Theoretical framework

The study regarding organizational change shows that to be successful an organization must not only sustain itself on the inside, but it should also adjust itself to the environmental needs. For an organization to be effective it is important that it is stable and is able to change suitably. Organizational health is a theory which is used to explain the extent to which an organization is proficientof dealing with these two, slightly opposing forces. It is observed by Owens that as time passes organizations try to maintain themselves, increase the bureaucratic rigidity and try to adopt the traditional practices. He called this an organizational climate which is unhealthy and lays emphasis onmaintaining the organization at the cost of its requirement for continuousflexibility to meet with thevarying demands and expectations of the external environment(Owens, 1981). In his observation about the Pakistani Universities, S. Mehmood says that there are various reasons like; lack of funding, lack of political will, acute centralization, low–quality teachers, and the absence of a conductive teaching and research environment which unable the universities in Pakistan to grow (Mehmood, 2010). Institutions responding to environmental needs and these reasons can be viewed as healthy institutions. This description closely resembles to the cause of low intake of the students in NUML Peshawar. Organizational change can be produced by organizational self-renewal. Such an organization which is able to self-renewal is described by: 1. Anenvironment that beliefs inflexibility and openness to change, increasing communications, and problem-solving. 2. Aclear and commontechniques through which participants can participate in orderly, methodical, cooperative problem-solving 3. Acapacity to reach out suitably for ideas and resources that help to solve problems(Owens, 1981). Smith has reported that institutions which have been able to adopt organizational changes possessed three necessary characteristics: effective leadership, enlistment of prevalent support, and the fusion of purpose and people(Smith). These findings show that differences in organizational change and leader behavior should be related to low intake of the students. The independent variable in this case will be organizational change with respect to time. Changes are needed in annual funding (increase in budget), quality of teachers, teaching and research environment, awareness about the campus and courses (advertisement) and campus premises. The dependent variable is the intake of

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Hypothesis from the given scenario In the assigned scenario we are asked to identify the important factors which affect the student intake of NUML. hypothesis is a supposition or explanation (theory) that is provisionally acknowledged to understanddefinite events or phenomena. is alternative to the null hypothesis.If these differences are met. and can be capable of repudiation. Types of hypothesis Directional hypothesis This hypothesis is usually derived from theory. It is a formal prediction about the relationship between two or more than two variables in the population being studied. It states that there is relationship between variables under study. It states that relation ordifference between two variables exists but it doesn’t predict the direction or it doesn’t predict positive or negative correlation. Non-directional hypothesis This hypothesis is used when there is no theory or when the findings of previous studies are contradictory. Hypothesis Generally. the intake of students can increase by bringing changes in the organization that meet the day-to-day shows that there is no statistical significance in a set of given observations. Peshawar. Alternative hypothesis can be directional or nondirectional. It specifies the expected direction between variables or in terms of correlational analysis predicts positive or negative correlation. For this purpose we can assume the following hypothesis: Hypothesis 1 The low-quality of teachers impacts the student intake. 2|Page CONFEDSchool for Professional Studies . A hypothesis can be proven correct or wrong. Hypothesis is a tool of quantitative studies and is made for the assumption about certain characteristics of a population. Null hypothesis This type of hypothesis proposes that there is no relationship between variables. Alternative hypothesis This hypothesis. it should be testable and it should be limited in scope. and to deliverassistance in further investigation. A hypothesis should be stated clearly using suitable terminology.students in NUML. as the name indicates. It is accepted until statistical evidence nullifies it for an alternative hypothesis.

E. Hypothesis 5 Hosting extra-curricular activities more increases the student intake. 3|Page CONFEDSchool for Professional Studies .). and Assessing Institutional Renewal. G. Owens. Planning.Hypothesis 2 Advertising the courses will positively effect the student intake. Organizational Behavior in Education (2nd ed. (1981). Pakistani Universities and the Issue of Freedom of Expression. Prentice-Hall. Hypothesis 4 Better teaching and research environment increases the student intake. Bibliography Mehmood. Identifying. S. H. Implementing. (2010). Smith. R. Hypothesis 3 Bigger campus building attracts more students.

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