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What is Spectrum The word spectrum refers to a collection of various types of electromagnetic radiations of different wavelengths.

Spectrum or airwaves are the radio frequencies on which all communication singnals travel. In India the radio frequencies are being used for different types of services like space communication, mobile communication, broadcasting, radio navigation, mobile satellite service, aeronautical satellite services, defence communication etc. Radio frequency is a natural resource but unlike other resources it will deplete when used. But it will be wasted if not used efficiently. The spectrum allocated to Indian telecom operator is most crowded and inadequate to accommodate the usage by 650 million mobile subscribers as on date. This has affected the quality of customer service and resulted in poor voice quality, call drop and undelivered messages of mobile services in India. 1. Agencies allocating spectrum Spectrum allocation is important and necessary to ensure interference free operation for each radio service. All nations share the electromagnetic spectrum and reserve their right to its unlimited use. However, to facilitate international telecommunications cooperation to support trade, transportation, communications, and mutual protection against interference, all countries have agreed to an International Telecommunications Convention. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) at the World Radio Communication Conferences allocates spectrum frequencies for the use of various countries. Since the mobile communication technologies provide international roaming facilities, it is essential to allocate spectrum in the common bands which are being used the world over. Secondly the mobile handsets which are manufactured are aligned to the GSM 900/1800 bands. If radio frequencies are allotted in any other bands then the handsets will not be compatible to those bands. The Wireless Planning and Coordination (WPC) Wing of the Ministry of Communications, created in 1952, is the National Radio Regulatory Authority responsible for Frequency Spectrum Management, including licensing and caters for the needs of all wireless users in the country. It issues licenses to operate wireless stations. WPC is divided into major sections like Licensing and Regulation (LR), New Technology Group (NTG) and Standing Advisory Committee on Radio Frequency Allocation (SACFA).

short and medium wave radio.1930 Used for GSM mobile services xii) 1930-2010 – Used by defence forces xiii) 2010-2025 – Not allocated xiv) 2025-2110 – Satellite and space communications . amateur (ham) radio and cordless phones. making recommendations on the various issues related to International Telecom Union (ITU). 2. aeronautical navigation and outdoor broadcast vans vi) 450.5-108 MHz is used for FM radio broadcasts iii) 109. ix) 806-960 Used by GSM and CDMA mobile services x) 960-1710 Aeronautical and space communication xi) 1710.585. v) 230—450 Used for Satellite communication. India’s National Frequency Allocation plan The National Frequency Allocation Plan (NFAP) forms the basis for development and manufacturing of wireless equipment and spectrum utilization in the country. formulation of the frequency allocation plan. to sort out problems referred to the committee by various wireless users. vii) 585-698 Used for TV broadcast viii) 698-806 not allocated.SACFA makes the recommendations on major frequency allocation issues. Not allocated.173 Used for Satellite communication. ii) 87.5 MHz is used for marine and aeronautical navigation. aeronautical navigation and outdoor broadcast vans iv) 174-230 MHz not allocated. Frequency bands allocated to various types of radio services in India are as follows. i) 0-87.

According to this. xxi) 3600-10000 Space research. 100 MHz spectrum is ear marked for GSM services and 20 MHz is earmarked for CDMA. xviii) 2400. The initial allotment of spectrum along with the licence was 4. This could be further scaled up to 6.4 MHz. For additional spectrum they had to meet the subscriber linked criterion laid down by DoT.2483.5-3300 Space communications xx) 3300-3600 not allocated.xv) 2110-2170 – Not allocated xvi) 2170-2300 – Satellite and space communications xvii) 2300-2400 not allocated. The minimum amount of spectrum required for launching GSM services is 4. In 2008 DoT revised the criteria for additional spectrum allocation. It depended entirely on submission of licence fees to DoT’s WPC wing for a spectrum licence.5 MHz of spectrum per operator in each service area. In 2002. in Dec 2007.4 MHz for GSM and 2. DoT delinked spectrum from the telecom licence and implemented a policy of first come first served basis for spectrum allocation.5 Used for Wi-Fi and Bluetooth short range services xix) 2483. Telecom spectrum policy in India In India GSM technology works in the frequency bands of 900 and 1800 MHz and CDMA technology works in the 800 MHz band. However due to the deluge of over 570 UAS licence applications. radio navigation xxii) 10000 – used for satellite downlink for broadcast and DTH services 3. the . Out of this 65 MHz of GSM band is still with Defence forces. which provided for a maximum allotment of 12. the government introduced a subscriber linked spectrum allocation process.5 MHz for CDMA.2 MHz for GSM and 5 MHz for CDMA operators depending on availability and the operator’s ability to justify the need for it. Presently.

subscriber base required for additional spectrum allocation was hiked two to six times for different circles. In order to compensate the loss of spectrum. 25 MHZ is identified for 3G services. Out of this. Conclusion The operators need additional spectrum to improve the quality of services. which is strongly opposed by the GSM operators. 6. However efforts of DOT and TRAI have resulted in controversies. Defence Band In India significant quantum of radio frequencies required for telecommunication is used by the defence forces. which is a scarce resource. 5. Spectrum required for the launch of 3G and BWA services is yet to be vacated by the defence department and is expected to be available by September 2010. An open and transparent auction format will ensure that the government realizes the best price for spectrum as per the market .2 billion). The telecom and defence ministries are in discussion for transferring the radio frequencies for telecommunication.05 billion) for 3G spectrum and Rs 38543 cr (US $ 8. 3G and BWA spectrum allocation Over the years the government has been taking steps to frame policies to ensure efficient utilization of spectrum. 4. the telecom ministry agreed to provide fibre cable network for armed forces across the country at a cost of Rs 10000 cr (US $ 2. The telecom ministry also agreed for a waiver of Rs 938 cr (US $ 208 million) to the defence ministry and agreed to allocate 30% of the all frequencies in the non communication bands. Therefore the Government decided to go ahead with the auctioning of 3G and BWA spectrum with a open and transparent format which resulted in the Government earning Rs 67719 cr (US $ 15. The Government should formulate a spectrum policy which will promote efficient use of spectrum by developing market incentives and differential pricing of spectrum in congested areas. Last year the telecom ministry signed a MOU with defence ministry as per which Defence ministry will surrender 45 MHZ of spectrum to telecom ministry.6 billion) for BWA spectrum. TRAI has now recommended that the excess 2G spectrum with the operators also need to be valued at the 3G prices and recovered from the existing operators.

The technologies used in 2G are either TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) which divides signal into different time slots or CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) which allocates a special code to each user so as to communicate over a multiplex physical channel. . The main aim of this technology is to allow much better coverage and growth with minimum investment. picture messages and MMS. These digital signals consume less battery power. This technology is also comfortable to work with 2G technologies. TDMA and FDMA. but also provides with better bandwidth and increased speed. This technology is much more flexible as it can support 5 major radio technologies that operate under CDMA. It was first used in Japan in the year 2001.forces and at the same time the telecom operators minimize and efficiently use the spectrum. The standards of the technology were set by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). CDMA accounts for IMT-DS (direct speed). so it helps in saving the battery of mobiles. In this technology all text messages are digitally encrypted due to which only the intended receiver receives message. It is based on the technology known as global system for mobile communication or in short we can say GSM. IMT-MC (multi carrier). mobile television and video conferencing. This technology enabled various networks to provide services like text messages. IMT-SC (single carrier). Second Generation (2G) technology was launched in the year 1991 in Finland. TDMA holds for IMT-TC (time code). 3G technology generally refers to the standard of accessibility and speed of mobile devices. It not only enables them to be used worldwide. This technology enables use of various services like GPS (Global Positioning System).

· Data Transmission: The main difference between 2G and 3G networks is seen by the mobile users who download data and browse the Internet on the mobile phones.000 bits per sec while in 3G it can be more than 4 million bits per sec. 2G networks are less compatible with the functions of smart phone. They find much faster download speeds. faster access to the data and applications in 3G networks as compared to 2G networks. MMS etc.Figure: Evolution of Mobile system from 2G to 3G Difference between 2G and 3G Technology · Cost: The license fee to be paid for 3G network is much higher as compared to 2G networks. · Function: The main function of 2G technology is the transmission of information via voice signals while that of 3G technologies is data transfer via video conferencing. The network construction and maintenance of 3G is much costlier than 2G networks. · Features: The features like mobile TV. video transfers and GPS systems are the additional features of 3G technology that are not available with 2G technologies. · Frequencies: 2G technology uses a broad range of frequencies in both upper and lower bands. The speed of data transmission in 2G network is less than 50. Also from the customers point of view the expenditure for 3G network will be excessively high if they make use of the various applications of 3G. under which the transmission depends .

· Speed: The downloading and uploading speeds available in 2G technologies are up to 236 Kbps. · Implication: 3G technology offers a high level of security as compared to 2G technology because 3G networks permit validation measures when communicating with other devices.7 Mbps respectively. While in 3G technology the downloading and uploading speeds are up to 21 Mbps and 5. Both standards emphasize on various targets and as a result various technologies have been introduced. 2G and 3G technologies denote the second and third generation technologies used in wireless communication. Among them 2G and 3G are dominant standards which revolutionize the mobile communication industry in past few years. Technology standard was first introduced in 1991 and from that onwards number of subscribers has . 2G (GSM) Technology Global System for Mobile communication is also known as 2G which is the first step towards the digital wireless communication over existing analog mobile communication prevailing. The transmission of text messages and photos is available in both the networks but 2G networks have data limit and the speed of the data transmission is also very slow as compared to 3G. · Making Calls: Calls can be made easily on both 2G and 3G networks with no real noticeable differences except that in 3G network video calls can also be made.on conditions such as weather. In modern world increasing demand for communication has resulted in several standards for mobile communication. A drawback of 3G is that it is simply not available in certain regions.

3G Technology 3G is the mobile standard specification released which are compatible with the IMT (International Mobile Telecommunications-2000) specifications for multimedia supporting. The 2G spectrum uses airwaves to transmit information. The bandwidth of the channel allocated per user is 200kHz and the GSM air interface data rate is 270kbps. This increase in speed is achieved by sending information as packets and utilizing much higher bandwidth than 2G can handle. video streaming. Also the other CDMA technologies like CDMA2000. CDMA2000 1x EV-DO are used in various places over the world. Europe etc and GSM 850 and GSM 1900 used mainly in USA and Canada. The cell concept is also introduced here and each cell is responsible for covering a small area. Even when they are operating slowly. much like the first-generation networks. high speed internet. In this technology for the first time SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) is introduced and a more secured and clear communication was established. video conferencing. more than 200 times faster than 2G networks. Speed  The main difference between the 2G and 3G spectrum is the 3G network is significantly faster. This has been widely adopted all over the world and currently the most area of the globe is covered with GSM. multimedia applications. The data rates for the 3G are a minimum of 2Mbps for stationary mobile users and 384Kbps for moving subscribers in downlink. Spectrum utilization for GSM falls in to several bands like GSM 900 and GSM 1800 (DCS) used in areas like Asia. The first commercial 3G network was launched in 2001 in Japan. In GSM the multiple techniques used are TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) and FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access) so that many subscribers are allowed to make calls at a given time. at about nine kilobytes per second.grown over 200 million during 1998. Applications like video calls. 3G networks are at least ten times faster than 2G. 3G networks are capable of two megabytes per second. Since the GSM air interface data rates are not enough to provide high quality multimedia applications through mobile phones 3G specifications are released and paved way for the next generation standard. Here the air interface technology which is also known as the multiple access technique is a variation of CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) called as WCDMA which utilizes a bandwidth of 5MHz offering high data rates. and location based services can be given to the mobile phones. Connectivity .

but the speed is closer to 2G than 3G. to be incorporated into mobile phones. such as email clients and GPS. TDMA. GSM and so forth) were never integrated. being restricted to the low speeds available on a 2G network means many of the applications 3G users are used to will crawl along. but there are still two different standards bodies: 3GPP for Europe and Asia and 3GPP2 for North America. with a few other options thrown in. Technical Compatibility 3G mobile phones are backwards-compatible.  o Sponsored Links Download GoodSync Today Get the award winning file synch solution today! Free trial download www. the free encyclopedia . but not both. Different implementations of 2G (CDMA. 3G networks allow this notion to be abandoned by allowing constant connectivity.com Regional Compatibility One of the biggest complaints about the 2G network was phones could work in Europe or North America. When 2G networks were set up. 3G phones are always connected.5G networks. running without a problem on 2G networks. Of course. This has allowed for many value-added services. and phone manufacturers had to choose which implementation their phones would work on. mobile phones were still used almost exclusively for phone conversations. 3G was supposed to change all that. Both 2G and 3G phones can use these networks. Some mobile phones are able to operate in both regions.GoodSync. Instead of connecting to the network for a phone call and then disconnecting again.   Mobile phone companies of India From Wikipedia. 2G networks that have implemented packet switching are called 2.

It offers 2G service using GSM and 3G service using UMTS. It was the first service provider to introduce 3G services in India.The Mobile phone industry in India is covered in this article. somewhere it was signed that mobile service provider was launched in 1994.[citation needed] [edit]Mobile phone service operators   Aircel Aircel.   MTNL .  Airtel Airtel. with its head offices in both Mumbai and Berhampur. headquartered in gurgaon.  First Mobile service provider was Modi Groups in 1995 and started in Kolkata. Contents [hide]      1 History 2 Mobile phone service operators o 2.1 Handset Maker Companies of India 3 See also 4 Reference 5 External links [edit]History The first mobile phone was launched in India during 1990s. headquartered in New Delhi. Mobile phones are usually called "mobile phones" or "cell phones" in India.[citation needed] [citation needed]  The first mobile phone company was Nokia. and offers 2G service using GSM technology and 3G service using UMTS technology. India has absorbed Cingular Wireless. is a public listed company and is state-owned. India provides 2G service using GSM and 3G service using UMTS/HSPA technology BSNL BSNL.

Ltd. Punjab. In April 2010 Etisalat began signal testing in Chennai [IND 922]. Tamil Nadu (including Chennai). Maharashtra. Rajasthan. The business unit has been awarded Unified Services Access License in 15 circles . has absorbed Cingular Wireless.[34] headquartered in Mumbai. Haryana. Uttar Pradesh (East). Maharashtra provides CMDA 2G service using cdmaOne and CDMA 3G service using CDMA2000 EVDO technology. erstwhile Swan Telecom (owned by Dynamix Balwas Realty and Reliance Communications). Mumbai [IND 916] and Gujarat[IND 914].Andhra Pradesh. Karnataka. is renamed to Etisalat DB Telecom India Pvt. It also provides GSM 2G services & 3G GSM HSDPA Services. In May 2010. India  Emirates Telecommunications Corporation (formerly SWAN Telecom) In 2009 Etisalat has announced that its Indian unit. Kerala. and offers 2G service using GSM technology and 3G service using UMTS technology. Delhi & NCR [IND 913]. Maharashtra.MTNL. headquartered in Mumbai. Etisalat was in talks to buy  . Uttar Pradesh (West). headquartered in Mumbai is a public listed company and is state-owned and offers 2G service using CDMA and 3G service using GSM. is a mobile phone service provider in Mumbai. Idea Cellular Idea Cellular. Ltd Telecom Renamed Etisalat Telecom India Pvt. Delhi. Maharashtra & Goa [IND 919]. Mumbai. Gujarat. Madhya Pradesh and Bihar.  Ping Mobile  Tata DoCoMo Tata DoCoMo is joint venture company of Tata Teleservices and NTT DoCoMo  Reliance Communications Reliance Communications.  Loop Mobile India (Formerly BPL Mobile) Loop Mobile India. with its head offices in Navi Mumbai.

The MHA suspects. The MHA had pointed out four issues that needed to be resolved before allowing the company to come into Etisalat DB. strategic missile and air forces — and has the capacity to manipulate equipment supply.[36] second. it raised objections about Etisalat’s presence in Pakistan and its connection with Pakistan's intelligence agency ISI. In 2010. Etisalat DB was not allowed to buy back the 5. the Indian subsidiary of the company. following the $39 billion 2G spectrum scam. Etisalat DB. sea. a company that got scarce 2G spectrum at allegedly throwaway prices.25% stake in Reliance Communications. was stopped from buying a stake in a Chennai-based company due to objections raised by the India's home ministry(MHA).27 per cent stake held by Chennai-based Genex Exim Ventures since the home ministry raised objections based largely on security concerns. First. third. the MHA has also expressed concerns about the telecom surveillance software Etisalat had used in a Blackberry . the MHA raised objections about the commercial relationship between the Dubai-based Etisalat Group and China’s Huawei. Huawei has links with China’s People’s Liberation Army — the country’s military organisation of all land. because of his connections with underworld don Dawood Ibrahim. but the deal was not finalised. vicechairman Shahid Balwa should not be involved in the operations of the company in any capacity. Etisalat owns a 26% stake in Pakistan Telecommunications and has a subscriber base of 3 million in Afghanistan and fourth.

celkon 19. X Electron 3. AZ LINK + 7. Anconn Mobile 9. Ajanta Mobile 8. AROMA Mobiles 11. Daya . Byond tech 17. BLEU 14. Colors mobile 18. Airphone 10. c-Tel 20. Beetel 15. BPL Group 16. CAPLIGHT 4. Airnet 6.service it had introduced in the UAE and recommended that the company should not be allowed to offer Blackberry services in India Virgin Mobile CDMA  Vodafone Essar (Formerly Hutchison Essar/Hutch Orange/Hutch Pink)  Videocon Mobile Service (Formerly Datacom Solutions)  Uninor  MTS India  S Tel  Virgin Mobile GSM  Spice Telecom [edit]Handset Maker Companies of India  1. NXG Electronics [1] 2. BlackBerry 13. Asiatelco 12. AASTHA mobile 5.

GEEPEE Mobiles 28. gfone 29. ICube 38. Karbonn Mobiles 42. LONGTEL 45. Maxwood Mobiles 50. I-Tel 37. Motorola 54. Digibee Mobiles 23. iNQ 41. LG 47. Logitec 48. Fujezone 25. Hitech Mobiles 34. Ion 40. Magicon 49. Munoth Mobiles 56.21. eTouch 24. Melbon 52. Haier 31. Nokia . Movil 55. Dell 22. Hawkman Mobile 33. Lexus 46. Hp 35. Lava Mobiles 43. Micromax Mobile 53. Fortune 27. G-Five 30. HTC 36. Hansum Mobiles 32. Lemon 44. Maxx 51. Fly 26. Intex 39.

VOX . UNIX Mobiles 87. Samsung 74.in 81. Onida 60. Videocon 90. Voice 91.57. Usha-Lexus 88. T-Series 84. Siemens 77. Vodafone Essar 89. Philiray 66. Rage 70. KOPPERR 68. Orion Mobiles 61. SAGEM 73. Orpat 62. UNITEL 86. Nelson 58. Kuantum 67. San Mobile 75. Simcom Mobiles 78. Technotouch 83.speedmobilephones. Quba Mobile 69. Olive 59. Philips 64. Swissvoice India 72. Sansui 76. Simoco 79. Pride Mobiles 65. Spice Telecom 82. Ray 71. Speed Mobile www. Sony Ericsson 80. Ultra Mobile 85. pagaria 63.

access high speed internet and enjoy live streaming at never before speeds of upto 21 Mbps. AZ Link Anycool mobiles 105. With a 3G phone and access to the 3G network consumers can make video calls. graphics and text. CAPLIGHT 98. RK Mobile 96. ViP Mobile 97. watch live TV. QUBA mobile 106. The 3rd Generation telecom network or 3F gives you the power of higher speeds to enjoy multimedia services . 3G customers can also send and receive video content in 3G coverage areas. that has been launched in India. Spice 100. ACER MOBILE What is 3G 3G is the next generation of mobile communications systems. Zen Mobiles 95. high speed mobile broadband and internet access with the ability to view videos on your mobile handsets and devices. Mobell 103. Winncom 93. so u don’t get disconnected from the internet whenever your phone rings!!! Powered by technology called High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSPA). With the help of 3G. Alcatel 99. Xcite 94.92. 3G provides accelerated data speeds and simultaneous voice and data capabilities for an amazing wireless voice and data experience. Nova mobiles[2] 102. A major advantage being that 3G can make voice and data access possible at the same time unlike the 2G networks. Akai mobiles 104. Another . MVL 101. 3G networks can send data many times faster than the rates of earlier 2G networks. which means that in addition to audio. we can access many new services too.

transmission direction and external constraints (including. Not only these but also have entertainments such as Fast Communication. Then the point to be noted is that 3G gives clarity of voice as well can talk with out any disturbance. including user location. A few important things : For mobile to mobile video calling. Internet. However. the application in use). Actual user speeds will vary depending on a variety of factors.V. network capacity. The speeds mentioned above average speeds. Multi Media Messaging Service (MMS). mobile device. Video Calls. 3G Services : Universal Services : Video Calling High Speed Broadband Internet Access . both you and the person you are video calling must have a 3G compatible phone and be in the coverage area of the respective 3G network.thing to be noted in case of 3G is that Wide Band Voice Channel that is by this the world has been contracted to a little village because a person can contact with other person located in any part of the world and can even send messages too. mobile device. without limitation. Multi-Gaming etc are also available with 3G phones . network capacity and location. Speeds of upto 21 Mbps are being offered though major handsets can provide capabilities of upto 10 Mbps. What kind of speeds can you expect with 3G Services ? 3G technology supports really fast data download speeds. Video Conferencing. download speeds are dependent on the type of service and the application you access. 3D gaming. Mobile T. Upload speeds will be slower as in case of Assymetric Broadband Connections.

Mobile TV Video mail and SMS Games – Single User and Multiplayer Provider Specific : Airtel 3G Services Video Talkies Movie Review Comic Portal Tata Docomo 3G Services Fortune Market .