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Teaching English Language: Problems and Remedies : English - Archi...

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ISSN No :2230-7850 RNI : MAHMUL/2011/38595 Articles Disciplines Covered Review Team Guidelines for reviewers Guidelines to Author FAQ Format of Research Paper Contact Us Vol - I , ISSUE - IV May 2011 : English

Author : CHIRIVELLA RADHIKA HANUMANTHARAO [ Dnyanasadhana College, Thane ] Article : Teaching English Language: Problems and Remedies
ABSTRACT : English occupies a place of prestige in our country, even after more than four decades since Britishers left India. No indigenous language however has come up to replace English, either as a medium of communication or as an official language. With the Independence in spite of many a movement against the teaching of English in India under the influence of nationalistic feeling and emotional hostility English began to reassert its position but, surprisingly, the number of people who can speak and write English as intelligibly and correctly as native speakers of the language do is receding day by day. The way English is taught in our colleges today is to a great extent responsible for the deterioration of the standard of English in India. The problem of declining standards of English in India is very much due to the aims of English Education in general and English Language Teaching in particular. The aims of English Education and Teaching are certainly very lofty and there are inadequate means to realize them. The policy makers have

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forgotten that English is not the Mother-Tongue of Indians. We must accept that the standard of its teaching has deteriorated vastly and that is why it is essential to know the problems of teaching English in India at undergraduate level in the colleges. This paper is an attempt to trace the problems faced by both the Teacher and the student in the English teaching and learning process at undergraduate level. This paper reports the experiences of the staff involved in the design and operation of a method of teaching problem-solving to undergraduates. The paper aims at presenting the contemporary situations in India with regard to English and suggesting remedies where these are called for. English occupies a place of prestige in our country, even after more than four decades since Britishers left India. No indigenous language however has come up to replace English, either as a medium of communication or as an official language. Though Gandhiji was totally against English Education, but he also appreciated the importance of foreign language especially English. In his book, Young India he said: I do not want my house to be walled in on all sides and my windows to be stuffed. I want the cultures of all the lands to be blown about my house as freely as possible. I would have our young men and young women with literary tastes to learn as much of English and other world languages as they like and expect them to give the benefits of their learning to India and to the world.1 The Secondary Education Commission (1952) found that teaching of English continue vigorously. The commission recorded evidences to the effect that it was through a study of English language and literature that India became united and that she attained freedom from the British. The Report of the Secondary Education Commission says: Many eminent educationalists and scientists have, therefore, expressed the opinion that under no circumstances should we sacrifice the many advantages that we have gained by the study of English. They hold that in matters pertaining to education sentiment should not be the ruling factor and that what was most urgently needed was that our youth acquire knowledge from all sources and contribute their share to its expansion and development. In the attainment of this objective, the study of English was bound to play an important part. 2 The knowledge of English will enable us to establish intellectual, cultural, economic, commercial and political relations with the rest of the world and its knowledge is essential for higher legal, technical and scientific education and research in almost all branches of learning. It is also necessary for those writers who wish to reach a bigger audience, for diplomats, editors, lawyers, politicians in fact almost everyone under the sky. The attitudes of the people are also changing towards learning English. V.K.Gokak in his book English in India: Its Present and Future very aptly sums up the attitude of the people as follows: The English language has lined India with the world outside to India and from India to the world. We are blessed with the two way traffic that English has afforded us. We have paid a heavy price in the past for this privilege. But in our indignation over the price that has been paid, let us not throw away the privilege that is already ours.3 India needs a language of the outside world and English language stands relatively on

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a better position than any other foreign language like French, German, etc. At present many people like to send their children to English medium Schools and Colleges, which are establishing in full swing all around India. But the standard of English teaching kin Schools and Colleges has deteriorated quickly. Our late Prime Minister of India Mrs. Indira Gandhi often emphasized the importance of English language teaching in our Schools and Colleges. She expressed her anxiety at the poor standard of its teaching. The Ministry of Education and Youth Services urged the Study Group on Teaching of English (1971) to prepare a practical programme for improving the teaching of English both at school and college level. The teaching of English in India has a many-sided problem and the problems and their remedies will find place in detail in the following lines of the study. The Problems of Teaching English Language at Under-Graduate level : Little understanding of the aims of teaching English: The primary aim of teaching English at this stage should be to concentrate on the fundamental skills of the language ability of the students namely listening, speaking, reading and writing. It is of paramount importance that the teacher should know what his task is and what he is trying to achieve by teaching English. In the syllabuses of colleges, we do not have a specific plan of what to teach and when to teach, as it is there in syllabus of school. It is for the teacher to decide how and when to teach a particular teaching item. Thus, they want to cover the whole course without reading its aims and objectives. They believe to go on with their job of teaching without knowing the difficulties of the learner. The teacher should be fully aware of the fact that his students proficiency in English is not up to mark owing to the deteriorating standard of teaching in schools. Our objectives of teaching English should be practical and in keeping with the standard of proficiency achieved by our students. We should emphasize on the main aims of teaching English is to develop the ability of students to read and understand books, journals and reference materials in English. Dearth of competent Teachers: The teacher of English is incompetent to realize the need for and significance of English in the new perspective. They fail to revise their aims in the new setting and also to teach English most effectively within a short time. We Teachers should realize that a lot of responsibility rests on our shoulders. T.P.Reddi in his presidential Address said in October 1977, We, the teachers of English, are keenly alive to the responsibility that rests on us. We have to see that English is taught at all levels and taught well and its standards are properly maintained.4 The teachers of English of colleges do not keep themselves abreast with the recent developments in the field of linguistics and theories of learning and teaching, without which they cannot teach their students effectively. The problem of dearth of competent teachers arises due to the lack of teachers who are specialized in the method of Teaching English. Defective textbooks and curriculum: The next important problem of teaching English in colleges is bad Textbooks. There is a mistaken idea that the standard of English is raised by the prescription of difficult books. Speed in reading can be achieved only through the provision of books which students can read with comprehension. Where books are beyond the ready comprehension of students, distaste for reading is created. This unfortunate attitude is one of the obstacles which the college teacher has to overcome. University syllabus does not fully satisfy the present objectives of the teaching of English. Books are often prescribed which reflect English life and culture and are less understood
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and appreciated by students. Books containing common vocabulary and common themes would have been more useful. The prose book about physical and social sciences may be more useful. The purpose of any prose book is to enable the students to develop the stock of words and thus such words can be used in our daily lives are certainly more useful. For e.g. the introduction of Shakespeares plays at degree level is not practical, because to teach Shakespeare to the students who are not sound in linguistic skills is nothing but to try to make a super-structure on the sandy foundations. Faulty Examination system: One of the factors responsible for the deterioration is the pattern of question-setting. It is easy to predict what questions would be asked on what books in which examinations. The students simply have to memorize. The teacher also teaches only those aspects which are important for the examinations. Students, teachers are not given proper orientation and teachers are to be blamed for this. Students of English Honours are expected to be proficient in spoken English as well. They are unable to posses the ability to develop the power of written and oral expression in a classroom situation. Some marks should be reserved for internal tests also, which is also lacking in the evaluation system. It has been seen that such teachers who are engaged in private tuition or associated with coaching classes or institutions on commercial lines encourage the penetration of corrupt and dishonest practices into the academic life on the campus. It is mostly these teachers who reduce centralized evaluation of answer books to a state of farce. They can never be serious examiners. They even evaluate their part of answerbooks without caring for the merit and the demerit of the answer scripts. Such examiners should be debarred permanently from examination and evaluation work. Wrong Methods of Teaching: The methods and techniques used by the Teacher are faulty and out of date. The programme of teaching is carried out by inefficient methods in classroom. Of course, good teachers are more important than good methods, but an efficient teacher can improve remarkably the quality of teaching by applying good methods and techniques of teachings. Most teachers in Bihar use the grammar translation method. For e.g. A teacher comes to class, picks up a textbook of the prescribed syllabus, opens it and starts reading himself and then tells the meaning of some lines or all lines in Hindi. Everything cannot be translated as it is in Hindi. For instance, if a teacher in Maharashtra asks her student to translate the following sentence of Marathi into English: Maaza Gala Baslay then the students will try to translate the sentence as their teacher teaches them; they might give the answer as: My neck is Sitting or My neck sat. The actual and correct answer is: My throat is upset or I have a sore throat. Some teachers are very conservative in their approach and they are not ready to learn any new methods and techniques of Teaching English. In other places we often witness teachers using the lecture method and they are very much comfortable using it and they ignore the other methods of teaching. Insufficient provision of audio-visual aids: Many teachers are unable to teach English effectively because they face a lot of problems due to the lack of Teaching-Aids. There are very few audio-visual aids available and it is insufficient for the teachers to use it effectively. Some are so costly that the colleges can only afford to buy few. Shortage of time: We have four lectures per week for the teaching of English in colleges, but in most of the colleges, classes are not held owing to the lack of adequate number of teaching staff. Sometimes teachers rush for the syllabus completion. They are in lack of time for doing other activities including different methods of teaching English like Role play, Play-way, Dramatization, etc. in the class. Most of the Teachers practice the Grammar Translation method, and out of 50 minutes of per lecture. We discover half the

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time i.e. 25 minutes are gone in translation and students gets just 25 minutes or less to listen to English Language. There may be a better understanding of the passage being studied this way, but the students, in fact, learn less English then they would have done if the teacher had taught the passage by techniques which use questions, illustrations and simple practice drills. The teacher also doesnt have time to carry out the interaction with the students in English. Unsatisfactory supervision: The next problem is due to the unsatisfactory supervision by the teachers. The teachers in most of the colleges are least bothered about the students. They only guide the clever students, who are always very active in the class, and for others they develop a negative attitude. Most of the teachers fail to supervise the students homework or their potentials. The teacher should try to help the students who are weak and should try to sort out their learning disabilities by supervising them from time to time. For e.g. Film- Tare Zameen par. Crowded classes: The size of the classes everywhere was considerably large and thus, students participation in the class work was quite impossible. The ratio of students in relation to teachers was not proportional. This is one of the reasons why individual attention is not possible to the students. For individual attention, there is a provision of Tutorial classes but the number of students in Tutorials also is again very large, because most of the college can afford neither so many rooms for this purpose, nor so many teachers to conduct effective teaching of English. It should also be recognized that the practical work in the teaching of English demands that the number of students in the class be limited. Inability of the Teacher to solve the Students Problems: The teachers of English also faced difficulties to solve the problems of students. They had to teach fundamental elements of language and the conceptual concept of the prescribed texts. The conceptual concept of the texts often had no limitations in the life of students. Therefore, they reflect more on the notebooks which are published in the different parts of the country. Socio-psychological problems: The next problem is due to the Socio-Psychological Problems, which influences the teaching of English in their own respective Ways: 1. Lack of Motivation: In learning a second or a foreign language, motivation is the crucial force which determines whether the learner embarks on a task at all, how much energy he devotes to it, and how long he perseveres. It is known as a complex phenomenon and includes many components, such as, the individuals drive, need for achievement and success, curiosity, desire for stimulation and new experience, and so on. 2. Lack of Communicative Need: The primary motive for learning a language is that it provides a means of communication. A person is, therefore, most likely to be drawn towards learning a second language if he perceives a clear communicative need for it. The extent of this communicative need depends upon the nature of the social community in which the person lives. Inability of the Teacher to understand the difference between the teaching of literature and the teaching of language skills: One of the reasons for the declining standards of teaching English is the inability of teachers to understand the difference between the teaching of literature and the teaching of language skills. Everybody knows that the study of a language is not an end in itself, it is a means to develop ones power of expression and comprehension can be achieved by mastering stylistic elements of the language. According to A.K.Sharma:

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English language teaching in India, you will agree with me, has suffered a lot so much that our students who pass intermediate or degree examinations with English either as a compulsory or as an elective subject, can neither speak nor write correct English. May be, because the emphasis in our schools and colleges has always been on the conceptual content and the stylistic content has been neglected so far.5 Lack of creativity in students: Students are generally to a great extent handicapped in the power of self expression; therefore, great emphasis should be given on language courses, which may consist of essay writing, letter writing, prcis writing, grammar and syntax. Most of the students prefer to refer to age old ready-made notes either distributed by the teacher or available at a book depot. They refer and write the same answer, which the notes contain. The students lack in creativity and are unaware of critically appreciating a poem. Tej Bahadur Sapru told the Sadler commission : What is known as a critical study of any author really means nothing more than picking up a few telling sentences or striking phrases from some book of criticism without real attempt at entering into the spirit of the author or appreciating his point of view.6 Laid back attitude of both the teacher and the student: The next problem is due to the laid back attitude of both the teacher and the student. The teacher in most of the colleges as so lazy that they neither come to the class well prepared to give notes nor do they give the list of reference books to the students. Some times they too are very much lazy to get the text from the library for themselves. They usually carry the age old printed notes to the class and try to read it and explain from that notes itself and later they pass the same to their students. The students are also lazy, so they try to get the easiest way out to get through the examinations by collecting and referring to the notes given by teachers or incase teachers dont provide notes, then they purchase the notes from the book depot. Its observed that the students hardly climb up the stairs of library for referring books or taking notes. Problem of correlation of English with other subjects and life: Most of the teachers are unable to correlate the English language with other subjects like History, Geography, etc. The teachers face the problem of correlation as they are very confused to correlate the unit neither with our lives nor with the other subjects. Because of this the students do face difficulties in comprehending the text. Teachers and students Regional Dialect affecting proper pronunciation: This is a very crucial problem with most of the teachers teaching English. When the teachers try to speak English, they carry their own regional dialects into English. They have difficulty in pronunciations and are not cautious about the stress and intonation of their own speech. They teach incorrect phonetic transcriptions, pronunciations, stress and intonations to the students. For e.g. a teacher whose mother-tongue is Malayalam, mostly pronounces the alphabet M as Yum. Same way a Teacher who is Bengali uses her regional dialects to pronounce Anurag as Onurag. Mother-tongue interference: Most of the Problem arises due to the interference of mother-tongue in speaking English. Both the teachers and the students are very fluent in talking in their own mother-tongue. But they forget the essence of pure language. When they speak in their mother-tongue they sometimes use English words in the midst of the sentences. They forget that the every language differs in stress, intonation and pronunciation. For instance when a child asks her mother Pen in her mother-tongue (Marathi). i.e. Aai mala Pen de the word Pen is not a Marathi word it is purely an English

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word but when it is used in Marathi, the stress and intonation of the Marathi language is also put on Pen, which sounds to us as pain in English. Here pain is a completely a different word and posses a different meaning. This is the finest example of first language interference i.e. Mother-tongue. The most commonly used English word is Hello, it is also pronounced in different types. Culture related difficulties: The word culture denotes a characteristic way of perceiving things or relationships between things. Every people have a tendency to see the relationships between things in one way, not in the other. Take, for example, the relationship between time and place in English.-time adverbs are always preceded by place adverbs. Culture-related ways of perception when they differ from those of the native speakers of English can be a problem demanding much patience and understanding for English language teachers to tackle effectively. If the French students of English use question-tags wrongly, it may be due to the influence of their mother-tongue. The same mistake is made by Indian students of English, and for the same reason, too. It is fairly easy to teach question-tag. Just tell the students that the structure of the question-tag is operator followed by the pronoun of the subject of the statement and the operator is negative for positive statements and vice-versa. It is as simple as that! But owing to the force of habit they might occasionally relapse. However, when it comes to culture-related differences in perception whose causes may be traced deep into people's racial memories or experiences, the teachers of English may be facing a serious difficulty. Some times the teachers are the carries of the culture. Researchers have brought to light the link between a language and the culture of its native speakers. By culture we mean the characteristic way a people thinks and feels about the things that affect them. It profoundly colors their language. It is, therefore, impossible to separate a language from the culture of its native speakers. While teaching English in a second language situation the teachers are confronted with this problem of cultural divide which they often wrongly diagnose as mother-tongue interference. While mother-tongue interference can be easily identified as a problem area in English language teaching and remedial action taken, cultural interference acts at a deeper level and frustrates teachers' attempts to teach them to write and speak good English. This seemingly invincible barrier has to be demolished with proper knowledge and understanding of the problem. Problem of concretizing the abstract idea: The Teachers faces a serious problem of concretizing the abstractness of the novel, poem, passage, words, etc. They face difficulty in creating live pictures in the eyes of the students. The Teachers sometimes mix up the ideas and create jumbled pictures in their students eyes. They have insufficient audiovisual aids for teaching English. So they sometimes get scared with such problems and try to skip those ideas and looks forward to their syllabus completion. The students find it difficult to understand the abstract idea and so they are unable to comprehend the lectures given by their teachers in English. Teachers failure in arousing emotions in students: Most of the teachers fail in arousing emotions in the minds of their students. If a poem on sadness is going on in the class, the teacher should teach it so effectively that the students get tears in their eyes, and really the emotions like pity and sorrow arouses in the hearts of the students and they get moved by the poem. Sometimes the students feels free to share their sorrowful experiences of sadness in their past. This type of experience is hardly found in classroom teaching at present. In fact the teacher is always in a hurry to complete the portion and feels that it is waste of time to arouse emotions and interact with the students. Difference in English: English is pronounced in a very different way from almost all

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other languages of the world. Every region of the world where English is spoken has a different accent. People who are not used to English find these accents quite intimidating. There are too many kinds of English. When you are teaching English as a second language, you must bear in mind that your students will not know the difference between US English, Queen's English and the entire sundry Englishs of the world. This could lead to confusions. Remedies For The Problems of Teaching English Language at Under-Graduate level : Building a rapport with your class: When you enter the class for the first time, it is very important that you give a welcoming smile to your students and greet them saying, 'Good morning, class! How are you feeling today?' or something like that. This is a very significant first step. There are many levels at which this works. First, your class is probably intimidated about the very fact that they are learning the most important language of the world. Your assuring smile and greeting them in a familiar manner helps them bond with you instantly. When they bond with you, they will find learning the language easier. Remember a smile always welcomes people to interact with you. Same way if you have a smiling face, then the students will feel free to express their views to you. The Policy regarding the Place of English should be well-defined: English offers vast opportunities to all. The policy regarding the place of English in our education system should be well defined. This should be determined keeping in view its use and vast opportunities in the field of science, technology, social sciences, philosophy, area studies, journalism, international trade and diplomacy. Utilizing the different methods of Teaching in the classroom teaching-learning process: The teacher while teaching English should use the different methods of teaching English to the students. The different methods will make her teaching and the learning of the students effective. Language education usually takes place at a language school. There are many methods of teaching languages. Some have fallen into relative obscurity and others are widely used; still others have a small following, but offer useful insights. The teacher can also make use of the Language Lab. Some of the methods of teaching English are as follows: 1. The grammar translation method. 2. The direct method. 3. The series method. 4. Variation of direct method. 5. The oral approach/Situational language teaching. 6. Audio-lingual method 7. Communicative language teaching. 8. Language immersion. Minimalist/methodist. 9. Directed practice. 10. Learning by teaching (LdL). Building confidence for the language in the students: At the first meeting itself, train your students to ask some simple English questions, and give their answers. Examples are 'What is your name?', 'Which country are you from?', 'Who is your best friend?' etc. Many teachers of English as a second language make the mistake of beginning with the alphabet. This is wrong. When you train them to ask questions on the first day itself, your students will definitely show off these questions to their folks. And their interest in the language will be built. They will come with higher hopes of learning more things the next day. Starting out with the alphabet cannot achieve this 'English is fun' feeling in the minds of your students. Same way, the teacher should emphasize more on the language learning
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skills than the portion completion at the under-graduate level. The teacher should keep in mind the aims of teaching English: The teacher should always emphasize on the aims of teaching English. It will help her to teach effectively. These aims are: 1. To enable the students to understand English when spoken, 2. To enable him to speak English, 3. To enable him to read English, 4. To enable him to write English. The teacher must know the standard of attainment to be reached in each class. Improvement in the teaching facilities: Special efforts should be made to ensure that teachers get proper teaching facilities, including space, books, and teaching aids. The school and the college libraries should subscribe good journals which may enable them to know the latest developments in the field of linguistics and English Language Teaching. UGC should play active role: The University Grants Commission should play an active role in the development of foreign language discipline in the country. Research in the field of methodology, materials production, textbook writing and original research in English and foreign languages should be liberally financed. Starting a thought process in the students' minds: Make it a very firm rule, but subtly implied, that there will be no other language spoken in your class other than English. This will be very difficult at first, especially when the students are hell-bent on translating new English words they learn into their own language. Do not encourage this. But also remember that the students are trying their best. Be gentle with them when they attempt to translate English into their language. Exhort them to think in English. This is a mammoth task, and can be achieved only after some weeks, or probably months, of teaching. For e.g. the school in which I have studied had made the students compulsory to converse in English, and if the students fails to speak in English or is spotted speaking other languages, then he/she was fined Rs.1/- as a punishment. The teachers should be competent: Special efforts should be made to ensure that teachers of English themselves possess a good command of English. The teachers appointed should be very competent, and should always update their knowledge from time to time. Eradicating the Socio-Psychological problems: The efforts of the teacher should be in eradicating the Socio-Psychological Problems of the students, by motivating them and giving them some responsibility. The teacher should increase the interaction session between her and her students, which will overcome the lack of motivation and communicative needs in the students. Building basic communication skills in the students: Never teach your students. Always speak with them. Converse with the students about day-to-day things. Keep talking with them in simple English. They will talk when the initial icebreakers are done with. And when they will talk, they will learn. Encourage your students to talk. A simple question like, 'Why are you late for class today?' will be very useful. The student will try to explain the reason in English. You might not actually want to know the reason, but keep talking just the same. As long as the student attempts to talk in English, make it a point to listen. For instance, there is a story of a boy Raju, who is studying in fifth standard in a village school.

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He was absent for two days and meanwhile a new teacher joined the school as a English teacher. Raju heard from his friend that, the new teacher is very strict and if any one speaks other language, except English will be punished. Raju got scared and when he went to school the next day and when the teacher asked him Why were you absent? Raju softly tried to answer The gai came and put his singda into my tangda and so I became langda. This is a pure example of how a student can try to speak English, but at the same time the teacher should give ears to his students. Internal tests should be made compulsory: As most of the colleges in Mumbai, follow the university pattern of conducting English lectures as recommended by UGC. The colleges have 4 lectures for English per week and it consists of 3 theory lectures and 1 tutorial/ practical lecture. In tutorial lectures we have approximately 30 students per batch. Here we teach them presentations, group discussions and conduct mock interviews to overcome the stage fear from the students and to provide them a platform to express their thoughtful views and opinions in front of the audiences. We have certain internal marks reserved for the tutorial sessions, but still many students feel it is waste of time and they remain absent. These internal tests and tutorials should be made compulsory to every student, if the student fails to be present in the tutorial sessions, then he should not be allowed to appear for the final exams/external exams. Removing barriers to Language communication: The teacher should try their level best to remove the language barriers which comprises of difference in languages, culture, and behaviour. The teachers should avoid the use of jargons and regional dialects during the delivery of lectures in English. Handling Mistakes with care: Do not convert your English class into a caricature of Mind Your Language. Mistakes will happen in the class, and you have to learn how to handle them deftly. If you laugh at the students, they will be too embarrassed to make any further attempts at speaking the language. If you do not laugh, students will feel you are only being too kind to them, and might always think they have said something wrong, but you are hiding your amusement. What I do is, I laugh with the student. Yes, this is possible. I give a very polite laugh, and then explain the student why what he or she said was funny. This makes the student laugh too. Invariably! In time, some of the students in your class will point out the mistakes of others. When this happens, follow a subtle approach at correcting the mistakes, laughing with them wherever appropriate. Strict supervision: The college authorities should see that the teacher is well conversant with good methods of teaching. The examination in English need to be improved. Necessary Audio-Visual aids should be made available to schools and colleges. Carrying on the process: Be patient. I cannot stress this enough. You are a teacher. You know your language, and might have got international accolades for it. But your students cannot even frame three sentences in English properly. Only your perseverance will help them do it. Remember that your students are not native English speakers they will not be able to even ask you their doubts. Be patient with them and encourage them to express themselves. Teaching English as a second language is really fun if you do it the right sporting way. You have to make it fun for your students too that's the way they will learn better. English occupies a place of prestige in our country but at the same time we must accept that the standard of its teaching has deteriorated vastly and that is why it is essential to know the problems of teaching English in India at undergraduate level in the colleges. Then alone

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we can remove these problems and teach students effectively for better results. Notes : 1. See Mahatma Gandhi, Young India (1919-22), p. 484. 2. Report of the Secondary Education Commision (Government of India, 1952), Chap. V, p. 64. 3. V.K.Gokak, English in India: Its Present and Future (Bombay: Asia Publishing House, 1964), pp. 178-179. 4. See Ram Kumar Sharma, Problems And Solutions Of Teaching English, New Delhi: Janaki Prakashan, 1999, p. 16. 5. Ibid., pp. 66-67. 6. Ibid., p. 17. Bibiliography : 1. See Ram Kumar Sharma, Problems And Solutions Of Teaching English, New Delhi: Janaki Prakashan, 1999. 2. Mahatma Gandhi, Young India, 1919-22. 3. Report of the Secondary Education Commission, Government of India, 1952. 4. V.K.Gokak, English in India: Its Present and Future, Bombay: Asia Publishing House, 1964. 5. Ram Avtar Tyagi, Effective Methods of Teaching English, New Delhi: Alpha Publications, 2006.

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