Most things that you see and feel are made of tiny particles called molecules. Molecules are made up of even tinier particles called atoms. Do you remember what we learned about atoms? There are only 90 kinds of atoms in nature, but different combinations of atoms make up millions of billions of different molecules that we see around us. Water is one molecule that you are already familiar with. A
water molecule is made of three atoms: 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom. This is why we call it H2O.
. Today. you will explore how water molecules pull each other
together.Molecules like to pull together to stop themselves from breaking up.
The water molecules should hold together in little dome shapes.Experiment 1 So.
You will need… Spoon Water Clean table top Toothpick Dishwashing liquid
. let’s experiment with surface tension! We will see how
dishwashing liquid changes how strong water molecules hold together. Dip the spoon in some water and then drip it onto the table top.
2. Now. can’t they also tug on things that are afloat? Let’s see!
.Water molecules pull in together to make a round drop. touch the water droplets with the toothpick dipped in dishwashing liquid.
Experiment 2 If water molecules can tug on each other. What happens to the water as soon as you touch it with the soapy toothpick? Are the water molecules
pulling together more strongly or more weakly?
Chemicals in dishwashing liquid get in the way of water molecules.
You will need: Water Pie tin Pepper Dishwashing liquid
Method 1. gently touch the water with the toothpick dipped in dishwashing liquid. What happens to the pepper? Why do you think this happens?
Water molecules pull towards left and right. equally
. 2. and sprinkle some pepper onto the surface. Now. Fill the pie tin with water.
You will need: Pie tin (pour out all the soapy water)
.Water molecules pull more weakly on the side that has soap chemicals
Experiment 3 Now is the time to have some fun! Let’s make a boat that moves by surface tension.
3. Fill the pie tin with clean water. Clean water Spoon Plastic sheet Bar of soap
Method 1. Scrape the bar of soap with the bottom edge of the boat. Cut the plastic sheet into a shape of a boat (about 1 inch) 2. and carefully place the boat onto the water. What happened to the boat? Can you explain why this happened?
2. Why can pond skaters swim across the water without sinking?
The What and Whys about Water
1. Explain surface tension.Boat should look like this.
Why can’t you skate across the water like pond skaters?
4.3. Can pond skaters skate across soap water? Why do/don’t you think so?
5. When you spill a droplet of water on a clean table. water molecules
What would a water droplet look like in space. where there’s no gravity?
.hold together to make a dome shape.