PHYLUM CHORDATA     Bilaterally symmetrical With well-defined coelom Highly developed head regions Rigid endoskeleton with

additional exoskeletons 3. Class Osteichthyes (Greek, bone fishes) o Skeleton made of bone o Two-chambered heart o Has operculum covering the gills o Has swim bladder o Ectothermic o Has paired fins (may or may not made of rays and spines) o Has various types of scales (ctenoid, ganoid or cycloid) o Found in marine and fresh water o External fertilization (oviparous) o Examples: milkfish, goby, catfish and others 4. Class Amphibia (Greek, double-life) o Found in aquatic and terrestrial habitat o Most species tide to water o Their eggs dry quickly o 4, 800 known species o First terrestrial invertebrates o Life cycle: Carboniferous period to Amphibian period o Some gave rise to reptiles o Examples: frogs, toads and salamanders 5. Class Reptilia (Latin, crawl) o 6,500 known species of lizards, snakes, turtles, crocodiles and alligators o Lizards most diverse o Spends most of time in water breathing via upturned noses o Covered with waterproof scales with tough protein keratin o Scales keep body from drying out o Eggs covered with parchment like shells o Lays eggs in land o Ectothermic o Absorbs external heat rather than produce

Features shared by phylum members:     Presence of notochord Presence of tubular nerve cords Presence of gill slits Presence of tails

Some representative classes of Subphylum Vertebrata (vertebrates): 1. Class Agnatha (Greek, jawless fishes) o Lacks jaws o Lacks paired fins o Skeleton made of cartilage o Round eel-like body with caudal fin o Lacks scales o Lacks swim bladder and gill covers o Has 7 gill slits on each side of the head o Ectothermic (cold-blooded) o External fertilization (oviparous) o Found in marine and fresh water o Two-c hambered heart o Examples: lampreys and hagfishes 2. Class Chondrichthyes (Greek, cartilage fishes) o Skeleton made of cartilage o Has triangluar Placoid scales o Has triangular teeth o Has large caudal fin o Has paired fins (pectoral and pelvic) o Lacks swim bladder o Ectothermic o Internal fertilization (ovoviviparous) o Found in marine o Two-chambered heart o Examples: sharks, rays and skates

Class Mammalia (mammals) o Evolved from reptiles o 1000 winged species (bats) o 80 aquatic species (dolphin. chickens. in external pouch attached to mother’s nipples (kangaroo and koala bears)  Subclass Eutheria – placenta provides more intimate long lasting association between mother and young than marsupials. with amniotic sac (monkeys. eagles 7. dogs.6. almost 95% of mammal species. trunk and tail o Paired limbs: forelimbs for flying. neck. Class Aves (birds) o Body is spindle shaped with four divisions: head. cats) . whale) o Endothermic o Body covered with hair o Has mammary glands o Composed of three groups:  Subclass Prototheria – egg laying (platypus and anteaters)  Subclass Metatheria – brief gestation before giving birth to tiny embryonic offspring. posterior limbs for walking o Covered with feathers o Fully ossified skeleton with air cavities o Well-developed nervous system o Four-chambered heart o Endodermic (hot-blooded) o Respiration by lungs and thin air sacs o Separate sexes o Internal fertilization o Examples: doves. complete development outside.