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Mag. Armand Faganel University of Primorska/Faculty of Management Koper 6104 Koper, Cankarjeva 5 Phone: ++ 386 5610 2044 Fax: ++ 386 5610 2015 E-mail: email@example.com Mag. Danijel Bratina University of Primorska/Faculty of Management Koper 6104 Koper, Cankarjeva 5 Phone: ++ 386 5610 2044 Fax: ++ 386 5610 2015 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Scientific paper ABSTRACT An increasing number of cultural museums are faced with cuts in governmental financing and a falling number of yearly visitors. A new concept of customers’ experience is needed to reverse the trend in visits per year. Customers need to be more involved into a museum’s service delivery, not only as spectators but as active producers of the service itself – a trend we call immersion. By making museums and other cultural objects interactive enhances consumers’ experience by adding fun to learning. Our research studies the Museum of SaltMaking marketing communication strategy and customer satisfaction through visitors’ survey and SWOT analysis. In introduction a brief historical report is given, followed by methodology description, analysis of the research. In conclusion chapter a strategy, based on research results is proposed. Key words: salt-pans, salt-making, cultural heritage, marketing museum services, marketing communication, edutainment
STRATEGIJA MARKETING KOMUNIKACIJE MUZEJA PROIZVODNJE SOLI SMJEŠTENOG U PARKU PRIRODE
Znanstveni rad SAŽETAK Sve veći broj kulturnih muzeja suočeno je sa smanjenjem državnog financiranja te smanjenjem godišnjeg broja posjetitelja. Potreban je novi koncept o doživljaju potrošača, ukoliko se želi doći do obrnutog trenda u broju posjeta na godinu. Potrošači bi trebali biti više 494
uključeni u uslugu koju muzej nudi, i to ne samo kao promatrači, već kao aktivni sudionici u stvaranju same usluge – trend koje mi nazivamo uronjavanje. Ta interaktivnost u muzejima i drugim kulturnim objektima obogaćuje doživljaj potrošača, tako što učenje čini zabavnim. Naše istraživanje analizira strategiju marketing komunikacije Muzeja proizvodnje soli i zadovoljstvo potrošača putem ankete posjetitelja i SWOT analizom. U uvodu dajemo kratki povijesni pregled, nakon kojeg slijedi opis metodologije te analiza istraživanja. U zaključnom dijelu predlažemo strategiju temeljenu na rezultatima istraživanja. Ključne riječi: solana, proizvodnja soli, kulturno nasljeñe, marketing usluga muzeja, marketing komunikacije, učenje kroz zabavu (Edutainment)
INTRODUCTION This paper deals with the activities of the Museum of Salt-Making - a branch of the Sergej Mašera Marine Museum Piran located at the formerly used Sečovlje salt-pans and the marketing of museum services. The main accent is on the interpretation of market research regarding the consumers of museum services, and on the appropriate marketing strategy. We combined the theory and practice of museum services marketing, including an analysis of the results of the research, made between museum visitors regarding the museum's position and offer of services, and a presentation of the environment in which the museum services are provided. The information obtained serves as basis for drawing up a strategy for the development and performance of museum services, aimed at a qualitative and quantitative satisfaction of the museum visitors' needs. The museum complex encloses three restored salt-pan houses, their salt pools and the Giassi channel as the main supply of seawater. One of the restored houses comprises a collection dealing with the old salt-making in general, while the other contains a salt repository and contemporarily furnished rooms and kitchen that can be used during summer months by people working in salt pools and occasionally, by individuals or groups involved in research and pedagogical work. In the third house a naturalistic centre is supposed to be set up, with emphasis on the pans' ornithology and on the salt-pans as a Ramsar protected site. The salt-makers' dwelling is comprised of three buildings: a two-storied house, where the family lived on the 1st floor and stored the salt on the ground floor, and a reconstructed bakery, the curiosity of the Sečovlje salt-works. The buildings and the salt-pans were restored by the Inter-Communal Office for the Preservation of the Natural and Cultural Heritage, which has its seat in Piran. The collection exhibited in the Museum of Salt-Making was created by the Sergeja Mašera Maritime Museum of Piran. The museum works were finished in the spring of 1991. In the restored salt-pans a group of salt-workers use traditional methods and tools. A systematic scheme of how salt-pans function can be seen on the ground floor of the Museum. Any of the salt-workers in the salt-pans of the museum will gladly explain the traditional method of work. The rich cultural testimony has placed the Sečovlje and Strunjan salt-pans to the level of ethnological, technical, historical and landscape heritage of exceptional importance at the national scale. Since 1990, both complexes have been protected by municipal decrees within two landscape parks as their most important entities. In 2001, the area of Giassi channel and Cavana 131 at the Sečovlje salt-pans was proclaimed a cultural monument of national concern.1 Non-profit museums have a unique set of different affairs to approach when thinking about their strategic possibilities. They have been confronted with several related phenomena during the past years: decrease of government financing, a relatively low engagement of visitors within the museum setting, and a falling number of repeat visitors. 2 Perhaps the most persistent obstacle in changing the strategy direction is the expectation that the facility is a static repository of viewing spaces that is open during regular business hours. Customers expect innovation and creativity, and changing business models can be found globally to compare and provide museums with innovation. 3
Sergej Mašera Maritime Museum (2004), “The Museum of Salt-Making”, (accessed August 2, 2007), [available at: http://www2.arnes.si/~kppomm/frames/english/english.htm]. Bradburne, J. (2001), “A new strategic approach to the museum and its relationship to the society”, Management and Curatorship, 19 (1), 75-84. Roper, K.O., Beard J.L. (2005), Strategic Facility Planning for Museums, Museum Management and Curatorship, 19 (1), 57-68.
Figure 1. The Museum's salt-pans with the house in the background.
We discuss the possible consumption of museum services as a form of edutainment, when the individual is enjoying himself and learning at the same time. The object of the edutainment experience, unlike the subject, is different from any other form of consumption because a message has replaced the object in the general interactive scheme, and this message has both an educational and an entertaining content. Another aspect to be closely examined, because of the permanent reduction of public funding, is the increasing role and meaning of corporate social responsibility, sponsorship of cultural organizations and the efforts that have to be made in this direction. MUSEUMS IN NEW CONTEXT American Association of Museums (AAM) discussed the role museums play in public education and framed the question of how museums – as multi dimensional, socially responsible institutions with huge capacity for bringing knowledge to the public and enriching all facets of the human experience – help to nurture a humane citizenry equipped to make informed choices in a democracy and to address the challenges and opportunities of an increasingly global society? 4 In 1997 AAM charted its current strategic agenda and defined that the first of five main goals was to help museums anticipate and respond to changing community needs5. In 1998 the International Council of Museums (ICOM) identified as two of its strategic objectives the need for the museum profession to adapt to changing global situations, and the need to support museums as institutions of social and cultural development. 6 The ongoing discussion of how museums have increased their societal context has attracted much commentary by the news and media in recent years. While national museums have been criticized by some as bland, and major art museums have been challenged to
AAM - American Association of Museums, (1992), Excellence and Equity - Education and the Public Dimension of Museums, Washington, D.C.: American Association of Museums: 8. AAM - American Association of Museums, (1997), Strategic Agenda, FY 1998-2000: A Report to the Membership, Museum News, (September/October 1997). ICOM - International Council of Museums, (1998), Program Highlights for ICOM Activities for 1999, 2000 and 2001, ICOM News 51 (Special Issue): 26-27.
present the prevailing historical circumstances to the collection they display, not all accounts have been so critical. The tremendous advances in global travel, communication, and media reach have led to suggestions that cultures are converging and that the globalizing of markets will create, or at least lead to, a common culture worldwide (…) but the global resurgence in ethnic identity and pride suggests that at superficial aspects of behaviour converge, people tend to cling more to their own sense of cultural identity. Seen in comparison with society in general, it can be stated that as reality becomes more artificial, the arts become more real. Costa and Bamossy note in connection to tourism and museums that one can spot a quest for authenticity in contemporary consumer behaviour, “A search for the ‘real’, for what seems true to the experience and to the actuality”.7 RESEARCH Methodology. The use of qualitative methodologies in consumer behavior studies is nowadays a common practice. Buttle8 discussed what are the affordances and limitations of positivistic science in the field of consumer research. One of the key issues is the nature of behavior itself, which is not always susceptible to the application of natural science laws. Consequently, there is a growing emphasis on the study of behavior in micro environments, strongly based in the social context of the situation9. Glasser and Strauss presented the grounded theory10. However the transition of grounded theory from sociology to the literature on consumer behavior is recent. After Goulding11, grounded theory was intended as a methodology for generating theory which is systematically gathered and analyzed. The theory evolves during the research process itself and is a product of continuous exchange between analysis and data collection9,12,13. The researcher has to enter the field with an open mind and allow hypotheses to develop from the data. These hypotheses are then checked through the collection of further data. Knowledge is seen as actively constructed, with meanings of existence to an experiential world. Therefore, the focus becomes one of how people behave within a specific social context14. Consequently, given that the idea was to explore the meaning of the heritage experience, it made sense, at least in the initial stages, to conduct the enquiry at the site, or point of experience. SWOT analysis. Very often it is difficult to distinguish between SWOT analysis and situation analysis in the museum. It is very important for museum management to be at most included and identified with the museum. With both analysis museum as professional
Costa, Janeen Arnold and Garry J. Bamossy (1995), “Perspectives on Ethnicity, Nationalism, and Cultural Identity”, in Marketing in a multicultural world: Ethnicity, nationalism, and cultural identity, J.A. Costa and G.J. Bamossy, eds. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publication, Inc. 8 Buttle, F. (1998), Rule theory: understanding the social construction of consumer behaviour, Journal of Marketing Management: Special Edition on Consumer Behaviour, 14 (1-3), 63-94. 9 Brown, S. (1995), Postmodern Marketing. London: Routledge. 10 Glaser, B., Strauss, A. (1968), The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research. London; Weidenfield and Nicolson. 11 Goulding, C. (1999), Heritage, nostalgia and the “grey” consumer, Journal of Marketing Practice: Applied Marketing Science, 5 (6/7/8), 177-199. 12 Charmaz, K. (1983), The grounded theory method: an explication and interpretation, in Emerson. R. (Eds), Contemporary Field Research: a Collection of Readings, Boston: Little Brown & Co. 13 Strauss, A., Corbin, J., (1994), Grounded theory methodology: an overview, in Denzin, N., Lincoln, Y. (Eds), Handbook of Qualitative Research, California: Sage. 14 O’Callaghan, J. (1996), Grounded theory: a potential methodology, Counselling Psychological Review, 11 (1), 23-8.
institution recognizes its own identified. SWOT analysis Museum of Salt-making services comprises internal environment, consisting of internal weaknesses and internal strengths. Museum strengths’: the only European museum of this kind; attractive location of Museum of Salt-Making (abandoned salt-pans in Natural Park Sečoveljske soline) in a tourist developed community; important cultural-historical role of salt-pans (salt-pans houses reconstruction); preserving of natural values and cultural heritage of environment; great number of visitors (repeating visits of school groups, families, individual visitors); salt-pans theme included in school programs; enthusiastic contact personnel and museum team; volunteers; incomes from selling salt and souvenirs; specific high quality services offer. Every museum has certain qualities and strengths that can be used for success. It is important to know how to use the existing strengths (unique subject, special atmosphere, professional staff, good location, openhearted sponsors). Weaknesses: relatively bad access to museum (macadam road, exit from public road is situated between boarders), museum is closed in winter season; truncated visit in bad weather (mud, sea); lack of marketing museum services skills and knowledge; lack of competition and demand market research; disordered infrastructure (no toilettes, parking place). We can get rid of some of weaknesses depending on the level of the employees’ professionalism (museology as science is also criticism of profession). Opportunities: to become carrier of scientific research and museology activities, related to salt-pans and salt-pans ecosystems; natural and cultural-historical exploitation; acquiring state and European funding; interest of local people for tourist development of Sečovlje salt-pans nature park; repair ruined salt-pans houses to locations with additional tourist offer; opportunity to offer genuine, natural, authentic products (salt in different forms); create an adequate promotional mix. Probable challenges are anything in the museum or outside; potential of the collection; possibility of planning new programs, necessary for development of local tourism; organizing camps, etc. Threats: decaying infrastructure (channels, dykes); unsettled proprietarily relationships between community and state; unregulated relationships between competent institutions (nature protection and protection of cultural heritage); severe protective regime; lack of funds, designed for infrastructure; lack of sponsorships and donations; competition from a host of other tourist and cultural/educational venues. Field research. We performed the inquiry in a wider circle of visitors. Questionnaire was developed in an understandable and clear way. Obtained information can be divided to: quantitative – basics of concrete market, demand, share of different visitors, demographic data; and qualitative information and data – demands and requests of visitors, satisfaction with delivered service. Questionnaire represents certain structured set of questions, to obtain visitors opinions, to operate with in further business decisions. The role of questionnaire is to provide a standardized interview across all subjects. The questionnaire is a medium of communication between the researcher and the subject, albeit sometimes administered on the researcher’s behalf by an interviewer. 15 Research of museum services consumers consisted of several phases: a) preliminary stage of research: a statement of the problem (museum services consumers analysis) and the market research proposal (research goals, the information required and sources, the accuracy, the budget, the timetable); b) research execution (collecting, arranging, analyzing information and data, forming conclusions and interpretation).
Brace, I. (2004), Questionnaire Design: How to Plan, Structure and Write Survey Material for Effective Market Research. London: Kogan Page.
Table 1. Visitors’ structure in years.
Adults Children School groups Pensioners Total Source: Museum statistics. 2002 2.589 330 6.226 273 9.418 2003 5.997 495 6.937 822 14.251 2004 6.668 1.563 6.665 2324 17.220
Research was conducted between April, 15th and June, 30th 2005. It was planned with intent to capture biggest possible segment and was prepared in three languages, because of the nearby tourist centers. As we expected not serious answering from pupils, we asked teachers to answer to the questionnaire on school groups behalf. They also decide about possible repeat visit to the museum in next years. Questionnaires were fulfilled after visit conclusion, 70 questionnaires were correctly returned. The Museum of Salt-Making visitors’ structure over past years shows us the predominance of adults and school groups. Another growing visitors segment is retired people. In year 2004, 17,200 people visited salt-pans museum, 39% of them were adults, 9% of children, 38% school groups, and 14% of pensioners. In 2003 visits increased for 51%, because of newly opened collection with reconstructed salt warehouse, where can be seen pictures from the past with exhibits. Table 2. Number of visits to the Museum of Salt-Making.
First visit Second visit More visits Source: Research. No. of groups 21 8 21 Percentage % 42 16 42 No. of individual visitors 16 3 1 Percentage % 80 15 5
Vital for any museum is to induce visitors to return back. We can see from results that 58% of groups came to visit the Museum of Salt-Making twice or more, mostly school groups. Individuals came to visit in 80% for the first time, probably due to foreign visitors. Because of distant location they do not come back easily. Fact that individual visitors with personal vehicles burden the environment and because of the Museum of Salt-Making location inside natural park, where they treat this problems with special care, results in decision of management to communicate in a less aggressive way and more gradual to this segment. Table 3. Way of arrival to the Museum of Salt-Making.
With car, bus Walking, bicycle By boat Source: Research. No. of groups 42 2 6 Percentage % 84 4 12 No. of individual visitors 13 5 2 Percentage % 65 25 10
Movement inside Natural park Sečoveljske soline is limited; this reduces accessibility to the Museum of Salt-Making. With summer high temperatures or in bad weather visitors wouldn’t decide to visit this destination, as they have to walk for 3 km. Alternative sea-side transport is also weather dependent, shore is inaccessible with low tide. Fairs cost is relatively 500
high; they exceed the museum entrance fee more than twice. All this and 15 years of museum existence dictates special care in solving this question. They could add direct personalized offers on internet or by e-mails for schools, agencies, carriers and other excursion organizers. Table 4. Noticed promotional activities of Museum of Salt-Making.
Article, TV Personal contact At school Web site Tourist information Road signs other Source: Research. No. of groups 16 6 29 0 4 1 6 Percentage % 32 12 58 0 8 2 12 No. of individual visitors 6 3 5 0 5 0 2 Percentage % 30 15 25 0 25 0 10
There is also a lot of space in linking with existing tourist structures on Slovene coast, as hotels, tourist information centers, marinas, auto camps, restaurants, public parking lots, gas stations. Of course, museum itself can not start or carry out such a complex action alone. Table 5. Is the access to Museum of Salt-Making clearly signed?
Yes No Don’t know Source: Research. No. of groups 37 7 6 Percentage % 74 14 12 No. of individual visitors 12 8 0 Percentage % 60 40 0
Accessibility of museums is one of key questions, which reflects in every strategy preparations. And this is the segment, where Museum of Salt-Making encounters most of problems and in this limitations are located important obstacles for further development. Accessibility of museums is a term that can be defined as the possibility of as much as possible unimpeded access in physical meaning (car access, handicapped persons access, children access, etc.) and convenient visiting hours for visitors. Additional weakness for Museum of Salt-Making is the fact that it’s only road access is situated between Croatian and Slovene boarder control. With the Schengen regime implementation on southern Slovene border, the situation will only get worse. Table 6. Appropriateness of opening hours.
Appropriate Inappropriate Don’t know Source: Research. No. of groups 44 1 5 Percentage % 88 2 10 No. of individual visitors 20 0 0 Percentage % 100 0 0
Visiting hours are another very important factor for visitors’ satisfaction. On the Museum of Salt-Making location exist no electrical grid, and visiting hours are adapted to the day light, however average tourist spends these hours on the beach taking sunbath. There is no
possibility to heath the museum, so museum can not work in the winter time between November and March; visit is possible only for announced organized groups. Conditions don’t allow any other improvements and 11 hours long opening is the best thing, management could do objectively. Table 7. Evaluation of chosen themes presentation.
Unsatisfactory Satisfactory Good Source: Research. No. of groups 1 20 29 Percentage % 2 40 58 No. of individual visitors 0 13 7 Percentage % 0 65 35
Table 8. Evaluation of guiding through the museum.
Unsatisfactory Satisfactory Good Not guided visit Source: Research. No. of groups 2 8 39 1 Percentage % 4 16 78 2 No. of individual visitors 0 2 16 2 Percentage % 0 10 80 10
Table 9. Evaluation of entrance fee, paid by visitors.
Low Appropriate High Source: Research. No. of groups 4 42 4 Percentage % 8 84 8 No. of individual visitors 1 16 2 Percentage % 5 80 10
We can see that 98% of visitors expressed satisfaction with museum collection and presentation of chosen themes, positive answer to the guiding and employees’ responsiveness gave over 90% of interviewed visitors. Entrance fee was set too high only for 10% of visitors. Functioning of Natural Park is not quite simple, because there are some disagreements between Ministry of Environment and Space, and Culture Ministry. Visitor of the Museum of Salt-Making can see the difference between both offers, but it is very difficult to explain this to a potential visitor. Inside the Natural Park, company Soline produces salt and manages Natural Park. They have also a souvenir shop and multimedia center for Natural Park visitors. In multimedia center they show natural heritage, and they also guide visitors through Natural Park to demonstrate salt-making technology. In the Museum of Salt-Making production lies on the shoulders of singular worker or his family, in the Natural Park the production is differentiated. DISCUSSION Strategy is the way the Museum of Salt-Making will choose to reach planned goals. Beside strategic goals, museum has to determine also the vision and mission of their activity. Mission is the reason for the museum existence. Vision of Maritime Museum Sergej Mašera and of dislocated unit of the Museum of Salt-Making is to gain old salt warehouse Monfort or new building near Marine Biology Station Piran. Setting new Maritime Museum would allow building effective organization of museum activities, quality presentation of museum
collections and performance of educational work, connected with upbringing relation to mobile and immovable cultural and technical heritage, assuring space for safeguarding museum collections and rational organization of depots, to preserve actual down falling and disappearing heritage. The acquisition of new buildings would allow the Maritime Museum to become leading museum on the field of maritime and naval history on the eastern side of Adriatic Sea and leading museum of salt-making in Mediterranean. Strategic goal is to establish long-term competitive advantage on market, with development of new competitive services, acquiring new visitors, creating adequate image of the Museum of Salt-Making. In near future a big project is to start on the field of reconstruction of Venice arsenal (shipyard) and preparative work to open a museum of salt-making in Trapani and Cervia (Italy). New and different ways of funding are needed (donations, sponsoring, international projects, Phare, Interreg) for restoration and maintaining of salt-pans infrastructure. One of management strategies is the expansion of museum complex. Maritime Museum has already prepared an outline scheme for expansion of activities of the museum of saltmaking collection. Main accent is on increased role of educational programs, from elementary school to university. In first phase they would restore six houses, where they would offer seminars and workshops in the fields of biology, chemistry, physics, history, geography, anthropology, etc. We would recommend joining the forces with the management of Natural Park and upgrading the multimedia center of Park to add edutainment form of services. In the last few years there has been massive growth in the use of digital technologies for learning in museums, science centers and galleries – both on-site in the form of digital interactives, and online via the creation of ever-more popular websites. 16 According to experiential interpretation, consumption is the experience derived from the interaction between a subject (the consumer), and an object within a given context. It is only from the interaction of these two entities that experience can originate. The interpretation of consumption as an interactive event between a subject and an object allows an innovative interpretation of cultural consumption. The consumption of art and culture may be interpreted as a form of edutainment, as the individual is enjoying himself and learning at the same time. The object of the edutainment experience, unlike the subject, is different from any other form of consumption: a message has replaced the object in the general interactive scheme, and this message has both an educational and an entertaining content. The subject, i.e. the consumer, expresses his own personality adding, there and then, his subjective responses to the experience. The message contribution (the entertainment and education content) and the consumer's contribution (his subjective responses) together give rise to the individual's edutainment experience. 17 Both the concepts of “involvement” and “flow” were used in studies about experience similar to edutainment, which require the consumer's most active participation, to the point that he can be identified as a producer instead of as a consumer18, 19. Both involvement and immersion can only be modified in the course of time, and they are both defined with reference to a single individual. However, there are profound differences between them. First,
Hawkey R. (2004), Learning with Digital Technologies in Museums, Science Centres and Galleries. Report 9. Bristol: Futurelab. 17 Addis, M. (2005), New technologies and cultural consumption – edutainment is born! European Journal of Marketing, 39 (7/8), 729-736. 18 Celsi, R.L., Rose R.L., Leigh T.W. (1993), An exploration of high-risk leisure consumption through skydiving, Journal of Consumer Research, 20 (June), 1-23. 19 Hopkinson, G.C., Pujari D. (1999), A factor analytic study of the sources of meaning in hedonic consumption, European Journal of Marketing, 33 (3/4,: 273-90.
while involvement has been mainly studied within the research of information at the decisionmaking moment of the purchase, immersion is analyzed from a perspective based on experience, and therefore it refers to the consumer's experience as a whole. Second, while involvement is generally considered a cognitive concept20, the term immersion highlights both the cognitive component and the “arousal” component. 21 Third, unlike involvement, immersion is more general than the concept of involvement as it represents the condition felt by individual in the interaction experience inside a virtual environment. The second concept where analogies and differences can be found is flow22, 23, 24 . In marketing the concept of flow has been used and put into practice in different ways25. The experience of flow is intrinsically satisfying: living such an experience is in itself a motive and a source of personal satisfaction. Even though the concept of flow is very close to that of edutainment immersion experience, this last is more appropriate in order to indicate a possible difference of intensity. Unlike flow, immersion is not a transcending experience26. The convergence of education and entertainment, favored by the diffusion of technology and its use, involves a very high risk for institutions that are trying to cling to their past history and their traditional managerial behavior. Institutions like these need to use technological applications to increase the value of what they can offer to the consumer. For example, the learning process of the visitors of a museum will not be impaired by the entertaining use of new technologies; instead the memory of their experience will be reinforced and reinvigorated. The experiential interpretation of consumer behavior has been one of the most innovative fields of study in these last 20 years, and it is even more promising for the future of marketing, as it is spreading into product categories that are far from being hedonistic. 27 Objects are the unique attribute of museum and most of the learning issues are similar, whether interactives are mechanical or digital, on-site or online. After interactivity, the goal of many museums is learner participation. This may involve simple feedback (often digital voting), digital storage of images and ideas (for subsequent remote retrieval) or even contributing directly to museum’s own exhibits and interpretation. Hawkey28 says that digital technologies facilitate many kinds of collaboration – between museum and learner, between different institutions and among learners themselves. In many ways the opposite of collaboration, digital technologies also facilitate personalization. Freed from the constraints, both physical and interpretative, of the curator and exhibition designer, the learner can use appropriate technologies to provide a dedicated and personal mentor. This makes possible to provide a learning potential of a versatile and mobile information source that is under the control of the learner. There could be noticed a conflict between goals of performing arts institutions, as Costa and Bamossy29 expressed them:
Rajaniemi, P. (1992), Conceptualization of product involvement as a property of a cognitive structure, Doctoral dissertation, Acta Wasaensia, 29, Vaasa: Universitas Wasaensis, Finland. 21 Holbrook, M.B., Hirschman E.C. (1982), The experiential aspects of consumption: consumer fantasies, feelings, and fun, Journal of Consumer Research, 9 (2), 132-40. 22 Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1977), Beyond Boredom and Anxiety. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 23 Csikszentmihalyi, M. and E. Rochberg-Halton (1981), The Meaning of Things: Domestic Symbols and the Self. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 24 Novak, T.P., Hoffman D.L., Yung Y.-F. (2000), “Measuring the customer experience in online environments: a structural modeling approach”, Marketing Science, 19 (1), 22-42. 25 Celsi, R.L., Rose R.L., Leigh T.W. (1993), op.cit. 26 Hopkinson, G.C., Pujari D. (1999), op.cit. 27 Addis, M. (2005), “New technologies and cultural consumption – edutainment is born!”, European Journal of Marketing, 39 (7/8): 729-736. 28 Hawkey, R. (2004), op. cit. 29 Costa, Janeen Arnold, Garry J. Bamossy (1995), op. cit.
focus on sanctity, authenticity and protection of the object, realizing economic goals of the institution, and democratization of education, knowledge, and access to the object.
Regarding future research, Semenik30 suggests that for the art patronage market, the traditionally quantitative research methods seem insufficient to capture the experiential nature of the consumption, so he recommends the turn to more qualitative and interpretative methods to research the complex and emotional dimensions involved in consumption of art events. To conclude, increasing the museum’s sensitivity to its social impact, ad the ongoing search for greater relevance to community needs, is an intellectually satisfying area of work. More importantly, this work can also be financially rewarding for the museum. A mission of relevancy to the community attracts external funding from corporations, foundations, and individuals who also want to help make positive differences in the world. The challenge facing the museum field, both in science centers and elsewhere, is to create compelling experiences on subjects of importance in ways that increasingly attract society to view museums as engaging resources for lifelong learning. 31
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