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Kruti P. Thakore et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST)

LOW POWER AND LOW JITTER PHASE FREQUENCY DETECTOR FOR PHASE LOCK LOOP

KRUTI P. THAKORE

Electronics and communication department, L D R P institute of technology, Gandhinagar, India

HARIKRISHNA C. PARMAR

ECC Department, C K Pithawalla collage of Engg. & technology, Surat , Gujarat

Dr.N.M. DEVASHRAYEE

PG Co-ordinator, VLSI Design, EC Branch Nirma University, Ahmedebad, India

Abstract:

This paper presents three types of phase frequency detectors – traditional PFD, modified PFD and high speed PFD. With the comparison of Low power and low jitter phase frequency detector the high speed phase frequency detector is the best candidate for this. High speed phase frequency detector is operated at 1GHz input frequency with 1.8v power supply, power consumption of .39nwatt and jitter is only 2ps. The design is simulated with .35µm CMOS technology.

Keywords:, Low Power, Low Jitter PLL

1. Introduction

In recent years, the design of low power and low jitter PLL for the different application has become one of the greatest challenges in high-performance very large scale integration (VLSI) design. As a consequence, many techniques have been introduced to minimize the power consumption and reduction in jitter of new VLSI circuits. Integrated phase-locked loops (PLL's) play the versatile roles in the applications of clock generator, time synchronization and clock multiplication. A typical Phase Lock Loop architecture is depicted [2]. It consists of a phase frequency detector (PFD), a charge pump, a loop filter, a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) and a frequency divider. [6] [7] Each building block contributes to the PLL output timing jitter, so improved circuit of phase frequency detector is proposed in this paper for low jitter and low power. The methodology of low-jitter PLL design has been developed in recent years. The jitter of PLL primarily is contributed from the reference clock, phase frequency detector, supply noise, substrate noise, charge pump circuit and VCO internal noise. [1] [8] However, power-supply noise generated by large switching digital circuits perturbs the analog circuits used in the PLL. The output clock period may change with the power-supply noise and with other sources of noise (for example, thermal noise in MOS devices). It is common to refer to this change as jitter, which is the variation of the clock period from one cycle to another cycle compared to the average clock period.[9] The clock jitter directly affects the maximum running frequency of the circuit because it reduces the usable cycle time. When the clock period is small, the digital circuits in the critical path may not have enough usable time to process the data in one period, resulting in the failure of the circuit. Power consumption is also a limiting factor in VLSI integration for portable applications. The resulting heat dissipation also limits the feasible packaging and performance of the VLSI chip [5]. Since the dynamic power dissipation in synchronous digital integrated circuit is determined by CV2f, reducing the supply voltage is an effective way to reduce power consumption of the modern electronic systems. [4]

ISSN : 0975-5462

Vol. 3 No. 3 March 2011

1998

Kruti P. Thakore et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST)

The paper is organized as follows. Section II contains three types of phase frequency detector circuits with comparison table of jitter and power consumption. Section III describes the experimental results with comparison tables. Section IV concludes the best PFD with low jitter, low power and explores the future scope.

  • 2. Low Power and Lowe Jitter Phase Frequency Detector For PLL

Phase frequency detector is the very first block of the PLL. It is very important block for PLL. PFD having two inputs – clock reference (clkref) and clock from voltage control oscillator (clkvco).Two outputs – UP signal and DWN signal. Input to the PFD is from the reference clock and second input is from the feedback signal coming from VCO. The outputs are connected to the charge pump to generate the related control signal for VCO. Three types of phase frequency detectors are described here to reduce jitter and power consumption for phase lock loop are categorized in following subsections.

2.1. Traditional Phase Frequency Detector

The tradition Phase Frequency Detector having two D-flip flop and a AND Gate in the reset path. [3] As this traditional PFD is designed in CMOS .35µm technology the out put of D flip flop is inverted output so, in place of AND Gate in the design NOR Gate is used to get the proper output. Implementation of D Flip-flop and NOR gate is as shown in the figure. Input to the PFD is form the reference clock which is the system clock or the processor clock. The range of the clock is normally mega hertz .The tradition PFD in this paper is operated at 50 MHz frequency.

Kruti P. Thakore et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST) The paper
Kruti P. Thakore et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST) The paper

Fig 1. Signal Transaction

Fig 2. Dead Zone

From the figure 1, signal transaction, when clkref signal is going high it will charge the upper D flip flop and resulting in changing the UP signal to high. Same for clkvco, when clkvco signal is going high it will result the DWN signal changing to high. This will result both the inputs of AND gate high and make the reset signal high to make both outputs low. It is known as the lock condition for the PFD when both the outputs of PFD – UP signal and DWN signal are low. When clkref is leading it will result the UP signal high as shown in figure 1, same for clkvco result the DWN signal high. The width of the UP signal or DWN signal is the measure of error. With the use of this error the control voltage is generated and then that will correct out the frequency difference between input CLK and the clock coming from the VCO from feedback path of the PFD.

Figure 2 shows the lock condition of the PFD with dead zone. Dead zone is due to small phase error, when both the input signals of PFD are very close to each other but output signals are not able to generate this error it will create the dead zone problem. Dead zone is due to the delay time of the logic components of digital circuit and the reset time that requires by the reset path to reset the flip flop of the PFD.

ISSN : 0975-5462

Vol. 3 No. 3 March 2011

1999

Kruti P. Thakore et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST)

Kruti P. Thakore et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST) Figure 3.

Figure 3. Implementation of Traditional PFD

Figure 4. Traditional PFD at 50 MHz

In this case the sensitivity of the means the smallest difference the PFD can detect and produce at the output UP or DOWN signal. This lead to the conclusion that the higher the sensitivity the better the PFD. One of the disadvantages that the tradition PFD suffers is dead-zone. Dead-zone is a small difference in the phase of the inputs that a PFD will not be able to detect. Due to dead zone jitter will produce at the output.

Kruti P. Thakore et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST) Figure 3.

Figure 5.

Dead Zone of Traditional PFD

For actual result we can see figure 5. The implementation is using CMOS 0.35μm technology with 1.8v as a supply voltage. The input CLK frequency is 50 MHz. The power consumption of this PFD is 45.5 μW and the NOR gate needs around 80 Pico seconds to charge up and be able to reset both flip-flops so, the size of the dead zone is 70 Pico second. The disadvantage of this traditional PFD is that the reset path with NOR gate which increases the dead zone and it will result in jitter. So, modification has been done with this design to reduce the power consumption and the size of the dead zone.

  • 2.2. Modified PFD with Modified D flip flop

In this type of PFD the reset path is modified. The inputs signals –clkref and clkvco are directly connected to the reset signal of another D flip flop as shown in the figure 11. The NOR gate in the reset path is eliminated and so the dead zone is reduced. With the modified circuit of D flip flop the reset time is reduced and so the jitter is reduced. The circuit of D flip flop is modified. The implementation is using CMOS .35um technology as shown in figure 6. When the clkref input signal is leading the UP output signal results high and when DWN signal is leading it will result DWN signal high. Figure 7 shows the simulated output of modified PFD at 50MHz input frequency. Figure shows both the input signals – clkref and clkvco are at same time so, both the output signals - UP signal and DWN signal are low. Figure 7 shows the lock condition of the modified PFD at 50MHz and the power consumption is 2.06nW @ 50 MHz which is reduced compare to traditional PFD. With the use of modification in the reset path and the circuit of the D flip flop power consumption is reduced.

ISSN : 0975-5462

Vol. 3 No. 3 March 2011

2000

Kruti P. Thakore et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST)

Kruti P. Thakore et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST) Figure 6.

Figure 6. Implementation of Modified PFD

Kruti P. Thakore et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST) Figure 6.

Figure 7. Modified PFD at 50 MHz

Kruti P. Thakore et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST) Figure 6.

Fig 8. Dead Zone of Modified PFD

With this new modified circuit of PFD the power consumption is reduced and the dead zone is also reduced. With the figure 8 the reduced dead zone is observed. In this type of modified PFD 35ps of dead zone is achieved. So, the output jitter is reduced with this circuit of modified PFD. Still the dead zone is high so, the new technique is introduced which is known as high speed PFD with the total elimination of the reset path. With the elimination of reset path the reset time is reduced. By this technique the jitter is reduced. The high speed phase frequency detector is introducing in next section.

2.3. A High Speed PFD

Still improvement is possible with high speed PFD which is another way to reduce the power consumption and the jitter. In this circuit two invertors and NAND gates are added. The implementation of the high speed PFD with CMOS .35µm technology is as shown in the figure 9. In this PFD high speed is also achieved by detection of both the rising and falling edges of input signals. The pre-simulated output of this high speed PFD is shown in figure10, 11, and 12. These three conditions – lock condition, clkref leading and clkvco leading are at 50MHz. figure 10 shows the lock condition with UP and DWN signals low. In this case the UP and DWN signals are ground with very small spicks in place of pluses compare to modified PFD. Figure 11 and 12 show the input leading signal condition. The resulted output shows the corresponding UP or DWN signal high with the value of error generated between two input frequency signals.

ISSN : 0975-5462

Vol. 3 No. 3 March 2011

2001

Kruti P. Thakore et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST)

Kruti P. Thakore et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST) Figure 9.

Figure 9. Implementation of High Speed PFD

Kruti P. Thakore et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST) Figure 9.

Figure 11. High Speed PFD at 50 MHz (CKLOUT Leading)

Kruti P. Thakore et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST) Figure 9.

Figure 10. High Speed PFD at 50 MHz (Lock Condition)

Kruti P. Thakore et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST) Figure 9.

Figure 12. High Speed PFD at 50 MHz (CKLREF Leading)

The high speed phase frequency detector is simulated at 50MHz input frequency with power consumption of .87nw. This is the smallest power consumption achieved compare to other two types of phase frequency detectors.

Kruti P. Thakore et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST) Figure 9.

Figure 13. Dead Zone of High Speed PFD (at 50MHz)

From the simulated results as shown in figure 13 the dead zone is only 14 ps. So the dead zone is approximately zero and very small power consumption can be achieved by high speed phase frequency detector. So this is the best candidate for the PFD block for low power and low jitter phase lock loop. Now in this paper with the same PFD the range of the clkref signal which is the input clock of the PFD is increased from 50 MHz to 100 MHz and finally with the 1GHz frequency range the power consumption and the jitter is calculated.

ISSN : 0975-5462

Vol. 3 No. 3 March 2011

2002

Kruti P. Thakore et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST)

Kruti P. Thakore et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST) Figure 14.

Figure 14. High Speed PFD at 100MHz

Kruti P. Thakore et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST) Figure 14.

Figure 15. Dead Zone of High Speed PFD (at 100MHz)

As shown in figure 14 the high speed PFD is at input frequency 100 MHz. This figure shows the lock condition of the high speed PFD. Power consumption of high speed phase frequency detector is .48nwatt @ 100MHz frequency. From the figure 15 the dead zone can be observed. The dead zone of the high speed PFD at 100MHz is 6ps.

Kruti P. Thakore et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST) Figure 14.

Figure 16. High Speed PFD at 1GHz

Kruti P. Thakore et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST) Figure 14.

Figure 17. Dead Zone of High Speed PFD (at 1GHz)

Here figure 16 shows the simulated output of high speed phase frequency detector at 1GHz input frequency lock condition. Power consumption of high speed PFD at 1GHz input frequency is .39nwatt. Form the figure 17 the dead zone of this PFD can be observed. Dead zone of high speed PFD at 1GHz is only 2ps. This is the approximate zero jitter for the phase lock loop contributed by high speed phase frequency detector.

  • 3. Experimental results with comparison tables

TABLE I. Comparison of three types of PFD for jitter and power at 50MHz

PFD

JITTER

POWER

Traditional PFD

70ps

45.5μW

Modified PFD

35ps

2.06nW

High Speed PFD

14ps

.87nw

TABLE II .Comparison of jitter and power for high speed PFD with different frequency

 

FREQUENCY

JITTER

POWER

 

50MHz

14ps

.87nwatt

100MHz

6ps

.48nwatt

1GHz

2ps

.39nwatt

ISSN : 0975-5462

Vol. 3 No. 3 March 2011

2003

Kruti P. Thakore et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST)

Conclusion

This paper has presented three types of phase frequency detectors – traditional, modified and high speed. With comparison of these three PFD for low jitter and power the high speed phase frequency detector is the best candidate for this. At 1GHz input frequency with 1.8v power supply the power consumption is only .39nwatt and jitter is only 2ps. The design is simulated with .35µm CMOS technology.

References

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Wen-Chi Wu,C,h ih-Chien Huung, Chih-Hsiung Chang'. and Nui-Heng Tseng:”Low power CMOS PLL for clock generator.”IEEE

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International synopsis on circuits and systems,2003,vol-1,PP.I-633-I-636 Xintian Shi, Kilian Imfeld, Steve Tanner, Michael Ansorge and Pierre-André Farine:”A Low-Jitter and Low-Power CMOS PLL for

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Clock Multiplication” IEEE ,solid state circuits,2006,pp. 174-177 Mhd Zaher Al Sabbagh, B.S.: 0.18μm Phase / Frequency Detector and Charge Pump Design for Digital Video Broadcasting for

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Handheld’s Phase-Locked-Loop Systems. Thysis,2007 Kyung Ki Kim, Yong-Bin Kim :” A 32nm and 0.9V CMOS Phase-Locked Loop with Leakage Current and Power Supply Noise

[5]

Compensation” Ms. Ujwala A. Belorkar and Dr. S.A.Ladhake :” Design of low power phase locked loop ( PLL) using 45nm VLSI Technology.”

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International journal of VLSI design & Communication Systems ( VLSICS ), Vol.1, No.2, June 2010 Abishek Mann, Amit Karalkar, Lili He, and Morris Jones :” The Design of A Low-Power Low-Noise Phase Lock Loop” IEEE

[7]

international Synopsys ,qulity electronic design, 2010 ,pp.,528-531 Yingmei, Chen†; Zhigong, Wang; Li, Zhang “Design of a Dual Mode Clock Generator Based on a PLL Structure ”IEEE power and

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energy engineering conference (APPEEC) ,15 April 2010 Asia – pacific ,pp.,1 - 3 Vincent von Kaenel, Daniel Aebischer, Christian Piguet, Evert Dijkstra:” A 320MHz, 1.5mW at 1.35V CMOS PLL for

[9]

Microprocessor Clock Generation “IEEE journalof solidstate circuits,1996,pp., 1715-1722 Vincent R. von Kaenel, Member, IEEE :” A High-Speed, Low-Power Clock Generator for a Microprocessor Application “IEEE Journal of solid-state circuits, VOL. 33, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 1998

ISSN : 0975-5462

Vol. 3 No. 3 March 2011

2004