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Introduction: Selection is the process of making a “hire” or “no hire” decision regarding each applicant for a job. The process typically involves determining the characteristics required for effective job performance and then measuring applicants on those characteristics. The characteristics required for effective job performance are typically based on a job analysis. Definition: “Selection process is a series of specific steps used to decide which recruits should be hired.” Or “Selection is the process of choosing individuals, who have needed qualities to fill jobs in an organization.” • The process begins when recruits apply for employment and ends with the hiring decision. • Employment function: recruiting and selection are combined and called the employment function. • Selection ratio: A selection ratio is the relationship between the number of applicants hired and the total number of applicants available. Selection ratio = • Number of applicants hired Total number of applicants
Selection Process Challenges: Determining which characteristics that differentiate people are most important to performance Measuring those characteristics Evaluating applicants’ motivation level Deciding who should make the selection decision
Types of Errors in selection decision: False – negative errors: “The process eliminates people who would have performed well” 2. False – positive errors: “ People will be hired who fail.”
Steps involved in Selection Process:
• The selection process typically consists of eight steps: 1. Initial screening interview 2. Completion of the application form 3. Employment tests 4. Comprehensive interview 5. Reference & Background investigation 6. Conditional job offer 7. Medical/physical exam 8. Supervisory interview 9. Permanent job offer
Initial screening: The first step in the selection process whereby job inquiries are sorted. Involves two step procedure Screening inquiries Screening interviews. • Eliminate some of these respondents based on job description and job specification because candidates lack adequate or appropriate experience, or adequate or appropriate education. • Job description information is shared that frequently encourages the unqualified or marginally qualified to voluntarily withdraw from candidacy with minimum cost to the applicant or the organization. • Salary range is also identify at the initial screening stage because most workers are concerned about their salaries, even if a job opening sounds exciting, a low salary may drive away excellent talent. • • Completion of the application form: • After completion of initial screening, applicants are asked to complete the organization’s application form, company specific form used to generate specific information the company wants. • Application form gives a job-performance-related synopsis of what applicants have been doing, their skills and accomplishments. • Applicants require a signature attesting to the truthfulness of the information given and giving permission to check references. • On the basis application form information individuals may be rejected for two reasons: o If the job requires following directions, job related, and the individual fails to do so on the application. o The company find out the information is false. Key Issues • Omit items, which are not job-related; e.g., sex, religion, age, national origin, race, color, and disability. • Typically includes “employment-at-will” statement, indicates the right of the employer or employee to terminate the employment relationship without cause or notice • References contacts: Asks for permission to check work references. • Employment testing: Notifies applicants of required drug tests, physical exams, or other tests. • Application time limits: Indicates how long the application will remain active. • Information Falsification: Indicates that false information is grounds for termination. Successful applications • Information collected on application forms can be highly predictive of successful job performance. 3
Forms must be validated and continuously reviewed and updated. Data should be verified through background investigations.
Employment test: Employment tests are devices that assess the match between applicants and job requirements. • Estimates say 60% of all organizations use some type of employment tests. a. Performance simulation tests: requires the applicant to engage in specific job behaviors necessary for doing the job successfully. • Meets the requirement of job relatedness because they are made up of actual job behaviors. b. Work sampling: Job analysis is used to develop a miniature replica of the job on which an applicant demonstrates that he/she possess the necessary talents and his/her skills by actually doing the tasks. • Desired work samples based on job analysis data determine the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed for each job, and each work sample element is matched with a corresponding job performance element. • Advantages: Job samples are essentially identical to job content. Better predictor of short-term performance. Minimize the discrimination. • Disadvantages: Difficulty in developing good work samples for each job. Not applicable to all levels of the organization e.g. managerial jobs. • c. Assessment centers: A facility where performance simulation tests are administered. These include a series of tests and exercises, including individual and group simulation tests, are used to assess managerial potential or other complex sets of skills for selection, development, and performance appraisals. Testing in a global arena: Selection practices must be adapted to cultures and regulations of host country. Considerable care must be taken in testing the foreign nationals whether they are applying for a job in the home country or elsewhere. Test may have cultural biases, including slang terms that are unfamiliar. Laws in other countries may prevent some types of testing. Because of cultural differences, social standing, or political connections, taking a test may be seen as insult. Testing tools: Many employment tests exist, but each type of test has only limited usefulness. The exact purpose of a test, its design, its directions for administration,
and its applications are recorded in the test manual, which should be reviewed before a test is used. i. Psychological tests: measure personality or temperament. ii. Knowledge tests: determine the information or knowledge. iii. Performance tests: measure the ability of applicants to do some parts of the work for which they are to be hired. iv. Attitude and honesty tests: are used in some circumstances to learn about the attitudes of applicants and employees toward a variety of job-related subjects. 4. Comprehensive interview • • • HRM interviewers, senior managers within the organization, a potential supervisor, potential colleagues, or some or all of these may interview the applicant. The selection interview is a formal, in-depth conservation conducted to evaluate an applicant’s acceptability. The interviewer seeks to answer broad questions: Can the applicant do the job? Will the applicant do the job? How does the applicant compare with others who are being considered for the job? Most widely used selection technique or universal selection tool. Interviews involve a face-to-face meeting with the candidate to probe areas not addressed by the application form or tests.
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Advantages: Flexibility of interviews Can be adapted to unskilled, skilled, managerial, and staff employees. Allows a two-way exchange of information: interviewers learn about the applicant, and applicant learns about the employer. Types of interviews: a. Individuals interview: also called one-to-one interviews, between the applicant and the interviewer. b. Group interview: variations of group interviews take place in three forms: Panel interview: is an example of group interview, where several interviewers are involved that interviews an applicant at once. Which allows all the interviewers to evaluate the individual on the same questions and answers. Another variation is to have two or more applicants be interviewed together by one or more interviewers. It saves time and permits the answers and interactions of different applicants to be compared immediately. Different combinations of interviewers and applicants: Number of Interviewers Individual Interview 5 Number of Applicants
1 Group Interview 2 or more 1 2 or more
1 2 or more 2 or more
There are other different interview formats on the basis of questions that can be asked during interviews. a. Unstructured Interviews/ Non directive interview: • Allows employment specialist to develop questions as the interview proceeds and interviewers go into topic areas as they arise, try to simulate a friendly conversation. • Applicants are queried using questions that are developed from the answers to previous questions. • Disadvantages: Lacks the reliability because each applicant is asked different series of questions. May overlook the key areas of the applicant’s skills or backgrounds. Possibility of not obtaining needed information. Information obtained may not be job-related or comparable to that obtained from other applicants. b. Structured interviews: • Uses a set of standardized or fixed questions asked of all job applicants to assess job related attributes. • The structured interview is based directly on a thorough job analysis. It applies a series of job-related questions with predetermined answers consistently across all interviews for a particular job. • Useful for initial screening and comparisons • Benefits Obtains consistent information needed for selection decision More reliable and valid than unstructured ones Best for determining organizational fit, motivation and interpersonal skills. Especially useful for high-turnover jobs and less routine ones. Meets EEO guidelines for the selection process c. Mixed interviews: • A blend of structured and unstructured questions. Structured questions provide base information that allows comparisons between candidates; Unstructured questions make the interview more conversational and permit greater insights into the unique differences between applicants. 6
d. Situational Interviews: • Follow a predetermined pattern that identifies both questions and expected responses. • Applicants are asked how they would respond to a specific job situation related to the content of the job they are seeking. e. Behavioral interviews: • Candidates are observed not only for what they say, but how they behave. • Focuses on a problem or hypothetical situation that the applicant is asked to solve, where both the answer and the approach are evaluated. • Applicants are asked to give specific examples of how they have performed a certain task or handled a problem in the past. • Helps discover applicant’s suitability for current jobs based on past behaviors. • Assumes that applicants have had experience related to the problem. f. Stress interviews: • An interview designed to create anxiety and put pressure on an applicant to see how the applicant will responds to job pressure. • Consist of series of harsh questions asked in rapid-fire succession and in an unfriendly manner. • Reliability and validity are hard to demonstrate, since job stress may differ from the stress posed in the interview. Interview effectiveness: • Often are expensive, inefficient, and not job-related. • Possible biases with decisions based on interviews include prior knowledge about the applicant, stereotypes, and interviewee order. • Impression management, or the applicant’s desire to project the “right” image, may skew the interview results. • Interviewers have short and inaccurate memories: note taking and videotaping may help. Effective interviewing: Conducting an Effective Interview – Planning the interview – Controlling the interview – Using proper questioning techniques Question types to avoid in interviews – Yes/No questions – Obvious questions – Questions that rarely produce a true answer – Leading questions – Illegal questions – Questions that are not job related
The interview process: The interview process has sequential steps include: i. Interviewer preparation: • Review the application and job description information to prepare specific question before beginning the interview. Answer to these questions determines the applicant’s suitability. • Interviews help persuade to applicants to accept subsequent job offers, interviewers need to e able to explain job duties, performance standards, pay, benefits, and other areas of interest. ii. Creation of rapport: • Beginning the interview on time and starting with non-threatening questions aid rapport. • The interviewer may use the body language to help relax the applicant. A smile, handshake, a relaxed posture, and the moving aside of paperwork- all communicate without words. iii. Information exchange: • The interview process is a conservation in which information is exchanged. • Asking by interviewee if the applicant have any questions that establishes two-way communication and allows the interviewer to begin judging the recruit by the type of questions asked. • Interviewer will ask the questions in a way that elicit as much information as possible. • Questions that begin with “how”, “what”, “why”, “compare”, “describe”, “expand”, or “could you tell me more about” are more likely to elicit an open response. • Questions that can be answered with a simple yes or no don’t give the interviewer much information. • Interviewer may want more specific information about the applicant’s background, skills and interest. iv. Termination: • As the list of questions and available time ends, the interviewer must draw the session to close. • An interview session may close through many ways that include: Nonverbal communication- sitting erect, glancing at a watch or clock, Asking from interviewee, do you have any final questions? 9
Interviewer notifies the applicant that they wait for a call or letter. Interviewer should not give any positive indication of applicant’s prospects for getting job because not only a subsequent candidate look better, but subsequent steps in selection process may cause final selection decision to be much more different from the way it might appear at the end of interview. Evaluation: • Immediately after the interview ends, the interviewer should record specific answers by and general impressions about the candidate. • A checklist is provided to interviewers that improve the reliability of the interview as a selection technique.
Interviewer Errors: a. b. c. d. e. Halo Effect Leading questions Personal biases Interviewer domination Incase of foreign nationals interviewer should not expect similar body language, expressions, and behaviors. Cultural and behavioral differences may influence the interviewer’s judgments.
Interviewee Errors: a. Nervousness b. Boasting c. Failure to listen that may result from anxiety about the interview. 5. References and Background Investigation: • Is the process of verifying information job candidates provide. • Verify information from the application form is correct or accurate information. • Typical information verified includes: –Former employers –Previous job performance –Educational accomplishments –Legal status to work –Credit references –Criminal records References: a. Personal references – Ones that attest to the applicant’s sound character Are usually provided by friends, family members. Their objectivity and candor are certainly questionable. The author of references usually includes only positive points; therefore theses references are less commonly used. b. Employment references – discuss the applicant’s work history. 10
• Negligent hiring liability: When an employer has failed to properly investigate an employee’s background and that employee is later involved in wrongful conduct. It assumes that a proper background check would have uncovered information about the candidate and the candidate would not have been hired. • Qualified privilege: Employers may discuss employees with prospective employers without fear of reprisal as long as the discussion is about job-related documented facts. One-third of all applicants exaggerate their backgrounds or experiences. A good predictor of future behavior is an individual’s past behavior. Background Investigation Methods: a. Internal investigation: checks former employers, personal references and possibly credit sources. b. External investigation: Uses a reference-checking firm that may obtain more information, while complying with privacy rights Documentation, including whom called, questions asked, information obtained/not obtained, is important in case an employers’ hiring decision is later challenged, therefore supporting documentation is invaluable.
6. Conditional job offer: • Offers of employment made contingent upon successful completion of background check, physical/medical exam, drug test, etc. • May only use job-related information to make a hiring decision. • A tentative job offer that becomes permanent after certain after certain conditions are met. • It comes from an HRM representative. 7. Medical/ Physical Examination: • The selection process may include a medical evaluation of the applicant before the hiring decision is made. • Americans with Disabilities Act requires that exams be given only after conditional job offer is made. • • • Should be used only to determine if the individual can comply with the essential functions of the job. An examination to determine an applicant’s physical fitness for essential job performance. Jobs that require certain physical characteristics, then may entails a job-related physical examination. 11
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Its minimum standards of health exist to enroll in company health and life insurance programs. A company may use this exam to provide a base data incase of an employee’s future claim of injury on the job. Paid by employer. Drug Test: the organizations seek to avoid the economic and legal risks associated with drug users.
8. Supervisory Interview: • The ultimate responsibility for a newly hired worker’s success falls to the worker’s immediate supervisor. • Supervisor is able to evaluate the applicant’s technical abilities. • Immediate supervisor can often answer the interviewee’s specific job-related questions with precision. • The employment function provides a supervisor with the best-prescreened applicants available. From those two or three applicants, the supervisor decides whom to hire. • Benefits: The commitment of supervisors is generally higher if they participate in the selection process. When supervisor recommends hiring someone, it creates within the supervisor a psychological commitment to ensure the employee’s success. Realistic Job Preview: RJP’ is the process through which a job applicant receives an accurate picture of the organizational realities of the job. OR RJP’s present unfavorable as well as favorable information about the job and work settings to applicants before the hiring decision is made. May include brochures, films, tours, work sampling, or verbal statements that realistically portray the job. Prevents the development of unrealistic job expectations that cause disenchantment, dissatisfaction, and turnover in new employees. RJP’s reduce the initial surprise of a new job, potential dissatisfaction and turnover without lowering acceptance rates. RJPs are more appropriate when the applicant is not familiar with the job and least appropriate when expectations about the job are accurate. 9. Job Offers • Individuals who perform successfully in the proceeding steps are now eligible to receive the employment offer. • The offer typically is made by an HRM representative. But actual hiring decision generally made by the department manager where vacancy exist, because •
The applicant will eventually work for this manager, which necessitates a good fit between boss and employee. If the hiring decision is faulty, the hiring manager has no one else to blame. Candidates not hired deserve the courtesy of prompt notification. Employment specialists may want to consider rejected applicants for other openings since these recruits already have gone through the stages of selection process. Even if no openings are available, the applications of unsuccessful candidates should be kept on file for future openings. Retaining these applications can be useful in defending the company against charges of employment discrimination. Guidelines for making a job offer are Formalize the offer with a letter to the applicant clearly stating the terms and conditions of employment. Avoid vague, general statements and promises. Require return of a signed acceptance of the offer.
The Comprehensive Approach • Comprehensive selection approach puts applicants through all the steps in the selection process before making a decision. Final decision is based on comprehensive evaluation of the results from all stages. • It overcomes the major disadvantage of the discrete method. • Assesses both strengths and weaknesses and is considered more realistic. • More costly because all applicants must go through all screening hurdles. • Consumes more of the management’s time. • Demoralize many applicants by building up hope. Now It’s Up to the Candidate • The candidate now has to decide whether this is the job for him or her. • Applicants who are not hired this time will still form an impression about the company. • Management should assure the selection process leaves them with a favorable impression of the company. Selection for Self-Managed Teams • Team: interaction of several individuals, coming together as a unified unit. • If teams are given management responsibilities, it makes sense for them to select their own members. • Workers empowered to hire their coworkers. Team members bring to the selection process varied experiences and backgrounds. • It enables them to assess applicants’ skills in their field of expertise. • Team members need training in selection and interviewing techniques. Selection From a Global Perspective • Selection criteria for international assignments includes 13
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Interest in working overseas Ability to relate to different cultures and environments Sensitivity to different management styles. Supportiveness of the candidate’s family Women executives have done well abroad in Asia and Latin America, despite past reluctance to assign them to these countries. Human resource managers believe that marital stability reduces a person’s likelihood of returning home early and in many countries enhances the individual’s social acceptability. No only may the candidate’s gender be considered, but also the social acceptability of single parents, unmarried partners, and blended families. Personal factors such as health, background, and education may also be considered in international placements.
Final Thoughts: Excelling at the Interview • Suggestions for making your interviews as an applicant successful are: Do some homework on the company, its history, markets, financial situation, and the industry in which it competes. Get a good night’s rest the night before. Dress appropriately. Arrive for the interview a few minutes early. Use a firm handshake. Maintain good eye contact. Sit erect and maintain a good posture. Try to relax. Be prepared for interview by reviewing a set of questions most frequently asked by interviewer and develop a rough response. To be yourself- don’t give text or recite it from your memory. Take the opportunity to have practice interviews. Thank the interviewer at the end of the interview and follow up with a thank you note as little act of courtesy. Hiring Mistakes • Failure to identify company needs When searching for a job candidate, your company has to clearly define: what it is you are looking for in terms of skills, character and competency. – What objective standards must they meet, – What education should they have, – What should their prior work experience be and – What technology should they be able to master? – What are the short- and long-term needs going to be? 14
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Failure to test their skills Hiring out of desperation Watch out for infatuation Don’t have preconceived ideas and don’t stereotype Recommended by a friend Blindly promoting from within Failure to do extensive background and reference checking Failure to recognize that you have made a poor hiring decision
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