Change Management

Change Management Student Manual Change Management
VP and GM of Courseware:      Michael Springer Series Product Managers:        Caryl Bahner-Guhin, Charles G. Blum, and Adam A. Wilcox Series Designer:                       Adam A. Wilcox                      
COPYRIGHT © 2005 Course Technology, a division of Thomson Learning. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work may be reproduced, transcribed, or used in any form or by any means¾graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, Web distribution, or information storage and retrieval systems¾without the prior written permission of the publisher. For more information contact: Course Technology 25 Thomson Place Boston, MA  02210 Or find us on the Web at: www.course.com For permission to use material from this text or product, submit a request online at: www.thomsonrights.com Any additional questions about permissions can be submitted by e-mail to: thomsonrights@thomson.com

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Course ILT is a trademark of Course Technology. Some of the product names and company names used in this book have been used for identification purposes only and may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective manufacturers and sellers.

Disclaimer
Course Technology reserves the right to revise this publication and make changes from time to time in its content without notice.  

Contents
 

Introduction
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Topic A:  About the manual Topic B:    Setting your expectations Topic C:    Reviewing the course

Fundamentals of change management Topic A:  Basics of change management Topic B:    Importance of change Topic C:    Leading change Unit summary:  Fundamentals of change management Change process Topic A:  Steps of a change process Topic B:    Analyze a situation Topic C:    Choose an action Topic D:  Implement the action Topic E:    Monitor the progress Unit summary:  Change process Obstacles to change Topic A:  Resistance Topic B:    Complacency Topic C:    Crisis Unit summary:  Obstacles to change Managing change Topic A:  Creativity Topic B:    Commitment Topic C:    Communication Unit summary:  Managing change Adapting to change Topic A:  Truths and misconceptions Topic B:    Factors affecting response Topic C:    The endings phase Unit summary:  Adapting to change Coping with uncertainty Topic A:  The exploration phase Topic B:    Management of the exploration phase Unit summary:  Coping with uncertainty Moving forward Topic A:  The new beginnings phase Topic B:    Management of the new beginnings phase Unit summary:  Moving forward Course summary Topic A:  Course summary Topic B:    Continued learning after class Glossary Index
   

Change Management
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Introduction
After reading this introduction, you will know how to:
A  Use Course Technology ILT manuals in general. B  Use course objectives to properly set your expectations for

the course.
C  Re-key this course after class.

Topic A:   About the manual
Course Technology ILT philosophy
We believe strongly in the instructor-led classroom. During class, focus on your instructor. Our manuals are designed and written to facilitate your interaction with your instructor, and not to call attention to manuals themselves. We believe in the basic approach of setting expectations, delivering instruction, and providing summary and review afterwards. For this reason, lessons begin with objectives and end with summaries. We also provide overall course objectives and a course summary to provide both an introduction to and closure on the entire course.

Manual components
The manuals contain these major components: ·    Table of contents ·    Introduction ·    Units ·    Appendices (optional) ·    Course summary ·    Quick reference (optional) ·    Glossary (optional) ·    Index Each element is described below. Table of contents The table of contents acts as a learning roadmap. Introduction The introduction contains information about our training philosophy and our manual components, features, and conventions. It contains objective and setup information for the specific course. Units Units are the largest structural component of the course content. A unit begins with a title page that lists objectives for each major subdivision, or topic, within the unit. Within each topic, conceptual and explanatory information alternates with activities, which can be hands-on, question-and-answer, or a combination of both. Units conclude with a summary comprising one paragraph for each topic, and an independent practice activity or review questions section to help you reinforce the concepts and skills that you’ve learned.

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The conceptual information takes the form of text paragraphs, exhibits, lists, and tables. The activities are structured in one or two columns. In two-column activities, the left column tells you what to do, while the right column provides explanations, descriptions, and graphics. Appendices An appendix is similar to a unit in that it contains objectives and conceptual explanations. However, an appendix does not include activities, a summary, an independent practice activity, or review questions. Course summary This section provides a text summary of the entire course. It is useful for providing closure at the end of the course. The course summary also indicates the next course in this series, if there is one, and lists additional resources you might find useful. Quick reference In computer software courses, the quick reference is an at-a-glance job aid summarizing some of the more common features of the software. Glossary The glossary provides definitions for all of the key terms used in this course. Index The index at the end of this manual makes it easy for you to find information about a particular software component, feature, or concept.

Manual conventions
We’ve tried to keep the number of elements and the types of formatting to a minimum in the manuals. We think this aids in clarity and makes the manuals more classically elegant looking. But there are some conventions and icons you should know about.
 

Convention
Italic text Bold text

Description
In conceptual text, indicates a new term or feature. In unit summaries, indicates a key term or concept. In an independent practice activity, indicates an explicit item that you select, choose, or type. Indicates code or syntax. In the hands-on activities, any code that’s too long to fit on a single line is divided into segments by one or more continuation characters (?). This code should be entered as a continuous string of text. In the left column of hands-on activities, bold sans-serif text indicates an explicit item that you select, choose, or type. Indicate a key on the keyboard you must press.

Code font Longer strings of ?    code will look ?    like this.

Select bold item Keycaps like e

Activities
The activities are the most important parts of our manuals. Depending on the subject matter, an activity can have a one-column or two-column format. Two-column format

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In a typical two-column activity, the “Here’s how” column gives short instructions to you about what to do. The “Here’s why” column provides explanations, graphics, and clarifications. Here’s a sample: Do it!                    A-1:    Creating a commission formula

Here’s how
   1  Open Sales

Here’s why
This is an oversimplified sales compensation worksheet. It shows sales totals, commissions, and incentives for five sales reps. The commission rate formulas use the name “C_Rate” instead of a value for the commission rate.

   2  Observe the contents of cell F4

 

For these activities, we have provided a collection of data files designed to help you learn each skill in a real-world business context. As you work through the activities, you will modify and update these files. Of course, you might make a mistake and, therefore, want to re-key the activity starting from scratch. To make it easy to start over, you will rename each data file at the end of the first activity in which the file is modified. Our convention for renaming files is to add the word “My” to the beginning of the file name. In the above activity, for example, a file called “Sales” is being used for the first time. At the end of this activity, you would save the file as “My sales,” thus leaving the “Sales” file unchanged. If you make a mistake, you can start over using the original “Sales” file. In some activities, however, it may not be practical to rename the data file. If you want to retry one of these activities, ask your instructor for a fresh copy of the original data file. One-column format The one-column format is typically used for question-and-answer activities. Here’s a sample: Do it!                    A-2:    Examining the elements of organizational structure

Questions and answers
   1  Which of the following refers to the grouping of employees? A    Staff division B    Centralization C    Standardization D    The extent of control    2  What are the advantages of having a wider extent of control?

 

Topic B:   Setting your expectations
Properly setting your expectations is essential to your success. This topic will help you do that by providing a list of the objectives for the course.

Course objectives
These overall course objectives will give you an idea about what to expect from the course. It is also possible that they will help you see that this course is not the right one for you. If you think you either lack the prerequisite knowledge or already know most of the subject matter to be covered, you should let your instructor know that you think you are misplaced in the class.

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After completing this course, you will know how to: ·    Understand the fundamentals of managing change by identifying the levels of change, the misconceptions about change and the importance and benefits of change, as well as recognize the behaviors and traits of a change leader, and the role of resilience during change. ·    Identify the steps of a change process, analyze a change situation, choose an action while avoiding risks, create a sense of urgency, set goals, motivate employees, prevent failure, and monitor the progress of a change. ·    Identify the obstacles to change including resistance and negative reactions to change, empower employees, and ease the tension caused by a change, as well as identify the causes of complacency and understand the effect of crisis during change. ·    Begin managing change by encouraging creativity and commitment to change in employees, using effective communication and listening skills, and controlling the grapevine. ·    Recognize the truths and misconceptions about change, differentiate between change and transition, identify the factors that affect the response to change, recognize the styles of response, and identify the strategies to manage the endings phase. ·    Identify the emotions, responses, and needs experienced during the exploration phase, and the strategies to manage the exploration phase. ·    Identify the information required during and the common responses to the new beginnings phase, as well as strategies to manage the new beginnings phase.
 

Topic C:   Reviewing the course
This section explains what you’ll need to do in order to be able to review this course after class.

Setup instructions for reviewing this course
No special preparation is needed for you to review this course on your own.
   

Unit 1 Fundamentals of change management
Unit time: 30 Minutes Complete this unit, and you’ll know how to:
A  Identify the levels of change and the misconceptions about

change.
B  Identify the importance and benefits of change. C  Identify the behaviors and traits of a change leader, and

role of resilience during change.

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Topic A:   Basics of change management
Explanation                 Change is an element of life that every organization has to accept. Organizations have to view change, both external and internal, as a potential opportunity for growth and advancement. Remaining open to change allows organizations to compete and adapt to new demands placed upon them within the business environment.

Levels of change
There are four levels at which change can occur: 1   Personal change affects employees' performance by motivating them or causing additional stress. Knowing what an employee is experiencing allows managers to understand changes in their productivity. 2   Group change affects how group members interact with other employees. Managers should help group members adapt to changes in order to maintain productivity and efficiency. 3   Organizational change affects everyone in an organization. Managers need to inform employees how a change will benefit the organization in order to generate employee support. 4   Environmental change has a regional, national, or global effect and requires participation from a variety of organizations to be successful. Do it!                    A-1:    Understanding levels of change

Exercises
   1  Change can occur at personal, group, organizational, or environmental levels. True or false?    2  Here are a few examples for each level of change: Personal – Salary raise Group – Downsizing a department Organizational – Computerization Environmental – Government policy Using the examples above as a starting point, share some examples from your experiences on each level of change.

Misconceptions about change
Explanation                 It is common knowledge that change can occur at any time within an organization. However, there are some misconceptions about the nature of change: ·    Change is a reaction to problems ·    Change only affects organizational structure ·    Change occurs naturally Change is a reaction to problems A long-standing misconception about change is that it occurs only when an organization reacts to a significant problem. In reality, only a desire to improve is necessary. For example, in order to grow financially, organizations frequently evaluate and change processes to improve their financial standings. Change only affects organizational structure A second misconception about change is that it only affects an organization’s structure. However, due to the rate of change in the world today, every area of an organization is constantly changing. To remain competitive in its market, an organization has to adapt to the demands of its market in a variety of ways. Some non-structural ways an organization adapts to change include hiring additional employees, enacting new policies, and making financial planning adjustments. Change occurs naturally
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The third misconception regarding change is that organizations can only react to change and cannot control when it happens. However, managers can take a proactive approach and implement change whenever they feel the need to improve the organization. Managers can control change and its effects by following the proper format for implementing change. Do it!                    A-2:    Identifying misconceptions about change

Exercises
   1  In the following dialog, Mr. Matthews (manager) is sitting at his desk. Mr. Mitchell (manager) walks in holding a couple of papers. Mr. Mitchell : (matter-of-factly ) Hi, Anthony. Do you have a minute? Mr. Matthews : (looking up, friendly) Sure, come in and sit down. What’s going on? Mr. Mitchell : (sitting down in front of Mr. Matthews ) I have some ideas for a couple of changes in Operational Research. Mr. Matthews : (concerned, confused ) What’s wrong? The last I knew, everything was running smoothly. Mr. Mitchell : (reassuring ) Oh, there’s no problem. I just feel that a couple of new procedures would help speed up some of their processes. Mr. Matthews : (curious) I see. What do you have in mind? The proposal for change in Operational Research: A    Was a reaction to a problem B    Was a proactive approach to improve a process C    Was meant to affect the organizational structure D    Happened naturally Managers can control the effects of change. True or false?
 

   2  Multistore Mart is a leading supermarket. Jerry is a manager with Multistore and manages the company warehouse. In recent months, Countryside Markets, another supermarket, has moved to the number one position, leaving Multistore second in the market. After looking at the rapid growth of Countryside Markets, the management of Multistore has decided to find out the reasons for the difference in growth between Multistore and Countryside Markets. They found that Countryside Markets was selling products that Multistore carried at a lower price. The management of Multistore decided to take steps to reduce the gap. As one of these steps, they have asked Jerry to improve the management of the inventory in the warehouse. To do this, Jerry has decided to install certain equipment to handle the inventory in a better way. He has also divided the warehouse into four departments and given charge of each department to a team leader. The management of Multistore and Jerry are hopeful that these steps will ensure better management and help in reducing costs. This will help Multistore become the leader in its business once again. What could have the management of Multistore done to prevent Countryside Markets from overtaking Multistore in the first place?    3  Read the following statement and discuss it with the class. Organizations can only react to change.

Topic B:   Importance of change
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Explanation                 When organizations fail to address change, they become complacent with the status quo. Without challenging the status quo, organizations will not surpass their goals. Adapting to change enables organizations to adapt to and grow with technological and social advancements. Failure to address change will allow competitors to grow faster and eventually overtake the market.

Benefits of change
There are three primary benefits change can offer an organization: ·    Change helps an organization reach its vision. ·    Change increases productivity. ·    Change enhances growth. Change helps an organization reach its vision Making change a core component in company policy allows an organization to remain adaptable when its needs fluctuate. Remaining flexible toward change allows an organization to make the changes needed to fulfill its vision. Change increases productivity Organizations benefit from change when managers search for innovative ways to increase productivity among their employees. Finding more cost-effective ways to operate increases overall productivity and helps organizations reach their goals. Change enhances growth Change promotes simultaneous organizational and personal growth. Change promotes organizational growth by allowing the introduction of new procedures and innovations. Change also enhances employees’ growth by offering new opportunities for training, additional responsibilities, and advancement. Do it!                    B-1:    Understanding the benefits of change

Exercises
   1  Change promotes organizational growth by introducing new procedures and innovations. True or false?    2  Watch the movie clip and answer the question that follows. Would the decision to shift to the new software package for financial statements be beneficial to the organization? Why or why not?
 

Essential areas of change
Explanation                 Change can affect every level of an organization. However, there are four areas where change is essential for ensuring organizational success: ·    Customer relationships ·    Market understanding ·    Personnel ·    Technology Customer relationships Change is necessary to maintain consumers’ interest and satisfaction. Without quality products and services, an organization will fail to satisfy current and future customers. To improve customer relationships, organizations need to change according to their customers’ demands. Managers can identify the changing needs of their customers in many ways. Using
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customer surveys, research and development, and interpersonal skills to gain customer feedback as tools, managers can evaluate their customers’ expectations and react accordingly. Market understanding In today’s business environment, change occurs very quickly. Organizations that are unable or unwilling to adapt to change cannot compete within their market. To maintain an advantage in its market, an organization must differentiate itself from its competition through constant evaluation and change. Changing products or services to gain the advantage over competitors allows an organization to focus on a specific target market. If an organization remains complacent, its competitors can increase their market share and take away potential business. Personnel Organizations have to produce their products and services in a cost-effective manner if they want to stay competitive. To maintain economic growth, organizations will sometimes have to downsize the labor force in order to operate as efficiently as possible. Downsizing allows organizations to remain active in their market by cutting costs. Eliminating unnecessary jobs to increase productivity allows organizations to remain competitive. Technology Technology is revolutionizing how the world conducts business. Technological advances have increased business’ speed, quality, and flexibility, and have changed how organizations operate. Managers have to realize the speed at which technology changes and decide how their organization can benefit from new technologies. Without proper knowledge of technology and its benefits to an organization, managers will quickly lose any advantage that the latest technological advances might offer. Do it!                    B-2:    Identifying essential areas of change

Exercises
   1  Change does not affect how customers view an organization. True or false?    2  Changes in the organization’s Personnel area help to maintain consumer’s interest and satisfaction. True or false?
 

   3  In the following dialog, Dennis (employee) and Roger (employee) walk into Mr. Mitchell’s (manager) office. Mr. Mitchell is sitting behind the desk working on the computer. Dennis : (curious) Are you ready for us, Mr. Mitchell? Mr. Mitchell : (looking up looking at his watch, surprised) Oh, is it 2:00 already? (Turning away from the computer, facing them ) Sure, what did you need to see me about? Roger : (Roger and Dennis sit down in front of Mr. Mitchell’s desk, concerned ) Well, we heard about some personnel changes in our department. We were just worried that there might be some downsizing involved. Mr. Mitchell : (matter-of-factly ) Oh, no. There’s no need to worry about that. We’re just going to place more emphasis on Research and Development for the next few months. I felt that if we moved a couple people from your department it would really help them out. Dennis : (relaxing, relieved ) That’s a relief. We were starting to get worried about that with all the talk about cutbacks. Mr. Mitchell : (reassuring ) There will be cutbacks in some areas, but we won’t be considering downsizing anytime soon.

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Based on what Mr. Mitchell told Dennis and Roger, the planned changes would affect which areas? A    Customer relationships B    Market understanding C    Personnel D    Technology Discuss the reasons for the group’s answers.

Topic C:   Leading change
Explanation                 Change can occur at any time in an organization, since the motivation for change is a desire for improvement. Whether you are problem solving or want to challenge the status quo, change has to begin with a desire to improve the current situation.

Promote successful change
There are two ways to promote successful change: 1   Change requires someone with the ability and power to implement change successfully. When employees understand that you are using your experience and knowledge of the organization to make improvements, they’ll be inspired to help implement a change. 2   Change requires enthusiasm and support from employees in order to be successful. Informing your employees of the benefits of a change will generate the necessary enthusiasm and support for it to be successful.

Behavior
You should demonstrate the following behavior when implementing change: ·    Get involved with the employees responsible for implementing a change. Being involved demonstrates the importance of the change and allows them to work with confidence. ·    Listen to your employees by allowing two-way communication. Understanding your employees’ thoughts, concerns, and suggestions prevents you from overlooking potential obstacles. ·    Coach your employees to lead them successfully through the change process. Coaching allows you to influence and guide employees, while directly affecting the change’s outcome. ·    Appreciate your employees to gain their support for a change. Recognizing an employee’s participation during the change process encourages them to continue their efforts. Traits that help implement change There are three traits that will help you implement change in your organization: 1   Remaining flexible enables you to adapt to a change’s needs without causing disruptions throughout your organization. Demonstrating flexibility while implementing change displays your confidence in the change to employees. 2   Maintaining a serious attitude toward a change helps convey its importance to employees. Taking change seriously allows you and your employees to stay focused on the organization’s needs. 3   Providing guidance to your employees through periodic training during the implementation of a change. You should oversee the training process to make sure employees understand your expectations for the change. Do it!                    C-1:    Promoting successful change

Exercises
   1  Watch the movie clip and answer the questions that follow.
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What changes are required to address Mr. Albert’s problems? Can these changes be successfully implemented?    2  In this dialog, Ms. Sawyer (manager) is sitting across the desk from Kathy (employee) and Roger (employee). Ms. Sawyer : (sincerely ) I really appreciate the long hours you two have put in to get everyone’s computers upgraded. Roger : (appreciative) Thank you, we really appreciate you noticing. There were a couple of times where we got pretty frustrated, but we managed it. Kathy : (forthright ) Yes, thank you. However, I think Roger’s being too nice. There were a lot of frustrating moments over the last week. Ms. Sawyer : (sympathetic) Well, I’m sorry things haven’t gone as smoothly as planned. (Firm) However, I also want to get everyone connected to the Internet. Is that possible? Roger : (confident) Sure, it’ll take a couple more days, but Kathy and I can take care of it. What of the following behaviors does Ms. Sawyer demonstrate in the above conversation? A    Listening to employees B    Directing the employees C    Appreciating employees to gain support D    Being active with employees responsible for change
 

   3  In this dialog, Mr. Mitchell (manager) and Dennis (employee) meet in the hallway. Mr. Mitchell : (looking up, straightforward ) Dennis, I’m glad I caught you. (Curious ) I was wondering if you felt that the information session we had this morning helped you. Dennis : (explaining ) Yes, I thought it was very informative. I never would have realized how important my new position was without it. Mr. Mitchell : (relaxed) I’m glad to hear it. I thought that providing additional training could answer some of the questions you might have had. Dennis : (confident) It really did. I feel much more confident about my responsibilities now. Mr. Mitchell : (matter-of-factly ) That’s good to hear. If you’ve any problems, just let me know. Dennis : (assuring) Okay, but I think that the session covered it all. In the way Mr. Mitchell helped Dennis, share one example where your manager has tried to help you accept change.
 

Resilience
Explanation                 Resilience is the ability of an employee or an organization to recover swiftly from change. Resiliency allows employees to face the challenges of a change and bounce back quickly. Resilient employees save the organization time and money, since they reduce disruptions and are able to maintain performance levels. Role of resilience An organization’s management is responsible for instilling resilience in their employees. Remaining

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flexible and promoting an adaptable work environment allows managers to facilitate resilience in their employees. Developing resilience in employees creates an open and flexible atmosphere within the organization. Resilience throughout an entire organization allows change to occur more easily and establishes builtin responses to change. Do it!                    C-2:    Understanding resilience

Exercises
   1  In this dialog, Roger (employee) and Kathy (employee) are in the break room drinking coffee. Roger : (impressed) I still can’t get over how easy the move into the new building went. Kathy : (agreeing ) I know, I figured everything would be chaos for weeks. Roger : (off handed ) But here we are, two weeks later and running as smoothly as ever. Kathy : (straightforward ) To be honest, I give all the credit to Mr. Matthews. He’s the one who held us together throughout this last month. Roger : (agreeing ) You’re right about that. If it hadn’t been for him reminding us to be calm and to keep a positive attitude, this transition wouldn’t have been nearly as easy. Discuss the methods adopted by Mr. Matthews to instill resilience in the employees? How will the instilling of resilience help the organization?

Unit summary: Fundamentals of change management
Topic A                      In this unit, you learned that there are four levels of change: personal change, group change, organizational change, and environmental change. You also learned about the common misconceptions about change. These misconceptions include believing that change is a reaction to problems, that change only affects organizational structure, and that change always occurs naturally. Topic B                      Next, you learned about the benefits of change, which includes helping an organization realize its vision, increasing productivity, and enhancing growth. You also learned about the areas where change is essential . These areas include customer relations, market understanding, personnel, and technology. Topic C                     Finally, you learned that in order to promote change there must be someone with the power to implement the change and that change requires support from employees. You learned about the behaviors and traits required to implement change. These behaviors and traits include involvement, listening, coaching, recognition, flexibility, attitude, and guidance. You also learned about resilience and how it helps save time and money while reducing disruptions during a change.

Independent practice activity
  1  What are the levels at which change can occur in an organization and what is affected at each level?
Change can occur at four levels in an organization. These levels are personal, group, organizational, and environmental. Personal change affects employees' performance by motivating them or causing additional stress. Group change affects the interaction between the members of a group. Organizational change affects everyone in an organization. Environmental change has a regional, national, or global effect and requires participation from a variety of organizations to be successful.

  2  Change only affects organizational structure. True or false?

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False.

  3  Change is important: A  To maintain consumers’ interest and satisfaction B  To remain competitive in the market C  To maintain economic growth D  To solve a significant problem   4  Resilience is the ability of an employee or an organization to recover swiftly from change. True or false?
True.
 

Unit 2 Change process
Unit time: 40 Minutes Complete this unit, and you’ll know how to:
A  Identify the steps of a change process. B  Analyze a change situation and identify important aspects

of change.
C  Choose an action and identify the restraining and driving

forces.
D  Create a sense of urgency, set goals, motivate employees,

delegate, and prevent failure.
E  Identify the methods of monitoring the progress of a

change.

Topic A:   Steps of a change process
Explanation                 Managers who follow the change process are able to understand how to implement change successfully into their organization. The process for a change has to relate back to the organization’s goals. Managers are able to control the outcome of the change process through a structured plan. Mapping out a strategy allows managers to anticipate and prevent problems from occurring. You need to follow a four-step process in order for change to be effective: ·    Analyze the situation ·    Choose an action ·    Implement the action ·    Monitor progress By starting with an analysis of the situation you gain an understanding of the need for change and the

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issues surrounding the need. After you gain an understanding, you can choose an action based on your knowledge and make a plan to implement the action. Once you’ve chosen a course of action to pursue you must implement it. Getting people to understand the need for change, motivating them towards the change, and avoiding failure are all part of the implementation. Finally, you must monitor the progress of you change to ensure that you achieve the goal you defined when analyzing the situation, and to identify and address any areas of the change process that need adjustment.

Topic B:   Analyze a situation
Explanation                 Analyzing a situation enables you to understand why there is a need for a change in your organization. When analyzing a situation, there are four things you should do: 1   Determine the catalyst for change to understand why a change is necessary. Determining the catalyst for the change allows you to direct your efforts in order to improve the situation. 2   Understand the situational variables that will help or hinder the implementation of the change. Anticipating potential complications enables you to prepare a strategy to address them. 3   Uncover employees’ concerns to assess the commitment employees are willing to put forth toward a change. Determining these aspects indicates their initial support for the change. 4   Gain employees’ support when learning about a change. When you speak with your employees, inform them of the change’s benefits to start winning their support early. Know the organization The history of the organization’s previous changes is an excellent indicator of whether a current change will be successful. Understanding the success rates of previous changes enables you to identify potential problems before they occur. In addition, an understanding of previous changes can suggest if employees will accept similar changes. Do it!                    B-1:    Analyzing a situation

Exercises
   1  Analyzing a situation allows you to determine employees’ commitment to a change. True or false?    2  Watch the movie clip and answer the questions that follow. What has Mr. Mitchell done so far to get a new sales team? What more should he do to gain commitment from the Human Resources department?
 

   3  In this dialog, Roger (employee) and Ms. Sawyer (manager) are sitting in the break room drinking coffee. Ms. Sawyer is looking over a report. Roger : (curious) So, what do you think? Ms. Sawyer : (putting down the report, regretful ) Honestly Roger, I don’t think your idea will work. Roger : (confused ) Why not? Ms. Sawyer : (straightforward ) We made a similar billing policy about a year before you were hired. When we tried to implement it, there was a lot of resistance. In fact, so much resistance we eventually just gave up trying to enforce it. Roger : (curious, confused ) And you don’t think that they’ll accept it now? Ms. Sawyer : (sincere ) I afraid not. I know that almost everyone still prefers the current system.

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Ms. Sawyer is confident that Roger’s idea will not impress the management. Why? How can Ms. Sawyer help Roger successfully implement his idea?
 

Important aspects of a change
Explanation                 When analyzing a situation, you should consider three aspects of a change: ·    The change’s sponsors ·    The change’s advocates ·    The change’s target area The change’s sponsors The change’s sponsors are those individuals who decide that the organization needs improvement. If you were not one of the individuals who created the need for change, you should keep their ideas in mind when implementing a change. Reminding yourself of the sponsors’ intentions allows you to implement the change according to their instructions. The change’s advocates The advocates of change are the individuals who support and help implement the change. Although advocates support a change, they might have concerns regarding their responsibilities toward its implementation. You should meet face-to-face with the advocates to clarify their involvement in the change. Involving employees in the change process allows you to eliminate rumors and promote openness about the change. The change’s target area A target area is where you direct the effects of a change. Target areas can be any part of the organization in which you wish to see improvement. Informing the employees who work in a target area of the reasons for a change increases their interest for improving their area. As these employees become more involved with the change, their commitment levels rise. If you fail to gain the commitment of these employees, they won't accept the change and all efforts to implement it will be useless. Do it!                    B-2:    Understanding the aspects of change

Exercises
   1  In this dialog, Dennis (employee), Kathy (employee), Roger (employee), Mr. Matthews (manager), and Ms. Sawyer (manager) are sitting around the conference room table. Mr. Matthews is at the head of the table and Ms. Sawyer is sitting to his side. Everyone has a notepad or a daily planner in front of him or her. Kathy : (surprised) Ms. Sawyer, I’m surprised that you’re here. Dennis : (agreeing ) I am, too. You don’t usually sit in on our meetings. Ms. Sawyer : (smiling, friendly) I know, (glancing at Mr. Matthews ) but Mr. Matthews asked me to be here today. Mr. Matthews : (explaining ) Actually, (motioning toward Ms. Sawyer with his hand) Ms. Sawyer is the reason we are all here today. She proposed the new idea about the how to capture our target market, so I thought it only appropriate that she sat in on the meeting. Based on the above conversation, who is the sponsor of change? A    Dennis

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B    Ms. Sawyer C    Kathy D    Mr. Matthews
 

   2  In this scenario, Harry, Vice President, Operations, has decided to train the Finance staff in a new software package. He has requested Charles, the HR manager, to help him implement this. Charles has agreed to Harry’s request, and they are planning how to implement the change. Based on the above scenario, identify the sponsor, advocate, and the target area

Topic C:   Choose an action
Explanation                 Once you’ve analyzed the situation you need to choose an action in response. There is a four-step process for choosing an action: ·    Identify obstacles ·    Know the available resources ·    Create an action plan ·    Reward success Identify obstacles The first step in choosing an action is to identify obstacles that might slow or prevent the successful implementation of a change. You need to understand how the change will affect every aspect of the organization to determine obstacles to the change. Some potential obstacles you should recognize include: ·    Limitations of the organization’s vision ·    Lack of necessary skills and knowledge in employees ·    Communication barriers ·    Time and financial restrictions ·    High levels of complacency and resistance Know the available resources The second step in choosing an action is to determine what resources are available for implementing the change. Without proper knowledge of your available resources, you risk the possibility of the change failing due to lack of preparation. When preparing a plan, you must determine the organization’s resources and recognize the limitations of those resources. Organizational resources include the availability of funding, time, and personnel. Disregarding your organization’s resources will often result in upper management placing restrictions on the change. Create an action plan The third step in choosing an action is creating a well-developed action plan that will increase support and commitment. Employees who understand how a change will work are more likely to support it since they know the logical process of it. When creating an action plan, you should consider the change’s effects on your employees and the organization. Reward success The final step in choosing an action for change is to establish rewards for those who help implement the change successfully. Some employees might require rewards to be motivated about a change. Informing employees that they’ll receive rewards for their efforts frequently gains higher levels of

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commitment and can quicken the implementation process. Risks Any time you implement a change there are risks due to unknown factors. When change occurs, you can never calculate its exact effects on the target area and the organization. However, having a strategic plan helps identify most risks before you implement a change.

Driving and restraining forces
Explanation                 Driving forces are those forces that facilitate change and keep it going. For example, incentive earnings, new technology, management support, and training are all driving forces. In contrast, there are restraining forces that restrain or impede the change process. Possible examples are apathy, hostility, poor maintenance of equipment, unsettled grievances, and poor communication. You should be sure you understand how these forces affect your plan as you choose an action. Do it!                    C-1:    Choosing an action

Exercises
   1  Arrange the steps for choosing an action in the correct sequence: Reward success Create an action plan Identify obstacles Know the available resources    2  Identify the obstacles that might prevent the successful implementation of a change in an organization. A    Financial security B    Lack of necessary skills and knowledge in employees C    Limitations of the organization’s vision D    Communication barriers
 

   3  In this scenario, Dee Dee Motors has decided to introduce multi-skilling for all its staff members. The responsibility of the project has been entrusted to Henry, the Human Resources Director. He convenes a meeting of all functional managers to work out a plan. He explains that in the change to multi-skilling or for that matter in any situation there are driving and restraining forces that factor into the success or failure of the action taken. After the meeting, Henry and his team analyze the situation for the driving and restraining forces that can influence the implementation of multi-skilling. They depict their findings in the following diagram.
[SC1]

Form two teams. Each team needs to depict driving and restraining forces in a similar diagram for one of the following change processes: 1     Computerization of shipping process 2     New billing system

Topic D:   Implement the action
Explanation                 Employees who understand the urgency regarding a change are better able to recognize what is

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needed to implement the change and can better reorganize their departments to facilitate it. Once employees develop a sense of urgency, they understand the necessity for the change and strive to implement it successfully.

Sense of urgency
Increasing the levels of urgency requires that you eliminate all sources of complacency within your organization. There are two ways you can create a sense of urgency: 1   Inform employees of the change’s effect over the entire organization rather than focusing on the affects on the individual. When employees understand how the change will improve their entire organization, they become motivated to make its implementation successful. 2   Immediately attend to problems to emphasize their impact on the organization. Giving immediate attention to problems prevents you from correcting errors at the last minute and eliminates the possibility of the situation becoming out of control. Do it!                    D-1:    Creating a sense of urgency

Exercises
   1  In this dialog, Mr. Mitchell (manager) is sitting at his desk and Roger (employee) is across from him. Mr. Mitchell : (aggravated ) Roger, I need to start seeing some changes in your performance. Roger : (confused ) What do you mean? Mr. Mitchell : (explaining, frustrated ) Since you’ve been turning your reports in late to David, he’s had to stay late every night just to keep his assignments caught up. Roger : (shocked ) I never thought that turning in my reports a day late would cause him so many problems. Mr. Mitchell : (blunt) Well, it does. David has to wait on your reports to make his weekly balance sheets, and when you don’t get them to him on time, he misses his deadlines. (Roger looks down ashamed. ) Based on the above conversation, how does Mr. Mitchell develop a sense of urgency in Roger? A    Tells Roger that he is a bad performer B    Makes Roger realize that he is making David miss his deadlines C    Sympathizes with David for staying late every night D    Tells Roger that he has been submitting his reports late    2  Discuss the following statement with your group: Inform employees of the change’s effect over the entire organization rather than focusing on the affects on the individual.

Importance of goal setting
Explanation                 Setting goals for a change allows you to identify and achieve its objectives. Goals allow you to identify potential problems with a change’s implementation and devise ways to overcome them. You should periodically reevaluate your goals to make sure they remain focused on the change’s objectives. Having goals also helps to motivate employees as you implement the change. Motivation Only employees who are motivated to improve their organization are likely to implement change

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successfully. Motivated employees understand the need for change and strive to work hard to make improvements. Motivated employees also help facilitate change. They are generally easier to work with and require less time to manage. Employees who are motivated toward change help the organization reach its goals. There are two effective ways to motivate employees to accept change: 1   Address employee concerns to help them accept a change. Take the time to answer their questions and explain how the change will benefit them. Ignoring their concerns can result in rumors and a lack of support. 2   Remain proactive throughout the change process to demonstrate confidence in the change and your abilities to implement it. Your enthusiasm and desire for improvement motivates employees to support and accept the change. Do it!                    D-2:    Motivating employees

Exercises
   1  Remaining proactive during the change process demonstrates your ability to implement change. True or false?    2  In this dialog, Mr. Matthews (manager) is sitting at the head of the conference room table with Kathy (employee) and Dennis (employee). Dennis and Kathy have notepads and are ready to take notes. Mr. Matthews : (relaxed) I asked both of you here today so I could answer any questions you might have about the changes in management’s responsibilities. Kathy : (confused ) No one seems to know how shifting the managerial responsibility around is supposed to benefit us. Mr. Matthews : (explaining ) It’s actually pretty simple. This change will allow the managers to spread out their tasks more evenly. By periodically sharing some of our responsibilities with other managers, we’ll be able to spend more time helping you with your problems. Dennis : (uncertain ) That sounds like an improvement. But if you divide your responsibilities, does that mean we would have to start going to the other managers to get answers? Mr. Matthews : (reassuring ) No, you’ll always report back to me. What were the objectives of Mr. Matthews’ meeting? A    Informing employees about changes in management responsibilities B    Addressing employees concerns C    Sharing the benefits that the proposed change will bring D    Motivating employees to accept the change    3  Share with the class a situation where having a proactive approach would have helped you to handle a change process in a better way.

Delegation
Explanation                 You can control an implemented change by delegating. Withholding information or believing that you are the only person able to implement changes results in a lack of commitment from employees. Delegating tasks allows you to involve your employees in the change process. In addition, delegating allows you to remain in control of a change by coordinating, focusing, and facilitating the change process.

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Failure prevention You can prevent failure while implementing change by taking care of the following issues: ·    Provide your employees with leadership. Leadership qualities such as charisma, competency, and respect motivate employees and provide them with guidance. ·    Never underestimate the change’s needs. Make sure your procedures, goals, methods, and deadlines for the change thoroughly address the situation. ·    Prevent communication breakdown. Keep the lines of communication open to avoid rumors, uncertainty, misunderstanding, and resistance toward change. ·    Set long- and short-term goals to keep employees focused while providing them with a sense of accomplishment when the goal is achieved. ·    Support the change in order for it to have the desired effect. You need to continually support the change until it becomes a part of the organization. Do it!                    D-3:    Preventing failure

Exercises
   1  Watch the movie clip and answer the questions that follow. What went wrong with Roger’s estimate? What should Roger do to prevent the reoccurrence of such problems?    2  Managers should evaluate their deadlines to avoid underestimating the effect of a change. True or false?

Topic E:   Monitor the progress
Explanation                 Monitoring change allows you to determine if you achieved your goal. A change is deemed successful when a goal is accomplished. You cannot judge the effects of a change without reliable measurement. Monitoring a change’s progress allows you to measure its implementation rate, the support it receives, and its effectiveness. Monitoring change also allows you to identify areas in need of improvement and make the necessary modifications during the change’s implementation.

Methods to monitor the progress
There are two ways to monitor a change’s progress: ·    Regular reports ·    A checkpoint system Regular reports Regular reports from employees keep you up to date with the change’s status. These reports allow you to identify potential setbacks before they become a problem. The information gained from these reports will help you determine when employees need assistance. A checkpoint system Checkpoints allow employees to achieve small goals while accomplishing a change. For a change to be successful, the employee has to accomplish smaller parts of the project correctly. A checkpoint system enables employees to determine if they are proceeding according to your specifications at specific points of the process and make corrections as they proceed. Do it!                    E-1:    Monitoring the progress

Exercises

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   1  In this dialog, Kathy (employee) and Roger (employee) are sitting at a table. There are papers scattered across the table. Kathy : (straightforward ) Now that we’ve planned the new distribution system, I want to set up a monitoring system for it. Roger : (confused ) Why? We were very thorough when we created the new distribution plan. I don’t see a need to monitor it when we’ve covered all the bases. Kathy : (matter-of-factly ) We need to know how much customer support it receives in order to determine its effectiveness. Besides, if we don’t monitor it, how are we supposed to know if it meets the customer’s needs? Why does Kathy want to set up a monitoring system to check whether the new distribution system is accomplishing its goals?    2  Checkpoints allow employees to: A    Accomplish small goals correctly B    Determine if they are proceeding according to specifications C    Determine the effectiveness of a change process D    Take corrective action

Unit summary: Change process
Topic A                      In this unit, you learned about the steps of a change process. You learned that you must begin by analyzing the situation, then choose an action, implement the action, and finally monitor progress. Topic B                      Then you learned the steps for analyzing a situation. You learned that you must understand why a change is needed, what the variables are that can help or hinder the change, understand how employees feel about the change, gain their support, and know the history of change at the organization. Then you learned about the three aspects of change and their roles in the change process. These aspects include the change’s sponsors, advocates and target area. Topic C                     Next, you learned about the steps to choose an action . You learned that you must first identify obstacles to change and the resources that are available. You must then create an action plan and a reward system for success. You must also recognize the driving and restraining forces for the change. Topic D                     Then, you learned to implement the action . You learned that you must first create a sense of urgency among employees, and why setting goals is important for motivation . You also learned about using delegation as a way to control the change process and how to prevent failure though leadership, communication, goals, and involvement. Topic E                      Finally, you learned about the methods of monitoring the progress of change. You learned that regular reports keep you up to date on the progress and that using a checkpoint system allows you to set incremental goals for the people involved in the change.

Independent practice activity
Using the following scenario, break into groups and discuss the questions presented below. The director of marketing for the Stratum product line, Joe Phillips, is being promoted as the vice president marketing. The marketing manager, Scott Ross, will fill the vacant director of marketing position. You are invited to join the meeting along with the director of human resources, Margaret Hendricks, to discuss the effects that the change might have on the department and its employees and to create a plan to manage the change. Margaret starts the session by informing the group about the recent decision made by the board of directors. Scott joins the discussion by mentioning how this change might affect the company and its employees. He is also concerned about how the transition will affect him. Joe feels that the
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organization should anticipate the change and acknowledge that change can affect every level of the organization. At this point, you note that it is crucial to view a change as a potential opportunity for organizational growth and advancement. Joe continues by speculating how the transition period might be difficult for everyone in the organization. At this point, you note how important it is for an organization to remain flexible toward change. Margaret says that the first step in such a situation is to analyze the change and understand the variables that might affect the implementation of change. She further adds that previous changes in the organization must be considered as predictors of the change’s success. She also stresses that it is critical to recognize the problems that could occur during the transition period and encourage team orientation within the organization. At this point, you note that it is important to address employee concerns and motivate them to implement change. Joe asks you about the primary areas that need to be considered when dealing with employees. You reply that listening to the employees’ concerns is important to demonstrate concern for their interests.   1  Analyzing a situation enables you to: A  Understand why there is a need for a change in your organization B  Control the outcome of the change process C  Identify the benefits of a change D  Delegate tasks to your employees   2  What steps should you take while analyzing a situation? A  Learn about employees’ concerns to be able to assess their commitment toward a change. B  Gain employees’ support when learning about a change. C  Understand the situational variables that will help or hinder the implementation of the change. D  Set goals for a change to allow you identify its objectives.   3  The history of the organization’s previous changes is an excellent indicator of whether a current change will be successful. True or false?
True.

  4  Identify the next steps in the process.
Choosing an action, implementing the action, and monitoring the progress.
 

Unit 3 Obstacles to change
Unit time: 40 Minutes Complete this unit, and you’ll know how to:
A  Identify the causes of resistance and the negative reactions

to change and the methods for managing them.
B  Identify the causes of complacency. C  Prepare for crisis.

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Topic A:   Resistance
Explanation                 Employee responses to change will vary according to how much the change affects the employee. Employees who respond positively toward a change show little resistance and help implement the change. Employees who do not understand the need for improvement resist the effort to implement a change. Your responsibility is to influence the employees who resist a change by explaining the benefits of the change to them.

Causes of resistance
An employee resists change because of the following causes: ·    Employees who feel economically threatened will resist change if they feel it might result in job loss, demotion, or change in overtime status. ·    Employees might resist any change in their decision-making responsibilities or if there is a reduction in equipment, materials, or job function. ·    Employees who view change as an inconvenience will resist a change if they feel it threatens their feeling of security. ·    Employees who feel there is a lack of information will resist change, spread rumors, and create unnecessary problems. ·    Employees who fear unknown circumstances that accompany change will resist change and express their fears toward change as generalized stress and lowered morale. Do it!                    A-1:    Resisting change

Exercises
   1  Watch the movie clip and answer the questions that follow. Why did Roger resist Mr. Mitchell’s decision to transfer him to Seattle? What did Mr. Mitchell do to influence Roger?
 

   2  In this dialog, Mr. Mitchell (manager) and Ms. Sawyer (manager) are sitting in the break room having lunch. Mr. Mitchell : (shocked ) Can you believe all the rumors flying around the office? Ms. Sawyer : (agreeing ) I know. Ever since the Board of Directors announced that a Big Change was coming up the whole office has been in an uproar. Mr. Mitchell : (amused) I know. Brian and Kathy came up to me in the hallway earlier today and asked if the merger was going to affect their jobs. Ms. Sawyer : (smiling, curious) What did you tell them? Mr. Mitchell : (explaining ) I said that I knew nothing about a merger and won’t know anything until Thursday. You know, we would’ve been so much better off if the Board would’ve given us some information to pass on about this whole thing. Are the employees supportive of the change? Why or why not? If you were a member of the Board of this organization, what would you have done to avoid such a situation? Discuss.    3  Rumors are more likely to spread when employees feel they lack information about a change. True or false?
 

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Negative reactions
Explanation                 Employees can have several negative reactions toward change: ·    Anger ·    Shock ·    Denial ·    Depression ·    Guilt Anger A change might aggravate employees if it does not appeal to their own personal needs or desires. Angry employees suffer increased amounts of tension and stress, which might be detrimental to the change’s implementation. An employee’s anger can make them blame or criticize others. Shock Large-scale change can cause shock in some employees. The degree of shock that an employee can experience ranges from temporary confusion to complete disorientation. Shock causes employees to be incapable of understanding the benefits of the change. Denial Employees in denial do not accept the validity of a change and will frequently reject or ignore all information about it. Denial causes employees to believe the change will not affect them, or that it won’t be implemented. Depression Employees can experience depression when they perceive a change negatively. Employees might feel victimized, suffer a lack of emotional and physical energy or disengagement from their responsibilities due to depression. Guilt When employees experience a major change, they might feel some guilt for causing the situation. Employees sometimes do not understand the reasons for the change and view it as a result of poor performance. Employees who blame themselves for a change become unmotivated and their productivity suffers. Do it!                    A-2:    Understanding negative reactions

Exercises
   1  Guilt is caused when an employee views the reasons for change as a result of poor performance. True of false?    2  Watch the movie clip and answer the question that follows. Discuss Dennis’ reaction to the use of new courier services. What reaction is Dennis experiencing and why is he experiencing it?
 

   3  Linda is a supervisor in a garment manufacturing company. She worked in the Merchandising department for eight years. During a reorganization process, she was transferred to the Sample-making department. The work in the Sample-making department was new to her. She never felt comfortable working in this department and found it difficult to adjust to this new situation. After few weeks her health started deteriorating. She was unable to get sound sleep and started getting depressed. If you were Linda’s boss, how would you have identified her problem and what would you have done to solve it?
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Empower employees
Explanation                 There are three ways you can empower employees to accept change: 1   Communicating your expectations clearly helps develop principles in employees that coincide with the organization’s standards. Employees who have a clear understanding of the organization’s principles become empowered to make decisions that help implement change. 2   Providing employees with training ensures that they can fulfill their job requirements and expectations when implementing a change. Having complete knowledge of their responsibilities empowers employees and provides them with confidence. 3   Giving immediate feedback to inform employees of the results of their efforts empowers employees because they receive the appropriate guidance to implement the change successfully. Tension Employee frustration toward change is natural and difficult to eliminate. However, you can ease the tension it creates in two ways: 1   Plan morale-boosting activities to create excitement and support for a change. These activities allow employees to express their interests and concerns to you and other employees. 2   Allow impromptu communication to immediately dispel rumors and concerns. If you do not have the time to address the employees’ concerns, express your interest in helping them understand the change and set a later time to meet. Do it!                    A-3:    Easing the tension

Exercises
   1  You should avoid impromptu meetings by scheduling regular meetings to dispel rumors. True or false?    2  Enact the following scene. In the scene, Mr. Matthews (manager) and Ms. Sawyer (manager) are walking out of the conference room. Kathy (employee) and Dennis (employee) walk up to them. Kathy : (curious) Mr. Matthews, can we ask you a quick question? Mr. Matthews : (straightforward ) Sure, what can I do for you? Dennis : (matter-of-factly ) We were wondering if you had time in the next couple of days to go over some of the new finance changes with us. Mr. Matthews : (suggesting ) Actually, I can talk with you right now. Kathy : (enthused ) That would be great. Mr. Matthews : (turns to Ms. Sawyer, confirming) That is if you don’t mind postponing those performance reviews for about an hour? Ms. Sawyer : (understanding) Not at all. Just drop by my office whenever you’re ready. Mr. Matthews : (suggesting ) Let’s go to my office so we can talk about these changes. How did Mr. Matthews’ response help in easing the concerns of Dennis and Kathy about the change?

Topic B:   Complacency
Explanation                 Complacency prevents organizations from striving to improve their current situation. More motivated competitors quickly overrun organizations that never challenge the status quo.

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Causes of complacency
Organizational complacency has four main causes: ·    Employees are not challenged. ·    Employees have a limited focus. ·    Employees do not understand the need for change. ·    Employees deny there is room for improvement. Employees are not challenged Complacency occurs when employees’ job requirements are no longer challenging or motivating. Employees no longer challenged by their position’s responsibilities become bored and fail to strive for optimum performance. Employees need to be assigned work that they find meaningful and that uses their skills appropriately. Employees have a limited focus Narrow goals cause complacency by limiting employee focus. Employees need to understand how their work affects the entire organization. Narrowing the employees’ focus downplays their achievements and they fail to understand the importance of their work. Employees do not understand the need for change Employees who do not understand the need for change quickly become complacent. Explaining the need for change informs employees of the possibilities for improving themselves and the organization. Employees deny there is room for improvement Employees who deny there is room for improvement in their organization support complacency. Employees who do not want to increase their workload or responsibilities will ignore areas needing improvement. They’ll also ignore the signs of a problem in order to avoid implementing a change. Do it!                    B-1:    Identifying causes of complacency

Exercises
   1  Watch the movie clip and answer the question that follows. Mr. Mitchell was trying to remove the cause of complacency by convincing the employees that there was room for improvement. In the above scene, what will happen to the company and its employees if they do not strive to improve the current situation?    2  In this dialog, Dennis (employee) is sitting across from Kathy (employee) at a table. There are a few papers and folders scattered across the table. Kathy : (confused ) Have you figured out why we’re moving accounting up to the third floor? Dennis : (irritated ) No, I haven’t. Can you believe the inconvenience it’s causing? Kathy : (straightforward ) I wouldn’t mind all the trouble it’s causing, if I understood why it’s so important. Dennis : (matter-of-factly ) I don’t understand it either. To be honest, I’ll help accounting make any adjustments if they ask, but I’m not going out of my way to help them. In the above case, what is the cause of complacency in employees? A    They are not challenged. B    They have a limited focus.

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C    They do not understand the need for the change. D    They deny there is room for improvement.

Topic C:   Crisis
Explanation                 A crisis occurs when you realize that your plans will fail and that a change will not be successful unless drastic improvements are made in your strategy. If you do not give immediate attention to a crisis, the implemented change will not succeed and your efforts will be wasted. Resilience is crucial to surviving a crisis. Organizations have to be able to adapt to change quickly in order to maintain performance levels. Organizations need to train employees to maintain their productivity and quality standards to build the level of resilience. Resilient employees feel the same amount of anxiety as others, but are able to remain physically and emotionally stable when facing a challenge.

Crisis management
Explanation                 Employees can react to a crisis in one of two ways, by feeling threatened and overwhelmed or by remaining open to opportunity. Employees might feel that crises are threatening and become overwhelmed by them. These employees are unable to reorient themselves when a change occurs. During a crisis, overwhelmed employees feel uncertain and question their ability to handle the situation. Some employees, however, view crisis as an opportunity for growth and improvement. These employees are resilient and take advantage of the situation. Opportunity seekers will develop ways of handling a crisis instead of wasting time avoiding it. These employees have the same fears as others during a crisis, but they view change as a necessary part of business. Although these employees understand their limitations, they find creative ways to use their resources. Employees who view change as an opportunity also seek assistance from others when a change requires resources they do not possess. Benefits of crisis You can benefit from a crisis by learning from the mistakes that caused the crisis and by anticipating future difficulties based on the current crisis. Knowing what was previously ineffective allows you to adapt your current strategy to avoid similar complications. In addition, you can learn what behaviors and attitudes were effective in previous crises and incorporate them in your current efforts. Understanding the cause of previous crises allows you to anticipate future difficulties, which will enable you to prepare for and possibly eliminate the problem altogether. Anticipating difficulties can save you time, money, and energy when implementing a change. Do it!                    C-1:    Reacting to a crisis

Exercises
   1  In this dialog, Kathy (employee) and Ms. Sawyer (manager) are sitting across one another. Kathy has a note pad in hand and has been taking notes. Ms. Sawyer : (curious) I thought that you would be nervous about handling the Preston account. Especially with the trouble that it’s in right now. Kathy : (admitting ) Oh, I’m nervous about it all right, but I’m looking forward to making it profitable again. I think there’s a lot I can learn from handling this account. Ms. Sawyer : (concerned ) That’s not going to be an easy task. When Tony managed the account he ran into quite a few complications. Kathy : (confident) I know. But, it sounds like he tried to avoid some issues that needed immediate attention. Now that I’m handling the account, that’s not

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going to happen. Kathy’s reaction to situation demonstrates that: A    She is overwhelmed. B    She views the crisis as an opportunity for growth. C    She is resilient and develops ways of handling a crisis instead of wasting time avoiding it. D    She is uncertain of her ability to handle the crisis.    2  Training employees to maintain their performance standards helps in making them resilient. True of false?    3  Share with the class an instance of a crisis, personal or organizational, when you felt overwhelmed and uncertain of your ability to handle the situation.

Crises preparation
Explanation                 Since the nature of a crisis is unpredictable, you cannot completely prevent one from occurring. However, conserving assets prepares your organization for a crisis when it happens. Recognizing areas that a crisis might affect, and planning to conserve your assets before one can occur will help mitigate the crisis. Many organizations waste a large amount of time and money trying to control a crisis when one occurs. Preparing for a crisis by conserving your assets enables you to react instantly and quickly in order to take control of the situation. Do it!                    C-2:    Preparing for a crisis

Exercise
   1  Watch the movie clip and answer the questions that follow. Why does Mr. Matthews sound concerned? How is he planning to handle similar situations in the future?    2  Share with the class an instance of a crisis, personal or organizational, that could have been better controlled if assets were conserved. What did you learn from that experience?

Unit summary: Obstacles to change
Topic A                      In this unit, you learned about resistance to change. You learned that employees resist change because they feel threatened or don’t understand the need for change. You also learned that anger, shock, denial, depression, and guilt are common negative reactions to change. Then you learned about empowerment and how to use morale-boosting activities and open communication lines to ease the tension created by change. Topic B                      Next, you learned about the four major causes of complacency in an organization. You then learned how to address the causes to ensure the success of the change. Topic C                     Finally, you learned how to manage a crisis . You learned that employees are either threatened by a crisis or view it as an opportunity for growth. You also learned that you can benefit from a crisis by learning from the mistakes that caused the crisis. In addition, you learned how to prepare for a crisis.

Independent practice activity
Using the following scenario, break into groups and discuss the questions presented

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below. The Information Systems department is relocating to a new building. In addition, the department plans to implement a new operating system to handle the growth of the company’s internal support system. You are meeting with the director of Human Resources, Margaret Hendricks, the director of Information Systems, Gary Shaw, and the Special Projects coordinator, Colleen James, to address their concerns about completing the transition on schedule, without affecting other departments. The concerns that must be resolved before the department relocates to the new building are: ·   Resistance to the change from Gary’s team ·   Tension among employees regarding the change ·   Employees’ complacency about meeting their project deadlines before the relocation
 

  1  An employee resists change because: A  Employees feel economically threatened about losing their jobs. B  Employees feel there is too much information. C  Employees view change as an inconvenience. D  Employees view change as a morale-boosting activity.   2  Select the causes for organizational complacency. A  Employees consider the job to be not challenging enough. B  Employees have a limited focus. C  Employees do not anticipate future difficulties. D  Employees deny there is room for improvement. E   Employees feel economically threatened.   3  Preparing for a crisis by conserving your assets enables you to react instantly and quickly to take control of a situation. True or false?
True.

  4  Maintaining high standards and expectations eliminates complacency. True or false?
True.  
 

Unit 4 Managing change
Unit time: 40 Minutes Complete this unit, and you’ll know how to:

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A  Encourage creativity in employees. B  Develop a commitment to change in employees. C  Communicate change effectively, improve listening skills,

and control grapevine.

Topic A:   Creativity
Explanation                 Creativity is the most effective way to determine new goals for change. Creativity allows you to develop new and innovative methods to improve your customer satisfaction, teamwork, and communication skills. In addition, you can use creativity to increase employee morale.

Encourage creativity
Fostering creativity in employees encourages ideas for handling change. There are several ways to encourage creativity: ·    Remain open-minded to new ideas ·    Provide verbal encouragement ·    Plan brainstorming sessions ·    Rotate employees through job positions ·    Hold job improvement meetings ·    Encourage employee experimentation Remain open-minded to new ideas Remaining open-minded encourages employees to share their ideas and thoughts freely. Employees are able to approach a situation from a different perspective than yours and can offer unique insight. In addition, encouraging employees to share their ideas will help you gain their trust and respect. Provide verbal encouragement You should provide employees with verbal encouragement to motivate them to contribute to a change. Employees appreciate receiving feedback and feel more comfortable sharing their thoughts with you when you request their ideas. Plan brainstorming sessions Brainstorming sessions encourage employees to offer new and creative ideas. A brainstorming group should represent the areas of the organization directly affected by the change, and be limited to six to eight members. A group of this size and with this diversity will be able to generate a sufficient number of ideas for the change. Employees should be encouraged to suggest ideas that are creative but also realistic and attainable. These criteria focus the group on developing achievable ideas and goals. Rotate employees through job positions Rotating employees through different positions within an organization can encourage creative thinking. Employees often become so familiar with a particular area of the change that they begin to overlook obvious problems. Placing employees in new positions allows a fresh outlook on old problems. Hold job improvement meetings Holding job improvement meetings with employees generates creative ways for enriching their jobs. Employees frequently have ideas on how to improve their positions. You can encourage employees to be creative by giving them the opportunity to express their thoughts at a job improvement meeting.

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Encourage employee experimentation There are several ways to encourage experimentation within your organization. However, when employees begin to experiment with new and creative ideas, you need to guide them to make sure that they stay realistic and within organizational policy. Some ways you can encourage employees to experiment include: ·    Encourage employees to find new approaches to their jobs. ·    Make a think tank or workshop available with materials for thinking and planning. ·    Implement a policy that rewards employees for offering creative ideas. ·    Hold creative thinking seminars to encourage experimentation. Do it!                    A-1:    Encouraging creativity

Exercises
   1  Employees can generate ideas on how to improve their positions through: A    job improvement meetings B    brainstorming sessions    2  In this scenario, Joe Shaw supervised a group of unskilled workers in a shipping company. The top management of the company planned to install new equipment to improve productivity and cut down costs. Due to the proposed change, some people under Joe would be trained to work on the new equipment. When Joe introduced this change to his workers, they were not impressed with the idea. He had to work hard to sell change to them because they were poorly educated and it took time for them to understand the reasons for change. In the end, however, the change was implemented smoothly. Three years later, Joe was assigned the task of installing a quality control system for a group of technical professionals. He reasoned that the people were educated and, therefore, understood the need for the system. He made no special selling efforts. His mistakes resulted in employees resisting change until the change program was defeated. Joe lost his job. Form two teams. Based on the above scenario, each team needs to brainstorm for possible solutions for successfully installing a new quality control system. List your finding and share them with the rest of the class.
 

   3  Promoting creativity improves customer satisfaction because employees come up with better ways to get things done. What are the other areas where promoting creativity can be beneficial?    4  Discuss the following statement: Employees often become so familiar with a particular area that they begin to overlook obvious problems.

Topic B:   Commitment
Explanation                 Everyone involved with a change must be committed to it and its goals in order for the change to be successful. When gaining support for a change, you need to establish commitment for its success and for the consequences if it fails. Establishing this commitment ensures that employees will not lose interest or back away from their responsibilities.

Develop commitment
You cannot take an employee’s commitment to change for granted, and building it is not an easy task. However, there are two guidelines that can help:

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·    Respond to employee commitment levels ·    Remain patient when implementing the change Employee commitment levels Employees respond to change both intellectually and emotionally. Most employees understand a change intellectually and form an opinion about it before they emotionally accept it. When developing your implementation strategy, you need to take into consideration the differences between these two levels of their concerns. When possible, you must balance the intellectual and emotional commitment levels required from employees when implementing a change. When employees do not accept a change, their commitment levels toward the organization drop. Remain patient Remaining patient when implementing change allows time to encourage open communication, involve employees, foster empowerment, and develop relationships in order to increase commitment to the change. Commitment takes time to achieve. However, once you begin to develop commitment in your employees, you’ll be able to gain the support needed for the change. Do it!                    B-1:    Developing commitment

Exercises
   1  Employees respond to change both intellectually and emotionally. True or false?    2  In this dialog, Mr. Matthews (manager) and Dennis (employee) are sitting at a table. Dennis : (curious) I thought that the new computer network would have been up and running by now. Mr. Matthews : (explaining ) That was what we originally wanted to do, but we decided to take a little more time in order to facilitate the upgrade. Dennis : (confused ) What do you mean? Mr. Matthews : (explaining ) We decided to connect the departments in increments instead of all at once. This way we can take more time to train the employees and get their feedback on how the system is working. In what ways can Mr. Matthews’ decision to be patient and take more time to install a new computer network help in building commitment?    3  In this scenario, Timothy was asked to introduce and implement a change in the HR policy for managerial staff. He reasoned that since the target area of the change was a group of educated people, they understood the company’s need for the change. The managers were not happy with the change and were not able to figure out the reason for it. Without taking any measures to help managers accept the change, Timothy implemented the change. Timothy’s mistakes resulted in the employees resisting change, which resulted in delaying the process for a long time. Timothy didn’t understand employee commitment levels and was not patient while implementing the change. What should he have done to implement the change successfully?

Topic C:   Communication
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Explanation                 If you encourage communication during change, you’ll be able to inform employees about the change and the benefits they can receive from it. Communication addresses and eliminates many rumors that employees might have heard about the change. In addition, employees are more likely to support a change when they are informed about it.

Communication guidelines
There are several guidelines to follow when communicating to your employees during a change: ·    Keep the message simple ·    Remain consistent ·    State the change’s goal ·    Provide examples ·    Explain your reasons ·    Tell the truth ·    State your feelings ·    Plan your thoughts ·    Repeat yourself Keep the message simple Focused and jargon-free information reduces time and confusion when communicating about change. Remaining direct and simple in your explanations prevents your employees from drawing false conclusions about the change. Keep your explanations clear and precise. Remain consistent Keeping your messages consistent will eliminate employees’ confusion about a change. Inconsistent messages that contradict one another cause employees to doubt the credibility of the change. State the change’s goal When you communicate about a change to employees, you should relate your message to the change’s overall goal. Employees should understand what the change’s goal is, how it’ll be accomplished, and who’ll benefit from it. Clearly stating the goal establishes credibility and keeps employees focused. Provide examples Using examples allows you to communicate complicated ideas quickly and effectively. It can be difficult to communicate to a large and varied group of employees, but using well-known examples enables you to relate your message more effectively. In addition, well-chosen words and phrases often make your message memorable to employees. Explain your reasons Employees need to understand the reasons for a change in order to become committed to its implementation. Giving the employees as much information as you can reduces their concerns and helps gain their commitment. Tell the truth Employees have to know the truth about a change no matter how unpleasant it might be for them. The more employees understand a change, the less anxious they’ll be about its implementation. If you attempt to evade the truth, your employees will distrust you and the reasons for the change. If you are unable to answer a question for your employees, you should explain why. However, once you do become aware of the answer or any additional information, you should hold another meeting to answer the question and to address any new concerns. In addition, explaining the exact limitations and goals of a change will prevent employees from imagining a worst-case scenario.

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State your feelings Employees are interested in how their superiors feel about a change. Being open about your feelings and concerns can help you gain support for a change. It is important that you remain honest when expressing your thoughts. If employees doubt your sincerity, they’ll question and resist the change. Plan your thoughts You need to determine ahead of time the best method of informing your employees about the change. Planning your thoughts prepares you for employee concerns and frequently allows you to answer their questions before they ask them. Repeat yourself You won’t be able to communicate your entire message at one time. Repeating the information about the change allows you to communicate all your ideas, while allowing employees time to understand the issues involved. Repetition should not be forceful or blatant. You should reiterate information about the change through a brief memo, by spending a few minutes talking about it in a meeting, or by bringing it up briefly in a conversation. However, make sure you are consistent in your message each time you repeat it. Do it!                    C-1:    Communicating during a change

Exercises
   1  Watch the movie clip and answer the question that follows. Mr. Mitchell has used the example of Research and Development in the above conversation. Why do you think he has used this example?    2  In this dialog, Ms. Sawyer (manager), Roger (employee), and Kathy (employee) are sitting around a table. Ms. Sawyer is sitting at the head of the table. Ms. Sawyer : (interested ) So, what do you think about changing the schedules around? Roger : (uncertain ) I suppose it might work. Kathy : (facing Ms. Sawyer, curious) What do you think Ms. Sawyer? Do you feel this’ll improve our department? Ms. Sawyer : (sincere ) I really think that by rearranging the schedule this way, you’ll have the additional time needed for the Jones account. Once that’s completed, you’ll have some extra time to spend with your other accounts. Kathy : (enthused ) Well, you’ve convinced me. Roger : (convinced) I agree, let’s go ahead and start the new schedule on Monday. In the above conversation, Ms. Sawyer states the reason for a change. What do you think she is accomplishing by doing this?    3  Explaining your feelings about a change motivates employees to accept their responsibilities. True or false?

Importance of listening
Explanation                 To be an effective communicator, you need to listen to your employees. You should avoid spending too much time explaining a change and take the time to listen to employees’ concerns. Making an effort to listen helps you identify and address employee problems immediately.

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Demonstrate support by listening There are three ways you can demonstrate support and concern for your employees by listening: 1   Use body language that demonstrates you are listening to the employee. Body language, such as direct eye contact and nodding when appropriate, communicates that you are concerned with the employee’s thoughts and feelings. 2   Encourage conversation with the employee if the employee pauses or hesitates while speaking. Encouraging conversation helps you understand all of the employee’s concerns. 3   Paraphrase the employee’s points. Paraphrasing allows you to repeat, in your own words, what they’ve said and ensures that you’ve understood their entire message. Do it!                    C-2:    Demonstrating support by listening

Exercises
   1  Using body language can demonstrate your concern for employees’ thoughts. True or false?    2  Mr. Matthews (manager) is sitting behind his desk and Dennis (employee) is across from him. Dennis : (ending his thought) And there really isn’t much else to tell. Mr. Matthews : (encouraging) Please continue, Dennis. I’d really like to know what happened next. Dennis : (assuring) No, really, it’s nothing important. Mr. Matthews : (explaining ) Dennis, in order for me to tell you what changes to make, I need to know exactly what happened next. Dennis : (frustrated ) Well, then I went looking for the Gregory file again and it’s still missing. Discuss why the following statement is true. Mr. Matthews demonstrated support for Dennis by listening.
 

   3  Bob is the HR manager of InfoSuper Corp. Smith is an employee of the same organization. Presently, the organization is in the process of restructuring its business. As part of this process, Smith has been transferred to a branch office in London. Enact the following scene: Smith is talking to Bob and telling him about the problems that he will face due to the transfer. He is requesting Bob to cancel his transfer. The instructor will provide you with some more information to help enact the above scene. Here are some discussion topics for after the scene: How do you think Smith felt while talking to Bob? Did it seem that Bob was listening well? Is this important? What could Bob have done to demonstrate support and concern for Smith?
 

The grapevine
Explanation                 The grapevine is the informal communication within an organization. The information that travels in a grapevine tends to travel very quickly since it is unimpeded by organizational constraints. Grapevine management An organization’s grapevine is a natural and unstoppable form of communication in any organization.

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Managers need to be aware of how informal communication travels in their organization in order to control the information in the grapevine. Staying informed of the information in the grapevine allows you to dispel any unsubstantiated and potentially damaging information about a change. Although an organization’s grapevine is usually 80 to 90 percent accurate, you should be aware of what is being said to eliminate any false information. However, you can use the grapevine to your advantage by strategically placing information in it to increase interest in and support for a change. Do it!                    C-3:    Controlling the grapevine

Exercises
   1  Organizations can eliminate grapevines by carefully regulating information. True or false?    2  Watch the movie clip and answer the questions that follow. Why is Mr. Mitchell concerned about the grapevine? What can Mr. Mitchell do to control the grapevine?

Unit summary: Managing change
Topic A                      In this unit, you learned about the ways to encourage creativity. You learned that you can encourage creativity by being open-minded, providing verbal encouragement, rotating employees through positions, holding brainstorming sessions and job improvement meetings, and encouraging experimentation. Topic B                      Next, you learned about the guidelines to develop commitment to change. You learned that you must respond to employees’ emotional and intellectual responses to change and that you must be patient about increasing commitment levels when implementing change. Topic C                     Finally, you learned about the guidelines of communicating with your employees during a change. You learned that you can communicate effectively by creating a simple, consistent message that explains the reasons for and goal of the change. You also learned that it is critical to be truthful and let employees know how you feel about the change. Then you learned about the importance of listening and how listening effectively can demonstrate your support. You also learned how to control the grapevine .

Independent practice activity
Frontline Industries has recently implemented a team-based sales strategy. Several employees are upset about being required to work within a team with access to only one product line. You are meeting with the director of human resources Margaret Hendricks and the director of sales William Burke to: ·    Identify ways to get the employees to commit to the plan. ·    Identify employees’ concerns regarding the change. ·    Identify ways to develop creativity in employees. ·    Identify ways to communicate the reasons for change.
 

  1  Select the guidelines for encouraging employees to commit to a change. A  Respond to employee commitment levels B  Implement a policy that rewards employees for offering creative ideas C  Remain patient when implementing a change D  Plan brainstorming sessions

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  2  Encouraging creativity in employees helps them handle change better. Select the ways to encourage creativity in employees. A  Remain open-minded to new ideas B  Rotate employees through job positions C  Develop implementation strategies D  Hold job improvement meetings E   Discourage employee experimentation   3  Encouraging communication during a change will help you inform employees about the change and the benefits they can expect from it. True or false?
True.

  4  Repeat information about a change to help employees understand the issues involved in the change. True or false?
True.
 

Unit 5 Adapting to change
Unit time: 60 Minutes Complete this unit, and you’ll know how to:
A  Identify the truths and misconceptions about change and

understand the difference between change and transition.
B  Identify the factors that affect the response to change and

list the styles of response.
C  Identify the feelings arising during the endings phase and

identify the strategies to manage the endings phase.

Topic A:   Truths and misconceptions
Explanation                 There are several truths about change that you should understand in order to use change to your advantage: ·    Change is constant. ·    Change is necessary. ·    Change is a catalyst. ·    Change is unpredictable. Change is constant Change is a natural and continual part of the workplace. Factors such as changing technology, competition, and global markets are increasing the importance and pace of change in business.
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Whether change is a result of rightsizing, reorganization, realignment, corporate reinventions, new strategies, or new cultures, it is a pervasive part of today’s workplace. Change is necessary Change is necessary for any sort of growth, renewal, invention, or creativity to occur in the workplace. The absence of change does not bring comfort; it is more accurately a sign of stagnation. Companies must offer new ideas, improvements, and new products to be successful. Change is a catalyst Change is a catalyst that can inspire opportunity or risk, which is why a significant change often feels like a crisis. Change itself is a neutral event, but since it can potentially cause damage, people tend to be alert and careful in times of change. However, it is important to recognize that crisis also includes opportunity, so individuals can emerge from a change stronger. The way in which change affects people is influenced by their perception of change. Since many individuals focus on the risky elements of change, negative reactions are the most common response to change. Change is unpredictable Change is always unpredictable. When a change is instituted in any form, it is almost inevitable that the change will set off a variety of responses in the different systems it touches. It is impossible to know at the outset what these responses will be. Even when a desirable change is made, the outcome is still unpredictable. For example, starting a new job might be a desirable, exciting change, but the result is unpredictable. As a result, starting a new job might make you feel nervous and stressed.

Misconceptions about change
Although change is natural and can occur at any time within an organization, there are some misconceptions that continue to exist about the nature of change: ·    Change is a reaction to problems. ·    Change only affects organizational structure. ·    People adapt to change in the same manner. Change is a reaction to problems A long-standing misconception about change is that it occurs only when an organization reacts to a significant problem. However, organizations do not require that a problem develops in order to begin implementing change—only a desire to improve is necessary. Change only affects organizational structure Another misconception about change is that it only affects an organization’s structure. However, due to the rate of change in the business world today, every area of an organization is constantly changing. To remain competitive, an organization has to adapt to the demands of its market in a variety of ways. Some ways an organization adapts to change include hiring additional employees, enacting new policies, and making financial planning adjustments. People adapt to change in the same manner Change affects people differently. Some individuals embrace change and adapt to it quickly, while others might never adjust. However, the majority of people react to change somewhere between these two extremes. Most people need some time to accept and to adapt to change and might need varying degrees of assistance during the change process. Do it!                    A-1:    Identifying truths and misconceptions

Exercises

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   1  Which of the following is a truth about change? A    People adopt to change in the same manner. B    Change is a reaction to problems. C    Change is predictable. D    Change affects people differently.    2  Which of the following is a misconception about change? A    Change is unpredictable. B    Change is necessary. C    Change is a reaction to problems. D    Change is constant.

Change and transition
Explanation                 Change and transition have different timing patterns. Change is an external event in which there is a logical pattern dictated by the event itself and the decisions of the organization’s leaders. Change events are usually associated with a specific time, such as the date when the merger of two companies is formalized. Transition is an internal process of reorientation. It reflects the period of adjustment during which people come to terms with the consequences of change events. The timing of transition tends to be much less precise than that of change. The timing of transition is defined by where people are in the process, not where the logic of the change indicates. When change does occur in your workplace, there are several characteristics about change that you should keep in mind: ·    There is no beginning without an ending. ·    There is always a period of exploration before any new beginning. ·    There are no shortcuts; transition is rarely orderly. ·    Each transition phase serves a different and important purpose. ·    There are often multiple changes and transitions occurring at the same time.

Transition process
Regardless of whether a change is one that people welcome, oppose, or are ambivalent to, there are three distinct phases that individuals must pass through in order to successfully complete a transition: ·    Endings. In this phase, people must confront the conclusion of familiar things, a task that often means dealing with strong emotions. Before people can consider the future, they must let go of the past and accept the loss of old and familiar ways. ·    Exploration. In the explorations phase, people begin to reorient themselves to the new situation, considering options and opportunities. This phase is typically a time of uncertainty, turmoil, and even chaos. At the same time, it is also a period of opportunity. When people are detached from their familiar ways, remarkably creative responses often emerge. ·    New beginnings. The last phase of transition occurs only after people have made their way successfully through the first two phases. Reaching this last phase shows that people are ready to engage their new situation. At this point, people feel reasonably comfortable about the future and their place in it, and they will begin to assume active roles in the new situation. Determine the affects of change There are three ways you can determine how change is affecting you or your co-workers: ·    Words. Listen to how you or others talk about situations. Listen for phrases that characterize endings, exploration, and new beginnings. The following examples demonstrate transition:

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I just don’t care anymore. (Endings) We missed another deadline this week. (Exploration) I just had this fantastic idea. I don’t know why I never thought of it before. (Exploration) When you get used to the new program, it isn’t half bad. (New beginnings) ·    Actions. Look for indications that transition is affecting people. There are often signs that appear in your co-workers’ actions, such as chronic tardiness, that indicate that they are reacting negatively to the change. The more obvious these signs are, the more likely it is that people are having trouble with transition. ·    Thinking. You should be observant of the way you and others think about or interpret situations. These indications can be seen in both verbal and nonverbal behaviors. For example, an individual might respond sarcastically to a remark or speak enthusiastically about new policies being implemented. Do it!                    A-2:    Understanding the transition process

Exercises
   1  In the ________ phase of the transition process, people must confront the conclusion of familiar things. A    Exploration B    Endings C    New beginnings    2  Change is an ________ event in which there is a logical pattern dictated by the event itself, while transition is an ________ process of reorientation. A    Internal, external B    External, internal
 

   3  In this scenario, Tom, aged 35, is a highly skilled machine operator. He has been working with SSPT Corporation, an automobile component manufacturing company, for the last seven years. SSPT Corporation is an OEM supplier for Dee Dee Motors. Dee Dee Motors has issued new directives for all its suppliers to ensure the quality and reliability of products. According to the directive, the suppliers have to implement Total Quality Management in their organizations. The responsibility of implementing the new policy in SSPT Corporation is with Mr. Smith, the quality control manager. He has started implementing the new policy. As part of this change, Tom and other machine operators need to carry out an additional task of inspecting quality of all the products that they produce. Kathy, who is the Quality Inspector, was the only one doing this work. Tom has been doing the same job for the last seven years and is confused about successfully carrying out the additional task. Tom’s supervisor, Mark, wants him to start with his new responsibility of quality inspection immediately. Tom has started with the new task of inspecting products, but he is having problems in following the new practices properly. To handle such problems, Mr. Smith arranges a training program for the employees to explain the benefits of the change. After the training, Tom is aware of the benefits of the new process and is making sincere efforts to inspect products in addition to his original work. After initial difficulties, he experiences the benefits of the new practice. He can now take instant corrective measures without waiting for the Quality Inspector’s report. The quality of his products has now gone up and instances of rejection and rework have dropped.

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Tom has successfully implemented change. Inspecting products has now become a regular part of his job. Based on the above scenario, identify the phases that Tom passed through to successfully implement change. Where did you see signs of the endings phase? Where did you see signs of the explorations and new beginnings phases?

Topic B:   Factors affecting response
Explanation                 There are a number of factors that can affect your attitude toward change. These factors might cause positive or negative responses: ·    Perception of the change event ·    Possible losses and gains ·    Personal change history ·    Current level of change Perception of the change event The manner in which you perceive your ability to handle a specific change event has a substantial impact on your response to the change. The ability to complete transitions smoothly is enhanced in situations where people feel they possess the ability to manage the change. It is also important to note that when something changes, people do not react to what happened or to what others might have intended to happen. People react to what they think was done or intended. In times of change, perception equals reality. Possible losses and gains When people encounter change situations, most of them take a quick personal survey to determine what they are likely to gain or lose as a result of the change. Their conclusion as to whether the change is a threat or an opportunity will affect their response to the change and their ability to make a transition. Personal change history Your reaction to specific change events is influenced by your cumulative experience of change. People who’ve encountered a great deal of change in their lives might become resilient to change. These people trust their ability to respond to change and interpret it as a valuable skill they’ve developed. This confidence allows them to believe that they’ll successfully deal with change now and in the future. For others, change might not be as positive. People who feel that most of their attempts to adjust to change have been failures will view change as negative. These people have not developed confidence in dealing with change, but instead they have developed a fear of change. Current level of change Since change events are just as likely to occur concurrently as consecutively, it is possible for you to become overwhelmed by change. Your response to change might be negatively affected if you are completing several transitions. The amount of change you are experiencing can make dealing with any one part of it a significant challenge.

Personal change profile
A personal change profile is the sum total of your values, beliefs, and attitudes toward change. It is an inventory of self-knowledge that shows where you stand in relation to change at any given time and explains why you feel that way.

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Assessing your profile can be a calming and reassuring process. You might discover that the discomfort you feel is reasonable and understandable. You might also discover that you are experiencing the effects of several change events. Understanding where you stand with change serves as a baseline to determine if and how you might want to change your profile. Your perception of change is what shapes your transition during a change event. Therefore, the transition you experience is not beyond your influence. By changing your profile, you’ll be able to alter the way you experience change, as shown in Exhibit 5-1. Exhibit 5-1: Change profile

Do it!                    B-1:    Factors affecting response

Exercises
   1  When responding to change, people usually react to what happened or what others intended to happen. True or false?    2  In this scenario, Tom is working with SSPT Corporation, an automobile component manufacturing company. He is a highly skilled machine operator and has been working on a new machine imported two months ago. SSPT Corporation is planning to implement Total Quality Management in the organization. As part of this new change, Tom has been asked to inspect the critical dimensions of the products that he produces. The following are few of Tom’s responses to the above change: A    What am I going to gain by inspecting products myself? B    I have been only into production and have never handled the task of inspection. Do I have the skill to perform the new function? C    The machine on which I am presently working is new. I have not fully familiarized myself with the systems and controls of this machine and now I have to inspect it too! How will I manage all these things? D    I think the decision of asking me to handle the additional task of inspection is meant to extract more work from me. It is part of the cost cutting drive. The inspector currently doing this work might lose his job! Relate each of Tom’s responses to the factor responsible for it.

Response styles
Explanation                 Since people have different personal change profiles, their responses to change will be different. Although people’s reactions to change can be categorized, keep in mind that there are no right or wrong responses. Generally, people respond to change in one of three styles: ·    Innovators ·    Traditionalists ·    Adapters Innovators Innovators are people who embrace change naturally. They make transitions almost automatically and usually before anyone else. Innovators might feel like changes have not come soon enough, and they are frequently the people who’ve initiated the change. Approximately 20 percent of the people in an organization are innovators. Traditionalists

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Traditionalists prefer life to be stable and predictable. These individuals place high importance on maintaining traditions and they might actively resist change. At best, traditionalists find it difficult to adapt to change, and some traditionalists are simply not able to complete transitions. Usually traditionalists account for 20 percent of the people in an organization. Adapters Individuals who are adapters use a wait and see approach to change. They might be hesitant to make a change at first, since they understand the value of tradition. However, they are ultimately willing and able to adapt to change when they encounter it. Since adapters usually account for 60 percent of the people in an organization, it is beneficial to subdivide this category into early, middle, and late adapters. These labels refer to the relative ease with which the individuals deal with change. Transitions are fairly easy for early adapters, but late adapters might have considerable trouble completing them. Do it!                    B-2:    Understanding response styles

Exercises
   1  Adapters can be subdivided into early, middle, and late adapters. True or false?    2  Watch the movie clip and answer the questions that follow. Based on the above conversation, what was Max’s response style? How was his reaction different from other people in his department?

Topic C:   The endings phase
Explanation                 Remember that the endings phase is the first phase of a transition. It involves letting go of familiar things or situations. Since the endings phase is an individual’s initial response to change, it often produces strong emotions.

Emotions
The following are some common feelings that arise during the endings phase: ·    Denial ·    Resistance ·    Guilt Denial Denial is a typical response to the uncertainty that accompanies change. During a change, it is tempting to focus on the things that have stayed the same. This focus gives people a false sense of stability and allows them to deny the need to change. In some cases, it enables people to refuse to admit that a change has even occurred. Resistance Resistance is another common response to change, especially for those individuals who find making a transition very difficult. These people decide that the new rules do not apply to them and simply refuse to go along with them. Individuals who are resisting change frequently display behaviors that are confrontational or argumentative. However, some resistant individuals are passive and act as if they agree with the new policies, but then do nothing to help implement them. Guilt People might have feelings of guilt during the endings phase if some of their co-workers have lost

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their jobs as part of a change. Individuals who experience survivor’s guilt might also feel sadness, anger, or confusion, as shown in Exhibit 5-2. Exhibit 5-2: Feeling of guilt

Needs
If individuals receive the attention they need, they’ll have an easier time coping with this phase of transition. People have two essential needs during the endings phase: ·    Empathy ·    Validation Empathy As an individual experiencing the endings phase, you might find it helpful if others understand how you are feeling. It is important to talk to people who’ll acknowledge your feelings of anger, sadness, or fear. Typically, it is not important for them to agree with you, but simply to listen to what you are saying and to appreciate what you are feeling. Validation During the endings phase, it is easy to interpret change as a personal indictment or a rejection of past practices. You might feel that the work you have done in the past was insufficient, since a change has now been introduced. In this situation, you need validation that the work you have done in the past was valuable. It was right for its time, but now new approaches are required. Do it!                    C-1:    Understanding the endings phase

Exercises
   1  Select the reaction that is a common response to the endings phase of a transition. A    Apathy B    Excitement C    Celebration D    Guilt    2  Which of the following is a need that people have during the endings phase of a transition? A    Understanding B    Validation C    Structure D    Time
 

   3  In this scenario, Tom is a machine operator working with SSPT Corporation. He has been asked to inspect the quality of all the products that he produces. Mary, the Quality Inspector, has done this work in the past. The day Tom was assigned the new task, he expressed his feelings to a friend, Jack, during the lunch break: If I have to inspect goods as well, then Mary might lose her job. I think she does her job well, and this shouldn’t happen to her because of me. As Tom’s manager, what would you do to deal with Tom’s feelings?    4  Discuss the following statement:

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Tom feels guilty, which is common during the endings phase.
 

Management of the endings phase
Explanation                 Although the endings phase can be a difficult and emotional time, there are four strategies you can use to help you ease the process of letting go: ·    Break from the past ·    Clarify the change ·    Seek support from others ·    Help yourself Break from the past The best way to move beyond the past is to acknowledge that there was value in the work you did and the way you did it. Try to separate yourself as a person from the job you have been performing. You need to shift your focus and energy from the past and concentrate on the opportunities and challenges that lay ahead. Sometimes, it is helpful to mark an ending with some form of ceremony. This act can be as simple as clearing your workspace of all the files or other items you no longer need. Clarify the change Clarifying the change and giving it a name can help you accept it and help you through your transition. Make a list of the possible losses and gains that might affect you or your team. Doing so allows you to assess to some degree what aspects of your work will be different. It is also beneficial to list all the positive things that have occurred since the change was implemented. Seek support from others It is important to feel that you have support from others during a transition. You should maintain open communication with significant people in your life regarding your feelings and plans. Talk to people you trust about the changes you are experiencing. Starting a support group with your colleagues can also be beneficial. Help yourself The best way to help yourself through a transition is to allow yourself ample time to adjust. Do not expect your transition to fit within a specific time frame. Try to stay in touch with your own thoughts during this time. It might also be helpful to get involved in a low-risk, high-reward project outside work, such as volunteering for a local charity. Do it!                    C-2:    Managing the endings phase

Exercise
   1  Tom, aged 35, is a highly skilled machine operator. He has been working with SSPT Corporation, an automobile component manufacturing company, for the last seven years. SSPT Corporation is an OEM supplier for Dee Dee Motors. Dee Dee Motors has issued new directives for all its suppliers to ensure the quality and reliability of products. According to the directive, the suppliers have to implement Total Quality Management in their organizations. The responsibility of implementing the new policy in SSPT Corporation is with Mr. Smith, the quality control manager. He has started implementing the new policy. As part of this change, Tom and other machine operators need to carry out an additional task of inspecting quality of all the products that they produce. Kathy, who is the Quality Inspector, was the only one doing this work. Tom has been doing the same job for the last seven years and is confused
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about successfully carrying out the additional task. Tom’s supervisor, Mark, wants him to start with his new responsibility of quality inspection immediately. Tom has started with the new task of inspecting products, but he is having problems in following the new practices properly. To handle such problems, Mr. Smith arranges a training program for the employees to explain the benefits of the change. After the training, Tom is aware of the benefits of the new process and is making sincere efforts to inspect products in addition to his original work. After initial difficulties, he experiences the benefits of the new practice. He can now take instant corrective measures without waiting for the Quality Inspector’s report. The quality of his products has now gone up and instances of rejection and rework have dropped. Tom has successfully implemented change. Inspecting products has now become a regular part of his job. Identify the strategies used by Tom to manage the endings phase. What other strategies could he have used to manage the endings phase in a better way?

Unit summary: Adapting to change
Topic A                      In this unit, you learned about the truths and misconceptions about change. You learned that change is constant, necessary, a catalyst, and unpredictable. You also learned that believing that change is only a reaction, or that is only affects the organizational structure or that everyone reacts in the same manner toward change are all misconceptions about change. Then you learned about the difference between change and transition . You learned that endings, exploration, and new beginnings are the three phases of a transition process. Topic B                      Next, you learned about the factors affecting a response to change. You learned that how you see your ability to handle change, what you gain and lose, how change has affected you in the past, and how many different changes you are experiencing at the time all affect your response to change. You also learned about the three response styles: You learned that people respond as either innovators, traditionalists, or adaptors. Topic C                     Finally, you learned about the feelings that arise during the endings phase. You learned that people might feel denial, guilt, or resistance when going through a change. You learned that validation and empathy are effective ways of coping with change. You also learned about the strategies to manage the endings phase. You learned that you can manage change by letting go of the past and by clarifying the losses and gains resulting from a change, as well as by getting support from others and giving yourself time to adjust.

Independent practice activity
  1  What is the difference between change and transition?
The difference between change and transition is that they’ve different timing patterns. Change is an external event in which there is a logical pattern dictated by the event itself. Transition is an internal process of reorientation. It reflects the period of adjustment during which people come to terms with the consequences of change events.

  2  What are the three phases of transition? A  Endings B  Arrival C  New beginnings D  Begin E   Exploration F   Experimenting   3  The manner in which you perceive your ability to handle a specific change has a substantial

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impact on your response to the change. True or false?
True.

  4  _______ are people who embrace change naturally. A  Traditionalists B  Innovators C  Adapters   5  What are the common feelings that arise during the endings phase? A  Denial B  Resistance C  Comfort D  Guilt E   Contentment   6  People have two essential needs during the endings phase, _____ and _____. A  Empathy B  Validation C  Understanding D  Acknowledgement   7  Clarifying the change and giving it a name can help you accept change and help you through your transition. True or false?
True.  
 

Unit 6 Coping with uncertainty
Unit time: 40 Minutes Complete this unit, and you’ll know how to:
A  Understand the emotions and responses experienced

during the exploration phase, and identify what people need during the exploration phase.
B  Identify the strategies to manage the exploration phase and

identify the steps to manage the uncertainty in the exploration phase.

Topic A:   The exploration phase
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Explanation                 There are three emotions that are often experienced during the exploration phase. Most people go through all three emotions, although the amount of time each person spends in an emotion stage varies.

Emotions
The important thing to remember when feeling each of these emotions is that you should acknowledge them. By simply acknowledging that you are feeling anxious or angry, you’ll be able to pass through the emotion more quickly and move on to the point at which you can accept and embrace the opportunities offered by the change. As shown in Exhibit 6-1, the three emotions are: ·    Anger ·    Fear ·    Depression Anger It is common to feel angry about the change. Employees often feel angry toward the organization for requiring the change and look for a place to direct blame. You might find yourself blaming the organization, members of upper management, your co-workers, or even yourself. Fear Once your feelings of anger have subsided, it is natural to feel anxious about your ability to adapt to the change. The future might seem quite uncertain, and you are likely to question how you’ll fit into the new situation. Depression Finally, you might find yourself feeling depressed about the change. This emotion is natural and to be expected when facing a significant change in the workplace. The key to making it through the depression stage is to express your feelings in an appropriate environment. For example, you might talk about your feelings with co-workers, a trusted supervisor, or a professional counselor from your organization’s human resources department.
 

Exhibit 6-1: Common emotions Do it!                    A-1:    Understanding the exploration phase

True/False
   1  Depression is a common emotion felt by people in the exploration phase of transition. True or false?    2  In this scenario, Bill’s supervisor has offered him the additional work of checking the quality of the products that he produces. Bill has started performing the additional task but is finding it boring and is not comfortable with it. He blames himself for agreeing to his supervisor’s offer. On an average, he commits two inspection errors in a week. This also gives rise to a feeling of anxiety and fear that he might accidentally approve poor quality products. Bill’s friends have noticed that since he took up the additional work, he has become hot tempered. Now, one month after starting product inspection, his anxiety has turned into depression. If you were in Bill’s position, would you have felt similar emotions? Exchange views.

Responses

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Explanation                 The exploration phase is one of conflicting responses. The responses employees have toward change during the exploration phase range from chaos to creativity. For this reason, the exploration phase is one of pronounced confusion. For example, you might find yourself torn between embracing the opportunities of the new situation and the familiarity of the old way of doing things. These conflicting feelings are often quite confusing and make the exploration phase difficult to endure at times. It is not uncommon to feel optimistic and energized at one moment and angry or frustrated the next. Negative symptoms of change Due to the mix of feelings present during the exploration phase, there are negative symptoms of change you might see in your workplace: ·    Teamwork will suffer. Since employees are feeling a variety of emotions, it’ll be difficult for teams to maintain their focus on one mutual goal. ·    Loyalty will waver. Employees might feel particularly uneasy during times of chaos, so their loyalty to the organization might falter. ·    Absenteeism will rise. Since employees might feel less motivated to put forth the effort required to be productive, the rates of absenteeism are likely to increase. ·    Employee morale will drop. Feelings of confusion and frustration, if not addressed, will develop into a significant drop in morale among employees. Positive symptoms of change Fortunately, the chaos that accompanies the exploration phase is balanced by the creativity that is also present during this time. This creativity generates positive symptoms of change: ·    New ideas are generated. The new structures and processes that accompany most changes will offer the opportunity to develop new and better ways to accomplish tasks. ·    New talents are discovered. Employees who take advantage of the opportunities that a change brings are likely to discover that they have new talents. Do it!                    A-2:    Understanding responses

Exercises
   1  Select the answer that represents a positive symptom of a change in the exploration phase. A    New talents are discovered. B    Productivity surpasses expectations. C    Employee morale increases. D    New ideas are generated.    2  Watch the movie clip and answer the question that follows. In the above scenario, Mike forgot to use the updated order numbers. Do you think such mistakes are common in the exploration phase? Why?    3  Due to pronounced confusion during the exploration phase, mixed feelings give rise to negative symptoms, which can affect many things, such as teamwork. What are the other negative symptoms common to this phase?
 

Needs
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Explanation                 There are three needs that must be met in order to help employees endure the exploration phase successfully: ·    Information ·    Communication ·    Structure Information Knowledge is considered power during the exploration phase. You’ll be able to resolve much of the confusion and uncertainty you feel during the exploration phase simply by having accurate and sufficient knowledge about the situation. Employees tend to think the worst about a situation if they do not have accurate information about the need for, the process of, and the progress toward a change. However, if provided with the information about a change, even if it is not pleasant, it is almost always easier for employees to cope with the change. Communication Employees need to feel that their concerns regarding a change are heard and considered during the exploration phase. You’ll feel supportive of a change if there is two-way communication between you and members of upper management who are advocating the change. A workforce going through a change must establish an atmosphere in which you feel comfortable giving feedback to the appropriate individuals about the change. If you do not feel that your opinion matters, you are not likely to embrace a change as a positive experience. Structure During the exploration phase, it might seem that all structures you are familiar with have fallen apart. This lack of structure often intimidates and confuses employees, since most people need a schedule to help direct their efforts. Therefore, it is important that you have a framework to use as a guide, even if it is temporary. Do it!                    A-3:    Understanding needs

Exercises
   1  The reduction in familiar structures during the exploration phase inspires creativity in employees. True or false?    2  In this scenario, Tom is a machine operator working with SSPT Corporation. He needs to carry out an additional task of inspecting quality of all the products that he produces. Tom has started inspecting products in addition to his original task. His manager, Mark, called him to his office to help him carry out the new task successfully. Mark explains to Tom what, exactly, he is expected to do. He provides him with gauges and tools to carry out the task. He also tells him about the inspection schedules and procedures of maintaining records. Mark agrees with Tom to review his progress and provide feedback every Saturday at the close of Tom’s shift. He also removes Tom’s confusion about his immediate boss by saying that Tom will continue to report to him although Mary, the Quality Inspector, who was doing the same job earlier, was reporting to Smith, the Quality Control Manager. Tom comes out of Mark’s office relaxed. What needs of Tom were being addressed by Mark? What could have been the consequences of not meeting these needs?

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Topic B:   Management of the exploration phase
Explanation                 There are several things you can do that will help you manage the exploration phase. Each of these efforts will help you focus on the positive aspects of the change: ·    Accept the need to move forward ·    Identify the company’s vision ·    Gain a sense of control ·    Challenge yourself Accept the need to move forward The most important thing that you must do in order to manage the exploration phase is to accept the need to move forward. Remind yourself that once change occurs, things can never be the same again. Therefore, your only realistic option is to keep moving forward. Focus on the gains and opportunities change offers, since it is usually much easier to move forward when you anticipate rewards. Identify the company’s vision Companies can help their employees adapt to a change by presenting a vision of the organization’s future. However, if your company has not done this, you should attempt to identify the vision on your own. Try to identify what the priorities and objectives will be, whether essential skills will be redefined, and from where future growth and profitability will come. The more you learn or even assume about the company’s future, the more likely you are to identify interesting opportunities for yourself. Gain a sense of control Find ways to assert some degree of control over the situation. Change creates a loss of control by launching you into unfamiliar new territory, so you need to reestablish a sense of control. Identify and focus on things you can control and, to the extent that it is possible, try to ignore anything over which you have no control. Specifically, you might find that setting priorities for yourself, identifying options that are available, and determining new ways to make yourself valuable in the changed environment will help you establish a degree of control. Challenge yourself Change tests many things: your skills, experience, flexibility, and determination. In order to grow from the exploration phase, you need to face each of these challenges. Establish a set of personal development objectives in order to challenge yourself. For example, perhaps the change your company is undergoing requires the installation and use of several new types of software. One of your personal development objectives could be to become proficient in each of the programs in order to increase your chances for promotion.

Manage the uncertainty
You also need to take measures in order to manage the uncertainty, anxiety, and stress you might feel during the exploration phase. Fortunately, there are steps you can take that will help you through this phase: ·    Talk it out ·    Solve problems ·    Exercise ·    Be organized Talk it out

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One of the best things you can do for yourself when going through the stress of the exploration phase is to talk to others about your feelings. Don’t keep your feelings to yourself and expect to feel better about the situation eventually. Talk about your concerns with people you trust and respect. You might gain new perspectives that will lead you to creative solutions to the problems you might be experiencing with the change. In addition, talk to others about their problems. Sometimes hearing what is happening to your coworkers puts your issues into a new perspective. Solve problems One of the most effective ways to solve the problems you encounter during the exploration phase is to analyze the situations that stress you and avoid them. You cannot always avoid stressful people and situations completely, since they are part of the job. Analyze the biggest stress creators at work and think about ways to minimize them. Pay particularly close attention to any recurring sources of stress to determine how you can break the cycle. Exercise Exercising releases pent-up anxiety and strengthens the body, enabling you to better withstand the stress that accompanies the exploration phase. Simply walking more often is an easy way to fit some exercise into a busy schedule. Be organized Being organized will help you keep track of the tasks you need to accomplish during a change. It is easy to lose track of your progress with all the chaos that exists during the exploration phase, so choose a planning system and use it. Do it!                    B-1:    Managing uncertainty

Exercises
   1  In this dialog, Julie Edwards (customer service representative) and Mike Becker (customer service representative) are sitting in Mike’s office. Julie: (apologetic ) Mike, here’s the report you needed. I’m sorry it’s late, but this new process we’re using is really hard to get used to. Mike : (understanding) I know what you mean. It can be really difficult, but I decided just to focus on the benefits the new team-based structure will give us. Julie: (neutral ) That’s a good attitude to have. Mike : (reassuring ) It’s easier to get through the frustrating parts of this change by keeping in mind that eventually this new structure will provide everyone new responsibilities and more input on decisions. How does the above conversation with Mike help Julie manage the uncertainty of the exploration phase?    2  Two steps that can be taken to manage the uncertainty, anxiety, and stress that you can feel during the exploration phase are exercising and being organized. What are the other steps?

Unit summary: Coping with uncertainty
Topic A                      In this unit, you learned about the common emotions and responses experienced during the exploration phase. You learned that anger, fear, and depression are all emotions associated with
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change. You also learned that people respond to change in both positive and negative ways. Then you learned about peoples’ needs during the exploration phase. You learned that information, communication, and structure are essential to help people weather change. Topic B                      Finally, you learned about the strategies to manage the exploration phase. You learned that moving forward, knowing the company’s vision for the outcome, regaining a sense of control, and challenging yourself are ways to manage this phase. You also learned about managing the uncertainty in this phase by talking to others, analyzing stressful situations to solve problems, exercising to relieve stress, and staying organized.

Independent practice activity
You are meeting the district manager, Brad Elliot, and the account executives, Melissa Brown and Patty Chen, to discuss the recent merger of two Icon product lines. This meeting focuses on: ·    The common emotions experienced during the exploration phase of transition. ·    People’s needs during the exploration phase. ·    Identifying the strategies to manage the uncertainty of the exploration phase.
 

  1  Employees often feel angry toward the organization for requiring the change and look for a place to direct blame. True or false?
True.

  2  You’ll be able to resolve much of the confusion and uncertainty you feel during the exploration phase by having accurate and sufficient knowledge about the situation.
True.

  3  To manage the stress of the exploration phase, you should: A  Avoid listening to others’ problems B  Talk to people you trust C  Focus on your work D  Keep your feelings to yourself
 

Unit 7 Moving forward
Unit time: 40 Minutes Complete this unit, and you’ll know how to:
A  Identify the information required and the common

responses to the new beginnings phase and identify what people need during this phase.
B  Identify the strategies and communication guidelines to

manage the new beginnings phase.

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Topic A:   The new beginnings phase
Explanation                 The new beginnings phase starts when people are able to relate to the change that has occurred and make a commitment to implement the change. Remember that change is an external, logical pattern that is dictated by an event or an organization’s leaders. Once all the elements of a change have been completed, nothing happens until the employees are able to dedicate their energies to making the change happen.

Information
Since part of the new beginnings phase is lending support to the new system brought about by a change, you should have enough information to feel comfortable providing your support. You should understand the reason for the change and know what the new goals are. Be sure you have enough information, so that you understand how you’ll meet these new goals. Knowing this information will help you find your place within the new environment. Recognize the new beginnings phase When you’ve reached the new beginnings phase, you’ll feel yourself starting to settle in to your new environment. You’ll care more about your work and your organization. You might still feel nervous, but this feeling will be accompanied by excitement about the opportunities that lie before you. Do it!                    A-1:    Understanding the new beginnings phase

True/False
   1  When you’ve reached the new beginnings phase of a transition, you might feel optimistic and energized one moment and frustrated or angry the next moment. True or false?
 

Responses
Explanation                 In the final phase of transition, people begin to recommit themselves to their workplace in its new and changed form. As people reorient themselves, they put negative feelings behind them, as shown in Exhibit 7-1. Employees’ activities are marked by actions directed toward achieving success in their new setting. As people set new priorities, identify new goals, and develop new alliances, their perspective shifts from the past to the future. People feel more enthusiastic and energetic than they have since the change began.
 

Exhibit 7-1: Common responses

Needs
Explanation                 The needs of people in the new beginnings phase are elements that are important throughout a transition period, but are especially critical here. There are two needs that help employees successfully complete their transitions: ·    Participation ·    Alignment Participation At this point in a transition, it is time for employees to stop analyzing the change. The new beginnings phase is the time to start translating ideas into action. People need to be given an opportunity to participate. In addition, employees need to make a personal commitment to get involved and stay active. Alignment Employees’ responses to change affect and are affected by the other employees around them. As you

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start to connect with the future in the new beginnings phase, you need to gain a sense of whether your response to the change is consistent or compatible, but not necessarily the same as, the goals and objectives of the organization. Do it!                    A-2:    Understanding needs

Exercises
   1  Watch the movie clip and answer the question that follows. The conversation fulfils the requirements of participation and new alignment to goals for the people in the new beginnings phase. Why are these requirements so important?    2  Select the answer that represents one of the needs people have in the new beginnings phase. A    Understanding B    Recognition C    Participation D    Control

Topic B:   Management of the new beginnings phase
Explanation                 There are several things you can do that will help you manage the new beginnings phase. Each of these efforts are steps that will help you successfully complete your transition: ·    Take practical action ·    Develop new alliances ·    Maintain a positive attitude ·    Reward yourself Take practical action The new beginnings phase is the time to start thinking in terms of specific action and setting firm time frames in which to focus on the new opportunities that lie ahead. It might be beneficial at this time to list steps that you need to complete to continue moving forward. Then, you can translate your ideas into action. This phase of transition is also a good time to make proactive decisions about your future and to set new priorities if needed. You can also decide what you want your new work patterns to be, instead of just letting routines establish themselves haphazardly. Use this time to commit to taking an active role in managing your career. Develop new alliances The new beginnings phase is the time to connect or re-connect with your new environment. This task will consist mostly of building new networks and creating new alliances as you begin to understand where you fit into the new system. Developing a network is usually a natural process in any career. As you are assigned new tasks, you identify resources that can help you complete the tasks. At the same time, others will seek you out as a resource to help with their tasks. However, when you’ve experienced an abrupt change, you’ll need to create new alliances as quickly as possible to work productively in the new system. You can frequently find opportunities for developing these new alliances through company meetings and seminars. However, the responsibility for developing a new support structure ultimately falls on you. Do not be afraid to reach out to others. Realize that they are likely to be just as interested in creating new and useful alliances as you are. Maintain a positive attitude
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Although the new beginnings phase is the last step in your transition process, expect that there’ll still be some frustrations. During this time, it is helpful to stay in touch with your feelings and maintain a positive attitude. Help yourself be optimistic by visualizing success. Also, be aware that new stress factors might develop. Take notice of all the differences surrounding you and listen carefully to your manager, your co-workers, and yourself in order to identify these sources of stress. Reward yourself Since you’ve already completed the majority of your transition, it is time to reward yourself. Do something to celebrate the progress you’ve made. Slow down and enjoy the newness and take time for yourself, as shown in Exhibit 7-2. Exhibit 7-2: Reward yourself

Communication guidelines
The manner in which you communicate with others in your workplace will influence how well you manage the new beginnings phase. Follow these guidelines in order to communicate in a way that is conducive to a positive experience during this time: ·    Be honest about your feelings ·    Do not delay offering your feedback ·    Avoid placing blame Be honest about your feelings You need to be honest about how you feel about the change and the new procedures that have been put into place to be able to implement them. Let members of upper management know if you feel there are ways to improve the current conditions. The decision makers of your organization want the change to be successful; so do not feel that you have to withhold any criticism you have about the change. Let the appropriate people know if you have a valid concern about an aspect of the change, as well as any ideas you might have to address the issue. Do not delay offering your feedback If you have feedback to offer about a particular element of the change, speak up. Don’t withhold your feedback for fear that your suggestions are not helpful. You might have feedback that could prove to be valuable to upper management and will help address a problem that developed due to the change. Avoid placing blame When you are communicating with others about the change, keep your comments professional. Maintain a professional and positive tone, particularly if you are offering feedback to members of upper management about the change. Do not place blame on any member of your organization if a problem has developed during the implementation of the change. You should provide only constructive feedback that will benefit your organization. Do it!                    B-1:    Understanding communication guidelines

Exercises
   1  To communicate effectively in the new beginnings phase, withhold your feedback until you are sure it is wanted. True or false?    2  Enact the following scene. In the scene, Lora (employee) stops by Ms. Richter’s (manager) office. Lora is carrying her coat and it is obvious that she is leaving for the day. Lora: (knocking on the door, straightforward ) Ms. Richter, can I talk to you

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for a minute? Ms. Richter : (curious, looking up from her paperwork) Sure, is there something I can help you with, Lora? Lora: (respectfully) Actually, I was wondering if I could set a time to meet with you tomorrow. I’ve some concerns about the team assignments that I was hoping I could discuss with you. Ms. Richter : (concerned ) Sure, I’d be happy to meet with you. What time tomorrow would be good for you? Lora: (suggesting ) Well, I have a client coming in at 10—could we meet after that? Say, after lunch sometime? Ms. Richter : (checking her day planner) I’ve a pretty busy morning planned tomorrow, but my afternoon looks open. Why don't you stop by at 2? Lora: (sincerely) Okay, I’ll see you then.
 

Lora is sharing her concern about an aspect of change. What might happen if she doesn’t? Ms. Richter promptly schedules the meeting. How could a delay effect the new beginnings phase? What should Lora do during the meeting?

Unit summary: Moving forward
Topic A                      In this unit, you learned about the information that is required during the new beginnings phase. You learned that understanding the need for the change and knowing what the new goals are allows you to lend your support to the change. You also learned about the common responses and the needs of people during this phase. You learned that your perspective shifts towards the future during this phase as you release the past. You also learned that participation and alignment with new goals is necessary to complete this phase. Topic B                      Finally, you learned about the strategies to manage the new beginnings phase. You learned that taking practical action, developing new alliances, maintaining a positive attitude, and rewarding yourself are all strategies to help you manage this phase. You also learned that communication is critical. You learned that you should be open about your feelings, avoid delaying any feedback you have, and avoid blaming others when communicating about the change and its effects.

Independent practice activity
You are meeting the vice president of marketing, Phyllis Bannon, and the product manager, Robin Carlson, to discuss the restructuring of your department. In this meeting, you’ll: ·    Identify people’s needs during the new beginnings phase of transition. ·    Identify the strategies to manage the new beginnings phase. ·    Identify the guidelines for communicating during the new beginnings phase.
 

  1  In the new beginnings phase, employees should stop analyzing the change. True or false?
True.

  2  What are the steps that will help you to successfully complete the new beginnings phase of transition?
The steps to successfully complete the new beginnings phase of transition are to take practical action, develop new alliances, maintain a positive attitude, and reward yourself.

  3  The two needs that help employees successfully complete their transitions are ________ and
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________. A  Understanding and time B  Understanding and alignment C  Time and participation D  Participation and alignment   4  While communicating with others about the change, you should maintain a professional and positive tone, particularly if you are offering feedback to members of upper management about the change. True or false?
True.

  5  Some of the strategies you can use to manage the new beginnings phase include rewarding yourself and developing new alliances. True or false?
True.

  6  Select the strategy that can help you manage the new beginnings phase and make proactive decisions about your future. A  Identify the company’s vision B  Talk with your co-workers C  Identify facts about the change D  Take practical action
 

Change Management Course summary
This summary contains information to help you bring the course to a successful conclusion. Using this information, you will be able to:
A  Use the summary text to reinforce what you’ve learned in

class.
B  Determine the next courses in this series (if any), as well

as any other resources that might help you continue to learn about Change Management.

Topic A:   Course summary
Use the following summary text to reinforce what you’ve learned in class. It is not intended as a script, but rather as a starting point.

Change Management
Unit 1 In this unit, you learned about the levels of change and the common misconceptions about change. Next, you learned about the benefits of change and the areas where change is essential . You also learned about ways to promote change successfully and about the behaviors and traits required to

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implement change. Finally, you learned about resilience and its role during change. Unit 2 In this unit, you learned about the steps of a change process and the steps for analyzing a situation. You also learned about the important aspects of change. Next, you learned about the steps to choose an action and how to implement the action . You also learned about the ways to create a sense of urgency, set goals , motivate employees, delegate , and prevent failure . Finally, you learned about the methods of monitoring the progress of change. Unit 3 In this unit, you learned about the causes of resistance and the negative reactions to change. You also learned how to empower employees and ease the tension created by change. Next, you learned about the causes of complacency in an organization. Finally, you learned about the crisis and how to prevent a crisis . Unit 4 In this unit, you learned about the ways to encourage creativity. You learned about the guidelines to develop commitment to change. Next, you learned about the guidelines of communicating with employees during a change and the importance of listening . Finally, you learned about the grapevine . Unit 5 In this unit, you learned about the truths and misconceptions about change and the difference between change and transition . You also learned about the three phases of a transition . Next, you learned about the factors affecting a response to change. You also learned about the response styles. Finally, you learned about the feelings that arise during the endings phase and discussed strategies to manage it. Unit 6 In this unit, you learned about the common emotions, responses, and needs experienced during the exploration phase. You also learned about strategies to manage the exploration phase and the uncertainty that surrounds it. Unit 7 In this unit, you learned about the information required during the new beginnings phase. You also learned about the common responses and needs of people during this phase. Finally, you learned about the strategies to manage the new beginnings phase and the communication guidelines to apply during it.

Topic B:   Continued learning after class
It is impossible to learn to use any skill effectively in a single day. To get the most out of this class, it is important that you begin making use of the Quality Management techniques you’ve learned as soon as possible. Course Technology also offers resources for continued learning.

Next courses in this series
This is the only course in this series.

Other resources
Course Technology’s sister company, NETg, offers a full line of online and computer-based courses on Quality Management and a variety of other subjects. For more information, visit www.netg.com. This course maps precisely to the following two NETg courses: ·    Change Management: Adapting to Change ·    Change Management: Managing Change

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Glossary
Grapevine The informal communication within an organization. Resilience The ability of an employee or an organization to recover swiftly from change.  

 

Index
A
Action Implementing, 2-10 Steps in, 2-7 Adapters, 5-10 Advocates, 2-5 Analyzing a situation, 2-3

C
Change Areas of, 1-7 Aspects of, 2-4 Importance of, 1-6 Leading, 1-10 Levels of, 1-2 Misconceptions of, 1-3 Change and transition, Difference between, 5-4 Change process, Steps of, 2-2 Checkpoints, 2-15 Commitment, Developing, 4-5 Communication guidelines, 4-7 Complacency, Causes of, 3-7 Creativity, Encouraging, 4-2 Crises preparation, 3-11 Crisis management, 3-9

D
Driving forces, 2-8

E
Empowering employees, 3-5 Endings, 5-4 Endings phase, 5-12

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Endings phase, Management of, 5-14 Exploration, 5-4 Exploration phase, 6-2 Management of, 6-7

F
Failure prevention, 2-14

G
Goal setting, 2-12 Grapevine management, 4-11

I
Innovators, 5-10

L
Listening, 4-10

M
Misconceptions about change, 5-3 Monitoring progress, 2-15

N
Negative reactions, 3-3 New beginnings, 5-4 New beginnings phase, 7-2 Management of, 7-5

P
Progress, Monitoring, 2-15

R
Regular reports, 2-15 Resilience, 1-12 Resistance, Causes of, 3-2 Response factors, 5-7 Response styles, 5-10 Restraining forces, 2-8

S
Sponsors, 2-4

T
Target area, 2-5 Traditionalists, 5-10 Transition process, 5-4 Truths about change, 5-2

U
Uncertainty, Managing, 6-8  
 

 

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