National College “Mihail Kogalniceanu” Class : XII A

Crime and Criminology

Teacher: Oanca Leonte Anca Student:Bratu Andreea-Elena

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Contents
1.Introduction……………………………………..3 2.Definition of crime……………………………...5 3.History of crime………………………………...6 4.Classification and categorization……………...9 5.Criminals……………………………………….11 6.Definition of Criminology…………………….14 7.Introduction to Crime Scene Investigation….15 8.Conclusion…………………………………......26 9.Bibliography………………………………......27

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TV shows. It is useful to understand the origin of the law of theft. murder investigations. Certain acts that are considered undesirable are defined by the political society as crimes. such knowledge does not explain why certain people violate the law whereas others do not. seeks to answer that question. while others are not? And who defines them? Criminology focuses on the behaviour that violates the criminal law and seeks explanations for that behaviour. crime is a serious thing. Crime and how to control crime are issues that both fascinate us and make us fearful. As important as it is to know why laws are passed to criminalize certain behaviour. In some cases. Often the people who commit crimes have not had an easy life. drugs. which I find gripping and they always get me involved in the plot as I am eager to find out who did what to whom and why. No one would argue that we'd be better off if there were no crime in the first place. To be honest I became interested in this domain when I started watching detective series on TV. society and even forensics.1. The study of the origin of laws that define certain behaviour as criminal is a primary focus of the sociology of law. the study of crime. and even cartoons are centred around mobsters. Crime and criminals are an endless source of inspiration for popular entertainment. and why some of those use force against their victims in robberies whereas use stealth. you even want the "bad guys" to get away with it! Yet in real life. although a number of sociologists include in criminology the study of how certain behaviour has come to be defined as criminal. like CSI: New York .Criminal Minds etc. and of reacting towards the breaking of laws. of breaking laws. Movies. I am fascinated by topics like why and what kind of people commit crime. but it is also important to know why some people steal and others do not. But why are some actions defined as criminal or anti-social. crime affects us all to a lesser or greater extent. From the actions of petty thieves to the threats of terrorist organisations. It includes within its scope the process of making laws.Introduction I chose to present this subject mainly because I will study it at university in the fall and I wanted to acquire in-depth information. most crimes have victims. I believe crime is a vital and relevant subject in today's modern society due to the rise of criminality rate. And of course. and court cases. Criminology is the body of knowledge regarding delinquency and crime as social phenomena. How can we achieve that goal? Criminology. In spite of this definition some people persist in the behaviour and thus commit 3 . I realised I have always been interested in crime and criminal justice.

the genesis of criminal behaviour cannot be separated from the behaviour itself. Criminology is aimed principally at elucidating the connection between crime and the personal characteristics of the offender or his environment. This concern with practical programs is justified. in part. treatment. and through these other social sciences will contribute to an understanding of social behaviour. As an object of research. Victimology. crime and reaction to crime. or prevention. criminography. In addition. as experimentation which may be valuable because of its immediate results but at any rate will be valuable in the long run because of the increased knowledge which results from it. In a narrower sense it refers to the part of criminal science which empirically describes criminal behaviour and explores individual and social factors associated with crime and criminals. criminology is concerned with the immediate application of knowledge to programs of social order and crime control. criminology must also contain a descriptive part. 4 . This sequence of interactions is the subject matter of criminology. The objective of criminology is the development of a body of general and verified principles and of other types of knowledge regarding this process of law. which is research into the relation between offender and the victim. This knowledge will contribute to the development of other sciences. however. is also included under criminology.crimes. criminology encompasses prognosis or the science or prediction. the political society reacts by punishment. Criminology in the broadest sense covers the whole of criminal science. with special reference to the origin of the offence . Furthermore. Therefore.

fiscal or criminal liability on the part of agents of the state or practice of any wrongdoing and notoriously harmful to self or against third parties. for example. disclosure. Other crimes. rehabilitation or be unenforced. and the prohibition or encouragement of duelling in history. international). Legal and not punishable crimes are all acts in self-defence or otherwise determined by the illegal or criminal conduct of others that happened in the first place (or omission adequate to protect the staff member who is a victim of illegal crime) Other definitions Legislatures can pass laws (called mala prohibita) that define crimes against social norms. English criminal law and the related criminal law of Commonwealth countries can define offences that the courts alone have developed over the years. at different time stages of the so-called "crime". consequences and objectives) that are part of a case in which they were committed acts punishable under criminal law. since they practiced with guilt (the first act that causes injury criminal actions or omissions to produce adequate evidence also illegal). While every crime violates the law. Crimes may also result in cautions. incomplete. not every violation of the law counts as a crime. in different localities (state.2. Illegal and punishable crime is the violation of any rule of administrative. as distinguished from torts (wrongs against private parties that can give rise to a civil cause of action). local. Crime in the social and legal framework is the set of facts or assumptions (causes. supposedly intended. complete or future proclaimed after the "crime". count as outlawed in almost all societies. supposedly prepared. for example). Definition of crime Crime is the breaking of rules or laws for which some governing authority (via mechanisms such as legal systems) can ultimately prescribe a conviction. for example: breaches of contract and of other civil law may rank as "offences" or as "infractions". A crime may be illegal (as is the cause of evil or injury) or perfectly legal (when the act done is not a necessary consequence of the conduct of the agent but determined by others). from planning. provided for in criminal law. called mala in se. Modern societies generally regard crimes as offences against the public or the state. theft and rape. These laws vary from time to time and from place to place: note variations in gambling laws. (murder. and the application of which depends on the agent of a sentence or security measure criminal. Individual human societies may each define crime and crimes differently. without any actual 5 . Usually includes a felony violation of a criminal rule or act against law. in particular at the expense of people or moral.

but with "wrongs" (Latin: delicta). The Romans systematized law and applied their system across the Roman Empire. What one group considers a crime may cause or ignite war or conflict.— Kramer Successive legal codes in Babylon. Again. The courts used the concept of malum in se to develop various common law offences 3. the initial rules of Roman Law regarded assaults as a matter of private 6 . rape. 1790 BC). The Sumerian was deeply conscious of his personal rights and resented any encroachment on them. The earliest systems seem to have lacked formal courts. with codes of conduct largely religious in origin or reference. assault. 2380 BC–2360 BC. Thus the Hellenic laws treated all forms of theft. and left action for enforcement up to the victims or their survivors. or his equal. the so-called penal law of ancient communities did not deal with "crimes" (Latin: crimina). and murder as private wrongs. reflected Mesopotamian society's belief that law derived from the will of the gods (see Babylonian law). History Some religious communities regard sin as a crime. contains some fifty articles.[Many states at this time functioned as theocracies. his superior. whether by his King. which prescribed a formal system of penalties for specific cases in 57 articles. the Code of Ur-Nammu (c . from the 20th century BCE. The Sumerians later issued other codes. a later king. and scholars have reconstructed it by comparing several sources. left the earliest extant written law-system. While modern systems distinguish between offences against the "State" or "Community". and failed to find any criminal law in the "modern" sense of the word. Urukagina (reigned c . including the "code of LipitIshtar". The Sumerians produced the earliest surviving written codes. Sir Henry Maine (1861) studied the ancient codes available in his day. containing both civil and penal rules mixed together. short chronology) had an early code that has not survived. and offences against the "Individual". the earliest known civilizations had codes of law. However. including the code of Hammurabi (c. though not always in recorded form. This code. No wonder that the Sumerians were the first to compile laws and law codes.2100-2050 BC). Ur-Nammu.legislation: common law offences. some may even highlight the crime of sin very early in legendary or mythological accounts of origins — note the tale of Adam and Eve and the theory of original sin.

with much written down under the early Anglo-Saxon Kings. for example. Similarly. remaining more strongly rooted in Roman jurisprudence. Roman law persisted. and the earliest conception of a criminal act involved events of such major significance that the "State" had to usurp the usual functions of the civil tribunals. In continental Europe. This idea came from common law. But only when a more centralized English monarchy emerged following the Norman invasion. but modified to meet the prevailing political climate. but with a stronger influence from the Christian Church. the Germanic mercenaries – who had largely become instrumental in enforcing Roman rule in Britannia – acquired ownership of land there and continued to use a mixture of Roman and Teutonic Law. The development of the idea that the "State" dispenses justice in a court only emerges in parallel with or after the emergence of the concept of sovereignty.compensation. did the modern concept emerge. but also as a wrong against the "State". 7 . from murder down. The pater familias owned all the family and its property (including slaves). and breach of such laws created a vinculum juris (an obligation of law) that only the payment of monetary compensation (modern "damages") could discharge. included a complex system of monetary compensations for what courts would now consider the complete range of criminal offences against the person. The Commentaries of Gaius (written between 130 and 180 AD) on the Twelve Tables treated furtum (in modern parlance: "theft") as a tort. Even though Rome abandoned its Britannic provinces around 400 AD. the pater enforced matters involving interference with any property. whereas the civil (delictual) law operated in a highly developed and consistent manner (except where a King wanted to raise money by selling a new form of writ). Coupled with the more diffuse political structure based on smaller feudal units. All the earliest English criminal trials involved wholly extraordinary and arbitrary courts without any settled law to apply. and direct a special law or privilegium against the perpetrator. namely of a crime not only as an offence against the "individual". the rape of a slave could become the subject of compensation to the pater as having trespassed on his "property"). the consolidated Teutonic laws of the Germanic tribes. Similarly. The most significant Roman Law concept involved dominion. assault and violent robbery involved trespass as to the pater's property (so. various legal traditions emerged. and when the kings of England attempted to assert power over the land and its peoples.

In the 20th century Michel Foucault in Discipline and Punish made a study of criminalization as a coercive method of state control. The people decided the cases (usually with largest freeholders dominating). The development of sociological thought from the 19th century onwards prompted some fresh views on crime and criminality. 8 . this would help to keep the peace. in which the veto power of the permanent members ensures that the organization does not become involved in crises where it could not enforce its decisions. On the other hand. and the courts grew out of the things — the assemblies of the people. the policy rationale for requiring the payment of monetary compensation for wrongs committed has involved the avoidance of feuding between clans and families. and. an accused person walked free if he could get a sufficient number of male relatives to swear him not guilty. and fostered the beginnings of criminology as a study of crime in society. (Compare the United Nations Security Council. in real terms. many acts and omissions classified as crimes actually overlap with civil-law concepts. Both in archaic Greece and in medieval Scandinavia. Thus criminal law grew out what 21st-century lawyers would call torts.In Scandinavia the effect of Roman law did not become apparent until the 17th century. Nietzsche noted a link between crime and creativity – in The Birth of Tragedy he asserted: "The best and brightest that man can acquire he must obtain by crime".) These means of restraining private feuds did not always work. If compensation could mollify families' feelings. From the Hellenic system onwards. and sometimes prevented the fulfilment of justice. This system later gradually developed into a system with a royal judge nominating a number of the most esteemed men of the parish as his board. the institution of oaths also played down the threat of feudal warfare. fulfilling the function of "the people" of yore. But in the earliest times the "state" did not always provide an independent policing force.

incitement and attempt to commit crime Inchoate offence Juvenile Delinquency 9 . or have been used. as legal terms of art: Offence against the person Violent offence Sexual offence Offence against property Researchers and commentators have classified crimes into the following categories. Classification and categorization Categorisation by type The following classes of offences are used. financial markets and insolvency Offences against public morals and public policy Motor vehicle offences Conspiracy.4. personation and cheating Firearms and offensive weapons Offences against the State/Offences against the Crown and Government/Political offences Harmful or dangerous drugs Offences against religion and public worship Offences against public justice/Offences against the administration of public justice Public order offence Commerce. in addition to those above: Forgery.

crimes were classified as either treason.Categorisation by penalty One can categorise crimes depending on the related punishment.S. Australia and Canada (in particular). Classification by mode of trial The following classes of offence are based on mode of trial: Indictable-only offence Indictable offence Hybrid offence. felony or misdemeanour. with sentencing tariffs prescribed in line with the perceived seriousness of the offence. aka infraction in the US Classification by origin In common law countries.. It is still used in the United States but the distinction between felony and misdemeanour is abolished in England and Wales and Northern Ireland. they may come into the sphere not of the criminal law. but rather of the civil law. with treason sometimes being included with the felonies. 10 . in the U. For convenience. This system was based on the perceived seriousness of the offence. Thus fines and noncustodial sentences may address the crimes seen as least serious. aka either-way offence in England and Wales Summary offence. crimes may be categorised into common law offences and statutory offences. In the US. such lists usually include infractions although. Common law Under the common law of England. they are divided into federal crimes and under state crimes. with lengthy imprisonment or (in some jurisdictions) capital punishment reserved for the most serious.

they were believed to have committed 13 murders and several robberies and burglaries. was recaptured and was sent back to prison. Texas. Blanche. Buck Barrow was fatally wounded and Blanche was captured. At the time. Texas. Clyde allegedly murdered a man at Hillsboro. Texas.5. Texas. kidnapped a deputy at Carlsbad. Texas. so the group now numbered five persons. Bonnie and Clyde went on together. rejoined Bonnie. abducted a sheriff and the chief of police at Wellington. their activities made law enforcement efforts to apprehend them even more intense. he was arrested for a burglary and sent to jail. Hamilton left them several months later and was replaced by William Daniel Jones in November 1932. Oklahoma. and committed murder at Joplin and Columbia. was captured in November 1933 in Houston. a young gunman. Clyde was 21 and unmarried. Texas. He escaped. Clyde was paroled in February 1932. bringing his wife. Barrow. stole an automobile at Victoria. was suspected of murdering two police officers at Joplin. The Crime Spree Begins Later in 1932. Bonnie and Clyde were suspects in other crimes. Missouri. Jones. Criminals Bonnie &Clyde Bonnie and Clyde met in Texas in January. linking this pair with bank robberies and automobile thefts. This gang embarked upon a series of bold robberies which made headlines across the country. Ivan M. However. Numerous sightings followed. "Buck" Barrow. Missouri and kidnapping a man and a woman in rural Louisiana. New Mexico. for example. Bonnie and Clyde began travelling with Raymond Hamilton. 1933. Texas. using a gun Bonnie had smuggled to him. brother of Clyde. attempted to murder a deputy at Wharton. They escaped capture in various encounters with the law. who was frequently mistaken for "Pretty Boy" Floyd. committed murder at Dallas. committed murder and robbery at Abilene and Sherman. having been granted a full pardon by the governor. was released from the Texas State Prison on March 23. Soon after. murdered one sheriff and wounded another at Stringtown. He released them near Waldo. 1933. Texas by the sheriff's office. and resumed a life of crime. Bonnie was 19 and married to an imprisoned murderer. committed robberies at Lufkin and Dallas. Texas. He quickly joined Clyde. 11 . In addition to the automobile theft charge. 1930. At the time they were killed in 1934. During a shootout with police in Iowa on July 29.

Clyde Champion Barrow and his companion. He was said to be very attached to her. He turned into an effeminate and shy boy. Bienville Parish. pieces of jewellery made of human skin. were shot to death by officers in an ambush near Sailes. Ed Gein (Killings between 1947 and 1957) Known as history’s most inspirational killer. and even clothes. Louisiana on May 23. Bonnie Parker. including Alfred Hitchcock’s thriller Psycho and the character of Buffalo Bill in The Silence of the Lambs. She taught them about immorality and the evils of women and sex and discouraged their sexual desires. He had a weak alcoholic father and a domineering mother who was deeply religious. He had the desire to turn himself into a woman and would create breasts out of human skin and drape them over himself. Gein became obsessed with sexual fantasies and female anatomy. The younger boy was later suspected. his character became a central element in many films. skin upholstery for chairs. including exhuming his own mother’s body. House of Horrors When police finally caught up with him. 12 . among others. he would need fresh bodies and thus started his killing spree. Barrow was suspected of numerous killings and was wanted for murder. His father died as a result of his alcoholism and later his brother Henry. which was said to be because of his love-hate relationship with his mother. The most shocking discovery was perhaps his mother’s heart. died in a mysterious fire. Fantasies With nobody to control him after his mother passed away. which was found in a pan on the stove. they found a variety of gruesome sights — hanging corpses with their throats and heads missing. He believed that for a sex change. robbery. and state charges of kidnapping. and masks made of facial skin and vulva (including his mother’s) that were painted silver. Background Gein was born in 1906 as the younger of two boys. 1934. after one of the most colourful and spectacular manhunts the nation had seen up to that time. he started robbing graves to perform experiments of his own. The experiments became gruesome and cannibalistic. hanging lips. furniture. Human skin was used to make dust bins. exhumed corpses. who used to criticize his mother about Gein’s unhealthy attachment to her. Modus Operandi Gein was a serial killer who skinned his victims. Fascinated by the human experiments performed in Nazi camps. bowls made of skulls. and decorated his home with parts of his victims’ bodies.

He was beaten to death by a fellow inmate and died of severe head trauma. His grandmother asked him to move out when he was arrested for exposing himself in public. the boy was killed and Dahmer kept his skull as a souvenir. with Dahmer in pursuit. and cannibalism. he moved in with his grandmother and lived with her for six years. After just two years. and his first victim was a 19-year-old hitchhiker. Killings and Sentence Dahmer was caught by the police when a would-be victim escaped and alerted them. 13 . He dropped out of college and his father forced him to enlist in the Army. sentenced to 15 life terms. Gein told the police that he never had sex with any of the dead women as “they smelled too bad. shortly after being released. forced sodomy. dismemberment (removing their limbs). necrophilia. His murders were gruesome and involved torture.Killings and Sentence Police counted 15 women as his victims. There was a much-talked about story about a 14-year-old boy who almost escaped Dahmer in 1991. they left without investigating. Jeffrey Dahmer – Monster (Killings between 1978 and 1991) This Milwaukee serial killer murdered boys of Asian and African descent. He was arrested first when caught fondling a 13-year-old boy in Milwaukee and was sentenced to one year in a work release camp. That’s when his killing spree began. Soon after. After serving ten months. Background Dahmer was the son of an analytical chemist. By the time he was a teenager. He wandered into the streets without clothes. Since he did not want to face his father. and took the boy to Dahmer’s house. Police believed Dahmer’s story that the boy was 19 years old and was his partner. He committed his first murder at the age of 18. Gein was admitted to Waupan State Hospital and died of cancer at the age of 78. he was released on probation for his good behaviour. and as a child he had a fascination with dissecting dead animals. he was an alcoholic and a loner. he was discharged because of his heavy drinking. In spite of noticing a weird smell there.” His fascination with women was because of the power they held over men. He was held responsible for 15 murders. Dahmer then expressed remorse and wished death upon himself.

-logia) is the scientific study of the nature. causes and consequences of crime. forms.6. Criminology is an interdisciplinary field in the behavioural sciences. The term criminology was coined in 1885 by Italian law professor Raffaele Garofalo as criminologia. "accusation". psychologists and psychiatrists.Definition of criminology Criminology (from Latin crīmen. drawing especially upon the research of sociologists (particularly in the sociology of deviance). as well as social and governmental regulations and reaction to crime. social anthropologists as well as on writings in law. Areas of research in criminology include the incidence. French anthropologist Paul Topinard used the analogous French term criminology. Later. 14 . causes. extent. For studying the distribution and causes of crime. and control of criminal behaviour in both the individual and in society. criminology mainly relies upon quantitative methods. and Greek -λογία.

A crime scene is not merely the immediate area where a body is located or where an assailant concentrated his activities but can also encompass a vehicle and access/escape routes. the law enforcement officer who protects and searches a crime scene plays a critical role in determining whether physical evidence will be used in solving or prosecuting violent crimes. The ability to recognize and properly collect physical evidence is oftentimes critical to both solving and prosecuting violent crimes. SECONDARY CRIME SCENE: An alternate location where additional evidence may be found. SUSPECT: Person thought to be capable of committing a crime. It is important to determine the full extent of a crime scene. carefully documenting the conditions at a crime scene and recognizing all relevant physical evidence. Crime Scene Vocabulary CRIME SCENE: Any physical location in which a crime has occurred or is suspected of having occurred. In the majority of cases.7. 15 .Introduction to Crime Scene Investigation The purpose of crime scene investigation is to help establish what happened (crime scene reconstruction) and to identify the responsible person. PRIMARY CRIME SCENE: The original location of a crime or accident.

16 .ACCOMPLICE: Person associated with someone suspected of committing a crime. ALIBI: Statement of where a suspect was at the time of a crime.

The CSI UNIT documents the crime scene in detail and collects any physical evidence. They are responsible for securing the scene so no evidence is destroyed and detaining persons of interest in the crime. forensic psychologists) may be called in if the evidence requires expert analysis. The MEDICAL EXAMINER (if a homicide) may or may not be present to determine a preliminary cause of death. The DISTRICT ATTORNEY is often present to help determine if any search warrants are required to proceed and obtains those warrants from a judge.Crime Scene Team A group of professionals trained in a variety of special disciplines Team members First police officer on the scene Medics (if necessary) Investigator(s) Medical examiner (if necessary) Photographer and/or field evidence technician Lab experts POLICE OFFICERS are typically the first to arrive at a crime scene. 17 . SPECIALISTS (entomologists. forensic scientists.

Sketch. Crime Scene Investigation Processing the Crime Scene There are 7 steps to processing a crime scene 1. Record the Scene Photograph. Maintain Chain of Custody 6. Secure and Isolate the Crime Scene 2. Obtain Controls 7. They investigate the crime by following leads provided by witnesses and physical evidence.DETECTIVES interview witnesses and consult with the CSI unit. Collect and Package Evidence 5. Submit Evidence to the Laboratory 18 . Take Notes 3. Conduct a Systematic Search For Evidence 4.

first responders preserve scenes and trained specialist collect and analysis evidence Forensic Science and Criminalistics Forensic comes from the Latin word "forensis." where the law courts of ancient Rome were held Forensic science is the application of any type of science. biological. meaning the part of the science used to answer a legal question.Evidence Collection Proper protocols and techniques for collecting evidence are very specific and critical. Forensic Science is the broader term. serology 19 . pathology. ondontology. physical or mathematical to legal matters. Generally. Toxicology. accounting." meaning "of the forum. social.

Criminalistics is a branch of Forensic Science dealing with the study of physical evidence related to a crime. Trace Evidence • Hair • Fibre • Glass • Paint • Dust • Dirt • Chemicals • Firearms • Fluids • Blood • Bite Marks • Shoe Prints • Tool Marks • Wounds • Documents • Fingerprints 20 .

Lifting Prints Plastic – Found in a soft surface like wax. 21 . Dusting for Prints Powders have different properties. aluminium. Colour is selected to make the best contrast between the print and the surface. Visible – Contact with a wet fluid like blood. red. white. Common colours are black. for instance colour. For instance. paint or putty. Latent – Meaning “Hidden” These prints are left by the oils secreted by our hands and are generally not visible. gray. and gold. a white powder might work best on a dark surface.

The fingerprints and corresponding criminal history information are submitted voluntarily by state. 22 . and federal law enforcement agencies. There are several regional. CA police Department maintains the largest Biometric database in the world. state and local AFIS databases: Western Identification Network. Arizona DPS.AFIS A combination of hardware and software used to scan and classify fingerprints so that they can be stored in a database. local. Ontario. containing the fingerprints and corresponding criminal history information for more than 47 million subjects.

and others. Thermal Image. 23 . hardens and when dry it is visible. Fuming There are several types of fuming. Handwriting.” Super glue contains the chemical Cyanoacrylate. Laser applications. Technology has advanced to the point wherein some jurisdictions use superglue fuming wands at the crime scene.Biometrics The science of automatically identifying individuals based on a physiological or psychological characteristic: Fingerprint. Voice Print. gait. Fingerprint Advances The recovery of latent (hidden) fingerprints is not longer restricted to powder: Superglue fuming. Retinal Scan. Facial Scan. the most recent of which is “super glue fuming. When heated this substance sticks to trace oils. Unique powders.

or the like. gravity bombs. ammunition. firearm and tool mark examinations ("ballistic fingerprinting") involve analysing firearm. especially bullets. 24 .Ballistics Ballistics is the science of mechanics that deals with the flight. rockets. and tool mark evidence in order to establish whether a certain firearm or tool was used in the commission of a crime. Separately from ballistics information. and effects of projectiles. the science or art of designing and accelerating projectiles so as to achieve a desired performance. Forensic ballistics involves analysis of bullets and bullet impacts to determine information of use to a court or other part of a legal system. behaviour.

the FBI (DRUGFIRE) and ATF (BULLETPROOF/CEASEFIRE) had established separate computerized ballistics imaging systems. NIBIN was established in 1997 to unify these systems. 25 . There are currently over 220 crime labs participating. releasing vapour containing cells and shedding hair – we leave it everywhere • Our bodies contain 100 trillion cells. • Our bodies are constantly shedding cells.National Integrated Ballistic Identification System In 1993. prior to NIBIN’s. or. DNA Basics • Transfer theory demonstrates that wherever we are – we leave behind evidence we where there! • Perhaps our fingerprints.

o General – those that identify us as humans o Specific – those that give us individual characteristics • Our genes are made up of Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) • DNA consists of a long string of four repeating nucleotides: o Adenine (A) o Cytosine (C) o Guanine (G) o Thymine (T)  DNA. 26 . at the end and beginning of DNA stands are A/T and G/C  Most of our DNA is exactly the same. • Inside each chromosome there are as many as a hundred thousand pair of genes – the fundamental building blocks of our hereditary traits. but really two classifications.  With DNA. only a small percentage is different from each other.• Most cells contain a centre piece called a nucleus. • The nuclei of our cells contain 23 pairs of chromosomes which are the biological instructions of who we are • During conception our parents contribute one half of each pair.  The location where specific DNA information is located is called a locus. • There are many variations for genes.  The information that is different between individuals is called Polymorphisms – the part examined during forensic DNA analysis. like digital information has beginning codes and ending codes – to tell us where “packets of genetic data” or segments begin and end.

 Like fingerprint information.  153 Laboratories in 49 states  Actually includes three different type of databases  Convicted Sex Offender. other offenders.  Combined DNA Information System (CODIS) is actually a combination of databases. DNA information is converted to a numerical value for ease of search. missing persons 27 .

unsolved criminal problems or strange disappearances. Considering the fact that criminology is my hobby (terrorism. 28 . I chose to talk about this subject. how could these crimes be stopped? I have been attracted to criminology since the early age of just 15. The world's evolution. criminology is maybe the most complex job that one could want: it involves mental strength. As a personal conviction. its issues have pushed societies nowadays to extreme gestures to escape from poverty problems. violence in crimes). homicide. Television news. Why do people commit crimes? How much crime is there committed around us? Which would be the profile of a criminal and which would be his or her characteristics? Moreover. The subject is always changing and the diverse set of skills you can gain from studying criminology can lead on to many different jobs and careers.I was watching Discovery channel series and detective TV series and I was fascinated by the way those people were investigating and solving those crimes helped by only some fragile and minor details. they all speak about crimes. newspapers and magazines. youth crimes.8. devotion to and 100% interest in this field. Thinking about humanity nowadays and people's preoccupations made me realize the huge impact that crimes and criminal justice have on their decisions and the way they receive and react at the details and information about a crime. Conclusion Issues relating to criminology are never far from the front pages of a newspaper.

4th Edition 29 .gov/news/stories/mostrecent http://en.net/ArtJipson/criminology-powerpoint-one-2008 http://www. Bibliography Websites http://www. 4th Edition Tim Newburn(1 Aug 2007). “Law Express: Criminal Law”.slideshare. Stephen Jones(21 May 2009). (Aug 2012). Stefan Fafinski.9.org/wiki/Criminology Books Emily Finch.fbi.” Criminology”.Willan Publishing.wikipedia.” Criminology”.