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An Interlinear Transliteration and English Translation of Portions of

THE EBERS PAPYRUS
Possibly Having to Do With Diabetes Mellitus
by

Stephen Carpenter Michel Rigaud Mary Barile Tracy J. Priest Luis Perez John B. Ferguson

based on the hieratic to hieroglyphic transcription by Walter Wreszinski Leipzig, 1913

Bard College Annandale-on-Hudson NY 1998

© 2006 John B. Ferguson

T . alas. including a hieroglyphic-Latin dictionary by his colleague Ludwig Stern (EBERS. Each column contained from twenty to twenty-two lines of text. The manuscript ended with a calendar that indicated that it was written in the ninth year of the reign of Amenophis I. Soon a German translation appeared (JOACHIM. Four English translations were done in the twentieth century. which leaves many words untranslated (EBBELL. The second English translation. thus in 1536 BC. 1890). and a translation of the text into English. With the help of a benefactor. wrapped in old mummy cloths. 1987). 1974). Herr Gunther. with intervening text in black. a sort of cursive form of hieroglyphics. The first. two numbers (28 and 29) were skipped with no obvious break in the text. 1875). Bryan in 1930. In the winter of 1872 the German Egyptologist Georg Ebers was shown a papyrus. 1912). In the spring of 1997 we undertook. 1905) and an advertisement (KLEIN. Ironically. was actually a “rendition into English of German and other translations of the Egyptian original. 1937). 1937). an interlinear representation of the urinary diseases section of the Ebers Papyrus. by Carl von Klein. The text was written in hieratic. is extremely difficult to find.” is fragmentary. Even this. To our knowledge this is the first time the hieroglyphics. if tentatively. The papyrus roll contained 108 columns numbered 1110. is quite difficult to obtain. and Ebers believed it to be genuine. We know of it only by an article he wrote about it (KLEIN. which. as pertaining to diabetes mellitus (EBBELL. and a transliteration of the hieratic into hieroglyphics (WRESZINSKI. 1917). the best of these translations. and is full of satiric editorial comment. Within a very short period of time Ebers published an exquisite two-volume color photographic reproduction of the entire text.he Ebers Papyrus is arguably the most complete and most beautiful of the medical texts to have survived from ancient Egypt. as a class project in History Z250: Introduction to Classical Egyptian Language (Hieroglyphics). with a transliteration from the hieroglyphics of Wreszinski to a font that represents phonetic pronunciation. Ebers bought the papyrus and installed it in the library of the University of Leipzig. and English translation of portions of this famous landmark of medicine can be found together. To this we have added a similar treatment of Rubric 197. and was a lovely example of the calligrapher’s art: some 877 section headings (rubrics) were in red ink. that seemed to be in a perfect state of preservation. by Cyril P. the only section of the Ebers Papyrus to have been cited explicitly. nor a complete pronunciation font. Finally. A very cautious and scholarly translation was done by Bendix Ebbell. does not include either the hieratic or hieroglyphic texts. pronunciation. physician and scholar Paul Ghalioungui has produced a very thorough modern translation (GHALIOUNGUI. It was either a tremendously elaborate fake or genuine. 1996). this is the only English translation commonly available (BRYAN. and it precedes by nearly a decade the important contribution of John Nunn to the understanding of ancient Egyptian medicine (NUNN.

” and FAULKNER (p. Note that the word in the text has the cow’s skin determinant. 172). possibly the surface of the body is implied. “ribs” (FAULKNER.EBERS PAPYRUS RUBRIC 197. M 3 The various translators have had a great deal of difficulty with this word. 47) argues that r-ib “means literally ‘the mouth of the stomach’ and is certainly the designation of the cardiac orifice of the stomach or ‘cardia. 5 “At its limit” presumably means “in extremis. such that mn r ib·f might mean “mortally ill. Line 7):1 ` 1M ? ir xAi·k \5 <]h Haw·f his body 4 B ! 4: 4 s·Hr 2 . Hnw. which seems to be a combination of 4 . variously pronounced r or rA ("mouth. Another Wednesday." or "opening"). p.” s 7 " b :5 This might be a representation of < t . May 31. The Egyptians used the word ib. whereas the word in Faulkner has the piece of flesh determinant.” 6 Or “belly. 60) simply uses “stomach. meaning anything from the actual organ (less frequently) to the seat of the emotions or intelligence (more frequently). 197 (Column 39. EBBELL (p. Does this imply that the scribe couldn’t actually read the text? Perhaps. This might imply that the author is referring to the skin over the ribs. if you examine him not (and) you do find b P 4 !E :] "! .E M4 d 4 h 1 : t mn r-ib·f iw sick (in) the center of his being3 (and) is If you examine v G B <!!1h G! 11 : .” The scribe apparently got a little confused here and wrote the last few words of Rubric 196 in red and the first few words of Rubric 197 in black. and he somewhat desperately suggests "chest" or "thorax" as a reasonable alternative. and d 4 . 2006 Page 4 5:58:29 PM . \ 2 An abbreviated form of . which would appear tight if the patient were emaciated. 146) agrees. COLUMN 39 Rubric No. “heart” as broadly as we do. M xmAA·f SmAw r shrunken with disease at someone t ` D [ < 1? : 1 7 M M h ? dr·f ir xAi·k sw n gmi·n·k its limit5. ! 11 C 5 1 ! 4 # : < : < t xAyt m Xt wpw-Hr Hnwt disease 1 in (his) body6 except for the surface of the ribs7 This is the rubric about which EBBELL (p. 50) says. !? .” 4 Since ] (cow skin) is used here as a determinative instead of the usual s (piece of flesh). 127-146) argues at length and quite persuasively that r-ib cannot possibly mean "stomach" in all of the contexts it is found in the various papyri. We prefer giving ib its more abstract meaning. ib ("heart").’” GHALIOUNGUI (p. WALKER (pp. “The symptoms mentioned here might almost make one think of diabetes.

60) to construe this phrase (Dd·xr·rf·k n HA(wty) pw n pr·k) to mean that one is supposed to communicate some sort of diagnosis to the patient. 55) calls attention to the apparent omission of the 8 portion of the word here. very tentatively suggests that this word represents an “unknown part of corn fruit. 234. 890) defines v M “red. hnwt. 50) and GHALIOUNGUI (p. FAULKNER (p. 899-900 agrees.” but this remains uncertain. p. p. 10 We radically depart here from the largely unsuccessful attempts by both EBBELL (p. 489) translates as “pudenda. p. 8 BUDGE 1. 11 hematite. 155.” without much f8 f r . BUDGE (2 p. nHAt. BUDGE 2 pp. 154) as a “less certain” interpretation. Ebbell suggests “…then thou shalt say to him: it is a decay (?) of thy inside” and Ghalioungui leaves it mostly as transliteration: “Then you should say.” We suggest that t< 0 !" is a variant of t< 0 !!" .” It certainly has a strong quality of v M5 M . rich in iron oxide. 2006 Page 5 5:58:29 PM . carob13. COLUMN 39 your house. which BUDGE (1.” about it. 60) conservatively leaves the word untranslated. cook in EBERS PAPYRUS RUBRIC 197. 12 NUNN.” Wednesday. dSr. 13 Ceratonia siliqua. 146). as “red grain. both meaning “then.t \ ! < ] 6 ] 1 # 11 r ! nt Ha mi pyt of which the members (are) like a pill8 (against) disease10 this in ? B fMMh Dd·xr·rf·k t M < # : !4 ? B ? h ! 0 " < t nHA t pw n pr·k ir·xr·k nf Br M r t (( 5 : q: j B #: 5 spw rs ddi n Abw Mr # f r b \ ` v5 b ! ! 5 B ' : 4 nD dSrw DArt psi Hr i you should then recite9 (a spell) ingredients for (treating) it: blood stone11 of Elephantine. Hr and rf. May 31.” and GHALIOUNGUI (p. 55) feels this word is constructed oddly. 319) translates it as “bitter gourd. red grain12. 9 This word has two enclitic particles in it.” Perhaps the author is alternative we can find is < t referring to the skin of the genitals. Wreszinski (p. p. you should (also) then prepare for him ! " :s . WRESZINSKI (p. ground. GHALIOUNGUI (p. listed by NUNN (p. 60) as “colocynth.” presumably because it was preceded by two “if” clauses beginning with ir. Fe2O3. dSr. At best this might mean “raised like pills. it is nHA n pr-k. the word is more fully represented in Rubric 268. substantiation. NUNN. “a disease” (BUDGE 1 383). Both authors have a great deal of difficulty trying to deduce exactly what that diagnosis might be.

“heart disease. if you examine him (and) you do not find disease in his body except for the surface of the ribs. COLUMN 39 t M < b y b >1 " 1 B M ! MmrHt !5 bit !5 wnm in s4 r ! 44 _ ! 11 V 44 M < U1I D dwAyt fdw r Htm mornings four for the suppression of his thirst (and) for curing oil (and) honey. you should then recite (a spell against) this disease in your house. HAty. (it) should be eaten by him over f 1 q ! ( ~ "h M M 8 ibt r dr "d 4 h t 0! ! nHAt HAty·f his mortal illness. which could be translated many ways. which is the way GHALIOUNGUI (p. is an alternative word for the more familiar 4 . cook in oil (and) honey. 0 d . ib t. 50) calls it “decay.” As noted above. This rubric may deliberately end with an almost poetic repetition of sounds.” FAULKNER (p. it should be eaten by him over four mornings for the suppression of his thirst and for curing his mortal illness.” Clearly such a person is “sick at heart. could be translated as “a disease” (BUDGE 1 383). 2006 Page 6 5:58:29 PM 14 .” Combining the signs yields nHAt HAty. “mortal illness” might not be an inappropriate translation in the context Rubric 197.14 If you examine someone mortally ill (and) his body is shrunken with disease in extremis.” or “heart-sick. The word t0 !!" . red grain. Wednesday.” However. and translates it as “sad man. nHAt. ! d 60) sees it. May 31. you should (also) then prepare for him ingredients for treating it: blood stone of Elephantine. the members of which protrude like pills.EBERS PAPYRUS RUBRIC 197. carob. 136) transliterates 0 !C d 4 ! as nHA-ib. and EBBELL (p. ground. meaning “heart.

Snw. 11 ! t q << n 4 $ 1 q " ! t # \ mnyt nt bHH wa hbq m + B 5 !xt consistency root of one. 17 5 \! 4 waty a uniform. HAw means excess in the sense of wealth or surplus (FAULKNER. 2006 Page 7 5:58:29 PM . GHALIOUNGUI (p. 154 transliterates this ingredient as prt Sny. 87) translates it as word \ “left overnight. 16 Cyperus esculentus (NUNN. 17 . 18 The character \ . is presumably an abbreviation for a verb with the Xn sound. 576) might be intended. 5 . listed among his “remedies of less certain interpretation. often means “hair” in Ebers. p. ! ` n \ : 4 < ! 5 = 1+ Xn Hr hnqt nDmt steep18 in beer sweet. but when coupled with prt probably means “grass” (FAULKNER. Line 4): ! t ?t \ !jj + ~11 ~ ! 0 : ! ! ! n kt nt aqA mwyt nt HAw Another ! . Xn. which means “to cover” (BUDGE 1. one. bHH shrub. and translates it as “grains from the umbrella pine of Byblos (Pinus pinea). 16 for correcting urine that (is in) excess15: wa one. It is difficult to know what to do with the seated man determinative. . seeds grass . beat into eD M 1~" 1 : swr iw is drunk \ m along with 1 < M b : e M Xrw nyw r s the dregs a bowl of this. The t d .” GHALIOUNGUI (p. 268). associated with the sound Xn. 161). May 31. COLUMN 49 Rubric No. NUNN (p. 152). " 4 4 U 1:5 S5 D 5 giw wa prt Snw cyperus grass . 87) does not venture a guess here. p.EBERS PAPYRUS RUBRIC 264.” 15 Wednesday. 264 (Column 49.

....... 22 WRESZINSKI indicates that this bird is wrong.... He probably meant to flag the following bird............. 272 bis (Column 49.1 root of bHH shrub............. Rubric No................. 80) apparently forgot to number this rubric................. G (st)......................................... which should be = (bA)... p.. but 1 makes perfect sense in context..... and they are not used here................. which has the correct sound for the word (bAg)..1 grass seeds..... Wednesday................ A bowl of this is drunk.. 23 The mother or wet nurse? The Egyptians had words for “mother” and “wet nurse.........1 Beat into a uniform consistency (and) steep in sweet beer................... 2006 Page 8 5:58:29 PM ....” however................ 89 21 Probably means to suspend or dissolve by macerating.. COLUMN 49 Another for correcting urine in excess: cyperus grass.. Line 18)19: ! t ?t K e \ + ~11 ~ ! ! ! kt nt smAa mwyt nt t ! )t ! UU " t ! 1 q 1 ! 3 Aggt wnnt m nbit Another that corrects the urine of the pith 20 1! Xrd p : e 1 t` sin rub together21 a child: f + ! ` n : 4 f b 5 : 4 < ! 5 = 1 + .. May 31.. along with the dregs..EBERS PAPYRUS RUBRIC 264..................... 19 20 WRESZINSKI (p....... existing within a reed D 1~ " 1 q G! U ~ eM m bAg swr out of 22 t B 1 !p in st a bowl the thick fluid is to be drunk by the woman23....... !: b 4 Hr qd Hr Hnqt nDmt xAw to completion in beer sweet. GHALIOUNGUI.................

p. “urine. indicates that the word for “pellet” is 1 # r .t ^ !: 1! 1 $ b: b 4 t ^ rdi·tw n Xrd m hnw it is given to a child from a half-liter jar. p. 273 (Column 49. It probably is an amalgam of b g . 24 Wednesday.”!and the word is not to be found in ! . GHALIOUNGUI. mwyt. NUNN. This may be an error in transcription. you until (they form) a pellet26. 2006 Page 9 5:58:29 PM .” 25 FAULKNER p. 92 translates DAtyt as “wetness. E M! t 1! t h b !g 11 ~ irt n Xrd mn·f DAtyt tr t ! # [ ! 5 e Y b :B ' g 1 1 1 # _ THnt snwx ti m ippt t 1M ) h 1 1!3 t ir wnn·f m Xrd nxx Do (this) for a child suffering from urinary incontinence24: faïence beads25 boil if he be -an older child. 894). \1 M "h e ! 1 \1 M " am·f st m am he should swallow it in a gulp. DAtntmw. May 31. p. “handful” and ~11 ~ . a bowl of the thick fluid is to be drunk by the (breastfeeding?) woman. Line 21): ! <5 . 900 as “urine. #! 26 BUDGE 1. means “handfuls of water” (BUDGE 2. DAdyt is translated in BUDGE. p.” For example FAULKNER ! gt b!rrr ! ~ . 42. p. COLUMN 49 Rubric No. Another that corrects the urine of a child: rub together reed pith to completion in sweet beer. 306. 89. It is given to a child from a half-liter jar. EBERS PAPYRUS RUBRIC 272 BIS. DAt.

at the end of this word has a certain emphatic quality. (but) if he be in swaddling clothes. see GARDINER §252. one should rub (it) together for him in the milk. he should swallow it in a gulp. EBERS PAPYRUS RUBRIC 273. 2006 . \S p ? R e M V M $ M: 4444 tmnat·f ! h hh kfA rs r hrw fdw (but) if he be in swaddling clothes. May 31. Do (this) for a child suffering from urinary incontinence: you boil faïence beads until they form a pellet.t t f M ) 1 t h :4 Y b: ! d ir wnn·f Hr nwdt t < p b : ! 4 : e1t\ : h 1 !! 5 1 t sin tw n·f Hr irTt in . just as it flows forth from his nurse for four days. rs. Page 10 5:58:29 PM Wednesday. should rub (it) together one for him in the milk from his nurse just27 as it flows forth for four days. If he be an older child. COLUMN 49 27 The Me .

............. 32 It does seem odd that the instructions suggest that one should soak or steep the concoction in rainwater or dew after adding water..... May 31..... groats 29 of wheat.......... which is associated with the idea of grain... 30 one eighth................... 89).. 1/64 Soak in rainwater..... 154.. 30 Balanites aegyptiaca.. 29 This word may be a combination of q1 D . numerous. p...... and NUNN (p...... 49) indicates that aSA means plentiful in the sense of many.. characterized by edible fruits and seeds that produce an oil used in cooking and soap manufacture.......................” implying the grain is hulled.................. strain........ Line 2): ? ! kt Another ø D M!5 pXrt remedy tf ! 8 ~11 ~ M ! nt dr mwyt that reduces `e 5 aSA·s M M D _ ` : 5 44 44 44 44 1 f K 5 44 44 44 44 q 1P 5 t e! bi n swt r-xmn(w) one eighth... 160) agrees.. 89) translates it as “groats.... urine when it is (too) plentiful28: iSd r-xmn(w) t M M 44 ! D 444 K 7 5 4 4 ~ H \ U 8 " V 44 sty r-mabA-snw(y) mn r-sr(syw)-fdw Xn n iAdt atx wnm r hrw fdw Another remedy that reduces urine when it is (too) plentiful: Groats of wheat .......... desert dates ..................... p..... 1/8 Desert dates. 31 hydrated iron oxide and clay (NUNN... 28 Wednesday.. 209) and the determinative P ....... 274 (Column 50..... or often..... 92....... FAULKNER (p. 1/8 Nubian ochre......... p................ one sixty-fourth... 146).. to be taken for days four. making it very difficult to discern whether this remedy is for a high volume of urine or for a high frequency of urination... 31) just defines it as “the fruit of the iSd tree... water..EBERS PAPYRUS RUBRIC 274......... COLUMN 50 Rubric No.. However BUDGE 1. strain....... suggests “sycamore figs.................................. GHALIOUNGUI (p.. bi.. This bunched and thorny tree is a member of the genus Balanites............... or both... 1/32 Water....... one thirty-second.. 2006 Page 11 5:58:29 PM ... a “less certain” interpretation of NUNN... soak in rainwater32.....” and FAULKNER (p. “grain” (BUDGE 1.... Nubian ochre31.......... p....” as does GHALIOUNGUI (p........ to be taken for four days..............

.......... AH.. Line 4): ?I ! _ < : D P < e 11 1 q 5 5 t !5 ! kt qmyt r-fdw bi n swt r-fdw Another: M 44 b ! < 5 . gum............... COLUMN 50 Rubric No...” 33 c Wednesday. but the Ebers papyrus always uses this sign to indicate liquids......... strain........ 1/4 Strain........ one fourth... We suggest that bread soaked in oil. 1/4 Fresh bread sops......” and GHALIOUNGUI (p.... is a kind of bread (FAULKNER... to be taken for four days.................. BUDGE 1 (p... 2006 Page 12 5:58:29 PM .................... May 31. or in some other liquid............... Another: Gum...... p...................... to be taken for days four. 275 (Column 50... !< 5 ................. groats of wheat...... is the intent... 1/4 Groats of wheat ................ 4).. one fourth.......... 8) translates the word as “food.. 89) as “pap....... WRESZINSKI (p............. 81) thinks the b sign is an error...................EBERS PAPYRUS RUBRIC 275.... + < 8 " V 44 AH wAD r-fdw atx wnm r hrw fdw bread sops33 fresh one fourth...............

..... Line 5): ! ?tf " 8 ! e n ~11 ~ M ! ! kt nt dr As mwyt Another ! ... strain.... This actually makes more sense than using H ..................... Line 6): ! ?tf M 8 ~11 ~ ! ! kt nt dr mwyt Another that reduces `e aSA·s 5 ! < I 11 D 6 qmyt r-fdw one fourth... for controlling fast-flowing34 urine: M ` # n < !5 m b 4 L B' 8 " V 4444 Hnqt bA psi atx wnm r hrw fdw take for days four..... to create the bA sound in front of the liquid measure determinatives.. hasten... 277 (Column 50.EBERS PAPYRUS RUBRIC 276.......... one.............. p..... Rubric No...... beer... cook........ This word.... The writer of the Ebers seems to substitute m ......... Another for controlling fast-flowing urine: Grass seeds.. one.. strain. bAH.... is “a unit of measure for liquids......... meaning “to hurry... the determinative of q=!< m .. 201)..... 35 This is an complex variant..... “penis” for qH! ..1 Cyperus grass ........... 472)........ one quarter liter35...... to be taken for four days.. 276 (Column 50................. which is associated with the pA sound (GARDINER..... May 31......... urine when it is (too) plentiful: gum.................. qH!Lb . COLUMN 50 Rubric No.................. flow fast” has a certain sense of urgency about it... contents half a hnw” (BUDGE 1.. 1/4 L Cook.. cyperus grass.....1 Beer . 4 U " 4 1:5 S5 D5 prt Snw wa giw wa seeds grass......................... consistent with a diagnosis of cystitis. 2006 Page 13 5:58:29 PM 34 ............ but true poluria cannot be ruled out.... Wednesday.. bA............

................. 81) is puzzled by the lack of a quantity here............ Thinking that water is an independent ingredient in this prescription....... one fourth.........EBERS PAPYRUS RUBRIC 277................. and that the combination of water and honey means “honey diluted with water. to be taken for four days....... 2006 Page 14 5:58:29 PM 36 .............. one thirty-second... three sixty-fourths..... one fourth...... WRESZINSKI (p........ soak. May 31..................... 1/4 Nubian ochre......... Another that reduces urine when it is (too) plentiful: Gum.... 1/32 Watered-down honey .......................... strain. groats of wheat....................................... to be taken for days four..... 1/4 Fresh bread sops................ strain...................... watered-down honey36.......” Wednesday.......... 1/4 Groats of wheat ...................................................... bread sops fresh..... : e q 1P 5 t !5 5 + < bi n swt r-fdw AH wAD r-fdw M ! r 444 !b G K 7 5 4 4 ~ y85 H sty r-mabA-snw(y) mn bit r-sr(syw)-fdw r-mabA-snw(y) M 4444 \ 8 " V Xn atx wnm r hrw fdw Nubian ochre........................... 3/64 Soak...................... COLUMN 50 _ < !< b ....................... We propose that the omission is intentional..............

.....EBERS PAPYRUS RUBRIC 278.......................... grapes.... Nunn (p...... 1/8 Honey......................... Wednesday..... BUDGE 2..... p........ Perhaps the erasure was deliberate.... 154)...............37 one fourth........ 278 (Column 50............. strain...... suggests that this plant is a member of the Family Hederacea............................... but the number could have originally been the usual 4444 ........................ one thirty-second..... 1/4 Juniper berries.......... The 4 is quite clear... cook.... one fourth...... 1/4 Grapes .. to be taken for one day....................... perhaps a variety of Hedera helix... 1/32 Sweet beer..... 17/32 Cook................ May 31................ M ! \C D 444 S5 : t 5 4 4 prt wan r-mabA-snw(y) berries juniper.................. one eighth.................... honey............................. 38 There is a smudge on the Ebers Papyrus obscuring part of this number of days....... with some uncertainty........ M ! P ` n < ! 5 = 1+ H H ' 8 " V 4 hnqt nDmt r-sr(syw)-fdw gs r-sr(syw)-fdw psi atx wnm r hrw wa seventeen thirty-seconds.................38 sweet........ to be taken for day Another: Grass roots ................... COLUMN 50 Rubric No....... 2006 Page 15 5:58:29 PM 37 ...... Line 8): t f ? " n!!5 " < $! q 5 ! kt wAb n qAdt r-fdw MD M b 4 4 4 4 1 !M 5 4 4 4 4 y ! 5 < iArrt r-xmn(w) bit r-fdw Another: roots of grass........... beer one........ strain................ 765..

.... COLUMN 50 Rubric No....................................... 279 (Column 50.......... honey......... M M ! D _ 444 : 4 4 4 4 e q 1P K 5 t !5 4 4 4 4 75 4 4 bi n swt r-xmn(w) one eighth.................................... 1/8 Nubian ochre....................... one thirty-second........................ 1/32 Gum............ 280 (Column 50................ 1/8 Groats of wheat ........... groats of wheat..................... a different part of the plant may be implied than that used in Rubric 274..... Since this representation of iSd has the " determinative instead of D ................. water......40 Nubian ochre.. one eighth..... 1/32 Water.. one thirty-second..... 40 Since this prescription does not end with a set of instructions................................ 39 Wednesday.... Another: Desert dates................ one thirty-second....... Line 11): M M ! ?I ! b 444 4 4 4 4 D y 11 5 4444 4 4 8 ! 5 kt qmyt r-xmn(w) bit r-mabA-snw(y) Another: gum........ May 31................ we assume mitt implies that the instructions for Rubric 278 also apply here........ likewise. one thirty-second................. 2006 Page 16 5:58:29 PM ........ 1/32 Likewise. sty r-mabA-snw(y) M ! 444 ! I 11 D 6 4 4 ~ G ] !+ qmyt r-mabA-snw(y) mn r-mabA-snw(y) mitt gum................ Line 10): ? `K " M 4 4 4 4 1 f 5 4444 ! kt iSd r-xmn(w) Another: desert dates.........EBERS PAPYRUS RUBRIC 279.................39 one eighth............................ Rubric No...........

............... strain.... 1/4 L Cook........ one quarter liter43.............................. to be taken for one day................................... one sixty-fourth............................... 281 (Column 50.... to be taken for one day. cyperus grass... 43 This word has two characters in the opposite order seen in Rubric 276................................ This prescription is largely identical to that of Rubric 276.......................... Rubric No.................................... M ` # n < ! 5 m b L4 B' 8 " V 4 Hnqt bA psi atx wnm r hrw wa beer.. to be taken for day one............. 2006 Page 17 5:58:29 PM .............. Perhaps more convincingly “seeds” rather than “fruits” because of the use of the D sign..... strain......... COLUMN 50 one.. Another: Gum.............. 1/32 Water...... 1/64 Strain..44 Another for controlling fast-flowing urine: Grass seeds....... one..1 Beer ... 44 The final discrepancy with Rubric 276 is the length of treatment: one day here rather than four days...............M 4 ~ H 8 " V mn r-sr(syw)-fdw atx wnm r hrw wa water............... 1/8 Honey........................ strain........ frequently seen in words for seeds or grain................................. S " 4 D5 D5 4 U 1 : 5 prt Snw wa giw seeds 42 wa one.............. to be taken for day EBERS PAPYRUS RUBRIC 280..1 Cyperus grass ........................................ grass....... Line 11):41 ! ?tf " 8 !e n ~11 ~ M ! ! kt nt dr As mwyt Another for controlling fast-flowing urine: .............. See the different representation in Rubric 276......... cook. May 31........................................................ with the three differences noted......... 42 41 Wednesday...............

p. 268). Wednesday. Line 13): ø D M!5 pXrt Prescriptions t ! e S!n d+ ~11 m ! nt sAq mwyt that collect45 urine: celery of the Delta47. to behave haughtily” (BUDGE p. Both FAULKNER (p. to increase the flow of urine). of Upper Egypt. 45 bread sops. or to “collect the urine together in the sense of concentrating it” (which would decrease the flow). fresh. 90) prefers “to retain. at present. one eighth. 639) agree that there is a wide range of possible meanings associated with it. 46 See Rubric 270. to be strict. 50 r-mD(w)-srsw one sixteenth. May 31. 90) translates this as “parsley (celery of the mountain).EBERS PAPYRUS RUBRIC 282. is a tree sacred to Horus. ibw plant 48 M M D b i 4 4 4 4 1 q : " /: 45 !< 5 -+ 4444 5 5 5 AH wAD r-xmn(w) one eighth. we do not know. COLUMN 50 Rubric No. for exactly the same set of characters. ibw. one fourth. one sixteenth. 639). Ghalioungui (p. be translated with any certainty 7 from the Egyptian.” We note that the word contains the verb pSn. 251) says pShn-t is “a seed used in medicine.” hence our translation. It is not clear what is meant by this word. 48 NUNN (p. but whether the author meant “to collect urine from the rest of the body” (that is.” is meant. 211) and BUDGE (2 p. celery of the hill country46. Perhaps something like our “split peas. 49 BUDGE (1.” Other meanings. p. include “to act with severity or violence. and BUDGE (1. one sixteenth. berries one sixteenth ibw mHw r-mD(w)-srsw M ! #t 5 $! 1 4 D v} 5 pSn-t split seeds. ibw plant M 4 5 5 of Lower Egypt. “To pull together” in the sense of collect or assemble seems the most relevant. p. one sixteenth. 155) lists this in his table of “plant remedies which cannot. r-mD(w)-srsw 49 wAm wAm.” 47 These two ingredients represent exactly the two types of mAtt mentioned by Budge (1. it is difficult to rationalize this range of meanings. GHALIOUNGUI (p. to be severe. M j 4 4 4 4 H H 7 " " 4 < 5 ! 5 4444 !! !! ! mAtt xAst r-fdw mAtt mHt r-xmn(w) M M ! \ \ 5 5 4 4 " 7 8 5 S5 : t C ! 5 1 q :5 ibw Sma r-mD(w)-srsw prt wan r-mD(w)-srsw juniper. “to split. 39) says that 1 qK ! .” It is not to be found in FAULKNER. 2006 Page 18 5:58:29 PM . 282 (Column 50.

... one.................... 1/16 Fresh bread sops..... Xn n iAdt atx wnm r hrw fdw soak in rainwater........................ 283 (Column 50........................ NUNN (p.. 2006 Page 19 5:58:29 PM ... COLUMN 50 M M !" 4 5 5 4 _45 5 ~ 5 wnw-t r-mD(w)-srsw mw r-mD(w)-srsw M t \ U 8 " 4V 444 hour plant...... GHALIOUNGUI (p.............. 1/16 Hour plant ......” which is certainly possible. 91) prefers to transliterate the word as dwAt.... b 4 E 9 y 7t t B 5 #spD tpy ! n mn·s bit wa For correcting the urine (in the) diseased (at) the first occurrence of 50 pubic region suffering: honey........... to be taken for four days.................................. Prescriptions that collect urine: Celery of the hill country ..... be translated with any certainty from the Egyptian... 1/16 wAm ................. 1/8 ibw plant of Upper Egypt. 1/16 Water. which means a unit of time.... water................................... 155) lists wAm also in his table of “plant remedies which cannot........................................ one sixteenth.................................. strain.................. Rubric No.... 1/8 ibw plant of Lower Egypt .................. May 31..................................... 1/4 Celery of the Delta ............................................................................” 51 This plant name contains a variation on the word wnwt......................51 one sixteenth............. or hour................... Maybe it is similar to our “day lily.............................. but just as conjectural................. 1/16 Split seeds .................................................................................. Line 16): t K ! ? 1 e \ + ~11 ~ ] M E t e ] ! nt smAa mwyt mr kns B # ... 1/16 Soak in rainwater...... “netherworld......... at present.............................................................” referring to the duration of a flower....... to be taken for days four.......... 1/16 Juniper berries..... strain. In any case we cannot identify the plant................EBERS PAPYRUS RUBRIC 282.................... Wednesday.........

791). dates fresh. !e 11 " 4 ! < b 5 t ! 5 # ! mnyt nt HAsyt wa AH Nubian ochre. . one. one. cyperus grass. “plant with a bitter taste” (BUDGE 2.EBERS PAPYRUS RUBRIC 283. 92. p. root of bryony. 563). however.” (BUDGE 1. 91. NUNN. and NUNN doesn’t discuss it at all. 11 ! t . seeds grass. On p. 158. COLUMN 50 ! D 4 ! . p. 4 U " 4 3 6 M5 1:5 S5 D5 snTr wa prt snw wa giw wa terebinth resin. 275. no quantity is given for this ingredient. GHALIOUNGUI.52 one. 284). p. p. All other authors are more vague: “bush” (FAULKNER. one. one. 55 The normally conservative GHALIOUNGUI (p. he presents strong arguments against this translation. 11 ! t T !T ! " 4 5 t ! # mnyt nt kAkA wa ! D 4 4P i 4 > 5 -+ K 75 sty wa bnr wAD wa . p. bread sops. 2006 Page 20 5:58:29 PM .56 root of ricinus. p. 56 Oddly. BUDGE 1. 54 “A fruit or plant used in medicine. the castor oil plant. one.55 one. one. v b t !\ 4 B _ t 1 h5 K7 ! Bt $ ! ! 4 iSf n rtHty wa xsi n nht wa liquid53 from a baker. fruit54 of sycamore. May 31. 91) translates kAkA as “ricinus” (Ricinus communis. 53 52 Wednesday. one. whose seeds contain the toxic protein ricin.

...... (and) place in a covered jar..................... which is not always the case with this word............................................................ 57 A jar with a lid on it is used as the determinative......M e h ' + 8 \ M O! q L srf atx rdi r TAb < 1 t # M xM tb V :t !: $ V Y ! ir tw m nhpw r xpr t nw n t D ! C M4 ! e7 " < \ eM 1~ " eM warm.... so that he will recover immediately.......................................................................... and (then) should be drunk it so that : : 4 \4 7 Hr-awy immediately.............................................................1 Ricinus root......................................................... May 31.................................1 Baker’s liquid................................. COLUMN 50 sty-r Hna swr st r t+ eqh snb f he will recover the mid-day meal..........1 Cyperus grass ...........................................1 Fresh dates ......................................................1 Terebinth resin ................. strain.................................? Warm....1 Sycamore fruit.......1 Nubian ochre........ it should (then) be drunk. strain................................................................... 2006 ..............57 one concocts (this) in the early morning until has come the time of M EBERS PAPYRUS RUBRIC 283........... (and) place in a covered jar.............................................. For correcting the urine (in the) diseased pubic region (at) the first occurrence of suffering: Honey.............................................................................1 Bryony root ............ One concocts (this) in the early morning up until the time of the mid-day meal........................1 Bread sops...... Page 21 5:58:29 PM Wednesday...........................................................................................................................1 Grass seeds...............................................

ed. 1890. rev. E. RAYMOND O. Malibu CA: Undena. CYRIL P. GHALIOUNGUI. Cairo: Academy of Scientific Research and Technology. JOHN F. Chicago: Ares. WRESZINSKI. Egyptian Grammar: Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphics.. Vols. 1974. 1905. Reimer.Bibliography BRYAN. and Geographical List With Indexes. Papyros Ebers: Das hermetische Buch über die Arzeneimittel der alten Ägypter in hieratischer Schrift. etc. I. WALTER Der Papyrus Ebers: Umschrift.. WALKER. CARL H. ed. EBERS GEORG. ed. Papyros Ebers: Das älteste Buch über die Heilkunde. With an Index of English Words. Commentaries. Copenhagen: Munksgaard. Leipzig: W. Studies in Ancient Egyptian Anatomical Terminology. VON Descriptive prospectus of the English translation of the Papyrus Ebers. Berlin: G. SHENNUM. C. English-Egyptian Index of Faulkner’s Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian. List of Hieroglyphic Characters. NUNN. H. JAMA 45:1928-1935. New York: Dover. BUDGE. 1994. VON The medical features of the Papyrus Ebers. A Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian. Englemann. BENDEX. The Ebers Papyrus: A New English Translation. 2006 Page 22 5:58:29 PM . Wednesday. KLEIN. Coptic and Semitic Alphabets. DECEMBER 23. Chicago: 1912. Leipzig: J. mit Hieroglyphisch-Lateinischem Glossar von Ludwig Stern. FAULKNER. Norman OK: University of Oklahoma Press. May 31. KLEIN. WALLIS. ed. A. 1913. Teil: Umscrift. Übersetzung und Kommentar. CARL H. GARDINER. 1937. PAUL. 3rd ed. Ancient Egyptian Medicine: The Papyrus Ebers. EBBELL. 1996. Oxford: Griffith Institute of the Ashmolean Museum.. DAVID. and Glossaries. 1996. JOACHIM. 1-2. ALAN. Oxford: Griffith Institute of the Ashmolean Museum. 1978. The Papyrus Ebers. Hinrichs'sche Buchhandlung. 1987. JAMES H. 1977. mit Unterstützung des Königlich Sächsischen Cultusministerium. Warminster: Aris and Phillips. King List. 1996. 1875. herausgegeben mit Inhaltsangabe und Einleitung versehen von Georg Ebers. Ancient Egyptian Medicine. An Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary.