American agriculture is marked by several trends. The first is the continuing decline of small family farms.

Since 1979, 300,000 small farms have disappeared in the United States, and since 1946 the number of people employed in agriculture has been cut in half. Increasingly, large companies such as ArcherDaniels Midland (ADM) have come to dominate American agriculture. In 2000, ADM had worldwide sales of $12.9 billion. In the beef industry, 4 firms control 80 percent of the U.S. market. Almost 91 percent of U.S. farms are considered to be small (less than 1,000 acres). Large farms (more than 1,000 acres) made up just 9 percent of farms but received 51 percent of total agricultural revenues in 2000. The second trend is the increasing productivity of the sector. Agricultural production in the United States has increased by an average of 5 percent each year since 1990. In addition, the output of each agricultural worker has grown by an average of 0.84 percent each year. On average, one American farmer produces enough food for 96 people. This improvement is partially as a result of the consolidation of farms and partially a result of new technologies and farming methods. The third trend is the growth in both exports and imports. In 1998 total agricultural exports were $60.5 billion. That same year, total imports were $48.9 billion. The fourth and final trend is the loss of agricultural subsidies . Some of these subsidies are in the form of outright payments in exchange for farmers not growing certain crops and are provided to keep the price of crops high. Since the early 1990s, Congress has gradually reduced these subsidies. However, support and aid for certain types of farmers, including tobacco farmers, continues. After declining to a low point of $9 billion in 1997, government spending on agriculture increased to $23 billion in 1999 and $38.4 billion in 2000. The increases mainly came from emergency aid to farmers because of natural disasters during these 2 years. About 40 percent of the land in the United States is used for agriculture of some form, including livestock grazing. This includes 431.1 million acres of cropland, 396.9 million acres of pasture, and 71.5 million acres of forests. In 1998, the total crop output of the United States was 489,976,030 metric tons with a value of $102.14 billion. The largest single crop was corn, which accounted for more than half of the nation's crop output with 247,882,000 metric tons. The second largest

Tobacco also provides substantial cash returns. The only regions of the nation that have seen major expansion of agriculture have been the middle-Atlantic area and the . the pesticides used are much more powerful and lethal than earlier chemicals.S. The majority of U. However. catfish. but provide about one-half of the total revenues. and geese.68 billion. Agriculture has declined most significantly in the New England states and New Jersey. Commercial fish farms are increasingly common and used for species such as salmon. and coffee. The remaining livestock includes a variety of species such as bison. There has subsequently been a decrease in soil erosion caused by over-farming and an overall decline in the use of pesticides and fertilizers.3 million sheep. and more sophisticated machinery. There is a wide variety of species caught. and salmon. pollock. potatoes. Total animal output in 1998 was $94. turkeys. Various shellfish such as lobster.327. fish cultivation is used domestically. scientific soil and crop analysis.19 billion while forestry products. there were 101. 8. In the West and southern plains. including timber.6 billion. Commercial fishing has declined significantly in the United States over the past 30 years. bananas. some states have had minor declines. sugar beets.2 million pigs. 56.crop was soybeans with 74. There have been dramatic improvements in agricultural technology in the United States.15 million horses and 1.000 metric tons. shrimp.5 billion chicken.2 million head of cattle.598. of which shellfish totals were $1. tuna.000 metric tons. totaled $24.7 billion in 1998. Total fish harvests amounted to $3. haddock. or crab account for about 20 percent of the annual harvest. 6. including cod. although yields are small when compared with many other crops. Of the total American livestock. while others have had small increases. and shrimp. Improvements include increased use of computers. About two-thirds of the states have had deep reductions in agriculture. Genetic engineering of seeds has also increased crop yields but created controversy over the safety of genetically altered products. Wheat is third with 69. Other major crops include sugar cane. and about half is for human consumption.

citrus.9 53. The states with the largest increases in output were Arkansas. Florida. Americans spend less on food. With such progress in increasing output and the efficiency of agriculture. as a proportion of their income. The United States produces about half of the world's corn and 10 percent of its wheat. and Georgia.5 3. and Indians spent 51. Progress in technology and crop yields has made the United States among the most productive agricultural producers in the world. the Japanese 17. farmers produce about $100 billion worth of crops and about $100 billion worth of livestock each year. Major Crops Grown in the United States In round numbers.S.9 percent of their income on food. It also accounts for 20 percent of the globe's beef. than any other nation in the world.Pacific Northwest. food prices for American consumers have had little increase over the past 20 years. The United States is the world's largest producer of timber. U.1 12. In comparison. Crop Corn (grain) Soybeans Hay Wheat Harvested Area (million acres) 72.7 72. pork. consumers spent 10. vegetable. About 70 percent of the nation's forests are privately owned. the average British consumer spent 11. U.5 .S.0 Cash Receipts from Sales ($ billion) 15. Almost 80 percent of timber harvested is soft woods such as pine or Douglas Fir. but there is also limited logging allowed in federally-owned or managed forests. Hardwoods such as oak account for the remaining 20 percent. the French 14. Washington.2 percent. etc).6 percent. Delaware.4 5.7 59.3 percent. Production data from the year 2000 for major agricultural crops grown in this country are highlighted in the following table: Major agricultural crops produced in the United States in 2000 (excluding root crops.8 percent. and lamb.

8 billion bushels of soybeans were harvested from almost 73 million acres of cropland in the U. poultry.2 Corn: The United States is.Cotton Sorghum (grain) Rice 13.S. corn can be “salvaged” by harvesting the entire plant as silage. Alfalfa is the primary hay crop grown in this country. Over 30 million tons of soybean meal are consumed as livestock feed in a year.7 3.66 billion in soybean and product exports in 2000.S. According to the National Corn Growers Association. This acreage is roughly equivalent to that of corn grown for grain. a popular oxygenate in cleaner burning auto fuels. Soybeans: Approximately 2. soybean oil. corn crop ends up in foods that are either consumed directly (e.1 7.000 farms in the United States produce soybeans. Soybeans are used to create a variety of products. and high-oil corn. Soybeans represented 56 percent of world oilseed production in 2000. About 12% of the U. The crop is fed as ground grain. and fish production. about eighty percent of all corn grown in the U. According to the National Hay Association.000 U. Over 350. silage. Corn grown for silageaccounts for about two percent of the total harvested cropland or about 6 million acres.82 1. U. in 2000. . Even the hulls are used as a component of cattle feed rations. In years that produce weather unfavorable to high corn grain yields. the most common exports are timothy. According to the United Soybean Board. high-moisture. Soybean oil also makes its way into products ranging from anti-corrosion agents to Soy Diesel fuel to waterproof cement. is consumed by domestic and overseas livestock. sudangrass. The amount of land dedicated to corn silage production varies based on growing conditions. the largest producer of corn in the world. corn chips) or indirectly (e.6 0. used in both food manufacturing and frying and sautéing. some alfalfa.g. high fructose corn syrup).S. produced almost ten billionbushels of the world’s total 23 billion bushel crop. It also has a wide array of industrial uses including ethanol.0 4. and bermudagrass hay. by far. Hay: Hay production in the United States exceeds 150 million tons per year. Hay crops also produce seeds that can be used for planting or as specialized grains. hay is produced mainly for domestic consumption although there is a growing export market. and hulls. accounting for over 50% of the world’s soybean production and $6.S.S. Corn is grown on over 400. the U. Hay can be packaged in bales or made into cubes or pellets.g. meal.S. represents approximately 79 percent of all edible oil consumed in the United States. Corn grown for grain accounts for almost one quarter of the harvested crop acres in this country. the most basic of which are soybean oil. farms. In 2000.

Mississippi. demand for co-products like sorghum-DDG (dry distillers grain) will increase as well due the sorghum's favorable nutrition profile. Worldwide.Wheat: Over 240. and color (e. Some farmers grow sorghum as a hedge against drought. Those farms are concentrated in six states: Arkansas. The U. dairy cattle. Louisiana. produces about 13% of the world’s wheat and supplies about 25% of the world’s wheat export market. exports almost half of the sorghum it produces and controls 70% to 80% of world sorghum exports. Industrial products that utilize sorghum include wallboard and biodegradable packaging materials. but this country is the second leading rice exporter with 18% of the world market. Wheat is classified by time of year planted. With demand for renewable fuel sources increasing.S.S. U. wheat production comes from the Great Plains (from Texas to Montana). and 8 percent into industrial products each year. Texas.000 farms in the United States produce cotton. 28 percent into home furnishings. As much as 12% of domestic sorghum production goes to produce ethanol and its various coproducts.S. Rice: Just over 9. Kansas. California. About two-thirds of total U. Cotton is grown from coast-to-coast. Missouri. and the remainder is used for seed. Cottonseed oil is also used for food products such as margarine and salad dressing. over half of the sorghum grown is for human consumption. The nation’s cotton farmers harvest about 17 million bales or 7.000 farms in the United States produce wheat.2 billion pounds of cotton each year. over 70% is used for food products. and poultry. Cotton: Fewer than 32. Cotton is used in a number of consumer and industrial products and is also a feed and food ingredient. about 22% is used for animal feed and residuals. but is also used in food products and as an industrial feedstock. Grain sorghum: In the United States. Over 60% of the annual cotton crop goes into apparel. The characteristics of each class of wheat affect milling and baking when used in food products. This water-efficient crop is more drought tolerant and requires fewer inputs than corn. hardness.000 farms produce rice in the United States.g. rice production accounts for just over 1% of the world’s total. and Missouri produce most of the grain sorghum grown in this country. Of the wheat consumed in the United States. Nebraska. . and Texas. The U. Hard Red Winter (HRW)). grain sorghum is used primarily as an animal feed. Farms in those states produce over 20% of the world’s cotton with annual exports of more than $3 billion.S. but in only 17 southern states. Oklahoma. Cottonseed and cottonseed meal are used in feed for livestock.

S. or adjacent to. Still. there has been a decrease in other areas. some 3. another 20% goes into processed foods. the land area under cultivation in this country has not increased. there were almost 987 million acres in farms in the U. The United States is blessed with more arable land than any other nation on earth. . is for direct food use. and most of the rest into beer. agricultural production takes place in. (525 million acres). There was a 4% decline in the number of acres in farms that over the last decade.. This is especially significant since about two-thirds of the total value of U. farms are actually within metropolitan areas. including irrigation and genetic manipulation of crops.000 acres of productive farmland are lost to development each day in this country. Development pressure on farmland at the rural-urban interface is posing long-term challenges for production agriculture and for the country as a whole.S. Grazing land for livestock accounts for about one-fourth of the privately held land in the U. that number had been reduced to just under 943 million acres by 2000.About 60% of the rice consumed in the U. These factors combined to allow operators to increase the size of their farms and gain efficiencies. metropolitan counties (NRCS).S.S. only about one-fifth of our land area (382 million acres) is used for crop production. representing 18% of the total farmland in this country. About 1/3 of all U. In fact.S. has permitted an expansion of crop production in some areas of the country. In spite of a growing population and increased demand for agricultural products. While advanced farming techniques. In 1990. Two significant trends occurring in the agricultural sector during the past century involved the increased use of machines and government price supports.

0 Cash Receipts from Sales ($ billion) 15. Tillage is also energy-intensive.9 53.7 59. Crop production systems that involve pre-plant tillage but maintain residues from a previous crop on the soil surface are referred to as conservation tillage practices.0 13. The process of cultivating crops typically begins with tillage of the soil.6 0. drainage. farmers use a range of production practices. and after planting. These systems range from no-tillage in which there is not soil disturbance in a field except during the process of planting a crop to conventional tillage in which multiple tillage operations can extend over many months and take place before.5 4. and/or harvesting operations The major disadvantage of conventional tillage is the susceptibility of "unprotected" soil to erosion by water or by wind. the most fundamental function is to create conditions Corn (grain) Soybeans Crop Major agricultural crops produced in the United States in 2000.7 72. six are annual crops that must be replanted each year (only hay crops would be left in place from year to year).2 Hay that will ensure good contact between seed and soil Wheat at the time of seed planting and the ready Cotton availability of water to the seed during germination.1 7. irrigating. during.Crop Production Systems Of the seven crops listed. Although tillage can serve a number of functions within a crop production system.7 3. Conventional tillage (also known as intensive tillage) usually involves a series of field operations that result in a residue-free soil surface at the time a crop is planted.5 3.1 12. . Harvested Area (million acres) 72. Conventional tillage was "standard operating procedure" in the era before effective chemical weed and pest control strategies were available to farmers. For the major row crops produced in the United States. Conventional tillage systems developed in this country to take advantages of the following benefits: • • • • • Creation of a seedbed or root bed Control of weeds or the removal of unwanted crop plants Incorporation of plant residues into the soil profile Incorporation of fertilizers and/or soil-applied pesticides Establishment of specific soil surface configurations for planting.82 1. requiring large inputs of machine work and numerous trips across a field during a single growing season.4 5. The degree to which the soil is disturbed by tillage prior to seed planting provides Sorghum (grain) Rice a means of categorizing crop production within a range of tillage systems.

USDA estimates the value of retail sales of organic foods at $6 billion in 1999 with about 12. peanuts. segment of U. It can be accomplished through no-till.200 organic farmers nationwide. processors and retailers must adhere to standards that maintain the integrity of organic agricultural products. Organic Foods Production Act.S. Organic farming encompasses both crop and animal production and is defined as "ecological production management system that promotes and enhances biodiversity. The animals trampled and tore up the ground so much as to cause long-term destruction and damage. and sunflower seeds constitute some of the major holdovers from the agricultural endowment of the Americas. This was due to deeper plow cuts in the soil that allowed the soil more contact with oxygen causing nutrient depletion. New species of weeds were introduced and began to thrive as they were capable of withstanding the grazing of animals. leaving behind many physical foot prints." Organic food handlers. potatoes. most with small-scale operations. This includes practices such as minimizing or eliminating the use of herbicides in crop production and antibiotics in animal production. the soil was being compacted by the cattle and this didn’t give the soil enough oxygen to sustain life.[2] The practices associated with keeping livestock also contributed to the deterioration of the forests and fields. tomatoes. but growing. methods must be used to minimize contamination.Concerns about soil erosion led to the development of crop production strategies that retained crop residues on the soil surface. ridgetill. Colonists brought livestock over from Europe which caused many changes to the land. Conservation tillage requires more sophisticated implements that are capable of producing a seedbed while leaving a portion of surface residues undisturbed. [2] . Corn. True conservation tillage is any tillage method that leaves at least 30% residue coverage on the soil after a crop has been planted. whereas native species could not.S. native grasses were destroyed and European species began to replace them. or mulch till practices. Colonists would cut down the trees and then allow their cattle and livestock to graze freely in the forest and never plant more trees. the large number of cattle in the New England. Farming with oxen did allow the colonist to farm more land but it increased erosion and decreased soil fertility. Grazing animals required a lot of land and food to sustain them and due to grazing. Organic agriculture practices do not ensure that products are completely free of residues.[2] Soil exhaustion was a huge problem in New England agriculture. strip-till. Organic Farming Organic farming is a small."'Organic' is a labeling term that denotes products produced under the authority of the U. biological cycles and soil biological activity. European agricultural practices greatly affected the New England landscape. turkeys. In grazing fields. agriculture. "The principal guidelines are to use materials and practices that enhance the ecological balance of natural systems. however. Reduced tillage usually leaves 15% to 30% residue coverage on the soil surface.

This development was facilitated by the Morrill Act and the Hatch Act of 1887 which established in each state a land-grant university (with a mission to teach and study agriculture) and a federally funded system of agricultural experiment stations and cooperative extension networks which place extension agents in each state. leading to a "wheat frontier" that moved westward over the course of years. slaves were used in agriculture until the early 19th century. farms spread from the colonies westward along with the settlers. The introduction and broad adoption of scientific agriculture since the mid nineteenth century has made a large improvement in the USA's economic growth. [citation needed] In the Midwest. raising tobacco and cotton was common. Warmer regions saw plantings of cotton and herds of beef cattle. especially through the use of slave labor until the Civil War. "Sodbuster" and "Swampbuster" restrictions written into federal farm programs starting in the 1970s reversed a decades-long trend of habitat destruction that began in 1942 when farmers were encouraged to plant all possible land in support of the war effort. In the United States. In the northeast. slavery was prohibited by the Freedom Ordinance of 1787. Significant areas of farmland were abandoned during the Great Depression and incorporated into nascent national forests. complementing each other especially since it was difficult to get grain to market before the canals and railroads. federal programs administered through local Soil and Water Conservation Districts provide technical assistance and partial funding to farmers who wish to implement management practices to conserve soil and limit erosion. Later. In the early colonial south.S. After the "wheat frontier" had passed through an area. when soybeans began to replace oats and wheat. Also very common in the antebellum Midwestwas farming corn while raising hogs. In cooler regions.. [edit]Major agricultural products . Soybeans were not widely cultivated in the United States until the 1950s. wheat was often the crop of choice when lands were newly settled.In the U. more diversified farms including dairy cattle generally took its place.

Pig meat 7.000 2. Sorghum 18. Healthy. Cow's milk. and sunflower seeds (in all. Grapes 14. Corn would be growing into leafy stalks by late June. and. Wheat is a brilliant gold as harvest occurs in June. Wheat 8.141.490. possibly paler.000 10.000 8. Cotton lint 9. Sorghum. rarely.800.000 4. Turkey meat 11. growing crops are green.000 6. Oranges 15. [edit]Crops [edit]Value of production Rice paddy. which resembles corn.000 4.126.006. Apples 17.000 10. fresh 4.760. whole. Rice.000 20.820. Potatoes 13.000 27. Chicken meat 5.736.590.000 15. Cottonseed 20.968. almonds.000 78. Corn 2.000 11. Soybeans 6. commonly.900. Cattle meat 3. and oats. Sugar beets 256. paddy 16. grows more slowly and would be much smaller and therefore.034.473.275. California . Hen eggs 10.000 65. barley.574.000 12. The top twenty agricultural products of the United States by value as reported by the FAO in 2003 (ranked in order of value with volume in metric tons)[3]:[verification needed] 1. Fields of brown have been recently harvested and plowed under or lie fallow for the year.073. tobacco. only 26 of the 188 crops the FAO tracks worldwide). peanuts.000 63.000 5.000 3. Alfalfa and hay would both be in the top ten in 2003 if they were tracked by FAO.155.584.000 6.242.000 The only other crops to ever appear in the top 20 in the last 40 years were. Lettuce 19.000 9. Tomatoes 12.Satellite image of circular crop fields characteristic ofcenter pivot irrigation in Kansas (June 2001).446.

7 Wheat $8.S.4 Barley $.6 Alfalfa $8. The yield was (in 2004):[2] .9 Source: 1997 USDA-NASS reports.Major Crops in the U.1 Tobacco $3.S. [1] Note alfalfa and hay are not tracked by the FAO and the production of tobacco in the U. has fallen 60% between 1997 and 2003. . [edit]Yield U.3 Cotton $6.4 Soybeans $17.7 Sorghum $1. other than alfalfa $5. agriculture has a high yield relative to other countries.0 Rice $1.1 Hay.1997 (in US$ billions) Corn $24.S.A.

592 Laying hens 314.214.772.083. There were 5.858 Hogs and pigs 61.103 67. average of 42. and TX) there were 1.5 bushels harvested per acre (2.000 horses in the United States at the end of 1998.000 colonies of bees at the end of 2002. though in lesser quantities.341.500.446.304 334.558 Goats.144.047 1.300.149 60.786.97 t/ha in 2003) [edit]Livestock The major livestock industries in the United States are:      Dairy cattle Beef cattle Swine (also called hogs or pigs) Poultry Sheep US Livestock and Poultry Inventory[4][5] Type 1997 2002 2007 Cattle and calves 99.2 bu/ac or 2.405. average of 160.000 goats at the end of 2002. average of 43. There were 2.347. Inventory data is not as readily available as for the major industries.819.318 Sheep and lambs 8.188.017 95.200.907.   Corn for grain.574. turkeys and bees are also raised.389. NM. was 44. [edit]Farm type or majority enterprise type Farm type is based on which commodities are the majority crops grown on a farm.799 5.356 1. For the three major goat-producing states (AZ.435.4 bushels harvested per acre (10.994 96.602.279.497.91 t/ha.07 t/ha) Soybean for beans. Nine common types include: .457 6.162 Broilers & other meat chickens 1.2 bushels harvested per acre (2.155 349. horses.86 t/ha) Wheat.

oats. sunflowers. silage. Tobacco and cotton can be included here if not in their own separate category. greenhouse and nursery crops. hops. and rice. and horticultural specialties. potatoes. farmers are not subject to production quotas and some laws are different for farms compared to other workplaces. from aCongressional Budget Office report. melons. Government aid includes research into crop types and regional suitability as well as many kinds of subsidies. vegetables. seed crops.    Cash grains includes corn.S. forage. farm bills. Labor laws prohibiting children in other workplaces provide some exemptions for children working on farms with complete exemptions for children working on their family's farm. barley. some price supports and loan programs. sugarcane. Tobacco Cotton Other field crops includes peanuts. mint. tree nuts. broomcorn. dry edible beans and peas. sorghum). Cattle Hogs Dairy Poultry and Eggs      [3] [4] [5] [edit]Governance Agriculture subsidy. High value crops includes fruits. Children can also gain permits from vocational training schools or the 4-H club which allow them to do jobs they would otherwise not be permitted to do. Note: chart does not show sugar subsidies. hay. U. etc. popcorn. soybeans and other grains (wheat.S. sweet potatoes. . Main articles: Agricultural policy in the United States and Agricultural subsidy Agriculture in the United States is primarily governed by periodically renewed U. Governance is both a federal and a local responsibility with the United States Department of Agriculture being the federal department responsible. sugar beets.

and certain cancers associated with chemical use and prolonged sun exposure. the risk of fatal injury is four times the risk for young workers in other workplaces[11] Agricultural work exposes young workers to safety hazards such as machinery. The most common causes of fatal farm-related youth injuries involve machinery.A large part of the U. The median pay was $9. there were 1. the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health and the Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation have issued a set of guidelines known as the North American Guidelines for Children's Agricultural Tasks (NAGCAT) based on child development principles that matched children's abilities with the requirements of specific farm . [12] An estimated 1.000 children and adolescents were hired to work on U. Unlike other industries. 103 children are killed annually on farms (1990–1996). Animal breeders accounted for 11.[6] [edit]Agriculture safety and health Agriculture ranks among the most hazardous industries. or drowning. [9] To reduce the number of farm-related youth injuries.100 of these injuries were due to farm work. an estimated 27. many of them recent immigrants from Latin America or aliens working under work permits. with about 699. work-related lung diseases. Together these three causes comprise more than half of all fatal injuries to youth on U.S.202. about 243 agricultural workers suffer lost-work-time injuries. illness. approximately 2-3 percent of the population is directly employed in agriculture.500 of those workers with the rest categorized as miscellaneous agricultural workers. 70-80 percent of the US population was employed in agriculture.[9] Tractor overturns are the leading cause of agriculture-related fatal injuries. accounting for 42% of all work-related fatalities of young workers in the U. and work around livestock.000 of these youth performing work on the farms. Every day. Approximately 40 percent of these deaths were work-related. between 1992 and 2000.[8] In an average year.600 children and adolescents were injured on farms. noise-induced hearing loss. Additional laws apply to these workers and their housing which is often provided by the farmer. 8.S.[10] For young agricultural workers aged 15–17. farms.500 farmers. In addition to the youth who live on farms. farm workforce is made up of migrant and seasonal workers.[7] Farmers are at high risk for fatal and nonfatal injuries. confined spaces. and death. [edit]Employment In 1870. On average.S. and about 5% of these result in permanent impairment.S. an additional 337. 516 workers die doing farm work in the U.900 agricultural workers were employed in the US. The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health recommends the use of roll over protection structureson tractors to reduce the risk of overturn-related fatal injuries. (1992–2005).26 million children and adolescents under 20 years of age resided on farms in 2004. [6] In 2010. [citation needed] As of 2008. Agriculture is the most dangerous industry for young workers.S. motor vehicles. In 2004. and account for over 90 deaths every year. ranchers and other agricultural managers and an estimated 757.970 per year.[9] Farming is one of the few industries in which families (who often share the work and live on the premises) are also at risk for injuries. farms in 2004. half the young victims in agriculture were under age 15.12 per hour or $18. chemical-related illnesses. work at elevations. skin diseases.

A treia bandă repezintă un ansamblu de câmpuri de cultivare a cerealelor (grâu). Marshfield Medical Center. având o singură piață centrală. Cooperstown. Seattle. the US Department of Agriculture. Organizarea spațială a agriculturii Statelor Unite a urmărit îndeaproape modelul de regionare ”von Thunen”. încercuind piața centrală. NY[14] Great Plains Center for Agricultural Health. care să nu prezinte impedimente în desfășurarea activităților de cutivare și transport. Tyler. Most of these groups are funded by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Marshfield. Von Thunen a postulat necesitatea unui teren independent (de unde și izolarea). [13] Centers include:         Northeast Center for Agricultural and Occupational Health. University of Washington. Lexington. or other state agencies. Iowa State University. Următoarea bandă este ocupată de o pădure folosită pentru obținerea cherestelei și a lemnului de foc (considerat o prioritate în concepția lui Von Thunen în prima jumătate a secolului al XIX-lea). Davis.[12] [edit]Research centers Some US research centers are focused on the topic of health and safety in agricultural practices. CA Pacific Northwest Agricultural Safety and Health Center. în special cele de localizare a activităților productive în Fermele agricole europene. WA National Children's Center for Rural and Agricultural Health and Safety. but also promote agricultural health and safety through educational outreach programs. de unde costurile de transport spre piața de desfacere deveneau prohibitive. University of Kentucky. TX Western Center for Agricultural Health and Safety. New York Center for Agricultural Medicine and Health. CO Southeast Center for Agricultural Health and Injury Prevention. . University of Texas. Colorado State University. Fort Collins. mecanizarea a revoluționat sistemele agricole în așa fel încât actualmente decât 1.5% din populația Statelor Unite mai lucrează în agricultură. sau a diferitelor legume (cartofi). apărut inițial în Europa. These guidelines have proven effective at reducing work-related injury rates among youth living on farms in the United States. IA The High Plains Intermountain Center for Agricultural Health and Safety. Modelul Von Thunen sau ”Teoria locației” revelă patru zone sau inele de pământ cultivabil. Modelul este o reprezentare ideală a realității care demonstrează cele mai importante proprietăți pe care un sistem agricol trebuie să le aibă în vedere. KY Southwest Center for Agricultural Health. cu un teren plat și neîntrerupt. Inelul intern si direct adiacent pieții reprezintă o zonă a agriculturii intensive și a producției de lapte. costurile de transport vor fi direct proporționale cu distanța. University of California. În această situație.work. în jurul cărora se întindeau vaste areale sălbatice. Ames. These centers not only conduct research on the subject of occupational disease and injury prevention. din care se obțin produsele cele mai perisabile și cu prețul cel mai ridicat. WI[15] În ultimele deceniii. Injury Prevention and Education. Ultimul inel conținea pășuni și fânețe.

Omaha. și marginile acestei zone celei mai productive coincid cu o serie de linii de graniță ale statelor. Brâul Porumbului. Paul. încă domină peisajul agricol.. care cresc deseori în rotație cu porumbul. Winnipeg. în timp ce Wheat Belt-ul este concentrat pe teritoriile statelor North Dakota și Kansas. Centura lactatelor. și întreaga centură a Grâului de Vară. la încorporarea unui întreg continent la începutul secolului XX. Cel din urmă ar trebui renumit ”Corn-Soybean Belt”. Interiorul continentului – se extinde în jurul Marilor Lacuri și se continuă și în Canada. de dimensiuni mici. Avantajul acestui ciclu de creștere este că recolta este strânsă înainte ca vara toridă și uscată să pună stăânire pe Marile Câmpii situate într-un mediu semiarid. Deși ferma de familie.. devenit și rămânând piața de desfacere și transport dominantă in întreaga federație. care este relocalizat în zonele fertile. ancorând acest sistem regional macro-Thunian. incursiunea agresivă a fermelor . V. de-a lungul părții mai uscate de la 100 grade long.A. prelucrarea de soya. Centura Atlantică a Fructelor și Legumelor.Kansas City. spre California (cea mai vizată piață de penetrare în domeniul agriculturii din Statele Unite).Precum în Europa. Cel mai semnificativ apare secvența regiunilor fermiere la o distanță de la majorările pieței naționale. dar semiaride din partea central-vestică a Marilor Câmpii. condus fiind de îmbunătățirile constante ale tehnologiei transportului. fiecare zonă fiind plasată succesiv din ce în ce mai departe în itneriorul continentului. de la un ”stat/oraș local izolat”. morărit. Regiuni agricole: 1. Illinois-ul de Nord. și chiar și Denver – sunt puncte importante de procesare și vânzare a cârnii de porc și vită. Subregiunea sudică deține o parte majoritară a Centurii de Porumb. se pot observa multe regularități spațiale. deoarece el produce și recolte de soya.. Pe tot cuprinsul interiorului țării. activitatea econonică este orientată spre activitatea agricolă. Minneapolis – St. în est. Deși indelele circulare nu sunt vizibile la această scară în hartă. Corn Beltul se întinde pe teritoriul statelor Iowa. Centura Grâului și Regiunea Pășunatului sunt întradevăr fidele structurii logice a modelului. în special înspre vest din Megalopolis. modelul original al orașului și hinterlandului său era acela de expansiune în afara limitelor adminsitrative. la începutul secolului al XIX-lea. Distribuția culturilor de porumb și de grâu este ilustrată în harta. Agricultura conferă caracteristici aparte teritoriului. de-a lungul principalelor căi agricole transcontinentele. terenurile ocupate de agricultură mixtă de cultivare a cerealelor și de creștere a animalelor câștigă net în fața acelor ocupate de grâu de primăvară de mai mică productivitate. Metropolele conducătoare . a semințelor de floarea-soarelui. obținerea uleiului de canola (majoritar destinat exportului). Numele acestuia derivă din practica de a planta grâu la începutul primăverii și de a-l recolta la sfâr șitul sezonului.U. Ideea de ”Supercity”. a reprezentat sursa apariției Megalopolisului nord-estic al S. Centurile agricole sunt principalele entități funcționale din domeniul agriculturii practicate în Statele Unite. Deoarece partea estică a regiunii se suprapune climatului temperat umed și datorită proximității cu rețeaua națională de piață (pe litoralul nord-estic). în vest.

Această regiune este una dintre cele mai competitive producătoare post-industrială. informatică. 90% din aceasta. bazându-se pe afaceri. N și la nord de lanțul Sierra Nevada – M ți Cascadelor. vestul statului Colorado. deoarece s-a dezvoltat mai mult pe baza centrelor de cercetare (Sillicon Valley) și a industriilor IT și producătare de mașini și electricitate. Frontiera Nordică – coincide cu statul Alaska și cel mai mult se extinde pe teritoriul Canadei. manufactură de vârf și tehnologie. din cauza climatului arid din această parte a țării. a existat o perioadă de stagnare economică. Multe probleme privesc efectele intruziunii urbanului în zonele rurale.privatizate mari amenință acum modul tradițional de viață al fermierilor tipici americani. Din cele nouă regiuni. activitățile din centrele urbane din Sud s-au intensificat. Aceasta nu este foarte avansată în practici agricole. până spre mlaștinile statului Louisiana de pe coasta din dreptul trecerii Curentului Golfului și dinspre Dealurile Virginiei de Vest spre insulele nisipoase ale Floridei de Sud. iar în alte orașe mici s-au juxtapus activitățile agricole cu cele de servicii. Regiunea Sud – aceasta ocupă colțul de sud-est al Statelor Unite. 5. idaho. Șablonul spațial al regiunii este concentrat asupra arealelor urbane dense. Propulsate de forța care crease fenomenul Sunbelt. 2. până în 1970. care fomrează o a doua ”frontieră” a regiunii. decalajul dintre lumea bogată și cea săracă se menține și acum în sudul Statelor Unite. chiar dacă s-ar fi dorit o optimizare a ei. din cauza reliefului său nu foarte favorabil practicării agriculturii și a amplasării în calea uraganelor. ocupând aprx. în Piemontul Carolina și pe Coasta statelor Texas-Louisiana. care nu favorizează dezvoltarea agriculturii. extinzându-se din Bazinul Bluegrass al nordului statului Kentuky. Totuși. balama” desemnează faptul că regiunea formează o interfață între Nordul Americii și . Deși unele orașe mari au avut de câștigat de pe urma prelucrării unor produse agricole. Statele cuprinse sunt: Utah. New Mexico și Arizona. ”Pivotul Pacificului” . ai căror locuitori sunt nevoiți să învețe că activitățile tradiționale de minerit și de agricultură extensivă sunt de mult perimate în această regiune. San Francisco este polul urban al regiunii. regiunea din Sud rămâne una asaltată de numeroase probleme economice. în care umiditatea moderată permite dezvoltarea unei intense activități agricole. întinzându-se din nordul Arizonei (partea nordică a Marelui Canion) până la pădurea temperat-rece canadiană. 3. Activitățile de bază aici sunt cele de extracție a diferitelor resurse minerale.se alungește paralel cu linia țărmului pacific și poate fi caracterizat drept o fâșie din teritoriul Statelor Unite. Numele de ”hinge = pivot. niciuna nu a trecut prin atât de multe schimări în ultima jumătate de secol. Timp de mai mult de 100 de ani de la încheierea Războiului Civil care a ruinat întregul Sud. 6. Conurbațiile s-au format rapid în sud-estul Floridei. 4. Frontiera Vestică – corespunde platourilor din Munții Stâncoși și lanțul Sierra Nevada –Mții Cascadelor. iar producția agricolă. situată la sud de paralela de 50 de grade lat. ar fi rămas în urmă. Regiunea Sud-Vest – se suprapune statelor Texas. nevada.

html Muller. 2004.nationsencyclopedia. Concepts and Regions in Geography.gov/compendia/statab/cats/agriculture.gov/compendia/statab/2012/tables/12s0862.epa.html http://diva-gis. 1976.O. http://www.html http://www.epa.wikipedia.com/economies/Americas/United-States-of-AmericaAGRICULTURE. JOHN Wiley and Sons http://www. în plină expansiune economică.org/wiki/Agriculture_in_the_United_States Ward.html http://en. P.pdf http://www. Woeld Regional Geography: A question of place..epa.bartlett. dar încă în dezvoltare.org/datadown http://www. P.census.ucl..census.gov/oecaagct/ag101/cropsystems.html http://www. Media Integration.cordonul litoral al Pacificului.uk/casa/latest/software/the-von-thunen-model .gov/oecaagct/ag101/cropmajor.ac. http://www.gov/oecaagct/ag101/glossary.