Harvarde university Citation

Referencing or citing your sources is an important part of academic writing. It lets you acknowledge the ideas or words of others if you use them in your work and helps avoid plagiarism. Referencing also demonstrates that you've read relevant backgound literature and you can provide authority for statements you make in your assignments. The Harvard citation style can vary in minor features such as punctuation, capitalisation, abbreviations, and the use of italics. The examples in this guide have been developed in collaboration with the UWA Business School. Always check with your lecturer/tutor for which citation style they prefer you to use.

Getting started
There are two components to referencing: in-text citations in your paper and the reference list at the end of your paper. The in-text citation: Harvard is an 'author/date' system, so your in-text citation consists of author(s) and year of publication.

In-text citation of a book (the same format applies for a journal article)

If you quote directly from an author or to cite a specific idea or piece of information from the source you need to include the page number of the quote in your in-text citation.

The reference list: All in-text citations should be listed in the reference list at the end of your document.

Reference list entry for a book

Reference list entry for a journal

Reference list entries contain all the information that someone needs to follow up your source. Reference lists in Harvard are arranged alphabetically by author.

Subject Guide

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ICT for Development (ICT4D) in democracy, education and health
Publicerad: dejen 222 maj 2012 Uppdaterad: defaru 220 augusti 2012 Time: 12-13 September and 24-25 October 2012 Place: Sida Partnership Forum, Härnösand Application deadline: August 26, 2012 Contact person: Anneli Avenäs, Jens Karberg - Sida. Course leader: Ulf Larsson, Spider, DSV, Stockholm University Language: English Costs: Sida covers course fees, including board and lodging. Each participant/organization covers the cost of transportation to and from Härnösand.

Target group
The course is targeted at CSOs supported by Sida. As the number of participants is limited, we will give priority to organizations that are considering ICT in existing projects or future planning.

This course aims to assist Swedish CSOs to understand how ICT4D can be an integrated part of their activities, and to practically plan and implement strategic interventions. The course is organized by the Swedish Program for ICT in Developing Regions (Spider), a resource center for ICT4D based at the Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University. Spider is funded by Sida and serves as an ICT4D knowledge broker for academia, business, government, and civil society.

The course gives a general introduction to ICT4D, outlining what is specific about this emerging area of development intervention and how to find appropriate solutions that combine the benefits of ICT with actual development needs, along with concrete examples of what works and what doesn’t work. The course has a very practical orientation, drawing on the field experiences of ICT4D practitioners and experts to identify good practices and suitable approaches for integration of ICT in education, health, and democracy, with a particular focus on the inclusion of women and girls. Participants are expected to use this opportunity to integrate ICT into their own action plans and to identify strategic areas for ICT integration and intervention. Participants

will also be introduced to methods and resources that can guide and assist their future efforts in ICT4D, including security issues and aspects of Result Based Management (RBM) and development of ICT indicators . An e-learning platform will be available during the course, both as an example of new work methods and as a communication platform for mentoring between the two course parts in Härnösand. In summary, the course offers: ● A better understanding of the opportunities and challenges of ICT4D ● Practical examples of ICT in democracy, health and education ● An appreciation of gender, and the inclusion of women and girls in ICT4D

The course is divided into three parts, with two physical workshops and online collaboration through a user friendly, interactive digital platform. Participants will also receive supplementary course material. a. Introduction (12-13 September). Workshop for 1,5 days with presenters from Spider and Spider project partners. The presenters will give a general overview of the area of ICT4D and share their experiences in ICT4D, from policy to project implementation, including security issues. Examples will mainly come from East Africa, but discussions will address general aspects applicable for other regions. Interactive discussions with participants and group exercises. A specific focus will be on gender, and the inclusion of women and girls in ICT4D. b. Reflection (17 September-19 October). Participants explore how ICT can be integrated into their activity plans. Online collaboration coached by course moderator and select presenters through the e-learning platform, which also provides complementary lectures and discussions on topics such as ‘Social Media and Advocacy’ and ICT security issues.

The overall aim of Spider’s research is to generate ICT4D knowledge. Since ICT4D still is an emerging field of development cooperation, it is critical to build a solid knowledge base, for decision makers, practitioners, and other stakeholders. By offering evidence-based, empirically grounded knowledge on what works and what doesn’t, research can strengthen ongoing and future ICT4D efforts. Research can also reinforce monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of ongoing activities, by providing more complete analyses of outcomes and impacts. Spider supports and engages in multidisciplinary ICT4D research at different academic levels, together with researchers from Sweden as well as partner countries.

ICT in the health sector : literature review

The issue of impact and evidence is explored in documents that have been classified under the section case studies and good practice. Due to the scarcity of materials that examine macro impact there is not an impact section, however the more analytical documents that examine impact in various ways can be found in the strategy section. Specific evaluation studies and literature about developing methodologies in the evaluations of information and communication technologies (ICTs) - the evaluations section also contain some references that include impact. Medically based systematic evidence studies are gathered in the evidence section. The role of ICTs in development form a part of the discourse of the millennium development goals (MDGs), and for most of the MDG targets there is a potential ICT tool and role to play. Itemizing each potential and role is complex however and cross references with many other classifications, such as ICTs by type, by usage or by implementing agent. While there are a growing number of documents that focus on the MDGs, and a sizable number are present in the bibliography, there is a gap in materials that examine specific health-related MDGs form the perspective of ICT usage.

This course aims to assist Swedish CSOs to understand how ICT4D can be an integrated part of their activities, and to practically plan and implement strategic interventions. The course is organized by the Swedish Program for ICT in Developing Regions (Spider), a resource center for ICT4D based at the Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University. Spider is funded by Sida and serves as an ICT4D knowledge broker for academia, business, government, and civil society.

The introduction and widespread use of ICT in the health systems of developed countries, has implications for different actors in the health-disease process and the process of providing care to the community. This context must be considered from the perspective of patients, from the perspective of health professionals and, also from the perspective of health organizations. Nowadays, when the majority of developed countries had incorporated Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in their care processes, a new perspective on managing information and enabling the use of data for health research to improve patient care it is opening. In this new care setting, health professionals, and particularly nurses, have a key role, raising the need for specific education and training to be able to respond to this new scenario. It involves a process of adaptation for the professionals. At the same time, the incorporation and implementation of ICT in the health sector, involves a process of adaptation for the patients or users and for the health institutions. Study: The main objective of this study is to analyze how the introduction and widespread use of ICT in health systems affects the protagonists of health care delivery process to the community. From our point of view, this should be analyzed from the perspective of patients, from the perspective of health professionals and also from the perspective of health organizations. In our case we have considered the impact of the implementation of ICT devices in health institutions from three views: - Nurses’ Perspective. - Patients’ Perspective. - Health Systems’ Perspective. To perform this study a search and analysis of literature has been conducted. The study was carried out to identify the different perspectives regarded to the introduction and widespread use of ICT in health systems. The results of the search and the analysis of the literature show that there are knowledge gaps. Those gaps can affect the implementation of ICT in health scenarios. This process is relatively early, but there are many voices that recommend to evaluate and to consider these views as they are a key element in ensuring the success of this complex process.

1. Introduction – ICT and Health. The term eHealth refers to the use of modern information and communication technologies (ICT) to meet needs of citizens, patients, healthcare professionals, healthcare providers, as well as policy makers [1]. The role of World Health Organization (WHO) is very important in promoting and advancing eHealth. At 58th session in May 2005, the World Health Assembly (WHA) adopted a resolution WHA 58.25 establishing eHealth strategy for WHO. The WHO Report for the World Summit on the Information Society in Tunis (2005) underscores the close link between health and ICT: “Today, ICT is fundamental for health systems to meet obligations to deliver care, pur

The introduction of ICTs in the health sector has been and still is one of the challenges of the new society of knowledge. Healthcare activities use ICTs very intensively in every aspect but in health systems on the whole – public health, hospital management, healthcare continuum, medical records, pharmacological history, clinical sessions, etc. – this intensive use goes no further than the clinical act per se. As a result, the ICTs play a very small part in the socialisation of knowledge.

The use of ICTs in healthcare and management processes in the framework of communication and information transfer systems is not as common a practice as it is in other sectors. This lack of intensity in the use of ICT systems is starting to change, thus generating great demand for professionals who can successfully introduce ICT best practices in healthcare and health management processes.

The UOC's Master's in ICT systems and health is aimed at promoting the generation and transfer of knowledge with the use of ICT tools in order to manage communication and information in the health sector, emphasising the transformative ability of the latter and the mechanisms for the continuous promotion of improvements to healthcare processes.

Purpose of health policy or idea
In 2006, the Government established a policy document entitled "New IT Reform Strategy: Realizing Ubiquitous and Universal Network Society Where Everyone can Enjoy the Benefits of IT" (IT Strategic Headquarters 2006). The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare subsequently published a related policy document in the field of health care (MHLW 2006). The strategy emphasized ICT as measures to solve social problems rather than as aims in itself and identified health care as a priority area. The policy includes various targets described below.
Main points Main objectives

In the "New IT Reform Strategy", the Government established the following five targets specifically concerned with health care ( IT Strategic Headquarters 2006): 1. Drastically reduce healthcare insurance administrative costs through the complete computerization and online processing of medical insurance claims no later than the beginning of fiscal year (FY) 2011 and use databases of medical insurance claim information for epidemiological purposes to promote preventive treatment and streamlining of national healthcare costs. 2. Build by FY 2010 the foundations for using individuals' healthcare information throughout their lifetimes, supporting self management of individuals regarding their health conditions and efforts to maintain and enhance health; 3. Promote remote healthcare to eliminate disparities in the level of healthcare among different regions, including access to advanced treatments, and employ terrestrial digital broadcasting to provide effective instructions and information to patients during emergencies; 4. Clarify the objectives of introduction and promote the widespread use of healthcare information systems including electronic medical records to enhance the quality of healthcare, ensure the safety of medical treatment, and encourage greater collaboration among medical institutions; and 5. Promote comprehensive and effective computerization throughout the medical, healthcare, nursing, and social welfare fields.

Objective The specific objective of ICT in Health Sector is:

Improved quality & accessibility of Health services through Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Strategies The ICT strategies in the Health Sector in view with the Bhutan ICT Policies and Strategies (BIPS), GG Plus, and the 10 FYP targets would bestow more specific emphasis in achieving the objective Improved the quality & accessibility of Health services through ICT. Therefore, following are the essential strategies in achieving the set objective:
• • • • •

Use ICT for enhancing Good Governance in Health Sector. Establish dedicated Health Intranet - HEALTH NET. Establish Health Information Systems. Promote e-Health and Telemedicine through ICT. Enhance capacity building of Health IT professionals and personnel.

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