp u c gi l hnh chp ct u.





E'
D'
C'
B'
A'
E
D
C
B

B
A
C
D
B
C
D

Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 189

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999

KHONG CCH

I.Khong cch t 1 im n 1 t, n 1 mphng
1.k/cch t 1 im n 1 thng:
Cho im O v thng a ko i qua O. Trong mphng (O,a) gi H l hnh chiu ca O ln a, khi
d(O,a) = OH

2.k/cch t 1 im O n 1 mp ( ) o :
L khong cch gia 2 im O & H, vi H l hnh chiu vung gc trn ( ) o
d(O, ( ) o ) = OH

II.k/cch gia thng &mp s.song, gia 2 mphng song song:
1.k.cch gia t a & mp( ) o song song
L k/cch t 1 im bt k thuc a ti mp( ) o . KH: d(a, ( ) o ) = OH
(vi Oea, H l hnh chiu ca ln ( ) o )

2.k/cch gia 2 mp song song( ) o ; ( ) | l k/cch t 1 im bt k ca mp ny n mp kia.
d( ( ) o , ( ) | )
d( ( ) o , ( ) | ) = MH vi M e ( ) o cn H l h/chiu ca M ln ( ) |
v d:
Cho hnh lp phng ABCD.ABCD cnh a. Xc nh k/cch :
a) gia im A & t BC
b) gia im A & (CDDC)
c)gia AA v thng CC
d) gia AD & (BCCB)
e) gia (ABBA) & (CDDC)
Gii:

a) d(A,BC) = AB = a
b) d(A,CDDC) = AD = a
c) d(AA;CC) = AC = a
d) d(AD;(BCCB)) = AB = a
e) d((ABBA);(CDDC)) = AD = a

III.ng vung gc chung & k/c gia 2 thng cho nhau:
1.nh ngha: Cho 2 t a & b cho nhau
a) t . ct c a &b v cng vung gc vi a, b c gi l ng vung gc chung ca a & b
b) k/cch gia 2 t cho nhau l di on vung gc chung ca 2 thng .

2.Cch tm ng thng vung gc chung ca 2 t cho nhau:
a) Nu a b th:
-Dng ( ) o cha a vung gc vi b ti B
-Trong mp ( ) o dng BAa ti A

Gio n Ton 11 Nng cao 190

TRUNG TM TON OLYMPIC ISI Trn Thin 0913.430 999

Khi AB l ng vung gc chung

B
A
b
a

b) Nu a ko b th:
-Dng ( ) o a ti O
-Xt mp ( ) o cha b v ( ) o // a
-Ly im Mea : d(a,b) = d(M, ( ) o )
VD:
Cho t din u ABCD cnh a. Tnh d(AB, CD)
Gii:
Gi I, J ln lt l t/im ca AB, CD
.AJB cn ti I => IJ AB
Tng t: .ICD cn ti I => JI CD
Vy IJ l on vung gc chung ca AB & CD => d(AB,CD) = IJ
Trong .AIJ vung ti I, ta c:
IJ
2
= AJ
2
AI
2
=
2 2 2
.3
4 4 2
a a a
=
=> IJ =
2
2
a

J
I
C
B
D
A