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LMng In the -'d m n a ' to a

lmllifuele ollblS ."_,., .. they 1NV be. .., - MfM1tithll


rT<a$lve m1u11QM , 'tchioi boob. , , a. lloiMtlc
g!Ws. m.ib . .. -taia .. - ... ._...-QUiddv
ClOIISUl bul - set110rn popeo1y wifl
(2007 14), IMN -.ta- 11MC1
COhCeJIIUlll Instrumenta In tiW lnpec:l. 8 1um ha been
ttwt d!scurslYe el al kinds of producb
wll lhe objeCI oi our proce&a, 1n 1em1s
o1 loondabon oi wribng by proleuionlrlt rn the
fiekia oi publiC relatlolls INld lin lldvllnl1ement, tor
es 11o1 on!y &tUCiled a1 a tmt.IIIIIUUC:ture Of a component of a marketrog
&tlalegj 11 will be manly llppfiCheCC as a Klivily In relatlon
.. d;sanille gem rts SOCial ortgln lhe dlannel ttvough wtlich Il il
(omt. ""ilten. br08dCIISIJ, ib of c:irc:ubttlon. etc. Thll
d!scour$e analys.l wlll genre to lhe JI)C!d!c apace to which It
bdongs, anei llM!fSety, will discusl a &pace 11\ conneCllOn w1th ib
aaen:s:c Dei"''
Tho OCIIne indudes methodl oi of oral, wrlttefl
tet".J. l!om lhe wrtml pon of VMIW ercclusivcly M analytie
9fid be appled lot a pradcat purposc to dl!lcrcntiate typM o1 tem
to onablo to cre c:ornl1lUOOUon proclrlds rekrvely
lhould bll mB>1c o! lhe Iad thnt wo are rro1 goong 10 do:ll
wt11 gmrmw tr"eff 11 ono of thc COiliS(! objcive ls to holp
m;.owe lhClr oonpoU!nCO m lng!:sh 5tudyiog bnguage 11 lt1t! conte
IS IU'tablc to lhef futurc profcs$10'11
fn tt111 courae lhe esscn!ial collCilPI of c:ontcat alld
ib con:rbUtlon 10 lhe COITCCI of le.'d meamng 1
tr>eor bel delatJcd anei comparad Our ltudentS
ha>'e lhc qlpOrtunl) to do on ex:crptS Iram pubie
and pra:to!S
Soalldr d b<IO r wi!t'l the c:once;JtS oi
nd u end lhe thal unle alld diS11ngllilh
lhe more SD u lhll &peCialiled ll:err.ure IS IIOl unarwnous
hCM to . eep tnem...,
Tl'llrdiJ, - detCilbo .nd eppty lhe ca 1C11P1 oi eChot, as
U\IQal m:rurnerc tot 11 public diSCOUIH
boUII:he fmncfl intefPfeutiOII ne. Anglo-Saon ont wil
txcoaO!Im fM on U'K'flll analylis
1.1. lnlroduction
It s usually conslderea that an uuerance has tts owo mearung Actually
lhe very defin'?on of is of the am;allest unit of discourae
endowed wrth meanrng Meanmg rs established by the
utterer/speaker/wrrter lf the hearer/recerver knows the code llanguage
rn our case). ho can rnterpret the meanrng of the utterance. To
1
nterpret
1 correctly, and grammat1cal competences are not suff
1
crent
Although lhese competences would help reduce poss1ble
ambigwtres, thore are stiH other competences that are rnvotveo m t.'1e
correct readrng' of an utterance.
The receiver/addrossee reconstructs the meanrng of the uttcrarce
startmg from the rndices supplied by utterance/discourse. but \here is no
guarantee that it the meanmg 1ntended by the text producer. That ts
why Marngueneau (2007) consrders that any utterance is asymmetric,
1f we think of the rnformahon detamed by the mau1 participants.
and hearer (or other posrtions dependrng on the channel).
Although the me.1rung is not g1ven once for ali, the main mt.an,ng
inforrnatron lics in the utterance itself
It ts withrn the utterance meaning that wc tind rnformation about
context within wh1ch 11 was proouced And reverseJy, we cannot
understand the utterance meamng unless we know the context, that rs
to say, the purpose of the commtomcative act rn n grven and umque
situation.
Concerning the Sltuation, the context of an utterance IS not limtted to
spatial and temporal data In other words, r.ontext IS not externa! to the
utterance/discourse.
(1) According to Maingueneau (2001) context contains three
sources of information:
on physical environment
on co-text: verbal sequences placed before or after the discourse
unit to be interproted
on the participants' previous/shared knowledge
(2) Verschueren (1999 85-6) dehnes context in the foltowing way
"Whatever segment of the physical world, the social world and tho
mental world ts Wllhm the vision of either the utterer (speaker) or the
1nlerpreter (hearer) in the course of producmg or interpretlng a piece of
communrcabon may serve as relevant context for understandmg what
rs happemng And so does any aspect of the linguistic context ,
including propertios of tho channel of communication itself "
0.11 Hymes's SPEAKING Model
Sociolingutst Oell Hymes developed the follow1ng model to promote tlle
analysis of discourse as a senes of speech events and speech acts
within a cultural context. It uses the first letters of terms for speech
T 1tlu de curs
Tlle SPEAKJNG Modd
ll.aiD& and Scene
"Setting refers 10 tbc ttme and pJacc of a !Opeech act J.nd. '" general. to the ph,s.icJ.l
circum5UlllCe"S .. (Hymes 55).The lhing room in thc grandpmcnts' home mighi ht." fi setting feor a
fivnil> SlOI).
Sec:-.nC'I is thc '"J1S)'Chologicar or '\;uhunllt.lcfintihn'' of ;l S'-.:cnc. includmg
ctmracterislic.:s such as range of fonnahcy sen!-lc oi pl{ty or s<:riousness (ll;mes lhc
family ma) hc ata rcunion gr:mdpan..'nts' Altimcs. lhc
\\Ould l'le ft::sti\'e pla) fui; .at tillll'' anJ comm.enwrative

Spcakcr and audic!nce lmguists \\lll ma.kl" v. illun lh\!SC ca.tcgorics; fvr examplc.
dx: udcnce be as aJdre=cs and othcr hearcrs tllymes '4 & 56). Al tbe
rcunion. dl! aunt m1gbtldl a s1ory 10 thc ><ung fenulc relativ"" but males, althuugh
migh1 ;.!]so hear thc narrati\c
i'urpl">S<"1- .;""!>. I:IId '-'t:I<-on>eS rnes "6 1 ). lnc may tcll J stOI)' ahouttbe
''' c:c:cr:am audience. lea, il dtc womcn. :md honor thc graodmolhcr
'\el Scqucrn:.
h'rm mHJ orJcr <,t thc eve-nl. Jbe aun1's stnry n1.Jgh1 lX-!;Ul as .1 to a toa."t to dw
lh<' story's plot dcvelopmcnt wuuJJ h;,w a ,cyucnce su11ctured b} lhc ;mnt
thcrc wouiJ heu inttnuplun ,lnung the tdling. Fln.all} the gmup
nuc;ht .lf'pLlud thc tale and movc ontn anothL:I or atL\ 1ty.
( uc 1'l;u t..:Jthh the ma!lller. or spuit , 'l>e<;.ll dC' (!lymcs aunt might
tm wc 1!Jc .;r.mdm<thcrs votce an..! (c'!Ul'\.-< m ,, ;"'l"' fui .lf address thc group
n 11 , ..... 'o .. c emphas::.r:g_ th..c Stnc. .. r tj .md . pruse story
1Dsuum<'11U. ' "
unn :. .lf 'JlU.'-h . , < R..()( 1. n ... aC!lll II: a CJ.SUal r.:glster \\ltb
man J J """1 .: c-r rrnt!,ht usca m<"rC fo:maJ rcot'-tCr .md care fui gununath.:.af sLJ.ndatd
f""""
-
S.C..J nain ll"'emmg thc event and thc par11Cif"lnls' act1M and rcaction. In a playful hy
tlle-.!. the nonn.' mteht ali'" man\ auilicncc Bnd ct>llalx,r>tion, or Jl<lSSII>Iy
IIIOIIr UIICfruptl<lllJi mtght he io purticipation h> ulder femuli:>. ,\ s.;rious. t<mnal >tory
23!04120 10
Ocnrr
lbe Lmd of oroech jiCt or f<>< our couroe.llx: \Jnd f 11ary fbe- rmpa ltlla
ch;v:>Cter anccdole aboullho gr.sndmolbct "" m.-'"1Uinmall. bA .,. .,
uuU1laian l>ifftn:nl d1$t!pltna dcvdop IC'miS for linob o! '!"==l.o<u.. md 'i"'OCI>
comntuniiiC::t sornctund h:s.\e l!seu ltnnS tor
1 h<U ttnns e;on hc .oppheJ to many l;tnd oi do>COurw S..>me1omco rn ... nnar dH...._ ou
otnrh3'l/C IWU Of thr <>1 lhe lcUcrs <1 th< hUOC11l<><liC 11 [!It>\ idcS O JIIU.:tare (Of tOU 10

Il} Dcll. Foundntion\' ol,'-J.ncialmgw.'ftJn , .ff'prtlt4 .. h. Ptul:adc phta l nl
P. 1 '17.\.

o:f,rcctlom lU rrraevant, b.trhat for tbc GUCSitC"'l
espccaally cducauonal q .. t$taoru lhe SOCial Dte<er.ro
Jarlr.igrillicam-and Il is thc one bas ba:n lhc ;,.,; !';:'::':: ,1..
cumons oJ language In educauon 1 earrun u ab<-
1

d h
" .. _ a . a &O<.:ar
proccn; an 1 c en\'IIOnmcntrn whi<:h edueation:U l=n ns tun P'.a..:c
as that of a .sooalrnsthuuon, whethtr we unnk of tlw rn ronottc rcmu
as the classroom and the school, wuh their cle:uly defmal $0031 str-
tures, m the more sense of the school I)"Uem, or cvcn lhe
process as ti rs conecavcd of m our SO<:lCIY KDO,.Iedge u
rransmllled rn social contex:s, lhrouJ)I relatioruhlps Ue tho5e of
and child, or leacber and pupU, or c!assmates, are deflne:l m rhe
vaJue sy.\lems and ideology of the culture. And tl::e that arc
in rhese comexu get lhear meamns rrom acu' Utes In wh1.d1
thcy are cmbedded, which agarn are social activittes wnh agmocs
and goals.
Language, context, and text
Thc mam part of our title rcfiects our vtew tbat the "llY 1010 under
nandrng aboutlanguagelies in the study of te:\ts Tbc 1erms, co:.-nxT
and TEXT. put togcther hke this, servc as a rcnunder lhat thesc are
aspects of the samc process. Thcre is tel<t and 1here iS other texL that
accompanies it: text t hat 'with', narnely the con text Th:1 not1on of tot cldiMd
what is 'with the text', howcvcr, goes beyond w hnt is satd and writtcn:
it includcs other non-verbal goings-on -1 he total cnvnonmcnt ir. wh1d1
a text unfolds. So it servcs to make a bridge berwet:n the teJ<t and the
situation in which actually occur. W1thm our general topic, we
shall be focusing on the special area of what m :inguistics IS rcferred
to as a text; but always with emphasis on the silllatton, as the conte.u
in which te:\tS unfold and in whieh tbey are to be mterpreted.
Let me try, then, to e.wlain both these notions a little further What
do we mean by tellt, and what do we mean by context? 1 am going 10
do this in the opposite order: that is to say, 1 am going to talk about
context first, for the reason that, in reallifc, contcxts precede texts. The
situation is prior to the discourse that rclates to it.
Matinowski and the notion of context of sltuation
It could be argued, in fact, that there was a theory of conte:\! before
there was a theory of text. 1 have in mind bere the work of the antho-
polo&ist Bronislaw (1923. 1935), llnd in panicular his theory
of the context ofsituation. It is in that sense, ora closely re!ated sense,
that we sh.all be using the term 'context'.
Much of Malinowsl<.i's research was undertaken in a group of
islands of the South Pacific known as thc Trobriand lslands, whose
inhabitants lived mainly by fishing and gardcnlna. Thcir language is
referred to as Kiriwin\an. Malinowsk:i, who as well as being a great
amhropologist was also a gifted naturallinguist, found himself at an
Malinowska's conteJ<I
of ll!UaiiOR
O ne _method of _describlns a text is by exegesis, or explicat ion de
texte, a kmd of runrung commentary on the product that reveals some-
thins of ils dynamic unfoldins a a process. The problem for this
approacb is that you need to look beyond the words and structures so
as to interpret thc text as a process in a way that relates it tO the language
as a whole. The comrncntary cmbodies no concept ion of the linguistic
systern that Jies behind that text; and yet without the system, there would
be no text. On the other hand, it i5 also necessary to describe the sysrem
of the Janguage in such a way that it is conceivable that people could
use il. &>me auempts to devise a theory of languasc have done so in
a ,.-ay that makes it almast inconceivable that anybody could have used
tbat sysrern ro produce a text. The problem for linguistics is to combine
these two conceptions of the text, as product and as process, and to
reia te both ro the notion of the linguistic system that lie.s behind thcm.
Now, with the sort of sodal-semiotic perspective that we are
odopring here, we would sec the text in
c;f Text is a form of exchange;
anathelundamental of a tex'fis_.t_hat of dialogue, of interaction
beci!:CQ1 No-t that dialogue is moreifnpoi-tant than other kinds
of text ; buln the last resort, every kind of text m every language is
mC3lllll8ful bause it can be rclatcd to interaction arnong speakers,
and uhimatel} to ordmary everyday conveuat!>l_n. That
1$ (hC bnd Of text wficre people CXploit to the fuiJ the rcsources of
la.'1guage' that they han; the ktnd of siruaticn in whicb they improvise,
m "llicb theyinnovate, in which changes in the takc place. Thc
lcad:ng edgc of unconscious changc and devclopment m any language
IS typ1cally tobe found in iu natural conversationaltcxts in llus context
of talk as the interpersonal exchange of meanmgs.
A text, !hen. JS both an abject in its own right (it may be a highly
a!ucd otJCCt, for example somtthing !hatJs recogruscd as a poem)
and an mstat:ee- an lOSlance of soc tai meaning m a partiC'Jlar context
of 111uauon It JS a of its emironment. a produc! of a con-
tlliUOl!$ process of c;bOices in m=ng that we can reprcscnt as multiple
pa&..s or passcs through thc networks that constituie thc linguistic
r)stcm But of course any cenernl characterisation of that kind is useful
onh ilr; enablcs us 10 deseribe specific instances. We must be able to
charaeteriSc this or th.at particuiar text an such a way as to be able r.o
relale 11 to this general concept. And at this point, 1 would hke to give
an enmp!e of one way in ,.h:ch 11 may be possible ro define the conte.xt
of Sltuata>n of a text
Lct mc return for a rnc:nen 10 rhe semiotic concept of meanmgs
IbM .ve creatcd b} 500al ,ysrem - that in a scnsc consutute the soaal
,,__ h:-h are t-y tlle m=bers of a culture tn the form
of ICXl Tbc !txl. '""!:.ave Uid, ts an rnstance ofthe process and product
of 110CW IJIQ.'l':'li ma of utuation. Now thc c:ontext
or utuahon. rbe context m ,.hK:h the text unfold.s, is in
dac tca.t. nor :n a kmd of peccmeal fauhion, nor at the other extreme
ia llly mcc!wuw '"'Y. bur throuah a systematlc relationship between
dac 101:tal ftl,;,onmeru on tbe oac hand, and the functional organ.is-
Mioa of on the other lf 10e treat both tut and context as
-8
text as a social
exchauge <)(
meamngs
rtla!iOn.<hlP or social
env1ronmcont ond
fun.:tlonal
orsanasatlon of
lanaua
field- whal
happening
tmor -- who are
tabng pan
mode - what pat!
the language is
playing
semiotic phenomena, as 'mudes of lllQrung'
110
, <pa):
from ODe !O the Otller 1J1 a revc:afutg way. .
0
e car. W:"'
. . So let us PIClc up rlle qunuons, 'how un ,.. <bara.:tr "" a
1
cx:
1n Jts relatJon to IlS context of muauon.,. and 1Jo1o do,.. &et frnm the
sttuat1on to the text'' Tltis wi!J then lc:ad us to a .onSJdcraw:m o! ho-
people make pred1cUons about the kinds oi tncanmg 'hat are bctn&
cxchanged.
The tbree features of the context of situation
1 would likc to g<ve you cwo brief iUuscracions, each eompnsmg a shotl
F.nglish text together wuh a de.,cripli<>n of the of situatton m
which it functioncd (see Texts 1.1 and 1.2). The dts(;ripuon ts m ternu
of a simple conceptual framework of three headings, Lhe fldd, the tenor,
and the mode. Thc:sc: concc:pts serve to Interpret the sOCial comext of
a text, the environment in which mcanings are bemg c:xchanaed
L The EIH P or nrsco"BSE rcfcrs to what i.S happenmg, to the nature
of the social action that is taking piacc:: what 5 it th:u Lhe partlcipams
are cngaged in, in which thc: language ftgurn as somc: c:ssc:nt1al
component?
2. The TENOR OF to who taking part, to the nature
of the participants, the1r statuses and roles: what kinds of role reia
tionship obtain among thc participams, including permanent and
temporary relationships of o ne kiltd or another, both thc types of
speech role thar rhcy arc tak1ng on in the dialogue and rhc wholc
cluster of socially relationships in which they are involved?
3. The MODE OP D!SC()I!Iilli..refcrs to what pan the language is playing.
what it is that the participants are expecting the to do for
them in that siiUation thc symbolic organisation of thc text, thc
status that it has, and ns function in the context, includmg che
channel (s it spoken or "ritten or'5ome combination of the t wo?)
and also the rhetorical mode, what is being achieved by the text m
terms of such categones as persuasive, e"posi10ry, didactic, and the
like.
Text 1.1 is a legal document that can be used when someone JS
buying or selling a hou1e: it is in a very simple form -they are usuall)
much longer than this- but it is valid as a legal document. and >:ou
will immediately recognise it as a legal document. An interprcraton
of its context of situat ion is set our undemearh. It is a document rclaong
to a recognised social transactioo, namely the exchangc of immov,ablc
propcny. It is a formulaic text uscd by a 'member' to the col
lective' with referencc 10 some spcdtic instance. And t ts to
be filed away in somebody's fthng cabinec as a document giv1og vahd1ty
10 the transaction. Moreovcr, it is pcrformative in thc sense that thc
text actually constitutes or realises lhc act in question.
\.1 ( as mental modcls
The m:un theu- of mv thcorv oi (ontexttS rhat contnt ho= '
fincd tn tctms of som< kmd of soaal smunon m whrch bcoursc uk; pU
but nthcr mtntal or modi!l, construcr<d b rh< petth
o! or about such a (for , "\ "'" D:; . 19<,
suu.auons a !ii such. as \\TII lt-u:Jr l'topc [tJcs, c:umot dtret.rll mtlu
enct how peoplc \vntc, s.pcak or um.ltnrand ulk or text. Crcnde..:. age.
gmup mcmb<'rshp or powcr of p;tHttlp;nls, among many rradmonal
propoucs of rht srtuauon of communtc:tU\'t' evcnts, ean be rclenm for c!tS
cmuS< only when paronpaots atl<'llll ro thcm, and <onstruct rhem as -:.ch
Th1s obsctYaoon ts coo<isrcnt \\1th "Il cthn<>mclhodnloll'cal aod discurstn
psychologtcal approach ro contt'Xl. llownn, nty pmposal suggcsts rhat scrh
constructs' are nor JUSt absrract or V2gucly "m bctw-ecn" parocp'lll' de
fmcd 111 terms of mental modeh, tnd only thus ablc ro tuncuon as rhe r;ecessm
link soctal struaooos o1od dtscoursc
'\ccordmg to conte:nporary psychology, mental are repmemaoons
of acuons o: evems 10 Eptsodrc WhJC 'lts par' of L >O( ferm Mcmory
In L:pts<>dic (sometimcs also c.ulcJ Aur >btographtcal Memon),
,
"'''Y' th<y Interpret thc cvent> tlwy or hc 11 Jbout, Wttncss or partiCipat<'
in thcmsdvcs. Thus, fV!Ps dcbating :thout n rnTnt cthtuc conflict do su on thc
lt"'is of theit personal interpretaUon of surh u C<>lllhc:t, as rtpre,enkd Ul thcu
mental model of that conilict. Each wtil !J.,.,. ht> or hu own mental model
(lnterpretauon) of this conflict (for dt'Utls of 1he uouon of mental modd,
see, c g .Johnson-Laud 1983; \'.m D11k & klntsch 1993; Van Oostendorp &
(;oldman 1999).
Modcls are not only personal, but ollSO iu\'C au unporr:am SOCial rumen- V
$1011. What MP> construct also depcnds on rhtir general.. cultural knowledgc
about confhcts aod ethnic groups, wdl .ts un their socully shared arnrudcs
and tdeologJc> about such confltcts or ethmc groups. ThatlS, mental modds
of diffcrent people may sometimes be very mm;h allke. However, despitc these
socwl duuenstons, each model as a wh<>ic ts subJeCUve and untque (for thc cur
rcnt cummuiUcauvc situanon) l><,c;mst. n abo fl'ntures the persontl
expcncnrrs, optntons, ot aurobiogrnphtcal ;lsson;tttons oi i\!Ps abour such ,1
cont1ict.
Thc me 1s tme for meotalmoJ,I,; tiut pulictpants consrrue of a wry
spcct:U of cvems, oamcly the cummllmcaun c\'l'OI "'wbtch ther ore
IIOM taktng patt. 1be:,e are also personal, and umguc for cacb parunpant-
-
tf only bcouse of rhcu J.rferent aurob10guphtcal npencnccs as "'tU as the
dlfferem currcnt pcrspccuve and tnterestS and at the same urne ha\c
duncns10n
\X'e may conccJVC of rontcxl models as ,.,pLunmg the crucial pragmaur'
nouon Ol re!evancc 1'hcy detine what fot tlw dtscoursc partictpaots is now
relevant in tht s<>rt:U situatJon (sec also :->pc,l.Jcr & \\ltlson 1986). IX'nhout a
conceptioo of rhe ct>mmumcaci,e C\'Cnt as nprc<tmtJ by a context model, par-
uctpaots are unahlt ro adcquately conmbute to rmgomg discourse. They would
be unable 10 produce and understand specch acts, would be unable ro adapt
topics. lcxicalllt'm<. st:ylc and rhetonc to tht currcnl socral e\ent, and they
\\ould not ewn bc a bie l<l reti what rhc rccrptcnts alteady know, so tl13t thn
do not e,en know what 'content to express m thc fust place. Indeed, wuhnur
context modds, adequate, contcxtually sensitivc discoursc is iropo<SJble.
ln othcr words, contexts are not 'out tbcrc, but in here': They are mental
consttucts of parnc1panrs; they are mJi, idually YMiablc mtcrprctanons of rhc
ongoing social sltl131ion. Thus, the1 may bc hra<td, feature personal op1mons.
2nd for Ll-tes<" rtasons also cmbody the opimons of panicipants as members
)f groups. lndeed, a frnurust md ma le el- .lU\'llll<' tn conwrsattou arc likel1 to
haYc rarher diffcn'nt context models, as J,; 1 hb, rai md ' consernn\e, a pro
fcssor and a student, and a doctorand a pJtant r 1lkmg lnueed, brilscd
or tncomplctc context modds are the souret. "t ptofound commurucauvc and
IIHeracrional COllflicts.
In orher words, JUSt bke mental models of rvents l.tlked about, a/sa con-
lex! models may f>, !d<ological/y biased. Thus, not only may exprcss biased
behefs abllllllmougtants, but may also exlnbn such behefs in their mtcuctton
and wuh unnugrants or with MPs of other polincal
h ;hould crnphasllcd that context modds arc nor statle mental reprc-
sentarion5. but dynuuuc slructures. 11Jey ongomgly constructed. updattd
and rcconstructed. Thcy change with rach rhange in (the interprcmnon) of
the <rtuanon. if onh l>l'causc of the ongotng clunges of discoursc melf (unt
01 C.e componen oi context). For li' nntlung else, rhe d1scoursc will
d-:cnmucally ch2!:"C thc knouicdgc rh, paroCIJl.HHS ha ve about rhe
oi t:he other. But aho rhe ongomg acnon, rhc parucipant roles, aims othn
bdie, mav chm r dunng tnteracuon 'That 1s, 1n ali ongomg mteracuon Jnd
nce tn Ollf'>UJt! com ersauon, :ts wcll as dunug re.1dmg, langttlgc par
IIC!pan" mauuau: a d)nanucally chan!_,''llll: moold tiut allows them to tk"hh
p lll. Ulll.ier Ulld, mtJnOCIZC and otbpt th< 11 W<COUISC tO Otber partlrl[>:llltS
... nd orhtr a pecrt of chc m ;'>Hlt! c\'ttn.
-Il -
/
'
'
\ /
V
1
Sm1tur.:s of contat
\s ts rhe cast for the cogmuve theory of mental modds of events, we can onlv
gltss wh.lt comexts (1 <' context models) look ltkc. l..tkc cvcnt models th<y
rc:$em cvems, so m a structural accoum- thcy most hktly fcanu:e a schema
cnn>Isnng suc-h <IS Seuing (Time, Locanon), F.vcnt/.">.ction, Pamu
P"'tls, and so on. as suggtstcd above. In tlus caS<, tht ntral event/.lction $
dJscursr,e (Jnd ronconut.tm "1th othct and thc parnctpatlt>
are p.tmop:uns ot spc<-C h. But a more arnculat<- tlworv of context fcaturts
mor<' tlun JUSt mese C:ltCt'Pnes.
Thus. at a macro lc,cl oi struauonal "e as sume that people
r.ecd to be su-uc o{ th< glob;tl socul domam 1tl whteh they are speakmg. P0!iu
CllflS m partiament krww thcy are now < cloing' Polittcs, and teachcrs arc awarc
are tn,oked 111 EJucauon, as iudgcs are nw:trc thcy arc 111 the area oii .\IW.
llus geteral duinatn (Js subJCCU\'ely repregented aod thetefore sometimcs
\\"" mtlucncc the contents of many of the level catrgoncs of
Jlt: SC! MD2.
;:,unt1ariy, parnetpants w such dom:uns, whcn speakmg, also engagc m
global acllons. sucb as lcgtslauon. teacbmg or domg JUsncc 'Local actions re
ahze these global (such JS cnoct=g the yovcrnment. askmg studmts
about 'lliht ilie) b.m: kuncd, etc.: \\'e ee that a also thc case for a theory of
dl COIII5C ;uuctures, \\<' ncl-J a global (m . .cro' (mtcro) lcvd account
f conte.'<t
Parnapants as we know mav have (a,umc C'l many Jtffrr
ent reles and suc.h role ma} affec.t the producuou and comprchcns!on of
dt urse We a Jme thatthere are thrcc: ba te. type<; of role are contex
rde-=t: commwucatn'c rolcs,lllteracoon:ll role, and soa..U Thus,
ob\1:>U h nced 1''> rcprc<sent thcmS(:he and other puttopants as
\\ntcr> or reclptcnt<, as well11s a complex r:utg,e of other commu
ru an'c: rolcs suc-h 2 \'1lrt<)tiS proJu<:non rules 111 (I;H
1:m2I1ce m tbe m1 mcdu edaors, Ktual sp,:akcrs, eLe.) anJ rwpicnt
re2dtt 1: ttnrr, ovcrhcaer, e-tc, lmerJCUonal roles necd to br rcpre
lll eder t a c to account hr \onous suuanonal po>wons, such as
and aianlC. f nml' opponents IlS 1S the case for spc:U.cn
r rt of, m a;,tnst gm rrnmc:nt proposab Socul
, a cttrcd r r tn tancc: bv cthntCIIJ, gen
: rr le on ObVl0\1 h thcse \':lnot\S cok I)J>CS
prt H1 J Jebarc tl\.11 ,n;;ht
a 1 ! f">llrnt oi tht go\crntn,ut, uc 111 illl', 1
o.ch r l dltrcrc:ntwly affccung drscour><
rrunurc . Thc s.une 1s rrue lvr lhe S<Xlll re/., um :w
group mcmbc!"', for w=e rn c -ne ">< en
lm2Uv, t'XItexrs also !u.-e cognutve arc>< ne , such..,
nnd orher bdtds of the paroapants. The goal wcctcJncu vf se
1
< ,,ur e cruc1al to uuerprerrhe funcaon of .hswur.<:. obvro
:11 ,tlllc\'tl>
The knowledf:f! componcm IS the vcry ba 1$ ,,fa hn < aud pr
""'"" prupcrucs of dJscoursc, such <lS unphc.Htoll; .md prcsuppo mor: rhe
'Jl<okn must know whar thc altcady lwows 111 order t> be ablc 10
dcnd< what proposmons of a mcoral model or of the <oaol repre .enuuoos
ar<' kn<l\\11 10 thc rcctplems. ;\nd rec1p1cnts necd ro kno\\ sa:nc .tbout 1hc
or wri1cr in order ro esublish whar 1s actualii' lllttuded 1I11ll1puc
1
,
UJdirrcl, lr<JiliC or other non-cxphm forms of ulk )o other v.-Jrd, pcople
h:l\'l" murwl 'kno\\ledgc mode! 'of othd Kno..,1eqe md tltee 'llodc'
crucull)' control many of the d!SCL:SI\ c ratevcs c. par IC!ant
S.o far, th1s 1s mereh a ren!Jltlve taxonc ru
1
of pr?b:ID v re'e1=1 c
conrexts. Note that nor ali categones arc alu ay rcbmt Punopants lll
It!
\'llfl:IUon of context modelling may h< a funcuc.n Jt carber c: lmmuucau.e cx
pcncnccs. Somc m sornc <IOI:tllons, '-1!! Cll' r,. 1 a rJthcr nch and
context model, whcn:a' othtts may ht athu <l>ppy or gcncralm
thctr of the context. Sn!IH' wtll hc more or lcss
"
gtHurts or body posture, for iustance, as cxpressmrs of contcxruallr rele1anr
cmouons, beliefs or goals.
\o cmplrical theory of come:u also oeeds to spcafy wh!Ch of the catepones
ar< general and perhaps uniYcrsal, and ''"htch ones are culturally l'arilble. Thus,
m mam culturcs gender and age \\'Iti asu1lly be rele1aot in the producttcn and
comprcbcnston of sever.U c:tiscourse form, whereas thc ler.gth or the colour of
tht. haU: of speakcrs Js om usually Such a theory a!so needs
to speli out the relaoons betv.'een the C;Hcgmtcs: St>nll' may be more relc,,nr
tlun othcrs. suggesting struc 1 ure for comext modds. 'llll'
thtory should bc explicit about thc acnul clfcn. of context modd catcgories
and contents on thc selecrion of modd tnform:ltlon for mcamng reprcsema
tlons: What propositions mav or rr.ust (not) bt mduded? '\nd 1t shoukl
carl'lullv spenfy what discouf'.l' forms, such '" rh<>$<' vf stvle, rhcroric, etc., are
mOumced by context featurcs. .
12 P:arh:uncntary context"
1lu _ bncf oi vuhat :ne undenund b\ context hould .Jb!e ro IK:p
us formubre tugments or a rh<"OI)' ot pnlumrnr.uy contt...xt_,., as the are rou
ru1eh and ongoingly con<rOJcted by (for othcr stu<ltcs of
and c1ems, see, e.g .. Ba)'ky 1'!?/1, !11')9; Carb6 l'l92. 19'JS,lhe
! 9?9, 20111; .\l!Ut'r 1997, 1998: \'an D11k 20011: \\mlak & \'an Dt
1
k 20(.1\J).'
.\hhnugh tonttxts arc by detntuon ptrsonal and umquc, vire also haYc sccn
rh,u th<')" have tmpottant social (and poli ucal) thrmnsiorls: :Vfi's share much
1
,;
thm kno11tkdg<' artd beliefs ahout tlw colltcxrs they ronstruct, anei also knov
1
r
ho1i1 othcr 7\fPs defu1e the CUHcnr "lll;lllon, for instance of a parliamentarv
dcbJtc, 111 t<rcos of rheir 0\'lrn mental mod.-ls. Thcv kt1ov1r, for insuncc, tha;
1'11lwt\o th other pohllclans may say or claun, they reprcsent themscl.-es and
orhcr \!Ps; as members oi some polmcal puty, and hencc as pol:ucal fnends or
'>pponems. Such anrareness, as represcnred 111 the ment.ai model vue caG comexr,
.llso may acmaily be nrually expresscd or lormulatcd, for umance \'ll'hen tn thc
Bnn>h Hou<c of Commons nuy address orher MPs oi thc same parrv as
m\ honourablc Fnc.:nd'- even virhcn in othcr woal struaaons they may l>c
S\'trom eneuues.
In orher nrords, also due to rhc: ,h.tt< d n11ture of our ktwvtrlcdgc
about language, d1scourse and comnnn1itatl<ln, and beranse of the routine na
lllr<' of ncrvday context buildmg (a '[ll'nal r:t'l' (lf making modcls oi our
rxpertCltCe ), \!Ps need nor invent or butld thelr' nntext models from scrarch.
Despne the ''anauons of the socLtl/pohutal sJtu3tlnn, as ,ireJJ as the per.;onally
diffcrent exptntnces of much of thcH pcrmnal modds should constst
of J more or less fixed schema that can bc appll<'d nonr and ag:un In th; In
tC'rpret:"l )tl of each sess:on of Parliament. Ihts actwauon of a knonm schema
1 strategtc, and >tllular ro the aCU\'liUOn of kno\1rlcdge about discourse gen-
re Ho11rcver, such a re.dymade schema can qmcklr bc adaptcd to sptcrtic
c ttt" 1m rmces.
In lighr of thc gc'1leral thcorctlcal rtm:nks m.tde aboyc about conrexh de
finrd a memal modds oi communtuun aud events, ami
more mforoul remarks about pnluiJH'IIIa, )' conccxts, lct us oovir tr)' ro bt-
c lllle more > tem3UC and dcalm mort dttall vuith tht hypocheucal
f rhe parliamcntary cc-r.'ext se hema.
r uch hYpYhe"l"i dirc-ct1), v"'' \'!fould n<l'd cogruuve merhods re> .ts
rruu ae of mC:'ltal model,, bur smn tht e models gener.llh un"",.
f dt r " mdlCCd m rhe bbor Jtvn , 1 hali assumc rh1t rkse con
> be n .. bnd m parii mtnr n t.ili: Thb '" not mereh a
-
S4 TeunA vomDIJk
dccrSI<-n, onc ce nte rs are ..!dinC'l rn term
and hc-ncc must a"ume u>atJIS c:uq:)n.,; arc c0nm C'
111
ut
a -nray th..11 thc-y tnonnnr spc:ctfic: suuctuzcs (}f JJ1cour c: .i lus dot:s WJ1 mcan
rh.u context cHtgoncs uc .lh,taY::> cxplintlr and atrtndcd lo fas
15
rlw case for goals or knovtrlodge), but by ddintllfHl thty arc necded to d<;mht
and cxpbtn at lc:t:r somc propcnies of Ji,wur<<".
One of tht mam ""umptions of a thcorv oi' mcntJ! models j, tiut <uch
models arc organtzcd: unponam <.atcgoncs on top, and '<'C
ond.lr: otcgoncs lo\'lrcr 1ll thc htcurch.ical chema In our !Ulah"><rs, vuc h.tl
ftrst deal '1nth thc rcspecm e catcgones, and d1cn m.1ke on thcu
ordennr; and organtz.mon tn rhe model 'chc:ma.
Jfiao mui macro C'<lh');Ortt:s
.\nother focm of '"ii''niz:.llon pcrtau1s t<> thc levtl of categorization. \s vrr
1

h:1n' sctn, 'OilH' < may bc called nl.lcro categori"s becaust thcy .\re
m more stntcturcs, vtrhcT<as the more tradttional s1: a
'J0!!:U oi face ro- hce i.<Jter:u;uon belong to thc rrucro lcvcJ of
:d undc.--sunding. Note that It vu:ouid be ( c to u .. a, 15 often thc case
111 SH., ot ctl
C..Jt thc: IDICIO lc\d oi St"'Uakd act.lon 1.;: illOfl 'c lfltrete' 01 more
th;m macro structur,tl cucgones. In <>Ut dH <Jr; l'ltell 1s 111 evCI:)'dav cxpcn
ctKt ;111d undersrand111g, both knts arc and hcnce represent<clllt
mcnral models.
Tht: , :n pMhatn<ntary glolrJ] (<OClet:t ) c tcgones such as poltucs,
p-..ri --:.ent..icgt:.' oon ;r pobucal parue< arc o lcss and no le<s aurnded
t 1.11 comer:sauon mteracoon. than 1} ptc.tlloc e,el caregones such as 1
o, paruapams or acuon . hr pomt ts that the llner
ue .ah'L.'"li'"S de111ed m terms of rhe a d< bate ts a p.ITiiamentar;
rrcusdy n ts camed our as takutg 1n dl<' tnsnruuon ol parita
ment., .1s part of IertslJtwn :1nd dutng polmrs. Tl11s understandtng JS rwt
merei cogt"">C but 1 also mulriply stgll:thltn 1o1lk irselt
' :'!lenun ( omext t atcgcne
1!,. tec .!>J e, oc1al ulltons arc rcunnd ull
a foH"''In pan of .1 lnytt socJ.tl dom tU' 't' Al"
t tr r of B< r.l1eu, "g, Bourdtcu J 985; lltn""
el n ut2 dom:.l'!lll 1v \!H:
1
1 bc L"'U!Illr:tllr \,ltuhk, lm"

llllillau- falllft clomms
ao oa. lnsutuuoas.
-""' '"""'"" and di&coursc, IIRIU 118DY
-IDO llld nucro lem of social tnalysis, tad 10
t*llilft assumed that social aaors, vilbea ene:aPI& ilulkGI tar.illlipliclly
... kiti:ly anmd ro rheu conapuon of) aocill ck..,... Rdc:unca
10
l* .. uiD! nuy npmau, be espted virhen thia&s go V1UOGf. 9dleD aam-
cliKoutses att pn'CCivM ro cross domain boundaries, vilben pro(as1 oolill
Jll J IS ar suke, or nrhen donwns need 10 be defended agaiost memben
Olbu
Thus, 1 as sume 1hat J>oluics 1s onc of such domams, and rhat the defiruuon
Pdimentan Contexl categones mvolves such an overall category. Paruc-
.,..U kno\"ll and ongomgh shm,r ._,rareness of parnapating in rhe politica!
1 - and ot 'd<>UI!) pohucs. Often, such pamopauon m the domam 1s re
llled profe nal roks, ch as rhose of poliuc.ans, but that is oo condmon.
Seudcats au be en 10 a p<>hnu.l demonstrauon. and in rhat case arc
aca:zt of domg p<>lltlc ' rather than of lc-amUtg. ln orher vtrords, the
IJiobC domWl t\ on of th. O\'Ct:lll calc oncs that contnbutc ro thc
...,.,ucm of the and hence to 1h d linmon of the starus of ns dis-
Th<: 1 ans ho tcJ b1 <tudems n a demonstration are rhus polwcal
clan ..k d a lx"ln c cd an Vllltlun the poliucal domain.
d dcbatt"S tn Par! ;unmt thcre t 1n genenllinlc doubt
!P are 1011al poliaaans, and thnr
ro rhc domWl of Poh
re Of coune. iodividuallv or
, MP may have dlffemll con
< 1 r tmp , but It 1S likdy tha! thcy sharc the
a 1hc waal domm wt de6nes SC:SSIODS of par
cducauon, bealdl cuc or busaness. but sucb talk
bang COQttS COGIUUMd by tbc dolnllftl of
BuiiiiiCliS. b:!dccd. wbca polinn!OC -" dlcir clf.
pc:aonel be as D zr, IM7
coc:nplioll .,. -el"" .:::; (liP)
......
Globdl acttons. Glob21 domam an- ch>raCICmed "' gloh.al acnon n-
arhJtC\er \IP :ue actuali; domg tn plrlum<nUty ..,--s
1
on. uch
pecchcs, cnurumg rhe governmem, or a quc uon . aU aruon are
ddined, lor .\!Ps themschcs os 'Ircll lS for orhcr peopk, as engagmg m rhc
global ocu >t or govern:ng the cowntrv lndced MI'> ore leg:>lar<>n
fhr ulu:ru.tc pom: of r-hc1r sptechr-. or c..]utsraon -.as mak:ng or .amer.df!'.g L.VlP"i
(.lS 111 the l '. o:.ystrm;, or dJscuss.mg, :uw:nc.hng. .tnd U)itally r,ui6nng BU.ls .
1
,
proposcd by the government) as m thl' 1 i K '\'sttm .
\ t dus m;\cto level of a.nalyss (or nt otmJ r<:presentmg su
tl;liWns by p.ucinp:.lnts}, v1re m1ght also po-.tuhtr mhet Vobal ;lCcions. \fPl\
""' <>uh-ll'gisb!e, but also engag< 111 "'''<r;ll <tlhtr global acts oi thc pobuol
dllnl.Ui'l.
thetc con:;wuem
(,u,ermng the countt}
f'ouazmg the go''ent!Ccnt
F ngagmg 1n oppo<I:10n
lmplanenung party programs
policy
\
01 C:.>W''e, bes1des these t}'pJcal poh<tc lus. hr-v ,,]<,, eng.gc more general
sn<JJI ac .. oi m;my kmtls, sUCb .l5;
.\!aku>y, dcCISions
Promoung themse!ves
Rcptoducmg ( anti)racism
1\bkmg moncy
\J thtsc global acts may pl.:ice ce ne- eh, f'd mav be realized by a !m
gie dtsc.::sJve act at rhe el. I'h. 1 , domr. P"lmcs' at tbe lewl of
th1s domam represem.1uon may 1molvc more 1han tu>' and
df and omer deslf'nations of 1\!Ps as reprc , , '>pposmon. pol:q mak
er, etc r:om that such g!oi>JI ac, uc p:u-t of thctr poliucaltdemil\', We shail
>Urne that for cach local d.!scu!"l\'C 1:t, poullCJa'll arr- or may be- a'ir.ue, of
the glob2l polmcal) slgnttcanc<: or fun<,;u>nJhty of <uch acts. Quesllons nur
bc knl on behalfoi conscituenrs, :md poillh .. !Jil! r.w oulrdo so \ichen bcmg
of llwt mie as representauws 01 '" nwmbcts of thc Opposinoo .. \nd
s1nn such mfluencc::, ti It: ptopt..rcics uf thcu spc<ches, \irc
that thec global acts b<' parr > rtl!' ,:onlext modtl oi \fPs. They are"'''
tu 1 an al\ mvtnltons 'li pohnc::1l Hl<"ll 11sts (li dt,r.ourse ;ul::.Jysts, but 'r(";ll'
' Ai.:LCI lfl '1.:1rhlch partJupJ.n:::- con;;cwu h w \'l.ffH.:H Lalk:ng
- ii-
mt:'nt. d )Ur .c," e.r ..nJ..., ur...,..-.., { ..... -.,c-.;ac r.
nd lso munu) tnUque a good' polstKI20 1d p:ufc c .
1;npJv Lamt!'"z_ > .! l)( aJ acoom 13 awt:actc: ry am te , .0:1 i rk ...
1
. ..&..
lnstitul/oii<.J! li dom:uns ar: rh: ccn , N lobo, co >no. rhc
lngrt < 1 ac:..on rcqwres thc:<" ''' bc lso g!cbal acre...- 'll>at , ,-.:- dr; "'' mc-,_
undu .ra11d poliucal debatt:s as. define'l m rerrns , H \fi-'<>, hut .l,JO .1! ;1 _ n
frontaunn bctwn:n polirira1 bftW<TII gov<:l!Untnf 1.r1d OJ)pos:uon. 1cd
pu ham(' OI a:-. an mstlluuon dur 'does' 1hmgs aho .l ) e1n mswution. \\'l' thu:.
mullady lh.H the h;l dtc ult:J so .anJ so. or lh:H ParUamem
bas blucknl a h"''emment demrot'
\!Ps :ue rnnunuously avuJrt of thcn p:nnnp:10r)r: .1.n globa1 gr'mpi Ct l!l
!.lltuUotS, tathcr than merely as umqut" U1dtv1du-J.J 1hus lhrtr di)CUI"SI':c :-vk
IT12V Lruqur such untt.;.uencs..;, t" (j \1'lf2\-"S .act as -represc
tauvcs oi thc parue5. op;>oSJoon, and :> on.
J. 1.: M1t:ro-leel C<.Jiegorier
Smmg ,\tthe speCific mtcro le\ell)f tnteccnnr, '!Ps cnnstr_c
rhca en"rrcon:ncnt first of aU tn tern, o! ">e ubrquttvu atcg 'V ut tet'lpoul
;Ind >paual.l.:lllng. Stor)'telling, nenrs Jnd m.mr .H!wr 1spects ot lan
.;u:lgt' .uu.i roucindy ex.press such :1 t>y mmaJ couegories OL
'""'' all!.l span ('Ycstcrday, m rhc nfficc .... ", ''J>an,, \ lay 5, 2tll.ll '.etc.}.
\bo trt dcbarcs Ml's e<>rt>tlllcttiH:tr comcxt tn rerms of such
"drfmtUOILtl en'lronment. Indeed. parhanwnrary debatcs place, also by
bv11, tn a welldetined space, Parlramcnt. muluply tndexcd 1n thcir speeches as
or 'm thr: llouse' - that 1112)' hc ambtguous berween global
rnsoruuonal detXJs !here tn thc m;utunon of i'ulummt) or local spawl
_., tlus builrling of parli:unent
Thc tcmponl se:ung nughr be rm1allr ddtnod a >pecttic dte and day.
rouuneh referred 10 bv dctcnc ..xpre%1ons such ,1s roJy, and madc explim
s .a date 10 rhe .kts or Proceedtngs of parlument But 1\u thcr analysis m;-
' .ggc 'dm also temporal semn!!' :n parhamrntary debate> also have legal ;r.d
pohucl <'!l"Jlic:utct' beyond a da)' or date. lmlecd. dectsmn; or
V'ne't rrw.v bc kgally valid or inv:t1id hd()n or :1 frcr a sper ilc day a:nd <.hr<.'.
fvtn more mtlucnu;d in pa:btnwnrary L' fH"<IUOtt'r.s ts dod.; urne. Soch tlmt
1 .lllOCalt' d w spe:tkers by the Chan ur by k:u.krs of a ddnte. and scrup\1lously
mt>SurcJ and administrated. Continuous rd<rcncr is made in parliamentary
ptechrslo tht minute. MPs dispune of, rrquet. or allocale to each olhtr. Timt
ol tai.k ts thus 'Jne of lht most prttious rtr.ourcr!li or and allotated under
19-
!plile strict ruks and stnteps govemed 111 powr and Olber poli1ic:sl Clllena
(hlc:e equal ame aUonrd ro govemment and porues, rtc.} SpeWn
are vistbly and hcarably aware of ome constraants, aod much of talk
summaries, or bcgging for some more tun< from the Chair. Transcnpts of par
liamentary debatcs wuunely mcludc regular references \o the current urne, as
do Chairs vtrhen concludmg a debate.
Local oc/ions. fhc central defirung act of a parliamentary sessioo as un
doubtedly the dtscursl\'e ct of a dcbate. though tbat a 'debate' itsdf
is a highcr le>d, complex d!scurst,e notion, whtch conststs of a sequence oi
speeches of .\ll's, tllll'l'\'<'llUons chatr, quesnons of Ml's d!rrctcd ar cabi-
net mimsren;. mttrrupuons, and so on. Such a dd>at<.' may not only go on fur
hours, bul strltch ovcr dl\)':, and vanous sessions. Fornully
opentd and tn!roduc,d hy the Chair, thc dchlllt' ma1 hc forma\iy condmlrd by
a \'O!e. and a fin3l word of closure by tl1<' Chasr
"lOis obscl'\ non fir'i of ali shows that ahn In 1hc dcfimttoo and under
sWJding oi contC'xt, rhe nouons of macro\'<. or glob:tl ,-s.locdl, ue
gradual. Thar rs, at rhc most speafic of acuon descnpuon, an MP
l!!!Y!_;k quesnon \hdow the Ind ot a< uun<, \\C nught cvcn g>.> down tothc
Je,-d ut tocuttonal') acrs of uttenng words '" c;lllScs), v. h1ch mav bt p1rt of hcr
or hts speech, l'lthlch 111 turn JS part of thc tumpit'' ,le bate. Ihat 1>, the uoti<n
of ongolllg' <!ction 111 1nteraction ts vagllt' tu lh 11 11 ' "' k tlt-fulcd >li varinus
linguisoc, d"rurs1w, IIHeracuonal poll!tq)J, \,1 1'1.1s 1\so rneans tiut tht
corm:xruahzatJon of ._..sch asprrt oi tatk 111 p rh unu- IHlV be mulupl? rdatl
10 tbe5c dtifcrc:m levds, reiernng or presupp "l rhrse word' 'thl> quesuon,
< tlus spca:h' or thss de bate, respectlceiy. ,\nd .;mcc m onc ><-ssson of p:uba-
mem nnous topiC m2v be Jddressed. "e mly e\ rn as sume a lughcr lew! unu
COUSJSU.'>g of Sel Cl'3J dcbatC>-
,'\\though \\ c haw suggesred thar m tlw analrss of parliamentary debalt'
the mam tocus WJII undoubtedly be on the discursiV<" mteracuon detimng a
debate, 11 should bt b()fll<' m nun'd that tht de finition of local acnon
in peralt< not umucc.l to dsscursi,e acuon. lndeed, 1\lPs 'do' a lot of thmgs
vuhen tn parhamenr. and most of rhesc tlungs requtre definiuon tu
politialt=ns.
Th s, "-e <een rhat at the globallevel of analysiS aud represen-
tlbon :I.{P, are lirsr of aU engagcd 10 legtslatJOn . -\nc.l although the disuncr
betwecn a word, pecch act or speech at the locallevel and legtsbtion ar rhc
&'obal k\ d ma be constderable, we must as sume rhat at least occasi<JDallr
.,
'" 1 l
f111 iJ\CI:t!J, !nJ or macro t t
1 d \ tho :.1! :>alg,: 1 se
1 lent ""' hc rlobalact < n
.1 a mtr\ 1.: ,., cnuct7.( thc rt utnm ,
po rJ ')}' tht gj>vcr rnr, und \ll h a mo "' ma
m qppc Il, .md such f1 .. 1\ b!" ilV a a r pon
npn'''"' votas vtrhose mrcrt.Sl ma1 IX' nart>1le 1 'v rhr l:t'llo,
111 tttiH:r word ., hv talkmg, 111 pc . h oc or tn othc1 <!.
wrs, ;HC ol,o tn a con 1
1
c-r r 1 o p ',
l 1 .: J for 1h:s fC3SVO that we need ac cXtth r oi pulmncnun- 1
\ kmg quc uon .JQut tm uu 111 , n 11 po r.
pcoplc 10 <oCtet\' 10 thc:u respctrve .nurtor ma a k uch q 1c
ho\\'e\'er tht polmc.J funcnons of thc: c aer pn ( l kp l.:aoon
cnJ;'Igtng L, opposmon '1 e pc :lt, rtc t:: 1 dtfinc t;ur
.:on uruuw parlwmelllan de r.ne
r ach OI rhcse local OI J;bha)J \ d J ' ..J 2< UO!'l< 10 J>;UIJam nt
1113\ lw rcrogmznl anJ cJtcgonTcd s ud b1 opat , ti: 11 , \{ >s th=
lot urstan<<', dunng <]UCSIIOI\ nmr 111 he J\nu h lo e Cl Ce It'"' n ,
IlO 'Jlc:t'Chcs Jl).1\ be gJVtn 311<1 (>il)) 'pt< ,Vm i\ h< \ ked. flutthrouph 5J'C
ctfir fmmulnuons ("Is the 1\lml'-l<l 11,11 ', tndtrtC' .1 ... and
hcn('t mdtrcctlntlc specdJcs, llll.hltltni' po1 '' v < mrue ... \ he tormcl.lte..l
Onc of th<' cruu ... c.ne m t , xr mt>dels ts '>1 cou1<c
Pa!IICJpmts anJ th<'tr rcbanr properu 1 1 t nda 1 kno\\ldge that nu: v
dtscourse suuctures w.ry as a funwon ot the pr pt e-: l thc and
therr rehuons. pronouns, poi.Itene<> phcr.c 1"1 t' , J n.
In mdt'l 10 make these mstgrts mure cxphcu, llu propose to funhu
anh"Zt' tim c:neg01Y m tcnm of dttTerrl't kwJ 1.! role
Commurucanw reles (vanom ptoducrr auptent r<Jks)
lntcrawon roles (friend, enemv, opponl'lll, rrc)
roks (c.g., bascd on gend.,r, dass. t:thmctty, ptofesston, org.uuz.ttton,
ttc.).
'I1tus, 111<' ttadmonal rok dt>tUl<':ldll ob,toush comrols the
svstcm oi turn taking tn par!J.1:ncnl !11crc lll othcr 'spcaktng' role
thar ovcrbp w11h and lraJrrslup m oetal groups lf or);lOII.l'IOn
360 T('tm -\ \'Uil Dnk
Ilut s paker Ul parhamcr:t m3\' l"' dc6ncd as ,pcaJ.er' of hcr or hiS p>rty
on a ct"na.m top1c Ot I:SSU(\ and tU;t) en:n bc C.\:p{"ct<:d m that c:t"SC 1o lor
somcooe and h 1rch pltSOIUl npu11tw Sunil:nly.

. .- hv
d<.""firuo )1 rnn rr::atJ\ r::;,' t11 1he1.r . md , .:1y hc he-.ard as ,twah
uJg' h'\r 1hrm chau 01 p;uh.lllH'UI b called the Spcal\rt '>i llll
P m thr l !-.. \\,. alsn know !lui dw J'crson \1rho 1s1he "'''"\."'
1. 5ft"t\:h m pJr .1 1ctu, no"' nccc hc. rlH' unc v1rho ha$ ronce1ved
1 r spcC'Ch, ts the c C 1 r man\ lllSLI\"Unnal pol ' feienrtJenu
u rvpt" 'f'<'.tkrn ro , nme .>1 'lfhKh pr pohti<..ll, conuo' for
r r f pnnoum Thus. It 1 -..cU kno-..n rhat "< IS onc of the
.,] f ..U pronoun', .;nd rdlccs rhe ldcnuucauon or rtp
l - '" li he spc.tker u spcalung for hcr ox hi :1> ;tn \ rr rnklng
1 r . MP , a 1 mbc. naoon. anJ "'' t
$ bnlJ tor .\!Ps r<l ol .111 :lll
er \IP , .. nd s.>ch tdenut) "' thtl'.uuopant Rectpunr subcate!;M)'
am { t tuteg:es c. J(Jr<" , p pe.suaSJon tn parha
k But \IPs knou that rhcv -..'III ' o be o>er beard l) 10urnal
d: medu In !le o aod illl\' frt>Up, orgamzauon
t e :>ee re! .In' 1, llle20> rha !h.- rec.tplcnt de
C!' al"i del te ali 1 e<d o kc mto unt such addrt s
< !mk 01 parl:..:m t lndcd, ther, .lte rhct<>r
moe thl' 11!1)"' ' rrn such <! L te t 1< 1 r t< t>thers ti' 111 1ho'c
lm a pHiwnent u ddr.H<', n n th !1'
F 1 u > t' e l't'r) ,tcnon< tltey
ru ares of plrt'i b1<ed
ttl > Uld de:lendmg thc
1 >rnm n$, membcr
\'1; c
llh CJtegone he \\hoD de
t ,,.. 1' attuaUy cnga
uiti e uclurcs, ard nut o111)
d a.re couuolled b1 hc c
1
\li h,
of ruan dffcr tol sori!ll ntrgoritS. J:!OUP'
11 Of rr 111U. Tbn ull sp<JII.; aho asllutrh or [ngll\h, a or
om n. 1 rla te r blaei.., okl or )DUOJ:, and lO on, mod b' 1 \11'>
l'hnc-wculand pohhul raiC'f:"'''"' control aurh char:l< t<1 J\ Jlf un oul!'
ucb a\ ' and 1n lhr brc:td Irul ti!) "'1"'1111\ r



-
aanGfat to
1 lhe"-J thc
k:atli tertL
Pal- lbeocrcM'ooo u,boweva; tbeoolioaof t-I-
lis a.cilldllt YPt ... brJiew 'rirbat tbe cunat of
lfOIM III bn, 10 11111.., 1R able 10 sdect fiom lhcir menlllew:at mod-
1 'J M '- a Ntlllllt110111d bc IDOit r:elennt for the "'IP"'a"
1lil a howewu a 'iUJ c!IA'Ic dt plOGtdwt, beauae IIOIIlCtlllleS
- Ollly put of the iDCOI!IIIauon 111 plO\'ickd, for instante
spe111tm do not keep rnck of the knowledge set
M:te 1 KDIOa, 10 *at pps' COIM 10 extst each of
..._ ..t.n b ars nlell Hleace we ne! a trong componmt in thc:
coa ' M we man f discourse clcpend oa
.upttl (lfMtnoe,QliJpS JtU,
wbich :about onc hour a blt) \\ ou!J rC<jutrc hundr.:d.< oi pages, so
1 C2t1 Ooh SOffiC >m:tiJ w:l) OI UiustrallOO oi thc thcoretlcaJ
framework prescnr.-d ubnrr.
Note thu ;1 fu li rllrllt':<l would nrr,llo >pdl ou1 that becau" rhelr
p.artles are poltw Jlnpr,,ncnts, t,orm:ut :l1h1 le. ;ut. pnlil-
acal opJWnrntS, rh.u rlw fn 11< a wonun 1ud 1lw con<!., man,rh:n 1hc Ml's .ne
f'arTf m=l.x:rs ll!ld j'lt':lkC:S <tbc)[ p3n)',lhati!W J...tbour !S U>01allv a\)1[
m re m 1mmurrattoo thal thc: ( oo<cn.lll\'C l'att\', ami <non. hu:ollv,
e c :.t c dtn c <un olthr conte..'\t as CCJn tr: ucd m thc modds >1 thc
lp31lb tn\ >hc th..- rcspccuvc aun< of the 5pcakers (ro persuadc >lhcr \ll's
r he c;enc-u1 puNte cre . ' \\rn .a rhea opmtons and ;ltlltudcs
Jht. ur J.OUIUj!t;ttl<>n, the f' K, 111d .1 hnst 01 orher rrkvam
mtlu$ ddur..- In ordn Il> undci'Sl:lltd .\!1s. (,otnl>m' ltllel'\'cnlton,
"'" furthtr ne<:'d IIKtl '" that 1he oyrr.tn n Iim 1nrnvcnuon is to dtftnJ
trrnugr non pobc.cs t>t thc l.t>n<trv gm unmem, and to w.HJ .,ff
" b thr 1 !>out pny to th. unnuguuoo l:t\\
Th se mhcr 1b1l <Ontexr propcmes ddine the debate from !he m: ct,
acOHted a won < the} are n, cJcJ al thc locll bd oi model
llthcorcl ca , .. tegone 111 bol,!, ni o those th:lt hJH 11<>1 yrt
cr c ce ther. rt '.1 ulii bc tltk<\ tuthe
l \\ ord a Jl<lkl h1 tbc spe;U.c r w 1 jUoJtc lut runH.ng rext art pnnttd
1
l u th ler 1\'fe, :-1' J ep 1at< u.dmtcd passagcs.
l >IS thc vuhdc (.kootc-
"lO ro rhc autnuoo oi the
dJO boro z . of
1 d .:t.t ur d 11\ t"{lre t ntcd m1hc context rnr>d
ran d r1a,n tn '.thtd e urrc:ol <klalc md <:SSIIlll
1, r.lf' t 21 oi pohucs llus conti?Xtnal JS 't'll
uon .md c mpch n 1011 of d1c to bc
J , ')r 1he r. 'h'
, rtr lthe pr fc 100 '
>r! dur 1 >C:ill wnrr >1
r : l:r p..-cche< lndert
1
,l
11
, 1 1 n c d<ll.'lg ;,,
(,lohal :'mularh. tbe context model nceds to repros<:o! globill-
,,rlur kmd of o enU acll\11> the currcnr a<:!l\11\" deba1e 1s consurut
lttf., so d!J! 11 ha> a bro1der .1im aod functton:ili!y, namcly ICj;lslauon. One of
the spccJitc wns of .\lrs. Gonlla'l ' ' "' d<'fmd &on,nmcnt polic ar.d a rcstnc
tt' r imnugr:H1110 law lhat ts belng t:ltiCI.i:t'J b, 1 1hour defe-nse of currer.1
kb'lsl.lonn otnd i".:nnque of lO rhauw. th< bw 1s :.\ rounne c.omponC'I''Il
oi th< , "'et.tll pohucal acuou of ( .on rr'<I1JOI knowledge a boul
\vh.ll \\'f ;,tn. dnu1g he.re' ts rhu::> crucial tn nukl: tlw c.tun:nL <lctivtues of the
;\! J' s mcamngful :tnd politicaily relevant. i\!orcowr. usuaUy deals
,\ uh L'1.1rrcnl $ncial prohlen1s, tho1t al"o the refercncc of 1lrs.
(; o>rman ro of boroughs and pr'>bkrm of (rnctred by) asylum seek
er can be lS 1legnurJtc con<ern of .ln rh1t ts, as part ot
the o cuC parbamcnun action ofkgtslauon.
'ti! ing: localion.l rnpliot is .1\50 thc lmowkdge a bour the SertlJlg of tbe
currenr dcbate. n:unch tbe Bnush Housc of <.onmons (as exphculy stgnaled
bv \lrs l>orm!ln - see below). Thts may bc a contcm of tbe Locaoon
otcgorr ui te context models ofMPs, hur we sull necd 10 makc thb exphcn
m order 1< for exJ'hCtt refnenot11 (Iile HollSf!. or
htr J In t..1c Bnt:sh !louse of Cornmons, such cor.tex.ual knowleJge about the
curent loc;HIOO is mtcresungly also pnsupjo td 111 such as 'the
'lhcr pb(<', rt'itrnng w rbe House ot 1 .ord
:'>ttllng: Timc. Note also that rirruug "unport.lill J> <\ tempotalaspcct of
The 1-bnsHd tramcnpt exphcll lv .. sun11 '!' tllne, and rcgularly
docs s> for other moments. rcututdy refer'" thetrlacklllg or run
"> t::ne, or arp1e that tbey iu>t' onlv fe-.v mmutc< leh, and rhar tbey
thcrt re Ul'::: >t Vle!d' to the otber peaker
Kao,.lcdgt. \s .tbvye, nother mcr.tll.:cntn..;:u consrnmt t'i.t
:ro 10 bc h ;!.h!ighted rom t lC. start ts tbc fund3mema: role oi shared knowl
5:: "-it< (Jonn:m needs ro bve ,anous 1\'pcs sh.red
th otht:r \fP5, and mdeed. \\1th ruanv othcr peopk m rhc l'K:
'" cdr,c >f t . - JU2ge a.'ld kno..,.!cdn of asv:= as and rdatcd toptc1
nf lffiffil!"r..UC;O,lllld more >pCCtfic rrofessttonal kn"wlcJgc .lbOUI hll\V (0 prn
rlm K' . a vuhat h<.'r dull<> nr.1d nrlH> atc Il' an \Il'. and even more
pc: ' ' e l;nc.-..kdj,",. c, l >n crv:I'J> r tbom thr La bour Party .md 111
rude out aslum eekcr nd u .nllj' tlllnll tllls knowl
' t lct ne f 1 or. cr bdo"'. would
mall\ pagcs, and tS ouhidt tht ofthi> 'hali further reeanl
rdauon bct"<T11J:tntral or pohllcal 1\no,.l<dge .ltar<tl b} \IPs a' :o
re.dtt10a lor tht mnntaglulaeu aud rutrrprctabtlit) of this lt\t, an.J htnce 3'
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**JieaiS. :\s subcattgorv of the 1:o1e wl'Jclt..
J.e, 4.,."ts 1s ftlled b\ the expression Houn, virhidlas iateaded: lftd
oo the of shared poliocal Knowledge. aboyt) u
llll_,llllil:.lh WJdulg lor the (Bnrish) Housc of Commoas' or
- speafJcd here ali) tts pttSCnt members, as (p1111Wf} .o\dd!IJJ:ta
carual uace here t posstblt other secondaty addresKcs, such a
ilir CI.,Ciblaltts, the medu or the publsc al large Note also lh2t dae definire
* pmupposc lhued lr.nc>wledge of the rC'CipleniS about vidUch Houee
Mt. an"lllh a pan of thc comextu.l lcdge of the (oae and oaly)
tbrv mcmben of
ser the nthcr rmal ntex a C nea s rmall frttmeat
manhsl 1 rather nten J\c theoreocal tmnework. of vidlic:h teftlll
as aU kn tbr paroapsocs IS DOt yet fully
a ordcr t aU ds trueture5 of dlis fnp ""' wclt a
bnbogc:W6cullirsofbola t
bloon
;))ij .... illtl*e: a 11 Ma Goallla.'w IPIIIIOCI '11* ..
III ri "1 oi.,._ pod.IIW! bld bJ 111 "-ied)
WenLv 'fidlic:h CMIIII_.ao.,.. pcopecllti
IP a a, 11 iacllled lbe c:aw dira t-Mn. eo-& a spcecb.
ha ':lf 1 1' raele.MD.c-'s'f*Cbhas-ycommo
Wdlwc:. social, pC'Iili tel 1111111 llltii:Caetioaal faDerions, 10111e of vUbic:h expliady
Iorai 'n led by d!e spcak" benelf. That ConservatiVe MPs support the poli
Cll fa Coasen'lltlft govmunemiS obvious, and as sucb ts a belief thar. needa
to be Coanubled, becawe everyone (atleast in the House of Commons)
lhat In du case. howc-vu, Mn Gorman does than merelv assen
dlc obnocl$. ! expbad1 supporuog Govemment pobcy shc not ooly
rolr as MP S aboYC aod DOI oo1v ber rok as ,,mo is member of a
111 powu. bul aiiO ber mrencoooal role 10 rbe cumnt deha te, namdv as
1 F L'118lg lhe gowcDIIDCJit. Slncc tbe poliq of tbe govemmcnt as iormulatcd
poga,rc temi lwlp lltllnl! a.sy{ua suker he.r suppon Js at the same tune
pruc for 5UCh vc:mmmt po and hcnce tbe expren&on oi an
fe!Ct) spccch act 1\s membc of thc go mmeul pam and as a supportcr
(&ood) ams:llJillab<m poli he 1 et ' unplluth evaluates bersdf
aUy much harsher thn mr'.dv .1 fonn of cllscourab>ement. Jn other word
verb IS an ot thc global ::-lrarc:g} oi po!<all\ e sdf-prescntation
v1there2s carlwr p;lrt as a contnbuuon ta neg:HIH' olht.r pre<>entanon. '
Gorman f\II)(Ulut.s as foUows:
(3) The mamr was :>d<'<Jil.nely dealt \\'llh by thc Son.1l s,curirv Commmee
reporr on hcnc.lit for as\lwn secktrs, v1rh1rh 'vas an pa'rr; documt'nt
that CUt tiut 11 \\'as cosuny, about { 201> mtllion a Y'"'' for tho
0
people. maoy of \ubnm could reasonabh bc callcd econoouc and
some o" bom are IUSt bcndt scekers on h>bda1, o rmum m It
ts wrong that Ut<pa,crs m thc l.ondon are.< should bcar an undue pr,
of burden o expeuclimre that the people are causmg.
1 um!er:st:>nJ that m:my p<oplc want to comt to llntam t.o work, but thw
JS l proctdurr vtrhtrcby pcople canlegmmatdy btcome pan of our com-
:nurury. Pcopk v>rho economtc mwaH H<' suksttpping tlm.
The tlurd and fin1l example !rom this spelch, ommcdiatdv [ollowmg 1hc prc\'1
ous ones . .ag:un btgdv <'Xptesscs :hc huseJ menul Sll'lunon model ;\lrs. Goo
mw h:t. oi current unnugraoon of refugees. only the foDoumg fcatures
bat are a!so under control 01 the comext model c>f !hc speakcr
a. the use ot adfquatel;. stgn.lmg an upinion of the speakcr, 1nJ
bece a propcny of thc COl> text:
h. knowledge of .wd rdCI't'IICC 10 rhe Social ulllY Lommitte:e as a pantfl
p:uu tn the stm.lti<HI, aud lllOle spcnt'iulh :ts
' the rct-ertnce w thc ali patt\' documt'nt c;, thc ">:::! :. stgnaling a pohncal
con,en>u' on lll2ttm of >n, l!'O"c:rlul mo e of pcrsuas10n:
d Lhe use or t:he dcmon<rram c llmse tn rhos< pc ple IS a wcll-k.nown exam
pk of talang ethruc, rac.ll or chs> d:.nnce md to tostcr rhe polarinll)n
hc:tweer. Ls and !bem. \Hhtch ts also sc.meth:'l> r. lennt f<n Lhc context.
r.:uneiy Jn expn 1011 oi the tdtolog) olthc pt <kn
rne exprrss:on IIIJ) be cal/eJ <Cmtomlc rejugees nut onl) has obvt
emanuc dimensto>ns that :'leed bc cut, hut nlw a
ne: afunnauon of rhc reJ<onable dul'llclt't oi thc :l.nd ber rdtr
mce {T>up her part , \'Uluch 1 pan of Lhc matcg) of posllt\'l' sdf
prc>enuoon Th and thc !ater refcrc:ncc to thc: bencfit sceker>' ts also :l
tob , t thr o <T.u! Str.l'eg) of neyame c>ther prescmmon
In (,orm.m ne 1 mi} auck< ,md upports go\'ernment pohq
t he al><> e 10 \1rlut ,be ts ekucd lor rqresenung thr
Tbu , 111 Imri age /trs wl'un;: that Hnmh ralt'{l<(l'i.'n ... shc prrsup
J68 Teun A van Dqk
po<cs tlrst dur Unu h rarepayers do md<ed P"' for refugees, negao,elv
C\'.tlu:acs rht> ;IS bad tnJ a problem th:n to bc ddressed In
words, tot poli ura! l<'rnl<, sht ts thc uncrc.rs ot the BntSh prop
l'rtv owners
Ftn.tll) . rlus diSd<tinwr, namdy rhe dlScl:umcr of \p
puenr 1-' mparlw (/ unJrnl<lt:d. /)1(/ . .. !. "rhtch appc.us to comnbutc w
po,me ' df prescmauon. bul" ;t ffiCI\T tl>at contnbute' to the
pre, enuuon of (hhers. 1\part irom bctng pan 01 a scmanoc stutegv, rlus
mo,.,, >ppumdv lso ha< contexnul dunensrons, namelv v1rhen unphutg
,ors.:gge ung" tth thc a postuvt optntoa >lhe speaker
In rhe;e exampks '"'' <t' l' 1hat the scnunucs and cnnlc't dcscnptton ot drs
course uucrmmgle. l\icy.l{t\'e otht:Hiescripttun '" must d"cOUJ><: hkc rhts" oi
,()mmon dimenston >i liS nwaning. IJO\\'t\Tr, surh a ctrategy of negative othtr
ts usullh coml>tncd a strat<"l')' of posiuve self-prcsentallon,
and such postuve >puuon about or the own l\fl>Up. rs oi courie an unpor-
Wlt pan: .Jf the context model of most spMken \t the <line wne. m tlus ca5e.
the speak<:r

hcr poltuca! llegunce, her l'l rl'i and hcr soctal


ade onts rr.ember of rhe Jorrnnam vtrhtte ma,on v m the l'. K
\\ c also th.utn ,uch an tnfomu! \;ontnttul' malysis, thc tkscriptl>tl
o. conrexrualtzauon<'n<'S uwo!ves many cont<' XI c.ltql'rtes, such as
overall (\W ntc dt01ltng \\1th poltU< s b,n l
Glotr.U ('-'e arc cngaged on
::,ernng we are here U1 Parbameot, ,
Ccrreot acuon !I am nO\\ gwmg a h l< patt of a parhlmemary de
lnte,
Paruapants
--( '>rnmu:ucatlH 'pcJkers Rn tp:o ni s.
r"lc Supponcr ni Covnnuwnt;
polmc.1l r'>le MI'. t on ervauw, woman, vrrhne Bri11sh.

Po mve df presenuuon
(, ernmer., att.: k aoour, dascreJn rl"fugces
r..: or t!tl.mtgrant , financtal LS>UC$; polincal un lcgts!J
e oare O!'!<" .re ne . nca ' l tp:.rared m tiu ar m.uufesrauon in rhe rcxt. ( )f
and ni 1r c:rc llv c>rurol dt cursJVC proptrtll'S (such
r m n :i)
Totan:d
a :.ega!l\-e de cnp:u.n III Le C'rm.nDC Jc,r] )f ,'l::c \'.3. .1
pJ(_-.uppO$ed :and h) pat1JCtp.ar.rt. 1:AJ; 011.0 il.l1 m . )r,:al e, n
Jn our thcory nt liiiii<:Xl lhls doe- uot .-:nean th:u 5\11 h comt:xl
.11e 1Wt tclc-vanl unf hc:nt ru:cd ,'iol be of tlw .11\.\h 1 l' J.rllup;mts nL (1
not tu, uncnl towards or aprc . (l.lJ:tcnt of. '.Jnt x
tu:a.l caregones. (<)ntt3,t\.ul rd(v:utre may also hc ''for &:lstL"''ce m!:cn u
explams the cho1ce o J !pc\ Ilie the Ahsence ot pcc1ft descnpuons, 'le
chooce of toptc, he sc:kcuon oi the formauen of mcnul m dcls of ... -..-cs the
pcn:h tru of tbe punop1nts, so on. An apticll rhc rv of ( .tr:u , d
lll2kc the dee>ds of tlu"U mtcnlcuor:al>ml cogruuvc ser. ;,c mr npht t
Acl.nol>ledgcmcnt;,
l "m mJcbted tu P.,ul lbvky, Donna .\hlkr,Ja; Lt>mkt\ llwo van Lclv.tn ond
I'Juf Chilton, for thc.tr on .tn l'arlier vent(m ot the !iettl.On on the :,iL
nouoo of context, aod 10 Cornclia Ille and Paul Baylcy for othn corr:ments or.
he rest of the p<!Per Th1s docs n)t me>'> that thev rce wlth evcryrhtng the
fu::tl ,ewn of thls papct.
Rcfrrfnces
\reylt". hll'nh;,.m, . & Gcah;a_m, k-10 '\ l .\c.! h suuatim:s.
(ambt-id!;e U "'" m Pres
\u<r, Pete<&< Dlltrll<> Ale'o 'TJ ) 1 '2' .. Thc C<"'l " 1l. 1/,tnglM.gt' .-\mStecdcm
.wd Ph!hddpb!J Jo.'llllknr.>=
.avltv Paw l'l'l8 bou :u-6"mcct Thc ); , ,ur 1! \\ Ulning wd i..>SUJR
In Jl.ond1 (i'd ). forms o} lrgumentatn {lt l'ir !m'ant.ItJSllinguistlca
pr , 5
7
171; Solu!,-m CU EF
B"\'lt). Paul 1 t99ti J 1 .c.:XJs m Hnush partiamentarr Jd1,th" ,. pattern:'.. 1 n 1
\' crschuertn (EJ.). [..:WJ<lHtge und ideolOg}' Sclec:Jed JXlJ!f!rS Jrom 6th lntematiUil!ll
PragmaticsCon/('rem.:c \ ol 1 (pp. 42-51) \ntwcrp: lllrt:r1i:1Uof"l11
I\S5,0ClatlU'D
Fourdieu. Ptttrc 1985J fhc of rhe concepts of 1-l.t!nr.t. ' .uni 'hdd', SAtO(-ril:usm.
Y:, II :U
.-......Pc ::ope& uset,folin IQ"9' -'pctch.osanurkerot !nK.Rxhercr&
H ; I owktrs m spM."h PF }3 I,Z ! am ndg.-. o....unbr.<k< l "'"'" rr
O, ; en:.". l Z 1 ov.'tl :h ;m of ti\ Il rupnut':. tn M-txKlr\
ik;cvur-,.c mJ &x.;el\, 31 l!. .Z..'i 4C.
-31 -
.md d1smbutcd such ,,., maouals .-,.
anJ Hlag,aznte ur1Kic-;. i\(4:ordingh
up\\ard. ;Ilustrate how
twns "?! mdnndual actor;. a O cel the
n:alm d>.rough m.: producll"n oft.,.,.. """"of
"tuch It e ITk:3nJOgful th.Y'bccomc cm-
N:dded m or e"-ISlrng In lum.
t- -.,;:de rlt.r 100Ct.t111conslituted.
rcgulatmg m rhat t.">T\3..:1 mstltutionf.i
.-t11d !>hJ.pC' the l.tiun\ thal Jtad l\l the
llf more h! .... ,,_ 1 hus.)'ht tlt:-.\.:ur:-1\'.: realm
;ICh rhe hackg lUntl.ri'cam't \\hich current
th ..'tam::; occur -c1l llyg, und Ct)n-
orhcr"S (as. h;v down-
\\Md. a!TM'o'S n le,gurc 1 ).
flH\ nding nllows \lS to
'("xrkre m =;n:ater deull ofmsti-
tutionalintkuJ' and. specit the of ac-
uon.,texH. d,cnur .. C'
tl1a c cffccl.:. oJ :ICI it 1 1 f ac:tiOT\5 a;(k;('t
di,cour(;.ff'thn .. 'ugh l'rtHiuc.:t m of te'\ts,
critic;1 que:-olU.Hh nrc \\'hlch cvpc::s of \\Ctions
c likely tn prt.,diiCI.' t allc.ave
trac.es, and \\hich 1\.'Xh re mure
llh h,_l m0ucm:C Jl"ltlUI'SC-.1 \Jo.f! ti n :l<;,SC:S:S
cffecls of di'\rour<:e dj.;;.
dCtion the prodnc ,,;l
lhcn tt-c ertli\.JI quc>!:on be.cc les
"..,nch rcrms of dt .. (oun.c arc to pr: ...
if':\titution'-':"
fht' Oi .. cursi\l' (ffc-cl .. ur AI."HUO
\\ e above lh<.lt nc:11on afi'C'l"l5 dis.course
lhwugh prpJuc.:UCf1 {lt'tC\IS
tllllUgh counttes1 a<.tion._ in sct-
tings Jrt' asl\ociatcd \\ uh \lfllC fornl tJfte-xti.Jo.-tl
the etleclnt nMny of thesc 1exts
"alt be lo;aliz<d. luntcd. and uh;OilS<:qucntial.
m In;! v.e
&e oot 1n ali actions but m thal
d1".! more to produce 1cxb 1bat. in tum.. arc
nMre hkd)' to influencc diwo.-rse. V.hat '"-e
'' to undffliJ.nd not thc tleeting event. but
rJther thc mcaninl' whu.:h .. (Rkoeur,
l 131 t lay lm :md Va11 1 very arguc that Oi')
-
... .......,. .... IMI.._........_ For-
"' --..... ...,_ &..prtor,.,....
illli>C14 ,._owly ......
........ .,.,., aions&fsociol,..lky(el.

........ -"""' oflheir ....... Manogen
lhe ...,'"'"""'G of..,..,....... ... "'
""M<M1nuall} arttculaf1ng st(Wn(s.- Chal"'lllustr.i<'

f1Gl Rt: l
A DIKwni"f' Modd of l stitatioaaliu t6otl

....
:lllorl.ll wnucn and
\ni tt.:Xf' 1 Ur"'''\'" l)ugutd. 1 QlJ 1: 1 ')i)()i
& Sparks. fQ'9K;
p ''"'' .,;.opui. 8: ..,mrlhI.Xt.!rT. Slmtlarty.
Uftl.:'l.'"rtl ne\ (W'!i..:Jp.lntS .acr.mg.c
rbcet e.\PtncrJ ... n mto cOOcrrnt ac/ounr.. 'cr.
'->CI .t,, , l%81 dw iumt..th pwmblc cx
, 'ft<(, for r..r"' "'""' :u 'Kll' : l9Q l .
\1 , l ,, ll<fe=n. Kurl"c:L 198-11
c ".JJ X 1LT.rt:cg.K. rnlt\lo:i .ve USC'd b'
k... . .c-s.;: t:f fuwrc pe!
,,,
1
'->;:.: t., 1993 Dunoo & Dun
.s fhum.,ft:i.Jil)%, l,othc'r"t'fds. .
... "1 t. \\III
... '-t lh:lt [fa(CS., a._o;
, 'l 1 '' '. r rcoquire 1'1"
1> ' :l tlf'4_
, u. r Jn )lf' pr.Jll .. l ,--n 1
J,. \ dlft.mtn.."ll1 J
.... "' : ,., thJl J,
-
Paget
Al lhe.: ,.f the '-CJUrie \-\C . ' - th
la
dt.f'CCu at \\C ill' n
1
nguagc m h.:rms ,,fgrilmmar \\e
1
'' lfllt"r,., .t.J tt.:.: '
T'L- are on Y t.._d '" def ......
K: tcrm of m.lv dcsignate a c.eru. h ..., ........
diS4:0urse" or "media 1 th ltl )poSU h of .:. r. )"'tlUth
. n e case of thrs J...t r. thc. d. ,
ambtguous, bcCJuse 11 m3v de>tgnale ooth thc ,, tem !hal 1'' _ _.. ocour-- "'-'
Il ti . J uuU'-C: .J r. i ts
we as 1c -.:cttcgof) ltSc:lf: "'commumst d rsco,trsct' refer') hoth tn lhe "" -f ""
P
roduccd b\' c l - d th . . uuully o tnt..
. . 'm mums..s. an to e pohllci.l.i systcrn lhat led r1, theu ,
(Matnglllnc:tu 2H07 <9.6!)). pn:dULII >n
r hc notinn of discnur<>c is so much U!-.t:d lh.,'L"HJ(,c it plltc 1n - 1- 1 1 _ f - ......... " 1<1 c lan l
thc Wa) \ve. In its mrn, the by thc \':tnou-;
trcmis that iippcnrect wuhm thc rculm of human ..... 1r 'n s ar 1
, , .. , .. _ . . ..,, ... c u. c.urrent )
lahch:d _PJ,JgiH.Hil:S lkmg more than a doctnnc. pr.t!'_mau .. a v.av oi
plrccivmg. hal -- '""( -
lo ,\Ltingucncau disuHtr'c h'S 1hc followmg m:un

()i,rour''-' an orJ!auization ... trm.turc th:t tbe le, el of thco
("phrase" in French)
l111s ''LI! does nOI mcan that a scncs of \\Ords of n ccnain lengh will J.Ulomallcailv
m.1kc up dts<oursc. il rdcrs 10 thc fac! thal tlis.mtrsc refcrs 10 anothcr IC\cl of
orgam7"'''on, diffcrcnt from thc 'entcncc A prohibtliVC noticc such as "};o smol<ing"
l> not a cl:tusc (grammar minimal unit). bul il is cliS<nursc. ,\s a trans-phra>llc tor
"undcr-phraslic'') unit. th,; noticc " subiect to organi?alional ruks
pwduccd anJ obscrved by a 1\cll-dctcrmutt:d ""mi gruup. A an
arguntcntatinn arc Jiflerent typcs of lcxts. hav111g dttlcl<'lll structures and leng1hs. In
this rcspc,t. :1 ncws story will differ from a dts'c' t;Jlioll
l)iscoursc is not con:>idcred to bc oricnted t-,:,,,:. c 11 concehed in kccping
"ith lhc of an audience It tS also Ntentcd IO\\atds an end unfolds in
urne. a dirccuon in a linear way J'he \Hitcr "guides" thc
n."adcr!Jlc;srer throue.h discourse markrs. thc lcucr ma\ anucipate "h:ll "ill harren
m discourse (""e will see that..: wc will comc baei-. 10 th3t"), amend thc
rrc"uus text ("or rathcr'; "1 sbould bave meotioncd that. .") or makc
("bcsidcs": "on the othcr hand"). Thcse words" refer to the structure of
thc '1 hcy may also concem thc '"dcr ,,f thc tdcas in the text tlirst,
s-.--cond, thcn, consequcntly. etc.).
Bewks oricnting the audicncc, disrtHIIS'' said m,,y
induJ,thc uullwrs commenls on herihis ''"n cont.:nt: 'Paul tinds '!.
Hil' tun .\o. n ull\."r filthinl:ss." hl{osalic a name.') lo\.es ,.\llr\!d.
1>1 1.
lhcle ae .... m .._of oral c:ollllllllllic:alion thll c1o
.. 1 .aiw"; il INI)' be tlle cae.r : rM wllo delivun letNN or of a
ls atso tniO ia dle .. d:fhe Miaea text wller!t Jhe adela &llt ill
lJ pmcm. Somo ! hl'i :woutd considier that it enJy oral
,... rcpre uit lhe "ri ade"....- of lllll':sae, the olher 11111t1
rz,41Cied lbrms of""* "abi ' '' (Z007. 6l) ants Jllat we
... fn1r=M'a' hrtaotlfiWiy or 4lilcolne fer or.al llftmM:tiofl. Aay
- pcd o1 cbe ' 1 t>'l tit .. tl77ldlum JNi
5
Ilie ca n J!MIIiw
l.liiiiiWI)' of..,,. ee (..",_}; il il pdl or illplieil a:cbnp widl Olber
- ... loc .. .: ... ..,. uun .. p il 1 - or _,..., llllity
lt)otllc flllsLJMillll' .. ilt ;t; SIM10-..:Ialbe ICIIII'CGIII?INCU..,.
lllis ta va: l'f" il ,.alftfuo1 a "1*
liiJfu4 JGI.UIIIOM or
itls
1 ht. re a... di \\ tthotJt .1 subjcc:, .. .,.n J Oc.,;nnl\:'1. th.: of B.1I
(1nd S:Jx::J.:I rcJacncc ;md wht" lh .. tlh"'- .mitudc tow;1rd'i wh.1\
.1), .. nd W\>nrd; thl! (lhc phc.,orn(IIOII vf"modalization''). 1 hc uhJ.d
lllUilly \\ ho 1s for wlwl is t\11 t:lcmt..m(ar}' uttcn1ncc 1,
Jt" s raining .. is <tatcd as a l'ct by the ullcn:r \\ho l!"'"an(ccs iL trulh.
But the subjcCl coulu C<.Jually "modulate thc dcgrcc of aJhesion to the llllth
,)ff ,;: "It may hc raining".
1 .! couiJ nakc sn:chody elsc i(r ll:.e t:Ucrance "l'"ul 'J)'S
1 "r1mmg ...
<. he c ,:J .xmmem on hcrni" words: 'P< kinp, it's raining".
he '":cer cvcn slam that prctends to l'e in chargc of the uttcranc JS
:t t>lhc c.:! 'C ..,r;ronic $Upplinl by t-.laingu,,neau 2007: 61)
IJhcuurse is rtguhlfctl by nunus
\cn .. i activity is inscrihcd 111 the institutiun of specth. l.ikc uny human
it .:!U;<kd hy !j,: norm<. 1 very ;xcc h act implic, nnnns or
pr"' 5 te re 1!1S pcrfom,cd. A implc act. <;uch
c d a cd 1:-y fact tl,at thc slwuld not know lhe :!:1,wcr to thc
!ion. lhc c, :c-.;tioncr 'hould be h the S/hc should lclicve it 1S
1, his mt. locntor who (<Ul<! s.upply it. Fundon,lltilll)'. no speec!1 ,,el may lc
f ti SPiliC <>f th.;: \\:0)' l prescnkd. J'his .JUStilicatinn
1
.c11 h> 1:1.c\:n .. r..:i c t'r
lli<loursc h indudccl in iutcrdis.:nursc
'
\;' 1
' \\III:.:>,, fonncd hv <thcr discourc. in rclation
'"d In (rlcr to t th<: ,hortc it fus 1< 1-c rchlcd
1.. ur tl.Jt \\C '-''1, 1:..nt p.trud) lqs
1 'm lh\! nu:r:.hcrlc . .-; \.! rcliltion<:: J (
1
hhlsopln
,,, at.; 111 lht and 1hc ... amc a5 a ..:;ah,:::- 1 h\.!
m<rc.- fact of mdudm" 8 dts.:our..:
10 3
,
1
l t d 1 t". enre. ' cuurr ne... :'T.ln n
""'-'d c ,, nn onumtc s<.:t rfdto.cour.,e,;
'1! 1n to thc un..: ..:nr ..
J)JSCOl-RSE (1 ITER.\ 'i( El A:'>D TEX'J'
1
1
As il was in Unit 1. an utterancc is thc ptoduct of the act .,f ullct 11
<tands lor thc verbal 11arc of the process ot" uncrtn" 111c 12 of th 1


. . _ o .... c ..:: lll cr:mce 1
trrelc' arw 11 bc mad, up ot a \\Ords ora "lllllc hook
Some dcfinc th, utterance as thc dementa'} umt uf wrl>a/
commumcatum, il of words endowcd \\tth memmg
mJepcnd.:nt. For tnstan,c ''l.con is ill"", ""Oh!", ''Whal n girlt", "raul'" arc uttcruncc",
of various t:
O_ther. linguists ''I'P"w. thc ull..-ran,e to thc "'nlcnc.:!dausc ("phrasc' in 1 rctKh)
,,,mstd.:rll1g J clau'c ts t;1ken otll Jf context rhcrc are numemus uH..-ranccs thal
resul! from the sallll' rl:1usc whcn it is interprctcd in context. That is why. thc
t'X.llnple No smokingt'" ts a in thc absence of a context ami ts ;1n
utterarKC if it is \\tlh rcd capital ktt,'IS in tiu: \\aiting room 0f a hosptlal. lf
thc sam< dause ts \Hl'lcn 111 paint on the ""11 of a house. it "ill have a dtltcrcnt
tnterprctation.
The 1em1 unerance ,; also uscd to a 'crbal th.lt sumds for a
compklc comrnunkatton unit and hdongs tn a p:trttcular Jiscou= geme
,\n uttcrance is rclatcd h thc communicntivc lnh'Jilt<'n of ils dswursc gl'JII"e ;\ !\'
news programme as an > wnrcivc<1 wilh lhe g<MI .,r inlnrming
the uudiLncc on daily while an atlwrli"nwnl is C'nrcived with thl' );(lai of
pcrsuadl!}g consumcrs lll bU)'.
\\hen discourse forrns a \\holc, a coherc"l ''c can spe-.1k aooul 1ex1s. fhc
lingur;tic branch "hich studtcs coherencc ts calkd '"textuallinguistics". Thc lcrm of
text 1s currentl} th>>gncJ In verhal produch. buth or;1l nnd "rtten that arc
so as to last. In bc rcpcatcd and to circulat.: far lrum th,ir original conwxt. \\'c should
usc thc tcnn hoth fm ''litcrury tcxts", ')uridicall\:xts" and for a convcrsalion.